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Sample records for excessive vertebral segmentation

  1. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Luis G.; Ares, Saúl; Herrgen, Leah; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Andrew C. Oates

    2008-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock’s collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A th...

  2. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luis G; Ares, Saúl; Herrgen, Leah; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Oates, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock's collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A theory encompassing temporal and spatial domains of local and collective aspects of the system is essential to tackle these questions. Our delayed coupling theory achieves this by representing the PSM as an array of phase oscillators, combining four key elements: a frequency profile of oscillators slowing across the PSM; coupling between neighboring oscillators; delay in coupling; and a moving boundary describing embryonic axis elongation. This theory predicts that the segmentation clock's collective period depends on delayed coupling. We derive an expression for pattern wavelength across the PSM and show how this can be used to fit dynamic wildtype gene-expression patterns, revealing the quantitative values of parameters controlling spatial and temporal organization of the oscillators in the system. Our theory can be used to analyze experimental perturbations, thereby identifying roles of genes involved in segmentation.

  3. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

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    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  4. Live transgenic reporters of the vertebrate embryo's Segmentation Clock.

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    Soroldoni, Daniele; Oates, Andrew C

    2011-10-01

    Imaging rapidly changing gene expression during embryogenesis is a challenge for the development of probes and imaging techniques. The vertebrate Segmentation Clock is a genetic network that controls the subdivision of the elongating embryonic body axis into somites, the precursors of adult segmented structures, such as vertebrae. Because of its rapid oscillations, direct observation of gene expression in this system has proven difficult, and so is a benchmark for transgene design and imaging in vivo. Transgenic approaches using destabilized reporter cassettes in the mouse embryo have provided the first glimpses of this dynamic expression system. Nevertheless, improvements in temporal and spatial resolution, paired with the ability to make precise quantifications, will be necessary to connect observations and theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images based on 3D deterministic models

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    Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    The evaluation of vertebral deformations is of great importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is oriented towards the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, as they can provide a detailed 3D representation of vertebrae, the established methods for the evaluation of vertebral deformations still provide only a two-dimensional (2D) geometrical description. Segmentation of vertebrae in 3D may therefore not only improve their visualization, but also provide reliable and accurate 3D measurements of vertebral deformations. In this paper we propose a method for 3D segmentation of individual vertebral bodies that can be performed in CT and MR images. Initialized with a single point inside the vertebral body, the segmentation is performed by optimizing the parameters of a 3D deterministic model of the vertebral body to achieve the best match of the model to the vertebral body in the image. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on five CT (40 vertebrae) and five T2-weighted MR (40 vertebrae) spine images, among them five are normal and five are pathological. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images and that the proposed model can describe a variety of vertebral body shapes. The method may be therefore used for initializing whole vertebra segmentation or reliably describing vertebral body deformations.

  6. Segmental neurofibromatosis presenting with congenital excessive skin folds.

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    Helfand, Alexander M; Nouriel, Ariella; Zisquit, Jonah; Barzilai, Aviv; Greenberger, Shoshana

    2015-04-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis (SNF) is a rare type of neurofibromatosis (NF-1) resulting from post-zygotic somatic mutations in the neurofibromin gene that leads to mosaicism. Reported manifestations of SNF include neurofibromas, freckling, or café-au-lait spots limited to a single body region or limb. We present a 5-month-old male referred to our clinic for evaluation of congenital excessive skin folds on the back. A mildly erythematous, poorly demarcated soft plaque was noted, consisting of excessive skin folds. A cluster of light brown hyperpigmented macules was seen overlying the plaque. A punch biopsy of the plaque confirmed a diagnosis of neurofibroma. Further investigation ruled out other manifestations of NF-1. The early onset of our patient's neurofibroma and its gross appearance with redundant skin folds are all unusual features. To our knowledge, congenital excessive skin folds found in a single tumor have not been previously described in the literature as a manifestation of SNF. Clinicians should be educated about the possibility of congenital localized skin folds in association with SNF in order to identify the disease in infancy and monitor any changes in neurofibroma pathology.

  7. Parametric modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D CT and MR spine images.

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    Stern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2011-12-07

    Accurate and objective evaluation of vertebral deformations is of significant importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is focused on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the established methods for evaluation of vertebral deformations are limited to measuring deformations in two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative description of vertebral body deformations by efficient modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D. The deformations are evaluated from the parameters of a 3D superquadric model, which is initialized as an elliptical cylinder and then gradually deformed by introducing transformations that yield a more detailed representation of the vertebral body shape. After modelling the vertebral body shape with 25 clinically meaningful parameters and the vertebral body pose with six rigid body parameters, the 3D model is aligned to the observed vertebral body in the 3D image. The performance of the method was evaluated on 75 vertebrae from CT and 75 vertebrae from T(2)-weighted MR spine images, extracted from the thoracolumbar part of normal and pathological spines. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images, as the proposed 3D model is able to describe both normal and pathological vertebral body deformations. The method may therefore be used for initialization of whole vertebra segmentation or for quantitative measurement of vertebral body deformations.

  8. Multi-Parameter Ensemble Learning for Automated Vertebral Body Segmentation in Heterogeneously Acquired Clinical MR Images.

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    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Xia, Yihao; Villaroman, Diane S; Ko, Allison; Attiah, Mark; Beckett, Joel S; Macyszyn, Luke

    2017-01-01

    The development of quantitative imaging biomarkers in medicine requires automatic delineation of relevant anatomical structures using available imaging data. However, this task is complicated in clinical medicine due to the variation in scanning parameters and protocols, even within a single medical center. Existing literature on automatic image segmentation using MR data is based on the analysis of highly homogenous images obtained using a fixed set of pulse sequence parameters (TR/TE). Unfortunately, algorithms that operate on fixed scanning parameters do not avail themselves to real-world daily clinical use due to the existing variation in scanning parameters and protocols. Thus, it is necessary to develop algorithmic techniques that can address the challenge of MR image segmentation using real clinical data. Toward this goal, we developed a multi-parametric ensemble learning technique to automatically detect and segment lumbar vertebral bodies using MR images of the spine. We use spine imaging data to illustrate our techniques since low back pain is an extremely common condition and a typical spine clinic evaluates patients that have been referred with a wide range of scanning parameters. This method was designed with special emphasis on robustness so that it can perform well despite the inherent variation in scanning protocols. Specifically, we show how a single multi-parameter ensemble model trained with manually labeled T2 scans can autonomously segment vertebral bodies on scans with echo times varying between 24 and 147 ms and relaxation times varying between 1500 and 7810 ms. Furthermore, even though the model was trained using T2-MR imaging data, it can accurately segment vertebral bodies on T1-MR and CT, further demonstrating the robustness and versatility of our methodology. We believe that robust segmentation techniques, such as the one presented here, are necessary for translating computer assisted diagnosis into everyday clinical practice.

  9. Accurate Segmentation of Vertebral Bodies and Processes Using Statistical Shape Decomposition and Conditional Models.

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    Pereañez, Marco; Lekadir, Karim; Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, José Maria; Lazáry, Áron; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2015-08-01

    Detailed segmentation of the vertebrae is an important pre-requisite in various applications of image-based spine assessment, surgery and biomechanical modeling. In particular, accurate segmentation of the processes is required for image-guided interventions, for example for optimal placement of bone grafts between the transverse processes. Furthermore, the geometry of the processes is now required in musculoskeletal models due to their interaction with the muscles and ligaments. In this paper, we present a new method for detailed segmentation of both the vertebral bodies and processes based on statistical shape decomposition and conditional models. The proposed technique is specifically developed with the aim to handle the complex geometry of the processes and the large variability between individuals. The key technical novelty in this work is the introduction of a part-based statistical decomposition of the vertebrae, such that the complexity of the subparts is effectively reduced, and model specificity is increased. Subsequently, in order to maintain the statistical and anatomic coherence of the ensemble, conditional models are used to model the statistical inter-relationships between the different subparts. For shape reconstruction and segmentation, a robust model fitting procedure is used to exclude improbable inter-part relationships in the estimation of the shape parameters. Segmentation results based on a dataset of 30 healthy CT scans and a dataset of 10 pathological scans show a point-to-surface error improvement of 20% and 17% respectively, and the potential of the proposed technique for detailed vertebral modeling.

  10. Notch signaling, the segmentation clock, and the patterning of vertebrate somites

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    Lewis Julian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Notch signaling pathway has multifarious functions in the organization of the developing vertebrate embryo. One of its most fundamental roles is in the emergence of the regular pattern of somites that will give rise to the musculoskeletal structures of the trunk. The parts it plays in the early operation of the segmentation clock and the later definition and differentiation of the somites are beginning to be understood.

  11. Segmentation of the spinous process and its acoustic shadow in vertebral ultrasound images.

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    Berton, Florian; Cheriet, Farida; Miron, Marie-Claude; Laporte, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Spinal ultrasound imaging is emerging as a low-cost, radiation-free alternative to conventional X-ray imaging for the clinical follow-up of patients with scoliosis. Currently, deformity measurement relies almost entirely on manual identification of key vertebral landmarks. However, the interpretation of vertebral ultrasound images is challenging, primarily because acoustic waves are entirely reflected by bone. To alleviate this problem, we propose an algorithm to segment these images into three regions: the spinous process, its acoustic shadow and other tissues. This method consists, first, in the extraction of several image features and the selection of the most relevant ones for the discrimination of the three regions. Then, using this set of features and linear discriminant analysis, each pixel of the image is classified as belonging to one of the three regions. Finally, the image is segmented by regularizing the pixel-wise classification results to account for some geometrical properties of vertebrae. The feature set was first validated by analyzing the classification results across a learning database. The database contained 107 vertebral ultrasound images acquired with convex and linear probes. Classification rates of 84%, 92% and 91% were achieved for the spinous process, the acoustic shadow and other tissues, respectively. Dice similarity coefficients of 0.72 and 0.88 were obtained respectively for the spinous process and acoustic shadow, confirming that the proposed method accurately segments the spinous process and its acoustic shadow in vertebral ultrasound images. Furthermore, the centroid of the automatically segmented spinous process was located at an average distance of 0.38 mm from that of the manually labeled spinous process, which is on the order of image resolution. This suggests that the proposed method is a promising tool for the measurement of the Spinous Process Angle and, more generally, for assisting ultrasound-based assessment of scoliosis

  12. Analysis on Biomechanical Characteristics of Post-operational Vertebral C5-C6 Segments

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    Heqiang Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR have obvious advantages in the treatment of cervical spondylosis. To analyze the operation results, it is absolutely necessary to study the biomechanics of the movement range of post-operational vertebral C5-C6 segments, especially the biomechanical characteristics in cervical tissues in actual movements. In this study, using the human vertebral 3D graph gained by imaging diagnosis (CT, a vertebral solid model is established by the 3D reconstruction algorithm and reverse engineering technology. After that, with cervical soft tissue structure added to the solid model and set with a joint contact mechanism, a finite element model with a complete, accurate cervical C5-C6 kinematic unit is constructed, based on relevant physiological anatomical knowledge. This model includes vertebral segments, an intervertebral disc, ligament and zygopophysis in the cervical C5-C6 kinematic unit. In the created vertebral finite element model, the model is amended, referring to ACDF and ACDR, and the load and constraint are applied to a normal group, a fusion group and a displacement group, so as to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of the cervical vertebra after ACDF and ACDR. By comparing the finite element simulation results of different surgeries, this paper is intended to evaluate the functions and biomechanical behaviors of the post-operational vertebra, and explore the influence of the operation on the biomechanical stability of the cervical vertebra. This will provide theoretical guidance for implementation and optimization of ACDF and ACDR.

  13. A multi-cell, multi-scale model of vertebrate segmentation and somite formation.

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    Susan D Hester

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Somitogenesis, the formation of the body's primary segmental structure common to all vertebrate development, requires coordination between biological mechanisms at several scales. Explaining how these mechanisms interact across scales and how events are coordinated in space and time is necessary for a complete understanding of somitogenesis and its evolutionary flexibility. So far, mechanisms of somitogenesis have been studied independently. To test the consistency, integrability and combined explanatory power of current prevailing hypotheses, we built an integrated clock-and-wavefront model including submodels of the intracellular segmentation clock, intercellular segmentation-clock coupling via Delta/Notch signaling, an FGF8 determination front, delayed differentiation, clock-wavefront readout, and differential-cell-cell-adhesion-driven cell sorting. We identify inconsistencies between existing submodels and gaps in the current understanding of somitogenesis mechanisms, and propose novel submodels and extensions of existing submodels where necessary. For reasonable initial conditions, 2D simulations of our model robustly generate spatially and temporally regular somites, realistic dynamic morphologies and spontaneous emergence of anterior-traveling stripes of Lfng. We show that these traveling stripes are pseudo-waves rather than true propagating waves. Our model is flexible enough to generate interspecies-like variation in somite size in response to changes in the PSM growth rate and segmentation-clock period, and in the number and width of Lfng stripes in response to changes in the PSM growth rate, segmentation-clock period and PSM length.

  14. Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach

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    Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

    2013-03-01

    Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Cervical spine segmental vertebral motion in healthy volunteers feigning restriction of neck flexion and extension.

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    Puglisi, Filadelfio; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Papathanasiou, Matthildi; Kapreli, Eleni; Bonelli, Aurelio; Sgambetterra, Sergio; Ferrari, Robert

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain comparative data concerning the percentage contribution of segmental cervical vertebral motion to the cervical range of motion (ROM) in healthy volunteers under two conditions: (1) normal, voluntary neck flexion and extension and (2) feigned restriction of neck flexion and extension. Each healthy subject's angular motion over forward cervical flexion and extension was measured first by X-ray analysis during normal, voluntary motion. Then the subjects were asked to pretend that they had a 50% restricted neck range due to pain or stiffness and thus to move in both flexion and extension only as far as about 50% of their normal range. A total of 26 healthy subjects (ten males and sixteen females, age 28.7+/-7.7 years) participated. The total angular motion from C2 to C7 was normal in the unrestricted condition and was significantly reduced in the feigned restriction condition (pneck flexion and extension, a shift occurred in the pattern of how each segment contributes to the total angular range. A greater percentage contribution was made by C2-C3 and C3-C4 than under normal conditions (Pneck range (pneck ROM affects the percentage contribution of the functional units C2-C3 to C6-C7 by showing a higher percentage contribution of the upper cervical segments and less contribution to the angular rotation by the lowest cervical segment. Feigners of restricted neck range thus produce a pattern different from nonfeigning subjects.

  16. Preliminary report: biomechanics of vertebral artery segments C1-C6 during cervical spinal manipulation.

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    Wuest, Sarah; Symons, Bruce; Leonard, Timothy; Herzog, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure strains in the human vertebral artery (VA) within the cervical transverse foramina and report the first results on the mechanical loading of segments of the VA during spinal manipulation of the cervical spine. Eight piezoelectric ultrasound crystals of 0.5-mm diameter were sutured into the lumen of the left and right VA of one cadaver. Four hundred-nanosecond ultrasound pulses were sent between the crystals to measure the instantaneous lengths of the VA segments (total segments n = 14) at a frequency of 200 Hz. Vertebral artery engineering strains were then calculated from the instantaneous lengths during cervical spinal range of motion testing, chiropractic cervical spinal manipulation adjustments, and vertebrobasilar insufficiency testing. The results of this study suggest complex and nonintuitive strain patterns of the VA within the cervical transverse foramina. Consistent (for 2 chiropractors) and repeatable (for 3 repeat measurements for each chiropractor) elongation and shortening of adjacent VA segments were observed simultaneously and could not be explained with a simple model of neck movement. We hypothesized that they were caused by variations in the location and stiffness of the VA fascial attachments to the vertebral foramina and by coupled movements of the cervical vertebrae. However, in agreement with previous work on VA strains proximal and distal to the cervical transverse foramina, strains for cervical spinal manipulations were consistently lower than those obtained for cervical rotation. Although general conclusions should not be drawn from these preliminary results, the findings of this study suggest that textbook mechanics of the VA may not hold, that VA strains may not be predictable from neck movements alone, and that fascial connections within the transverse foramina and coupled vertebra movements may play a crucial role in VA mechanics during neck manipulation. Furthermore, the engineering strains

  17. THE SPIRIT-PROCAINE PERIARTERIAL BLOCKADES APPLICATION UPON THE THIRD SEGMENT OF VERTEBRAL ARTERY IN VERTEBRAL-BASILAR INSUFFICIENCY

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    I.I. Sholomov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirit-procaine blockades are pathogenicallyjustified methods oftreatmentofthe vertebral-basilarartery insufficiency caused by vertebral pathology. Chemical desympathisation of the third portion of the vertebral artery (VA can be applied as alternative to stellate ganglionectomy and blockades of stellate ganglion or periarterial plexus of the VA at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. In case of positive effect after procaine blockade, the next stage of the treatment is the periarterial alcoholisation of vertebral arteries by low-concentrated (30° ethyl alcohol. This effect is analogous to procaine blockade, but more steadfast Clinical and ultrasound investigations proved, thatspirit-procaine blockades improve the blood flow in vertebrobasilar arterial system, reduce the peripherical resistance of the vessels and interhemispherical asymmetry, and decrease the spasm of intracranial arteries, that leads to improvementof neurological condition.

  18. Evaluation of the predictive capacity of vertical segmental tetrapolar bioimpedance for excess weight detection in adolescents.

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    Neves, Felipe Silva; Leandro, Danielle Aparecida Barbosa; Silva, Fabiana Almeida da; Netto, Michele Pereira; Oliveira, Renata Maria Souza; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the predictive capacity of the vertical segmental tetrapolar bioimpedance apparatus in the detection of excess weight in adolescents, using tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance as a reference. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 411 students aged between 10 and 14 years, of both genders, enrolled in public and private schools, selected by a simple and stratified random sampling process according to the gender, age, and proportion in each institution. The sample was evaluated by the anthropometric method and underwent a body composition analysis using vertical bipolar, horizontal tetrapolar, and vertical segmental tetrapolar assessment. The ROC curve was constructed based on calculations of sensitivity and specificity for each point of the different possible measurements of body fat. The statistical analysis used Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and McNemar's chi-squared test. Subsequently, the variables were interpreted using SPSS software, version 17.0. Of the total sample, 53.7% were girls and 46.3%, boys. Of the total, 20% and 12.5% had overweight and obesity, respectively. The body segment measurement charts showed high values of sensitivity and specificity and high areas under the ROC curve, ranging from 0.83 to 0.95 for girls and 0.92 to 0.98 for boys, suggesting a slightly higher performance for the male gender. Body fat percentage was the most efficient criterion to detect overweight, while the trunk segmental fat was the least accurate indicator. The apparatus demonstrated good performance to predict excess weight. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal fetal muscle forces result in defects in spinal curvature and alterations in vertebral segmentation and shape.

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    Rolfe, Rebecca A; Bezer, James H; Kim, Tyler; Zaidon, Ahmed Z; Oyen, Michelle L; Iatridis, James C; Nowlan, Niamh C

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of congenital spine deformities, including congenital scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis, may be influenced by the in utero mechanical environment, and particularly by fetal movements at critical time-points. There is a limited understanding of the influence of fetal movements on spinal development, despite the fact that mechanical forces have been shown to play an essential role in skeletal development of the limb. This study investigates the effects of muscle forces on spinal curvature, vertebral segmentation, and vertebral shape by inducing rigid or flaccid paralysis in the embryonic chick. The critical time-points for the influence of fetal movements on spinal development were identified by varying the time of onset of paralysis. Prolonged rigid paralysis induced severe defects in the spine, including curvature abnormalities, posterior and anterior vertebral fusions, and altered vertebral shape, while flaccid paralysis did not affect spinal curvature or vertebral segmentation. Early rigid paralysis resulted in more severe abnormalities in the spine than later rigid paralysis. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that the timing and nature of fetal muscle activity are critical influences on the normal development of the spine, with implications for the understanding of congenital spine deformities. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2135-2144, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Abnormal fetal muscle forces result in defects in spinal curvature and alterations in vertebral segmentation and shape†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Rebecca A.; Bezer, James H.; Kim, Tyler; Zaidon, Ahmed Z.; Oyen, Michelle L.; Iatridis, James C.; Nowlan, Niamh C.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of congenital spine deformities, including congenital scoliosis, kyphosis and lordosis, may be influenced by the in utero mechanical environment, and particularly by fetal movements at critical time-points. There is a limited understanding of the influence of fetal movements on spinal development, despite the fact that mechanical forces have been shown to play an essential role in skeletal development of the limb. This study investigates the effects of muscle forces on spinal curvature, vertebral segmentation and vertebral shape by inducing rigid or flaccid paralysis in the embryonic chick. The critical time-points for the influence of fetal movements on spinal development were identified by varying the time of onset of paralysis. Prolonged rigid paralysis induced severe defects in the spine, including curvature abnormalities, posterior and anterior vertebral fusions and altered vertebral shape, while flaccid paralysis did not affect spinal curvature or vertebral segmentation. Early rigid paralysis resulted in more severe abnormalities in the spine than later rigid paralysis. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that the timing and nature of fetal muscle activity are critical influences on the normal development of the spine, with implications for the understanding of congenital spine deformities. PMID:28079273

  1. Intestinal, segmented, filamentous bacteria in a wide range of vertebrate species.

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    Klaasen, H L; Koopman, J P; Van den Brink, M E; Bakker, M H; Poelma, F G; Beynen, A C

    1993-04-01

    Segmented, filamentous bacteria (SFBs) form a group of bacteria with similar morphology and are identified on the basis of their morphology only. The relationships of these organisms are unclear as the application of formal taxonomic criteria is impossible currently due to the lack of an in vitro technique to culture SFBs. The intestine of laboratory animals such as mice, rats, chickens, dogs, cats and pigs is known to harbour SFBs. To see whether this extends to other animal species, intestines from 18 vertebrate species, including man, were examined. SFBs were detected with light microscopy in the cat, dog, rhesus monkey, crab-eating macaque, domestic fowl, South African claw-footed toad, carp, man, laboratory mouse and rat, wood mouse, jackdaw and magpie. These results suggest that non-pathogenic SFBs are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. Among apparently identical animals, there was considerable variation in the degree of SFB colonization. It is suggested that SFB colonization could serve as a criterion of standardization of laboratory animals.

  2. Diagnosis of a C3 segmental type of vertebral artery by magnetic resonance angiography: report of two cases.

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    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Uemiya, Nahoko; Sonoda, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    We report two cases in which the vertebral artery (VA) entered the spinal canal via the intervertebral foramen at the C2-C3 disc level, an extremely rare variation regarded as a C3 segmental type of VA, that we diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography. The C2 segmental type of VA, in which the VA enters the spinal canal via the C1-C2 intervertebral space, is relatively common. It is important to identify these variations before surgery of the craniovertebral junction or interventional procedures to prevent complications.

  3. A fully automated level-set based segmentation method of thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies in Computed Tomography images.

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    Ruiz-España, Silvia; Díaz-Parra, Antonio; Arana, Estanislao; Moratal, David

    2015-01-01

    Spine is a structure commonly involved in several diseases. Identification and segmentation of the vertebral structures are of relevance to many medical applications related to the spine such as diagnosis, therapy or surgical intervention. However, the development of automatic and reliable methods are an unmet need. This work presents a fully automatic segmentation method of thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies from Computed Tomography images. The procedure can be divided into four main stages: firstly, seed points were detected in the spinal canal in order to generate initial contours in the segmentation process, automating the whole process. Secondly, a processing step is performed to improve image quality. Third step was to carry out the segmentation using the Selective Binary Gaussian Filtering Regularized Level Set method and, finally, two morphological operations were applied in order to refine the segmentation result. The method was tested in clinical data coming from 10 trauma patients. To evaluate the result the average value of the DICE coefficient was calculated, obtaining a 90.86 ± 1.87% in the whole spine (thoracic and lumbar regions), a 86.08 ± 1.73% in the thoracic region and a 95,61 ±2,25% in the lumbar region. The results are highly competitive when compared to the results obtained in previous methods, especially for the lumbar region.

  4. Treatment of proximal segment stenoses of vertebral arteries with baloon expandable silicon carbide coated stents

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    Šeruga Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Stenting of the vertebral arteries can significantly improve hemodynamic conditions in the posterior circulation and prevent recurrent transient ischemic attacks and worsening of vertebro-basilar symptoms. So far, less than twenty studies have been published on the stenting of vertebral arteries worldwide. Randomized larger prospective trials are needed to confirm the benefit of endovascular treatment of vertebral artery stenosis, also by use of drugeluting stents.

  5. Prognosis for congenital scoliosis due to a unilateral failure of vertebral segmentation.

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    McMaster, Michael J; McMaster, Marianne E

    2013-06-05

    Congenital scoliosis due to a unilateral failure of vertebral segmentation usually has a poor prognosis. However, not all curves progress to the same degree or develop the same spinal deformity. The medical records and spine radiographs of 171 patients with a scoliosis due to unilateral unsegmented bar were reviewed retrospectively. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 9.3 years. Thirty-six patients had immediate surgery, 103 immature patients were followed untreated or before surgery for a mean duration of 3.6 years, twenty-eight patients were seen untreated at skeletal maturity, and four patients had no follow-up. The unsegmented bar occurred at all levels; the mean extent was three vertebrae (range, two to eight vertebrae). Before the age of ten years, patients had a mean rate of scoliosis progression without treatment for all regions of the spine of 2° to 3° per year. By the age of ten years, seventy-three patients who had been seen untreated or prior to treatment had a mean scoliosis of 50° (range, 18° to 100°). After the age of ten years, these patients had an increase in the mean rate of scoliosis progression, but this rate varied per year depending on the affected region of the spine: 7° for the thoracolumbar curve, 5° for the midthoracic curve, and 4° for the upper thoracic curve. Spine surgery was performed on seventy-four patients who had a mean age of 12.2 years and a mean scoliosis of 78° for thoracolumbar curves, 66° for midthoracic curves, and 54° for upper thoracic curves. Of the patients with midthoracic congenital scoliosis, 24% developed a lower structural compensatory curve, which became larger and more deforming than the congenital curve, 22% had congenital rib fusions, and 16% had occult intraspinal anomalies. Prognosis depends on growth imbalance at the site of the unsegmented bar as well as the location and extent of the bar, age at diagnosis, and spinal growth remaining. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a

  6. Conservation among vertebrate immunoglobulin chains detected by antibodies to a synthetic joining segment peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, S F; Rosenshein, I L; Hubbard, R A; Marchalonis, J J

    1987-06-15

    We used affinity purified antibodies produced against a synthetic peptide sequence corresponding to the entire J beta of a human T cell receptor gene to screen sera of man, mouse and other vertebrates to determine the presence of cross-reactive molecules. Little evidence for free alpha/beta heterodimers was found, but the antibody reacted with light chains of many vertebrate species, including characterized myeloma proteins of man and mouse. Some vertebrate orders, notably Aves, lacked polypeptide chains cross-reactive with J beta, but detectable determinants occurred in primitive vertebrates such as the galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis). In addition to the strong cross-reaction with purified light chains, human heavy chains reacted weakly with the antibody. The cross-reaction correlated with the sequence of the denatured immunoglobulins and was inhibitable with free peptide. These results establish the similarity of T cell receptor beta chains to immunoglobulin chains and support the conclusion that J region sequences were conserved, not only within mammalian immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, but in vertebrate evolution.

  7. Association of segmental neurofibromatosis 1 and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum in a 24-year-old female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco; Majore, Silvia; Romanelli, Francesco; Didona, Biagio; Grammatico, Paola; Zambruno, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis 1 (SNF1) is a rare genodermatosis caused by somatic mutations in the NF1 gene. It consists of localized characteristic pigmentary lesions (i.e. café-au-lait spots and freckling) and/or neurofibromas intermingled with areas of unaffected skin, often configuring specific mosaic patterns. Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a developmental field defect primarily affecting the 1st and 2nd branchial arch derivatives. This condition recognizes a wide range of environmental and genetic causes, including postzygotic mutations. We report on a 24-year-old female presenting with a constellation of features fitting both with SNF1 and OAVS. Neurofibromatosis 1 pigmentary lesions are confined to the left arm and adjacent trunk skin surface with sharp midline demarcation. OAVS characteristic craniofacial anomalies, including neurosensorial hearing loss, hemimandibular and tongue underdevelopment, are homolateral to the SNF1 features. Additional findings, such as prearicular tags and multiple costo-vertebral segmentation defects, mainly involving the cervical and upper thoracic metameres, support the diagnosis of OAVS. To our knowledge, this is the first published patient who presents with an association of SNF1 and OAVS. The spatial relationship between craniofacial and skin pigmentary anomalies has prompted us to speculate about the possible underlying pathogenetic mechanism (s).

  8. Surgical resection of neoplastic cervical spine lesions in relation to the vertebral artery V2 segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd Al Barbarawi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic cervical spine lesions are seen infrequently by the spinal surgeon. The surgical management of these tumors, particularly with associated neurovascular compromise, is challenging in terms of achieving proper resection and spinal stabilization and ensuring no subsequent recurrence or failure of fixation. In this report we highlight some of the problems encountered in the surgical management of tumors involving the cervical spine with techniques applied for gross total resection of the tumor without compromising the vertebral arteries. Ten patients with neoplastic cervical spine lesions were managed in our study. The common cardinal presentation was neck and arm pain with progressive cervical radiculo-myelopathy. All patients had plain X-rays, computer tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. Digital subtraction or magnetic resonance angiograms were performed on both vertebral arteries when the pathology was found to be in proximity to the vertebral artery. When a tumor blush with feeders was evident, endovascular embolization to minimize intraoperative bleeding was also considered. A single approach or a combined anterior cervical approach for corpectomy and cage-with-plate fixation and posterior decompression for resection of the rest of the tumor with spinal fixation was then accomplished as indicated. All cases made a good neurological recovery and had no neural or vascular complications. On the long-term follow-up of the survivors there was no local recurrence or surgical failure. Only three patients died: two from the primary malignancy and one from pulmonary embolism. This report documents a safe and reliable way to deal with neoplastic cervical spine lesions in proximity to vertebral arteries with preservation of both arteries.

  9. The feasibility of modal testing for measurement of the dynamic characteristics of goat vertebral motion segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, S J P M; van der Veen, A J; de Boer, A; Ellenbroek, M H M; Smit, T H; van Royen, B J; van Dieën, J H

    2011-05-17

    Structural vibration testing might be a promising method to study the mechanical properties of spinal motion segments as an alternative to imaging and spinal manipulation techniques. Structural vibration testing is a non-destructive measurement technique that measures the response of a system to an applied vibration as a function of frequency, and allows determination of modal parameters such as resonance frequencies (ratio between stiffness and mass), vibration modes (pattern of motion) and damping. The objective of this study was to determine if structural vibration testing can reveal the resonance frequencies that correspond to the mode shapes flexion-extension, lateroflexion and axial rotation of lumbar motion segments, and to establish whether resonance frequencies can discriminate specific structural alterations of the motion segment. Therefore, a shaker was used to vibrate the upper vertebra of 16 goat lumbar motion segments, while the response was obtained from accelerometers on the transverse and spinous processes and the anterior side of the upper vertebra. Measurements were performed in three conditions: intact, after dissection of the ligaments and after puncturing the annulus fibrosus. The results showed clear resonance peaks for flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation for all segments. Dissection of the ligaments did not affect the resonance frequencies, but puncturing the annulus reduced the resonance frequency of axial rotation. These results indicate that vibration testing can be utilised to assess the modal parameters of lumbar motion segments, and might eventually be used to study the mechanical properties of spinal motion segments in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissection of the V4 segment of the vertebral artery: clinicoradiologic manifestations and endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, 501-757Dong-gu, Gwangju (Korea); Kim, Tae Sun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Hospital, Dong-gu, Gwangju (Korea); Do, Huy M.; Jayaraman, Mahesh V.; Marks, Michael P. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, California (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection has three clinical presentations: ischemia, hemorrhage, and mass effect. Imaging findings of intracranial VA dissections vary according to clinical presentation. Irregular stenosis or occlusion of the VA is the most common finding in patients with posterior fossa infarction, whereas a dissecting aneurysm is the main feature in those with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. A chronic, giant, dissecting aneurysm can cause mass effect on the brain stem or cranial nerves, as well as distal embolism. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detection of intramural hematomas and intimal flaps, both of which are diagnostic of VA dissection. Multidetector computed tomography angiography is increasingly used for diagnosis of VA dissection. Catheter angiography is still beneficial for evaluation of precise endoluminal morphology of the dissection before surgical or endovascular intervention. Endovascular treatment is now considered a major therapeutic option for patients with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm or a chronic dissecting aneurysm. Anticoagulation therapy is currently considered the initial treatment of choice in patients with posterior circulation ischemic symptoms. Endovascular treatment, such as stent-assisted angioplasty or coil occlusion at the dissection site, can be performed in selected patients with posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. (orig.)

  11. Fully Automatic Localization and Segmentation of 3D Vertebral Bodies from CT/MR Images via a Learning-Based Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwen Chu

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problems of fully automatic localization and segmentation of 3D vertebral bodies from CT/MR images. We propose a learning-based, unified random forest regression and classification framework to tackle these two problems. More specifically, in the first stage, the localization of 3D vertebral bodies is solved with random forest regression where we aggregate the votes from a set of randomly sampled image patches to get a probability map of the center of a target vertebral body in a given image. The resultant probability map is then further regularized by Hidden Markov Model (HMM to eliminate potential ambiguity caused by the neighboring vertebral bodies. The output from the first stage allows us to define a region of interest (ROI for the segmentation step, where we use random forest classification to estimate the likelihood of a voxel in the ROI being foreground or background. The estimated likelihood is combined with the prior probability, which is learned from a set of training data, to get the posterior probability of the voxel. The segmentation of the target vertebral body is then done by a binary thresholding of the estimated probability. We evaluated the present approach on two openly available datasets: 1 3D T2-weighted spine MR images from 23 patients and 2 3D spine CT images from 10 patients. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth (each MR image contains at least 7 vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 and each CT image contains 5 vertebral bodies from L1 to L5, we evaluated the present approach with leave-one-out experiments. Specifically, for the T2-weighted MR images, we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.6 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 88.7% and a mean surface distance of 1.5 mm, respectively. For the CT images we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.9 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 91.0% and a mean surface distance of 0.9 mm, respectively.

  12. Fully Automatic Localization and Segmentation of 3D Vertebral Bodies from CT/MR Images via a Learning-Based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chengwen; Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Bansmann, Martin; Felsenberg, Dieter; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problems of fully automatic localization and segmentation of 3D vertebral bodies from CT/MR images. We propose a learning-based, unified random forest regression and classification framework to tackle these two problems. More specifically, in the first stage, the localization of 3D vertebral bodies is solved with random forest regression where we aggregate the votes from a set of randomly sampled image patches to get a probability map of the center of a target vertebral body in a given image. The resultant probability map is then further regularized by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to eliminate potential ambiguity caused by the neighboring vertebral bodies. The output from the first stage allows us to define a region of interest (ROI) for the segmentation step, where we use random forest classification to estimate the likelihood of a voxel in the ROI being foreground or background. The estimated likelihood is combined with the prior probability, which is learned from a set of training data, to get the posterior probability of the voxel. The segmentation of the target vertebral body is then done by a binary thresholding of the estimated probability. We evaluated the present approach on two openly available datasets: 1) 3D T2-weighted spine MR images from 23 patients and 2) 3D spine CT images from 10 patients. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth (each MR image contains at least 7 vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 and each CT image contains 5 vertebral bodies from L1 to L5), we evaluated the present approach with leave-one-out experiments. Specifically, for the T2-weighted MR images, we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.6 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 88.7% and a mean surface distance of 1.5 mm, respectively. For the CT images we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.9 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 91.0% and a mean surface distance of 0.9 mm, respectively.

  13. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography-Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Isabelle; Whyne, Cari M; Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Yee, Albert J M; Sahgal, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (Pconfidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography–Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

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    Thibault, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de L' Universite de Québec–Université Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Whyne, Cari M. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ebrahimi, Hamid [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yee, Albert J.M. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. Methods and Materials: A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. Results: The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (P<.001) but not for the osteoblastic measures. The most significant lytic disease threshold was observed at ≥11.6% (odds ratio 37.4, 95% confidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Conclusions: Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results.

  15. The Use of Posterior Short Segment Screw Fixation and Balloon Kyphoplasty in the Surgical Treatment of Traumatic Vertebral Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Ondul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatments for the fracture of the spine are frequently used in clinical practice. Posterior spine stabilization with transpedicular screw fixation is one of the surgical treatment methods in the surgical treatment of spinal fractures. A 48-year old male patient was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of the L1 compression fracture resulting from traumatic injury. Posterior transpedicular screws were placed at one level above and one level below of the fractured vertebrate. Anterior column of the fractured vertebrate was strengthened with balloon kyphoplasty application. The system was completed with the placement of transverse rods. Fusion with allograft was performed. According to the ASIA neurological grading system, the patient was assessed as Grade E. 10 cm skin and fascia incision was done. Operation time of about 70 minutes and blood loss was less than 100 cc. The patient was mobilized on the first day of surgery and was discharged from the hospital on the third day after the surgery. Short segment transpedicular fixation on the one level above and one level below of the fractured vertebrate together with balloon kyphoplasty on the corpus of the fractured vertebrate may be used as a minimally invasive surgical treatment in such kind of injuries. The advantages are short duration of hospital stay, less blood loss, providing early mobilization, and a reliable method for fixation and stabilization. In this article, a case with traumatic fracture that fixed and stabilized with short segment transpedicular screw placement and balloon kyphoplasty application was presented.

  16. Reduction of the domino effect in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures through short-segment fixation with intravertebral expandable pillars compared to percutaneous kyphoplasty: a case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture is the leading cause of disability and morbidity in elderly people. Treatment of this condition remains a challenge. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures can be managed with various approaches, but each has limitations. In this study, we compared the clinical outcomes obtained using short-segment fixation with intravertebral expandable pillars (I-VEP) to those obtained with percutaneous kyphoplasty in patients who had suffered vertebral compression fractures. Methods The study included 46 patients with single-level osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures. Twenty-two patients in Group I underwent short-segment fixation with I-VEP and 24 patients in Group II underwent kyphoplasty. All patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively using a visual analogue scale, anterior height of the fractured vertebra, and kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra. The latter 2 radiological parameters were measured at the adjacent segments as well. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of gender or fracture level, but the mean age was greater in Group II patients (p = 0.008). At the 1-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in the visual analogue scale scores, anterior height of the fractured vertebra, or the value representing anterior height above the fractured vertebra and kyphotic angle below the fractured vertebra, after adjusting for the patients’ gender, fracture level, and age. When considered separately, the anterior height below the fractured vertebra was significantly higher and the kyphotic angle above the fractured vertebra was significantly smaller in Group I than in Group II (p = 0.029 and p = 0.008, respectively). The kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra was significantly smaller in Group II than in Group I (p kyphoplasty restored and maintained the collapsed vertebral body with less kyphotic deformity than that induced by short-segment fixation with I

  17. Prophylactic adjacent-segment vertebroplasty following kyphoplasty for a single osteoporotic vertebral fracture and the risk of adjacent fractures: a retrospective study and clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin C; Spross, Christian; Ewers, Alexander; Mayer, Ryan; Külling, Fabrice A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the benefit of prophylactic vertebroplasty of the adjacent vertebrae in single-segment osteoporotic vertebral body fractures treated with kyphoplasty. METHODS All patients treated with kyphoplasty for osteoporotic single-segment fractures between January 2007 and August 2012 were included in this retrospective study. The patients received either kyphoplasty alone (kyphoplasty group) or kyphoplasty with additional vertebroplasty of the adjacent segment (vertebroplasty group). The segmental kyphosis with the rate of adjacent-segment fractures (ASFs) and remote fractures were studied on plain lateral radiographs preoperatively, postoperatively, at 3 months, and at final follow-up. RESULTS Thirty-seven (82%) of a possible 45 patients were included for the analysis, with a mean follow-up of 16 months (range 3-54 months). The study population included 31 women, and the mean age of the total patient population was 72 years old (range 53-86 years). In 21 patients (57%), the fracture was in the thoracolumbar junction. Eighteen patients were treated with additional vertebroplasty and 19 with kyphoplasty only. The segmental kyphosis increased in both groups at final follow-up. A fracture through the primary treated vertebra (kyphoplasty) was found in 4 (22%) of the vertebroplasty group and in 3 (16%) of the kyphoplasty group (p = 0.6). An ASF was found in 50% (n = 9) of the vertebroplasty group and in 16% (n = 3) of the kyphoplasty group (p = 0.03). Remote fractures occurred in 1 patient in each group (p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS Prophylactic vertebroplasty of the adjacent vertebra in patients with single-segment osteoporotic fractures as performed in this study did not decrease the rate of adjacent fractures. Based on these retrospective data, the possible benefits of prophylactic vertebroplasty do not compensate for the possible risks of an additional cement augmentation.

  18. Short Segment Spinal Instrumentation With Index Vertebra Pedicle Screw Placement for Pathologies Involving the Anterior and Middle Vertebral Column Is as Effective as Long Segment Stabilization With Cage Reconstruction: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartanusz, Viktor; Harris, Jonathan; Moldavsky, Mark; Cai, Yiwei; Bucklen, Brandon

    2015-11-01

    An in vitro, cadaveric biomechanical study. The aim of the present study was to compare single-segment posterior instrumentation and fracture-level screws with single/multilevel posterior fixation and corpectomy in a simulated, unstable burst fracture model. The optimal extent of instrumentation for surgical cases of non-neoplastic vertebral body pathologies remains uncertain. Although several clinical studies demonstrate advantages of short segment instrumentation with index-level screws over more extensive corpectomy and anterior-posterior techniques, a comprehensive biomechanical comparison of these techniques is currently lacking. Six bovine spines (T11-L5) were tested in flexion, extension, lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) following simulated burst fracture at L2. Posterior instrumentation included 1 level above/below (1LF) and 2 levels above/below fracture level (2LF), intermediate or index screws at fracture level (FF), and cross-connectors above/below fracture level (CC). Anterior corpectomy devices included expandable corpectomy spacers with/without integrated screws, ACDi and ACD, respectively FORTIFY-Integrated/FORTIFY; Globus Medical, Inc., PA. Constructs were tested in the following order: (1) Intact; (2) 1LF; (3) 1LF and CC; (4) 1LF and FF; (5) 1LF, CC, and FF; (6) 2LF; (7) 2LF and CC; (8) 2LF and FF; (9) 2LF, CC, and FF; (10) 2LF and ACD; (11) 2LF, ACD, and CC; (12) 1LF and ACDi; (13) 1LF, ACDi, and CC. During flexion, all constructs except 1LF reduced motion relative to intact (P ≤ 0.05). Anterior support was most stable, but no differences were found between constructs (P ≥ 0.05). Every construct reduced motion in extension, though no differences were found between constructs and intact (P ≥ 0.05). During LB, all constructs reduced motion relative to intact (P ≤ 0.05); 2LF constructs further reduced motion (P ≤ 0.05). No construct returned AR motion to intact, with significant increases in 1LF and ACDi, 2

  19. Differences in perfusion parameters between upper and lower lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI)

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    Savvopoulou, Vasiliki; Vlahos, Lampros; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela [University of Athens, Areteion Hospital, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Athens (Greece); Maris, Thomas G. [University of Crete, Deparment of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    To investigate the influence of age, sex and spinal level on perfusion parameters of normal lumbar bone marrow with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI). Sixty-seven subjects referred for evaluation of low back pain or sciatica underwent DCE MRI of the lumbar spine. After subtraction of dynamic images, a region of interest (ROI) was placed on each lumbar vertebral body of all subjects, and time intensity curves were generated. Consequently, perfusion parameters were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to search for perfusion differences among lumbar vertebrae and in relation to age and sex. Upper (L1, L2) and lower (L3, L4, L5) vertebrae showed significant differences in perfusion parameters (p<0.05). Vertebrae of subjects younger than 50 years showed significantly higher perfusion compared to vertebrae of older ones (p<0.05). Vertebrae of females demonstrated significantly increased perfusion compared to those of males of corresponding age (p<0.05). All perfusion parameters, except for washout (WOUT), showed a mild linear correlation with age. Time to maximum slope (TMSP) and time to peak (TTPK) showed the same correlation with sex (0.22

  20. Mineralization of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is initiated segmentally in the form of hydroxyapatite crystal accretions in the notochord sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou; Kryvi, Harald; Grotmol, Sindre; Wargelius, Anna; Krossøy, Christel; Epple, Mattias; Neues, Frank; Furmanek, Tomasz; Totland, Geir K

    2013-01-01

    We performed a sequential morphological and molecular biological study of the development of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Mineralization starts in separate bony elements which fuse to form complete segmental rings within the notochord sheath. The nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in both the lamellar type II collagen matrix of the notochord sheath and the lamellar type I collagen matrix derived from the sclerotome, were highly similar. In both matrices the hydroxyapatite crystals nucleate and accrete on the surface of the collagen fibrils rather than inside the fibrils, a process that may be controlled by a template imposed by the collagen fibrils. Apatite crystal growth starts with the formation of small plate-like structures, about 5 nm thick, that gradually grow and aggregate to form extensive multi-branched crystal arborizations, resembling dendritic growth. The hydroxyapatite crystals are always oriented parallel to the long axis of the collagen fibrils, and the lamellar collagen matrices provide oriented support for crystal growth. We demonstrate here for the first time by means of synchroton radiation based on X-ray diffraction that the chordacentra contain hydroxyapatite. We employed quantitative real-time PCR to study the expression of key signalling molecule transcripts expressed in the cellular core of the notochord. The results indicate that the notochord not only produces and maintains the notochord sheath but also expresses factors known to regulate skeletogenesis: sonic hedgehog (shh), indian hedgehog homolog b (ihhb), parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (pth1r) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (tgfb1). In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the process of vertebral body development in teleost fishes, which is initially orchestrated by the notochord. PMID:23711083

  1. Trabecular Bone Strength Predictions of HR-pQCT and Individual Trabeculae Segmentation (ITS)-Based Plate and Rod Finite Element Model Discriminate Postmenopausal Vertebral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Sherry; Wang, Ji; Zhou, Bin; Stein, Emily; Shi, Xiutao; Adams, Mark; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X. Edward

    2013-01-01

    While high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has advanced clinical assessment of trabecular bone microstructure, nonlinear microstructural finite element (μFE) prediction of yield strength by HR-pQCT voxel model is impractical for clinical use due to its prohibitively high computational costs. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient HR-pQCT-based plate and rod (PR) modeling technique to fill the unmet clinical need for fast bone strength estimation. By using individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) technique to segment the trabecular structure into individual plates and rods, a patient-specific PR model was implemented by modeling each trabecular plate with multiple shell elements and each rod with a beam element. To validate this modeling technique, predictions by HR-pQCT PR model were compared with those of the registered high resolution μCT voxel model of 19 trabecular sub-volumes from human cadaveric tibiae samples. Both Young’s modulus and yield strength of HR-pQCT PR models strongly correlated with those of μCT voxel models (r2=0.91 and 0.86). Notably, the HR-pQCT PR models achieved major reductions in element number (>40-fold) and CPU time (>1,200-fold). Then, we applied PR model μFE analysis to HR-pQCT images of 60 postmenopausal women with (n=30) and without (n=30) a history of vertebral fracture. HR-pQCT PR model revealed significantly lower Young’s modulus and yield strength at the radius and tibia in fracture subjects compared to controls. Moreover, these mechanical measurements remained significantly lower in fracture subjects at both sites after adjustment for aBMD T-score at the ultradistal radius or total hip. In conclusion, we validated a novel HR-pQCT PR model of human trabecular bone against μCT voxel models and demonstrated its ability to discriminate vertebral fracture status in postmenopausal women. This accurate nonlinear μFE prediction of HR-pQCT PR model, which requires only seconds of

  2. Are pedicular screws and lateral hook screws more resistant against pullout than conventional spinal hooks and screws in terminal vertebral segment fixation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Sekik, Eyad; Karaarslan, Ahmet; Kızmazoğlu, Ceren; Havıtçıoğlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to biomechanically evaluate and compare four well-known types of terminal spinal constructs to a novel construct composed of a transpedicular screw with a lateral hook screw in terms of axial pullout strength in terminal vertebral segment fixation. Forty fresh-frozen lamb spines were divided into five groups with eight spines each. To stabilize the transverse process, a pedicular screw alone was used in group 1, a sublaminar hook alone was used in group 2, a sublaminar hook and a pedicular screw were used in group 3, claw hook alone was used in group 4, and a pedicular screw with a lateral hook screw was used in group 5. Biomechanical tests were performed using an axial compression testing machine and two noncontact camera systems. The mean pullout strength value was 927 N for group 1, 626 N for group 2, 988 N for group 3, 972 N for group 4, and 1194 N for group 5. Pullout strength values were statistically significantly higher in groups 3 and 4 compared to groups 1 and 2. There was no statistically significant difference between groups 3 and 4. Pullout strength value of group 5 was statistically significantly higher than the other groups. Pedicular screw with a lateral hook screw had the highest fixation value. Lateral hook screw may assist to prevent pullout in patients with pullout risk and hyperkyphosis and after hyperkyphosis surgery. Further prospective clinical studies are needed to show the benefit of such a construct in reducing the risk of distal instrumentation pullout.

  3. 1990 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. The consistency and accuracy of roentgenograms for measuring sagittal translation in the lumbar vertebral motion segment. An experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, W O; Spratt, K F; Weinstein, J; Lehmann, T R; Goel, V

    1990-08-01

    An experimental model of the L4-L5 lumbar motion segment was developed that allowed precise manipulation of sagittal translation, rotation of L5 relative to L4, tilt of L4 on L5, and control of roentgenogram quality (image clarity) by placing a water bath between the tube and the vertebral body. A series of experiments were designed to systematically assess the consistency and accuracy of sagittal translation measurements from roentgenograms of varying quality, using different measurement protocols and various rater combinations on models with varying degrees of concomitant motions (rotations and tilts). Study 1 assessed the effects of roentgenogram quality, raters, and seven measurement methods on the consistency and accuracy of evaluating translations in the sagittal plane. Results indicated very high reliabilities across roentgenogram quality, raters, and measurement. As expected, high-quality roentgenograms were more accurately evaluated than lower-quality roentgenograms. However, closer inspection of the consequences of errors in measured translations indicated surprisingly high false-positive and false-negative rates, with significant differences observed between measurement methods. Study 2 assessed the effects of concomitant motions and measurement methods on the consistency and accuracy of evaluations. Within-rater consistency and accuracy indices were remarkably high and similar across measurement methods and degrees of concomitant motions. However, important differences in the false-positive and false-negative rates were again observed. Method 2, described by Morgan and King, demonstrated the overall best performance and the least interference due to concomitant motions. Study 3 assessed the effects of raters and measurement methods on the consistency of measuring translation in clinical roentgenograms, where concomitant motion factors may be present, but not explicitly considered. Results indicated substantially lower within- and between

  4. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  5. Bilateral inverted vertebral arteries (V3 segment) in a case of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation: Distinct entity or a lateral variant of persistent first intersegmental artery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K.; Ghuman, Mandeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anomalous vertebral arteries (VAs), commonly involving the persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA), are often seen with congenital atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD). Here we describe an unusual variant consisting of bilateral VAs with normal loops but passing below the C1 (inverted VA) arch, distinctly different from the FIA. Case Description: A 9-year-old boy presented with a spastic quadriparesis. Preoperative radiographic studies showed an irreducible AAD with an occipitalized CO-C1 and C2-3 fusion. Although both VAs exhibited proximal and distal loops like normal VA, the distal loops did not pass through the C1 transverse foramina and coursed inferior to the C1 arch instead. With this critical preoperative information, both VAs could be better safeguarded during dissection of the C1-2 facets. Conclusion: In the case presented, although the course of the inverted VAs is similar, the norm, they coursed inferior to both C1 arches. Careful evaluation of the preoperative radiological studies allowed for careful dissection of the inverted VA (horizontal loop) while opening the C1-2 joint for subsequent alignment (e.g. reduction) and bony fusion. This information also facilitates safer insertion of lateral mass screws (e.g. choosing the appropriate C1 screw length to gain adequate bony purchase without compromising anomalous VA). PMID:25024882

  6. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  7. Prophylactic vertebral cement augmentation at the uppermost instrumented vertebra and rostral adjacent vertebra for the prevention of proximal junctional kyphosis and failure following long-segment fusion for adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, George M; Eichberg, Daniel G; Kolcun, John Paul G; Madhavan, Karthik; Lebwohl, Nathan H; Green, Barth A; Gjolaj, Joseph P

    2017-10-01

    .9°, p=.037), whereas the magnitude of PJK was greater in controls (9.36° vs. 5.65°, p=.023). The incidence of PJK was 36% (n=17) and 23.7% (n=9) in Groups A and B, respectively (p=.020). The odds ratio of PJK with vertebroplasty was 0.548 (95% confidence interval=0.211 to 1.424). Proximal junctional kyphosis was observed in 6 (12.8%) controls only (p=.031). The UIV+1 angle, a measure of PJK, was significantly greater in controls (10.0° vs. 6.8°, p=.02). No difference in blood loss was observed. No complications were attributed to PMMA use. The use of prophylactic vertebral cement augmentation at the UIV and rostral adjacent vertebral segment at the time of deformity correction appears to be preventative in the development of proximal junctional kyphosis and failure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Osmotic and Heat Stress Effects on Segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Julian; Devoto, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    .... Environmental stresses such as hypoxia or heat shock produce segmentation defects, and significantly increase the penetrance and severity of vertebral defects in genetically susceptible individuals...

  9. Excessive somnolence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Tavares

    Full Text Available Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  10. Excessive somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S; Alóe, F; Gentil, V; Scaff, M

    1996-01-01

    Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  11. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction when managing vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Galaktionov; A. V. Dubovoy; K. S. Ovsyannikov

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a literature review devoted to the reconstruction of the distal vertebral artery and a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by occlusion of the vertebral artery in a proximal segment. The external carotid artery-distal vertebral artery bypass was performed by using the radial artery.Received 27 February 2017. Revised 25 July 2017. Accepted 3 August 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship....

  12. Automatic segmentation of vertebrae from radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Peter; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation of vertebral contours is an essential task in the design of automatic tools for vertebral fracture assessment. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation technique which does not require operator interaction. The proposed technique solves the segmentation problem in a hierarchical...... is constrained by a conditional shape model, based on the variability of the coarse spine location estimates. The technique is evaluated on a data set of manually annotated lumbar radiographs. The results compare favorably to the previous work in automatic vertebra segmentation, in terms of both segmentation...

  13. Bone creep can cause progressive vertebral deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollintine, Phillip; Luo, Jin; Offa-Jones, Ben; Dolan, Patricia; Adams, Michael A

    2009-09-01

    Vertebral deformities in elderly people are conventionally termed "fractures", but their onset is often insidious, suggesting that time-dependent (creep) processes may also be involved. Creep has been studied in small samples of bone, but nothing is known about creep deformity of whole vertebrae, or how it might be influenced by bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesise that sustained compressive loading can cause progressive and measurable creep deformity in elderly human vertebrae. 27 thoracolumbar "motion segments" (two vertebrae and the intervening disc and ligaments) were dissected from 20 human cadavers aged 42-91 yrs. A constant compressive force of approximately 1.0 kN was applied to each specimen for either 0.5 h or 2 h, while the anterior, middle and posterior heights of each of the 54 vertebral bodies were measured at 1 Hz using a MacReflex 2D optical tracking system. This located 6 reflective markers attached to the lateral cortex of each vertebral body, with resolution better than 10 microm. Experiments were at laboratory temperature, and polythene film was used to minimise water loss. Volumetric BMD was calculated for each vertebral body, using DXA to measure mineral content, and water immersion for volume. In the 0.5 h tests, creep deformation in the anterior, middle and posterior vertebral cortex averaged 4331, 1629 and 614 micro-strains respectively, where 10,000 micro-strains represents 1% loss in height. Anterior creep strains exceeded posterior (Pspecimens with average BMDfracture.

  14. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction when managing vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Galaktionov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review devoted to the reconstruction of the distal vertebral artery and a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by occlusion of the vertebral artery in a proximal segment. The external carotid artery-distal vertebral artery bypass was performed by using the radial artery.Received 27 February 2017. Revised 25 July 2017. Accepted 3 August 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  15. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  16. Current and emerging treatment strategies for vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacein-Bey L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lotfi Hacein-BeyRadiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group Inc, Sacramento, CA, USABackground: Vertebral compression fractures are most commonly related to osteoporosis or cancer, both of which are on the rise throughout the world. Once a vertebra is fractured, gradual deterioration of quality of life due to crippling pain and spinal instability usually follows. Although a number of traditional management options have been available to promote pain relief and to allow for increased activities, such as bed rest, bracing, pain medications, and light exercise programs, these have limited effectiveness in the majority of patients. Over 20 years ago, percutaneous vertebroplasty, which is a minimally invasive procedure consisting of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate directly into the fractured vertebra, emerged as an effective treatment. Various vertebral augmentation procedures were subsequently designed, all of which aim at eliminating pain, limiting or reversing vertebral collapse, and providing stability to the affected segment of the spine.Objective: This article discusses clinical aspects of vertebral compression fractures, current indications and contraindications and summarizes technical aspects of vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, lordoplasty, and device-implanting vertebral augmentation procedures. Treatment effectiveness, which is significant despite recent criticism of vertebroplasty and other vertebral augmentation procedures, is also discussed. As economic pressures on health care systems are increasing in all countries, it is expected that the appropriateness, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of vertebral augmentation procedures will be increasingly established by outcome analyses.Conclusion: It is important that physicians are familiar with vertebroplasty and other procedures designed to treat vertebral fractures in patients with advanced osteoporosis or cancer. These fractures, which are common and often

  17. Quantitative, 3D Visualization of the Initiation and Progression of Vertebral Fractures Under Compression and Anterior Flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Jackman, Timothy M; Hussein, Amira I.; Curtiss, Cameron; Fein, Paul M; Camp, Anderson; De Barros, Lidia; Morgan, Elise F.

    2015-01-01

    The biomechanical mechanisms leading to vertebral fractures are not well understood. Clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that the vertebral endplate plays a key role in failure of the vertebra as a whole, but how this role differs for different types of vertebral loading is not known. Mechanical testing of human thoracic spine segments, in conjunction with time-lapsed micro?computed tomography, enabled quantitative assessment of deformations occurring throughout the entire vertebral bod...

  18. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature...

  19. Vertebral Compression Fractures after Lumbar Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, Michelle; Berti, Aldo; Jacobson, Robert E

    2017-09-29

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is primarily found in an older population. This is a similar demographic group that develops both osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures (VCF). This report reviewed a series of patients treated for VCF that had previous lumbar surgery for symptomatic spinal stenosis. Patients that only underwent laminectomy or fusion without instrumentation had a similar distribution of VCF as the non-surgical population in the mid-thoracic, or lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine. However, in the patients that had previous short-segment spinal instrumentation, fractures were found to be located more commonly in the mid-lumbar spine or sacrum adjacent to or within one or two spinal segments of the spinal instrumentation. Adjacent-level fractures that occur due to vertebral osteoporosis after long spinal segment instrumentation has been discussed in the literature. The purpose of this report is to highlight the previously unreported finding of frequent lumbar and sacral osteoporotic fractures in post-lumbar instrumentation surgery patients. Important additional factors found were lack of preventative medical treatment for osteoporosis, and secondary effects related to inactivity, especially during the first year after surgery.

  20. Hyperkyphosis predicts mortality independent of vertebral osteoporosis in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Deborah M; Lui, Li-Yung; Ensrud, Kristine E; Fink, Howard A; Karlamangla, Arun S; Cummings, Steven R

    2009-05-19

    Excessive kyphosis may be associated with earlier mortality, but previous studies have not controlled for clinically silent vertebral fractures, which are a known mortality risk factor. To determine whether hyperkyphosis predicts increased mortality independent of vertebral fractures. Prospective cohort study. Four clinical centers in Baltimore County, Maryland; Portland, Oregon; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania. 610 women, age 67 to 93 years, from a cohort of 9704 women recruited from community-based listings between 1986 and 1988. Kyphosis was measured by using a flexicurve. Prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures at baseline were defined by morphometry, and mortality was assessed during an average follow-up of 13.5 years. In age-adjusted models, each SD increase in kyphosis carried a 1.14-fold increased risk for death (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27; P = 0.023). After adjustment for age and other predictors of mortality, including such osteoporosis-related factors as low bone density, moderate and severe prevalent vertebral fractures, and number of prevalent vertebral fractures, women with greater kyphosis were at increased risk for earlier death (relative hazard per SD increase, 1.15 [CI, 1.01 to 1.30]; P = 0.029). On stratification by prevalent vertebral fracture status, only women with prevalent fractures were at increased mortality risk from hyperkyphosis, independent of age, self-reported health, smoking, spine bone mineral density, number of vertebral fractures, and severe vertebral fractures (relative hazard per SD increase, 1.58 [CI, 1.06 to 2.35]; P = 0.024). The study population included only white women. In older women with vertebral fractures, hyperkyphosis predicts an increased risk for death, independent of underlying spinal osteoporosis and the extent and severity of vertebral fractures. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and National Institute on Aging.

  1. An atypical case of segmental spinal dysgenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zana, Elodie; Chalard, Francois; Sebag, Guy [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Mazda, Keyvan [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Paris (France)

    2005-09-01

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a complex closed dysraphism. The diagnostic criteria are: lumbar or thoracolumbar vertebral dysgenesis causing kyphosis, focal spinal cord narrowing without exiting roots, deformity of the lower limbs and paraplegia or paraparesis. We present a newborn who showed atypical features of bifocal spinal cord narrowing, without any vertebral abnormality at the proximal level. This seems to be a variant of this rare entity, whose early diagnosis is important, as surgical stabilisation of the spine is required. (orig.)

  2. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...... of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly...... of improving the prediction of bone strength of the vertebral body. The correlations between BV/TV of L-2 and bone strength of L-3 were comparable with the correlation obtained by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), peripheral QCT (pQCT), and dual-energy X-ray absorptrometry (DEXA) of L-3 and bone strength...

  3. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  4. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  5. ANOMALOUS PREVERTEBRAL COURSE OF THE LEFT VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Recorrido prevertebral anómalo de la arteria vertebral izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La arteria vertebral es una de las arterias que irriga el cerebro. El conocimiento de la anatomía normal y las variantes de la arteria vertebral adquiere importancia en la práctica clínica y la radiología vascular. El origen anómalo de la arteria vertebral del arco de la aorta o cualquiera de las arterias del cuello ha sido reportado por muchos autores. En este informe se presenta una variación del curso prevertebral de la arteria vertebral izquierda. La arteria vertebral tenía su origen habitual en la arteria subclavia con un largo curso prevertebral y entraba en el foramen transversarium de la vértebra CII. El origen y recorrido de la arteria vertebral en el lado derecho fue normal. Clínicamente es importante conocer el origen y curso del segmento prevertebral de la arteria vertebral y las posibles variaciones. El presente informe debería ser de interés para el médico vascular con respecto a las variaciones en el cuello y región torácica, y puede dar idea para dilucidar el mecanismo de desarrollo de la angiogénesis. Vertebral artery is one of the arteries supplying the brain. Knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the vertebral artery assumes importance in clinical practice and vascular radiology. Anomalous origins of the vertebral artery from the arch of the aorta or any one of the arteries of the neck have been reported by several authors. In this report a variation of the prevertebral course of the left vertebral artery is being presented. The Vertebral artery had usual origin from the subclavian artery and had a longer prevertebral course to enter the foramen transversarium of the CII vertebra. The origin and course of the vertebral artery on the right side was normal. It is clinically important to know the origin and course of the prevertebral segment of the vertebral artery and possible variations. The present report should be of interest for clinicians with regard to vascular variations in the neck and thoracic

  6. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  7. Surgical considerations in posterior C1-2 instrumentation in the presence of vertebral artery anomalies: case illustration and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Gerard, Carter S; Traynelis, Vincent C; Fontes, Ricardo B V

    2017-06-29

    Vascular anomalies involving the V3 segment of the vertebral artery are common and may complicate posterior atlantoaxial instrumentation. We report a patient with a fenestrated vertebral artery that underwent successful C1-2 instrumentation and fusion. Various vertebral artery anomalies are discussed with a review of pertinent literature.

  8. Segmental neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Galhotra, Virat; Sheikh, Soheyl; Jindal, Sanjeev; Singla, Anshu

    2014-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder, characterized by neurofibromas or cafι-au-lait macules limited to one region of the body. Its occurrence on the face is extremely rare and only few cases of segmental neurofibromatosis over the face have been described so far. We present a case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the buccal mucosa, tongue, cheek, ear, and neck on the right side of the face.

  9. Functions of Antimicrobial Peptides in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Eva Edilia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the multiple activities of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in vertebrates. The largest AMP families are the cathelicidins and defensins, but several peptides derived from bigger proteins have also been reported. Cathelicidins are characterized by a conserved Nterminal pro-region and a variable region that encodes the C-terminal mature peptide. The β-defensins comprise a large family of AMPs that have diversified their functions, apparently without losing their antimicrobial activity. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are present in all vertebrates studied so far; α- defensins are present in mammals, while θ-defensins are only present in some non-human primates. The AMPs are regulated by posttranslational modifications that mainly include proteolysis, amidation, ADP-ribosylation, glycosylation and phosphorylation. In addition to their antimicrobial effects, AMPs show activity against viral particles and interfere in different steps of virus replication. Moreover, AMPs may both promote and inhibit cancer growth: several vertebrate AMPs kill cancer cells, and some tumors grow in an environment wherein the expression of β-defensins is reduced; however, human cathelicidin and some β-defensins are overexpressed in several types of cancer and are correlated with tumor growth. AMPs are part of the complex network of cells and molecules that forms the vertebrate innate defense system and they induce adaptive responses. In addition, they participate in sperm maturation and male reproduction. AMPs are multifunctional peptides that participate in immune responses, wound healing, angiogenesis, toxin neutralization, iron metabolism, male reproduction, among other functions. However, AMPs may also contribute to excessive inflammation and tumorigenesis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Segmental Neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesudian Devakar

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis in which the lesions are confined to one segment or dermatome of the body. They resemble classical neurofibromas in their morphology, histopathology and electron microscopy. However, systemic associations are usually absent. We report one such case with these classical features.

  11. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo [Dept. of Radiology, Sapporo Medical Univ., School of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.).

  12. Prevention of excess gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Truesdale, K P; Wang, C-H; Cai, J

    2009-11-01

    Obesity prevention trials are designed to promote healthy weight. The success of these trials is often assessed using one of three metrics--means, incidence or prevalence. In this study, we point out conceptual shortcomings of these metrics and introduce an alternative that we call 'excess gain'. A mathematical demonstration using simulated data shows a scenario in which the statistical power of excess gain compares favorably with that of incidence and prevalence. Prevention of excess gain communicates an easily understood public health message that is applicable to all individuals regardless of weight status.

  13. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G; Prosser, Haydn M; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P; Tabin, Clifford J; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-09-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae.

  14. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  15. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vertebral contour in spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Rho, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, B. K. [Wallace memorial Baptist Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The defect in the pars interarticularis of spondylolisthesis may be dependent on contributing factors related to trauma and stress to which the neural arch is subjected, superimposed on a hereditary diasthesis. Posterior wedging of 5th lumber vertebral body in lumbosacral spondylolisthesis together with the degree of slip have been measured. The average wedging in spondylolisthesis is significantly greater than patient without this condition, and forms a characteristic radiological sign. The degree of wedging and slip show a statistically valid correlation. The diagnosis of spondylolisthesis is becoming more prevalent as the complexity of our society result in the increasing use of roentgenography of the lumbar spine. Isolated lateral deviation and rotation of spinous process seen in anteroposterior radiographs of the lumbar spine seems to be associated with pathology in the pars interarticularis.

  17. Is kyphoplasty better than vertebroplasty at restoring form and function after severe vertebral wedge fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landham, Priyan R; Baker-Rand, Holly L A; Gilbert, Samuel J; Pollintine, Phillip; Annesley-Williams, Deborah J; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The vertebral augmentation procedures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, can relieve pain and facilitate mobilization of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Kyphoplasty also aims to restore vertebral body height before cement injection and so may be advantageous for more severe fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty to restore vertebral height, shape, and mechanical function after severe vertebral wedge fractures. This is a biomechanical and radiographic study using human cadaveric spines. Seventeen pairs of thoracolumbar "motion segments" from cadavers aged 70-98 years were injured, in a two-stage process involving flexion and compression, to create severe anterior wedge fractures. One of each pair underwent vertebroplasty and the other kyphoplasty. Specimens were then compressed at 1 kN for 1 hour to allow consolidation. Radiographs were taken before and after injury, after treatment, and after consolidation. At these same time points, motion segment compressive stiffness was assessed, and intervertebral disc "stress profiles" were obtained to characterize the distribution of compressive stress on the vertebral body and neural arch. On average, injury reduced anterior vertebral body height by 34%, increased its anterior wedge angle from 5.0° to 11.4°, reduced intradiscal (nucleus) pressure and motion segment stiffness by 96% and 44%, respectively, and increased neural arch load bearing by 57%. Kyphoplasty caused 97% of the anterior height loss to be regained immediately, although this reduced to 79% after consolidation. Equivalent gains after vertebroplasty were significantly lower: 59% and 47%, respectively (pKyphoplasty reduced vertebral wedging more than vertebroplasty (pkyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. After severe vertebral wedge fractures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were equally effective in restoring mechanical function. However, kyphoplasty was better able to restore vertebral

  18. Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition in Australopithecus afarensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, C. V.; Nalley, T. K.; Spoor, F.; Tafforeau, P.; Alemseged, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, and Homo erectus all had z...

  19. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  20. Modified posterior vertebral column resection for Kümmell disease: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Yu; Huo, Li-Shuang; Liu, Sen; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Kümmell's disease is defined as delayed traumatic vertebral collapse disease in which patients develop a kyphosis after asymptomatic minor spinal trauma. Both anterior approach and posterior approach have been reported, however, there is no standard treatment for Kümmell's disease. We described a successful modified posterior vertebral column resection in a patient with Kümmell's disease. A 65-year-old woman reported persistent back pain for almost three months. Kümmell's disease was diagnosed based on computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Modified posterior vertebral column resection combined with short-segment fixation was designed to treat this disease. The procedure was successful without any complications. Patient reported that symptoms were obviously improved in one week after operation. Modified posterior vertebral column resection combined with short-segment fixation is an effective treatment option for Kümmell's disease.

  1. "Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

    2012-11-01

    Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign." Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intercellular Coupling Regulates the Period of the Segmentation Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Herrgen, Leah; Ares, Saúl; Morelli, Luis G.; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Andrew C. Oates

    2010-01-01

    Coupled biological oscillators can tick with the same period. How this collective period is established is a key question in understanding biological clocks. We explore this question in the segmentation clock, a population of coupled cellular oscillators in the vertebrate embryo that sets the rhythm of somitogenesis, the morphological segmentation of the body axis. The oscillating cells of the zebrafish segmentation clock are thought to possess noisy autonomous periods, which are synchronized...

  3. Reducing Excessive Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty

    1984-01-01

    A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)

  4. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  5. Vertebral Malformations in French Bulldogs

    OpenAIRE

    KURICOVÁ, Mária; LEDECKÝ, Valent; KVETKOVÁ, Jaroslava; LIPTÁK, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect vertebral malformations among French Bulldogs admitted between the years 2011 – 2016 due to the high popularity of the breed and the intentions to increase the breed welfare by reducing the occurrence of congenital anomalies. Besides, we aimed to look for gender predisposition, possible vertebral predisposition, occurrence of clinical symptoms and radiographic findings. A total of 73 French Bulldogs met the inclusion criteria (radiographs of the whole spine...

  6. The otherness of sexuality: excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruth

    2008-03-01

    The present essay, the second of a series of three, aims at developing an experience-near account of sexuality by rehabilitating the idea of excess and its place in sexual experience. It is suggested that various types of excess, such as excess of excitation (Freud), the excess of the other (Laplanche), excess beyond symbolization and the excess of the forbidden object of desire (Leviticus; Lacan) work synergistically to constitute the compelling power of sexuality. In addition to these notions, further notions of excess touch on its transformative potential. Such notions address excess that shatters psychic structures and that is actively sought so as to enable new ones to evolve (Bersani). Work is quoted that regards excess as a way of dealing with our lonely, discontinuous being by using the "excessive" cosmic energy circulating through us to achieve continuity against death (Bataille). Two contemporary analytic thinkers are engaged who deal with the object-relational and intersubjective vicissitudes of excess.

  7. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products....... The traditionalists are characterised by favouring pork, poultry and beef. Since it is difficult to change consumers' tastes, the short-term consequence may be to focus on the "fish lovers" and target the communication towards these consumers. In the long run, "traditionalists" may be persuaded to revise...

  8. DMRT genes in vertebrate gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkower, David

    2013-01-01

    Genes containing the DM domain DNA-binding motif regulate sex determination and sexual differentiation in a broad variety of metazoans, including nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. They can function in primary sex determination or downstream in sexual differentiation, and they can act either throughout the body or in highly restricted cell types. In vertebrates, several DM domain genes--DMRT genes--play critical roles in gonadal differentiation or gametogenesis. DMRT1 has the most prominent role and likely regulates testicular differentiation in all vertebrates. In the mammalian gonad, DMRT1 exerts both intrinsic and extrinsic control of gametogenesis; it is required for germ cell differentiation in males and regulates meiosis in both sexes, and it is required in supporting cells for the establishment and maintenance of male fate in the testis. These varied functions of DMRT1 serve to coordinate gonadal development and function. In other vertebrates, DMRT1 regulates gonadal differentiation, and it also appears to have played a central role in the evolution of new sex-determining mechanisms in at least three vertebrate clades. This chapter focuses on the regulation of vertebrate gametogenesis by DMRT1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. One-stage posterior instrumentation surgery for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral collapse with neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kotani, Yoshihisa; Takahata, Masahiko; Hojo, Yoshihiro; Minami, Akio

    2010-01-01

    The number of reports describing osteoporotic vertebral fracture has increased as the number of elderly people has grown. Anterior decompression and fusion alone for the treatment of vertebral collapse is not easy for patients with comorbid medical problems and severe bone fragility. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of one-stage posterior instrumentation surgery for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral collapse with neurological deficits. A consecutive series of 21 patients who sustained osteoporotic vertebral collapse with neurological deficits were managed with posterior decompression and short-segmental pedicle screw instrumentation augmented with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWP) cables with or without vertebroplasty using calcium phosphate cement. The mean follow-up was 42 months. All patients showed neurologic recovery. Segmental kyphotic angle at the instrumented level was significantly improved from an average preoperative kyphosis of 22.8–14.7 at a final follow-up. Spinal canal occupation was significantly reduced from an average before surgery of 40.4–19.1% at the final follow-up. Two patients experienced loosening of pedicle screws and three patients developed subsequent vertebral compression fractures within adjacent segments. However, these patients were effectively treated in a conservative fashion without any additional surgery. Our results indicated that one-stage posterior instrumentation surgery augmented with UHMWP cables could provide significant neurological improvement in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral collapse. PMID:20157741

  10. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  11. Spondylosis deformans and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (dish) resulting in adjacent segment disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Maria; Gonçalves, Rita; Haley, Allison; Wessmann, Annette; Penderis, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Spondylosis deformans and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are usually incidental findings and in most dogs are either asymptomatic or associated with mild clinical signs. Severe spondylosis deformans and DISH can result in complete bony fusion of consecutive vertebral segments. One of the recognised complications following vertebral fusion in human patients is the development of adjacent segment disease, which is defined as degenerative changes, most commonly degenerative intervertebral disc disease, in the mobile vertebral segment neighboring a region of complete vertebral fusion. A similar syndrome following cervical fusion in dogs has been termed the domino effect. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the hypothesis that vertebral fusion occurring secondary to spondylosis deformans or DISH in dogs would protect fused intervertebral disc spaces from undergoing degeneration, but result in adjacent segment disease at neighbouring unfused intervertebral disc spaces. Eight dogs with clinical signs of thoracolumbar myelopathy, magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar vertebral column, and spondylosis deformans or DISH producing fusion of > or = 2 consecutive intervertebral disc spaces were evaluated. Vertebral fusion of > or = 2 consecutive intervertebral disc spaces was correlated (P = 0.0017) with adjacent segment disease at the neighbouring unfused intervertebral disc space. Vertebral fusion appeared to protect fused intervertebral disc spaces from undergoing degeneration (P dogs with severe spondylosis deformans or DISH occurring in conjunction with a thoracolumbar myelopathy.

  12. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  13. Reconstructing the ancestral vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Murakami, Yasunori; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Highly complicated morphologies and sophisticated functions of vertebrate brains have been established through evolution. However, the origin and early evolutionary history of the brain remain elusive, owing to lack of information regarding the brain architecture of extant and fossil species of jawless vertebrates (agnathans). Comparative analyses of the brain of less studied cyclostomes (only extant agnathan group, consisting of lampreys and hagfish) with the well-known sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are the only tools we have available to illustrate the ancestral architecture of the vertebrate brain. Previous developmental studies had shown that the lamprey lacked well-established brain compartments that are present in gnathostomes, such as the medial ganglionic eminence and the rhombic lip. The most accepted scenario suggested that cyclostomes had fewer compartments than that of the gnathostome brain and that gnathostomes thus evolved by a stepwise addition of innovations on its developmental sequence. However, recent studies have revealed that these compartments are present in hagfish embryos, indicating that these brain regions have been acquired before the split of cyclostomes and gnathostomes. By comparing two cyclostome lineages and gnathostomes, it has become possible to speculate about a more complex ancestral state of the brain, excluding derived traits in either of the lineages. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the brain development of the lamprey and hagfish. Then, we attempt to reconstruct the possible brain architecture of the last common ancestor of vertebrates. Finally, we discuss how the developmental plan of the vertebrate brain has been modified independently in different vertebrate lineages. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  14. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater...

  15. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

  16. USE OF CT FOR ANALYSIS OF THE VERTEBRAL FORAMEN IN THE HOSPITAL OF QUERÉTARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS CISNEROS LÁMBARRI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the morphology of the vertebral foramen and its distance to the midline. Methods: Twenty cervical CT scans from the radiographic record of 12 men and 8 women, 18 to 74 years old, of C1 to C6 segments were evaluated, measuring the foramen diameter and its distance to the midline. We look for anomalies of vertebral foramen morphology, using Philips Ingenuity CT equipment with Philips IntelliSpace Portal software. Results: The mean age was 47 years; the segment with the most anomalies was C1, with 10% (increase in foramen diameter, followed by C2 and C6, with 5% (vertebral foramen hypotrophy; the mean diameter of the C1 to C6 segment was 6.081 mm, and the median distance from the midline to the vertebral foramen of C2 to C6 was 13.215 mm. The largest diameter of the vertebral foramen was C2, with a mean of 6.67 mm and the smallest was C4, with a mean of 5.75 mm; the greatest distance from the midline to the vertebral foramen was C1, with a mean of 22.59 mm and the shortest was C4, with a mean of 12.13 mm. Conclusions: The mean diameter of the vertebral foramen and its distance to the midline was determined, setting a safety region for procedures. In our city, there is no study that determines the means of the vertebral foramina diameters, the distance from the midline and its anomalies. It is necessary to rely on CT scans and to make a preoperative plan to avoid complications associated with morphological alterations.

  17. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  18. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten; Hansen, Allan Grutt

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits....... Innovatively, the research process is documented via an interactive data-visualization tool by which readers and fellow peers can access and, by using various filtering options, further analyze the results and, ultimately, reformulate the problem field....

  19. [Segmental neurofibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G; Meyer, V; Sachse, M M

    2017-11-08

    Thirteen years ago, a 48-year-old man developed numerous neurofibromas in a circumscribed area on the right chest. At the same time, a bilateral seminoma was diagnosed and treated curatively. There was no evidence for other complications of neurofibromatosis. The family history was inconspicuous. The segmental neurofibromatosis (SN) presented in this patient is the result of a mosaic formation resulting from a mutation of the NF1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene. Concomitant, typical diseases of neurofibromatosis generalisata (NFG), including malignant neoplasms, are the exception to SN.

  20. Segmental neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobjanek, Michał; Dobosz-Kawałko, Magdalena; Michajłowski, Igor; Pęksa, Rafał; Nowicki, Roman

    2014-12-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis or type V neurofibromatosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas limited to a circumscribed body region. The disease may be associated with systemic involvement and malignancies. The disorder has not been reported yet in the Polish medical literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of multiple, flesh colored, dome-shaped, soft to firm nodules situated in the right lumbar region. A histopathologic evaluation of three excised tumors revealed neurofibromas. No neurological and ophthalmologic symptoms of neurofibromatosis were diagnosed.

  1. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  2. Dupla meningocele na coluna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de dupla meningocele de coluna vertebral, respectivamente nas regiões cervico-torácica e tóraco-lombar, no qual ocorreu hidrocéfalo após pneumoventriculografia. Para a compensação do hidrocéfalo foi feita drenagem ventrículo-peritonial.

  3. Intestinal, segmented, filamentous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, H L; Koopman, J P; Poelma, F G; Beynen, A C

    1992-06-01

    Segmented, filamentous bacteria (SFBs) are autochthonous, apathogenic bacteria, occurring in the ileum of mice and rats. Although the application of formal taxonomic criteria is impossible due to the lack of an in vitro technique to culture SFBs, microbes with a similar morphology, found in the intestine of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate host species, are considered to be related. SFBs are firmly attached to the epithelial cells of the distal ileal mucosa, their preferential ecological niche being the epithelium covering the Peyer's patches. Electron microscopic studies have demonstrated a considerable morphological diversity of SFBs, which may relate to different stages of a life cycle. Determinants of SFB colonization in vivo are host species, genotypical and phenotypical characteristics of the host, diet composition, environmental stress and antimicrobial drugs. SFBs can survive in vitro incubation, but do not multiply. On the basis of their apathogenic character and intimate relationship with the host, it is suggested that SFBs contribute to development and/or maintenance of host resistance to enteropathogens.

  4. Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features.

  5. Episodic Excessive Blinking in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Yasmin Poustchi; Simon, John W; Chaudhri, Imran; Zobal-Ratner, Jitka; Barry, Gerard P

    2016-01-01

    Many children present with excessive blinking. Categorization, associated conditions, and prognosis are controversial. All children with excessive blinking were reviewed, excluding those with known uveitis, glaucoma, or obvious eyelid abnormalities. Parents were telephoned for follow-up. No ocular pathology was identified in 31 of 34 children with excessive blinking (91%). Parents were able to report a specific cause of blinking in 7 (21%). In 24 of 34 (71%), parents reported complete resolution of excessive blinking. No new ophthalmologic diagnoses were uncovered on follow-up. Episodes of excessive blinking rarely indicate neurologic disorders and frequently resolve spontaneously. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Percutanous vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fracture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; a report of two cases. ... Background: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common in the geriatric age group. ... Conclusion: Percutanous vertebroplasty offers effective, immediate and sustained pain relief in osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

  7. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  8. Image Segmentation Algorithms Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng, Song; Hao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The technology of image segmentation is widely used in medical image processing, face recognition pedestrian detection, etc. The current image segmentation techniques include region-based segmentation, edge detection segmentation, segmentation based on clustering, segmentation based on weakly-supervised learning in CNN, etc. This paper analyzes and summarizes these algorithms of image segmentation, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different algorithms. Finally, we make a predi...

  9. Thoracic kyphosis and rate of incident vertebral fractures: the Fracture Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, W B; Vittinghoff, E; Kado, D M; Lane, N E; Ensrud, K E; Shipp, K

    2016-03-01

    Biomechanical analyses support the theory that thoracic spine hyperkyphosis may increase risk of new vertebral fractures. While greater kyphosis was associated with an increased rate of incident vertebral fractures, our analysis does not show an independent association of kyphosis on incident fracture, after adjustment for prevalent vertebral fracture. Excessive kyphosis may still be a clinical marker for prevalent vertebral fracture. Biomechanical analyses suggest hyperkyphosis may increase risk of incident vertebral fracture by increasing the load on vertebral bodies during daily activities. We propose to assess the association of kyphosis with incident radiographic vertebral fracture. We used data from the Fracture Intervention Trial among 3038 women 55-81 years of age with low bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline kyphosis angle was measured using a Debrunner kyphometer. Vertebral fractures were assessed at baseline and follow-up from lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine. We used Poisson models to estimate the independent association of kyphosis with incident fracture, controlling for age and femoral neck BMD. Mean baseline kyphosis was 48° (SD = 12) (range 7-83). At baseline, 962 (32%) participants had a prevalent fracture. There were 221 incident fractures over a median of 4 years. At baseline, prevalent fracture was associated with 3.7° greater average kyphosis (95% CI 2.8-4.6, p < 0.0005), adjusting for age and femoral neck BMD. Before adjusting for prevalent fracture, each 10° greater kyphosis was associated with 22% increase (95% CI 8-38%, p = 0.001) in annualized rate of new radiographic vertebral fracture, adjusting for age and femoral neck BMD. After additional adjustment for prevalent fracture, estimated increased annualized rate was attenuated and no longer significant, 8% per 10° kyphosis (95% CI -4 to 22%, p = 0.18). While greater kyphosis increased the rate of incident vertebral fractures, our analysis does not

  10. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  11. Zygotic Genome Activation in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukam, David; Shariati, S Ali M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-08-21

    The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios. Here, we review progress in understanding vertebrate ZGA dynamics in frogs, fish, mice, and humans to explore differences and emphasize common features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Ch2-290 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, 55905, MN (United States); Unni, K.Krishnan [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States); Dekutoski, Mark B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2004-09-01

    To determine the demographics, imaging findings, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of primary vertebral Ewing's sarcoma (PVES). A retrospective review of medical records and radiological studies of patients diagnosed with PVES from 1936 through 2001 in our institution and Department of Pathology consultation files was undertaken. Metastatic and soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma cases were excluded. From a total of 1,277 cases of Ewing's sarcoma, 125 (9.8%) had a primary vertebral origin. There were 48 females and 76 males. Patient ages ranged from 4 to 54 (mean 19.3, standard deviation 10.7, median 16) years. Vertebral column distribution was four cervical (3.2%), 13 thoracic (10.5%), 31 lumbar (25%), and 67 sacrum (53.2%). More than one vertebral segment was involved in ten cases (8%). Satisfactory imaging studies were available in 51 patients: 49 radiographs, 27 computerized tomography (CT), and 23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The majority of tumors were lytic (93%). Three cases were mixed lytic and sclerotic (6%) and one sclerotic. In the nonsacral spine, the majority of lesions (12/20) involved the posterior elements with extension into the vertebral body. Five cases were centered in the vertebral body with extension into the posterior elements. Two cases were limited to the posterior elements, and one case solely involved the vertebral body. Ala was the most frequently affected site in the sacrum (18/26). Spinal canal invasion was frequent (91%). Detailed clinical information was available in 53 patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 30 (mean 7) months. Local pain was the first symptom and seen in all cases. Neurological deficits were present in 21 (40%) cases. All patients received radiation in various dosages; 70% additionally received chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients had surgery, and two patients received bone marrow transplantation. Forty-five patients had follow-up; the five-year disease-free survival probability is 0

  13. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord.

  14. Kyphoplasty in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures - Guidelines and technical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Försth Peter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are a menace to the elderly generation causing diminished quality of life due to pain and deformity. At first, conservative treatment still is the method of choice. In case of resulting deformity, sintering and persistent pain vertebral cement augmentation techniques today are widely used. Open correction of resulting deformity by different types of osteotomies addresses sagittal balance, but has comparably high morbidity. Besides conventional vertebral cement augmentation techniques balloon kyphoplasty has become a popular tool to address painful thoracic and lumbar compression fractures. It showed improved pain reduction and lower complication rates compared to standard vertebroplasty. Interestingly the results of two placebo-controlled vertebroplasty studies question the value of cement augmentation, if compared to a sham operation. Even though there exists now favourable data for kyphoplasty from one randomised controlled trial, the absence of a sham group leaves the placebo effect unaddressed. Technically kyphoplasty can be performed with a transpedicular or extrapedicular access. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-cement should be favoured, since calcium phosphate cement showed inferior biomechanical properties and less effect on pain reduction especially in less stable burst fractures. Common complications of kyphoplasty are cement leakage and adjacent segment fractures. Rare complications are toxic PMMA-monomer reactions, cement embolisation, and infection.

  15. Kyphoplasty in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures - Guidelines and technical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are a menace to the elderly generation causing diminished quality of life due to pain and deformity. At first, conservative treatment still is the method of choice. In case of resulting deformity, sintering and persistent pain vertebral cement augmentation techniques today are widely used. Open correction of resulting deformity by different types of osteotomies addresses sagittal balance, but has comparably high morbidity. Besides conventional vertebral cement augmentation techniques balloon kyphoplasty has become a popular tool to address painful thoracic and lumbar compression fractures. It showed improved pain reduction and lower complication rates compared to standard vertebroplasty. Interestingly the results of two placebo-controlled vertebroplasty studies question the value of cement augmentation, if compared to a sham operation. Even though there exists now favourable data for kyphoplasty from one randomised controlled trial, the absence of a sham group leaves the placebo effect unaddressed. Technically kyphoplasty can be performed with a transpedicular or extrapedicular access. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-cement should be favoured, since calcium phosphate cement showed inferior biomechanical properties and less effect on pain reduction especially in less stable burst fractures. Common complications of kyphoplasty are cement leakage and adjacent segment fractures. Rare complications are toxic PMMA-monomer reactions, cement embolisation, and infection. PMID:21854577

  16. The evolution of the terrestrial vertebrates: environmental and physiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, A A

    1985-04-02

    Physiological evidence has long been used to suggest that the gnathostomous vertebrates (those possessing jaws) were primitively fresh water. The same was also the case for the Osteichthyes (bony fish) and the Tetrapoda (Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia). However, the geological evidence favours a marine origin for the vertebrates as a whole, and, for the gnathostomes and the osteichthyans in particular. Some of the earliest amphibian remains may be associated with tidally influenced sediments. Furthermore, during the early part of the Devonian, fresh water chemistry may well have been different from that of today, lessening the divide between marine and non-marine environments. Urea formation via the ornithine cycle, and urea retention in the body fluids, are useful adaptations for terrestrial life. They prevent excessive water loss associated with the elimination of nitrogenous waste. These abilities may have been primitive for the gnathostomes, and were developed in the marine environment to reduce osmotic dehydration. In the aqueous medium, gaseous exchange is effected by the gills. These organs are, on the whole, useless in air. For vertebrates, air-breathing is effected by an inflatable sac, with moist linings, and an internal location. Some form of air-breathing sac was primitive for the osteichthyans, and may have been primitive for the gnathostomes. Again, this adaptation for terrestrial life developed in response to conditions experienced in the marine, aquatic environment. A new model of tetrapod evolution is proposed in the light of the basic marine origin and character of the ancestors of the tetrapods.

  17. Measuring Excess Noise in SDL's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, S. J.; Kowitz, H. R.; Rowland, C. W.; Shull, T. A.; Ruggles, S. L.; Matthews, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    New instrument gives quantitive information on "excess noise" in semiconductor-diode laser (SDL's). By proper selection of detector, instrument tests any SDL from visible wavelengths through thermal infrared. Lasers determine excess noise in SKL source by measuring photocurrent generated in photodetector exposed first to reference laser then to SKL under test.

  18. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  19. Strategic market segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maricic, Branko; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    ..., requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation...

  20. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral piógena (OVP es una localización poco frecuente (2-7% Se confirma con el aislamiento de un microorganismo de una vértebra, disco intervertebral, absceso epidural o paravertebral. Se describe una serie de casos por la infrecuente presentación de esta enfermedad, que puede ser consulta inicial en los servicios de clínica médica y por su sintomatología inespecífica que supone una dificultad diagnóstica. Tanto la columna lumbar como la dorsal fueron los sitios más afectados. El dolor dorsolumbar y la paraparesia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes de presentación. En ocho pacientes se aislaron Staphylococcus aureus, en uno Escherichia coli y en el restante Haemophylus sp. Se observó leucocitosis sólo en tres pacientes, y en dos velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 100 mm/h. Los diez pacientes presentaron imágenes características de osteomielitis vertebral piógena en la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las complicaciones, los abscesos paravertebrales y epidurales fueron los más frecuentes (en cinco enfermos. Además, un paciente presentó empiema pleural. De los diez pacientes de esta serie, siete recibieron inicialmente tratamiento médico empírico y luego específico para el germen aislado. En los restantes el tratamiento fue guiado de acuerdo al antibiograma. A dos enfermos fue necesario realizarles laminectomía descompresiva por compromiso de partes blandas y a otros dos estabilización quirúrgica por inestabilidad espinal, observándose buena evolución en todos los casos. Esta serie demuestra que, ante un paciente con dolor dorsolumbar y síntomas neurológicos se deberá tener en cuenta esta entidad para evitar un retraso en el tratamiento.Pyogenic osteomyelitis seldom affects the spine (2-7%. It is diagnosed by the isolation of a bacterial agent in the vertebral body, the intervertebral disks or from paravertebral or epidural abscesses. We report a retrospective study of ten

  1. Extracranial vertebral artery dissection in children: natural history and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonnet, Hina; Deiva, Kumaran; Bellesme, Céline; Cabasson, Sébastien; Husson, Béatrice; Toulgoat, Frédérique; Théaudin, Marie; Ducreux, Denis; Tardieu, Marc; Saliou, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to describe clinical and imaging presentation and outcome in extracranial vertebral artery dissection. Single-centre retrospective study over a 14-year period included 20 consecutive patients under the age of 16 years with extracranial vertebral artery dissection. The diagnosis was based on vascular imaging performed at the acute phase and clinical symptoms. A male predominance was observed (sex ratio 9/1). The first symptoms consisted of headache (45%), neck pain (15%), nausea (30%) and vertigo (30%). Clinical signs leading to admission to hospital were hemiparesis (60%), visual disorders with oculomotor disorders (20%) or visual field defects (20%) and cerebellar syndrome (35%). Eight patients (40%) reported repeated transient episodes of neurological deficits, prior to the diagnosis. The segment most commonly affected was V2-V3 (50%), followed by V3 (15%) and V2 (15%), V3-V4 (10%) and proximal V4 (10%). All patients but one presented cerebral infarction. Eleven patients received first-line treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and nine patients received aspirin. Three patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms, one under vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and 2 under aspirin. All three were switched to LMWH with success. Fifty-eight percent of the dissected arteries were occluded at long-term follow-up, although 73% of them were patent at the acute phase. Initial imaging must include posterior fossa vessels and the craniocervical region with V2-V3 segments. Conventional angiography may be indicated in the absence of a definitive diagnosis on noninvasive imaging. Healing of the dissected vertebral artery predominantly resulted in occlusion, which does not constitute a pejorative factor but indicates good quality healing.

  2. Surgical techniques and clinical evidence of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyup Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic vertebral fracture is a disease condition with high morbidity and mortality, whose prevalence rises with mean increase in the life span. Conventional treatments for an osteoporotic vertebral fracture include bed rest, pain medication and brace implementation, but if the patient's pain is severe, cement augmentation procedures, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, are performed. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are relatively easy procedures that have been reported to be effective in controlling acute pain. But, the risk of complication and additional adjacent segment fracture and their superiority over conventional treatment remain debatable. Therefore, the authors have summarized the procedures, complications, and clinical evidence of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in this review.

  3. Treatment Challenges of a Primary Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Causing Recurrent Ischemic Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Strambo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are a rare cause of embolic stroke; surgical and endovascular therapy options are debated and long-term complication may occur. Case Report. A 53-year-old man affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 came to our attention for recurrent vertebrobasilar embolic strokes, caused by a primary giant, partially thrombosed, fusiform aneurysm of the left extracranial vertebral artery. The aneurysm was treated by endovascular approach through deposition of Guglielmi Detachable Coils in the proximal segment of the left vertebral artery. Six years later the patient presented stroke recurrence. Cerebral angiography and Color Doppler Ultrasound well characterized the unique hemodynamic condition developed over the years responsible for the new embolic event: the aneurysm had been revascularized from its distal portion by reverse blood flow coming from the patent vertebrobasilar axis. A biphasic Doppler signal in the left vertebral artery revealed a peculiar behavior of the blood flow, alternately directed to the aneurysm and backwards to the basilar artery. Surgical ligation of the distal left vertebral artery and excision of the aneurysm were thus performed. Conclusion. This is the first described case of NF1-associated extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm presenting with recurrent embolic stroke. Complete exclusion of the aneurysm from the blood circulation is advisable to achieve full resolution of the embolic source.

  4. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  5. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eve R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates. PMID:27053733

  6. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Eve R.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Bagriantsev, Slav N.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates.

  7. Vertebral wedging characteristic changes in scoliotic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Skalli, Wafa; de Guise, Jacques

    2004-10-15

    A morphometric analysis of vertebral wedging in vertebrae from scoliotic specimens. To quantify the vertebral body changes in 30 anatomic specimens affected by a scoliotic deformity. Only a few studies have evaluated the exact changes occurring at the level of the vertebral body in scoliotic spines. Most are observational studies of rare scoliotic specimens presenting major curvatures. The orientation of vertebral wedging is important for the planning of corrective surgery, performing vertebral osteotomy, and the evaluation of possible growth modulation. Thirty scoliotic specimens with curves presenting various degrees of severity were studied using a three-dimensional digitizing protocol developed to create a precise three-dimensional reconstruction of the vertebrae. Every scoliotic specimen was then matched with a normal specimen, and comparisons were made on the vertebral body parameters both for thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Analysis of variance and t test calculations were performed to identify significant differences with P = 0.05. A total of 471 vertebrae from scoliotic spines and 510 vertebrae from normal specimens were measured. Vertebral wedging increased progressively towards the apex of the curve and was maximal at the apex. Vertebral wedging was more prominent in the frontal plane, and there was minimal wedging in the sagittal plane. Vertebral heights were significantly different at T3 and T4 for the upper adjacent curve and at T6-T8 for a typical right thoracic curve, with smaller heights located on the concavity of the curve. No changes were observed on the convexity of the curve. Vertebral wedging is an essential component of the scoliotic deformity. The present study provides critical information for corrective surgery and vertebral osteotomy, as vertebral wedging occurs primarily in the frontal plane. Accurate knowledge of this deformity should also provide new insight into corrective surgical strategies aiming at growth modulation and more

  8. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, RG; Rathleff, M

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient...

  9. Ghrelin receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eKaiya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered three years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  10. Automatic detection of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in routine thoracic and abdominal MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Thomas; Dobritz, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Noel, Peter B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Bauer, Jan S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Klinder, Tobias; Lorenz, Cristian [Philips Research Laboratories, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    To develop a prototype algorithm for automatic spine segmentation in MDCT images and use it to automatically detect osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Cross-sectional routine thoracic and abdominal MDCT images of 71 patients including 8 males and 9 females with 25 osteoporotic vertebral fractures and longitudinal MDCT images of 9 patients with 18 incidental fractures in the follow-up MDCT were retrospectively selected. The spine segmentation algorithm localised and identified the vertebrae T5-L5. Each vertebra was automatically segmented by using corresponding vertebra surface shape models that were adapted to the original images. Anterior, middle, and posterior height of each vertebra was automatically determined; the anterior-posterior ratio (APR) and middle-posterior ratio (MPR) were computed. As the gold standard, radiologists graded vertebral fractures from T5 to L5 according to the Genant classification in consensus. Using ROC analysis to differentiate vertebrae without versus with prevalent fracture, AUC values of 0.84 and 0.83 were obtained for APR and MPR, respectively (p < 0.001). Longitudinal changes in APR and MPR were significantly different between vertebrae without versus with incidental fracture (ΔAPR: -8.5 % ± 8.6 % versus -1.6 % ± 4.2 %, p = 0.002; ΔMPR: -11.4 % ± 7.7 % versus -1.2 % ± 1.6 %, p < 0.001). This prototype algorithm may support radiologists in reporting currently underdiagnosed osteoporotic vertebral fractures so that appropriate therapy can be initiated. circle This spine segmentation algorithm automatically localised, identified, and segmented the vertebrae in MDCT images. (orig.)

  11. The 'Tully monster' is a vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Victoria E; Saupe, Erin E; Lamsdell, James C; Tarhan, Lidya G; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G; Anderson, Ross P; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R; Briggs, Derek E G

    2016-04-28

    Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica', particularly the 'weird wonders' of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.

  12. Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition in Australopithecus afarensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol V.; Nalley, Thierra K.; Spoor, Fred; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, and Homo erectus all had zygapophyseal facets that shift from thoracic-like to lumbar-like at the penultimate rib-bearing level, rather than the ultimate rib-bearing level, as in most humans and extant African apes. What has not been clear is whether Australopithecus had 12 thoracic vertebrae as in most humans, or 13 as in most African apes, and where the position of the thoracolumbar transitional element was. The discovery, preparation, and synchrotron scanning of the Australopithecus afarensis partial skeleton DIK-1-1, from Dikika, Ethiopia, provides the only known complete hominin cervical and thoracic vertebral column before 60,000 years ago. DIK-1-1 is the only known Australopithecus skeleton to preserve all seven cervical vertebrae and provides evidence for 12 thoracic vertebrae with a transition in facet morphology at the 11th thoracic level. The location of this transition, one segment cranial to the ultimate rib-bearing vertebra, also occurs in all other early hominins and is higher than in most humans or extant apes. At 3.3 million years ago, the DIK-1-1 skeleton is the earliest example of this distinctive and unusual pattern of axial segmentation. PMID:28533391

  13. Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition inAustralopithecus afarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol V; Nalley, Thierra K; Spoor, Fred; Tafforeau, Paul; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2017-06-06

    The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba , and Homo erectus all had zygapophyseal facets that shift from thoracic-like to lumbar-like at the penultimate rib-bearing level, rather than the ultimate rib-bearing level, as in most humans and extant African apes. What has not been clear is whether Australopithecus had 12 thoracic vertebrae as in most humans, or 13 as in most African apes, and where the position of the thoracolumbar transitional element was. The discovery, preparation, and synchrotron scanning of the Australopithecus afarensis partial skeleton DIK-1-1, from Dikika, Ethiopia, provides the only known complete hominin cervical and thoracic vertebral column before 60,000 years ago. DIK-1-1 is the only known Australopithecus skeleton to preserve all seven cervical vertebrae and provides evidence for 12 thoracic vertebrae with a transition in facet morphology at the 11th thoracic level. The location of this transition, one segment cranial to the ultimate rib-bearing vertebra, also occurs in all other early hominins and is higher than in most humans or extant apes. At 3.3 million years ago, the DIK-1-1 skeleton is the earliest example of this distinctive and unusual pattern of axial segmentation.

  14. Synchrony Dynamics During Initiation, Failure, and Rescue of the Segmentation Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.; Müller, Claudia; Andrew C. Oates

    2007-01-01

    The “segmentation clock” is thought to coordinate sequential segmentation of the body axis in vertebrate embryos. This clock comprises a multicellular genetic network of synchronized oscillators, coupled by intercellular Delta-Notch signaling. How this synchrony is established and how its loss determines the position of segmentation defects in Delta and Notch mutants are unknown. We analyzed the clock's synchrony dynamics by varying strength and timing of Notch coupling in zebra-fish embryos ...

  15. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...... pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient is in pain but wanted to investigate if it was possible to measure a change in foot posture after af given treatment....

  16. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 +- 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 +- 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 +- 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 +- 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 +- 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  17. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting(®) (VBS), OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®). VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®) are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix(®) has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting(®) and Spine Jack(®), the OsseoFix(®) has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack(®) is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors.

  18. Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Willoughby

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are specialized light sensing neurons. The photoreceptor outer segment is a highly modified cilium where photons of light are transduced into a chemical and electrical signal. The outer segment has the typical cilary axoneme but, in addition, it has a large number of densely packed, stacked, intramembranous discs. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to vertebrate photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed throughout the life of the animal through the combined process of distal outer segment shedding and proximal outer segment growth. The process of outer segment renewal was discovered over forty years ago, but we still lack an understanding of how photoreceptors renew their outer segments and few, if any, molecular mechanisms that regulate outer segment growth or shedding have been described. Our lack of progress in understanding how photoreceptors renew their outer segments has been hampered by the difficulty in measuring rates of renewal. We have created a new method that uses heat-shock induction of a fluorescent protein that can be used to rapidly measure outer segment growth rates. We describe this method, the stable transgenic line we created, and the growth rates observed in larval and adult rod photoreceptors using this new method. This new method will allow us to begin to define the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate rod outer segment renewal, a crucial aspect of photoreceptor function and, possibly, viability.

  19. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Sofia N. Chatziioannou; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned ca...

  20. Molecular basis for photoreceptor outer segment architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Andrew F X; Moritz, Orson L; Williams, David S

    2016-11-01

    To serve vision, vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors must detect photons, convert the light stimuli into cellular signals, and then convey the encoded information to downstream neurons. Rods and cones are sensory neurons that each rely on specialized ciliary organelles to detect light. These organelles, called outer segments, possess elaborate architectures that include many hundreds of light-sensitive membranous disks arrayed one atop another in precise register. These stacked disks capture light and initiate the chain of molecular and cellular events that underlie normal vision. Outer segment organization is challenged by an inherently dynamic nature; these organelles are subject to a renewal process that replaces a significant fraction of their disks (up to ∼10%) on a daily basis. In addition, a broad range of environmental and genetic insults can disrupt outer segment morphology to impair photoreceptor function and viability. In this chapter, we survey the major progress that has been made for understanding the molecular basis of outer segment architecture. We also discuss key aspects of organelle lipid and protein composition, and highlight distributions, interactions, and potential structural functions of key OS-resident molecules, including: kinesin-2, actin, RP1, prominin-1, protocadherin 21, peripherin-2/rds, rom-1, glutamic acid-rich proteins, and rhodopsin. Finally, we identify key knowledge gaps and challenges that remain for understanding how normal outer segment architecture is established and maintained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  2. The MHC molecules of nonmammalian vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Skjoedt, K; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    to develop. There is no molecular evidence yet to decide whether vertebrate immune systems (and particularly the MHC molecules) are evolutionarily related to invertebrate allorecognition systems, and the functional evidence can be interpreted either way. Even among the vertebrates, there is great...

  3. [Spondylosis: diseases of the vertebral column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Amador Schüller

    2008-01-01

    Frequent and transcendent diseases for the difficulties of his diagnosis and treatment. The components of the vertebral column, vertebral bodies, discs and unvertebral joints, spondylosis ligaments must be considered to be a functional Unit. The Patology of each one of their parts concerns or reverberates in others.

  4. BK Channels in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyott, S. J.; Duncan, R. K.; Contet, C

    2016-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic stimuli begins with the deconstruction of sound into its frequency components. This spectral processing occurs first and foremost in the inner ear. In vertebrates, two very different strategies of frequency analysis have evolved. In nonmammalian vertebrates, the

  5. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods.

  6. Multiple vertebral fluid-fluid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, O.; Demaerel, P.; Catry, F.; Breuseghem, I. Van [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ballaux, F. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Samson, I. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    We present a case of multiple vertebral metastases, with multiple fluid-fluid levels, from a moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin. We suggest that fluid-fluid levels in multiple vertebral lesions are highly suggestive of bone metastases. (orig.)

  7. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Yang; ZHU, Si-Wei; LI, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  8. Neurorehabilitation in stroke produced by vertebral artery dissection: case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanescu Ioana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arterial dissections are a common cause of stroke in the young (mean age 44 to 46 years. Primary lesion is a tear of the arterial intima, which promotes platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, which further produced vessel stenosis / occlusion, distal embolism or vessel wall rupture. Vertebral artery (VA dissection appear most commonly in extracranial segments V2 and V3, and could be spontaneous (with underlying predispositions or triggered by various traumatisms. Clinicaly, VA dissection produces an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack , preceded by local symptoms such as neck pain or headache. The diagnosis is confirmed by neurovascular imaging. Treatment of symptomatic VA dissections respect indications of treatment in ischemic strokes. Prognosis is mostly favorable in extracranial dissections. We present the case of a left VA dissection in V2 segment, produced by physical effort (swimming, which causes 2 ischemic lesions, one in the territory of the left posterior cerebral artery and the other in the territory of the left posterolateral chorroidal artery. Patient’s treatment included antiplatelet agents, statines, and an adapted physical rehabilitation program. At three months he showed significant clinical improvement with regain of autonomy and partial recanalisation at angio-MRI of the V2 segment of the dissected artery.

  9. A single Posterior Approach for Vertebral Column Resection in Adults with Severe Rigid Kyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Ahmadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of severe kyphosis is a challenging operation in spinal surgery. A two stage operation has been commonly used: anterior release and decompression followed by posterior correction and fusion. We describe the posterior vertebral osteotomy technique for correction of severe and rigid kyphosis through posterior-only approach. Methods: Twelve patients (six male and six female with severe and rigid kyphotic deformity of the thoracic spine were treated by posterior vertebral column resection using a single posterior approach. The apex level of kyphosis was at the upper thoracic in five patients, the lower thoracic in four patients and mid thoracic in three patients. There was old fracture in one patient, congenital deformity in six, tumor in three and neurofibromatosis in two patients. After posterior vertebral column resection, segmental posterior instrumentation was used for  correction of the kyphotic deformity. Complications and radiographic findings were analyzed to evaluate clinical outcomes and radiologic changes of posterior vertebral column resection in patients with angulated kyphotic deformity. Results: The major curve correction was averaged 31.66 ° (SD=15.69 (45%. The resection was performed at the involve level in every patient. Posterior segmental fusion was achieved in average 8.9 (SD=1.7 segments. Anterior reconstruction was with titanium mesh cage in two and with cancellous chip packing in other patients. There were no neurologic complications after six month. Bony fusion achieved in all patients, and there was no correction loss. Conclusion: Satisfactory correction is safely performed by posterior vertebral column resection with a direct visualization of the circumferentially decompressed spinal cord. Although the performance is technically laborious, it offers good correction without jeopardizing the integrity of the spinal cord.

  10. An Unusual Case of a Large Hematorrachis Associated with Multi-Level Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Ravi Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural haemorrhage may present as back pain associated with radicular symptoms and can be a catastrophic clinical scenario with progression to paraplegia or even sudden death. Being a rare entity, it needs a high index ofclinical suspicion to diagnose it. Fractures have been documented as a cause of hematorrachis but such hematomas only extend to one or two vertebral segments. Large epidural hematomas are usually associated with conditions like bleeding diathesis, arterio-venous malformations, plasma cell myeloma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Surgical management with immediate evacuation of the hematoma is the usual line of management in patients with neurological deficits. Though rare, monitored and careful conservative management can lead to recovery of neurological symptoms and resolution of the hematoma. We report a case of a very large post traumatic epidural hematorrchis extending to 11 vertebral segments from D3 to L1 vertebral bodies, who had a gradual spontaneous recovery.

  11. Two-year results of vertebral body stenting for the treatment of traumatic incomplete burst fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Frank; Griese, Marleen; Dietz, Sven-Oliver; Kuhn, Sebastian; Rommens, Pol Maria; Gercek, Erol

    2015-06-01

    Vertebral body stenting (VBS) was developed to prevent loss of reduction after balloon deflation during kyphoplasty. The aim of this study is the radiological and clinical mid-term evaluation of traumatic incomplete burst fractures treated by vertebral body stenting. This retrospective study included patients with traumatic thoracolumbar incomplete burst fractures treated with VBS between 2009 and 2010. The outcome was evaluated with the visual analogue pain scale (VAS), the Oswestry Disability Score (ODI), the SF-36 Health Survey and radiologically assessed. Eighteen patients with an average age of 74.8 years were treated with VBS. Twelve were female and six were male. Two years after the operation the ODI and SF-36 showed a moderate limitation of daily activities and quality of life without neurological deficits. VBS restored the vertebral kyphosis by 3.2° and segmental kyphosis by 5°. A minor sintering was observed at follow-up losing 0.8° vertebral kyphosis and 2.1° segmental kyphosis correction. Two asymptomatic cement leakages were detected. VBS provides clinical outcomes comparable with BKP. The stent allows a reconstruction of the anterior column with reduced subsequent loss of correction.

  12. Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

  13. Extracranial vertebral artery rupture likely secondary to "cupping therapy" superimposed on spontaneous dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Huh, Chae Wook; Choi, Chang Hwa; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-12-01

    The extracranial vertebral artery (VA) is vulnerable to dissection and the V3 segment is the most common location for dissection. Dissection accounts for about 2% of all ischemic strokes and can occur after trauma or chiropractic neck maneuvers. We report an extremely rare case of spontaneous extracranial VA dissection presenting with posterior neck hematoma aggravated after cupping therapy, a treatment in traditional Oriental medicine. We treated the patient successfully by endovascular treatment without any complication. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  15. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  16. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Sudhir; Kumar Ravi

    2004-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF), one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for l...

  17. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  18. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  19. Molecular Synapomorphies Resolve Evolutionary Relationships of Extant Jawed Vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrappa Venkatesh; Mark V. Erdmann; Sydney Brenner

    2001-01-01

    .... We identified 13 derived shared molecular markers (synapomorphies) that define clades in the vertebrate lineage and used them to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of extant jawed vertebrates...

  20. Core Needle Percutaneous Transpedicular Vertebral Body Biopsy: A Study of 128 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Yoichi; Nishida, Jun; Mimata, Yoshikuni; Shiraishi, Hideo; Ehara, Shigeru; Satoh, Takashi; Shimamura, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    We report an accurate technique for percutaneous transpedicular core needle biopsy of vertebral body lesions, and evaluate its effectiveness for histologic diagnosis retrospectively. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of this method retrospectively. Better knowledge of vertebral pedicle morphometry has led to the development of transpedicular fixation techniques in spinal surgery. After experience with these techniques, we have been performing percutaneous transpedicular vertebral body core needle biopsies (transpedicular biopsy) for histologic diagnosis since 1993. A total of 128 patients who had undergone transpedicular biopsy for T1-L5 vertebral body lesions were evaluated. The biopsies were carried out under local anesthesia, except in children, for whom general anesthesia was used. Biopsy specimens were obtained by passing 8 or 11 G needle biopsy instruments percutaneously through the pedicle into the site of the lesion under C-arm fluoroscopy guidance. Histologic analyses were performed, and the accuracy and effectiveness of this technique were evaluated. The pathologic evaluations were definitive in 120 patients (93.8%) and not diagnostic in 8. The accuracy of the results differed among the diagnostic categories. Diagnostic accuracy was 78.6% for primary neoplasms and 97.0% for metastatic neoplasms. There was a significant difference in the diagnostic criteria and spinal segment. True positive rate was higher in the thoracic spine (92.2%) than that of lumbar spine (76.6%). Transpedicular biopsy is a useful procedure for evaluation of thoracic and lumbar vertebral body lesions.

  1. Computer aided vertebral visualization and analysis: a methodology using the sand rat, a small animal model of disc degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Edward N

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to present an automated system that analyzes digitized x-ray images of small animal spines identifying the effects of disc degeneration. The age-related disc and spine degeneration that occurs in the sand rat (Psammomys obesus has previously been documented radiologically; selected representative radiographs with age-related changes were used here to develop computer-assisted vertebral visualization/analysis techniques. Techniques presented here have the potential to produce quantitative algorithms that create more accurate and informative measurements in a time efficient manner. Methods Signal and image processing techniques were applied to digitized spine x-ray images the spine was segmented, and orientation and curvature determined. The image was segmented based on orientation changes of the spine; edge detection was performed to define vertebral boundaries. Once vertebrae were identified, a number of measures were introduced and calculated to retrieve information on the vertebral separation/orientation and sclerosis. Results A method is described which produces computer-generated quantitative measurements of vertebrae and disc spaces. Six sand rat spine radiographs illustrate applications of this technique. Results showed that this method can successfully automate calculation and analysis of vertebral length, vertebral spacing, vertebral angle, and can score sclerosis. Techniques also provide quantitative means to explore the relation between age and vertebral shape. Conclusions This method provides a computationally efficient system to analyze spinal changes during aging. Techniques can be used to automate the quantitative processing of vertebral radiographic images and may be applicable to human and other animal radiologic models of the aging/degenerating spine.

  2. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  3. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  4. Epidemiology of acute vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, M R; Wagn, P; Bengtsson, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of acute, non-tuberculous, hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark during 1978-1982. 137 patients fulfilled the criteria for acute vertebral osteomyelitis. The incidence was 5/mill/year. There were no cases in the age group 20-29 years. The highest incidence......-1993, the relative number of reported patients with vertebral osteomyelitis had increased in the age group 20-49 years, compared to 1978-1982, but the incidence was highest in the group aged 60-79 years....

  5. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  6. [A telescopic vertebral endoprosthesis for subaxial cervical fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhlopochin, A S; Shvets, A I; Nekhlopochin, S N

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to develop an anterior subaxial cervical fusion technique using a new telescopic vertebral graft (VG) construction and to introduce the technique into clinical practice. We analyzed existing VG constructions used in anterior interbody fusion at the cervical spine level and developed our own variant of a vertical, cylindrical, telescopic, mesh, vertebral endoprosthesis as well as a technique of its placement to replace bodies of the cervical vertebrae. The technique was used in 11 patients with spinal trauma. The orthopedic and neurological status and outcomes of surgical treatment were assessed using ASIA/IMSOP, Odom, and VAS scales. The first cases of replacement of a resected vertebra by the proposed construction indicate the advisability of using this VG to restore the sagittal profile, stabilize the operated spinal motion segment, and create conditions for the formation of an adequate supporting bone block. The graft construction can be filled with a significant amount of a filler and makes it possible to add and tighten the filler after placing the graft into the operating position. The study demonstrated the construct efficacy. No postoperative complications associated with the use and placement of the telescopic constructions was observed.

  7. Vertebrate sex-determining genes play musical chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiaowei; Anderson, Jennifer; Bertho, Sylvain; Herpin, Amaury; Wilson, Catherine; Postlethwait, John H; Schartl, Manfred; Guiguen, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is one of the most highly conserved processes in evolution. However, the genetic and cellular mechanisms making the decision of whether the undifferentiated gonad of animal embryos develops either towards male or female are manifold and quite diverse. In vertebrates, sex-determining mechanisms range from environmental to simple or complex genetic mechanisms and different mechanisms have evolved repeatedly and independently. In species with simple genetic sex-determination, master sex-determining genes lying on sex chromosomes drive the gonadal differentiation process by switching on a developmental program, which ultimately leads to testicular or ovarian differentiation. So far, very few sex-determining genes have been identified in vertebrates and apart from mammals and birds, these genes are apparently not conserved over a larger number of related orders, families, genera, or even species. To fill this knowledge gap and to better explore genetic sex-determination, we propose a strategy (RAD-Sex) that makes use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify genetic markers that define sex-specific segments of the male or female genome. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. All rights reserved.

  8. Cervical vertebral strain measurements under axial and eccentric loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, F A; Yoganandan, N; Pesigan, M; Reinartz, J; Sances, A; Cusick, J F

    1995-11-01

    The mid to lower cervical spine is a common site for compression related injury. In the present study, we determined the patterns of localized strain distribution in the anterior aspect of the vertebral body and in the lateral masses of lower cervical three-segment units. Miniature strain gages were mounted to human cadaveric vertebrae. Each preparation was line-loaded using a knife-edge oriented in the coronal plane that was moved incrementally from anterior to posterior to induce compression-flexion or compression-extension loading. Uniform compressive loading and failure runs were also conducted. Failure tests indicated strain shifting to "restabilize" the preparation after failure of a component. Under these various compressive loading vectors, the location which resulted in the least amount of deformation for a given force application (i.e., stiffest axis) was quantified to be in the region between 0.5- 1.0 cm anterior to the posterior longitudinal ligament. The location in which line-loading produced no rotation (i.e., balance point) was in this region; it was also close to where the vertebral body strains change from compressive to tensile. Strain values from line loading in this region produced similar strains as recorded under uniform compressive loading, and this was also the region of minimum strain. The region of minimum strain was also more pronounced under higher magnitudes of loading, suggesting that as the maximum load carrying capacity is reached the stiffest axis becomes more well defined.

  9. Symposium on the evolution and development of the vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, Michael J; Olsson, Lennart

    2008-06-15

    Among the symposia held at the seminal meeting of the European Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology was one centered on the development and evolution of the vertebrate head, an exquisitely complex anatomical system. The articles presented at this meeting have been gathered in a special issue of the Journal of Experimental Zoology, and are here reviewed by the organizers of the symposia. These articles cover a breadth of subjects, including interactions between cells derived from the different germ layers, such as those underlying neural crest cell migration and fate and cranial muscle specification, as well as placode development and the origin, development, and evolution of important evolutionary innovations such as jaws and the trabecula cranii. In this introduction, we provide a short historical overview of themes of research into the fundamental organization, structure, and development of the vertebrate head, including the search for head segmentation and the relevance of the New Head Hypothesis, and subsequently present the topics discussed in each of the articles. This overview of the past and the present of head evo-devo is then followed by a glimpse at its possible future and a brief examination of the utility of the notions of heterochrony, heterotopy, and heterofacience in describing evolutionarily important changes in developmental events. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Vertebral Compression Fracture in a Patient with Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in men is an important public health problem, and its prevalence is increasing as the population ages. Although it is traditionally considered as a women’s health issue, osteoporosis-related mortality and morbidity rates are higher in men. Although the lifetime risk of the hip fracture is lower in men than women, men are twice as likely to die after a hip fracture. All men diagnosed with osteoporosis should be evaluated for secondary causes of bone loss, such as hypogonadism, the use of corticosteroid, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, low calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency and hypothyroidism. Here, we aimed to present a male patient in whom osteoporotic a vertebral fracture was detected and who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism.

  11. The cat vertebral column: stance configuration and range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Ye, Y.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions. The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its range in dorsiflexion and the lower thoracic and lumbar in ventroflexion. Lateral flexion is limited to less than 5 degrees at all segments. The range in torsion is almost 180 degrees and occurs primarily in the midthoracic region, T4-T11. Contrary to the depiction in most atlases, the standing cat exhibits several curvatures, including a mild dorsiflexion in the lower lumbar segments, a marked ventroflexion in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar segments, and a profound dorsiflexion in the upper thoracic (above T9) and cervical segments. The curvatures are not significantly changed by altering stance distance but are affected by head posture. During stance, the top of the scapula lies well above the spines of the thoracic vertebrae, and the glenohumeral joint is just below the bodies of vertebrae T3-T5. Using a simple static model of the vertebral column in the sagittal plane, it was estimated that the bending moment due to gravity is bimodal with a dorsiflexion moment in the lower thoracic and lumbar region and a ventroflexion moment in the upper thoracic and cervical region. Given the bending moments and the position of the scapula during stance, it is proposed that two groups of scapular muscles provide the major antigravity support for the head and anterior trunk. Levator scapulae and serratus ventralis form the lateral group, inserting on the lateral processes of cervical vertebrae and on the ribs. The major and minor rhomboids form the medial group, inserting on the spinous tips of vertebrae from C4 to T4. It is also proposed that the hypaxial muscles, psoas major, minor, and quadratus

  12. Crying - excessive (0-6 months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider will check the infant's growth and development. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the baby has a bacterial infection. Alternative Names Infants - excessive crying; Well child - excessive crying ...

  13. A pictorial classification atlas of cement extravasation with vertebral augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lador, Ran; Dreiangel, Niv; Ben-Galim, Peleg J; Hipp, John A

    2010-12-01

    Minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) have been in use since the mid-1980s. A mixture of liquid monomer and powder is introduced through a needle into one or both pedicles, and it polymerizes within the vertebral body in an exothermic chemical reaction. The interaction between cement and the fractured vertebral body determines whether and how the cement stabilizes the fragments, alters morphology, and extravasates. The cement is intended to remain within the vertebral body. However, some studies have reported cement leakage in more than 80% of the procedures. Although cement leakage can have no or minimal clinical consequences, adverse events, such as paraplegia, spinal cord and nerve root compression, cement pulmonary embolisms, or death, can occur. The details of how the cement infiltrates a vertebral body or extravasates out of the body are poorly understood and may help to identify strategies to reduce complications and improve clinical efficacy. Apply novel techniques to demonstrate the cement spread inside vertebrae as well as the points and pattern of cement extravastation. Ex vivo assessment of vertebral augmentation procedures. Vertebrae from six fresh whole human cadaver spines were used to create 24 specimens of three vertebrae each. The specimens were placed in a pneumatic testing system, designed to create controlled anterior wedge compression fractures. Unipedicular augmentation was performed on the central vertebra of 24 specimens using polymethylmethacrylate/barium sulfate Vertebroplastic cements (DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA). The volume of cement injected into each vertebra was recorded. Fine-cut computed tomography (CT) scans of all segments were obtained (Brilliance 64; Philips Medical Imaging, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Using multiplanar reconstructions and volume compositing three-dimensional imaging (Osirix, www.osirix-viewer.com), each specimen was carefully assessed for cement

  14. Three-dimensional vertebral wedging in mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie-Anne Scherrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vertebral wedging is associated with spinal deformity progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Reporting frontal and sagittal wedging separately could be misleading since these are projected values of a single three-dimensional deformation of the vertebral body. The objectives of this study were to determine if three-dimensional vertebral body wedging is present in mild scoliosis and if there are a preferential vertebral level, position and plane of deformation with increasing scoliotic severity. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-seven adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls with mild to moderate Cobb angles (10° to 50° participated in this study. All subjects had at least one set of bi-planar radiographs taken with the EOS® X-ray imaging system prior to any treatment. Subjects were divided into two groups, separating the mild (under 20° from the moderate (20° and over spinal scoliotic deformities. Wedging was calculated in three different geometric planes with respect to the smallest edge of the vertebral body. RESULTS: Factorial analyses of variance revealed a main effect for the scoliosis severity but no main effect of vertebral Levels (apex and each of the three vertebrae above and below it (F = 1.78, p = 0.101. Main effects of vertebral Positions (apex and above or below it (F = 4.20, p = 0.015 and wedging Planes (F = 34.36, p<0.001 were also noted. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated a greater wedging in the inferior group of vertebrae (3.6° than the superior group (2.9°, p = 0.019 and a significantly greater wedging (p≤0.03 along the sagittal plane (4.3°. CONCLUSIONS: Vertebral wedging was present in mild scoliosis and increased as the scoliosis progressed. The greater wedging of the inferior group of vertebrae could be important in estimating the most distal vertebral segment to be restrained by bracing or to be fused in surgery. Largest vertebral body wedging values obtained in the sagittal plane support

  15. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  16. Vertebral Fractures After Discontinuation of Denosumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, Steven R; Ferrari, Serge; Eastell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Denosumab reduces bone resorption and vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. Denosumab discontinuation increases bone turnover markers 3 months after a scheduled dose is omitted, reaching above-baseline levels by 6 months, and decreases bone mineral density (BMD) to baseline levels by 12 months....... We analyzed the risk of new or worsening vertebral fractures, especially multiple vertebral fractures, in participants who discontinued denosumab during the FREEDOM study or its Extension. Participants received ≥2 doses of denosumab or placebo Q6M, discontinued treatment, and stayed in the study ≥7...... months after the last dose. Of 1001 participants who discontinued denosumab during FREEDOM or Extension, the vertebral fracture rate increased from 1.2 per 100 participant-years during the on-treatment period to 7.1, similar to participants who received and then discontinued placebo (n = 470; 8.5 per 100...

  17. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  18. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Recombination drives vertebrate genome contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process.

  20. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  1. The protocadherin PAPC establishes segmental boundaries during somitogenesis in xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Jen, W C; De Robertis, E M; Kintner, C

    2000-07-13

    One prominent example of segmentation in vertebrate embryos is the subdivision of the paraxial mesoderm into repeating, metameric structures called somites. During this process, cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) are first patterned into segments leading secondarily to differences required for somite morphogenesis such as the formation of segmental boundaries. Recent studies have shown that a segmental pattern is generated in the PSM of Xenopus embryos by genes encoding a Mesp-like bHLH protein called Thylacine 1 and components of the Notch signaling pathway. These genes establish a repeating pattern of gene expression that subdivides cells in the PSM into anterior and posterior half segments, but how this pattern of gene expression leads to segmental boundaries is unknown. Recently, a member of the protocadherin family of cell adhesion molecules, called PAPC, has been shown to be expressed in the PSM of Xenopus embryos in a half segment pattern, suggesting that it could play a role in restricting cell mixing at the anterior segmental boundary. Here, we examine the expression and function of PAPC during segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm in Xenopus embryos. We show that Thylacine 1 and the Notch pathway establish segment identity one segment prior to the segmental expression of PAPC. Altering segmental identity in embryos by perturbing the activity of Thylacine 1 and the Notch pathway, or by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, leads to the predicted changes in the segmental expression of PAPC. By disrupting PAPC function in embryos using a putative dominant-negative or an activated form of PAPC, we show that segmental PAPC activity is required for proper somite formation as well as for maintaining segmental gene expression within the PSM. Segmental expression of PAPC is established in the PSM as a downstream consequence of segmental patterning by Thylacine 1 and the Notch pathway. We propose that PAPC is part of the mechanism that

  2. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and other... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by the...

  4. Quantitative, 3D Visualization of the Initiation and Progression of Vertebral Fractures Under Compression and Anterior Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Timothy M; Hussein, Amira I; Curtiss, Cameron; Fein, Paul M; Camp, Anderson; De Barros, Lidia; Morgan, Elise F

    2016-04-01

    The biomechanical mechanisms leading to vertebral fractures are not well understood. Clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that the vertebral endplate plays a key role in failure of the vertebra as a whole, but how this role differs for different types of vertebral loading is not known. Mechanical testing of human thoracic spine segments, in conjunction with time-lapsed micro-computed tomography, enabled quantitative assessment of deformations occurring throughout the entire vertebral body under axial compression combined with anterior flexion ("combined loading") and under axial compression only ("compression loading"). The resulting deformation maps indicated that endplate deflection was a principal feature of vertebral failure for both loading modes. Specifically, the onset of endplate deflection was temporally coincident with a pronounced drop in the vertebra's ability to support loads. The location of endplate deflection, and also vertebral strength, were associated with the porosity of the endplate and the microstructure of the underlying trabecular bone. However, the location of endplate deflection and the involvement of the cortex differed between the two types of loading. Under the combined loading, deflection initiated, and remained the largest, at the anterior central endplate or the anterior ring apophysis, depending in part on health of the adjacent intervertebral disc. This deflection was accompanied by outward bulging of the anterior cortex. In contrast, the location of endplate deflection was more varied in compression loading. For both loading types, the earliest progression to a mild fracture according to a quantitative morphometric criterion occurred only after much of the failure process had occurred. The outcomes of this work indicate that for two physiological loading modes, the vertebral endplate and underlying trabecular bone are critically involved in vertebral fracture. These outcomes provide a strong biomechanical rationale for

  5. In quest of Great Lakes ice age vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holman, J. Alan

    2001-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Pleistocene in the Great Lakes Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Where to Find Vertebrate Fossils...

  6. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

  7. Study of the influence of degenerative intervertebral disc changes on the deformation behavior of the cervical spine segment in flexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakova, Tatyana V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes the model of the cervical spine segment (C3-C4) and the calculation results of the deformation behavior of the segment under degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc. The segment model was built based on the experimental literature data taking into account the presence of the cortical and cancellous bone tissue of vertebral bodies. The calculation results show that degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc cause the immobility of the C3 vertebra at flexion.

  8. 1980 Volvo award in biomechanics. Measurement of the distribution of axial stress on the end-plate of the vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, M; Brinckmann, P

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of axial stress on the end-plate of the vertebral body has been measured by the aid of miniature piezoelectric pressure transducers in specimens of motion segments of the human vertebral column. The results indicate that the stress distribution depends essentially on the state of degeneration of the intervertebral disc and on the relative position of the adjacent end-plates. Furthermore lumbar and thoracic motion segments show a different behaviour. The measured results relate to the problem of the stress dependent deformation of the growing vertebra, the codfish shape of the osteoporotic vertebra and to the mechanism of degeneration of the intervertebral disc.

  9. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  10. A Perspective On Segment Reporting Choices And Segment Reconciliations

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Hollie; Shaokun£¨Carol) Yu

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, segment reporting gained third place in SEC comment letters. This article reviews the history of segment reporting including segment reporting choices and segment reconciliations, the current concerns as the level of detail in segment disclosures varies widely across organizations, the value relevance of segment reconciliations and its market consequences, and the importance of segment reporting to management. The following are highlights of the manuscript: The third-most-common area...

  11. Diphoton excess through dark mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Yi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Lefebvre, Michel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Pospelov, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Zhong, Yi-Ming [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Preliminary ATLAS and CMS results from the first 13 TeV LHC run have encountered an intriguing excess of events in the diphoton channel around the invariant mass of 750 GeV. We investigate a possibility that the current excess is due to a heavy resonance decaying to light metastable states, which in turn give displaced decays to very highly collimated e{sup +}e{sup −} pairs. Such decays may pass the photon selection criteria, and successfully mimic the diphoton events, especially at low counts. We investigate two classes of such models, characterized by the following underlying production and decay chains: gg→S→A{sup ′}A{sup ′}→(e{sup +}e{sup −})(e{sup +}e{sup −}) and qq̄→Z{sup ′}→sa→(e{sup +}e{sup −})(e{sup +}e{sup −}), where at the first step a heavy scalar, S, or vector, Z{sup ′}, resonances are produced that decay to light metastable vectors, A{sup ′}, or (pseudo-)scalars, s and a. Setting the parameters of the models to explain the existing excess, and taking the ATLAS detector geometry into account, we marginalize over the properties of heavy resonances in order to derive the expected lifetimes and couplings of metastable light resonances. We observe that in the case of A{sup ′}, the suggested range of masses and mixing angles ϵ is within reach of several new-generation intensity frontier experiments.

  12. Potential underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Birkan İlhan, Fatih Tufan, Gülistan Bahat, Mehmet Akif KaranDivision of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read with great interest the article by Liang et al “Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study”.1\tIn their study, the authors investigated the factors possibly associated with new vertebral compression fractures in patients who previously had vertebral augmentation procedures. They reported that osteoporosis (OP was not observed as a risk factor for repeat vertebral augmentation. Among multiple chronic diseases, hypertension (HT was reported as one factor associated with new vertebral fractures. Among the medications used to treat or prevent OP, they reported calcium/vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and calcitonin were associated with not having repeat vertebral augmentation. However, steroids, paracetamol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with having repeat vertebral augmentation. We would like to comment on their article.View original paper by Kurimato and colleagues.

  13. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  14. Ancient Pbx-Hox signatures define hundreds of vertebrate developmental enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Hugo J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene regulation through cis-regulatory elements plays a crucial role in development and disease. A major aim of the post-genomic era is to be able to read the function of cis-regulatory elements through scrutiny of their DNA sequence. Whilst comparative genomics approaches have identified thousands of putative regulatory elements, our knowledge of their mechanism of action is poor and very little progress has been made in systematically de-coding them. Results Here, we identify ancient functional signatures within vertebrate conserved non-coding elements (CNEs through a combination of phylogenetic footprinting and functional assay, using genomic sequence from the sea lamprey as a reference. We uncover a striking enrichment within vertebrate CNEs for conserved binding-site motifs of the Pbx-Hox hetero-dimer. We further show that these predict reporter gene expression in a segment specific manner in the hindbrain and pharyngeal arches during zebrafish development. Conclusions These findings evoke an evolutionary scenario in which many CNEs evolved early in the vertebrate lineage to co-ordinate Hox-dependent gene-regulatory interactions that pattern the vertebrate head. In a broader context, our evolutionary analyses reveal that CNEs are composed of tightly linked transcription-factor binding-sites (TFBSs, which can be systematically identified through phylogenetic footprinting approaches. By placing a large number of ancient vertebrate CNEs into a developmental context, our findings promise to have a significant impact on efforts toward de-coding gene-regulatory elements that underlie vertebrate development, and will facilitate building general models of regulatory element evolution.

  15. Surgical procedure and initial radiographic results of a new augmentation technique for vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Martin; Lechner, Ricarda; Nogler, Michael; Gstöttner, Michaela; Bach, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Recently, a new minimally invasive technique called 'vertebral body stenting' (VBS) was introduced for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The technique was developed to prevent the loss of reduction after deflation of the balloon and to reduce the complication rate associated with cement leakage. The amount of kyphosis correction, improvement of vertebral body height and quantitative cement leakage rate by applying CT-based quantitative volumetry after VBS were measured in 27 patients (55 vertebra) and compared with a control group (29 patients, 61 vertebrae), which was treated with conventional vertebroplasty. After VBS, a significant improvement was seen in vertebral height, compared to conventional vertebroplasty. The mean improvement in segmental kyphosis and vertebral kyphosis were 5.8° (p VBS group, the mean injected volume of cement per vertebral body was 7.33 cm(3) (3.34-10.19 cm(3)). The average amount of cement outside the vertebrae was 0.28 cm(3) (0.01-1.64 cm(3)), which was 1.36% of the applied total cement volume. In the vertebroplasty group, the applied mean volume of the cement per level was 2.7 cm(3) (1-5.8 cm(3)) and the average amount of cement outside the vertebrae was 0.15 cm(3) (0.01-1.8 cm(3)), which was 11.5% (0.2-60%) of the applied total volume of cement. The frequency of cement leakage after VBS was 25.5% compared to 42.1% in the vertebroplasty group. VBS led to a significant decrease in the leakage rate compared with conventional vertebroplasty.

  16. Prevalence of vertebral fractures by semiautomated morphometry in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montala, Nuria; Juanola, Xavier; Collantes, Eduardo; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Gonzalez, Carlos; Gratacos, Jordi; Zarco, Pedro; Fernandez Sueiro, Jose Luis; Mulero, Juan; Torre-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Batlle, Enrique; Carmona, Loreto

    2011-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and characterized by ossification of the spinal disc, joints, and ligaments leading to progressive ankylosis. Vertebral osteoporosis is a recognized feature of AS. Studies have confirmed a moderate to high prevalence of vertebral fractures with extremely varying ranges in patients with AS. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of vertebral fractures in a representative Spanish population of patients with AS using a validated semiquantitative method, MorphoXpress(®). Patients were randomly selected from the 10 initial participating centers of the Spanish National Registry of Spondyloarthropathies (REGISPONSER) by consecutive sampling. All patients fulfilled the New York modified criteria for AS and had a baseline thoracolumbar radiograph. A prevalent vertebral fracture was defined according to the Genant classification criteria. The estimated prevalence of vertebral fractures was 32.4% (95% CI 25.5%-39.3%). The majority of fractures were localized in the thoracic segment (n = 100; 82.%) and were mild (n = 79; 64.8%). In logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio per year 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p < 0.001), disease duration (OR per year 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, p = 0.011), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index score (OR per score 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p = 0.015), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiographic Index-TS (OR per score 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.39, p < 0.001), and wall-occiput distance (OR per cm 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.23, p < 0.001) were all associated with prevalent fracture. Semiquantitative methods are needed to improve the diagnosis of vertebral fractures in AS in order to start early treatment and to avoid complications arising from osteoporosis.

  17. Angioplasty and stenting of symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: to treat or not to treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhutik, V; Lago, A; Tembl, J I; Aparici, F; Vazquez, V; Mainar, E

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive indications for treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenosis remain unavailable. Even less is known about endovascular treatment of asymptomatic cases. We treated symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral ostium stenosis with angioplasty and stenting and investigated the long term outcome. Consecutive patients with two different indications were included. Group 1 (G1) had symptomatic >50% stenosis. Group 2 (G2) had asymptomatic >50% stenosis and severe lesions of anterior circulation and were expected to benefit from additional cerebral blood supply. Twenty nine vertebral origin stenoses in 28 patients (75% men, mean age 64 +/- 9 years) were treated. There were 16 G1 and 13 G2 cases. Technical success rate was 100%. Immediate neurological complications rate was 3.4% (one G1 patient with vertebral TIA due to release of emboli). Two further strokes were seen during follow up (32 +/- 24 months): vertebrobasilar stroke in a G2 patient with permeable stent in V1 segment, new ipsilateral V3 occlusion and high-risk cardioembolic source, and carotid stroke in a G1 patient who had had ipsilateral carotid stenting. There were no deaths of any cause. Asymptomatic restenosis was observed in one out of 19 patients from both groups who underwent a follow up angiography. Angioplasty and stenting appears to be technically feasible and safe in asymptomatic and symptomatic vertebral stenosis. More studies are needed in order to clarify its role in primary and secondary prevention of vertebrobasilar stroke. High risk anterior circulation lesions should be taken into account as a possible indication in patients with asymptomatic vertebral stenosis.

  18. Vertebral body stenting versus kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Clément M L; Osterhoff, Georg; Schlickeiser, Jannis; Jenni, Raphael; Wanner, Guido A; Ossendorf, Christian; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-03

    In the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, vertebral body stenting with an expandable scaffold inserted before application of the bone cement was developed to impede secondary loss of vertebral height encountered in patients treated with balloon kyphoplasty. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there are relevant differences between balloon kyphoplasty and vertebral body stenting with regard to perioperative and postoperative findings. In a two-armed randomized controlled trial, patients with a total of 100 fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were treated with either balloon kyphoplasty or vertebral body stenting. The primary outcome was the post-interventional change in the kyphotic angle on radiographs. The secondary outcomes were the maximum pressure of the balloon tamp during inflation, radiation exposure time, perioperative complications, and cement leakage. The mean reduction (and standard deviation) of kyphosis (the kyphotic correction angle) was 4.5° ± 3.6° after balloon kyphoplasty and 4.7° ± 4.2° after vertebral body stenting (p = 0.972). The mean pressures were 24 ± 5 bar (348 ± 72 pounds per square inch [psi]) during vertebral body stenting and 16 ± 6 bar (233 ± 81 psi) during balloon kyphoplasty (p = 0.014). There were no significant differences in radiation exposure time.None of the patients underwent revision surgery, and postoperative neurologic sequelae were not observed. Cement leakage occurred at twenty-five of the 100 vertebral levels without significant differences between the two intervention arms (p = 0.230). Intraoperative material-related complications were observed at one of the fifty vertebral levels in the balloon kyphoplasty group and at nine of the fifty levels in the vertebral body stenting group. No beneficial effect of vertebral body stenting over balloon kyphoplasty was found among patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures with regard to kyphotic correction, cement leakage

  19. Symptomatic vertebral hemangioma: Treatment with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aich Ranen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertebrae are the second commonest site among skeletal locations affected by hemangioma, but only about one per cent becomes symptomatic throughout the life. Though surgery, intra vertebral injection of various sclerosing agents have been tried in treating this benign process, no general consensus regarding management has been reached. Radiotherapy is emerging as a low cost, simple, non-invasive but very effective modality of treatment of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma. Aim: This study aims to find out the role of external beam radiotherapy in alleviating the symptoms of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas without compromising the quality of life. Materials and Methods: Seven consecutive patients with symptomatic vertebral hemangioma were treated with a fixed dose of external beam radiotherapy; and muscle power was assessed before, after treatment and during follow-up. Results: All patients showed improvement of muscle power, which increased with the passage of time. Pain relief with improvement of quality of life was obtained in all the patients. Conclusion: Effect of radiotherapy on vertebral hemangioma is dose-dependent and the dose limiting factor is the spinal cord tolerance. In the present era of IMRT, greater dose can be delivered to the parts of vertebra affected by the hemangioma without compromising the spinal cord tolerance and expected to give better results.

  20. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  1. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra.

  2. Speech segmentation in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Benetello, Annalisa; Tuomiranta, Leena; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria Carmen; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Speech segmentation is one of the initial and mandatory phases of language learning. Although some people with aphasia have shown a preserved ability to learn novel words, their speech segmentation abilities have not been explored. We examined the ability of individuals with chronic aphasia to segment words from running speech via statistical learning. We also explored the relationships between speech segmentation and aphasia severity, and short-term memory capacity. We further examined the role of lesion location in speech segmentation and short-term memory performance. The experimental task was first validated with a group of young adults (n = 120). Participants with chronic aphasia (n = 14) were exposed to an artificial language and were evaluated in their ability to segment words using a speech segmentation test. Their performance was contrasted against chance level and compared to that of a group of elderly matched controls (n = 14) using group and case-by-case analyses. As a group, participants with aphasia were significantly above chance level in their ability to segment words from the novel language and did not significantly differ from the group of elderly controls. Speech segmentation ability in the aphasic participants was not associated with aphasia severity although it significantly correlated with word pointing span, a measure of verbal short-term memory. Case-by-case analyses identified four individuals with aphasia who performed above chance level on the speech segmentation task, all with predominantly posterior lesions and mild fluent aphasia. Their short-term memory capacity was also better preserved than in the rest of the group. Our findings indicate that speech segmentation via statistical learning can remain functional in people with chronic aphasia and suggest that this initial language learning mechanism is associated with the functionality of the verbal short-term memory system and the integrity of the left inferior frontal region.

  3. Excessive hoarding in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Djamshidian, Atbin; Evans, Andrew H; Loane, Clare M; Lees, Andrew J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2010-06-15

    Hoarding is seen in several psychiatric conditions, but has not been specifically assessed in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates hoarding tendency amongst patients with PD, and its association with impulsive-compulsive spectrum behaviors (ICBs). We compare clinical features, measures of hoarding, impulse buying, self-control, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in 39 patients with PD with ICBs (PD + ICB), 61 patients with PD without ICBs (PD - ICB), and 50 healthy controls. A much higher proportion of PD + ICB (27.8%) than PD - ICB (3.5%) were hoarders (P = 0.001). 6% of healthy controls were hoarders. Compulsive shoppers scored higher than other varieties of ICB on excessive acquisition measures. Hoarding correlated positively with impulsive buying, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, PD duration, and negatively with self-control measures. Using multivariate regression analyzes, the presence of ICBs and measures of impulsive buying were the only variables independently associated with hoarding in PD. The association of hoarding with other ICBs and low trait impulse control suggests that excessive hoarding is related to the spectrum of impulsive behaviors in PD. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of ...

  5. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga-González, José Luis

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  6. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying ...

  7. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  8. Mitochondrial genome organization and vertebrate phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Sérgio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of DNA sequencing techniques the organization of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome shows variation between higher taxonomic levels. The most conserved gene order is found in placental mammals, turtles, fishes, some lizards and Xenopus. Birds, other species of lizards, crocodilians, marsupial mammals, snakes, tuatara, lamprey, and some other amphibians and one species of fish have gene orders that are less conserved. The most probable mechanism for new gene rearrangements seems to be tandem duplication and multiple deletion events, always associated with tRNA sequences. Some new rearrangements seem to be typical of monophyletic groups and the use of data from these groups may be useful for answering phylogenetic questions involving vertebrate higher taxonomic levels. Other features such as the secondary structure of tRNA, and the start and stop codons of protein-coding genes may also be useful in comparisons of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  9. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF, one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for long periods of time, as the patients are often asymptomatic. Moreover, the clinical features are highly variable and range from a small area of skin involvement to involvement over the entire half of the body. This variation is explained by the fact that segmental NF is thought to arise from a postzygotic NF1 gene mutation, leading to somatic mosaicism. We have also reviewed the relevant literature on this subject.

  10. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhir

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF, one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for long periods of time, as the patients are often asymptomatic. Moreover, the clinical features are highly variable and range from a small area of skin involvement to involvement over the entire half of the body. This variation is explained by the fact that segmental NF is thought to arise from a postzygotic NF1 gene mutation, leading to somatic mosaicism. We have also reviewed the relevant literature on this subject.

  11. Vertebral derotation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis causes hypokyphosis of the thoracic spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Kota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that direct vertebral derotation by pedicle screws (PS causes hypokyphosis of the thoracic spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS patients, using computer simulation. Methods Twenty AIS patients with Lenke type 1 or 2 who underwent posterior correction surgeries using PS were included in this study. Simulated corrections of each patient’s scoliosis, as determined by the preoperative CT scan data, were performed on segmented 3D models of the whole spine. Two types of simulated extreme correction were performed: 1 complete coronal correction only (C method and 2 complete coronal correction with complete derotation of vertebral bodies (C + D method. The kyphosis angle (T5-T12 and vertebral rotation angle at the apex were measured before and after the simulated corrections. Results The mean kyphosis angle after the C + D method was significantly smaller than that after the C method (2.7 ± 10.0° vs. 15.0 ± 7.1°, p  Conclusions In the 3D simulation study, kyphosis was reduced after complete correction of the coronal and rotational deformity, but it was maintained after the coronal-only correction. These results proved the hypothesis that the vertebral derotation obtained by PS causes hypokyphosis of the thoracic spine.

  12. Gene order data from a model amphibian (Ambystoma: new perspectives on vertebrate genome structure and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss S Randal

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because amphibians arise from a branch of the vertebrate evolutionary tree that is juxtaposed between fishes and amniotes, they provide important comparative perspective for reconstructing character changes that have occurred during vertebrate evolution. Here, we report the first comparative study of vertebrate genome structure that includes a representative amphibian. We used 491 transcribed sequences from a salamander (Ambystoma genetic map and whole genome assemblies for human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, zebrafish, and the freshwater pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis to compare gene orders and rearrangement rates. Results Ambystoma has experienced a rate of genome rearrangement that is substantially lower than mammalian species but similar to that of chicken and fish. Overall, we found greater conservation of genome structure between Ambystoma and tetrapod vertebrates, nevertheless, 57% of Ambystoma-fish orthologs are found in conserved syntenies of four or more genes. Comparisons between Ambystoma and amniotes reveal extensive conservation of segmental homology for 57% of the presumptive Ambystoma-amniote orthologs. Conclusion Our analyses suggest relatively constant interchromosomal rearrangement rates from the euteleost ancestor to the origin of mammals and illustrate the utility of amphibian mapping data in establishing ancestral amniote and tetrapod gene orders. Comparisons between Ambystoma and amniotes reveal some of the key events that have structured the human genome since diversification of the ancestral amniote lineage.

  13. [Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm complicating Klippel-Feil syndrome: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S; Kojima, T; Morooka, Y; Tanaka, K; Nakagawa, Y; Kuroki, M

    1996-10-01

    The Klippel-Feil syndrome is one of the spinal malformations characterized by fusion of the cervical vertebrae. It is well known that the malformation can cause some neurologic disorders. However, an aneurysm in the vertebral artery associated with the Klippel-Feil syndrome is extremely rare, with only one case having been reported in the literature. We present a 39-year-old female with a sudden onset of disturbed consciousness. Lateral cervical x-ray films showed the Klippel-Feil syndrome and hypermobility between C1 and C2. MRI showed multiple infarctions in the posterior circulation, including bilateral thalami. Right vertebral angiogram identified the extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm as the source of the emboli. The patient gradually recovered with conservative therapy. The aneurysm was thought to be produced by chronic arterial trauma secondary to excessive movement between C1 and C2. We conclude that an extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm is a serious complication in a patient with the Klippel-Feil syndrome.

  14. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  15. Cervical vertebral fusion with anterior meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mathew J; Chavredakis, Emmanuel; Carter, David; Bhojak, Manesh; Jenkinson, Michael D; Clark, Simon R

    2015-04-01

    We present the first described case of cervical vertebral fusion associated with anterior meningocele and syringomyelia. A 45-year-old woman presented with minor trauma, and plain cervical spine radiographs highlighted a congenital deformity of the cervical vertebral bodies. She had a normal neurological examination; however, further imaging revealed a meningocele and syringomyelia. This case highlights the importance of thorough imaging investigation when presented with a congenital deformity in order to detect and prevent development of degenerative spinal cord pathologies. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  17. Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

    2006-03-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

  18. Statistics-based segmentation using a continuous-scale naive Bayes approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Kruger, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a popular preprocessing stage in the field of machine vision. In agricultural applications it can be used to distinguish between living plant material and soil in images. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and excess green (ExG) color features are often used...... segmentation over the normalized vegetation difference index and excess green. The inputs to this color feature are the R, G, B, and near-infrared color wells, their chromaticities, and NDVI, ExG, and excess red. We apply the developed technique to a dataset consisting of 20 manually segmented images captured...... in the segmentation of images with multiple color channels. In this paper, a Bayesian method is used to combine existing color features into a common color feature. This feature is then used to segment images into separate regions containing vegetation and soil. The common color feature produces an improved...

  19. The effects of excessive humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1998-06-01

    Humidification devices and techniques can expose the airway mucosa to a wide range of gas temperatures and humidities, some of which are excessive and may cause injury. Humidified gas is a carrier of both water and energy. The volume of water in the gas stream depends on whether the water is in a molecular form (vapor), particulate form (aerosol), or bulk form (liquid). The energy content of gas stream is the sum of the sensible heat (temperature) of the air and any water droplets in it and the heat of vaporization (latent energy) of any water vapor present. Latent heat energy is much larger than sensible heat energy, so saturated air contains much more energy than dry air. Thus every breath contains a water volume and energy (thermal) challenge to the airway mucosa. When the challenge exceeds the homeostatic mechanisms airway dysfunction begins, starting at the cellular and secretion level and progressing to whole airway function. A large challenge will result in quick progression of dysfunction. Early dysfunction is generally reversible, however, so large challenges with short exposure times may not cause irreversible injury. The mechanisms of airway injury owing to excess water are not well studied. The observation of its effects lends itself to some general conclusions, however. Alterations in the ventilation-perfusion ratio, decrease in vital capacity and compilance, and atelectasis are suggestive of partial or full occlusion of small airways. Changes in surface tension and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient are consistent with flooding of alveoli. There also may be osmotic challenges to mucosal cell function as evidenced by the different reaction rates with hyper- and hypotonic saline. The reaction to nonisotonic saline also may partly explain increases in specific airway resistance. Aerosolized water and instilled water may be hazardous because of their demonstrated potential for delivering excessive water to the airway. Their use for airway humidification or

  20. Vertebral Artery Diameter and Flow: Nature or Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Fejer, Bence; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Cirelli, Carlo; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Sacconi, Beatrice; Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Farina, Filippo; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Horvath, Tamas; Pucci, Giacomo; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Baracchini, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    In contrast with the carotid arteries, the vertebral arteries (VAs) show considerable variation in length, caliber, and vessel course. This study investigated whether the variation in diameter and flow characteristics of the VAs might be inherited. A total of 172 Italian twins from Padua, Perugia, and Terni (54 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic) recruited from the Italian Twin Registry underwent B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound assessment of their VAs. VA diameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were assessed at the level of a horizontal V2 segment. Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed. Fourteen percent of the sample had VA hypoplasia. Within pair correlation in monozygotic twins was higher than in dizygotics (.552 vs. .229) for VA diameter. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic effect, under the most parsimonious model, accounted for 54.7% (95% CI: 42.2-69.1%) of the variance of VA diameter, and unshared environmental effect for 45.3% (95% CI: 30.9-57.8%). No heritability was found for the PSV of VA, but shared (34.1%; 95% CI: 16.7-53.7%) and unshared (65.9%; 95% CI: 45.9-83.1%) environmental factors determined the variance. EDV of VA is moderately genetically influenced (42.4%; 95% CI: 16.1-64.9%) and also determined by the unshared environment (57.6%; 95% CI: 34.7-83.7%). The diameter of the VAs is moderately genetically determined. Different factors influence the PSV and EDV of VAs, which may highlight the complex hemodynamic background of VA flow and help to understand the vertebral flow anomalies found by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  1. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  2. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  3. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified as...

  4. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  5. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements on the dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random transla- tional jump diffusion model. The observed increase in ...

  6. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  7. Familial segmental neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzkan, Sibel; Cinbis, Mine; Ayter, Sükriye; Anlar, Banu; Aysun, Sabiha

    2004-05-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is considered to be the result of postzygotic NF1 gene mutations. We present a family in which the proband has generalized neurofibromatosis 1, whereas members of previous generations manifest segmental skin lesions. All, including the clinically asymptomatic grandmother, carry the same haplotype. This is the only case in the literature in which a parent with segmental skin findings has a child with full-blown neurofibromatosis 1 disease. The genetic mechanisms underlying this association are discussed. This family can be further investigated by examination of tissue samples from affected and unaffected sites for mutations.

  8. Robust crop and weed segmentation under uncontrolled outdoor illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new machine vision for weed detection was developed from RGB color model images. Processes included in the algorithm for the detection were excessive green conversion, threshold value computation by statistical analysis, adaptive image segmentation by adjusting the threshold value, median filter, ...

  9. Segmented block copolymers with polyesteramide blocks of uniform length: synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; de Haan, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Segmented copolymers were synthesized from poly(tetramethylene oxide) with hydroxy end-groups or aliphatic diols and a short-chain diester diamide with a uniform length. The diester diamide (N,N'-bis(p-carbomethoxybenzoyl)butanediamine) (Tm = 257°C) used is made from butanediamine and an excess of

  10. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles.

  11. les hemangiomes vertebraux agressifs vertebral hemangiomas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background 1. Vertebral hemangiomas are benign tumeurs and are raré< ly symptomatic Aggressive forms represent less than. 1% of all cases Medical imaging allows both diagnosis ... '+ tro'ubles sphinctêriens. Irritation pyramidale '. Laminectomie - échec [saignement important) embolieationcomplêtée par une résection.

  12. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  13. Separation of vertebral epiphyses in bovine carcases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M

    1987-01-01

    Separation of vertebral epiphyses in the thoracolumbar region is a cause of rejection of beef carcases for Intervention storage. Incidence is highest in younger cattle and the problem is associated with certain types of hide puller and dressing technique. Three dressing methods are evaluated and tensile strenght of bone specimens is measured. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Extensive thoracolumbosacral vertebral osteomyelitis after Lemierre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, D. H R; van Dijk, M.; Hoepelman, A. I M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074382160; Oner, F. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188615326; Verlaan, J. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269057285

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a unique case of multilevel vertebral osteomyelitis after Lemierre syndrome. Methods: A previously healthy 27-year-old man presented in the Emergency Department in septic shock because of Lemierre syndrome for which he was subsequently treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jason; Davis, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common complication of osteoporosis, affecting more than 700,000 Americans annually. Fracture risk increases with age, with four in 10 white women older than 50 years experiencing a hip, spine, or vertebral fracture in their lifetime. VCFs can lead to chronic pain, disfigurement, height loss, impaired activities of daily living, increased risk of pressure sores, pneumonia, and psychological distress. Patients with an acute VCF may report abrupt onset of back pain with position changes, coughing, sneezing, or lifting. Physical examination findings are often normal, but can demonstrate kyphosis and midline spine tenderness. More than two-thirds of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on plain radiography. Acute VCFs may be treated with analgesics such as acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, narcotics, and calcitonin. Physicians must be mindful of medication adverse effects in older patients. Other conservative therapeutic options include limited bed rest, bracing, physical therapy, nerve root blocks, and epidural injections. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, is controversial, but can be considered in patients with inadequate pain relief with nonsurgical care or when persistent pain substantially affects quality of life. Family physicians can help prevent vertebral fractures through management of risk factors and the treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Ana R.; Oguiza, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. Database URL: VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php PMID:28365718

  17. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.G.; Martin, I.R.; Shaw, D.G.; Robinson, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    Four cases of progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion are described. Three cases remain relatively asymptomatic, but one has developed spinal cord compression secondary to an acute angled kyphosis. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features are reviewed and some comparisons with the spinal changes in thalidomide embryopathy are made.

  18. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1971-01-01

    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an

  19. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its ... of the size of the bone's building blocks (such as osteon or trabecular thickness) to meet the metabolic demand concomitant to minimal expenditure of energy.

  20. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates: potential approach to palaeontological investigations. S MISHRA. School of Engineering Systems and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology,. Brisbane 4000, Australia. (Email, sk.mishra@qut.edu.au).

  1. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  2. Landmarking of computed tomographic images to assist in segmentation of abdominal tumors caused by neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Shantanu; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M; Boag, Graham S

    2008-01-01

    Segmentation of the primary tumor mass in neuroblastoma could aid radiologists by facilitating reproducible and objective quantification of the tumor's tissue composition and size. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the tissue components of the neuroblastic tumor, ranging from low-attenuation necrosis to high-attenuation calcification, some of which possess strong similarities with adjacent nontumoral tissues in computed tomographic (CT) images, segmentation of the tumor is a difficult problem. In this context, landmarking methods are proposed to assist in the segmentation of neuroblastic tumors. Methods are proposed to identify and segment automatically the rib structure, the vertebral column, the spinal canal, the diaphragm, and the pelvic girdle. The use of the landmarks assisted in limiting the scope of the tumor segmentation process to the abdomen, and resulted in the reduction of the false-positive error rates by 26.9%, on the average, over 10 CT exams, and improved the result of segmentation of neuroblastic tumors.

  3. Are spinal or paraspinal anatomic makers helpful for vertebral numbering and diagnosing lumbosacral transitional vertebrae?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokgoz, Nil; Ucar, Murat; Erdogan, Aylin Billur; Killic, Koray; Ozcan, Cahide [Dept. of Radiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels.

  4. Global characterization of interferon regulatory factor (IRF genes in vertebrates: Glimpse of the diversification in evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhen

    2010-05-01

    chromosomes. Furthermore, all ten different members are clustered in respectively different clades; but the IRF-11 was clustered with one in sea urchin. Conclusions In vertebrates, the ten well-characterized IRF family members shared a relatively high degree of similarity in genomic structure and syntenic gene arrangement, implying that they might have been evolved in a similar pattern and with similar selective pressure in different classes of vertebrates. Genome and/or gene duplication, and probably gene shuffling or gene loss might have occurred during the evolution of these IRF family members, but arrangement of chromosome or its segment might have taken place in zebrafish. However, the ten IRF family members in vertebrates and those IRF-like genes in non-vertebrate deuterostomes were quite different in those analyzed characters, as they might have undergone different patterns of evolution.

  5. Vertebral compression fractures after spine irradiation using conventional fractionation in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, Woo Joong; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Chang, Jee Suk; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Seo Hee; Koom, Woong Sub [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the risk of vertebral compression fracture (VCF) after conventional radiotherapy (RT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) with spine metastasis and to identify risk factors for VCF in metastatic and non-metastatic irradiated spines. We retrospectively reviewed 68 spinal segments in 16 patients who received conventional RT between 2009 and 2012. Fracture was defined as a newly developed VCF or progression of an existing fracture. The target volume included all metastatic spinal segments and one additional non-metastatic vertebra adjacent to the tumor-involved spines. The median follow-up was 7.8 months. Among all 68 spinal segments, there were six fracture events (8.8%) including three new VCFs and three fracture progressions. Observed VCF rates in vertebral segments with prior irradiation or pre-existing compression fracture were 30.0% and 75.0% respectively, compared with 5.2% and 4.7% for segments without prior irradiation or pre-existing compression fracture, respectively (both p < 0.05). The 1-year fracture-free probability was 87.8% (95% CI, 78.2-97.4). On multivariate analysis, prior irradiation (HR, 7.30; 95% CI, 1.31-40.86) and pre-existing compression fracture (HR, 18.45; 95% CI, 3.42-99.52) were independent risk factors for VCF. The incidence of VCF following conventional RT to the spine is not particularly high, regardless of metastatic tumor involvement. Spines that received irradiation and/or have pre-existing compression fracture before RT have an increased risk of VCF and require close observation.

  6. Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Master's Thesis on topic Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants is to discover differences in consumer's behaviour, determinate and describe segments of consumers based on these differences and propose marketing strategy for the most attractive segments. Theoretical part describes market segmentation in general, process of segmentation and segmentation criteria. Analytic part characterizes Czech market of antiperspirants and deodorants, analyzes ACNielsen market data and d...

  7. Sclerosing segmental neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Sun; Kim, You Chan

    2005-04-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder characterized by cafe-au-lait macules and/or neurofibromas limited to a single body segment. The neurofibromas in segmental neurofibromatosis are usually soft, non-tender nodules as in other types of neurofibromatosis. Histopathologically, they are usually non-encapsulated, loosely textured dermal tumors. We report a case of sclerosing segmental neurofibromatosis, in which the patient presented with several grouped, erythematous to brownish, firm tender nodules on the left side of the posterior neck. Histopathologically, the stroma was mostly very fibrotic, especially around hair follicles, in addition to the usual features of neurofibroma. The atypical clinical feature, hardness, and tenderness of the lesions may be associated with the fibrosis.

  8. Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation: Case Report of a Patient with 7 Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures in a Variant of Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Leonard; Eysel, Peer; Simons, Marvin; Zarghooni, Kourosh

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) is a recognized treatment for painful compression fractures. RF-TVA in a patient with multiple compression fractures due to type I osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has not been previously reported. A 54-year-old patient with type I OI is presented with a segmental thoracic hyperkyphosis and 7 recent vertebral compression fractures. Because of persistent severe thoracolumbar back pain despite conservative therapy, RF-TVA was indicated. Nocturnal back pain was almost completely relieved at all postoperative time points evaluated. However, overall pain relief dropped only slightly from 7 to 5 on the numerical rating scale (NRS) at the 6-week follow-up, and there was only a small decrease in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) from 72% to 63%. An MRI at the 3-month follow-up revealed hyperintensity at levels T11 and T12, indicating slight recollapsing. At the 6-month follow-up, the ODI improved to 55%, although overall pain had worsened to 6 on the NRS. Pain at rest remained at a very low level. Despite the remaining lumbago, RF-TVA may be a good option for patients with OI who have multiple fractures. However, fractures at multiple levels and segmental thoracic hyperkyphosis may increase the risk for recollapsing and ongoing pain.

  9. Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation: Case Report of a Patient with 7 Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures in a Variant of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Westermann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA is a recognized treatment for painful compression fractures. RF-TVA in a patient with multiple compression fractures due to type I osteogenesis imperfecta (OI has not been previously reported. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old patient with type I OI is presented with a segmental thoracic hyperkyphosis and 7 recent vertebral compression fractures. Because of persistent severe thoracolumbar back pain despite conservative therapy, RF-TVA was indicated. Nocturnal back pain was almost completely relieved at all postoperative time points evaluated. However, overall pain relief dropped only slightly from 7 to 5 on the numerical rating scale (NRS at the 6-week follow-up, and there was only a small decrease in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI from 72% to 63%. An MRI at the 3-month follow-up revealed hyperintensity at levels T11 and T12, indicating slight recollapsing. At the 6-month follow-up, the ODI improved to 55%, although overall pain had worsened to 6 on the NRS. Pain at rest remained at a very low level. Conclusion. Despite the remaining lumbago, RF-TVA may be a good option for patients with OI who have multiple fractures. However, fractures at multiple levels and segmental thoracic hyperkyphosis may increase the risk for recollapsing and ongoing pain.

  10. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sharmeen, Rezwana; S. M. Kamruzzaman

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform...

  11. Sleepiness or excessive daytime somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edd, Ethel Mitty; Flores, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) is associated with age-related changes, environment, circadian rhythm or sleep pattern disorder, insomnia, medications, lifestyle factors, depression, pain, and illness. The notion of "sleep architecture" connotes a structure that describes the sleep cycle (i.e., stages) and wakefulness during a single sleep period-that is, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Circadian rhythms perform a variety of functions including regulation of the quality and distribution of the stages of sleep. Insomnia includes delayed sleep onset as well as premature wakening; sleep is nonrestorative. Comorbidities associated with insomnia are Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, delirium, depression, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pain, degenerative diseases of the neurological system, and sleep apnea. Continuous inadequate sleep affects cognitive function, physical performance, overall well-being, and quality of life. There is a greater risk of falls from insomnia than is the use of hypnotics to manage it. Sleep disruption among older adults is underrecognized and undertreated. Assessment using valid tools can be performed rapidly. There are a variety of treatment options, including sleep hygiene and pharmacological and alternative modalities.

  12. Operative and endovascular management of extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome:a clinical dilemma--case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2002-01-01

    The most prevalent lesion of the vertebral artery is an atheromatous plaque located at its origin from the subclavian artery. A case of successful management of a symptomatic vertebral artery aneurysm due to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is reported. The patient had asymptomatic posterior intracerebral artery dissection on the contralateral side. A common carotid artery to V-3 segment bypass using reversed saphenous vein graft was carried out. Avulsion of the V-2 segment occurred peroperatively and endovascular coil embolization of the vertebral artery aneurysm was performed. Endovascular equipment and training must be in the armamentarium of vascular surgeons as more complex cases are being treated, which demands new approaches for ultimate clinical success. This unique case outlines what might unexpectedly occur. Endovascular intervention as an adjuvant procedure provides a satisfactory outcome in what could have been a catastrophe.

  13. The CW domain, a structural module shared amongst vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jason; Zhao, Yunde

    2003-11-01

    A previously undetected domain, named CW for its conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues, appears to be a four-cysteine zinc-finger motif found exclusively in vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants. Of the twelve distinct nuclear protein families that comprise the CW domain-containing superfamily, only the microrchida (MORC) family has begun to be characterized. However, several families contain other domains suggesting a relationship between the CW domain and either chromatin methylation status or early embryonic development.

  14. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called "vertebral body stenting" (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean +/- SD in %, p VBS: 3.7 +/- 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 +/- 9.4; VBS: 13.3 +/- 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation.

  15. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called ?vertebral body stenting? (VBS) was tested in?vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be impl...

  16. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  17. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  18. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  19. Automated measurement of bone-mineral-density (BMD) values of vertebral bones based on X-ray torso CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Hayashi, T; Chen, H; Hara, T; Yokoyama, R; Kanematsu, M; Hoshi, H; Fujita, H

    2009-01-01

    Bone is one of the most important anatomical structures in humans and osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Osteoporosis is a main target disease of bone, which can be detected by medical image techniques. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated computer scheme to measure bone-mineral-density (BMD) values for vertebral trabecular bones. This scheme will aid osteoporosis diagnosis performed using computer tomography (CT) images. This scheme includes the following processing steps: segmentation of the bone region, recognition of the skeletal structures and measurement of the BMD value in vertebral trabecular bone of each vertebral body. The proposed scheme was applied to 20 X-ray torso CT cases to measure the BMD values for vertebral trabecular bones. The experimental results show that the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the BMD values measured by using the proposed method and those measured using a manual segmentation method were 6.93 mg/cm(3) and 6.82 mg/cm(3) respectively. The accuracy of the proposed scheme satisfied the requirement for a computer-aided system used in osteoporosis diagnosis.

  20. Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Christian; Dean, Nicholas; Lala, Rushil; Smith, Jeramiah; Bronner, Marianne E; Nikitina, Natalya V

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis revealed that claudins are expressed in discrete and specific domains, many of which represent vertebrate-specific innovations, such as in cranial ectodermal placodes and the neural crest; whereas others represent structures characteristic of chordates, e.g. pronephros, notochord, somites, endostyle and pharyngeal arches. By comparing the embryonic expression of claudins in the lamprey to that of other vertebrates, we found that ancestral expression patterns were often preserved in higher vertebrates. Morpholino mediated loss of Cldn3b demonstrated a functional role for this protein in placode and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the origins and evolution of the claudin gene family and the significance of claudin proteins in the evolution of vertebrates.

  1. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... subject proposal. Project owners are permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request...

  2. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  3. The incidence of secondary vertebral fracture of vertebral augmentation techniques versus conservative treatment for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dawei; Meng, Bin; Gan, Minfeng; Niu, Junjie; Li, Shiyan; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Chenxi; Yang, Huilin

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) are minimally invasive and effective vertebral augmentation techniques for managing osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Recent meta-analyses have compared the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques or conservative treatment; however, the inclusions were not thorough and rigorous enough, and the effects of each technique on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures remain unclear. To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies with more rigorous inclusion criteria on the effects of vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for OVCF on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SpringerLink, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for relevant original articles comparing the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for patients with OVCFs. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were identified. The methodological qualities of the studies were evaluated, relevant data were extracted and recorded, and an appropriate meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 13 articles were included. The pooled results from included studies showed no statistically significant differences in the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis comparing different study designs, durations of symptoms, follow-up times, races of patients, and techniques were conducted, and no significant differences in the incidence of secondary fractures were identified (P > 0.05). No obvious publication bias was detected by either Begg's test (P = 0.360 > 0.05) or Egger's test (P = 0.373 > 0.05). Despite current thinking in the

  4. Relative Hypodense Vertebral Artery Sign on Computerized Tomography in Atherosclerotic Near Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faraz Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old white male presented with an acute onset of slurred speech along with hypoesthesia in the entire left arm. The acute computed tomography (CT showed relative hypodensity in the intracranial segment of left vertebral artery (VA that was not present in historical images, pointing to the possible lack of flow. The site of occlusion was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that showed susceptibility effect in the affected artery. By means of historical native CT comparison the site of VA thrombosis was correctly predicted. Local atherosclerotic thrombosis of the VA could be relatively hypodense on native CT and still have positive susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI sign.

  5. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  6. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  7. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  8. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  9. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cancers that metastasize to the spine and primary cancers such as multiple myeloma can result in vertebral compression fractures or instability. Conservative strategies, including bed rest, bracing, and analgesic use, can be ineffective, resulting in continued pain and progressive functional disability limiting mobility and self-care. Surgery is not usually an option for cancer patients in advanced disease states because of their poor medical health or functional status and limited life expectancy. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous image-guided vertebral augmentation techniques, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, for palliation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures. We performed a systematic literature search for studies on vertebral augmentation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures published from January 1, 2000, to October 2014; abstracts were screened by a single reviewer. For those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Owing to the heterogeneity of the clinical reports, we performed a narrative synthesis based on an analytical framework constructed for the type of cancer-related vertebral fractures and the diversity of the vertebral augmentation interventions. The evidence review identified 3,391 citations, of which 111 clinical reports (4,235 patients) evaluated the effectiveness of vertebroplasty (78 reports, 2,545 patients) or kyphoplasty (33 reports, 1,690 patients) for patients with mixed primary spinal metastatic cancers, multiple myeloma, or hemangiomas. Overall the mean pain intensity scores often reported within 48 hours of vertebral augmentation (kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty), were significantly reduced. Analgesic use, although variably reported, usually involved parallel decreases, particularly in opioids, and mean pain-related disability scores were also significantly improved. In a randomized controlled trial comparing kyphoplasty

  10. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. The base case considered each of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty

  11. Anatomia do sulco da artéria vertebral Vertebral artery groove anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Franco de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas têm sido realizadas na região craniocervical devido a diversas patologias. Durante o acesso cirúrgico a essa região existe um risco potencial de lesão iatrogênica da artéria vertebral, relacionado ao acesso lateral amplo e à avaliação inadequada da anatomia local. Variações no trajeto da artéria vertebral ocasionam maior risco de lesão vascular. O estudo pré-operatório por imagem da anatomia da artéria vertebral e do seu sulco tem sido realizado para aumentar a segurança cirúrgica. OBJETIVO: Estudar a morfometria da artéria vertebral no atlas através da tomografia computadorizada do sulco da artéria vertebral (SAV em 30 atlas isolados de cadáveres. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O SAV e suas relações com a linha média foram avaliados através de oito medidas lineares e duas angulares, bilateralmente. A média, valor máximo e mínimo, e desvio padrão foram calculados para cada parâmetro. RESULTADOS: O SAV apresentou uma maior largura e maior espessura do lado esquerdo (pINTRODUCTION: Several surgical techniques have been carried through in the skull-cervical region due to various pathologies. During the surgical access to this region, a potential risk of iatrogenic injury of the vertebral artery exists, related to extended lateral access and the inadequate evaluation of the local anatomy. Variations in the groove of the vertebral artery lead to a greater risk of vascular injury during surgery. Preoperative image study of the vertebral artery anatomy and its groove has been realized to enhance surgical safety. OBJECTIVE: to study the morphometry of atlas vertebral artery on computed tomography scan images of the vertebral artery groove (VAG in 30 dry atlas. METHODS: VAG and its relationship with the midline were evaluated through eight linear and two angular measures, bilaterally. The average, maximum and minimum values, and standard deviation were calculated for each parameter

  12. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. Methods We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. Results The base case considered each of

  13. Deterioration of trabecular plate-rod and cortical microarchitecture and reduced bone stiffness at distal radius and tibia in postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Stein, Emily M; Zhou, Bin; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Yu, Y Eric; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2016-07-01

    Postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures have abnormal bone microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT, independent of areal BMD. However, whether trabecular plate and rod microarchitecture is altered in women with vertebral fractures is unknown. This study aims to characterize the abnormalities of trabecular plate and rod microarchitecture, cortex, and bone stiffness in postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures. HR-pQCT images of distal radius and tibia were acquired from 45 women with vertebral fractures and 45 control subjects without fractures. Trabecular and cortical compartments were separated by an automatic segmentation algorithm and subjected to individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analysis for measuring trabecular plate and rod morphology and cortical bone evaluation for measuring cortical thickness and porosity, respectively. Whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness were estimated by finite element analysis. Fracture and control subjects did not differ according to age, race, body mass index, osteoporosis risk factors, or medication use. Women with vertebral fractures had thinner cortices, and larger trabecular area compared to the control group. By ITS analysis, fracture subjects had fewer trabecular plates, less axially aligned trabeculae and less trabecular connectivity at both the radius and the tibia. Fewer trabecular rods were observed at the radius. Whole bone stiffness and trabecular bone stiffness were 18% and 22% lower in women with vertebral fractures at the radius, and 19% and 16% lower at the tibia, compared with controls. The estimated failure load of the radius and tibia were also reduced in the fracture subjects by 13% and 14%, respectively. In summary, postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures had both trabecular and cortical microstructural deterioration at the peripheral skeleton, with a preferential loss of trabecular plates and cortical thinning. These microstructural deficits translated into lower

  14. Importance of mechanics and kinematics in determining the stiffness contribution of the vertebral column during body-caudal-fin swimming in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozi, Bryan N; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-02-01

    Whole-body stiffness in fishes has important consequences for swimming mode, speed and efficiency, but the contribution of vertebral column stiffness to whole-body stiffness is unclear. In our opinion, this lack of clarity is due in part to the lack of studies that have measured both in vitro mechanical properties of the vertebral column as well as in vivo vertebral kinematics in the same species. Some lack of clarity may also come from real variation in the mechanical role of the vertebral column across species. Previous studies, based on either mechanics or kinematics alone, suggest species-specific variation in vertebral column locomotor function that ranges from highly stiff regimes that contribute greatly to whole-body stiffness, and potentially act as a spring, to highly compliant regimes that only prohibit excessive flexion of the intervertebral joints. We review data collected in combined investigations of both mechanics and kinematics of three species, Myxine glutinosa, Acipenser transmontanus, and Morone saxatilis, to illustrate how mechanical testing within the context of the in vivo kinematics more clearly distinguishes the role of the vertebral column in each species. In addition, we identify species for which kinematic data are available, but mechanical data are lacking. We encourage further investigation of these species to fill these mechanical data gaps. Finally, we hope these future combined analyses will identify certain morphological, mechanical, or kinematic parameters that might be associated with certain vertebral column functional regimes with respect to body stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein and signaling networks in vertebrate photoreceptor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Wilhelm eKoch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate photoreceptor cells are exquisite light detectors operating under very dim and bright illumination. The photoexcitation and adaptation machinery in photoreceptor cells consists of protein complexes that can form highly ordered supramolecular structures and control the homeostasis and mutual dependence of the secondary messengers cGMP and Ca2+. The visual pigment in rod photoreceptors, the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin is organized in tracks of dimers thereby providing a signaling platform for the dynamic scaffolding of the G protein transducin. Illuminated rhodopsin is turned off by phosphorylation catalyzed by rhodopsin kinase GRK1 under control of Ca2+-recoverin. The GRK1 protein complex partly assembles in lipid raft structures, where shutting off rhodopsin seems to be more effective. Re-synthesis of cGMP is another crucial step in the recovery of the photoresponse after illumination. It is catalyzed by membrane bound sensory guanylate cyclases and is regulated by specific neuronal Ca2+-sensor proteins called GCAPs. At least one guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC1 was shown to be part of a multiprotein complex having strong interactions with the cytoskeleton and being controlled in a multimodal Ca2+-dependent fashion. The final target of the cGMP signaling cascade is a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel that is a hetero-oligomeric protein located in the plasma membrane and interacting with accessory proteins in highly organized microdomains. We summarize results and interpretations of findings related to the inhomogeneous organization of signaling units in photoreceptor outer segments.

  16. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  17. Photoreceptor cell fate specification in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors – the light-sensitive cells in the vertebrate retina – have been extremely well-characterized with regards to their biochemistry, cell biology and physiology. They therefore provide an excellent model for exploring the factors and mechanisms that drive neural progenitors into a differentiated cell fate in the nervous system. As a result, great progress in understanding the transcriptional network that controls photoreceptor specification and differentiation has been made over the last 20 years. This progress has also enabled the production of photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells, thereby aiding the development of regenerative medical approaches to eye disease. In this Review, we outline the signaling and transcription factors that drive vertebrate photoreceptor development and discuss how these function together in gene regulatory networks to control photoreceptor cell fate specification. PMID:26443631

  18. Segmental neurofibromatosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listernick, Robert; Mancini, Anthony J; Charrow, Joel

    2003-08-30

    Segmental neurofibromatosis refers to individuals who have manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) limited to one area of the body. It results from a post-conceptional mutation in the NF-1 gene leading to somatic mosaicism. Although it is generally considered a rare condition, this report of 39 children with segmental NF-1 demonstrates that it is commonly seen in a pediatric NF-1 referral center. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.8 years (range: 2-25 years). Twenty-nine patients had only pigmentary manifestations of segmental NF-1, including seven who had only café-au-lait macules and 22 who had café-au-lait macules and freckling. Two patients had isolated plexiform neurofibromas; a third patient had a plexiform neurofibroma of the eyelid in addition to ipsilateral dysplasia of the sphenoid wing and Lisch nodules. A 12-year-old girl had an isolated tibial pseudarthrosis. An 8-year-old boy had an isolated optic pathway tumor, which behaved both biologically and radiographically as an NF1-associated tumor. While most children with segmental NF-1 have only localized pigmentary changes, some children will have isolated plexiform neurofibromas, pseudarthroses, or optic pathway tumors. Accurate diagnosis of segmental NF-1 is crucial for both management and genetic counseling. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  20. Vertebral artery dissection associated with sildenafil abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, Rick; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Hader, Claudia; Stich, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    We present a 49-year-old male who suffered a cerebellar infarction due to a vertebral artery dissection. The patient had taken sildenafil daily for at least 2 years for sexual enhancement. There was no sexual intercourse or traumatic event prior to symptom onset. Sildenafil intake has been associated with aortic dissection and, in the light of this report, we suggest that chronic sildenafil intake could be a risk factor for arterial dissection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  2. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  3. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Cazaméa-Catalan

    Full Text Available All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish. We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish. We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish. Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence.

  4. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  5. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.

  7. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  8. Evolution of sound localisation in land vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, Christine

    2009-08-11

    The story of the evolution of hearing in land vertebrates is fascinating but complex. The water-to-land transition changed the physical environment in which hearing happens so dramatically that both the peripheral receptor structures and the central auditory circuits underwent a revolution, leading to the sensitive hearing of higher-frequency airborne sound. This (r)evolution took a very long time indeed. Most of it happened after the early divergence of the major clades of land vertebrates. Hearing, at least hearing as we commonly understand it today, is the youngest of the major senses and much of its evolutionary history is not shared between amphibians, lepidosauromorphs (lizards and snakes), archosauromorphs (birds and crocodilians) and mammals. There was no linear evolution of complexity from 'lower' to 'higher' vertebrates. We are only just beginning to appreciate the implications of this for central auditory processing. There is no consensus, yet, on the evolution of sound localisation. The multitude of physical cues involved in sound localisation means that different selective pressures interact and need to be considered. The use and neural processing of interaural time differences is just one example. It has taught us that long-standing assumptions, such as the homology of the mammalian medial superior olive and the avian nucleus laminaris, need to be questioned and that important insights may arise from unexpected directions, such as the paleontology of middle-ear ossicles. There is still much to discover.

  9. Vertebral osteomyelitis in adults: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Emma K; Sinha, Rohitashwa

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of vertebral osteomyelitis is increasing, attributed to an ageing population with inherent co-morbidities and improved case ascertainment. References were retrieved from the PubMed database using the terms 'vertebral osteomyelitis' and 'spondylodiscitis' between January 1, 2009 and April 30, 2014 published in English as checked in May 2014 (>1000 abstracts checked). Blood cultures and whole spine imaging with magnetic resonance imaging are essential investigations. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of surgical management, although placing metalwork in active infection is becoming increasingly common. The extent of pursuing spinal biopsies to determine aetiology, antimicrobial choices and duration, monitoring the response to treatment, and surgical techniques and timing all vary widely in clinical practice with heterogeneous studies limiting comparisons. Surgery, rather than conservative approaches, is being proposed as the default management choice, because it can, in carefully selected patients, offer faster reduction in pain scores and improved quality of life. Further studies are needed to define the most effective technique for spinal biopsies to maximize determining aetiology. High-quality trials are required to provide an evidence base for both the medical and surgical management of vertebral osteomyelitis, including challenging medical management as the default option. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Phylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisarri, Iker; Baurain, Denis; Brinkmann, Henner; Delsuc, Frédéric; Sire, Jean-Yves; Kupfer, Alexander; Petersen, Jörn; Jarek, Michael; Meyer, Axel; Vences, Miguel; Philippe, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on "standards" for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model to address these issues. Despite considerable efforts in resolving their evolutionary history and macroevolution, few studies have included a full phylogenetic diversity of gnathostomes and some relationships remain controversial. We tested a novel bioinformatic pipeline to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and find this phylotranscriptomic approach successful and highly cost-effective. Increased sequencing effort up to ca. 10Gbp allows recovering more genes, but shallower sequencing (1.5Gbp) is sufficient to obtain thousands of full-length orthologous transcripts. We reconstruct a robust and strongly supported timetree of jawed vertebrates using 7,189 nuclear genes from 100 taxa, including 23 new transcriptomes from previously unsampled key species. Gene jackknifing of genomic data corroborates the robustness of our tree and allows calculating genome-wide divergence times by overcoming gene sampling bias. Mitochondrial genomes prove insufficient to resolve the deepest relationships because of limited signal and among-lineage rate heterogeneity. Our analyses emphasize the importance of large curated nuclear datasets to increase the accuracy of phylogenomics and provide a reference framework for the evolutionary history of jawed vertebrates.

  11. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Relation of the vertebral artery segment from C1 to C2 vertebrae: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayman Ahmad Khanfour

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... HOSTED BY. Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. Alexandria Journal of Medicine http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ajme. 2090-5068 © 2014 Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajme.2014.05.007 ...

  13. Chan-Vese Segmentation

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    Pascal Getreuer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While many segmentation methods rely heavily in some way on edge detection, the "Active Contours Without Edges" method by Chan and Vese ignores edges completely. Instead, the method optimally fits a two-phase piecewise constant model to the given image. The segmentation boundary is represented implicitly with a level set function, which allows the segmentation to handle topological changes more easily than explicit snake methods. This article describes the level set formulation of the Chan–Vese model and its numerical solution using a semi-implicit gradient descent. We also discuss the Chan–Sandberg–Vese method, a straightforward extension of Chan–Vese for vector-valued images.

  14. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  15. Excessive nitrite affects zebrafish valvulogenesis through yielding too much NO signaling.

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    Junbo Li

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite, a common food additive, exists widely not only in the environment but also in our body. Excessive nitrite causes toxicological effects on human health; however, whether it affects vertebrate heart valve development remains unknown. In vertebrates, developmental defects of cardiac valves usually lead to congenital heart disease. To understand the toxic effects of nitrite on valvulogenesis, we exposed zebrafish embryos with different concentrations of sodium nitrite. Our results showed that sodium nitrite caused developmental defects of zebrafish heart dose dependently. It affected zebrafish heart development starting from 36 hpf (hour post fertilization when heart initiates looping process. Comprehensive analysis on the embryos at 24 hpf and 48 hpf showed that excessive nitrite did not affect blood circulation, vascular network, myocardium and endocardium development. But development of endocardial cells in atrioventricular canal (AVC of the embryos at 48 hpf was disrupted by too much nitrite, leading to defective formation of primitive valve leaflets at 76 hpf. Consistently, excessive nitrite diminished expressions of valve progenitor markers including bmp4, has2, vcana and notch1b at 48 hpf. Furthermore, 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, downstream of nitric oxide (NO signaling, was increased its level significantly in the embryos exposed with excessive nitrite and microinjection of soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ (1H-[1], [2], [4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, an antagonist of NO signaling, into nitrite-exposed embryos could partly rescue the cardiac valve malformation. Taken together, our results show that excessive nitrite affects early valve leaflet formation by producing too much NO signaling.

  16. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in invasive vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  17. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmetti GC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni C Anselmetti1, Sean M Tutton2, Francis R Facchini3, Larry E Miller4,5, Jon E Block51Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Turin, Italy; 2Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Interventional Radiology, Interventional Oncology, VIR Chicago, Hinsdale, IL, USA; 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 5The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAIntroduction: Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system.Case presentation: A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No

  18. Segmental Neurofibromatosis: Atypical Localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Topaloğlu Demir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF is a genetic disease leading pathological findings in skin, soft tissue, bone and nervous system by affecting neural crest cells. Due to its heterogeneity neurofibromatosis was divided into eight different subgroups (NF-I NF-VIII by Riccardi. Segmental neurofibromatosis (NF type V is characterized by cutaneous neurofibromas and Café-au-lait spots limited with a segment of dermatome. Here we report this case with numerous, painless cutaneous nodules showing extension from the shoulder to the dorsal aspect of the right hand, since it a rare case.

  19. Evolution of vertebrate GnRH receptors from the perspective of a basal vertebrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacia A Sower

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This minireview provides the current status on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRH-R in vertebrates, from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey, and provides an evolutionary scheme based on the recent advance of whole genome sequencing. In addition, we provide a perspective on the functional divergence and evolution of the receptors. In this review we use the phylogenetic classification of vertebrate GnRH receptors that groups them into three clusters: type I (mammalian and non-mammalian, type II, and type III GnRH receptors. New findings show that the sea lamprey has two type III-like GnRH receptors and an ancestral type GnRH receptor that is more closely related to the type II-like receptors. These two novel GnRH receptors along with lGnRH-R-1 share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome type II/III receptors. Recent data analyses of the lamprey genome provide strong evidence that 2 whole rounds of genome duplication (2R occurred prior to the gnathostome-agnathan split. Based on our current knowledge, it is proposed that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from an ancestor of the type II receptor following a vertebrate-shared genome duplication and that the two type III receptors resulted from a duplication within lamprey of a gene derived from a lineage shared by many vertebrates.

  20. Automatic segmentation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amruta; Raina, Akshita; Sharifi Sarabi, Mona; Ahn, Christine S.; Babayan, Diana; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Macyszyn, Luke; Raghavendra, Cauligi

    2017-03-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent disorders in the developed/developing world. However, its etiology is poorly understood and treatment is often determined subjectively. In order to quantitatively study the emergence and evolution of back pain, it is necessary to develop consistently measurable markers for pathology. Imaging based measures offer one solution to this problem. The development of imaging based on quantitative biomarkers for the lower back necessitates automated techniques to acquire this data. While the problem of segmenting lumbar vertebrae has been addressed repeatedly in literature, the associated problem of computing relevant biomarkers on the basis of the segmentation has not been addressed thoroughly. In this paper, we propose a Random-Forest based approach that learns to segment vertebral bodies in CT images followed by a biomarker evaluation framework that extracts vertebral heights and widths from the segmentations obtained. Our dataset consists of 15 CT sagittal scans obtained from General Electric Healthcare. Our main approach is divided into three parts: the first stage is image pre-processing which is used to correct for variations in illumination across all the images followed by preparing the foreground and background objects from images; the next stage is Machine Learning using Random-Forests, which distinguishes the interest-point vectors between foreground or background; and the last step is image post-processing, which is crucial to refine the results of classifier. The Dice coefficient was used as a statistical validation metric to evaluate the performance of our segmentations with an average value of 0.725 for our dataset.

  1. Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures in Children with Suspected Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Andreas; Shepherd, Sheila; Mason, Avril; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2016-12-01

    To explore the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures in disease groups investigated for primary and secondary osteoporosis, using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). VFA was performed independently by 2 nonradiologists, in 165 children (77 males, 88 females) as part of their investigation for osteoporosis. Vertebral bodies from T6 to L4 were assessed for vertebral fractures using the Genant scoring system. The common readings for the presence of vertebral fractures were used for evaluating the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures. The median age of the subjects was 13.4 years (range, 3.6, 18). Of the 165 children, 24 (15%) were being investigated for primary bone disease, and the remainder had a range of chronic diseases known to affect bone health. Vertebral fractures were identified in 38 (23%) children. The distribution of the vertebral fractures was bimodal, with vertebral fractures peaks centered at T9 and L4. Conditions associated with increased odds for vertebral fractures were inflammatory bowel disease (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4, 8.0; P = .018) and osteogenesis imperfecta (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04, 5.8; P = .022). Among children with vertebral fractures, those with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (P = .015) and osteogenesis imperfecta (P = .023) demonstrated higher number of vertebral fractures than the other disease groups. VFA identified the presence of vertebral fractures, in a bimodal distribution, in both primary bone disease and chronic disease groups. VFA is a practical screening tool for identification of vertebral fractures in children and adolescents at risk of fragility fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synchrony dynamics during initiation, failure, and rescue of the segmentation clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H; Müller, Claudia; Oates, Andrew C

    2007-09-28

    The "segmentation clock" is thought to coordinate sequential segmentation of the body axis in vertebrate embryos. This clock comprises a multicellular genetic network of synchronized oscillators, coupled by intercellular Delta-Notch signaling. How this synchrony is established and how its loss determines the position of segmentation defects in Delta and Notch mutants are unknown. We analyzed the clock's synchrony dynamics by varying strength and timing of Notch coupling in zebra-fish embryos with techniques for quantitative perturbation of gene function. We developed a physical theory based on coupled phase oscillators explaining the observed onset and rescue of segmentation defects, the clock's robustness against developmental noise, and a critical point beyond which synchrony decays. We conclude that synchrony among these genetic oscillators can be established by simultaneous initiation and self-organization and that the segmentation defect position is determined by the difference between coupling strength and noise.

  3. Excessive libido in a woman with rabies.

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    Rabies is endemic in India in both wildlife and humans. Human rabies kills 25,000 to 30,000 persons every year. Several types of sexual manifestations including excessive libido may develop in cases of human rabies. A laboratory proven case of rabies in an Indian woman who manifested excessive libido is presented below. She later developed hydrophobia and died.

  4. Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting Updated:Nov 2,2015 Many factors can lead to excessive blood clotting, leading to limited or blocked blood flow. Blood clots can travel to the arteries or ...

  5. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  6. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions prior...

  8. Excess Based Allocation of Risk Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Norde, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new rule to allocate risk capital to portfolios or divisions within a firm. Specifically, we determine the capital allocation that minimizes the excesses of sets of portfolios in lexicographical sense. The excess of a set of portfolios is defined as the expected loss of

  9. The excessively crying infant : etiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhnikh, S.; Engelberts, A.C.; Sleuwen, B.E. van; Hoir, M.P. L’; Benninga, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and selflimiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, and underlying organic cause

  10. Triboson interpretations of the ATLAS diboson excess

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS excess in fat jet pair production is kinematically compatible with the decay of a heavy resonance into two gauge bosons plus an extra particle. This possibility would explain the absence of such a localised excess in the analogous CMS analysis of fat dijet final states, as well as the negative results of diboson resonance searches in the semi-leptonic decay modes.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Enhancement Patterns at the Different Ages of Symptomatic Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Ja Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) enhancement patterns of symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (VCF) according to the fracture age, based on the successful single-level percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) cases. The study included 135 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced MR imaging and successful PVP from 2005 to 2010 due to a single- level osteoporotic VCF. Two radiologists blinded to the fracture age evaluated the MR enhancement patterns in consensus. The MR enhancement patterns were classified according to the enhancing proportion to the vertebral height and the presence or extent of a non-enhancing cleft within the enhancing area on sagittal plane. The Fisher' exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to assess the differences in the MR enhancement patterns according to the fracture age. Symptomatic VCFs show variable MR enhancement patterns in all fracture ages. A diffuse enhancing area can be seen in not only the hyperacute and acute VCFs but also the chronic symptomatic VCFs. Symptomatic VCFs having a segmental enhancing area were all included in the hyperacute or acute stage. Most symptomatic osteoporotic VCFs had a non-enhancing cleft in the enhanced vertebral body (128/135, 94.8%). There was no statistical difference of the enhancement pattern according to the fracture age. Symptomatic VCFs show variable MR enhancement patterns in all fracture ages. The most common pattern is a non-enhancing cleft within a diffuse enhanced vertebra.

  12. Cement leakage and complication of liposarcoma spinal metastasis during vertebral augmentation procedure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Aykut; Ucler, Necati; Yucetas, Cem Seyho; Erdogan, Uzay; Ucar, Mehmet Davut

    2016-02-24

    Liposarcoma is a malignant tumor of soft tissue. Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma has a tendency to spread to extrapulmonary sites but the spine is an unusual location even for metastasis. Metastatic bone tumors in the spine are painful. The vertebral body augmentation procedures for treating painful metastatic spinal lesions are minimally invasive and are good alternatives to open surgery. A 41-year-old Turkish man was treated with radiofrequency tumor ablation and percutaneous vertebral augmentation for spinal metastasis. Asymptomatic perivertebral and segmental veins' cement leakage was detected on perioperative X-ray radiograms; at the follow-up computed tomography scan, no further migration of any cement material was seen, and his postoperative course was uneventful. The risk of cement leakage and embolism is increased with the treatment of some malignant lesions. The frequency of local leakage of bone cement is relatively high. Patients undergoing percutaneous vertebral augmentation of malignant spinal metastases need close monitoring. There is no agreement on the treatment strategy.

  13. Clinical and neuroimaging features vertebral radiculopathy in the combination with vertebral hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-honatskaya M.L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim of the study: to study the clinical and neuroimaging features of radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas in conjunction with the vertebrae. Materials and methods. A total of 56 patients with radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas combined with the vertebrae. Results. The patients in addition to pain, and focal neurological symptoms were observed violation of urination, and chronic venous insuffciency of lower extremities. MRI identifed three types of vertebral hem-angiomas, depending on the structural characteristics. Conclusion. The aim of the study is realized.Most hemangiomas are asymptomatic yourself. Pain and neurological symptoms caused by musculo-tonic component, the presence of disc herniation, changes in the intervertebral joints, ligaments violation. Type III meets the criteria for hemangiomas and requires aggressive surgical treatment.

  14. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  15. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  16. Thoracoscopic Subsuperior Segment Segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kimihiro; Mogi, Akira; Yajima, Toshiki; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Obayashi, Kai; Nakazawa, Seshiru; Kosaka, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    To date, anatomic subsuperior segment (S∗) segmentectomy has not yet been reported. Herein we report the technical details of thoracoscopic anatomic S∗ segmentectomy and the anatomic features of the S∗. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Segmentation and crustal structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N; J. Geophys. Res. 105 8205–8226. Kamesh Raju K A, Ramprasad T and Subrahmanyam C. 1997 Geophysical investigations over a segment of the. Central Indian Ridge, Indian Ocean; Geo-Marine Lett. 17. 195–201. Kamesh Raju K A, Chaubey A K, Amarnath Dileep and. Mudholkar Abhay 2008 Morphotectonics of the ...

  18. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......-alone computers and in local and global digital networks....

  19. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups- Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different m...

  20. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... 24. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology / Supplement 1 - 2014 - Volume 22. S24. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT. A Comparison of Visual Outcomes after Extracapsular Cataract. Surgery and Phacoemulsification in Eye Foundation Hospital. Lagos Nigeria. Oderinlo O. O., Hassan A. O., Oluyadi F. O., ...

  1. Labor market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt Christian

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the International Encyclopedia of Geography is a reinterpretation of labor market segmentation theories mapping the evolution of this perspective on labor markets and using the findings of the care market project to reflect on the rising importance of female migrant labor in the domestic sphere and the question of diversity and inequalities in the labor market.

  2. Grading apical vertebral rotation without a computed tomography scan: a clinically relevant system based on the radiographic appearance of bilateral pedicle screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Chambers, Reid C; Dalal, Ali H; Shah, Suken A; Lehman, Ronald A; Newton, Peter O

    2009-08-01

    Bench-top and retrospective analysis to assess vertebral rotation based on the appearance of bilateral pedicle screws in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To develop a clinically relevant radiographic grading system for evaluating postoperative thoracic apical vertebral rotation that would correlate with computed tomography (CT) measures of rotation. The 3-column vertebral body control provided by bilateral pedicle screws has enabled scoliosis surgeons to develop advanced techniques of direct vertebral derotation. Our ability to accurately quantify spinal deformity in the axial plane, however, continues to be limited. Trigonometry was used to define the relationship between the position of bilateral pedicle screws and vertebral rotation. This relationship was validated using digital photographs of a bench-top model. The mathematical relationships were then used to calculate vertebral rotation from standing postoperative, posteroanterior radiographs in AIS patients and correlated with postoperative CT measures of rotation. Fourteen digital photographs of the bench-top model were independently analyzed twice by 3 coauthors. The mathematically calculated degree of rotation was found to correlate significantly with the actual degree of rotation (r = 0.99; P < 0.001) and the intra- and interobserver reliability for these measurements were both excellent (kappa = 0.98 and kappa = 0.97, respectively). In the retrospective analysis of 17 AIS patients, the average absolute difference between the radiographic measurement of rotation and the CT measure was only 1.9 degrees +/- 2.0 degrees (r = 0.92; P < 0.001). Based on these correlations a simple radiographic grading system for postoperative apical vertebral rotation was developed. An accurate assessment of vertebral rotation can be performed radiographically, using screw lengths and screw tip-to-rod distances of bilateral segmental pedicle screws and a trigonometric calculation. These data support the use

  3. The segmentation clock: inherited trait or universal design principle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, David L; Oates, Andrew C

    2012-12-01

    Metamerism is a widespread feature of multicellular body plans; however, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that generate these patterns is currently based on only a few model organisms. In particular, vertebrate embryos use a segmentation clock to rhythmically and sequentially add segments in concert with posterior elongation of their body. Recent evidence of a segmentation clock acting in arthropods indicates that this mechanism may be a widely used strategy for generating serial anatomy in animals. Whether this is due to homology or convergence is not yet known, but the recent discovery of an oscillatory process associated with the production of sequential root primordia in plants suggests that a segmentation clock is a fundamental patterning principle in growing tissues, independent of ancestry. In this review, we consider the principles of the segmentation clock that may be conserved across the animal and plant kingdoms, and discuss opportunities for cross-fertilization between these active fields of research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The deformation behavior of the cervical spine segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakova, T. V.; Rikun, Yu. A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the model of the cervical spine segment (C3-C4) and the calculation results of its deformation behavior at flexion. The segment model was built based on the experimental literature data taking into account the presence of the cortical and cancellous bone tissue of vertebral bodies. Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disk (IVD) were simulated through a reduction of the disc height and an increase of Young's modulus. The construction of the geometric model of the cervical spine segment and the calculations of the stress-strain state were carried out in the ANSYS software complex. The calculation results show that the biggest protrusion of the IVD in bending direction of segment is observed when IVD height is reduced. The disc protrusion is reduced with an increase of Young's modulus. The largest protrusion in the direction of flexion of the segment is the intervertebral disk with height of 4.3 mm and elastic modulus of 2.5 MPa. The results of the study can be useful to specialists in the field of biomechanics, medical materials science and prosthetics.

  5. Analysis of risk factors for adjacent superior vertebral pedicle-induced facet joint violation during the minimally invasive surgery transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Li; Jia, Long; Xu, Wei; Yu, Yan; Hu, Xiao; Jia, Yong-Wei; Wang, Jian-Jie; Cheng, Li-Ming

    2015-09-24

    The purpose was to explore possible risk factors of facet joint violation induced by adjacent superior vertebral pedicle screw during the minimally invasive surgery transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF). A total of 69 patients with lumbar degenerative disease, who underwent MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative computed tomography images were used to assess the facet joint violation. The correlation of facet joint violations with gender, age, body mass index (BMI), the adjacent superior vertebral level, fusion segment numbers, position of screw insertion, straight leg-raising test (SLRT) results, clinical diseases and renal dysfunction were analyzed by Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression analysis. The incidence of adjacent superior facet joint violations was 25.4 %. Chi-square test showed the patients with age violations (P = 0.007; P = 0.006). The single segment fusion presented more facet joint violations than the double segments fusion (P = 0.048). The vertebral pedicle screw implant location at L5 showed more facet joint violations compared with that at L3 and L4 (P = 0.035). No correlation was found between gender, screw implant position, SLRT results, clinical diseases and renal dysfunction and facet joint violations. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age violation. These results found a high incidence of adjacent superior vertebral facet joint violation in the MIS-TLIF. Age violation. Evidence level: Level 4.

  6. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments (ERA) has even been banned, and in other situations the numbers of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced, or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is not just based on ethical considerations but also to reduce the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases to provide better information aimed at improving ERAs. The present focus paper provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made towards alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades. The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimised wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organi

  7. Juxta-vertebral lesions in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Della-Torre, Emanuel; Campochiaro, Corrado; Bozzolo, Enrica; Berti, Alvise; Praderio, Luisa; Dagna, Lorenzo; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical, pathological, serological, and radiological characteristics of juxta-vertebral masses occurring in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We analyzed the clinical records of patients with juxta-vertebral lesions from our GPA study cohort and reviewed the English literature for other cases of GPA with juxta-vertebral localization. Out of 74 patients in our GPA study cohort, six (8%) had juxta-vertebral lesions. We found 10 cases of juxta-vertebral GPA described in the English literature. Overall, juxta-vertebral lesions were detected at GPA onset in 11/16 (69%) patients, and preferentially occurred on the right side of the spine (12/15 patients, 80%). Fifteen patients (94%) with juxta-vertebral lesions had systemic GPA. Juxta-vertebral lesions were associated with back pain at GPA onset in 8/16 (50%) patients. In all of them juxta-vertebral lesions resolved or improved after treatment. Preference for the right-anterior side of the spine, increased 18 FDG uptake on PET scan, low or absent invasiveness of the surrounding tissues, and occurrence in the context of systemic disease were the main features of juxta-vertebral GPA. Symptomatic lesions showed a better response to immunosuppressive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  9. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Segmentation in Tardigrada and diversification of segmental patterns in Panarthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Goldstein, Bob

    2017-05-01

    The origin and diversification of segmented metazoan body plans has fascinated biologists for over a century. The superphylum Panarthropoda includes three phyla of segmented animals-Euarthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada. This superphylum includes representatives with relatively simple and representatives with relatively complex segmented body plans. At one extreme of this continuum, euarthropods exhibit an incredible diversity of serially homologous segments. Furthermore, distinct tagmosis patterns are exhibited by different classes of euarthropods. At the other extreme, all tardigrades share a simple segmented body plan that consists of a head and four leg-bearing segments. The modular body plans of panarthropods make them a tractable model for understanding diversification of animal body plans more generally. Here we review results of recent morphological and developmental studies of tardigrade segmentation. These results complement investigations of segmentation processes in other panarthropods and paleontological studies to illuminate the earliest steps in the evolution of panarthropod body plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magariños

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  12. Autophagy in the Vertebrate Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, Marta; Pulido, Sara; Aburto, María R; de Iriarte Rodríguez, Rocío; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure. Here, we review the existing evidence that implicates autophagy in the generation of the vertebrate inner ear. At early stages of chicken otic development, inhibiting autophagy impairs neurogenesis and causes aberrant otocyst morphogenesis. Autophagy provides energy for the clearing of dying cells and it favors neuronal differentiation. Moreover, autophagy is required for proper vestibular development in the mouse inner ear. The autophagy-related genes Becn1, Atg4g, Atg5, and Atg9, are expressed in the inner ear from late developmental stages to adulthood, and Atg4b mutants show impaired vestibular behavior associated to defects in otoconial biogenesis that are also common to Atg5 mutants. Autophagic flux appears to be age-regulated, augmenting from perinatal stages to young adulthood in mice. This up-regulation is concomitant with the functional maturation of the hearing receptor. Hence, autophagy can be considered an intracellular pathway fundamental for in vertebrate inner ear development and maturation.

  13. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions. 54.4979-1 Section 54.4979-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-1 Excise tax on certain excess...

  14. Molecular mechanisms of taste transduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    Among the five senses, taste and olfaction play crucial roles in the detection of chemical substances in the environment and are referred to as chemical senses. In the past decade, much progress has been made in studies on molecular mechanisms of the gustatory system by methods such as those based on molecular and cellular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics. This review covers recent studies on taste receptors, intracellular signaling transduction in taste receptor cells, and taste coding at the periphery in vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  15. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-02-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.

  16. Development of a finite element model of the ligamentous cervical vertebral column of a Great Dane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Shah, Anoli; Goel, Vijay; Costa, Fabiano Séllos; da Costa, Ronaldo Casimiro

    2018-01-29

    Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots. Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Finite element models have been used for years in human medicine to study the dynamic behavior of structures, but it has been mostly overlooked in veterinary studies. To our knowledge, no specific ligamentous spine models have been developed to investigate naturally occurring canine myelopathies and possible surgical treatments. The goal of this study was to develop a finite element model (FEM) of the C 2 -C 7 segment of the ligamentous cervical vertebral column of a neurologically normal Great Dane without imaging changes. The FEM of the intact C 2 -C 7 cervical vertebral column had a total of 188,906 elements (175,715 tetra elements and 12,740 hexa elements). The range of motion (in degrees) for the FEM subjected to a moment of 2Nm was approximately 27.94 in flexion, 25.86 in extension, 24.14 in left lateral bending, 25.27 in right lateral bending, 17.44 in left axial rotation, and 16.72 in right axial rotation. We constructed a ligamentous FEM of the C 2 -C 7 vertebral column of a Great Dane dog, which can serve as a platform to be modified and adapted for studies related to biomechanics of the cervical vertebral column and to further improve studies on osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  18. Labor market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Labor market segmentation theories arose as an alternative to neoclassical notions of labor and labor markets in the 1970s. After briefly revisiting the strengths and the weaknesses of this approach, the article discusses more recent developments around the question of difference and diversity in labor markets, directing attention to three key developments associated with the rise of neoliberal capitalism: (i) the formation of entrepreneurial subjectivities and the treatment of labor as a div...

  19. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  20. Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in Vertebral Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparisi, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are minimally invasive treatments and indispensable tools in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures. This method of treatment is performed using fluoroscopy or a scanner control an access via the pedicle or the posterolateral angle of the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty requires a smaller caliber needle than kyphoplasty, so it is technically easier. Vertebroplasty uses high-pressure injection, whereas in kyphoplasty the injection is held at low pressure, which together with the effect of compression on the bone that the balloon produces reduces the risk and rate of cement leakage. Vertebroplasty is effective in managing osteoporotic compression vertebral fractures, with improvement in pain and quality of life in the immediate postoperative period and over the medium term.Both techniques have a very low complication rate. There is no consensus on whether the emergence of new fractures in the cases treated by vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are related to mechanical variations that were introduced or is a complication related to the age and evolution of the patient's osteoporosis. Even with this risk of new fractures, the improvement in quality of life obtained after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty treatment is worthwhile. The benefits outweigh the risks. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  2. Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Hussain Dar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade of the spine (primary, which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement.

  3. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  4. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  5. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  6. The vertebrate heart: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Andrea; Adams, Justin W; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2017-09-14

    Convergence is the tendency of independent species to evolve similarly when subjected to the same environmental conditions. The primitive blueprint for the circulatory system emerged around 700-600 Mya and exhibits diverse physiological adaptations across the radiations of vertebrates (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata). It has evolved from the early chordate circulatory system with a single layered tube in the tunicate (Subphylum Urchordata) or an amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata), to a vertebrate circulatory system with a two-chambered heart made up of one atrium and one ventricle in gnathostome fish (Infraphylum Gnathostomata), to a system with a three-chambered heart made up of two atria which maybe partially divided or completely separated in amphibian tetrapods (Class Amphibia). Subsequent tetrapods, including crocodiles and alligators (Order Crocodylia, Subclass Crocodylomorpha, Class Reptilia), birds (Subclass Aves, Class Reptilia) and mammals (Class Mammalia) evolved a four-chambered heart. The structure and function of the circulatory system of each individual holds a vital role which benefits each species specifically. The special characteristics of the four-chamber mammalian heart are highlighted by the peculiar structure of the myocardial muscle. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  7. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-04-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems.

  8. Appearance of Myelin proteins during vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehneldt, T V; Matthieu, J M; Jeserich, G

    1986-01-01

    Myelin, defined as an arrangement of spirally fused unit membranes, is an acquisition of vertebrates and first appeared during evolution in Gnathostomata. In all species studied PNS and CNS myelins contain the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the myelin basic protein (MBP). Throughout phylogeny PNS myelin is characterized by the major P(0) glycoprotein which is called IP in fishes. The PNS myelin proteins did not evolve further except for the addition of P(2) protein from reptiles onward. In Elasmobranchii and Chondrostei, PNS and CNS myelin proteins are similar. CNS myelin of actinopterygian fishes possesses a 36,000 Da protein (36K) in addition to P(0)-like IP glycoproteins. In tetrapod CNS myelin, P(0) is replaced by the proteolipid protein (PLP) and the Wolfgram protein (WP). Of particular interest in a transitional phylogenetic sense are the lungfish Protopterus, carrying glycosylated PLP (g-PLP) but no P(0), 36K or WP, and the bichir Polypterus, showing simultaneous presence of P(0), 36K and PLP. These results indicate that myelin proteins could be valuable molecular markers in establishing vertebrate phylogenetic relationships and in reconstructing the fish-tetrapod transition.

  9. Predictors of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming in Czech teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilková, Jana; Chomynová, Pavla; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Young people's involvement in online gaming and the use of social media are increasing rapidly, resulting in a high number of excessive Internet users in recent years. The objective of this paper is to analyze the situation of excessive Internet use among adolescents in the Czech Republic and to reveal determinants of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming. Methods Data from secondary school students (N = 4,887) were collected within the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Logistic regression models were constructed to describe the individual and familial discriminative factors and the impact of the health risk behavior of (a) excessive users of social media and (b) excessive players of online games. Results The models confirmed important gender-specific distinctions - while girls are more prone to online communication and social media use, online gaming is far more prevalent among boys. The analysis did not indicate an influence of family composition on both the excessive use of social media and on excessive online gaming, and only marginal effects for the type of school attended. We found a connection between the excessive use of social media and binge drinking and an inverse relation between excessive online gaming and daily smoking. Discussion and conclusion The non-existence of significant associations between family environment and excessive Internet use confirmed the general, widespread of this phenomenon across the social and economic strata of the teenage population, indicating a need for further studies on the topic.

  10. Evolution of Adaptive Immune Recognition in Jawless Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Nil Ratan; Smith, Jeramiah; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2010-01-01

    All extant vertebrates possess an adaptive immune system wherein diverse immune receptors are created and deployed in specialized blood cell lineages. Recent advances in DNA sequencing and developmental resources for basal vertebrates have facilitated numerous comparative analyses that have shed new light on the molecular and cellular bases of immune defense and the mechanisms of immune receptor diversification in the “jawless” vertebrates. With data from these key species in hand, it is beco...

  11. Measurement of angular and linear segmental lumbar spine flexion-extension motion by means of image registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, L; Irwan, R; Oudkerk, M

    Background The presently available method of measuring segmental lumbar spine mobility by means of superimposition of lumbar spine radiographs in flexion and extension lacks precision due to differences in the cortical outline of the vertebral bodies in flexed and extended position. The introduction

  12. Explaining CMS lepton excesses with supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. Allanach, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    1) Kostas Theofilatos will give an introduction to CMS result 2) Ben Allanach: Several CMS analyses involving di-leptons have recently reported small 2.4-2.8 sigma local excesses: nothing to get too excited about, but worth keeping an eye on nonetheless. In particular, a search in the $lljj p_T$(miss) channel, a search for $W_R$ in the $lljj$ channel and a di-leptoquark search in the $lljj$ channel and $ljj p_T$(miss) channel have all yielded small excesses. We interpret the first excess in the MSSM, showing that the interpretation is viable in terms of other constraints, despite only having squark masses of around 1 TeV. We can explain the last three excesses with a single R-parity violating coupling that predicts a non-zero contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ogata T. Genomic basis of aromatase excess syndrome: recombination- and replication-mediated rearrangements leading to CYP19A1 overexpression. ... 2013 Oct 18. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  14. Prevention of modern teenager's computer excessive gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsutdinova, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the prevention of young people's excessive gambling. The article organized and convincingly derived the prevention strategies dependent gaming behavior among young people and teenagers.

  15. Excessive deforestation of Gishwati Mountainous forest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sigp1. Excessive deforestation of Gishwati. Mountainous forest & biodiversity changes. Introduction. The Change in Forest cover in. Rwanda is result of the high growth of population density. The latter has doubled between 1978 and 2002. Over.

  16. Spinal segmental dysgenesis CASE SERIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality seen in neonates and infants, in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally. The condition is segmental in nature, with vertebrae above and below the malformation. It is commonly associated with various abnormalities that ...

  17. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  18. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  19. Individual bone structure segmentation and labeling from low-dose chest CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Xie, Yiting; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2017-03-01

    The segmentation and labeling of the individual bones serve as the first step to the fully automated measurement of skeletal characteristics and the detection of abnormalities such as skeletal deformities, osteoporosis, and vertebral fractures. Moreover, the identified landmarks on the segmented bone structures can potentially provide relatively reliable location reference to other non-rigid human organs, such as breast, heart and lung, thereby facilitating the corresponding image analysis and registration. A fully automated anatomy-directed framework for the segmentation and labeling of the individual bone structures from low-dose chest CT is presented in this paper. The proposed system consists of four main stages: First, both clavicles are segmented and labeled by fitting a piecewise cylindrical envelope. Second, the sternum is segmented under the spatial constraints provided by the segmented clavicles. Third, all ribs are segmented and labeled based on 3D region growing within the volume of interest defined with reference to the spinal canal centerline and lungs. Fourth, the individual thoracic vertebrae are segmented and labeled by image intensity based analysis in the spatial region constrained by the previously segmented bone structures. The system performance was validated with 1270 lowdose chest CT scans through visual evaluation. Satisfactory performance was obtained respectively in 97.1% cases for the clavicle segmentation and labeling, in 97.3% cases for the sternum segmentation, in 97.2% cases for the rib segmentation, in 94.2% cases for the rib labeling, in 92.4% cases for vertebra segmentation and in 89.9% cases for the vertebra labeling.

  20. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Osteoporotic vertebral fracture simulating a spinal tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fractures are a frequent entity, mainly in the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. In some circumstances the differential diagnosis of vertebral injuries can confuse the physician, since the difference between an osteoporotic vertebral fracture and a fracture secondary to a tumor is not clear. We report the case of a patient with osteoporotic vertebral fracture simulating a spinal tumor, handled by our department of neurosurgery as illustrative experience to guide the approach in those cases, in which the definitive diagnosis is crucial for therapeutic decision making

  2. Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, I J; Smith, M P; Armstrong, H A; Smith, M M

    1992-05-29

    From histological investigations into the microstructure of conodont elements, a number of tissue types characteristic of the phosphatic skeleton of vertebrates have been identified. These include cellular bone, two forms of hypermineralized enamel homologs, and globular calcified cartilage. The presence of cellular bone in conodont elements provides unequivocal evidence for their vertebrate affinities. Furthermore, the identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrate hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician (475 million years ago) to the Late Cambrian (515 million years ago).

  3. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    of SM and LPC and the amount of alcohol consumption during the past month. The proposal has both scientific and practical significance in... alcohol use (EAU). Drinking becomes excessive when it causes or elevates the risk for alcohol -related problems or complicates the management of other...the quantity of alcohol consumption during the past month. 2. KEYWORDS: Excessive alcohol use, lipidomics, timeline follow back 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  4. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  5. Organizational Inertia and Excessive Product Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuraki, Rie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the internal factors of excessive product proliferation. Since empirical literature on product over-proliferation focused on how to optimize existing product portfolio, the causes of excessive product proliferation have so far attracted little attention. This study employs a case study of Shiseido, a famous Japanese cosmetics company, with particular attention to product proliferation in the Shiseido chain store channel, because external factors are mostly absent from ...

  6. The ‘Tully monster’ is a vertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Victoria E.; Saupe, Erin E.; Lamsdell, James C.; Tarhan, Lidya G.; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D.; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G.; Anderson, Ross P.; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2016-03-16

    Abstract Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica'(1), particularly the 'weird wonders'(2) of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium(3), popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans(4,5), polychaetes(4), gastropods(4), conodonts(6), and the stem arthropod Opabinia(4). Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes(3-6). We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys(7-9), a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years

  7. The ‘Tully monster’ is a vertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Victoria E.; Saupe, Erin E.; Lamsdell, James C.; Tarhan, Lidya G.; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D.; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G.; Anderson, Ross P.; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the ‘problem of the problematica’, particularly the ‘weird wonders’ of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.

  8. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-11-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology.

  9. Validation tools for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padfield, Dirk; Ross, James

    2009-02-01

    A large variety of image analysis tasks require the segmentation of various regions in an image. For example, segmentation is required to generate accurate models of brain pathology that are important components of modern diagnosis and therapy. While the manual delineation of such structures gives accurate information, the automatic segmentation of regions such as the brain and tumors from such images greatly enhances the speed and repeatability of quantifying such structures. The ubiquitous need for such algorithms has lead to a wide range of image segmentation algorithms with various assumptions, parameters, and robustness. The evaluation of such algorithms is an important step in determining their effectiveness. Therefore, rather than developing new segmentation algorithms, we here describe validation methods for segmentation algorithms. Using similarity metrics comparing the automatic to manual segmentations, we demonstrate methods for optimizing the parameter settings for individual cases and across a collection of datasets using the Design of Experiment framework. We then employ statistical analysis methods to compare the effectiveness of various algorithms. We investigate several region-growing algorithms from the Insight Toolkit and compare their accuracy to that of a separate statistical segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithms are used with their optimized parameters to automatically segment the brain and tumor regions in MRI images of 10 patients. The validation tools indicate that none of the ITK algorithms studied are able to outperform with statistical significance the statistical segmentation algorithm although they perform reasonably well considering their simplicity.

  10. FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  11. Weighted entropy for segmentation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jesmin F.; Bhuiyan, Sharif M.

    2014-04-01

    In many image, video and computer vision systems the image segmentation is an essential part. Significant research has been done in image segmentation and a number of quantitative evaluation methods have already been proposed in the literature. However, often the segmentation evaluation is subjective that means it has been done visually or qualitatively. A segmentation evaluation method based on entropy is proposed in this work which is objective and simple to implement. A weighted self and mutual entropy are proposed to measure the dissimilarity of the pixels among the segmented regions and the similarity within a region. This evaluation technique gives a score that can be used to compare different segmentation algorithms for the same image, or to compare the segmentation results of a given algorithm with different images, or to find the best suited values of the parameters of a segmentation algorithm for a given image. The simulation results show that the proposed method can identify over-segmentation, under-segmentation, and the good segmentation.

  12. Topology and dynamics of the zebrafish segmentation clock core circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schröter

    Full Text Available During vertebrate embryogenesis, the rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the body axis is regulated by an oscillating genetic network termed the segmentation clock. We describe a new dynamic model for the core pace-making circuit of the zebrafish segmentation clock based on a systematic biochemical investigation of the network's topology and precise measurements of somitogenesis dynamics in novel genetic mutants. We show that the core pace-making circuit consists of two distinct negative feedback loops, one with Her1 homodimers and the other with Her7:Hes6 heterodimers, operating in parallel. To explain the observed single and double mutant phenotypes of her1, her7, and hes6 mutant embryos in our dynamic model, we postulate that the availability and effective stability of the dimers with DNA binding activity is controlled in a "dimer cloud" that contains all possible dimeric combinations between the three factors. This feature of our model predicts that Hes6 protein levels should oscillate despite constant hes6 mRNA production, which we confirm experimentally using novel Hes6 antibodies. The control of the circuit's dynamics by a population of dimers with and without DNA binding activity is a new principle for the segmentation clock and may be relevant to other biological clocks and transcriptional regulatory networks.

  13. [What nosographic framework for excessive tanning?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2014-04-01

    Socially valorised tanning, like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. Excessive tanning, defined by the presence of impulsivity and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, is a psychiatric disorder that has only recently been recognized. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report an addictive relationship in their patients with tanning cabins despite announcement of the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on excessive tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, aetiology, and treatment of this disorder. The literature review was conducted from 1983 to 2012, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: Tanning, Addiction, Sunbeds, Skin cancer prevention, and Treatment. We investigated different models to determine how excessive tanning met these criteria. Excessive Tanning was described in the 2000s by an American dermatologist, Carolyn Heckman. Wartham et al. were the first to have proposed a theoretical framework for addiction to sunbathing, as well as two scales (m CAGE and m DSM IV) for the diagnosis and to assess the degree of addiction. These diagnostic criteria describe the craving like-symptoms, the feeling of losing control, or the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of negative consequences. Excessive Tanning is not present in the classifications of the DSM or ICD, but may be related to Addiction, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Impulse control disorders, Anorexia, or Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Excessive tanning can be included in the spectrum of behavioural addictions due its clinical characteristics in common with classics addictive disorders. They are a variety of other models, which may offer an explanation for or insight into tanning behaviour. Further studies must be controlled, notably on

  14. Segmental neurofibromatosis of face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anuja; Thappa, Devinder M; Jayanthi, S; Shivaswamy, K N

    2005-12-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with asymptomatic skin lesions over the left side of the face of 5-years duration. He had multiple discrete soft-to-firm papules and nodules on the left side of the face along the distribution of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Histopathology examination of one of the nodules (face) showed a non-encapsulated tumor of the dermis with normal overlying epidermis. The tumor consisted of loosely spaced spindle cells and wavy collagenous strands in a clear matrix. These features were consistent with our clinical diagnosis of segmental neurofibromatosis. This case is reported for its rarity and typical manifestations.

  15. Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-12-01

    In recent years different lines of evidence have led to the idea that motor actions and movements in both vertebrates and invertebrates are composed of elementary building blocks. The entire motor repertoire can be spanned by applying a well-defined set of operations and transformations to these primitives and by combining them in many different ways according to well-defined syntactic rules. Motor and movement primitives and modules might exist at the neural, dynamic and kinematic levels with complicated mapping among the elementary building blocks subserving these different levels of representation. Hence, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in unravelling the nature of these primitives, new experimental, computational and conceptual approaches are needed to further advance our understanding of motor compositionality.

  16. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  17. High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M; Wählby, Carolina; Fatih Yanik, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometre resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semitransparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping. To illustrate the power of hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping, we have analysed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements, and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals.

  18. Giant cell tumor of dorsal vertebral body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Redhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old female patient presented with complaints of backache, weakness in both lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Imaging showed an osteolytic lesion at tenth dorsal (D10 vertebra with anterior compression on the spinal cord. Complete intralesional tumor excision with reconstruction was carried out using the anterolateral extrapleural approach. Histopathological examination was suggestive of giant cell tumor (GCT. Because of complete intralesional tumor excision and fear of post-radiation osteonecrosis of bone used for delayed bony union, a conservative approach was used, and radiation therapy was not given. After one year of follow-up patient is doing well without any recurrence of the tumor and is ambulant with support. GCT of dorsal vertebral body is an uncommon entity and total en bloc excision is difficult. Therefore, the treatment strategy is not well-defined. We discuss in brief about incidence, presentation and various treatment modalities available for spinal GCT.

  19. Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment of Gummy Smile with Vertical Maxillary Excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical maxillary excess is a well-defined clinical entity with several treatment options available. Treatment of the condition requires extremely well-coordinated orthodontic and surgical treatment planning and execution. This case report describes a multidisciplinary approach in the successful management of a patient with severe vertical maxillary excess. Careful selection and good execution of a surgical-orthodontic treatment plan in the management of vertical maxillary excess provided the superior esthetic and functional results in this case. Maxillary Le Forte 1 procedure was performed for vertical maxillary impaction along with anterior segmental setback. The presented technique was unique as it shortened the treatment time and esthetic results in smile and vertical proportions were achieved.

  20. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is ''typical'' (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an ''atypical'' appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots (''aggressive'' VHs). These ''atypical'' and ''aggressive'' VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. (orig.)

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. 52 SAJR June 2013 Vol. 17 No. 2. Vertebral artery injuries are rare, with an incidence of 0.1 - 1.0%, if all patients admitted with blunt head trauma are considered.[1] It is not unusual for vertebral artery injury to occur when there are fractures through the transverse foraminae of the first to the sixth ...

  2. Vertebrate pests of cassava in Africa and their control | Cudjoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much attention bas been given to almost all agents that cause losses to crops with the possible exception of vertebrate pests of which comparatively little is known in relation to farming activities. Due to the paucity of information on vertebrate pests there is very little or no indication of what damage is caused by which pest, ...

  3. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siepel, Adam; Bejerano, Gill; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three spe...... for RNA secondary structure....

  4. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  5. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery from the aortic arch ranges between 1% and 5.8%.1,2 This anomaly has important implications for thoracic surgery and interventional procedures. The left vertebral artery may originate from: • the left common carotid artery. • the root of the left subclavian artery ...

  6. Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of human foetuses. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Cervical parts of vertebral canal in 30 normal human foetuses was exposed in coronal plane and were divided in groups 1 and 2 which correspond with 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively. Groups 1 ...

  7. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  8. Can vertebral density changes be explained by intervertebral disc degeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homminga, J.J.; Aquarius, R.J.; Bulsink, V.E.; Jansen, C.T.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major problems facing the elderly spine is the occurrence of vertebral fractures due to low bone mass. Although typically attributed to osteoporosis, disc degeneration has also been suggested to play a role in vertebral fractures. Existing bone adaptation theories and simulations may

  9. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloen, P; Patterson, J D; Wintman, B I; Ozuna, R M; Brick, G W

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

  10. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  11. Antidepressant induced excessive yawning and indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Palazzo Nazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antidepressant induced excessive yawning has been described as a possible side effect of pharmacotherapy. A syndrome of indifference has also been described as another possible side effect. The frequency of those phenomena and their physiopathology are unknown. They are both considered benign and reversible after antidepressant discontinuation but severe cases with complications as temporomandibular lesions, have been described. Methods We report two unprecedented cases in which excessive yawning and indifference occurred simultaneously as side effects of antidepressant therapy, discussing possible physiopathological mechanisms for this co-occurrence. Case 1: A male patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 80/day and apathy after venlafaxine XR treatment. Symptoms reduced after a switch to escitalopram, with a reduction to 50 yawns/day. Case 2: A female patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 25/day and inability to react to environmental stressors with desvenlafaxine. Conclusion Induction of indifference and excessive yawning may be modulated by serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. One proposal to unify these side effects would be enhancement of serotonin in midbrain, especially paraventricular and raphe nucleus.

  12. Segmented Target Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhi, Abdul Rahman; Frank, Nathan; Gueye, Paul; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A proposed segmented target would improve decay energy measurements of neutron-unbound nuclei. Experiments like this have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) located at Michigan State University. Many different nuclei are produced in such experiments, some of which immediately decay into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are bent by a large magnet and measured by a suite of charged particle detectors. The neutrons are measured by the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). With the current target setup, a nucleus in a neutron-unbound state is produced with a radioactive beam impinged upon a beryllium target. The resolution of these measurements is very dependent on the target thickness since the nuclear interaction point is unknown. In a segmented target using alternating layers of silicon detectors and Be-targets, the Be-target in which the nuclear reaction takes place would be determined. Thus the experimental resolution would improve. This poster will describe the improvement over the current target along with the status of the design. Work supported by Augustana College and the National Science Foundation grant #0969173.

  13. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Poliakov

    Full Text Available In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT, which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma, but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey, a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa (previously annotated as an RPE65 has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65, coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates

  14. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Dynamic properties of the segmentation clock mediated by microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Yuan, Julin; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lv, Cheng; Lu, Shengming; Xiong, Haoshan; Tang, Huaqiao; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Somites are embryonic precursors that give rise to the axial skeleton and skeletal muscles and form the segmental vertebrate body plan. Somitogenesis is controlled by the "segmentation clock", which contains multiple oscillator genes that must be tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels for proper clock function. However, how the segmentation clock governs the formation of the somites at post-transcriptional level, remains unclear. In this work, we develop an integrated model with three modules for the segmentation clock and explore the mechanism for somite segmentation based on the dynamics of the network. By numerical simulations, we find that the amplitude and period of the somite segmentation clock are sensitive to Notch activity, which is fine-tuned by Lunatic fringe (Lfng) and microRNA (miRNA), and Lfng and miRNA are essential for forming the proper segmentation during somitogenesis. Moreover, miRNA is found to have a crucial role in minimizing the fluctuation period and amplitude to maintain coherent oscillation. Introduction of stochasticity in the model enables us to explain the available experimental data with dampening of oscillations. These findings uncover a fresh mechanism for regulation of the segmentation clock at a post-transcriptional level and provide important insights into how the relatively subtle effects of miRNAs on target genes can have broad effects in developmental situations that have critical requirements for tight posttranscriptional regulation.

  16. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R.; Zilliacus, Kelly M.; Holmes, Nick D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth’s terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:29075662

  17. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  18. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  19. Photoreceptor vitality in organotypic cultures of mature vertebrate retinas validated by light-dependent molecular movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidel, Boris; Orisme, Wilda; Goldmann, Tobias; Smith, W Clay; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2006-12-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptor cells are polarized neurons highly specialized for light absorption and visual signal transduction. Photoreceptor cells consist of the light sensitive outer segment and the biosynthetic active inner segment linked by a slender connecting cilium. The function of mature photoreceptor cells is strictly dependent on this compartmentalization which is maintained in the specialized retinal environment. To keep this fragile morphologic and functional composition for further cell biological studies and treatments we established organotypic retina cultures of mature mice and Xenopus laevis. The organotypic retina cultures of both model organisms are created as co-cultures of the retina and the pigment epithelium, still attached to outer segments of the photoreceptor cells. To demonstrate the suitability of the culture system for physiological analyses we performed apoptotic cell death analyses and verified photoreceptor viability. Furthermore, light-dependent bidirectional movements of arrestin and transducin in photoreceptors in vivo and in the retinal cultures were indistinguishable indicating normal photoreceptor cell-biologic function in organotypic cultures. Our established culture systems allow the analysis of mature photoreceptor cells and their accessibility to treatments, characteristic for common cell culture. Furthermore, this culturing technique also provides an appropriate system for gene delivery to retinal cells and will serve to simulate gene therapeutic approaches prior to difficult and time-consuming in vivo experiments.

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Giant P1/P2 Aneurysm by Direct Puncture of the Vertebral Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajner, M.; Obsza_Ska, K.; Nestorowicz, A.; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, M.; Trojanowski, T.

    2003-01-01

    Summary Vascular access is usually achieved through a femoral arterial puncture using a modified Seldinger technique. However, selective catheterization of the great cerebral vessels by femoral approach fails completely when the vessel is tortuous or atheromatous. In case of posterior vascular circulation aneurysms, transbrachial approach or direct puncture of the vertebral artery (VA) is an alternative. The aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are reported to be rare. Due to unfavorable anatomic location, the PCA aneurysms are difficult to reach during surgical procedure. Endovascular embolization is at present considered to be more effective and safer treatment of the PCA aneurysms arising from different segments, offering a viable alternative to the surgical approach. We report the case of the giant left PCA aneurysm, located at the junction of P1/P2 segments, successfully treated by parent artery occlusion achieved after the direct puncture of the right VA which was used because both VAs were tortuous, irregular and their ostia were not accessible by femoral approach. According to different authors, parent artery occlusion appears to be safe in the treatment of P2 segment aneurysms, whatever the location of the occlusion. In our case we decided to perform this kind of treatment believing it was the only possible one. PMID:20591315

  1. The relationship between the spinopelvic balance and the incidence of adjacent vertebral fractures following percutaneous vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S-W; Kim, C; Chang, H

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the relationship between sagittal spinopelvic parameters and the occurrence of adjacent vertebral fractures (AVF) and determined the possible risk factor. The most important factors for AVFs are the degree of osteoporosis and altered biomechanics due to the spinopelvic imbalance in the fractured area of the spine. We intend to evaluate the relationship between sagittal spinopelvic parameters and the occurrence of adjacent vertebral fractures following the initial compression fracture and to determine the possible dominant risk factor associated with new compression fractures. From March 2010 to May 2012, 240 consecutive patients with painful vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) were enrolled in a retrospective study. Ninety-one patients with VCFs underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) at 112 levels. The sagittal vertical axis (SVA), thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), and segmental kyphotic angle on sagittal standing radiographs were used to evaluate radiologic outcomes. In 2 years, 15 out of 134 patients (11.1%) treated with conservative treatment, and 12 out of 91 patients (13.1%) treated with VP sustained adjacent level fracture. More patients with the BMD higher or equal to 3.0 experienced a new fracture than those with a BMD less than 3.0 (p = 0.019), and the risk for adjacent level fractures decreased significantly when segmental kyphotic angle was less than 11° (p = 0.001), SVA was less than 6 cm (p = 0.001), SS was higher or equal to 25° (p = 0.004), and LL was higher or equal to 25° (p = 0.020). The most important factors for new VCFs after the initial compression fractures are the degree of osteoporosis and altered biomechanics due to the spinopelvic imbalance in the fractured area of the spine. Regarding the spinopelvic alignment to investigate the relationship with a subsequent AVF, segmental kyphotic angle, SS, LL, and SVA may be a potential

  2. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  3. Vertebrate DNA in fecal samples from bonobos and gorillas: evidence for meat consumption or artefact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hofreiter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deciphering the behavioral repertoire of great apes is a challenge for several reasons. First, due to their elusive behavior in dense forest environments, great ape populations are often difficult to observe. Second, members of the genus Pan are known to display a great variety in their behavioral repertoire; thus, observations from one population are not necessarily representative for other populations. For example, bonobos (Pan paniscus are generally believed to consume almost no vertebrate prey. However, recent observations show that at least some bonobo populations may consume vertebrate prey more commonly than previously believed. We investigated the extent of their meat consumption using PCR amplification of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA segments from DNA extracted from bonobo feces. As a control we also attempted PCR amplifications from gorilla feces, a species assumed to be strictly herbivorous. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found evidence for consumption of a variety of mammalian species in about 16% of the samples investigated. Moreover, 40% of the positive DNA amplifications originated from arboreal monkeys. However, we also found duiker and monkey mtDNA in the gorilla feces, albeit in somewhat lower percentages. Notably, the DNA sequences isolated from the two ape species fit best to the species living in the respective regions. This result suggests that the sequences are of regional origin and do not represent laboratory contaminants. CONCLUSIONS: Our results allow at least three possible and mutually not exclusive conclusions. First, all results may represent contamination of the feces by vertebrate DNA from the local environment. Thus, studies investigating a species' diet from feces DNA may be unreliable due to the low copy number of DNA originating from diet items. Second, there is some inherent difference between the bonobo and gorilla feces, with only the later ones being contaminated. Third, similar to bonobos, for

  4. Vertebrate DNA in Fecal Samples from Bonobos and Gorillas: Evidence for Meat Consumption or Artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael; Kreuz, Eva; Eriksson, Jonas; Schubert, Grit; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Background Deciphering the behavioral repertoire of great apes is a challenge for several reasons. First, due to their elusive behavior in dense forest environments, great ape populations are often difficult to observe. Second, members of the genus Pan are known to display a great variety in their behavioral repertoire; thus, observations from one population are not necessarily representative for other populations. For example, bonobos (Pan paniscus) are generally believed to consume almost no vertebrate prey. However, recent observations show that at least some bonobo populations may consume vertebrate prey more commonly than previously believed. We investigated the extent of their meat consumption using PCR amplification of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments from DNA extracted from bonobo feces. As a control we also attempted PCR amplifications from gorilla feces, a species assumed to be strictly herbivorous. Principal Findings We found evidence for consumption of a variety of mammalian species in about 16% of the samples investigated. Moreover, 40% of the positive DNA amplifications originated from arboreal monkeys. However, we also found duiker and monkey mtDNA in the gorilla feces, albeit in somewhat lower percentages. Notably, the DNA sequences isolated from the two ape species fit best to the species living in the respective regions. This result suggests that the sequences are of regional origin and do not represent laboratory contaminants. Conclusions Our results allow at least three possible and mutually not exclusive conclusions. First, all results may represent contamination of the feces by vertebrate DNA from the local environment. Thus, studies investigating a species' diet from feces DNA may be unreliable due to the low copy number of DNA originating from diet items. Second, there is some inherent difference between the bonobo and gorilla feces, with only the later ones being contaminated. Third, similar to bonobos, for which the

  5. Improving the segmentation for weed recognition applications based on standard RGB cameras using optical filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik

    diseases, weeds and fungus. A common method for interpretation is based on the leaf shape. However in order to reliably achieve a good description of the shape a good segmentation is required. The excess green index is one of the most common methods for green vegetation segmentation within agriculture....... This method utilizes that most vegetation reflects more green light than blue and red. As silicon based image sensors is also sensitive to near-infrared light a typical rgb-camera will have a filter in place to block the near-infrared light. When using excess green the ideal filter would be a sinc...... for green vegetation segmentation we are able to attain a significantly improved segmentation under controlled illumination....

  6. Interplay between a Wnt-dependent organiser and the Notch segmentation clock regulates posterior development in Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Chesebro

    2012-12-01

    Sequential addition of segments in the posteriorly growing end of the embryo is a developmental mechanism common to many bilaterians. However, posterior growth and patterning in most animals also entails the establishment of a ‘posterior organiser’ that expresses the Caudal and Wnt proteins and has been proposed to be an ancestral feature of animal development. We have studied the functional relationships between the Wnt-driven organiser and the segmentation mechanisms in a basal insect, the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Here, posteriorly-expressed Wnt1 promotes caudal and Delta expression early in development to generate a growth zone from which segments will later bud off. caudal maintains the undifferentiated growth zone by dampening Delta expression, and hence Notch-mediated segmentation occurs just outside the caudal domain. In turn, Delta expression maintains Wnt1, maintaining this posterior gene network until all segments have formed. This feedback between caudal, Wnt and Notch-signalling in regulating growth and segmentation seems conserved in other arthropods, with some aspects found even in vertebrates. Thus our findings not only support an ancestral Wnt posterior organiser, but also impinge on the proposals for a common origin of segmentation in arthropods, annelids and vertebrates.

  7. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  8. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most of these patients do not always present with typical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Treatment can be very challenging as drugs commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism have little effect on already formed thyroid hormone due to iodine excess. PMID:22053166

  9. The Lamprey: A jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. PMID:24560767

  10. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    ), the classical reconstruction methods suffer from their inability to handle limited and/ or corrupted data. Form any analysis tasks computationally demanding segmentation methods are used to automatically segment an object, after using a simple reconstruction method as a first step. In the literature, methods...... such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction...... problem. The tests showed a clear improvement for realistic materials simulations and that the one-stage method was clearly more robust toward noise. The noise-robustness result could be a step toward making this method more applicable for lab-scale experiments. We have introduced a segmentation...

  11. [The Efficacy of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting for Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection due to Cervical Vertebral Fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Misato; Nii, Kouhei; Sakamoto, Kimiya; Kawahara, Kanae; Inoue, Ritsurou; Hiraoka, Fumihiro; Morinaga, Yusuke; Mitsutake, Takafumi; Hanada, Hayatsura; Tsutsumi, Masanori

    2018-02-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted at another hospital after a traffic accident. The diagnosis was cervical vertebral fracture. Despite conservative treatment, 5 days later he manifested dysarthria due to cerebellar infarction and was transferred to our hospital. Imaging studies revealed right vertebral arterial dissection at the level of the axial fracture. We performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting to address his subacute vertebral artery dissection prior to treating the cervical vertebral fracture using external fixation. His clinical course was good;ischemia did not recur after stenting and his dysarthria disappeared upon rehabilitation. Cerebral angiograms obtained 6 months later revealed no significant in-stent restenosis. While medical management tends to be the first-line treatment of traumatic vertebral artery dissection, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting is necessary before treating other traumatic lesions to prevent neurologic events.

  12. Effect of Torsion on Externally Prestressed Segmental Concrete Bridge with Shear Key

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Algorafi; A. A. A. Ali; Jaafar, M.S.; I. Othman; M. P. Anwar; Rashid, R

    2009-01-01

    Externally Prestressed Segmental (EPS) concrete box sections are widely used in the construction of bridge structures today. EPS concept has become an attractive tool for rehabilitation and strengthening of existing bridges which have insufficient strength and/or excessive deflection and cracking. Problem statement: EPS bridges are affected by combined stresses (bending, shear, normal, and torsional) at the joint interface between the segments. However, very limited researchers studied this t...

  13. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  14. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The manual delineation of gross tumour volume(GTV) for radiation therapy for head and neck cancer patients relies in some degree of pathological deviation from normal anatomical symmetry. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method for 3-dimensional determination of GTV...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated...... segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and symmetrical atlas was constructed...

  15. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices....... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  16. Generalizing cell segmentation and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhou; Li, Haixing

    2017-03-23

    In recent years, the microscopy technology for imaging cells has developed greatly and rapidly. The accompanying requirements for automatic segmentation and quantification of the imaged cells are becoming more and more. After studied widely in both scientific research and industrial applications for many decades, cell segmentation has achieved great progress, especially in segmenting some specific types of cells, e.g. muscle cells. However, it lacks a framework to address the cell segmentation problems generally. On the contrary, different segmentation methods were proposed to address the different types of cells, which makes the research work divergent. In addition, most of the popular segmentation and quantification tools usually require a great part of manual work. To make the cell segmentation work more convergent, we propose a framework that is able to segment different kinds of cells automatically and robustly in this paper. This framework evolves the previously proposed method in segmenting the muscle cells and generalizes it to be suitable for segmenting and quantifying a variety of cell images by adding more union cases. Compared to the previous methods, the segmentation and quantification accuracy of the proposed framework is also improved by three novel procedures: (1) a simplified calibration method is proposed and added for the threshold selection process; (2) a noise blob filter is proposed to get rid of the noise blobs. (3) a boundary smoothing filter is proposed to reduce the false seeds produced by the iterative erosion. As it turned out, the quantification accuracy of the proposed framework increases from 93.4 to 96.8% compared to the previous method. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed framework is also better in quantifying the muscle cells than two available state-of-the-art methods. The proposed framework is able to automatically segment and quantify more types of cells than state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  18. Image segmentation by graph partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ana Sofia; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we propose an hybrid method for the image segmentation which combines the edge-based, region-based and the morphological techniques in conjunction through the spectral based clustering approach. An initial partitioning of the image into atomic regions is set by applying a watershed method to the image gradient magnitude. This initial partition is the input to a computationally efficient region segmentation process which produces the final segmentation. We have applied our approach on several images of the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset. The results reveal the accuracy of the propose method.

  19. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  20. ADVANCED CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kesavaraja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.

  1. Quantitative dual-energy CT for phantomless evaluation of cancellous bone mineral density of the vertebral pedicle: correlation with pedicle screw pull-out strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, Julian L.; Booz, Christian; Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J.M.; Fischer, Sebastian; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Khan, M.F. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wesarg, Stefan [Fraunhofer IGD, Cognitive Computing and Medical Imaging, Darmstadt (Germany); Kafchitsas, Konstantinos [Spine Center, Asklepios Klinik Lindenlohe, Schwandorf (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate quantitative dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for phantomless analysis of cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebral pedicles and to assess the correlation with pedicle screw pull-out strength. Twenty-nine thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from cadaver specimens were examined with DECT. Using dedicated post-processing software, a pedicle screw vector was mapped (R1, intrapedicular segment of the pedicle vector; R2, intermediate segment; R3, intracorporal segment; global, all segments) and BMD was calculated. To invasively evaluate pedicle stability, pedicle screws were drilled through both pedicles and left pedicle screw pull-out strength was measured. Resulting values were correlated using the paired t test and Pearson's linear correlation. Average pedicle screw vector BMD (R1, 0.232 g/cm{sup 3}; R2, 0.166 g/cm{sup 3}; R3, 0.173 g/cm{sup 3}; global, 0.236 g/cm{sup 3}) showed significant differences between R1-R2 (P < 0.002) and R1-R3 (P < 0.034) segments while comparison of R2-R3 did not reach significance (P > 0.668). Average screw pull-out strength (639.2 N) showed a far stronger correlation with R1 (r = 0.80; P < 0.0001) than global BMD (r = 0.42; P = 0.025), R2 (r = 0.37; P = 0.048) and R3 (r = -0.33; P = 0.078) segments. Quantitative DECT allows for phantomless BMD assessment of the vertebral pedicle. BMD of the intrapedicular segment shows a significantly stronger correlation with pedicle screw pull-out strength than other segments. (orig.)

  2. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  3. Excessive Positivism in Person-Centered Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holburn, Steve; Cea, Christine D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the positivistic nature of person-centered planning (PCP) that is evident in the planning methods employed, the way that individuals with disabilities are described, and in portrayal of the outcomes of PCP. However, a confluence of factors can lead to manifestation of excessive positivism that does not serve PCP…

  4. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  5. Excessive prices as abuse of dominance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Møllgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    firm abused its position by charging excessive prices. We also test whether tightening of the Danish competition act has altered the pricing behaviour on the market. We discuss our results in the light of a Danish competition case against the dominant cement producer that was abandoned by the authority...

  6. Surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous reactions, such as gas-solid catalytic reactions, the reactions take place at the interfaces between the two phases: the gas and the solid catalyst. Large amount of reaction heats are released

  7. Origin of excess 176Hf in meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Kristine; Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin

    2010-01-01

    with Lu/Hf elemental ratios in meteorites older than similar to 4.56 Ga meteorites unresolved. We attribute (176)Hf excess in older meteorites to an accelerated decay of (176)Lu caused by excitation of the long-lived (176)Lu ground state to a short-lived (176m)Lu isomer. The energy needed to cause...

  8. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in European rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export nutrients to coastal waters. Excess nutrient export may result in harmful algal blooms and hypoxia, affecting biodiversity, fisheries, and recreation. The purpose of this study is to quantify for European rivers (1) the extent to which N and P loads exceed levels that minimize the

  9. Excessive infant crying : definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Hirasing, RA

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  10. Low excess air operations of oil boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Litzke, Wai Lin [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the benefits which operation at very low excess air operation may have on heat exchanger fouling BNL has recently started a test project. The test allows simultaneous measurement of fouling rate, flue gas filterable soot, flue gas sulfuric acid content, and flue gas sulfur dioxide.

  11. Posterior atlantoaxial fusion as treatment option for extracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Naokado; Hayashi, Hideki; Goto, Masanori; Satoi, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Koichi; Toda, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    Symptomatic extracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection may need surgery. We describe such a case successfully treated with atlantoaxial fusion based on its rare dynamic angiographic findings. A 27-year-old woman suffered from repeated brainstem and cerebellar infarctions from a left extracranial VA dissecting aneurysm. Dynamic angiography showed the dissecting aneurysm of the V3 segment in the neutral head position, and deflation of the aneurysm during rightward head rotation. She underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion, and the lesion was repaired with no subsequent ischemia. Posterior atlantoaxial fusion can be an option for some extracranial VA dissections with preserving its anterograde blood flow.

  12. MIA-Clustering: a novel method for segmentation of paleontological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Dunmore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleontological research increasingly uses high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT to study the inner architecture of modern and fossil bone material to answer important questions regarding vertebrate evolution. This non-destructive method allows for the measurement of otherwise inaccessible morphology. Digital measurement is predicated on the accurate segmentation of modern or fossilized bone from other structures imaged in μCT scans, as errors in segmentation can result in inaccurate calculations of structural parameters. Several approaches to image segmentation have been proposed with varying degrees of automation, ranging from completely manual segmentation, to the selection of input parameters required for computational algorithms. Many of these segmentation algorithms provide speed and reproducibility at the cost of flexibility that manual segmentation provides. In particular, the segmentation of modern and fossil bone in the presence of materials such as desiccated soft tissue, soil matrix or precipitated crystalline material can be difficult. Here we present a free open-source segmentation algorithm application capable of segmenting modern and fossil bone, which also reduces subjective user decisions to a minimum. We compare the effectiveness of this algorithm with another leading method by using both to measure the parameters of a known dimension reference object, as well as to segment an example problematic fossil scan. The results demonstrate that the medical image analysis-clustering method produces accurate segmentations and offers more flexibility than those of equivalent precision. Its free availability, flexibility to deal with non-bone inclusions and limited need for user input give it broad applicability in anthropological, anatomical, and paleontological contexts.

  13. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  14. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  15. Surgical strategy for intra- and extra-vertebral dumbbell-shaped tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Li-yong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical features and surgical strategy of intra- and extra-vertebral dumbbell-shaped tumors. Methods Clinical data of 39 patients with intra- and extra-vertebral tumor were retrospectively studied. The tumors were removed via posterior midline approach in 33 patients, and via posterior combined with anterior approach in 6 patients. Thirty patients underwent tumor resection and internal fixation. Lateral mass screw fixation was performed in the level of C3-7, while the pedicular screw fixation was performed in the level of C2 and thoracic and lumbar segment. Results Tumors were totally excised in all the cases. The patients were followed-up for 6 months to 5 years with an average of 18.67 months. Pain relief occured in 29 cases, of whom the average Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score decreased from (7.51 ± 1.05 before surgery to (3.17 ± 1.17 24 h after surgery (P < 0.05. The numbness area emerged or enlarged in 12 cases and was unchanged in 3 cases. The average American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA sensation score decreased from (218.67 ± 2.80 before surgery to (213.33 ± 2.16 24 h after surgery (P < 0.05, but it increased to (216.78 ± 1.47 6 months after operation (P < 0.05. The motor function improved in 18 cases, and ASIA motor function score improved from (92.33 ± 1.63 before surgery to (95.05 ± 1.41 6 months after operation (P < 0.05. No tumor recurrence and secondary spinal deformity were found. Conclusion Most cases of dumbbell-shaped intra- and extra-vertebral tumor can be totally removed with one-session microsurgery. In the cases with bony erosion caused by tumor and facetectomy, concurrent internal fixation and fusion were recommended in order to maintain spinal stability.

  16. Automatic vertebral bodies detection of x-ray images using invariant multiscale template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Sarabi, Mona; Villaroman, Diane; Beckett, Joel; Attiah, Mark; Marcus, Logan; Ahn, Christine; Babayan, Diana; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Macyszyn, Luke; Raghavendra, Cauligi

    2017-03-01

    Lower back pain and pathologies related to it are one of the most common results for a referral to a neurosurgical clinic in the developed and the developing world. Quantitative evaluation of these pathologies is a challenge. Image based measurements of angles/vertebral heights and disks could provide a potential quantitative biomarker for tracking and measuring these pathologies. Detection of vertebral bodies is a key element and is the focus of the current work. From the variety of medical imaging techniques, MRI and CT scans have been typically used for developing image segmentation methods. However, CT scans are known to give a large dose of x-rays, increasing cancer risk [8]. MRI can be substituted for CTs when the risk is high [8] but are difficult to obtain in smaller facilities due to cost and lack of expertise in the field [2]. X-rays provide another option with its ability to control the x-ray dosage, especially for young people, and its accessibility for smaller facilities. Hence, the ability to create quantitative biomarkers from x-ray data is especially valuable. Here, we develop a multiscale template matching, inspired by [9], to detect centers of vertebral bodies from x-ray data. The immediate application of such detection lies in developing quantitative biomarkers and in querying similar images in a database. Previously, shape similarity classification methods have been used to address this problem, but these are challenging to use in the presence of variation due to gross pathology and even subtle effects [1].

  17. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siminoski, Kerry [University of Alberta, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Edmonton (Canada); Lentle, Brian [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih [University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Ward, Leanne M. [University of Ottawa, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); Collaboration: The Canadian STOPP Consortium

    2014-04-15

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  18. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  19. Microtubules, polarity and vertebrate neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cearns, Michael D; Escuin, Sarah; Alexandre, Paula; Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are key cellular components, long known to participate in morphogenetic events that shape the developing embryo. However, the links between the cellular functions of MTs, their effects on cell shape and polarity, and their role in large-scale morphogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, these relationships were examined with respect to two strategies for generating the vertebrate neural tube: bending and closure of the mammalian neural plate; and cavitation of the teleost neural rod. The latter process has been compared with 'secondary' neurulation that generates the caudal spinal cord in mammals. MTs align along the apico-basal axis of the mammalian neuroepithelium early in neural tube closure, participating functionally in interkinetic nuclear migration, which indirectly impacts on cell shape. Whether MTs play other functional roles in mammalian neurulation remains unclear. In the zebrafish, MTs are important for defining the neural rod midline prior to its cavitation, both by localizing apical proteins at the tissue midline and by orienting cell division through a mirror-symmetric MT apparatus that helps to further define the medial localization of apical polarity proteins. Par proteins have been implicated in centrosome positioning in neuroepithelia as well as in the control of polarized morphogenetic movements in the neural rod. Understanding of MT functions during early nervous system development has so far been limited, partly by techniques that fail to distinguish 'cause' from 'effect'. Future developments will likely rely on novel ways to selectively impair MT function in order to investigate the roles they play. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  20. Cilia in vertebrate left-right patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-19

    Understanding how left-right (LR) asymmetry is generated in vertebrate embryos is an important problem in developmental biology. In humans, a failure to align the left and right sides of cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal systems often results in birth defects. Evidence from patients and animal models has implicated cilia in the process of left-right patterning. Here, we review the proposed functions for cilia in establishing LR asymmetry, which include creating transient leftward fluid flows in an embryonic 'left-right organizer'. These flows direct asymmetric activation of a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) signalling pathway that guides asymmetric morphogenesis of developing organs. We discuss the leading hypotheses for how cilia-generated asymmetric fluid flows are translated into asymmetric molecular signals. We also discuss emerging mechanisms that control the subcellular positioning of cilia and the cellular architecture of the left-right organizer, both of which are critical for effective cilia function during left-right patterning. Finally, using mosaic cell-labelling and time-lapse imaging in the zebrafish embryo, we provide new evidence that precursor cells maintain their relative positions as they give rise to the ciliated left-right organizer. This suggests the possibility that these cells acquire left-right positional information prior to the appearance of cilia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel

  2. Vertebrate bacterial gut diversity: size also matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, Jean-Jacques; Arulazhagan, Pugazhendi; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Hamelin, Jérôme

    2016-03-23

    One of the central issues in microbial ecology is to understand the parameters that drive diversity. Among these parameters, size has often been considered to be the main driver in many different ecosystems. Surprisingly, the influence of size on gut microbial diversity has not yet been investigated, and so far in studies reported in the literature only the influences of age, diet, phylogeny and digestive tract structures have been considered. This study explicitly challenges the underexplored relationship connecting gut volume and bacterial diversity. The bacterial diversity of 189 faeces produced by 71 vertebrate species covering a body mass range of 5.6 log. The animals comprised mammals, birds and reptiles. The diversity was evaluated based on the Simpson Diversity Index extracted from 16S rDNA gene fingerprinting patterns. Diversity presented an increase along with animal body mass following a power law with a slope z of 0.338 ± 0.027, whatever the age, phylogeny, diet or digestive tract structure. The results presented here suggest that gut volume cannot be neglected as a major driver of gut microbial diversity. The characteristics of the gut microbiota follow general principles of biogeography that arise in many ecological systems.

  3. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  4. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingda Hu

    Full Text Available Resistin (encoded by Retn was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  5. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organotin Exposure and Vertebrate Reproduction: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin (OTs compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms. In male animals, OTs decrease the weights of the testis and epididymis and reduce the spermatid count, among other dysfunctions. In female animals, OTs alter the weights of the ovaries and uteri and induce damage to the ovaries. In addition, OTs prevent fetal implantation and reduce mammalian pregnancy rates. OTs cross the placental barrier and accumulate in the placental and fetal tissues. Exposure to OTs in utero leads to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells and gonocytes of male offspring in addition to inducing early puberty in females. In both genders, this damage is associated with the imbalance of sex hormones and the modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Here, we report that OTs act as reproductive disruptors in vertebrate studies; among the compounds are tetrabutyltin, tributyltin chloride, tributyltin acetate, triphenyltin chloride, triphenyltin hydroxide, dibutyltin chloride, dibutyltin dichloride, diphenyltin dichloride, monobutyltin, and azocyclotin.

  7. Regional variations in the compressive properties of lumbar vertebral trabeculae. Effects of disc degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T.S.; Hansson, T.H.; Abram, A.C.; Spengler, D.M.; Panjabi, M.M. (Orthopaedic Biomechanics Lab, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The compressive mechanical properties of human lumbar vertebral trabeculae were examined on the basis of anatomic origin, bone density, and intervertebral disc properties. Trabecular bone compressive strength and stiffness increased with increasing bone density, the latter proportional to strength and stiffness to the one-half power. Regional variations within each segment were found, the most prevalent differences occurring in regions of bone overlying the disc nucleus in comparison with bone overlying the disc anulus. For normal discs, the ratio of strength of bone overlying the disc nucleus to bone overlying the disc anulus was 1.25, decreasing to 1.0 for moderately degenerated discs. These results suggest that an interdependency of trabecular bone properties and intervertebral disc properties may exist.

  8. VERTEBRAL DEFORMITY IN CHILDREN AND DISPENSARY CARE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Batrshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the prevalence of spine deformation pathology and the state of vertebral children care screening of 18 500 schoolchildren was conducted by computer optical topography. In 79.5% of them the posture disturbances and in 14.5% - spinal deformity were detected. The multivariate analysis of vertebral deformity was performed. It is established that vertebral deformity till 10° on Coob has usually monoplane form, and more than 10° - only multiplane form. Dispensary health groups were formed, screening program for children with subsequent monitoring was proposed.

  9. Structure related phylogenetic variations in brain gangliosides of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, R

    1984-01-01

    The concentration and composition of brain gangliosides from five brain structures of vertebrate species belonging to the classes of Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia were investigated. The complexity of brain ganglioside composition is strikingly reduced over phyletic lines. In lower vertebrates there is only little variation in the ganglioside pattern between the different brain structures, whereas in higher vertebrates differences distinctly occurred. A similarity over phyletic lines of ganglioside pattern was only noted in phylogenetically old brain structures as for instance in the medulla oblongata and the brain stem.

  10. Segmental specificity in belly dance mimics primal trunk locomotor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Marilee M; Milner, Theodore E

    2017-03-01

    Belly dance was used to investigate control of rhythmic undulating trunk movements in humans. Activation patterns in lumbar erector spinae muscles were recorded using surface electromyography at four segmental levels spanning T10 to L4. Muscle activation patterns for movement tempos of 2 Hz, 3 Hz, and as fast as possible (up to 6 Hz) were compared to test the hypothesis that frequency modulates muscle timing, causing pattern changes analogous to gait transitions. Groups of trained and untrained female subjects were compared to test the hypothesis that experience modifies muscle coordination patterns and the capacity for selective motion of spinal segments. Three distinct coordination patterns were observed. An ipsilateral simultaneous pattern (S) and a diagonal synergy (D) dominated at lower frequencies. The S pattern was selected most often by novices and resembled the standing wave of activation underlying the alternating lateral trunk bending in salamander trotting. At 2 Hz, most trained subjects selected the D pattern, suggesting a greater capacity for segmental specificity compared with untrained subjects. At 3-4 Hz, there emerged an asynchronous pattern (A) analogous to the rostral-caudal traveling wave in salamander and lamprey swimming. The neural networks and mechanisms identified in primitive vertebrates, such as chains of coupled oscillators and segmental crossed inhibitory connections, could explain the patterns observed in this study in humans. Training allows modification of these patterns, possibly through improved capacity for selectively exciting or inhibiting segmental pattern generators. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Belly dance provides a novel approach for studying spinal cord neural circuits. New evidence suggests that primitive locomotor circuits may be conserved in humans. Erector spinae activation patterns during the hip shimmy at different tempos are similar to those observed in salamander walking and swimming. As movement frequency increases, a

  11. Biomechanical comparison of mono-segment transpedicular fixation with short-segment fixation for treatment of thoracolumbar fractures: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guijun; Fu, Xin; Du, Changling; Ma, Jianxiong; Li, Zhijun; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Xinlong

    2014-10-01

    Mono-segment transpedicular fixation is a method for the treatment of certain types of thoracolumbar spinal fracture. Finite element models were constructed to evaluate the biomechanics of mono-segment transpedicular fixation of thoracolumbar fracture. Spinal motion (T10-L2) was scanned and used to establish the models. The superior half of the cortical bone of T12 was removed and the superior half of the cancellous bone of the T12 body was assigned the material properties of injured bone to mimic vertebral fracture. Transpedicular fixation of T11 and T12 was performed to produce a mono-segment fixation model; T11 and L1 were fixed to produce a short-segment fixation model. Motion differences between functional units and von Mises stress on the spine and implants were measured under axial compression, anterior bending, extensional bending, lateral bending and axial rotation. We found no significant difference between mono- and short-segment fixations in the motion of any functional unit. Stress on the T10/T11 nucleus pulposus and T10/T11 and L1/L2 annulus fibrosus increased significantly by about 75% on anterior bending, extensional bending and lateral bending. In the fracture model, stress was increased by 24% at the inferior endplate of T10 and by 43% at the superior endplate of L2. All increased stresses were reduced after fixation and lower stress was observed with mono-segment fixation. In summary, the biomechanics of mono-segment pedicle screw instrumentation was similar to that of conventional short-segment fixation. As a minimally invasive treatment, mono-segment fixation would be appropriate for the treatment of selected thoracolumbar spinal fractures. © IMechE 2014.

  12. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  13. Segmental neurofibromatosis [NF type - v].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan-ul-Bari; Simeen-ber-Rahman

    2003-12-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis in which skin lesions are confined to a circumscribed body segment. A case of a 39-year-old man with this condition is presented, who was having multiple soft skin tumours over a localized area of back with no associated cafe au lait spots, axillary freckles or lish nodules. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of neurofibroma.

  14. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  15. Adaptive segmentation for scientific databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore database segmentation in the context of a column-store DBMS targeted at a scientific database. We present a novel hardware- and scheme-oblivious segmentation algorithm, which learns and adapts to the workload immediately. The approach taken is to capitalize on (intermediate)

  16. Region segmentation along image sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-12-31

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  18. Using Predictability for Lexical Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çöltekin, Çagri

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic…

  19. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    BOCHIS LEONICA; Sucala Lucia; DUMBRAVA PARTENIE; BREBAN LUDOVICA

    2009-01-01

    Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  20. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  1. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  2. The silurian and devonian vertebrates of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1986-01-01

    formas de amplia repartición (Rhenanidos, algunos Acanthodios, Actinopterygios de tipo Moythomasia, formas con afinidades transpacíficas (Acanthodios próximos de Sinacanthus y formas tal vez endémicas (Pucapampella, Zamponiopteron. Silurian and Devonian vertebrate remains are described from various localities in Bolivia. Most of the material occurs in concretions in the marine Devonian of the Altiplano and Subandean area, and some isolated specimens have been found in sandstones and lutites. The jawless vertebrates are known only from isolated thelodont scales which occur in the Uppermost Silurian or Lower Devonian of Seripona, Chuquisaca. All the other vertebrate remains belong to gnathosthomes, in particular to the acanthodians, placoderms, chondrichthyans and actinopterygians. The acanthodians are represented by some ischnacanthid dentigerous jaw bones and climatiid spines and shoulder girdles. They are fairly abundant and show no marked differences from acanthodian remains known elsewhere in the Siluro-Devonian of Europe and North America. However, some isolated spines are suggestive of the genus Sinacanthus, known from the Lower Devonian of China The placoderms are represented only by the rhenanid Bolivosteus chacomensis Goujet et al, known from two well preserved braincases. This genus closely resembles Gemuendina (Lower Devonian of Germany with respect to the overall shape of the braincase, but its shoulder girdle differs substantially. The chondrichthyans are the most abundant vertebrates in the Devonian of Bolivia They are represented by isolated spines and endoskeletal elements lined with prismatic calcified cartilage Among them, some peculiar occipital regions of braincases are referred here to Pucapampella rodrigae n.g , n sp. These brain-cases differ from all other known Devonian chondrichthyan braincases in showing a ventrally continuous occipital fissure which completely separates the occiput from the rest of the brain-case. The strongly vaulted

  3. [Orbitotemporal segmental neurofibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montard, R; Putz, C; Barrali, M; Kantelip, B; Montard, M

    2007-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a rare pathology with heterogeneous clinical presentation. We report a case of a right orbitotemporal plexiform neurofibroma in a 64-year-old woman with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. A craniofacial CT scan, with injection, showed a heterogeneous tumor in front of the skull base and the temporoparietal bone with no intracranial extension but an extension into the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. In summery, she presented orbitotemporal segmental neurofibromatosis type 1 because of the unilateral lesion. She had a first surgery to remove her jugal and preauricular tumor with an exenteration, which provided an eye histology. The histology found no Lisch nodules but a cellular proliferation causing choroidal hyperplasia. We noted neurofibromin on choroidal cells and normal cells in addition to pathologic cells (Schwann cells and melanocytes), meaning that two cell populations were obtained in the same tissue: a somatic mosaicism. We advance the hypothesis that there was a regulation of cellular growth in a particular microenvironment because of the absence of tumor. To identify and confirm the somatic mosaicism, we would need a FISH analysis (probes containing sequences of the NF1 gene with a probe specific for the chromosome 17 centromere).

  4. Evaluation of surgical outcome of Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture-clinical experience of 218 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin; Shen, Yimin; Zhang, Ning; Ren, Yongxin; Cai, Weihua; Yu, Lipeng; Wu, Naiqing; Yin, Guoyong

    2016-04-30

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture is a serious complication of osteoporosis. Various vertebral kyphoplasty surgeries, which have their own unique features, are commonly used for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. Based on the anatomic property of the thoracolumbar vertebral pedicle that its horizontal diameter is twice that of the vertical diameter, we designed Jack vertebral dilator for better restoration of the vertebral height by manipulating the mechanical force. A total of 218 patients (236 vertebrae) with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture were treated with Jack vertebral dilator. Surgery was successfully completed in all cases, and all the 218 patients were followed up for an average of 14.2 months (range 3 to 30 months). Bone cement leakage occurred in 12 cases, but no symptoms were reported. No other complications were noticed. The VAS scores were 8.2 ± 1.3, 1.7 ± 0.9, and 1.8 ± 0.8 and the ODI was 78.2 ± 13.3 %, 18.5 ± 7.3 %, and 20.9 ± 6.8 % before surgery and 1 week after surgery and at the final follow-up, respectively. The anterior vertebral body height was 19.3 ± 3.2, 25.1 ± 2.6, and 24.9 ± 2.6 mm and the central vertebral body height was 18.7 ± 3.0, 24.8 ± 3.0, and 24.5 ± 2.9 mm before surgery and 1 week after surgery and at the final follow-up, respectively. Cobb angle was 16.2° ± 6.6°, 8.1° ± 5.6°, and 8.5° ± 5.6° before surgery and 1 week after surgery and at the final follow-up, respectively. Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture is safe, feasible, and effective and has the prospect of further broad application in the future.

  5. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der, E-mail: Hvanderjagt@spaarneziekenhuis.nl [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Munster, B.C. van [Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeflang, M. [Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beuerle, E. [Department of Radiology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulner, C.R. [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lems, W.F. [Department of Rheumatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  6. Deciphering the somite segmentation clock: beyond mutants and morphants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Julian; Ozbudak, Ertugrul M

    2007-06-01

    The regular pattern of somite segmentation depends on a clock, the somite segmentation clock, in the form of a gene expression oscillator, operating in the presomitic mesoderm (the PSM) at the tail end of the vertebrate embryo. Genetic screens and other approaches have identified a variety of genes, including components and targets of the Notch signalling pathway, that show transcriptional oscillations in this region and appear to be necessary for correct segmentation. Mathematical modelling shows that the oscillations could plausibly be generated by a simple mechanism of delayed negative feedback, based on autoinhibition of Notch target genes of the Hes/her family by their own protein products. To move beyond plausible models to an experimentally validated theory, however, it is necessary to measure the parameters on which the proposed model is based and to devise ways of probing the dynamics of the system by means of timed disturbances so as to compare with the model's predictions. Some progress is being made in these directions. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Personalized Recommendation via Suppressing Excessive Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient recommendation algorithms are fundamental to solve the problem of information overload in modern society. In physical dynamics, mass diffusion is a powerful tool to alleviate the long-standing problems of recommendation systems. However, popularity bias and redundant similarity have not been adequately studied in the literature, which are essentially caused by excessive diffusion and will lead to similarity estimation deviation and recommendation performance degradation. In this paper, we penalize the popular objects by appropriately dividing the popularity of objects and then leverage the second-order similarity to suppress excessive diffusion. Evaluation on three real benchmark datasets (MovieLens, Amazon, and RYM by 10-fold cross-validation demonstrates that our method outperforms the mainstream baselines in accuracy, diversity, and novelty.

  8. ILLUSION OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to explore, explain and describe this phenomenon to a better understanding of it and also the relationship between advertising and the consumer society members. This paper aims to present an analysis of excessive and unsustainable consumption, the evolution of a phenomenon, and the ability to find a way to combat. Unfortunately, studies show that this tendency to accumulate more than we need to consume excess means that almost all civilizations fined and placed dogmatic among the values that children learn early in life. This has been perpetuated since the time when the goods or products does not get so easy as today. Anti-consumerism has emerged in response to this economic system, not on the long term. We are witnessing the last two decades to establish a new phase of consumer capitalism: society hiperconsumtion.

  9. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    , DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark ABSTRACT (1795 anslag) Background: Excessive anterior pelvic tilt has been linked to pain and dysfunction of the hip and pelvic region. Conservative treatment (e.g. manual therapy and physical training) is suggested in correcting the tilt and eventually related symptoms...... demonstrated a significant reduction in anterior pelvic tilt. The two studies intervening on symptomatic subjects demonstrated a significant reduction in pain and disability, respectively. Conclusions: Very low quality of evidence suggests that further studies are needed to clarify whether conservative......Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt: A systematic review Anders Falk Brekke1,2,3, Søren Overgaard1,2, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson4, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen1,2 1Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital 2Department...

  10. Sublethal consequences of urban life for wild vertebrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Austin J; Peiman, Kathryn S; de Bruijn, Robert; Cooke, Steven J; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim

    2016-01-01

    ... — while others have not. Here we present a review of the sublethal consequences of life in the city for wild vertebrates, and demonstrate that urban animals face an almost completely different set of physiological...

  11. Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-20

    Ray S, Mukherjee D and S Bandyopadhyay S 2009 Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone microstructure: case studies from. India; J. Biosci. ..... (sensu Smith-Gill 1983; Ray et al. 2004). This flexibility in.

  12. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  13. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cerv......Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment...... of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and patients with OSA. Material from human triploid foetuses and mouse embryos was analysed histologically....... Results. Recent studies have documented associations between fusion of the cervical vertebral column and craniofacial morphology, including head posture in patients with severe skeletal malocclusions. Histological studies on prenatal material supported these findings. Conclusion. It is suggested...

  14. The Vertebral Formula of the African Sideneck Turtle ( Pelusios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pelusios castaneus), was carried out with the view of deriving its vertebral formula which could be useful in the comparative systematic anatomy of sea and freshwater turtles as well as in paleontological and archaeological investigations. A total ...

  15. Clinical and radiological evaluation in vertebral artery dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Çabalar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vertebral artery dissection (VAD is reported more frequently as a cause of young cerebrovascular accidents. It can occur spontaneously or following a neck manipulation and trauma. The patients were 3 females (mean age: 35±26 years and 7 males (mean age: 37.71±4.96 years. Only 2 patients described neck trauma. Cerebellar findings were prominent in all cases. On radiological investigation, vascular changes of vertebral arteries were detected bilaterally in 2 cases, right in 5 and left in 3 cases. All the cases were treated with anticoagulant therapy and cured but 1 with sequela. Prognosis of vertebral artery dissection is generally good by early diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we reported clinical and radiological properties of 10 vertebral artery dissection cases.

  16. Patterns of Vertebrate Diversity and Protection in Brazil: e0145064

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clinton N Jenkins; Maria Alice S Alves; Alexandre Uezu; Mariana M Vale

    2015-01-01

    .... For three groups of terrestrial vertebrates (birds, mammals, and amphibians), we examined geographic patterns of diversity and protection in Brazil, including that of endemic, small-ranged, and threatened species...

  17. MR manifestations of vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Yong Eun; Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of a vertebral artery injury occurring from major cervical spine trauma. Conventional MR findings of 63 patients and 63 control subjects were compared to detect a possible change in the vertebral arteries resulted from trauma. Plain films, CT and clinical records were also reviewed to correlate the degree of cervical spine injury with vascular change. Nine cases of absent flow signals in vessel lumen were observed in eight patients and one was observed in the control group. Patients more frequently demonstrated other abnormalities such as intraluminal linear signals (n=3) or focal luminal narrowing (n=9) but there was no statistical significance. There was a close relationship between degree of cord damage and occlusion of the vertebral artery. Conventional MR imaging is useful in the detection of vertebral artery occlusion resulting from cervical spine trauma.

  18. Checklist of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) of vertebrates in Finland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haukisalmi, Voitto

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) of vertebrates (fishes, birds and mammals) in Finland is presented, based on published observations, specimens deposited in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki...

  19. [About evolution of sleep-wakefulness cycle in vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, G A; Aristakesian, E A; Vataev, S I

    2012-10-01

    Data about behavioral, somato-vegetative and neurophysiological parameters of sleep and wakefulness in insects, cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are provided. Hypotheses existing now about evolutionary formation of separate sleep phases and stages in vertebrates are considered. In the review are shown the data about correlations of quantitative characteristics of sleep and wake in some mammals with basic metabolic rate, lifestyle, environmental habits. The original experimental results at formation of neurophysiological characteristics of sleep and wake in vertebrates, phylogeny and in ontogeny of mature and immature mammals are provided in detail. On the basis of own concepts about evolutionary development of sleep-wakefulness cycle in vertebrates the interactions of telencephalic, diencephalic and rhombencepalic parts of brain in the processes of cycle wakefulness cycle integration are discussed.

  20. Organization of vertebrate annual cycles: implications for control mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John C Wingfield

    2008-01-01

    The majority of vertebrates have a life span of greater than one year. Therefore individuals must be able to adapt to the annual cycle of changing conditions by adjusting morphology, physiology and behaviour...

  1. An interesting case report of vertebral artery dissection following polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our report displays select images related to this case report and emphasizes the consideration of routine imaging in head and neck traumatic injuries to diagnose internal carotid and/or vertebral artery dissections much earlier.

  2. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models. © 2010

  3. Vertebrate phylogeny of hydrogen sulfide vasoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombkowski, Ryan A; Russell, Michael J; Schulman, Alexis A; Doellman, Meredith M; Olson, Kenneth R

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a recently identified endogenous vasodilator in mammals. In steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Osteichthyes), H(2)S produces both dose-dependent dilation and a unique dose-dependent constriction. In this study, we examined H(2)S vasoactivity in all vertebrate classes to determine whether H(2)S is universally vasoactive and to identify phylogenetic and/or environmental trends. H(2)S was generated from NaHS and examined in unstimulated and precontracted systemic and, when applicable, pulmonary arteries (PA) from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti, Agnatha), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, Agnatha), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus milberti, Chondrichthyes), marine toad (Bufo marinus, Amphibia), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, Reptilia), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Aves), and white rat (Rattus rattus, Mammalia). In otherwise unstimulated vessels, NaHS produced 1) a dose-dependent relaxation in Pacific hagfish dorsal aorta; 2) a dose-dependent contraction in sea lamprey dorsal aorta, marine toad aorta, alligator aorta and PA, duck aorta, and rat thoracic aorta; 3) a threshold relaxation in shark ventral aorta, dorsal aorta, and afferent branchial artery; and 4) a multiphasic contraction-relaxation-contraction in the marine toad PA, duck PA, and rat PA. Precontraction of these vessels with another agonist did not affect the general pattern of NaHS vasoactivity with the exception of the rat aorta, where relaxation was now dominant. These results show that H(2)S is a phylogenetically ancient and versatile vasoregulatory molecule that appears to have been opportunistically engaged to suit both organ-specific and species-specific homeostatic requirements.

  4. Neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Ballvé, Anna; Grau-López, Laia; Morillas, Rosa María; Planas, Ramón

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the different acute and chronic neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption that affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Several mechanisms can be implicated depending on the disorder, ranging from nutritional factors, alcohol-related toxicity, metabolic changes and immune-mediated mechanisms. Recognition and early treatment of these manifestations is essential given their association with high morbidity and significantly increased mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  5. Satellite Image Classification and Segmentation by Using JSEG Segmentation Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Khamael Abbas; Mustafa Rydh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a adopted approach to fully automatic satellite image segmentation, called JSEG, "JPEG image segmentation" is presented. First colors in the image are quantized to represent differentiate regions in the image. Then image pixel colors are replaced by their corresponding color class labels, thus forming a class-map of the image. A criterion for “good” segmentation using this class-map is proposed. Applying the criterion to local windows in the class-map results in the “J-image”...

  6. Tendon rupture associated with excessive smartphone gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Luke; Cage, Dori N; Horn, Adam; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-06-01

    Excessive use of smartphones has been associated with injuries. A 29-year-old, right hand-dominant man presented with chronic left thumb pain and loss of active motion from playing a Match-3 puzzle video game on his smartphone all day for 6 to 8 weeks. On physical examination, the left extensor pollicis longus tendon was not palpable, and no tendon motion was noted with wrist tenodesis. The thumb metacarpophalangeal range of motion was 10° to 80°, and thumb interphalangeal range of motion was 30° to 70°. The clinical diagnosis was rupture of the left extensor pollicis longus tendon. The patient subsequently underwent an extensor indicis proprius (1 of 2 tendons that extend the index finger) to extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer. During surgery, rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon was seen between the metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints. The potential for video games to reduce pain perception raises clinical and social considerations about excessive use, abuse, and addiction. Future research should consider whether pain reduction is a reason some individuals play video games excessively, manifest addiction, or sustain injuries associated with video gaming.

  7. [Mortality attributable to excess weight in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2014-06-16

    Estimate the mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey, while data on associated mortality were extracted from the National Statistic Institute. Population attributable fractions were applied and mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index was calculated for people between 35 and 79 years. In 2006, among the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 25,671 lives (16,405 males and 9,266 women) were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index. Mortality attributable was 15.8% of total deaths in males and 14.8% in women, but if we refer to those causes where excess body weight is a risk factor, it is about a 30% of mortality (31.6% in men and 28% in women). The most important individual cause was cardiovascular disease (58%), followed by cancer. The individual cause with a major contribution to deaths was type 2 diabetes; nearly 70% in males and 80% in women. Overweight accounted for 54.9% deaths in men and 48.6% in women. Excess body weight is a major public health problem, with an important associated mortality. Attributable deaths are a useful tool to know the real situation and to monitor for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  9. Giant pseudoaneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Gallo; Amauri Dalacorte; Eduardo Raupp; Santos,Amir J.; Frank,Marcos R. C.; Glauco A. Saraiva

    1996-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial vertebral artery are extremely rare due to their deep location and the anatomical protection of this artery. They can be caused by cervical traumas (firearm injuries, sports, hyperextension of the neck and iatrogeny). The authors report the case of a patient who developed a giant pseudoaneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery after surgery for the removal of a tumor of the cerebellopontine angle in which surgical lesion of the artery occurred. Treatmen...

  10. Increased genome sampling reveals novel insights into vertebrate molecular evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Aoife

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, increased vertebrate genome sampling and recent methodological advancements were combined to address three distinct questions pertaining to vertebrate molecular evolution. Gene duplicability is the tendency to retain multiple gene copies after a duplication event. Various factors correlate with gene duplicability, such as protein function and timing of expression during development. The position of a gene’s encoded product in the protein-protein interaction n...

  11. Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143

  12. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar Leite de Negreiros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF. It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD with a T-score 61 years.

  13. Prevalence of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures on multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalena, Tommaso [Department of Radiology, S. Orsola University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: t.bartalena@email.it; Giannelli, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Maria Francesca [Department of Radiology, S. Orsola University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, Eugenio [Department of Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via G.C. Pupilli 1 - 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, S. Orsola University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Sverzellati, Nicola [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, University of Parma, Via Gramsci, 14 - 43100 Parma (Italy); Gavelli, Giampaolo [Department of Radiology, S. Orsola University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest and/or abdomen. Materials and methods: 323 consecutive patients (196 males, 127 females) with a mean age of 62.6 years (range 20-88) who had undergone chest and/or abdominal MDCT were evaluated. Sagittal reformats of the spine obtained from thin section datasets were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for vertebral fractures. Morphometric analysis using electronic calipers was performed on vertebral bodies which appeared abnormal upon visual inspection. A vertebral body height loss of 15% or more was considered a fracture and graded as mild (15-24%), moderate (25-49%) or severe (more than 50%). Official radiology reports were reviewed and whether the vertebral fractures had been reported or not was noted. Results: 31 out of 323 patients (9.5%) had at least 1 vertebral fracture and 7 of those patients had multiple fractures for a total of 41 fractures. Morphometric grading revealed 10 mild, 16 moderate and 15 severe fractures. Prevalence was higher in women (14.1%) than men (6.6%) and increased with patients age with a 17.1% prevalence in post-menopausal women. Only 6 out 41 vertebral fractures (14.6%) had been noted in the radiology final report while the remaining 35 (85.45) had not. Conclusion: although vertebral fractures represent frequent incidental findings on multidetector CT studies and may be easily identified on sagittal reformats, they are often underreported by radiologists, most likely because of unawareness of their clinical importance.

  14. Analysis of functional CT scan in cervical vertebral disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirofuji, Eiichi; Tanaka, Seisuke; Tomihara, Mitsuo; Kita, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki

    1982-12-01

    The atlantoaxial joint showed displacement in various directions in rheumatoid arthritis and cervical spondylosis. The displacements were promoted by anterior flexion and rotatory movements, exerting great influences on the spnial cord. The intervertebral space between the 5th and 6th vertebra showed narrowing of the vertebral canal in cervical spondylosis and was promoted by posterior flexion to affect the spinal cord to a great extent. Functional CT scan was useful for observation of pathologic conditions of vertebral diseases.

  15. Radiological examination of the vertebral column of healthy French bulldogs

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In this study latero-lateral x-rays of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral column of 106 French bulldogs were examined. Occurrence of vertebral anomalies (wedge-shaped vertebrae, block vertebrae, transitional vertebrae), deviance from the normal number of vertebrae, variations of the spinous process and appearance of spondylosis were assessed. For evaluation of wedge-shaped vertebrae a graduation from degree 0 to degree 4 was developed using the percental deviation between the dorsal and ...

  16. Spontaneous Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection During a Basketball Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas Rodriguez, Manuel F.; Berrios, Rafael Arias; Ramos, Edwardo

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous vertebral artery dissection accounts for 2% of all ischemic strokes and can occur as a consequence of sports events. We present an unusual case of spontaneous bilateral vertebral artery dissection in a 30-year-old male patient during a basketball game. He developed severe dysphagia, right hemiparesis, and balance dysfunction. We also present a review of the pathology, diagnosis, symptomatology, treatment, prognosis, and occurrence of this entity in sports. PMID:26733592

  17. Vertebrate Paleontology in Central America: 30 years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate paleontology began in Central America in 1858 with the first published records, but the last 30 years have seen remarkable advances. These advances range from new localities, to new taxa to new analyses of diverse data. Central American vertebrate fossils represent all of the major taxonomic groups of vertebrates—fishes, amphibians, reptiles (especially turtles), birds and mammals (mostly xenarthrans, carnivores and ungulates)—but coverage is very uneven, with many groups (especial...

  18. Vertebral Derotation by Vertebral Column Manipulator Improves Postoperative Radiographs Outcomes of Lenke 5C Patients for Follow-up of Minimum 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zifang; Wang, Qifei; Yang, Junlin; Yang, Jingfan; Li, Fobao

    2016-04-01

    This was a retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare radiographic outcomes of Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated by vertebral column manipulator (VCM) or simple rod derotation (SRD) maneuver. The direct vertebral rotation (DVR) technique has demonstrated better rotational and coronal correction than SRD, but clinical radiographic outcomes for Lenke 5C AIS following DVR using a VCM derotational device have not been described. A retrospective study was carried out in 39 Lenke 5C AIS patients treated by VCM (n=20) or SRD (n=19) techniques between April 2008 and June 2011. All patients had complete clinical record and radiographic data. Nine radiographic variables were collected and compared at 3 time points (preoperative, immediate postoperative, and minimum 2-year follow-up) between both groups. Scoliosis was successfully corrected in both groups. All patients obtained good coronal and sagittal balance, and no severe complications occurred. The postoperative apical rotation corrective rate of the VCM and SRD groups were 55.1% and 25.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Lowest instrumented vertebra and stable vertebra (LIV-SV) was statistically significant between the VCM and SRD groups, the mean values were 1.2 ± 0.4 level and 0.7 ± 0.5 level (P < 0.05). The main curve corrective rates and LIV-tilt angle correction rates were not significantly different between groups, but it showed a spontaneous correction for the coronal LIV-tilt angle for both groups at the last follow-up. VCM improved postoperative apical axial rotational correction and lessened the lumbar fusion segment compared with the SRD technique, which might have a potential trend to reserve lumbar mobility.

  19. Coordination of Fictive Motor Activity in the Larval Zebrafish Is Generated by Non-Segmental Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, Timothy D.; Peck, Jack H.; Masino, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular and network basis for most vertebrate locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) is incompletely characterized, but organizational models based on known CPG architectures have been proposed. Segmental models propose that each spinal segment contains a circuit that controls local coordination and sends longer projections to coordinate activity between segments. Unsegmented/continuous models propose that patterned motor output is driven by gradients of neurons and synapses that do not have segmental boundaries. We tested these ideas in the larval zebrafish, an animal that swims in discrete episodes, each of which is composed of coordinated motor bursts that progress rostrocaudally and alternate from side to side. We perturbed the spinal cord using spinal transections or strychnine application and measured the effect on fictive motor output. Spinal transections eliminated episode structure, and reduced both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination. Preparations with fewer intact segments were more severely affected, and preparations consisting of midbody and caudal segments were more severely affected than those consisting of rostral segments. In reduced preparations with the same number of intact spinal segments, side-to-side coordination was more severely disrupted than rostrocaudal coordination. Reducing glycine receptor signaling with strychnine reversibly disrupted both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination in spinalized larvae without disrupting episodic structure. Both spinal transection and strychnine decreased the stability of the motor rhythm, but this effect was not causal in reducing coordination. These results are inconsistent with a segmented model of the spinal cord and are better explained by a continuous model in which motor neuron coordination is controlled by segment-spanning microcircuits. PMID:25275377

  20. Sometimes spelling is easier than phonemic segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, W.H.J. van; Duighuisen, H.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Poor spellers from the Netherlands segmented and spelled the same words on different occasions. If they base their spellings on the segmentations that they produce in the segmentation task, the correlation between segmentation and spelling scores should be high, and segmentation should not be more