WorldWideScience

Sample records for excess reactivity control

  1. Application of B{sub 4}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Burnable Absorber Rod to Control Excess Reactivity of SMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Boravy; Hah, C. J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Soluble boron in a nuclear reactor coolant is one of the methods to control excess reactivity of the reactor. However, the use of soluble boron also causes some negative effects such as corrosion, more-positive tendency of Moderator Temperature Coefficient (MTC) and the requirement of Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS). One of the conceptual design features of SMR having been developed in Korea is soluble boron- free reactor to eliminate those drawbacks. Control rods and Burnable Absorber (BA) rods can be other methods than soluble to control excess reactivity. WABA (Wet Annular Burnable Absorber) and PYREX are such type. The other type is IFBA (Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber) in which fuel pellet surface is coated with BA. This paper compares nuclear characteristics of three types of BA as well as SLOBA in terms of k-infinite vs. burnup and explain design basis of SLOBA. This paper also presents the application of SLOBA rods to control long-term excess reactivity of SMR. The SMR loaded with SLOBA rods has been developed for the past few years in Korean. It is named as Bandi-50 with design features of 180 MWth, 37 FAs, fuel assembly height of 200 cm. Soluble-boron-free is one of nuclear design requirements of Bandi-50 and is achieved by controlling excess reactivity of the SMR using BAs and control rods only. To achieve this design requirement, LP is carefully determined in such way that CBC should be as low as possible. Fuel assembly cross-sections are generated by CASMO-3, and core depletion calculations are performed by MASTER.

  2. Managing the reactivity excess of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor by burnable poison and control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: alby@neutron.kth.se

    2006-01-15

    The gas turbine-modular helium reactor coupled to the deep burn in-core fuel management strategy offers the extraordinary capability to incinerate over 50% of the initial inventory of fissile material. This extraordinary feature, coming from an advanced and well tested fuel element design, which takes advantage of the TRISO particles technology, is maintained while the reactor is loaded with the most different types of fuels. In the present work, we assumed the reactor operating at the equilibrium of the fuel composition, obtained by a 6 years irradiation of light water reactor waste, and we investigated the effects of the introduction of the burnable poison and the control rods; we equipped the core with all the three types of control rods: operational, startup and shutdown ones. We employed as burnable poison natural erbium, due to the {sup 167}Er increasing neutron capture microscopic cross-section in the energy range where the neutron spectrum exhibits the thermal peak; in addition, we utilized boron carbide, with 90% enrichment in {sup 1}B, as the absorption material of the control rods. Concerning the burnable poison studies, we focused on the k {sub eff} value, the {sup 167}Er mass during burnup, the influence of modifying the radius of the BISO particles kernel and the fuel and moderator coefficients of temperature. Concerning the control rods studies, we investigated the reactivity worth, the changes in the neutron flux profile due to a partial insertion, the influence of modifying the radius of the BISO particles kernel and the {beta} {sub eff}, at the beginning of the operation.

  3. Management of Excess Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Doering, O.

    2011-12-01

    Managing the impacts of excessive reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment is a complex problem that begins with the recognition of the obligate dietary need for Nr by all living populations. The human solution to this need has been to devise ways to bring Nr into the biosphere (via the Haber-Bosch process) to grow food. Other Nr is created as a by-product of fossil-fuel combustion. The net result is the introduction of more than five times the Nr created by natural processes in the U.S., only a fraction of which is converted back to diatomic nitrogen through denitrification. This presentation summarizes findings and recommendations of the newly-released US EPA Science Advisory Board's Integrated Nitrogen Committee report, "Reactive Nitrogen in the United States: An Analysis of Flows, Consequences, and Management Options", that deal specifically with approaches for solving the excess Nr problem. These can be grouped into four general areas: (1) Recognition of the Problem. Until there is recognition that excess Nr is a serious problem with economic, health, and societal consequences, there will be little willingness to expend resources on this issue. Education, communication and outreach are critically important to engender in regulators, and the public at large, sufficient will to undertake the large scale effort needed to reduce Nr in the environment. (2) Development of Integrated Regulatory Approaches. Given what is known about the way Nr behaves, efforts to deal with excess Nr must be organized in a way that reflects the nature of the problem. Unfortunately, most approaches tend to conceive of Nr issues within a narrowly focused disciplinary model, and our policy and regulatory institutions are often bound by enabling legislation that stresses source-by-source, chemical-by-chemical, and media-by-media. The resulting regulatory structure that has evolved for problems such as Nr that affect human health and the environment is apt to miss the complex nature of the

  4. Reactivity of Monolayer Protected Silver Clusters Towards Excess Ligand: A Calorimetric Study

    KAUST Repository

    Baksi, Ananya

    2017-10-31

    Reactivity of monolayer protected atomically precise clusters of noble metals is of significant research interest. Till date very few experimental data are available on the reaction thermodynamics of such clusters. Here we report a calorimetric study of the reaction of glutathione (GSH) protected silver clusters in presence of excess ligand, GSH using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). We have studied Ag11(SG)7 and Ag32(SG)19 clusters and compared their reactivity with GSH protected silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions. Clusters show intermediate reactivity towards excess ligand com-pared to nanoparticles and silver ions. Several control experiments were performed to understand the degradation mech-anism of these silver clusters and nanoparticles. Effect of dissolved oxygen in the degradation process was studied in de-tail and found that it did not have a significant role, although alternate pathways of degradation with the involvement of oxygen cannot be ruled out. Direct confirmation of the fact that functionalized metal clusters fall in-between NPs and atomic systems in their stability is obtained experimentally for the first time. Several other thermophysical parameters of these clusters were also determined including, density, speed of sound, isentropic compressibility and coefficient of thermal expansion.

  5. What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The deuterium excess (d of precipitation is widely used in the reconstruction of past climatic changes from ice cores. However, its most common interpretation as moisture source temperature cannot directly be inferred from present-day water isotope observations. Here, we use a new empirical relation between d and near-surface relative humidity (RH together with reanalysis data to globally predict d of surface evaporation from the ocean. The very good quantitative agreement of the predicted hemispherically averaged seasonal cycle with observed d in precipitation indicates that moisture source relative humidity, and not sea surface temperature, is the main driver of d variability on seasonal timescales. Furthermore, we review arguments for an interpretation of long-term palaeoclimatic d changes in terms of moisture source temperature, and we conclude that there remains no sufficient evidence that would justify to neglect the influence of RH on such palaeoclimatic d variations. Hence, we suggest that either the interpretation of d variations in palaeorecords should be adapted to reflect climatic influences on RH during evaporation, in particular atmospheric circulation changes, or new arguments for an interpretation in terms of moisture source temperature will have to be provided based on future research.

  6. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.

    1984-01-01

    Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

  7. REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATOR WITH SMOOTH CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power compensation devices are widely used: thyristor-control reactors (TCR and thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC. The TCR disadvantages are discussed. The TSC disadvantages are: influence of higher harmonics on nonsinusoidal voltage power system, the inability to ensure the smooth regulation. The proposed reactive power compensator consists of series with active filter and capacitors with step switch. Reactive power compensator’s control system is proposed. Hysteretic control of the inverter with current feedback is applied. DC-voltage regulator provides balance of active power. The control system allows overcompensation or undercompensation of reactive power modes. Reactive power distribution regulator performs the redistribution of power between switching capacitors and active filter. Minimization condition of this regulator is active filter’s power. Adjustment properties of reactive power compensator are analyzed. The choice of relations between the capacitors TSC steps to minimize the installed capacity of the active filter and the number of stages in TSC is considered. The approach that makes possible to «isolate» capacitors from harmonic currents and provide smooth control of reactive power is proposed

  8. Percutaneous Biopsy and Radiofrequency Ablation of Osteoid Osteoma with Excess Reactive New Bone Formation and Cortical Thickening Using a Battery-Powered Drill for Access: A Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippiadis, D., E-mail: dfilippiadis@yahoo.gr; Gkizas, C., E-mail: chgkizas@gmail.com; Kostantos, C., E-mail: drkarpen@yahoo.gr; Mazioti, A., E-mail: argyromazioti@yahoo.gr; Reppas, L., E-mail: l.reppas@yahoo.com; Brountzos, E., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr; Kelekis, N., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Kelekis, A., E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr [University General Hospital “ATTIKON”, 2nd Radiology Department (Greece)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeTo report our experience with the use of a battery-powered drill in biopsy and radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma with excess reactive new bone formation. The battery-powered drill enables obtaining the sample while drilling.Materials and MethodsDuring the last 18 months, 14 patients suffering from painful osteoid osteoma with excess reactive new bone formation underwent CT-guided biopsy and radiofrequency ablation. In order to assess and sample the nidus of the osteoid osteoma, a battery-powered drill was used. Biopsy was performed in all cases. Then, coaxially, a radiofrequency electrode was inserted and ablation was performed with osteoid osteoma protocol. Procedure time (i.e., drilling including local anesthesia), amount of scans, technical and clinical success, and the results of biopsy are reported.ResultsAccess to the nidus through the excess reactive new bone formation was feasible in all cases. Median procedure time was 50.5 min. Histologic verification of osteoid osteoma was performed in all cases. Radiofrequency electrode was coaxially inserted within the nidus and ablation was successfully performed in all lesions. Median amount CT scans, performed to control correct positioning of the drill and precise electrode placement within the nidus was 11. There were no complications or material failure reported in our study.ConclusionsThe use of battery-powered drill facilitates access to the osteoid osteoma nidus in cases where excess reactive new bone formation is present. Biopsy needle can be used for channel creation during the access offering at the same time the possibility to extract bone samples.

  9. Defining Condensed Phase Reactive Force Fields from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations: The Case of the Hydrated Excess Proton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chris; Maupin, C Mark; Izvekov, Sergei; Voth, Gregory A

    2010-10-12

    In this report, a general methodology is presented for the parametrization of a reactive force field using data from a condensed phase ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation. This algorithm allows for the creation of an empirical reactive force field that accurately reproduces the underlying ab initio reactive surface while providing the ability to achieve long-time statistical sampling for large systems not possible with AIMD alone. In this work, a model for the hydrated excess proton is constructed where the hydronium cation and proton hopping portions of the model are statistically force-matched to the results of Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics (CPMD) simulations. The flexible nature of the algorithm also allows for the use of the more accurate classical simple point-charge flexible water (SPC/Fw) model to describe the water-water interactions while utilizing the ab initio data to create an overall multistate molecular dynamics (MS-MD) reactive model of the hydrated excess proton in water. The resulting empirical model for the system qualitatively reproduces thermodynamic and dynamic properties calculated from the ab initio simulation while being in good agreement with experimental results and previously developed multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) models. The present methodology, therefore, bridges the AIMD technique with the MS-MD modeling of reactive events, while incorporating key strengths of both.

  10. 77 FR 27175 - Control Date To Limit Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and Referendum Eligibility in the Monkfish... of excessive control or ownership of fishing privileges, qualifying landings history for an... verify their ownership or control of monkfish permits and other fishing privileges, as well as monkfish...

  11. Multiagent voltage and reactive power control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arkhipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the research of multiagent voltage and reactive power control system development. The prototype of the system has been developed by R&D Center at FGC UES (Russia. The control system architecture is based on the innovative multiagent system theory application that leads to the achievement of several significant advantages (in comparison to traditional control systems implementation such as control system efficiency enhancement, control system survivability and cyber security.

  12. Reactivity capacity of NPR control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, D.E.

    1960-07-14

    The reactivity control capacity of the N-reactor control systems has been calculated by methods which take into account the absorption of epithermal as well as thermo neutrons. Earlier calculations were made using a method which is satisfactory in control calculations for the existing Hanford reactors but which largely neglects the epithermal absorption. The new calculations were undertaken because of recent evidence that the epithermal absorption is more important to the NPR control strength and because of some concern regarding the margin between previously calculated control strength and anticipated control requirements. The calculational methods used in the present study and the resulting calculated control capacities are reported in this document.

  13. Specific cue reactivity on computer game-related cues in excessive gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalemann, R; Wölfling, K; Grüsser, S M

    2007-06-01

    It has been posited that excessive computer game playing behavior, referred to as computer game addiction, meets criteria that have been internationally established to define drug addiction. Nevertheless, there have been no psychophysiological investigations of the underlying mechanisms available to support the characterization of excessive computer gaming as behavioral addiction. To investigate whether excessive computer gaming parallels learning processes in development and maintenance (which are assumed to underlie drug addiction), the authors obtained a psychophysiological assessment of the (learned) emotional processing of computer game-relevant and -irrelevant cues. For this purpose, electroencephalographic recordings in excessive and casual computer game players were conducted. Significant between-group differences in event-related potentials evoked by computer game related-cues were found at parietal regions and point to an increased emotional processing of these cues in excessive pathological players compared with casual players. These results are in concordance with the suggestion that addiction is characterized and maintained through sensitization of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system along with incentive salience of specific addiction-associated cues. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  15. Thermophysical Reactivity Control of RBMK-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobiev Aleksander V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, viewed thermophysical characteristics of the moderator water graphite reactor RBMK. Indicated possibilities of controlling thermal state of graphite stack by regulation composition of the purge gas. Presents experimental results, but static thermal state characteristics of graphite moderator RBMK-1000. Developed a software code for integral characteristic engineering calculations, that determine value of margin reactivity reactor RBMK-1000, in the slow transients.

  16. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  17. Exposure-based treatment to control excessive blood glucose monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, K D; Evans, J H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated an exposure-based procedure for reducing excessive checking of blood glucose by a child with diabetes. In a changing criterion design, an exposure-based procedure was implemented by systematically exposing the child to decreasing amounts of information about blood sugar levels (checking) and thereby increasing exposure to potential hypoglycemia. Access to information was reduced in graduated increments, with the parents setting criteria to levels at which they were willing to ...

  18. 77 FR 70988 - Control Date To Limit Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... limited to, qualifying landings and permit history for a limited access or allocation-based management... Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and Referendum Eligibility in the Small... comments. SUMMARY: At the request of the New England Fishery Management Council, this notice announces a...

  19. Controlling reactive materials by crystallisation and hosting

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The research herein presents an approach to stabilising reactive materials by engineering and designing strategies for forming multi-component materials containing the reactive molecules by use of their non-covalent intermolecular interactions. These interactions may be utilised as part of a design approach to create new materials of more beneficial physical and chemical properties for the desired application.The reactive materials focussed on in this research are organic peroxyacids, in part...

  20. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  1. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  2. Can we determine what controls the spatio-temporal distribution of d-excess and 17O-excess in precipitation using the LMDZ general circulation model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Risi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Combined measurements of the H218O and HDO isotopic ratios in precipitation, leading to second-order parameter D-excess, have provided additional constraints on past climates compared to the H218O isotopic ratio alone. More recently, measurements of H217O have led to another second-order parameter: 17O-excess. Recent studies suggest that 17O-excess in polar ice may provide information on evaporative conditions at the moisture source. However, the processes controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of 17O-excess are still far from being fully understood. We use the isotopic general circulation model (GCM LMDZ to better understand what controls d-excess and 17O-excess in precipitation at present-day (PD and during the last glacial maximum (LGM. The simulation of D-excess and 17O-excess is evaluated against measurements in meteoric water, water vapor and polar ice cores. A set of sensitivity tests and diagnostics are used to quantify the relative effects of evaporative conditions (sea surface temperature and relative humidity, Rayleigh distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins, precipitation re-evaporation and supersaturation during condensation at low temperature. In LMDZ, simulations suggest that in the tropics convective processes and rain re-evaporation are important controls on precipitation D-excess and 17O-excess. In higher latitudes, the effect of distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins and supersaturation are the most important controls. For example, the lower d-excess and 17O-excess at LGM simulated at LGM are mainly due to the supersaturation effect. The effect of supersaturation is however very sensitive to a parameter whose tuning would require more measurements and laboratory experiments. Evaporative conditions had previously been suggested to be key controlling factors of d-excess and 17O-excess, but LMDZ underestimates their role. More generally, some shortcomings in the simulation of 17O-excess

  3. Skills Training via Smartphone App for University Students with Excessive Alcohol Consumption: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecki, Mikael; Andersson, Claes; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Fredriksson, Morgan; Berman, Anne H

    2017-10-01

    University students in a study on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) feedback apps were offered participation in a second study, if reporting continued excessive consumption at 6-week follow-up. This study evaluated the effects on excessive alcohol consumption of offering access to an additional skills training app. A total of 186 students with excessive alcohol consumption were randomized to an intervention group or a wait list group. Both groups completed online follow-ups regarding alcohol consumption after 6 and 12 weeks. Wait list participants were given access to the intervention at 6-week follow-up. Assessment-only controls (n = 144) with excessive alcohol consumption from the ongoing study were used for comparison. The proportion of participants with excessive alcohol consumption declined in both intervention and wait list groups compared to controls at first (p alcohol consumption among men in the intervention group compared to male controls was 2.68, 95% CI [1.37, 5.25] (Z = 2.88, p = 0.004); the figure for women was 1.71, 95% CI [1.11, 2.64] (Z = 2.41, p = 0.016). Skills training apps have potential for reducing excessive alcohol use among university students. Future research is still needed to disentangle effects of app use from emailed feedback on excessive alcohol consumption and study participation. NCT02064998.

  4. The Reactive Postural Control in Spastic Cerebral Palsy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Akbar Fahimi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Postural control deficit is one of the most important problems in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The purpose of this paper is to review the reactive postural control in spastic children with CP. Methods: Researches on development of reactive postural control in typically developing (TD children and children with Cerebral Palsy (CP were analyzed. Results: The results of this review revealed at least three main systems of reactive postural control, including: sensory, motor, and cognitive systems. These systems develop in a nonlinear mode. Maturation of postural control depends on the reach of each system to an adequate threshold of development and organization. Discussion: limited data indicated the development of reactive postural control in children with CP occur similar to TD children but with limitation in motor function and sensory organization.

  5. Integrated Design and Control of Reactive and Non-Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    , an alternative approach is to tackle process design and controllability issues simultaneously, in the early stages of process design. This simultaneous synthesis approach provides optimal/near optimal operation and more efficient control of conventional (non-reactive binary distillation columns) (Hamid et al......., 2010) as well as complex chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation (Mansouri et al., 2015). Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number...... of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems to address the interactions between process design and control, and they range from optimization-based approaches to model-based methods (Sharifzadeh, 2013). In this work, integrated design and control of non-reactive distillation, ternary...

  6. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 μg L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 μg L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 μg L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris.

  7. Therapeutic Strategies for Oxidative Stress-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: Removal of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that acute and chronic uncontrolled overproduction of oxidative stress-related factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Moreover ROS mediate various signaling pathways underlying vascular inflammation in ischemic tissues. With respect to stem cell-based therapy, several studies clearly indicate that modulating antioxidant production at cellular levels enhances stem/progenitor cell functionalities, including proliferation, long-term survival in ischemic tissues, and complete differentiation of transplanted cells into mature vascular cells. Recently emerging therapeutic strategies involving adult stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, for treating ischemic CVDs have highlighted the need to control intracellular ROS production, because it critically affects the replicative senescence of ex vivo expanded therapeutic cells. Better understanding of the complexity of cellular ROS in stem cell biology might improve cell survival in ischemic tissues and enhance the regenerative potentials of transplanted stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the nature and sources of ROS, drug-based therapeutic strategies for scavenging ROS, and EPC based therapeutic strategies for treating oxidative stress-related CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss whether primed EPCs pretreated with natural ROS-scavenging compounds are crucial and promising therapeutic strategies for vascular repair.

  8. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from......In this project the potential for ancillary services provision by distributed energy resources is investigated. Specifically, the provision of reactive power control by combined heat and power plants is examined, and the application of the new standard for DER communication systems, IEC 61850...... lines to underground cables has changed the reactive power balance, and third, the TSO has introduced restrictions in the allowed exchange of reactive power between the transmission system and distribution grids (known as the Mvar-arrangement). The demonstration includes a CHP plant with an electric...

  9. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Hou; Yamikani Ndasauka; Yingying Jiang; Zi Ye; Ying Wang; Lizhuang Yang; Xiaoming Li; Yongjun Zhang; Liangjun Pang; Yan Kong; Fei Xu; Xiaochu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    ...). We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills...

  10. Coordination of baseload power plant group control with static reactive power compensator control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szczerba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power sources in power system nodes: generators and static reactive power compensators, are controlled by control systems. Generators – by generator node group controllers, compensators – by voltage controllers. The paper presents issues of these control systems’ coordination and proposals for its implementation.

  11. Cardiovascular reactivity in Black and White siblings versus matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D K; Holmes, S D; Arheart, K; Alpert, B S

    1995-09-01

    Elevated cardiovascular (CV) reactivity may be a marker or mechanism for the early development of essential hypertension (EH) and may contribute to the greater prevalence of EH observed in Black adults. Previous research has demonstrated that Black children show greater CV reactivity than White children to psychological stressors, however, the role of heritability in understanding these racial differences is still unknown. Evidence which supports a genetic influence on CV reactivity comes from animal studies, research on family history of EH, and from twin and sibling studies. The present study expands on previous findings by examining racial differences in CV reactivity in 15 pairs of Black siblings, 15 pairs of age-and sex-matched unrelated Black control subjects, 17 pairs of White siblings, and 17 pairs of age-and sex-matched unrelated White control subjects. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) measurements were obtained at rest and during a stress task (competitive video game). Black siblings demonstrated a significantly higher intraclass correlation for DBP reactivity than Black controls or White siblings (r=0.73, versus 0.16, 0.14, respectively). Additionally, Black siblings demonstrated a steeper rise and then a plateau in DBP and HR reactivity to the video game task, while White siblings showed a more gradual increase in these measures over the course of playing three video games. The results for DBP and HR reactivity, however, were not consistent among either of the matched control groups. These results expand on previous research by suggesting a stronger genetic influence of CV reactivity in Black than in White children.

  12. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.

    2010-01-01

    -7- 420, is investigated as a means to improve the control possibilities. To gain first-hand experience on the topic, a demonstration case has been designed and implemented in the project. The demonstration case is based on the issue of reactive power balancing in distribution grids, an issue...... that is attracting increasing attention from the distribution grid operators due to three main reasons, that all call for flexible reactive power control resources: First, the presence of DER, like wind turbines and CHP plants, makes the conditions less predictable, second, the intensive transform from overhead......In this project the potential for ancillary services provision by distributed energy resources is investigated. Specifically, the provision of reactive power control by combined heat and power plants is examined, and the application of the new standard for DER communication systems, IEC 61850...

  13. A case-control study on excessive daytime sleepiness in chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti, Piero; Aurilia, Cinzia; Egeo, Gabriella; Fofi, Luisa; Vanacore, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a major clinical and health concern that can have varied and sometimes harmful consequences. Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest a high prevalence in patients with chronic migraine. In a case-control study, we compared frequency data for excessive daytime sleepiness in 100 patients with chronic migraine and 100 healthy controls paired for sex and age, and assessed risk factors including lifestyle, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, concomitant disease and medications. The frequency of excessive daytime sleepiness was higher in migraineurs (especially in those with medication overuse) than in controls (20% versus 6%; odds ratio 3.92, 95% CI 1.5-10.22), but was lower than previously reported and correlated with poor quality sleep and anxiolytic and antidepressant use. Again confirming that disability in chronic migraine is multifactorial in origin, excessive daytime sleepiness, especially in migraineurs who overuse medications, adds to the multiple factors known to impair social and working function. Patients with chronic migraine might benefit from diagnostic interviews focussing also on sleep problems and from targeted psychoactive drug prescribing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Joint excitation and reactive power control in thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated voltage and reactive power controller, designed for the thermal power plant, is presented in the paper. A brief explanation of the need for such device is given and justification for commissioning of such equipment is outlined. After short description of the theoretical background of the proposed control design, the achieved features of the commissioned equipment are fully given. Achieved performances are illustrated by recorded reactive power and bus voltage responses after commissioning of the described equipment into the largest thermal power plant in Serbia. As it can be seen in presented records, all design targets are met.

  15. Microscopic control of semiconductor interface reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years a number of metal overlayers on silicon have been shown to yield an increase in silicon oxidation rate when the surface is exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere. Metals as diverse as Au, AG, Cu, Pd all give rise to promotion effects, with the production of Si-oxide phases of variable stoichiometry. In the case of Au and Cr, the Si-oxide appears to nucleate on top of the metal overlayer. To the extent that the metal atoms increase the surface reaction kinetics and do not appear directly involved in the reaction product, i.e., the surface silicon oxide, they play the role of a catalyst. Since the magnitude of the effect depends on the overlayer-silicon interface morphology, in the absence of a more precise denomination we refer to such phenomena as interface catalytic effects. The main goal of our program is to investigate the microscopic mechanisms which determine these effects, characterize the electronic and structural modifications that accompany the surface reactions, determine the stoichiometry of the reaction products and/or the interface composition profile, and ultimately obtain and enhanced control of the kinetics of surface reactions with gaseous species and metals. Long term practical aplications include the synthesis of new insulating and metallic epitaxial layers on Si and GaAs and enhanced control of interdiffusion and contact stability.

  16. Trait impulsivity components correlate differently with proactive and reactive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua Huang

    Full Text Available The relationship between impulsivity and cognitive control is still unknown. We hypothesized that trait impulsivity would differentially correlate with specific cognitive control processes. Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, which assesses motor, attention, and non-planning impulsiveness components. Cognitive control was measured by a hybrid-designed Stroop task, which distinguishes proactive and reactive control. Thirty-three participants performed the Stroop task while they were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Proactive and reactive control involved increased activity in the fronto-parietal network, and brain activity was associated with impulsivity scores. Specifically, higher motor impulsiveness was associated with a larger proactive control effect in the inferior parietal lobule and a smaller reactive control effect in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate contex. Higher attention impulsivity was associated with a smaller proactive control effect in the right DLPFC. Such a correlation pattern suggests that impulsivity trait components are attributable to different cognitive control subsystems.

  17. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage

    2017-12-26

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  18. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  19. Reward prospect rapidly speeds up response inhibition via reactive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N; Schevernels, Hanne; Hopf, Jens-Max; Stoppel, Christian M; Krebs, Ruth M

    2014-06-01

    Response inhibition is an important cognitive-control function that allows for already-initiated or habitual behavioral responses to be promptly withheld when needed. A typical paradigm to study this function is the stop-signal task. From this task, the stop-signal response time (SSRT) can be derived, which indexes how rapidly an already-initiated response can be canceled. Typically, SSRTs range around 200 ms, identifying response inhibition as a particularly rapid cognitive-control process. Even so, it has recently been shown that SSRTs can be further accelerated if successful response inhibition is rewarded. Since this earlier study effectively ruled out differential preparatory (proactive) control adjustments, the reward benefits likely relied on boosted reactive control. Yet, given how rapidly such control processes would need to be enhanced, alternative explanations circumventing reactive control are important to consider. We addressed this question with an fMRI study by gauging the overlap of the brain networks associated with reward-related and response-inhibition-related processes in a reward-modulated stop-signal task. In line with the view that reactive control can indeed be boosted swiftly by reward availability, we found that the activity in key brain areas related to response inhibition was enhanced for reward-related stop trials. Furthermore, we observed that this beneficial reward effect was triggered by enhanced connectivity between task-unspecific (reward-related) and task-specific (inhibition-related) areas in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present data hence suggest that reward information can be translated very rapidly into behavioral benefits (here, within ~200 ms) through enhanced reactive control, underscoring the immediate responsiveness of such control processes to reward availability in general.

  20. Voltage Control in Distribution Systems Considered Reactive Power Output Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Masato; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    In recent years, distributed generation (DG) and renewable energy source (RES) are attracting special attention to distribution systems. Renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) system and wind turbine generator are used as a source of clean energy. However, the large amount of distributed generation causes voltage deviation beyond a statutory range in distribution systems. This paper proposes a methodology for voltage control by using inverters interfaced with DG and tap changing transformers. In the proposed method a one-day schedule of voltage references for the control devices are determined by an optimization technique based on predicted values of load demand and PV power generation. Furthermore, decided reactive power output according to the locally measurable voltage based on droop characteristic. Slope and base value on droop characteristic are selected by fuzzy control. The proposed method accomplishes improvement against voltage distribution considered the reactive power output sharing and reduction of distribution loss. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by using MATLAB®.

  1. Proactive and reactive control by the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuphorn, Veit; Emeric, Erik E

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. Recent work in humans has identified a network of cortical and subcortical brain region that might have an important role in proactive and reactive control. However, due to technical limitations, such as the spatial and temporal resolution of the BOLD signal, human imaging experiments are not able to disambiguate the specific function(s) of these brain regions. These limitations can be overcome through single-unit recordings in non-human primates. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex of monkeys performing the stop signal or countermanding task.

  2. Secondary Control for Reactive Power Sharing in Droop-Controlled Islanded MicroGrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, A.; Apap, M.; Spiteri-Staines, C.

    2012-01-01

    , droop control has real and reactive power sharing limitations when there are mismatches between the microsources. This paper analyses the effect due to mismatches in the power line impedances connecting the source inverters to the microgrid. From the simulations results obtained, it was shown...... that the reactive power demand is unequally shared between the microsource inverters when there are mismatches between the power line impedances. To achieve equal reactive power sharing between the inverters, an external loop requiring low bandwidth communications was implemented in a central controller. Simulation...... results are presented showing the feasibility of the proposed solution in achieving reactive power sharing between the inverters connected to the microgrid....

  3. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: Evidence from an event-related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwei eChen; Yunsi eLiang; Chunmiao eMai; Xiyun eZhong; Chen eQu

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs) to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal us...

  4. General Deficit in Inhibitory Control of Excessive Smartphone Users: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal ...

  5. Thiol-ene thermosets exploiting surface reactivity for layer-by-layer structures and control of penetration depth for selective surface reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Westh, Andreas; Pereira Rosinha Grundtvig, Ines

    Thiol-ene thermosets have been shown to be an efficient platform for preparation of functional polymer surfaces. Especially the effectiveness and versatility of the system has enabled a large variety of network properties to be obtained in a simple and straight-forward way. Due to its selectivity......, various thiols and allyl or other vinyl reactants can be used to obtain either soft and flexible1 or more rigid functional thermosets 2. The methodology permits use of etiher thermal or photochemical conditions both for matrix preparation as well as for surface functionalization. Due to excess reactive...... groups in thµe surface of thiol-ene thermosets, it is possible to prepare surface functional thermosets or to exploit the reactive groups for modular construction and subsequent chemical bonding. Here a different approach preparing monolithic layer-by-layer structures with controlled mechanical...

  6. Reactive Power and Voltage Control of Offshore Wind Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Jerkø, Anders

    2014-01-01

    There are several challenges related to reactive power and voltage control of HVAC transmission from offshore wind farms to the main grid, which need to be addressed when designing wind farms. One challenge is the variation of wind speeds and thereby also power production, which can make it difficult to operate the system within the grid code requirements. This Master s thesis focuses on finding beneficial operating strategies to solve these challenges. Various locations of a static var compe...

  7. The impact of fuel temperature reactivity coefficient on loss of reactivity control accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Ryu, E. H.; Song, Y. M.; Jung, J. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nuclear reactors experience small power fluctuations or anticipated operational transients during even normal power operation. During normal operation, the reactivity is mainly controlled by liquid zone controllers, adjuster rods, mechanical control absorbers, and moderator poison. Even when the reactor power is increased abruptly and largely from an accident and when reactor control systems cannot be actuated quickly due to a fast transient, the reactor should be controlled and stabilized by its inherent safety parameter, such as a negative PCR (Power Coefficient of Reactivity) feedback. A PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor), it is well designed for the reactor to have a negative PCR so that the reactor can be safely shut down or stabilized whenever an abrupt reactivity insertion into the reactor core occurs or the reactor power is abruptly increased. However, it is known that a CANDU reactor has a small amount of PCR, as either negative or positive, because of the different design basis and safety concepts from a PWR. CNSC's regulatory and safety regime has stated that; The PCR of CANDU reactors does not pose a significant risk. Consistent with Canadian nuclear safety requirements, nuclear power plants must have an appropriate combination of inherent and engineered safety features incorporated into the design of the reactor safety and control systems. A reactor design that has a PCR is quite acceptable provided that the reactor is stable against power fluctuations, and that the probability and consequences of any potential accidents that would be aggravated by a positive reactivity feedback are maintained within CNSCprescribed limits. Recently, it was issued licensing the refurbished Wolsong unit 1 in Korea to be operated continuously after its design lifetime in which the calculated PCR was shown to have a small positive value by applying the recent physics code systems, which are composed of WIMS IST, DRAGON IST, and RFSP IST. These code systems were

  8. Control Rod Driveline Reactivity Feedback Model for Liquid Metal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Min; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Cho, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Bum

    2008-01-15

    The thermal expansion of the control rod drivelines (CRDL) is one important passive mitigator under all unprotected accident conditions in the metal and oxide cores. When the CRDL are washed by hot sodium in the coolant outlet plenum, the CRDL thermally expands and causes the control rods to be inserted further down into the active core region, providing a negative reactivity feedback. Since the control rods are attached to the top of the vessel head and the core attaches to the bottom of the reactor vessel (RV), the expansion of the vessel wall as it heats will either lower the core or raise the control rods supports. This contrary thermal expansion of the reactor vessel wall pulls the control rods out of the core somewhat, providing a positive reactivity feedback. However this is not a safety factor early in a transient because its time constant is relatively large. The total elongated length is calculated by subtracting the vessel expansion from the CRDL expansion to determine the net control rod expansion into the core. The system-wide safety analysis code SSC-K includes the CRDL/RV reactivity feedback model in which control rod and vessel expansions are calculated using single-nod temperatures for the vessel and CRDL masses. The KALIMER design has the upper internal structures (UIS) in which the CRDLs are positioned outside the structure where they are exposed to the mixed sodium temperature exiting the core. A new method to determine the CRDL expansion is suggested. Two dimensional hot pool thermal hydraulic model (HP2D) originally developed for the analysis of the stratification phenomena in the hot pool is utilized for a detailed heat transfer between the CRDL mass and the hot pool coolant. However, the reactor vessel wall temperature is still calculated by a simple lumped model.

  9. Quality Control of Photosystem II: Lipid Peroxidation Accelerates Photoinhibition under Excessive Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Anna; Taninaka, Yoshito; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Hori, Haruka; Nanba, Daisuke; Imai, Aya; Morita, Noriko; Yoshioka-Nishimura, Miho; Izumi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Mizusawa, Naoki; Wada, Hajime; Yamamoto, Yasusi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stresses lower the efficiency of photosynthesis and sometimes cause irreversible damage to plant functions. When spinach thylakoids and Photosystem II membranes were illuminated with excessive visible light (100–1,000 µmol photons m−1 s−1) for 10 min at either 20°C or 30°C, the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II decreased as the light intensity and temperature increased. Reactive oxygen species and endogenous cationic radicals produced through a photochemical reaction at and/or near the reaction center have been implicated in the damage to the D1 protein. Here we present evidence that lipid peroxidation induced by the illumination is involved in the damage to the D1 protein and the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. This is reasoned from the results that considerable lipid peroxidation occurred in the thylakoids in the light, and that lipoxygenase externally added in the dark induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity in the thylakoids, production of singlet oxygen, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping, and damage to the D1 protein, in parallel with lipid peroxidation. Modification of the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II by malondialdehyde as well as oxidation of the subunits was also observed. We suggest that mainly singlet oxygen formed through lipid peroxidation under light stress participates in damaging the Photosystem II subunits. PMID:23300595

  10. Quality control of photosystem II: lipid peroxidation accelerates photoinhibition under excessive illumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Chan

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses lower the efficiency of photosynthesis and sometimes cause irreversible damage to plant functions. When spinach thylakoids and Photosystem II membranes were illuminated with excessive visible light (100-1,000 µmol photons m(-1 s(-1 for 10 min at either 20°C or 30°C, the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II decreased as the light intensity and temperature increased. Reactive oxygen species and endogenous cationic radicals produced through a photochemical reaction at and/or near the reaction center have been implicated in the damage to the D1 protein. Here we present evidence that lipid peroxidation induced by the illumination is involved in the damage to the D1 protein and the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. This is reasoned from the results that considerable lipid peroxidation occurred in the thylakoids in the light, and that lipoxygenase externally added in the dark induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity in the thylakoids, production of singlet oxygen, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping, and damage to the D1 protein, in parallel with lipid peroxidation. Modification of the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II by malondialdehyde as well as oxidation of the subunits was also observed. We suggest that mainly singlet oxygen formed through lipid peroxidation under light stress participates in damaging the Photosystem II subunits.

  11. Consequences of excessive use of Amlarasa (sour taste): A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panara, Kalpesh B; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2014-04-01

    Palatability is an important factor for choice of food by an individual. Amlarasa (sour taste) is one of the main organoleptic entities in foods of present day, which always tempts the consumer to take it now and then. According to classical Ayurvedic texts, balanced intake of Amlarasa in diet helps to maintain physiological health, but its excessive intake produces some signs and symptoms such as dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn, urticaria, papule and joint inflammation. To establish the relationship between excessive use of sour predominant diets and signs/symptoms produced by it. A case-control survey study was designed wherein total of 178 volunteers were interviewed personally. Subjects with particular symptoms consider as a cases while healthy volunteers as controls. To measure the excessive intake of Amlarasa, quantity and frequency of common food articles such as mango, tomato, lime, butter milk, tamarind, curd, fermented items etc., are taken into consideration. Data was arranged in to 2 × 2 table and odd ratio was calculated for each symptom. Odds ratio for dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn, urticaria, papule and joint inflammation with 95% confidence interval were found 1.95 (0.97-3.93), 2.45 (1.12-5.40), 2.76 (0.96-7.98), 2.21 (1.09-4.53), 0.86 (0.32-2.32), 2.28 (1.02-5.05) and 4.85 (1.09-10.24) respectively. Study reveals that Amlarasa is a risk factor for joint inflammation, dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn and papules. Study supports the Ayurvedic classical claim regarding Atiyoga of Amlarasa.

  12. CD8 controls T cell cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Linda; Laugel, Bruno; Ekeruche, Julia; Clement, Mathew; van den Berg, Hugo A; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K

    2010-10-15

    Estimates of human αβ TCR diversity suggest that there are <10(8) different Ag receptors in the naive T cell pool, a number that is dwarfed by the potential number of different antigenic peptide-MHC (pMHC) molecules that could be encountered. Consequently, an extremely high degree of cross-reactivity is essential for effective T cell immunity. Ag recognition by T cells is unique in that it involves a coreceptor that binds at a site distinct from the TCR to facilitate productive engagement of the pMHC. In this study, we show that the CD8 coreceptor controls T cell cross-reactivity for pMHCI Ags, thereby ensuring that the peripheral T cell repertoire is optimally poised to negotiate the competing demands of responsiveness in the face of danger and quiescence in the presence of self.

  13. Robust Adaptive Reactive Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reactive power control for mains-side inverter (MSI in doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is studied in this paper. To accommodate the modelling nonlinearities and inherent uncertainties, a novel robust adaptive control algorithm for MSI is proposed by utilizing Lyapunov theory that ensures asymptotic stability of the system under unpredictable external disturbances and significant parametric uncertainties. The distinguishing benefit of the aforementioned scheme consists in its capabilities to maintain satisfactory performance under varying operation conditions without the need for manually redesigning or reprogramming the control gains in contrast to the commonly used PI/PID control. Simulations are also built to confirm the correctness and benefits of the control scheme.

  14. Excess weight gain prevention in adolescents: Three-year outcome following a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Brady, Sheila M; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew; Olsen, Cara H; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-03-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain in adults with obesity and binge-eating-disorder, and is especially effective among those with increased psychosocial problems. However, IPT was not superior to health education (HE) to prevent excess weight gain at 1-year follow-up in 113 adolescent girls at high-risk for excess weight gain because of loss-of-control eating and high body mass index (BMI; kg/m2; Tanofsky-Kraff et al., 2014). Participants from the original trial were recontacted 3 years later for assessment. At baseline, adolescent- and parent-reported social-adjustment problems and trait anxiety were evaluated. At baseline and follow-ups, BMIz and adiposity by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Nearly 60% were reassessed at 3 years, with no group differences in participation (ps ≥ .70). Consistent with 1 year, there was no main effect of group on change in BMIz/adiposity (ps ≥ .18). In exploratory analyses, baseline social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety moderated outcome (ps social-adjustment problems or anxiety, IPT, compared to HE, was associated with the steepest declines in BMIz (p anxiety in HE and girls with low anxiety in IPT experienced gains (ps ≤ .03), while girls in IPT with high anxiety stabilized. Parent-reports yielded complementary findings. In obesity-prone adolescent girls, IPT was not superior to HE in preventing excess weight gain at 3 years. Consistent with theory, exploratory analyses suggested that IPT was associated with improvements in BMIz over 3 years among youth with high social-adjustment problems or trait anxiety. Future studies should test the efficacy of IPT for obesity prevention among at-risk girls with social-adjustment problems and/or anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Excess Weight Gain Prevention in Adolescents: Three-year Outcome following a Randomized-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Brady, Sheila M.; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew; Olsen, Cara H.; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain in adults with obesity and binge-eating-disorder, and is especially effective among those with increased psychosocial problems. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) to prevent excess weight gain at 1-year follow-up in 113 adolescent girls at high-risk for excess weight gain because of loss-of-control (LOC)-eating and high BMI (kg/m2) (Tanofsky-Kraff et al., 2014). Method Participants from the original trial were re-contacted 3-years later for assessment. At baseline, adolescent- and parent-reported social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety were evaluated. At baseline and follow-ups, BMIz and adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Results Nearly 60% were re-assessed at 3-years, with no group differences in participation (ps≥.70). Consistent with 1-year, there was no main effect of group on change in BMIz/adiposity (ps≥.18). In exploratory analyses, baseline social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety moderated outcome (pssocial-adjustment problems or anxiety, IPT, compared to HE, was associated with the steepest declines in BMIz (panxiety in HE, and girls with low-anxiety in IPT experienced gains (ps≤.03), while girls in IPT with high-anxiety stabilized. Parent-reports yielded complementary findings. Conclusion In obesity-prone adolescent girls, IPT was not superior to HE in preventing excess weight gain at 3-years. Consistent with theory, exploratory analyses suggested that IPT was associated with improvements in BMIz over 3-years among youth with high social-adjustment problems or trait-anxiety. Future studies should test the efficacy of IPT for obesity prevention among at-risk girls with social-adjustment problems and/or anxiety. PMID:27808536

  16. Prevalence, awareness and control of diabetes in the Seychelles and relationship with excess body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappy Luc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence for a "diabesity" epidemic is accumulating worldwide but population-based data are still scarce in the African region. We assessed the prevalence, awareness and control of diabetes (DM in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the African region. We also examined the relationship between body mass index, fasting serum insulin and DM. Methods Examination survey in a sample representative of the entire population aged 25–64 of the Seychelles, attended by 1255 persons (participation rate of 80.2%. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in individuals with fasting blood glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l. Diabetes mellitus (DM, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT were defined along criteria of the ADA. Prevalence estimates were standardized for age. Results The prevalence of DM was 11.5% and 54% of persons with DM were aware of having DM. Less than a quarter of all diabetic persons under treatment were well controlled for glycemia (HbA1c, blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol. The prevalence of IGT and IFG were respectively 10.4% and 24.2%. The prevalence of excess weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was respectively 60.1% and 25.0%. Half of all DM cases in the population could be attributed to excess weight. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of DM and pre-diabetes in a rapidly developing country in the African region. The strong association between overweight and DM emphasizes the importance of weight control measures to reduce the incidence of DM in the population. High rates of diabetic persons not aware of having DM in the population and insufficient cardiometabolic control among persons treated for DM stress the need for intensifying health care for diabetes.

  17. Excessive and addictive gaming control using counselling agent in online game design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ididi, Italumeh O.; Hassan, Sa'adah; Ghani, Abdul Azim Abd; Ali, Norhayati Mohd

    2017-10-01

    In recent times, online game play has become a food for thought to concerned individuals, researchers and authorities of various countries due to its excessive and addictive usage. Although, various government have taken certain measures such as shutting down internet cafe at certain hours of the day, censoring the most brutal, offensive and aggressive sections of certain games before they are released. Researchers have advised developers on ways of limiting harm on players by suggesting design changes on time limit. Furthermore, researchers have also suggested that online game distributors ought to make available appropriate referral services. The impart of the above are yet to make any remarkable impact on players. In this paper, we have proposed a Counseling Agent model integrating informative and self-appraisal messages in online game design as a control measure. Informative and self-appraisal messaging in games have proven optimistic through making positive impact on player's thoughts and behavior towards gaming. These messages are expected to remind players about the negative impact of excessive and addictive gaming habits, as well as suggesting possible reductive solutions through message streaming.

  18. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  19. Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network.

  20. An Efficient Reactive Power Control Method for Power Network Systems with Solar Photovoltaic Generators Using Sparse Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the incremental introduction of solar photovoltaic (PV generators into existing power systems, and their fast-growing share in the gross electricity generation, system voltage stability has become a critical issue. One of the major concerns is voltage fluctuation, due to large and random penetration of solar PV generators. To suppress severe system voltage deviation, reactive power control of the photovoltaic system inverter has been widely proposed in recent works; however, excessive use of reactive power control would increase both initial and operating costs. In this paper, a method for efficient allocation and control of reactive power injection using the sparse optimization technique is proposed. Based on a constrained linearized model describing the influence of reactive power injection on voltage magnitude change, the objective of this study is formulated as an optimization problem, which aims to find the best reactive power injection that minimizes the whole system voltage variation. Two types of formulations are compared: the first one is the conventional least-square optimization, while the second one is adopted from a sparse optimization technique, called the constrained least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The constrained LASSO method adds ℓ 1 -norm penalty to the total reactive power injection, which contributes to the suppression of the number of control nodes with non-zero reactive power injection. The authors analyzed the effectiveness of the constrained LASSO method using the IEEE 39-bus and 57-bus power network as benchmark examples, under various PV power generation and allocation patterns. The simulation results show that the constrained LASSO method automatically selects the minimum number of inverters required for voltage regulation at the current operating point.

  1. Excessive work and risk of haemorrhagic stroke: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kim, Chi Kyung; Chung, Jong-Won; Kim, Dohoung; Park, Hong-Kyun; Bae, Hee-Joon; Park, Byung-Joo; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Adverse effect of excessive work on health has been suggested previously, but it was not documented in cerebrovascular diseases. The authors investigated whether excessive working conditions would associate with increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke. A nationwide matched case-control study database, which contains 940 cases of incident haemorrhagic stroke (498 intracerebral haemorrhages and 442 sub-arachnoid haemorrhages) with 1880 gender- and age- (± 5-year) matched controls, was analysed. Work-related information based on the regular job situation, including type of occupation, regular working time, duration of strenuous activity during regular work and shift work, was gathered through face-to-face interviews. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used for the multivariable analyses. Compared with white-collar workers, blue-collar workers had a higher risk for haemorrhagic stroke (odds ratio, 1.33 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.66]). Longer regular working time was associated with increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke [odds ratio, 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.81) for 8-12 h/day; odds ratio, 1.95 (95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.86) for ≥ 13 h/day; compared with ≤ 4 h/day]. Exposure to ≥ 8 h/week of strenuous activity also associated haemorrhagic stroke risk [odds ratio, 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.05); compared with no strenuous activity]. Shift work was not associated with haemorrhagic stroke (P = 0.98). Positive associations between working condition indices and haemorrhagic stroke risk were consistent regardless of haemorrhagic stroke sub-types and current employment status. Blue-collar occupation, longer regular working time and extended duration of strenuous activity during work may relate to an increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Study on Optimization Strategy for Voltage and Reactive Power Control of Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, L.; Chen, N.

    A method for calculating reactive power limit of wind farm comprised of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) is proposed. The reactive power limit of wind farm is the sum of reactive power limit of DFIGs which is calculated by the method considering static stability margin. Based on this, reactive power control of wind farm is discussed and proposed. The proposed reactive power control is divided into different control modes according to power factor of high voltage side in wind farm substation and voltage of low voltage side in point of interconnection(POI). In different control modes, different control objects are applied on reactive power regulation. After reactive power regulation is finished, some reactive power of wind farm should be released. At last, numerical test system is established, the result shows that the proposed method is effective to support voltage of POI

  3. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Ye, Zi; Wang, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yongjun; Pang, Liangjun; Kong, Yan; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females) and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS). We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- “mood modification,” “salience” and ‘‘conflict”- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking. PMID:28817710

  4. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hou

    Full Text Available In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS. We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- "mood modification," "salience" and ''conflict"- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking.

  5. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Jiang, Yingying; Ye, Zi; Wang, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yongjun; Pang, Liangjun; Kong, Yan; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females) and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS). We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- "mood modification," "salience" and ''conflict"- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking.

  6. Cross-Reactive Plasmonic Aptasensors for Controlled Substance Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Yoho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we developed an assay to determine if an arbitrary white powder is a controlled substance, given the plasmonic response of aptamer-gold nanoparticle conjugates (Apt-AuNPs. Toward this end, we designed Apt-AuNPs with specific a response to common controlled substances without cross reactivity to chemicals typically used as fillers in street formulations. Plasmonic sensor variation was shown to produce unique data fingerprints for each chemical analyzed, supporting the application of multivariate statistical techniques to annotate unknown samples by chemical similarity. Importantly, the assay takes less than fifteen minutes to run, and requires only a few micrograms of the material, making the proposed assay easily deployable in field operations.

  7. Basic study on dynamic reactive-power control method with PV output prediction for solar inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Miyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To effectively utilize a photovoltaic (PV system, reactive-power control methods for solar inverters have been considered. Among the various methods, the constant-voltage control outputs less reactive power compared with the other methods. We have developed a constant-voltage control to reduce the reactive-power output. However, the developed constant-voltage control still outputs unnecessary reactive power because the control parameter is constant in every waveform of the PV output. To reduce the reactive-power output, we propose a dynamic reactive-power control method with a PV output prediction. In the proposed method, the control parameter is varied according to the properties of the predicted PV waveform. In this study, we performed numerical simulations using a distribution system model, and we confirmed that the proposed method reduces the reactive-power output within the voltage constraint.

  8. Factors associated with excessive bleeding in cardiopulmonary bypass patients: a nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios Ysamar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Excessive bleeding (EB after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB may lead to increased mortality, morbidity, transfusion requirements and re-intervention. Less than 50% of patients undergoing re-intervention exhibit surgical sources of bleeding. We studied clinical and genetic factors associated with EB. Methods We performed a nested case-control study of 26 patients who did not receive antifibrinolytic prophylaxis. Variables were collected preoperatively, at intensive care unit (ICU admission, at 4 and 24 hours post-CPB. EB was defined as 24-hour blood loss of >1 l post-CPB. Associations of EB with genetic, demographic, and clinical factors were analyzed, using SPSS-12.2 for statistical purposes. Results EB incidence was 50%, associated with body mass index (BMI2, (P = 0.03, lower preoperative levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 (P = 0.01, lower body temperature during CPB (P = 0.037 and at ICU admission (P = 0.029, and internal mammary artery graft (P = 0.03 in bypass surgery. We found a significant association between EB and 5G homozygotes for PAI-1, after adjusting for BMI (F = 6.07; P = 0.02 and temperature during CPB (F = 8.84; P = 0.007. EB patients showed higher consumption of complement, coagulation, fibrinolysis and hemoderivatives, with significantly lower leptin levels at all postoperative time points (P = 0.01, P P Conclusion Excessive postoperative bleeding in CPB patients was associated with demographics, particularly less pronounced BMI, and surgical factors together with serine protease activation.

  9. Control of ruthenium oxide nanorod length in reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Michael W [School of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Varhue, Walter J [School of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Hitt, Darren L [School of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Adams, Edward [IBM Microelectronics, Essex Junction, VT 05452 (United States)

    2008-01-30

    Ruthenium oxide nanorods have been grown on Si wafer substrates under a variety of pre-existing surface conditions by reactive radio frequency sputtering in an electron cyclotron resonant plasma process. Nanorod formation by this method is fast relative to that observed in other processes reported in the literature, with nucleation being the rate determining step. Growth in the axial direction is limited by the availability of ruthenium precursors which competes with their consumption in the lateral growth of the nanorods. The availability of Ru precursors at the top of the nanorods can be controlled by surface diffusion and therefore substrate temperature. The ultimate length of the nanorods is determined by the mole fraction of oxygen used in the reactor ambient through the production of mobile Ru hyperoxide precursors. The results of this investigation show the way to develop a process for producing a high density field of nanorods with a specified length.

  10. Renin- angiotensin system in control of vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Drenjančević-Perić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to present recent knowledge of the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS in the control of vascular relaxation mechanisms and the relation to development and maintenance of hypertension. The emphasisis given on the role of oxidative stress and NO – dependent and prostanoid - dependent vascular relaxation mechanisms that are impaired in SS salt-sensitive rat strain (that exhibit chronically low plasma renin activity, and restored in consomic SS.13BN rats (that have chromosome 13, containing renin gene, introgressed from BN rat into SS genetic background. In conclusion, results of numerous experimental studies suggest that hypoactive (as well as hyperactive RAS may contribute to development and maintenance of hypertension due to the effects of angiotensin II on vascular reactivity.

  11. Sliding mode active and reactive power decoupled control for Distributed Power Flow Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, I m; Silva, F. A.; Pinto, S. F.; Martins, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFC) are one of the most useful Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). They can be used for power flow control in AC transmission grids, allowing simultaneous control of the bus voltage and line active and reactive power. However, due to high costs and reliability concerns, UPFCs have experimented limited use in such applications. Recently, the concepts of Distributed FACTS (DFACTS) and Distributed Power Flow Controller (DPFC) have been introduced as a low ...

  12. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: Evidence from an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei eChen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related, the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use.

  13. General Deficit in Inhibitory Control of Excessive Smartphone Users: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27148120

  14. Reactive oxygen species and transcript analysis upon excess light treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana vs a photosensitive mutant lacking zeaxanthin and lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncaglia Enrica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are unavoidable by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis, causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity they are also signalling molecules, priming the acclimatory response to stress stimuli. Results To investigate this role further, we exposed wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the double mutant npq1lut2 to excess light. The mutant does not produce the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, whose key roles include ROS scavenging and prevention of ROS synthesis. Biochemical analysis revealed that singlet oxygen (1O2 accumulated to higher levels in the mutant while other ROS were unaffected, allowing to define the transcriptomic signature of the acclimatory response mediated by 1O2 which is enhanced by the lack of these xanthophylls species. The group of genes differentially regulated in npq1lut2 is enriched in sequences encoding chloroplast proteins involved in cell protection against the damaging effect of ROS. Among the early fine-tuned components, are proteins involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chlorophyll catabolism, protein import, folding and turnover, synthesis and membrane insertion of photosynthetic subunits. Up to now, the flu mutant was the only biological system adopted to define the regulation of gene expression by 1O2. In this work, we propose the use of mutants accumulating 1O2 by mechanisms different from those activated in flu to better identify ROS signalling. Conclusions We propose that the lack of zeaxanthin and lutein leads to 1O2 accumulation and this represents a signalling pathway in the early stages of stress acclimation, beside the response to ADP/ATP ratio and to the redox state of both plastoquinone pool. Chloroplasts respond to 1O2 accumulation by undergoing a significant change in composition and function towards a fast acclimatory response. The physiological implications of this signalling specificity are

  15. Combined Active and Reactive Power Control of Wind Farms based on Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-01-01

    the sensitivity coefficients to improve the computation efficiency and overcome the convergence problem. Two control modes are designed for both normal and emergency conditions. A wind farm with 20 wind turbines was used to verify the proposed combined control scheme.......This paper proposes a combined wind farm controller based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). Compared with the conventional decoupled active and reactive power control, the proposed control scheme considers the significant impact of active power on voltage variations due to the low X=R ratio...... of wind farm collector systems. The voltage control is improved. Besides, by coordination of active and reactive power, the Var capacity is optimized to prevent potential failures due to Var shortage, especially when the wind farm operates close to its full load. An analytical method is used to calculate...

  16. Effortful Control and Parenting: Associations with HPA Axis Reactivity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryski, Katie R.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2013-01-01

    While activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an adaptive response to stress, excessive HPA axis reactivity may be an important marker of childhood vulnerability to psychopathology. Parenting, including parent affect during parent-child interactions, may play an important role in shaping the developing HPA system; however,…

  17. Armodafinil for treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with shift work disorder: a randomized controlled study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czeisler, Charles A; Walsh, James K; Wesnes, Keith A; Arora, Sanjay; Roth, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effect of armodafinil, 150 mg, on the physiologic propensity for sleep and cognitive performance during usual night shift hours in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with chronic (> or =3 months...

  18. Desaturation of excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol in obesity: implications for glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Madsbad, S; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG), found especially in obese women, is slowly metabolized and, therefore, prone to longer exposure to intracellular desaturases. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that IMTG content correlates inversely with IMTG fatty acid (FA) saturation in sedentary...

  19. Reactive and Proactive Interference Control in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Anne G.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Marsman, Maarten; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2017-01-01

    As a large heterogeneity is observed across studies on interference control in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research may benefit from the use of a cognitive framework that models specific processes underlying reactive and proactive control of interference. Reactive control refers to the expression and suppression of responses and proactive…

  20. Effect of montelukast on excessive airway narrowing response to methacholine in adult asthmatic patients not on controller therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Diamant, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    -response plateau to Mtc in adult asthmatic patients not on controller therapy, and, hence, protects against excessive airway narrowing. Thirty-one asthmatic patients (13 male patients, 18-50 years old; forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)], >70% predicted; PD(20), ... of treatment with Mont neither induced a plateau response nor affected maximum FEV(1) response or PD(20). Our findings, therefore, suggest that monotherapy with a LTRA does not protect against excessive airway narrowing in adult asthmatic patients not on inhaled corticosteroids....

  1. Active and reactive power control of a current-source PWM-rectifier using space vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, M.; Tuusa, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the current-source PWM-rectifier with active and reactive power control is presented. The control system is realized using space vector methods. Also, compensation of the reactive power drawn by the line filter is discussed. Some simulation results are shown. (orig.) 8 refs.

  2. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  3. Effects of an alternating work shift on air traffic controllers and the relationship with excessive daytime sleepiness and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ângela M; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Russomano, Thaís; Freitas, Marcos de; Silvello, Silvio Luis da Silva; Costa, Jaderson Costa da

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate symptoms of stress and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in air traffic control (ATC) officers in Brazil. Fifty-two ATC officers participated, based at three air traffic control units, identified as A, B and C. Stress symptoms were assessed using the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults, and EDS by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The sample mean age was 37 years, 76.9% of whom were male. Excessive daytime sleepiness was identified in 25% of the ATC officers, with 84.6% of these based at air traffic control unit A, which has greater air traffic flow, operating a 24-hour alternating work shift schedule. A total of 16% of the ATC officers had stress symptoms, and of these, 62% showed a predominance of physical symptoms. The high percentage of ATC officers with EDS identified in group A may be related to chronodisruption due to night work and alternating shifts.

  4. Multiagent-Based Reactive Power Sharing and Control Model for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Feixiong; Chen, Minyou; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In islanded microgrids (MGs), the reactive power cannot be shared proportionally among distributed generators (DGs) with conventional droop control, due to the mismatch in feeder impedances. For the purpose of proportional reactive power sharing, a multiagent system (MAS) based distributed control...... of the control model, in which the uncertainty of intermittent DGs, variations in load demands, as well as impacts of time delays are considered. The simulation results demonstrate the eectiveness of the control model in proportional reactive power sharing, and the plug and play capability of the control model...

  5. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Lo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN and error positivity (Pe – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity. The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years.

  6. Combustion Mode Design with High Efficiency and Low Emissions Controlled by Mixtures Stratification and Fuel Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixture stratification that have been conducted in the authors’ group, including the charge reactivity controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion, stratification controlled premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI combustion, and dual-fuel combustion concepts controlled by both fuel reactivity and mixture stratification. The review starts with the charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion, and the works on HCCI fuelled with both high cetane number fuels, such as DME and n-heptane, and high octane number fuels, such as methanol, natural gas, gasoline and mixtures of gasoline/alcohols, are reviewed and discussed. Since single fuel cannot meet the reactivity requirements under different loads to control the combustion process, the studies related to concentration stratification and dual-fuel charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion are then presented, which have been shown to have the potential to achieve effective combustion control. The efforts of using both mixture and thermal stratifications to achieve the auto-ignition and combustion control are also discussed. Thereafter, both charge reactivity and mixture stratification are then applied to control the combustion process. The potential and capability of thermal-atmosphere controlled compound combustion mode and dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI/highly premixed charge combustion (HPCC mode to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion are then presented and discussed. Based on these results and discussions, combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixtures stratification in the whole operating range is proposed.

  7. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes Involving Multi-elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    (including inert compounds) are encountered. The reactive distillation design methods and tools which are similar in concept to design of binary non-reactive distillations and binary reactive distillations are used for design of multi-element reactive distillation processes, such as driving force approach...... driving force approach. Next, through analytical, steady-state and closed-loop dynamic analysis it is verified that the control structure, disturbance rejection and energy requirement of the reactive distillation column is better than any other operation point that is not at the maximum driving force....... Furthermore, it is shown that the design at the maximum driving force can be both controlled using simple controllers such as PI as well as advanced controllers such as MPC....

  8. Interplay between reactive oxygen species and hormones in the control of plant development and stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Foyer, Christine H; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2015-05-01

    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and often life-threatening stresses caused by exposure to excessive light, extremes of temperature, limiting nutrient or water availability, and pathogen/insect attack. The flexible coordination of plant growth and development is necessary to optimize vigour and fitness in a changing environment through rapid and appropriate responses to such stresses. The concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile signalling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation is well established. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of how ROS production and signalling are integrated with the action of auxin, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, strigolactones, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid in the coordinate regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance. We consider the local and systemic crosstalk between ROS and hormonal signalling pathways and identify multiple points of reciprocal control, as well as providing insights into the integration nodes that involve Ca(2+)-dependent processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation cascades. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A proposed case-control framework to probabilistically classify individual deaths as expected or excess during extreme hot weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah B; Gauld, Jillian S; Rauch, Stephen A; McLean, Kathleen E; Krstic, Nikolas; Hondula, David M; Kosatsky, Tom

    2016-11-15

    Most excess deaths that occur during extreme hot weather events do not have natural heat recorded as an underlying or contributing cause. This study aims to identify the specific individuals who died because of hot weather using only secondary data. A novel approach was developed in which the expected number of deaths was repeatedly sampled from all deaths that occurred during a hot weather event, and compared with deaths during a control period. The deaths were compared with respect to five factors known to be associated with hot weather mortality. Individuals were ranked by their presence in significant models over 100 trials of 10,000 repetitions. Those with the highest rankings were identified as probable excess deaths. Sensitivity analyses were performed on a range of model combinations. These methods were applied to a 2009 hot weather event in greater Vancouver, Canada. The excess deaths identified were sensitive to differences in model combinations, particularly between univariate and multivariate approaches. One multivariate and one univariate combination were chosen as the best models for further analyses. The individuals identified by multiple combinations suggest that marginalized populations in greater Vancouver are at higher risk of death during hot weather. This study proposes novel methods for classifying specific deaths as expected or excess during a hot weather event. Further work is needed to evaluate performance of the methods in simulation studies and against clinically identified cases. If confirmed, these methods could be applied to a wide range of populations and events of interest.

  10. Electrical engineering unit for the reactive power control of the load bus at the voltage instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenev, A. V.; Kotenev, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. V.; Elkin, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    For the purpose of reactive power control error reduction and decrease of the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started the mathematical model of the load bus was developed. The model was built up of the sub-models of the following elements: a transformer, a transmission line, a synchronous and an asynchronous loads and a capacitor bank load, and represents the automatic reactive power control system taking into account electromagnetic processes of the asynchronous motors started and reactive power changing of the electric power system elements caused by the voltage fluctuation. The active power/time and reactive power/time characteristics based on the recommended procedure of the equivalent electric circuit parameters calculation were obtained. The derived automatic reactive power control system was shown to eliminate the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started.

  11. Integrated Process Design and Control of Multi-element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes involving multi-elements is presented. The reactive distillation column is designed using methods and tools which are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods, such as driving force approach....... The methods employed in this work are based on equivalent element concept. This concept facilitates the representation of a multi-element reactive system as equivalent binary light and heavy key elements. First, the reactive distillation column is designed at the maximum driving force where through steady......-state analysis it is shown that it has the least energy consumption and carbon footprint. Next, through analytical and dynamic analysis it is verified that the control structure, disturbance rejection and the controllability at the maximum driving force is the best compared to any other design alternative which...

  12. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... temperatures for self-reactive materials. (a) General. When the § 172.101 table of this subchapter specifies... packagings meeting Packing Group I are not authorized. Self-reactive materials which require temperature...

  13. Excessive somnolence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Tavares

    Full Text Available Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  14. Excessive somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S; Alóe, F; Gentil, V; Scaff, M

    1996-01-01

    Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  15. Effect of montelukast on excessive airway narrowing response to methacholine in adult asthmatic patients not on controller therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Diamant, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    -response plateau to Mtc in adult asthmatic patients not on controller therapy, and, hence, protects against excessive airway narrowing. Thirty-one asthmatic patients (13 male patients, 18-50 years old; forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)], >70% predicted; PD(20), ... 2-agonists p.r.n. only with a twice-documented absence of dose-response plateau, participated in a double-blind, parallel study with Mont (10 mg) or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Mtc dose-response curves (0.03-256 mumol or >40% FEV(1) decline) were repeated every 4 weeks. The primary objective...... of treatment with Mont neither induced a plateau response nor affected maximum FEV(1) response or PD(20). Our findings, therefore, suggest that monotherapy with a LTRA does not protect against excessive airway narrowing in adult asthmatic patients not on inhaled corticosteroids....

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: protocol for a factorial randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2016-07-08

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide and interventions to help people reduce their consumption are needed. Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help harmful and hazardous drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. However, there has been little evaluation of the effectiveness of existing smartphone interventions. A systematic review, amongst other methodologies, identified promising modular content that could be delivered by an app: self-monitoring and feedback; action planning; normative feedback; cognitive bias re-training; and identity change. This protocol reports a factorial randomised controlled trial to assess the comparative potential of these five intervention modules to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. A between-subject factorial randomised controlled trial. Hazardous and harmful drinkers aged 18 or over who are making a serious attempt to reduce their drinking will be randomised to one of 32 (2(5)) experimental conditions after downloading the 'Drink Less' app. Participants complete baseline measures on downloading the app and are contacted after 1-month with a follow-up questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is change in past week consumption of alcohol. Secondary outcome measures are change in AUDIT score, app usage data and usability ratings for the app. A factorial between-subjects ANOVA will be conducted to assess main and interactive effects of the five intervention modules for the primary and secondary outcome measures. This study will establish the extent to which the five intervention modules offered in this app can help reduce hazardous and harmful drinking. This is the first step in optimising and understanding what component parts of an app could help to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. The findings from this study will be used to inform the content of a future integrated treatment app and evaluated against a minimal control in a definitive randomised

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: protocol for a factorial randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Garnett

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide and interventions to help people reduce their consumption are needed. Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help harmful and hazardous drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. However, there has been little evaluation of the effectiveness of existing smartphone interventions. A systematic review, amongst other methodologies, identified promising modular content that could be delivered by an app: self-monitoring and feedback; action planning; normative feedback; cognitive bias re-training; and identity change. This protocol reports a factorial randomised controlled trial to assess the comparative potential of these five intervention modules to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Methods A between-subject factorial randomised controlled trial. Hazardous and harmful drinkers aged 18 or over who are making a serious attempt to reduce their drinking will be randomised to one of 32 (25 experimental conditions after downloading the ‘Drink Less’ app. Participants complete baseline measures on downloading the app and are contacted after 1-month with a follow-up questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is change in past week consumption of alcohol. Secondary outcome measures are change in AUDIT score, app usage data and usability ratings for the app. A factorial between-subjects ANOVA will be conducted to assess main and interactive effects of the five intervention modules for the primary and secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study will establish the extent to which the five intervention modules offered in this app can help reduce hazardous and harmful drinking. This is the first step in optimising and understanding what component parts of an app could help to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. The findings from this study will be used to inform the content of a future integrated treatment app and

  18. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    . It is shown that the same design-control principles that apply to a non-reacting binary system of compounds are also valid for a reactive binary system of elements for distillation columns. Application of this framework shows that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force...... to design-control of reactive distillation columns. These methods are based on the element concept where the reacting system of compounds is represented as elements. When only two elements are needed to represent the reacting system of more than two compounds, a binary element system is identified...

  19. Asymmetries in reactive and anticipatory balance control are of similar magnitude in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Tjitske A; van Kordelaar, Joost; Engelhart, Denise; van Vugt, Jeroen P P; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Many Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show asymmetries in balance control during quiet stance and in response to perturbations (i.e., reactive balance control) in the sagittal plane. In addition, PD patients show a reduced ability to anticipate to self-induced disturbances, but it is not clear whether these anticipatory responses can be asymmetric too. Furthermore, it is not known how reactive balance control and anticipatory balance control are related in PD patients. Therefore, we investigated whether reactive and anticipatory balance control are asymmetric to the same extent in PD patients. 14 PD patients and 10 controls participated. Reactive balance control (RBC) was investigated by applying external platform and force perturbations and relating the response of the left and right ankle torque to the body sway angle at the excited frequencies. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) were investigated by determining the increase in the left and right ankle torque just before the subjects released a force exerted with the hands against a force sensor. The symmetry ratio between the contribution of the left and right ankle was used to express the asymmetry in reactive and anticipatory balance control; the correlation between the two ratio's was investigated with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. PD patients were more asymmetric in anticipatory (p=0.026) and reactive balance control (p=0.004) compared to controls and the symmetry ratios were significantly related (ρ=0.74; p=0.003) in PD patients. These findings suggest that asymmetric reactive balance control during bipedal stance may share a common pathophysiology with asymmetries in the anticipation of voluntary perturbations during, for instance, gait initiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

    2012-01-03

    A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

  1. Moisture source controls on fresh snow deuterium excess values in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Andrews, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    Water isotope (d18O and dD) data from fresh snow samples collected on Ecuadorian glaciers during January 2001 (EC01) are used to investigate high-altitude precipitation processes in the northern Andes. To examine source, location, and/or elevation effects on precipitation isotopic composition, snow samples were collected along altitudinal transects on three peaks: Cayambe, Cotopaxi, and Chimborazo. Average isotopic values at the three sites are consistent with data from regional sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). The local mean water line (LMWL) extrapolated from January data of the fourteen GNIP sites (slope ª 7.2) is similar to the LMWL from Cayambe (8.7), Cotopaxi (9.1), and Chimborazo (8.4). However, the difference in LMWL may reflect variability in hydrological processes, particularly at high elevation. There is a correlation between increased elevation and decreased d18O values when the GNIP and EC01 date are compared together. However, data from individual EC01 sites display a weaker trend with respect to elevation and d18O, suggesting that over a limited elevation range temperature-driven equilibrium fractionation is not significant. Deuterium excess (d) values from both GNIP and EC01 sites vary with both elevation and location, and particularly with longitude; sites within the Andes have d values that are 5-10 % higher than Pacific coastal sites. The difference in d values may reflect moisture transport to the high elevation sites from the Atlanic basin. Moreover, d values at the three high elevation sites are significantly different, with Cotopaxi having d values 4% higher than Cayambe. We suggest that the complex topography of the Andes affects the relative inputs of Pacific and Atlantic moisture, and attempt simple isotope mixing and moisture advection models to explain the observed differences in d values.

  2. Pediatric Loss of Control Eating and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Lisa M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Kelly, Nichole R; Schvey, Natasha A; Marwitz, Shannon E; Mehari, Rim D; Brady, Sheila M; Demidowich, Andrew P; Broadney, Miranda M; Galescu, Ovidiu A; Pickworth, Courtney K; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-02-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with excess body weight and adiposity. After adjusting for fat mass, youth with LOC eating have higher blood pressure and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to youth without LOC eating. Increased inflammation may account for this relationship, although few data have examined this hypothesis. Therefore, this study explored the association between LOC eating and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation. We investigated hsCRP concentrations in relation to LOC eating in a convenience sample of 194 youth (age 14.3 ± 2.1 years; 63.9% female; BMI-z 1.64 ± 1.06). The presence of LOC eating in the past month was assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Serum hsCRP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiposity was measured by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We compared hsCRP in those with and without LOC eating in analyses accounting for sex, adiposity, height, depressive symptoms, and eating psychopathology. Youth with LOC eating had significantly greater hsCRP than youth without LOC eating (p = 0.02), after accounting for all covariates. The number of LOC eating episodes in the past month was positively associated with hsCRP (p = 0.01). The relationship between LOC eating and hsCRP was not mediated by depressive symptoms or eating psychopathology (ps > 0.05). Youth with disinhibited eating may manifest increased chronic inflammation. Those with LOC eating may be an important subgroup at risk for adverse health outcomes associated with both chronic inflammation and obesity. Future research should examine whether hsCRP concentrations mediate the relationship between LOC eating and its association with cardiometabolic risk.

  3. Local Reactive Power Control Methods for Overvoltage Prevention of Distributed Solar Inverters in Low-Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Gonzalez, Pablo Casado; Frederiksen, Kenn H. B.

    2011-01-01

    voltage (LV) grids by means of solar inverters with reactive power control capability. This paper underlines weak points of standard reactive power strategies which are already imposed by certain grid codes, and then, the study introduces a new reactive power control method that is based on sensi...

  4. Dynamic Reactive Power Control in Offshore HVDC Connected Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Rather, Zakir Hussain

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a coordinated reactive power control for a HVDC connected cluster of offshore wind power plants (WPPs). The reactive power reference for the WPP cluster is estimated by an optimization algorithm aiming at minimum active power losses in the offshore AC Grid. For each optimal......, such as wind turbine (WT) terminal, collector cable, and export cable, on the dynamic voltage profile of the offshore grid is investigated. Furthermore, the dynamic reactive power contribution from WTs from different WPPs of the cluster for such faults has also been studied....

  5. Control excess stock and calculating damaged products as the effort to increase revenue (case study of SME FBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah, N.; Mardhika, D. A.; Tanjung, W.; Gayatri, A. M.; Suri, Q. A.; Jingga; Safitri, R.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    Of small and medium scale (SME) is a business engaged in production. The growth product innovation of each year to year made competitiveness every SME very tight, and the sales must be high that avoid goods the product last year will be tough sold in the following year. Forecasting demand is needed so that no its production. In production process, besides products should also be considered about damaged products, resulting in a loss. In this study, researchers conducted a observations on SME FBS producing pants, shirts and shirts. SME FBS not having planning previous production, also in any period of production there always products be damaged. This study attempts to increase their SME FBS by controlling waste products, and those damaged products. According to the research conducted other products in some excess pants 1609 unit, and the shirts 187911 unit, and increase the income through control over the excess product obtained by 1% to the pants, and 52% to the shirts. For damaged product on period last year and future, increase 0.07% if the damaged on shirts can be sold, and 0.29% on pants if the broken sold.

  6. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m3. This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500°C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X

  7. From Self-Control Capabilities and the Need to Control Others to Proactive and Reactive Aggression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between aspects of control (self-control capability and the need to control others) and forms of aggression (reactive and proactive). Data were derived from a structured questionnaire administered to 660 male and female adolescents with an average age of 14.99 years, from two urban schools…

  8. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  9. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikalsky, Paul J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bahia, Hussain U. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Deng, An [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Snyder, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  10. Feasibility of a controlled trial aiming to prevent excessive pregnancy-related weight gain in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention may predispose women to long-term overweight and other health problems. Intervention studies aiming at preventing excessive pregnancy-related weight gain are needed. The feasibility of implementing such a study protocol in primary health care setting was evaluated in this pilot study. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity and child health clinics in primary health care in Finland. Altogether, 132 pregnant and 92 postpartum women and 23 public health nurses (PHN participated in the study. The intervention consisted of individual counselling on physical activity and diet at five routine visits to a PHN and of an option for supervised group exercise until 37 weeks' gestation or ten months postpartum. The control clinics continued their usual care. The components of the feasibility evaluation were 1 recruitment and participation, 2 completion of data collection, 3 realization of the intervention and 4 the public health nurses' experiences. Results 1 The recruitment rate was slower than expected and the recruitment period had to be prolonged from the initially planned three months to six months. The average participation rate of eligible women at study enrolment was 77% and the drop-out rate 15%. 2 In total, 99% of the data on weight, physical activity and diet and 96% of the blood samples were obtained. 3 In the intervention clinics, 98% of the counselling sessions were realized, their contents and average durations were as intended, 87% of participants regularly completed the weekly records for physical activity and diet, and the average participation percentage in the group exercise sessions was 45%. 4 The PHNs regarded the extra training as a major advantage and the high additional workload as a disadvantage of the study. Conclusion The study protocol was mostly feasible to implement, which

  11. Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC). Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Closely Supervised Reactive Control of an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassco, Roy

    2000-01-01

    ...) or by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). This thesis proposes an alternative control method that incorporates some of the beneficial aspect of both fully manual and fully autonomous operation...

  13. On the Sequential Control of ITER Poloidal Field Converters for Reactive Power Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongwen; Fu, Peng; Gao, Ge; Huang, Liansheng; Song, Zhiquan; He, Shiying; Wu, Yanan; Dong, Lin; Wang, Min; Fang, Tongzhen

    2014-12-01

    Sequential control applied to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) poloidal field converter system for the purpose of reactive power reduction is the subject of this investigation. Due to the inherent characteristics of thyristor-based phase-controlled converter, the poloidal field converter system consumes a huge amount of reactive power from the grid, which subsequently results in a voltage drop at the 66 kV busbar if no measure is taken. The installation of a static var compensator rated for 750 MVar at the 66 kV busbar is an essential way to compensate reactive power to the grid, which is the most effective measure to solve the problem. However, sequential control of the multi-series converters provides an additional method to improve the natural power factor and thus alleviate the pressure of reactive power demand of the converter system without any additional cost. In the present paper, by comparing with the symmetrical control technique, the advantage of sequential control in reactive power consumption is highlighted. Simulation results based on SIMULINK are found in agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  14. Is excessive running predictive of degenerative hip disease? Controlled study of former elite athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, B.; Knobloch, M; Tschopp, A; Jucker, A.; Howald, H.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the effects of regular long distance running on the state of the hips in later life. DESIGN--Retrospective study of a cohort of elite athletes and a group of normal, healthy, untrained controls examined 15 years after initial testing. SETTING--Research project at school for physical education and sports. SUBJECTS--27 Former long distance runners (mean age 42), nine former bobsleigh riders (mean age 42), and 23 normal, healthy, untrained men (mean age 35) who had been e...

  15. Asymmetries in reactive and anticipatory balance control are of simular magnitude in Parkinson's disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Tjitske; van Kordelaar, Joost; van Kordelaar, Joost; Engelhart, Denise; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Many Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show asymmetries in balance control during quiet stance and in response to perturbations (i.e., reactive balance control) in the sagittal plane. In addition, PD patients show a reduced ability to anticipate to self-induced disturbances, but it is not clear

  16. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Considering Power Loss Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method to optimally control the voltage and reactive power with minimum power loss in transmission grid. This approach is used for the Danish automatic voltage control (AVC) system which is typically a non-linear non-convex problem mixed with both...

  17. Distributed Reactive Power Control based Conservation Voltage Reduction in Active Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMIROGLU, S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed reactive power control based approach to deploy Volt/VAr optimization (VVO / Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR algorithm in a distribution network with distributed generations (DG units and distribution static synchronous compensators (D-STATCOM. A three-phase VVO/CVR problem is formulated and the reactive power references of D-STATCOMs and DGs are determined in a distributed way by decomposing the VVO/CVR problem into voltage and reactive power control. The main purpose is to determine the coordination between voltage regulator (VR and reactive power sources (Capacitors, D-STATCOMs and DGs based on VVO/CVR. The study shows that the reactive power injection capability of DG units may play an important role in VVO/CVR. In addition, it is shown that the coordination of VR and reactive power sources does not only save more energy and power but also reduces the power losses. Moreover, the proposed VVO/CVR algorithm reduces the computational burden and finds fast solutions. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the VVO/CVR is performed on the IEEE 13-node test system feeder considering unbalanced loading and line configurations. The tests are performed taking the practical voltage-dependent load modeling and different customer types into consideration to improve accuracy.

  18. Coordinated reactive power control to meet Quebec's interconnection requirements for wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Itani, Samer; Dernbach, Matthias [REpower Systems SE (Germany). Applied Project Engineering; Williams, Stephen E.; Bishop, Martin T. [S and C Electric Company (United States). Power Quality Products Div.

    2012-07-01

    The 2 MW-class, DFIG-type wind turbine generator of REpower Systems constitutes a major portion of the wind power installations in Quebec. In collaboration with S and C Electric, a reactive power compensation and control strategy was developed to satisfy the interconnection requirements addressing reactive power and voltage control This paper demonstrates the proposed solution, which consists of local voltage control at the wind turbines, wind turbine reactive power coordination through the REpower Power Management Unit, substation based inverters, and the S and C DSTATCOM master plant-level control at the point of connection. Through time-domain simulations, the potential dynamic performance of the wind power plant is demonstrated under normal and faulted grid conditions, considering all system elements. The results show that the response of the wind plant to system voltage variations is fast, robust, and optimized with respect to the utilization of reactive power resources. The automatic voltage regulation system is capable of maintaining the voltage at the point of connection during normal operating conditions. Under fault conditions, extra reactive current is transiently released to the grid, thus providing indispensable support to the system voltage. (orig.)

  19. Distributed Optimal Control of Reactive Power and Voltage in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed optimal control strategy for islanded microgrids, which allows to perform reactive power sharing and voltage regulation without using communication system. To perform the twofold objectives, a small signal model is first developed to reconstruct the system input...... performance of the optimal controller is analyzed, from which the guideline for choosing controller parameters is formulated. The results obtained from sensitivity analysis, simulations and experiments show that the proposed approach provides the expected reliability and flexibility for optimizing......-output relationship, which is evaluated through sensitivity analysis. A state estimator is then constructed to observe reactive power distribution and system voltages by local measurement. An optimal regulator is developed to perform both reactive power sharing and system voltage restoration. And the dynamic...

  20. Distributed Optimal Control of Reactive Power and Voltage in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a distributed optimal control strategy for islanded microgrids, which allows to perform reactive power sharing and voltage regulation without communication system. To realize the twofold objective, an improved small signal model is developed first to reconstruct the system input...... power sharing and system voltage restoration. And the dynamic performance of the optimal controller is analyzed, from which the guideline for choosing controller parameters is formulated. The results obtained from sensitivity analysis, simulations and experiments show that the proposed approach provides......-output relationship, where the relationship is evaluated with sensitivity analysis. A state estimator is then constructed based on the new input-output relationship in order to observe reactive power distribution and system voltages by local measurement. An optimal regulator is developed to perform both reactive...

  1. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  2. Exploring the Potential for Increased Production from the Wave Energy Converter Lifesaver by Reactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molinas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fred Olsen is currently testing their latest wave energy converter (WEC, Lifesaver, outside of Falmouth Bay in England, preparing it for commercial operation at the Wavehub test site. Previous studies, mostly focusing on hydrodynamics and peak to average power reduction, have shown that this device has potential for increased power extraction using reactive control. This article extends those analyses, adding a detailed model of the all-electric power take-off (PTO system, consisting of a permanent magnet synchronous generator, inverter and DC-link. Time domain simulations are performed to evaluate the PTO capabilities of the modeled WEC. However, when tuned towards reactive control, the generator losses become large, giving a very low overall system efficiency. Optimal control with respect to electrical output power is found to occur with low added mass, and when compared to pure passive loading, a 1% increase in annual energy production is estimated. The main factor reducing the effect of reactive control is found to be the minimum load-force constraint of the device. These results suggest that the Lifesaver has limited potential for increased production by reactive control. This analysis is nevertheless valuable, as it demonstrates how a wave-to-wire model can be used for investigation of PTO potential, annual energy production estimations and evaluations of different control techniques for a given WEC device.

  3. Infant frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry and negative emotional reactivity as predictors of toddlerhood effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia L; Diaz, Anjolii; Day, Kimberly L; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of children's self-regulation, relations were examined between two fundamental components of self-regulation, specifically temperamentally based reactivity and regulation. Infant negative emotional reactivity and regulation, measured via frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, were examined as potential precursors to understanding toddlerhood regulation, conceptualized as effortful control. Our longitudinal design allowed for examination of two perspectives on the interplay of reactivity and regulation, namely that (a) early negative affectivity interferes with the development of later regulation and (b) regulation is necessary to modulate negative affectivity and, thus, would buffer the effects of negative affectivity on later regulation. Mother-child dyads participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Baseline frontal EEG asymmetry was assessed at 10months (T1). Mothers rated children's negative reactivity at both 10 and 24months (T2). Children's effortful control, measured at 30-36months (T3), was a composite score of maternal ratings and observed behavior during a snack delay. Negative affectivity was related to effortful control; however, significant interactions between negative affect and frontal EEG asymmetry were found. Higher levels of negative affectivity at both T1 and T2 were associated with lower levels of effortful control at T3, but only for toddlers who also had right frontal EEG asymmetry. Negative affectivity was not associated with effortful control for the left frontal EEG asymmetry group. Our moderation findings highlight the complex relations of negative affect and frontal EEG asymmetry in understanding children's development of self-regulation, specifically effortful control. The interaction between early reactivity and physiological regulation indicates that both may be important precursors of effortful control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reactive power control and optimisation of hybrid off shore tidal turbine with system uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Mohanty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects an isolated hybrid model of Offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine and discusses the stability and reactive power management issue of the whole system. The hybrid system often loses its stability as it becomes prone to uncertain load and input parameters and therefore the necessity of Reactive power management becomes necessary. The overall stability of the hybrid offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine is made possible by the management of reactive power in the hybrid system through the application of FACTS devices. And therefore the dynamic hybrid model of the DFIG and DDPMSG based offshore wind-diesel-tidal turbine is analysed for stability with different input parameters like wind and tidal energies. For detailed modelling and simulation, a small signal model of the whole hybrid system is designed and reactive power management of the system is achieved by the incorporation of a STATCOM controller. For improvement of stability and reactive power compensation of the hybrid system, GA and PSO optimised STATCOM controller is used.

  5. Reactive Power Control for Improving Wind Turbine System Behavior Under Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, P.; Timbus, A.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2009-01-01

    This letter aims to present a generalized vector-based formulation for calculating the grid-side current reference to control reactive power delivered to the grid. Strategies for current reference generation were implemented on the abc stationary reference frame, and their effectivenesswas demons...

  6. Consensus-based Distributed Control for Accurate Reactive, Harmonic and Imbalance Power Sharing in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Kim, Sunghyok; Zhang, Huaguang

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of accurate reactive, harmonic and imbalance power sharing in a microgrid. Harmonic and imbalance droop controllers are developed to proportionally share the harmonic power and the imbalance power among distributed generation (DG) units and improve the voltage qu...

  7. Internally directed cognition and mindfulness: An integrative perspective derived from predictive and reactive control systems theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tops (Mattie); M.A.S. Boksem (Maarten); M. Quirin (Markus); H. IJzerman (Hans); S.L. Koole (Sander)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn the present paper, we will apply the predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the "default mode network" (DMN) and anterior insula (AI) as parts of two different behavioral

  8. Reactive Neural Control for Phototaxis and Obstacle Avoidance Behavior of Walking Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Pasemann, Frank; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2007-01-01

    as a sensory fusion unit. It filters sensory noise and shapes sensory data to drive the corresponding reactive behavior. On the other hand, modular neural control based on a central pattern generator is applied for locomotion of walking machines. It coordinates leg movements and can generate omnidirectional...

  9. Emotional Self-Regulation in Preschoolers: The Interplay of Child Approach Reactivity, Parenting, and Control Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether child temperamental approach reactivity moderated the association between 2 factors, parenting and child control capacities and child emotional self-regulation. Participants (N=113) were 3- and 4-year-olds (M=48 months, SD=5.78) and their mothers. Emotional self-regulation was measured as observed persistence and…

  10. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  11. GOBF-ARMA based model predictive control for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seban, Lalu; Kirubakaran, V; Roy, B K; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses the control of an ideal reactive distillation column (RDC) using model predictive control (MPC) based on a combination of deterministic generalized orthonormal basis filter (GOBF) and stochastic autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Reactive distillation (RD) integrates reaction and distillation in a single process resulting in process and energy integration promoting green chemistry principles. Improved selectivity of products, increased conversion, better utilization and control of reaction heat, scope for difficult separations and the avoidance of azeotropes are some of the advantages that reactive distillation offers over conventional technique of distillation column after reactor. The introduction of an in situ separation in the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vapor-liquid equilibrium, mass transfer rates, diffusion and chemical kinetics. RD with its high order and nonlinear dynamics, and multiple steady states is a good candidate for testing and verification of new control schemes. Here a combination of GOBF-ARMA models is used to catch and represent the dynamics of the RDC. This GOBF-ARMA model is then used to design an MPC scheme for the control of product purity of RDC under different operating constraints and conditions. The performance of proposed modeling and control using GOBF-ARMA based MPC is simulated and analyzed. The proposed controller is found to perform satisfactorily for reference tracking and disturbance rejection in RDC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Enhanced Instantaneous Circulating Current Control for Reactive power and Harmonic Load Sharing in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorzadeh, Iman; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address inaccurate load demand sharing problems among parallel inverter-interfaced voltage-controlled distributed generation (DG) units in islanded microgrids with different DG power ratings and mismatched feeder impedances, an enhanced voltage control scheme based on actively compensation...... branches, the reactive power and harmonic currents can be independently shared without having remarkable effects on the amplitude and quality of the DGs voltage, even if nonlinear (harmonic) loads are directly connected at the output terminal of units. In addition, the accurate load sharing can also...... of circulating voltage drops is proposed in this paper. Using proposed strategy, reactive power and harmonic currents sharing are shared accurately and proportionally without knowledge of feeder impedances. As the proposed local controller consists of two well-separated fundamental and harmonic voltage control...

  13. Hedonic orientation moderates the association between cognitive control and affect reactivity to daily hassles in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipker, Kathrin; Wrzus, Cornelia; Rauers, Antje; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-04-01

    People often seek to regulate their affective reactions when confronted with hassles. Hassle reactivity is lower for people with higher cognitive control, presumably because of better affect regulation. Many adolescents, however, show higher hassle reactivity than children, despite better cognitive control. The present study aims to understand whether motivational differences when seeking to regulate affective experiences moderate the association between cognitive control and hassle reactivity in adolescence. We hypothesized that higher cognitive control is related to lower hassle reactivity only for adolescents with a strong hedonic orientation, that is, for adolescents who seek to maintain or enhance positive or to dampen negative affect. We investigated 149 boys' (age range: 10-20 years) hedonic orientation and affect reactivity toward daily hassles during 2 weeks of experience sampling. Higher cognitive control, assessed with a working memory battery in the laboratory, was associated with stronger hassle reactivity in individuals with low hedonic orientation. The more hedonic-oriented individuals were, the lower was their hassle reactivity, but only in combination with high cognitive control. Our findings illustrate that higher cognitive control is not always related to lower hassle reactivity. Rather, when daily hassles compromise affect balance, hedonic orientation is equally important to understand affect reactivity in adolescent boys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. An Aircraft Electric Power Testbed for Validating Automatically Synthesized Reactive Control Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    we describe our recently developed simulation models and a hardware testbed for validating reactive controllers synthesized using TuLiP [1], a...temporal logic planning toolbox, in order to investigate the validity of the assumptions made in controller synthesis. TuLiP is a collection of Python... TuLiP can be used to synthesize logic so that the satisfaction of certain safety requirements is guaranteed. The synthesized logic enables the contac

  15. Voltage Stability Impact of Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Systems Utilizing Dynamic Reactive Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omole, Adedamola

    Photovoltaic (PV) DGs can be optimized to provide reactive power support to the grid, although this feature is currently rarely utilized as most DG systems are designed to operate with unity power factor and supply real power only to the grid. In this work, the voltage stability of a power system embedded with PV DG is examined in the context of the high reactive power requirement after a voltage sag or fault. A real-time dynamic multi-function power controller that enables renewable source PV DGs to provide the reactive power support necessary to maintain the voltage stability of the microgrid, and consequently, the wider power system is proposed. The loadability limit necessary to maintain the voltage stability of an interconnected microgrid is determined by using bifurcation analysis to test for the singularity of the network Jacobian and load differential equations with and without the contribution of the DG. The maximum and minimum real and reactive power support permissible from the DG is obtained from the loadability limit and used as the limiting factors in controlling the real and reactive power contribution from the PV source. The designed controller regulates the voltage output based on instantaneous power theory at the point-of-common coupling (PCC) while the reactive power supply is controlled by means of the power factor and reactive current droop method. The control method is implemented in a modified IEEE 13-bus test feeder system using PSCADRTM power system analysis software and is applied to the model of a Tampa ElectricRTM PV installation at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL. This dissertation accomplishes the systematic analysis of the voltage impact of a PV DG-embedded power distribution system. The method employed in this work bases the contribution of the PV resource on the voltage stability margins of the microgrid rather than the commonly used loss-of-load probability (LOLP) and effective load-carrying capability (ELCC) measures. The results of

  16. The interactions of design, control and operability in reactive distillation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, M.C.; Schenk, Myrian Andrea; Pistikopoulos, Stratos

    2002-01-01

    In this work the design and control of a reactive distillation column, described by a rigorous dynamic model, is tackled via two different optimization approaches. In the first, the steady-state process design and the control system are optimized sequentially. It is shown that operability...... is a strong function of the process design and potential operability bottlenecks are identified. In the second approach, the process design and the control system are optimized simultaneously leading to a more economically beneficial and better controlled system than that obtained using the sequential...

  17. Voltage and reactive power control in WPPs. Solutions adopted and lessons learned from three international experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinonez-Varela, G.; Lorenzo-Sotelo, P.; Alonso-Sadaba, O.; Arlaban-Gabeiras, M.T.; Solano-Lopez, L.; Giraut-Ruso, E.; Chocarro-Aguirrebengoa, I.; Duddy, P.; Ruiz-Guillen, J.; Rebollo-Rico, I. [Acciona Energia, S.A., Sarriguren (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Voltage and reactive power control is a requirement imposed on wind power plants by numerous System Operators around the world in recent years. Nowadays, more stringent demands are being enforced to allow a larger and safer grid integration of wind generation. The Grid Codes defining these requirements differ from each other depending on the country, characteristics of the grid and other site specific conditions. This paper presents three relevant examples of Acciona's experience in adopting solutions to meet the latest voltage and reactive control requirements in Canada, Australia and Spain, each case based on different wind turbine technology namely Full Converter, DFIG and Squirrel Cage respectively. A thorough discussion of the solutions is provided including a description of the control algorithms and results from field tests performed to demonstrate compliance. (orig.)

  18. Voltage Control of Distribution Grids with Multi-Microgrids Using Reactive Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WLODARCZYK, P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage Microgrids can be valuable sources of ancillary services for the Distribution System Operators (DSOs. The aim of this paper was to study if and how multi-microgrids can contribute to Voltage Control (VC in medium-voltage distribution grids by means of reactive power generation and/or absorption. The hierarchical control strategy was proposed with the main focus on the tertiary control which was defined as optimal power flow problem. The interior-point algorithm was applied to optimise experimental benchmark grid with the presence of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs. Moreover, two primary objectives were formulated: active power losses and amount of reactive power used to reach the voltage profile. As a result the active power losses were minimised to the high extent achieving the savings around 22% during entire day.

  19. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity and effortful control in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to each of three self-regulation tasks (bird and dragon; knock-tap; and gift wrap) would predict self-regulation performance in a sample of 101 preschool-age children (M age = 4.49, SD = .64). While controlling for baseline RSA, decreases in RSA from bird and dragon to knock-tap (but not from baseline to bird and dragon) predicted a latent variable measuring self-regulation. Furthermore, increases in RSA from the knock-tap to gift wrap-the only task involving delay of gratification-were related to concurrent task performance while controlling for the relation between RSA reactivity and the latent self-regulation variable. Results suggest that the relations between RSA reactivity and self-regulatory ability are influenced by task-specific demands and possibly by task order. Furthermore, RSA reactivity appears to relate differently to performance on motivationally salient self-regulation tasks such as delay of gratification relative to cool executive function tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Neural mechanisms of proactive and reactive cognitive control in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-09-01

    Social anxiety--the fear of social embarrassment and negative evaluation by others--ranks among people's worst fears, and it is often thought to impair task performance. We investigated the neurocognitive processes through which trait social anxiety relates to task performance, proposing a model of the joint contributions of reactive control, theoretically associated with conflict monitoring and activity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and proactive control, theoretically associated with top-down regulation and activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Participants varying in their degree of trait social anxiety completed the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Task-related left dlPFC activity was indexed by relative left prefrontal EEG (inverse alpha), and conflict-related dACC activity was indexed by the N2r component of the event-related potential. Stronger activity in both regions predicted better response control, and greater social anxiety was associated with worse response control. Furthermore, for all participants, greater left prefrontal EEG activity predicted better behavioral control, but for high social anxiety participants only, greater N2r responses also predicted behavioral control. This pattern suggests that low social anxiety individuals engaged a proactive control process, driven by dlPFC activity, whereas high social anxiety individuals relied additionally on a reactive control process, driven by conflict-related dACC activity. These findings support a model of control that involves different patterns of interplay between proactive and reactive strategies and may help to explain self-regulatory impairments in social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the a.......03 kg NOx per heating square meter for a typical case in Harbin.......A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...

  2. Multi-dose Romidepsin Reactivates Replication Competent SIV in Post-antiretroviral Rhesus Macaque Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policicchio, Benjamin B; Xu, Cuiling; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Raehtz, Kevin D; He, Tianyu; Ma, Dongzhu; Li, Hui; Sivanandham, Ranjit; Haret-Richter, George S; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Mellors, John W; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Viruses that persist despite seemingly effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can reinitiate infection if treatment is stopped preclude definitive treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals, requiring lifelong ART. Among strategies proposed for targeting these viral reservoirs, the premise of the "shock and kill" strategy is to induce expression of latent proviruses [for example with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis)] resulting in elimination of the affected cells through viral cytolysis or immune clearance mechanisms. Yet, ex vivo studies reported that HDACis have variable efficacy for reactivating latent proviruses, and hinder immune functions. We developed a nonhuman primate model of post-treatment control of SIV through early and prolonged administration of ART and performed in vivo reactivation experiments in controller RMs, evaluating the ability of the HDACi romidepsin (RMD) to reactivate SIV and the impact of RMD treatment on SIV-specific T cell responses. Ten RMs were IV-infected with a SIVsmmFTq transmitted-founder infectious molecular clone. Four RMs received conventional ART for >9 months, starting from 65 days post-infection. SIVsmmFTq plasma viremia was robustly controlled to RNA copies/mL with ART, without viral blips. At ART cessation, initial rebound viremia to ~106 copies/mL was followed by a decline to < 10 copies/mL, suggesting effective immune control. Three post-treatment controller RMs received three doses of RMD every 35-50 days, followed by in vivo experimental depletion of CD8+ cells using monoclonal antibody M-T807R1. RMD was well-tolerated and resulted in a rapid and massive surge in T cell activation, as well as significant virus rebounds (~104 copies/ml) peaking at 5-12 days post-treatment. CD8+ cell depletion resulted in a more robust viral rebound (107 copies/ml) that was controlled upon CD8+ T cell recovery. Our results show that RMD can reactivate SIV in vivo in the setting of post-ART viral control. Comparison of the

  3. Multi-dose Romidepsin Reactivates Replication Competent SIV in Post-antiretroviral Rhesus Macaque Controllers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B Policicchio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses that persist despite seemingly effective antiretroviral treatment (ART and can reinitiate infection if treatment is stopped preclude definitive treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals, requiring lifelong ART. Among strategies proposed for targeting these viral reservoirs, the premise of the "shock and kill" strategy is to induce expression of latent proviruses [for example with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis] resulting in elimination of the affected cells through viral cytolysis or immune clearance mechanisms. Yet, ex vivo studies reported that HDACis have variable efficacy for reactivating latent proviruses, and hinder immune functions. We developed a nonhuman primate model of post-treatment control of SIV through early and prolonged administration of ART and performed in vivo reactivation experiments in controller RMs, evaluating the ability of the HDACi romidepsin (RMD to reactivate SIV and the impact of RMD treatment on SIV-specific T cell responses. Ten RMs were IV-infected with a SIVsmmFTq transmitted-founder infectious molecular clone. Four RMs received conventional ART for >9 months, starting from 65 days post-infection. SIVsmmFTq plasma viremia was robustly controlled to <10 SIV RNA copies/mL with ART, without viral blips. At ART cessation, initial rebound viremia to ~106 copies/mL was followed by a decline to < 10 copies/mL, suggesting effective immune control. Three post-treatment controller RMs received three doses of RMD every 35-50 days, followed by in vivo experimental depletion of CD8+ cells using monoclonal antibody M-T807R1. RMD was well-tolerated and resulted in a rapid and massive surge in T cell activation, as well as significant virus rebounds (~104 copies/ml peaking at 5-12 days post-treatment. CD8+ cell depletion resulted in a more robust viral rebound (107 copies/ml that was controlled upon CD8+ T cell recovery. Our results show that RMD can reactivate SIV in vivo in the setting of post-ART viral control

  4. A Comprehensive LVRT Control Strategy for DFIG Wind Turbines With Enhanced Reactive Power Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Dongliang; Xu, Zhao; Yang, Lihui

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a new control strategy to enhance the ability of reactive power support of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine during serious voltage dips. The proposed strategy is an advanced low voltage ride through (LVRT) control scheme, with which a part...... of the captured wind energy during grid faults is stored temporarily in the rotor's inertia energy and the remaining energy is available to the grid while the DC-link voltage and rotor current are kept below the dangerous levels. After grid fault clearance, the control strategy ensures smooth release of the rotor...

  5. An Improved Droop Control Strategy for Reactive Power Sharing in Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Hua; Liu, Yao; Sun, Yao

    2015-01-01

    For microgrid in islanded operation, due to the effects of mismatched line impedance, the reactive power could not be shared accurately with the conventional droop method. To improve the reactive power sharing accuracy, this paper proposes an improved droop control method. The proposed method...... mainly includes two important operations: error reduction operation and voltage recovery operation. The sharing accuracy is improved by the sharing error reduction operation, which is activated by the low-bandwidth synchronization signals. However, the error reduction operation will result in a decrease...... in output voltage amplitude. Therefore, the voltage recovery operation is proposed to compensate the decrease. The needed communication in this method is very simple, and the plug-and-play is reserved. Simulations and experimental results show that the improved droop controller can share load active...

  6. Development of dynamic control rod reactivity measurement methodology and computer code system for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Quun; Lee, Chung Chan; Song, Jae Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-09-01

    In order to apply dynamic control rod reactivity measurement (DCRM) method to domestic nuclear power reactor, the methodology of EPRC, 'Dynamic Reactivity Measurement of Rod Worth', was reviewed. It was also reviewed that items should be improve in three-dimensional kinetics code MASTER, which was developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, for use in DCRM. The validity of DORT two-dimensional synthesis method to calculate excore detector weighting factor were benchmarked via Yonggwang Unit 3 three-dimensional TORT calculation. The consistency of MASTER static core calculation results using neutron cross sections generated by commercial design tools PHENIX/ANC and DIT/ROCS were also verified via rodded and unrodded radial power distributions and control rod worth comparisons. 14 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  7. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER BASED ACTIVE POWER LINE CONDITIONERS FOR COMPENSATING REACTIVE POWER AND HARMONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppanan.P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a novel fuzzy logic controller (FLC based threephase shunt active power line conditioners (APLC for power quality improvements due to the non-linear loads. The fuzzy logic controller is Mamdani-type and linguistic description, so it does not necessitate a mathematical model of the system. The FLC controller is capable of controlling harmonic current and dc-side capacitor voltage of the inverter to improve the performance of the active power filter. Hysteresis current controller (HCC is used to generate the switching signals from the comparison of reference current and actual current for driving the current controlled voltage source inverter (VSI. Extensive simulation executed and tested under different non-linear load conditions. The simulation results reveal that the APLC with fuzzy logic controller is a perfect candidate for current harmonics and reactive power compensation.

  8. Personalized smoking environment cue reactivity in smokers with schizophrenia and controls: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    AhnAllen, Christopher G.; Tidey, Jennifer W.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to smoking cues increases craving to smoke and negatively changes mood in smokers with schizophrenia (SWS). This pilot study compared reactivity to real-world smoking environments versus neutral environments in SWS (n = 10) and non-psychiatric control smokers (CON; n = 10). Results indicate that both SWS and CON experienced increases in smoking urges when viewing images of their smoking environments and that SWS tended to report greater increases in withdrawal-related negative mood t...

  9. Acceptance lowers stress reactivity: Dismantling mindfulness training in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Emily K; Young, Shinzen; Smyth, Joshua M; Brown, Kirk Warren; Creswell, J David

    2017-10-08

    Mindfulness interventions, which train practitioners to monitor their present-moment experience with a lens of acceptance, are known to buffer stress reactivity. Little is known about the active mechanisms driving these effects. We theorize that acceptance is a critical emotion regulation mechanism underlying mindfulness stress reduction effects. In this three-arm parallel trial, mindfulness components were dismantled into three structurally equivalent 15-lesson smartphone-based interventions: (1) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor+Accept), (2) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only), or (3) active control training (Coping control). 153 stressed adults (mean age=32years; 67% female; 53% white, 21.5% black, 21.5% Asian, 4% other race) were randomly assigned to complete one of three interventions. After the intervention, cortisol, blood pressure, and subjective stress reactivity were assessed using a modified Trier Social Stress Test. As predicted, Monitor+Accept training reduced cortisol and systolic blood pressure reactivity compared to Monitor Only and control trainings. Participants in all three conditions reported moderate levels of subjective stress. This study provides the first experimental evidence that brief smartphone mindfulness training can impact stress biology, and that acceptance training drives these effects. We discuss implications for basic and applied research in contemplative science, emotion regulation, stress and coping, health, and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FUZZY ALGORITHM TO CONTROL REACTIVE POWER FLOW IN ELECTRIC NETWORK WITH NONLINEAR LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Guliyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of efficient function of electric networks containing load nodes of nonlinear character of power consumption is reactive power compensation and maintaining voltage quality in a grid. The commonly used methods for compensation of harmonic currents by filtering devices make it possible to solve the problem in a narrow band of variation of current of a nonlinear load. In the reality stochastic character of power consumption of nonlinear load reveals itself in appropriate changes in harmonic components of voltage and their share in total load current. This could considerably change the magnitude and direction of reactive power flow in a grid and impair the existing processes of reactive power control. The scheme and the algorithm of control of capacitor banks in networks with non-linear load that are based on the use of fuzzy logic software are presented in the article. The results of model experiments analysis of the modes of the harmonic of the power flows on behalf of the 14-nodal scheme recommended by IEEE as well as the schemes of a real grid with powerful traction substation are presented. The mentioned results demonstrate that when harmonic components of voltages exceed normative magnitudes, the use of the proposed algorithm eliminates additional loading on the capacitor banks with higher harmonic currents whereas the control procedure acquires quality, the number of commutations is being reduced, the capacitor battery functions longer and the probability of its malfunction decreases.

  11. Measured effects of wind turbine reactive power control on an isolated utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.F.; Shaltens, R.K.; Wilreker, V.F.

    1984-06-01

    One phase of an overall effort in evaluating performance of a 150 kW MOD-OA wind turbine connected to the Block Island Power Company (BIPCO) system consisted in analyzing three methods of excitation (reactive power) control. These are identified as: 1) constant var (reactive), 2) constant voltage, and 3) constant power factor (PF) control. The power system environment in which the wind turbine generator (WTG) exists ultimately determines which method of control is the most suitable. In the case of the BIPCO installation, the major emphasis was to insure sufficient WTG electrical torque during wind gusts in low power output periods. Subsequent use of constant PF control demonstrated an adequacy of performance equivalent to that of constant var control while constant voltage control indicated a diminished capacity to maintain synchronism with the utility, when compared to constant var or PF control. A mathematical model which incorporates the detailed excitation system transfer functions is used to compare the results indicated by the measurements produced during a three-month data acquisition effort.

  12. Tissue-specific control of latent CMV reactivation by regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Almanan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV causes a persistent, lifelong infection. CMV persists in a latent state and undergoes intermittent subclinical viral reactivation that is quelled by ongoing T cell responses. While T cells are critical to maintain control of infection, the immunological factors that promote CMV persistence remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of regulatory T cells (Treg in a mouse model of latent CMV infection using Foxp3-diphtheria toxin receptor (Foxp3-DTR mice. Eight months after infection, MCMV had established latency in the spleen, salivary gland, lung, and pancreas, which was accompanied by an increased frequency of Treg. Administration of diphtheria toxin (DT after establishment of latency efficiently depleted Treg and drove a significant increase in the numbers of functional MCMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, Treg depletion decreased the number of animals with reactivatable latent MCMV in the spleen. Unexpectedly, in the same animals, ablation of Treg drove a significant increase in viral reactivation in the salivary gland that was accompanied with augmented local IL-10 production by Foxp3-CD4+T cells. Further, neutralization of IL-10 after Treg depletion significantly decreased viral load in the salivary gland. Combined, these data show that Treg have divergent control of MCMV infection depending upon the tissue. In the spleen, Treg antagonize CD8+ effector function and promote viral persistence while in the salivary gland Treg prevent IL-10 production and limit viral reactivation and replication. These data provide new insights into the organ-specific roles of Treg in controlling the reactivation of latent MCMV infection.

  13. Nicotine deprivation attenuates panic reactivity in smokers: Findings from a placebo-controlled nicotine patch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kenneth; Krimmel, Sam; Johnson, Stacey; Cieslowski, Kate; Strnad, Helen; Melum, Arielle; Kryder, Caroline

    2017-11-01

    Prospective studies consistently find that smoking is a risk factor for the development of panic disorder (PD). A possible explanation is that nicotine deprivation promotes heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and/or arterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Abrams et al. (2011) previously found that, in response to a CO 2 rebreathing challenge, smokers experiencing more (vs. less) intense nicotine withdrawal had more severe panic symptoms and a stronger urge to escape. However, participants were aware of the last time they smoked, leaving unclear the extent to which fear reactivity was influenced by the pharmacologic effects of nicotine deprivation versus beliefs regarding when nicotine was most recently used. The present study aimed to ascertain whether nicotine deprivation, independent of beliefs regarding recent nicotine use, promotes fear reactivity among smokers. Moderate to heavy smokers without PD (N = 25) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study consisting of two sessions spaced 1 week apart. Participants abstained from nicotine for 2 hr prior to sessions. During one session participants were given a 21 mg nicotine replacement patch and, during the other, a placebo patch, with the order counterbalanced. For both sessions, after a 3-hr absorption period, participants underwent a 10-min CO 2 rebreathing challenge. Wearing a nicotine (vs. placebo) patch increased self-reported panic reactivity among participants, but did not significantly affect physiological and behavioral measures of reactivity. In smokers without a history of PD, nicotine deprivation attenuates subjective panic reactivity. Possible explanations for the contrast between theory and laboratory findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Requirements Engineering for Reactive Systems: Coloured Petri Nets for an Elevator Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Fernandes, Joao Miguel; Tjell, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach to requirements engineering for reactive systems; we use an elevator controller as case study. We identify and justify two key properties that a model which we construct must have, namely: (1) controller-and-environment-partitioned, which means...... descriptions. For the case study, we build an executable model in the formal modelling language Coloured Petri Nets. We demonstrate how this model is useful for requirements engineering, since it provides a solid basis for addressing behavioural issues early in the development process, for example regarding...

  15. Interactions between ingredients in IMX-101: Reactive Chemical Processes Control Insensitive Munitions Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard,; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) measurements have been conducted on a new Insensitive Munitions (IM) formulation. IMX-101 is the first explosive to be fully IM qualified under new NATO STANAG guidelines for fielded munitions. The formulation uses dinitroanisole (DNAN) as a new melt cast material to replace TNT, and shows excellent IM performance when formulated with other energetic ingredients. The scope of this work is to explain this superior IM performance by investigating the reactive processes occurring in the material when subjected to a well-controlled thermal environment. The dominant reactive processes observed were a series of complex chemical interactions between the three main ingredients (DNAN, NQ, and NTO) that occurs well below the onset of the normal decomposition process of any of the individual ingredients. This process shifts the thermal response of the formulations to a much lower temperature, where the kinetically controlled reaction processes are much slower. This low temperature shift has the effect of allowing the reactions to consume the reactive solids (NQ, NTO) well before the reaction rates increase and reach thermal runaway, resulting in a relatively benign response to the external stimuli. The main findings on the interaction processes are presented.

  16. Heteropoly acid catalytic treatment for reactivity enhancement and viscosity control of dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinqi; Duan, Chao; Zhao, Chengxin; Meng, Jingru; Qin, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yongjian; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-04-01

    The reactivity enhancement and viscosity control are of practical importance during the manufacture of high-quality cellulose (also known as dissolving pulp). In the study, the concept of using phosphotungstic acid (HPW) for this purpose was demonstrated. The Fock reactivity of resultant pulp increased from 49.1% to 74.1% after the HPW catalytic treatment at a dosage of 86.4 mg HPW/g odp. The improved results can be attributed to the increased fiber accessibility, thanks to the favorable fiber morphologic changes, such as increased pore volume/size, water retention value and specific surface area. HPW can be readily recycled/reused by evaporating method, where maintaining 87.1% catalytic activity after six recycle times. The HPW catalytic treatment concept may provide a green alternative for the manufacture of high-quality dissolving pulp. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consensus-based Distributed Control for Accurate Reactive, Harmonic and Imbalance Power Sharing in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Kim, Sunghyok; Zhang, Huaguang

    2017-01-01

    quality at the point of common coupling (PCC). Further, a distributed consensus protocol is developed to adaptively regulate the virtual impedance at fundamental frequency and selected harmonic frequencies. Additionally, a dynamic consensus based method is adopted to restore the voltage to their average......This paper investigates the issue of accurate reactive, harmonic and imbalance power sharing in a microgrid. Harmonic and imbalance droop controllers are developed to proportionally share the harmonic power and the imbalance power among distributed generation (DG) units and improve the voltage...... voltage. With the proposed methods, the microgrid system reliability and flexibility can be enhanced and the knowledge of the line impedance is not required. And the reactive, harmonic and imbalance power can be proportionally shared among the DG units. Moreover, the quality of the voltage at PCC can...

  18. Reactive power control methods for improved reliability of wind power inverters under wind speed variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    method to relieve the thermal cycling of power switching devices under severe wind speed variations, by circulating reactive power among the parallel power converters in a WTS or among the WTS's in a wind park. The amount of reactive power is adjusted to limit the junction temperature fluctuation......The thermal cycling of power switching devices may lead to failures that compromise the reliability of power converters. Wind Turbine Systems (WTS) are especially subject to severe thermal cycling which may be caused by the wind speed variations or power grid faults. This paper proposes a control...... temperature fluctuation in the most stressed devices of 3L-NPC wind power inverter under severe wind speed variations can be significantly stabilized, and the reliability of the power converter can thereby be improved while the increased stress of the other devices in the same power converter...

  19. Eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis of the reactive subtype occurring in chronic poorly-controlled psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Yee Kiat; Pan, Jiun Yit; Tan, Suat Hoon; Tey, Hong Liang

    2014-01-01

    Eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis (ESFA) is a rare adnexal tumor with acrosyringeal differentiation. Clinically, it can be mistaken for granulomatous infections or malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma. Despite the rarity of the condition, we recently encountered two cases of the reactive subtype, which occurred in patients with poorly controlled chronic psoriasis. Both patients presented with long-standing, thick verrucous lesions on the lower legs. The diagnosis was made after histological examination and exclusion of infectious and neoplastic disorders. As this is a reactive disorder, management is focused on treating the underlying condition. Unfortunately, psoriasis was difficult to manage in both our patients and they defaulted further treatment. It is important to recognize ESFA as it can be confused with infectious or malignant disorders.

  20. Eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis of the reactive subtype occurring in chronic poorly-controlled psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Kiat Heng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis (ESFA is a rare adnexal tumor with acrosyringeal differentiation. Clinically, it can be mistaken for granulomatous infections or malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma. Despite the rarity of the condition, we recently encountered two cases of the reactive subtype, which occurred in patients with poorly controlled chronic psoriasis. Both patients presented with long-standing, thick verrucous lesions on the lower legs. The diagnosis was made after histological examination and exclusion of infectious and neoplastic disorders. As this is a reactive disorder, management is focused on treating the underlying condition. Unfortunately, psoriasis was difficult to manage in both our patients and they defaulted further treatment. It is important to recognize ESFA as it can be confused with infectious or malignant disorders.

  1. Sensory organisation and reactive balance control of amateur rugby players: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Chung, Joanne W Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Fong, Shirley S M

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the sensory organisation and reactive balance control of amateur rugby players and a control group. Forty-one amateur rugby players (22 males: 19 females; mean height ± SD = 168.8 ± 8.8 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.9 ± 12.5 kg) and 31 control participants (22 males: 9 females; mean height ± SD = 171.5 ± 10.3 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.8 ± 10.3 kg) completed the study. Their sensory organisation and standing balance performance were evaluated using a sensory organisation test (SOT), and their reactive balance performance was quantified using a motor control test (MCT). The SOT equilibrium scores (ES) and sensory ratios and the MCT motor response latencies were the major outcome measures. The results revealed that compared to the controls, amateur rugby players had lower SOT ESs under different sensory environments (P rugby group (P = .005, [Formula: see text] = 0.107 and 0.108, respectively). No significant difference was found in the somatosensory ratio (P = .853, [Formula: see text] rugby players demonstrated inferior standing balance performance compared to their non-trained counterparts. They relied less heavily on vestibular and visual inputs to maintain standing balance under different sensory environments. In addition, they reacted more slowly to postural disturbance, reflecting their suboptimal reactive balance ability in standing.

  2. Adaptive Rate-Scheduling with Reactive Delay Control for Next Generation CDMA Wireless Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To minimize QoS degradations during nonstationary packet loadings, predictive rate schedulers adapt the operation according to anticipated packet arrival rates deduced via specified estimation algorithm. Existing predictive rate schedulers are developed under the assumption of perfect estimation, which may not be possible in future CDMA-based cellular networks characterized with highly nonstationary and bursty traffic. Additional shortcoming of existing rate schedulers is the coupling of delay and bandwidth, that is, close interdependence of delay and bandwidth (rate, whereby controlling one is accomplished solely by changing the other. In order to mitigate for the arrival rate estimation errors and delay-bandwidth coupling, this paper presents the feedback-enhanced target-tracking weighted fair queuing (FT-WFQ rate scheduler. It is an adaptive rate scheduler over multiclass CDMA systems with predictive adaptation control to adapt to nonstationary loadings; and feedback-enhanced reactive adaptation control to counteract arrival rate estimation errors. When the predictive adaptation control is not able to maintain long-term delay targets, feedback information will trigger reactive adaptation control. The objective of FT-WFQ scheduler is to minimize deviations from delay targets subject to maximum throughput utilization. Analytical and simulation results indicate that FT-WFQ is able to substantially reduce degradations caused by arrival rate estimation errors and to minimize delay degradations during nonstationary loading conditions.

  3. Flood-controlled excess-air formation favors aerobic respiration and limits denitrification activity in riparian groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePeter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The saturated riparian zones of rivers act as spatially and temporally variable biogeochemical reactors. This complicates the assessment of biogeochemical transport and transformation processes. During a flood event, excess-air formation, i.e. the inclusion and dissolution of air bubbles into groundwater, can introduce high amounts of dissolved O2 and thereby affect biogeochemical processes in groundwater. With the help of a field-installed membrane-inlet mass-spectrometer we resolved the effects of flood induced excess-air formationon organic carbon and nitrogen transformations in groundwater of different riparian zones of a restored section of the River Thur, Switzerland. The results show that the flood event triggered high aerobic respiration activity in the groundwater below a zone densely populated with willow plants. The flood introduced high concentrations of O2 (230 µmol L–1 to the groundwater through the formation of excess air and transported up to ~400 µmol L 1 organic carbon from the soil/root layer into groundwater during the movement of the water table. A rapid respiration process, quantified via the measurements of O2, CO2 and noble-gas concentrations, led to fast depletion of the introduced O2 and organic carbon and to high CO2 concentration (590 µmol L–1 in the groundwater shortly after the flood. The synchronous analysis of different nitrogen species allowed studying the importance of denitrification activity. The results indicate that in the willow zone excess-air formation inhibited denitrification through high O2 concentration input. Instead, the observed decrease in nitrate concentration (~50 µmol N L 1 may be related to fostered nitrate uptake by plants. In the other riparian zones closer to the river, no significant excess-air formation and corresponding respiration activity was observed. Overall, analyzing the dissolved gases in the groundwater significantly contributed to deciphering biogeochemical processes in

  4. Autonomous Control of Current and Voltage Controlled DG Interface Inverters for Reactive Power Sharing and Harmonics Compensation in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Jalilain, Alireza; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    by using capacitive virtual impedance which can fully compensate the effect of output inductance of the LCL filters. Furthermore, an adaptive virtual admittance regulated based on remaining capacity of the CCM units is implemented for the CCM units. For reactive power sharing, modified droop and reverse...... droop control methods are used for VCM and CCM units, respectively. The related droop coefficients are set by taking the limited capacity of the inverters and the distorted power into account. An experimental prototype is developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme...

  5. Optimising Reactive Control in non-ideal Efficiency Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strager, Thomas; Lopez, Pablo Fernandez; Giorgio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    . These have been derived under the assumptions of monochromatic incoming waves and linear system behaviour. This allows to establish the power factor of a system with non-ideal efficiency. The locus of the optimal reactive control parameters is then studied and an alternative method of representation......When analytically optimising the control strategy in wave energy converters which use a point absorber, the efficiency aspect is generally neglected. The results presented in this paper provide an analytical expression for the mean harvested electrical power in non-ideal efficiency situations...... is developed to model the optimal control parameters. Ultimately we present a simple method of choosing optimal control parameters for any combination of efficiency and wave frequency....

  6. Control of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reactivation induced by multiple signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqu Yu

    Full Text Available The ability to control cellular functions can bring about many developments in basic biological research and its applications. The presence of multiple signals, internal as well as externally imposed, introduces several challenges for controlling cellular functions. Additionally the lack of clear understanding of the cellular signaling network limits our ability to infer the responses to a number of signals. This work investigates the control of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reactivation upon treatment with a combination of multiple signals. We utilize mathematical model-based as well as experiment-based approaches to achieve the desired goals of maximizing virus reactivation. The results show that appropriately selected control signals can induce virus lytic gene expression about ten folds higher than a single drug; these results were validated by comparing the results of the two approaches, and experimentally using multiple assays. Additionally, we have quantitatively analyzed potential interactions between the used combinations of drugs. Some of these interactions were consistent with existing literature, and new interactions emerged and warrant further studies. The work presents a general method that can be used to quantitatively and systematically study multi-signal induced responses. It enables optimization of combinations to achieve desired responses. It also allows identifying critical nodes mediating the multi-signal induced responses. The concept and the approach used in this work will be directly applicable to other diseases such as AIDS and cancer.

  7. ReaCog, a Minimal Cognitive Controller Based on Recruitment of Reactive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Malte; Cruse, Holk

    2017-01-01

    It has often been stated that for a neuronal system to become a cognitive one, it has to be large enough. In contrast, we argue that a basic property of a cognitive system, namely the ability to plan ahead, can already be fulfilled by small neuronal systems. As a proof of concept, we propose an artificial neural network, termed reaCog, that, first, is able to deal with a specific domain of behavior (six-legged-walking). Second, we show how a minor expansion of this system enables the system to plan ahead and deploy existing behavioral elements in novel contexts in order to solve current problems. To this end, the system invents new solutions that are not possible for the reactive network. Rather these solutions result from new combinations of given memory elements. This faculty does not rely on a dedicated system being more or less independent of the reactive basis, but results from exploitation of the reactive basis by recruiting the lower-level control structures in a way that motor planning becomes possible as an internal simulation relying on internal representation being grounded in embodied experiences.

  8. plasmatis Center for Innovation Competence: Controlling reactive component output of atmospheric pressure plasmas in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Stephan

    2012-10-01

    The novel approach of using plasmas in order to alter the local chemistry of cells and cell environment presents a significant development in biomedical applications. The plasmatis center for innovation competence at the INP Greifswald e.V. performs fundamental research in plasma medicine in two interdisciplinary research groups. The aim of our plasma physics research group ``Extracellular Effects'' is (a) quantitative space and time resolved diagnostics and modelling of plasmas and liquids to determine distribution and composition of reactive species (b) to control the plasma and apply differing plasma source concepts in order to produce a tailored output of reactive components and design the chemical composition of the liquids/cellular environment and (c) to identify and understand the interaction mechanisms of plasmas with liquids and biological systems. Methods to characterize the plasma generated reactive species from plasma-, gas- and liquid phase and their biological effects will be presented. The diagnostic spectrum ranges from absorption/emission/laser spectroscopy and molecular beam mass spectrometry to electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and cell biological diagnostic techniques. Concluding, a presentation will be given of the comprehensive approach to plasma medicine in Greifswald where the applied and clinical research of the Campus PlasmaMed association is combined with the fundamental research at plasmatis center.

  9. Flood-controlled excess-air formation favors aerobic respiration and limits denitrification activity in riparian groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Simone ePeter; Lars eMächler; Rolf eKipfer; Bernhard eWehrli; Edith eDurisch-Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    The saturated riparian zones of rivers act as spatially and temporally variable biogeochemical reactors. This complicates the assessment of biogeochemical transport and transformation processes. During a flood event, excess-air formation, i.e. the inclusion and dissolution of air bubbles into groundwater, can introduce high amounts of dissolved O2 and thereby affect biogeochemical processes in groundwater. With the help of a field-installed membrane-inlet mass-spectrometer we resolved the eff...

  10. Flood-Controlled Excess-Air Formation Favors Aerobic Respiration and Limits Denitrification Activity in Riparian Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Simone; Mächler, Lars; Kipfer, Rolf; Wehrli, Bernhard; Durisch-Kaiser, Edith

    2015-01-01

    The saturated riparian zones of rivers act as spatially and temporally variable biogeochemical reactors. This complicates the assessment of biogeochemical transport and transformation processes. During a flood event, excess-air formation, i.e., the inclusion and dissolution of air bubbles into groundwater, can introduce high amounts of dissolved O2 and thereby affect biogeochemical processes in groundwater. With the help of a field-installed membrane-inlet mass-spectrometer we resolved the ef...

  11. Excess atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus,-A matter of renal involvement: Case control study of 281 SLE patients and 281 individually matched population controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Johanna T; Herlitz Lindberg, Marie; Gunnarsson, Iva; Pettersson, Susanne; Elvin, Kerstin; Öhrvik, John; Larsson, Anders; Jensen-Urstad, Kerstin; Svenungsson, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is a heterogeneous disease which predominantly affects young females (90%). SLE is associated with a shorter life expectancy than in the general population. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) of 2.4 have been reported, which is comparable to diabetes. In modern societies cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature mortality. Accelerated atherosclerosis is generally assumed to be the underlying cause for SLE related CVD. However, previous studies diverge regarding whether atherosclerosis is more common in SLE than in controls. With this in mind and based on own clinical experience we hypothesized that accelerated atherosclerosis is not a general feature of SLE, but prevails in SLE subgroups. 281 SLE patients and 281 individually age and sex matched population controls, were investigated clinically. Fasting blood samples and risk factor data were collected. All participants were subject to B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid arteries. Carotid plaque occurrence and mean intima media thickness (mIMT) were recorded. Two SLE subgroups previously described to be at high CVD risk; 1) patients with nephritis and 2) patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL), and one subgroup reported to be at comparatively lower CVD risk; patients positive for Sjögren´s syndrome antigens A/B (SSA/SSB) antibodies were analyzed separately in comparison with their respective matched controls. Median age was 49 (IQR 36-59) years, 93% were females. Manifest CVD; ischemic heart, cerebro- and peripheral vascular disease, prevailed in patients (12% vs. 1%, pSLE patients (45 vs.49 years, p = 0.02). To overcome the confounding effect of age we performed an age-matched nested case-control analysis, which demonstrated that patients with nephritis had twice as often plaques (23%) as both non-nephritis patients (11%, p = 0.038) and controls (12%, p = 0.035). In SLE excess carotid plaques are essentially confined to the SLE subgroup with

  12. Assessment reactivity: A randomized controlled trial of alcohol-specific measures on alcohol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nate; Leffingwell, Thad

    2017-04-01

    Completion of alcohol assessments influences treatment outcomes, yet little is known about the aspects of assessment that may contribute to this response. The present study is a randomized controlled trial examining how the themes of alcohol assessments (e.g., assessment of alcohol-related consequences as opposed to drinking patterns) may affect drinking behaviors. Undergraduate students (N=290, Mage=19.97, SDage=1.81, 61.7% female), reporting at least one binge drinking episode during the past month, completed one of five baseline assessment batteries that varied thematically: (a) Control (e.g., minimal drinking quantity and frequency questions), (b) Consequences (e.g., College Alcohol Problems Scale; CAPS-r), (c) Norms (e.g., Drinking Norms Rating Form), (d) Diagnostic (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), and (e) Combined (all themes). Participants completed a one-month follow-up of drinking quantity/frequency and the CAPS-r. All groups decreased their self-reported peak drinks consumed (palcohol-related consequences (p=0.06, ηp(2)=0.03) from baseline to follow-up. Minimal assessment of drinking quantity and frequency may result in assessment reactivity. Reductions in markers of risky drinking behaviors did not differ as a function of the type of assessments completed (e.g., Consequences vs Diagnostic). Continued research is needed to determine what other important variables (e.g., treatment seeking) may affect assessment reactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Audit Report on "Management Controls over the Department's Excess Weapons Inventories and Selected Sensitive Equipment used by Protective Forces"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the Department of Energy has, on several occasions, revised its security posture based on identified threats and adversaries. These revisions in security posture have driven Departmental sites to upgrade their defensive and tactical equipment. Subsequent changes in the perceived threats have, in some cases, led to a reduction in the need for certain types of weapons, thus creating a pool of surplus equipment. These surplus weapons could potentially be used by other Department sites and Federal law enforcement agencies. Recent Office of Inspector General reports have raised concerns with the adequacy of controls related to defensive and tactical equipment. For example, our report on Management Controls Over Defense Related High Risk Property (OAS-M-08-06, April 2008) found that administrative controls over certain defense related high risk property were not sufficient for providing accountability over these items. Because of prior reported weaknesses in controls over defensive and tactical equipment, we initiated this audit to determine whether the Department and its contractors were properly managing excess weapons inventories and selected sensitive equipment used by protective forces. Our review disclosed that the Department was not always properly managing its inventories of excess weapons and selected sensitive equipment. We identified issues with the retention of unneeded weapons at many locations and with the identification and tracking of sensitive items. More specifically: Sites maintained large inventories of weapons that were no longer needed but had not been made available for use by either other Departmental sites or other Federal law enforcement agencies. For instance, at six of the locations included in our review we identified a total of 2,635 unneeded weapons with a total acquisition value of over $2.8 million that had not been officially declared as excess - an action that would have made them available for others to use

  14. Coupling/Tradeoff Analysis and Novel Containment Control for Reactive Power, Output Voltage in Islanded Micro-Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the hierarchical control structure in islanded Micro-Grid (MG) systems, the coupling/tradeoff effects in different control levels are analyzed in details. In the primary level, analyses of the coupling effects among droop control gains, line impedance differences, output reactive power a...

  15. Cue-Reactive Rationality, Visual Imagery and Volitional Control Predict Cue-Reactive Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gavin I; Rock, Adam J; McKeith, Charles F A; Coventry, William L

    2016-11-01

    Poker-machine gamblers have been demonstrated to report increases in the urge to gamble following exposure to salient gambling cues. However, the processes which contribute to this urge to gamble remain to be understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether changes in the conscious experience of visual imagery, rationality and volitional control (over one's thoughts, images and attention) predicted changes in the urge to gamble following exposure to a gambling cue. Thirty-one regular poker-machine gamblers who reported at least low levels of problem gambling on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), were recruited to complete an online cue-reactivity experiment. Participants completed the PGSI, the visual imagery, rationality and volitional control subscales of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) assessing urge to gamble. Participants completed the PCI subscales and VAS at baseline, following a neutral video cue and following a gambling video cue. Urge to gamble was found to significantly increase from neutral cue to gambling cue (while controlling for baseline urge) and this increase was predicted by PGSI score. After accounting for the effects of problem-gambling severity, cue-reactive visual imagery, rationality and volitional control significantly improved the prediction of cue-reactive urge to gamble. The small sample size and limited participant characteristic data restricts the generalizability of the findings. Nevertheless, this is the first study to demonstrate that changes in the subjective experience of visual imagery, volitional control and rationality predict changes in the urge to gamble from neutral to gambling cue. The results suggest that visual imagery, rationality and volitional control may play an important role in the experience of the urge to gamble in poker-machine gamblers.

  16. Control of a reactive batch distillation process using an iterative learning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Lee, Kwang Soon [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mansuk; Lee, Juhyun [Samsung Cheil Industries Inc., Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Quadratic criterion-based iterative learning control (QILC) was applied to a numerical reactive batch distillation process, in which methacrylic anhydride (MAN) is produced through the reaction of methacrylic acid with acetic anhydride. The role of distillation is to shift the equilibrium conversion toward the direction of the product by removing acetic acid (AcH), a by-product of the reaction. Two temperatures at both ends of the column were controlled by individual control loops. A nonlinear PID controller manipulating the reflux ratio was employed to regulate the top temperature at the boiling point of AcH. A constrained QILC was used for the tracking of the reactor temperature. A time-varying reference trajectory for the reactor temperature that satisfies the target conversion and purity of MAN was obtained through repeated simulations and confirmation experiments in the pilot plant. The QILC achieved satisfactory tracking in several batch runs with gentle control movements, while the PID control as a substitute of the QILC in a comparative study exhibited unacceptable performance.

  17. Reactivity and structural evolution of urchin-like Co nanostructures under controlled environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, K; Moldovan, S; Hirlimann, Ch; Harmel, J; Soulantica, K; Serp, P; Chaudret, B; Gay, A-S; Maury, S; Berliet, A; Fecant, A; Ersen, O

    2017-10-24

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of samples in a controlled gas environment allows for the real time study of the dynamical changes in nanomaterials at high temperatures and pressures up to the ambient pressure (10(5) Pa) with a spatial resolution close to the atomic scale. In the field of catalysis, the implementation and quantitative use of in situ procedures are fundamental for a better understanding of the behaviour of catalysts in their environments and operating conditions. By using a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based atmospheric gas cell, we have studied the thermal stability and the reactivity of crystalline cobalt nanostructures with initial 'urchin-like' morphologies sustained by native surface ligands that result from their synthesis reaction. We have evidenced various behaviors of the Co nanostructures that depend on the environment used during the observations. At high temperature under vacuum or in an inert atmosphere, the migration of Co atoms towards the core of the particles is activated and leads to the formation of carbon nanostructures using as a template the initial multipods morphology. In the case of reactive environments, for example, pure oxygen, our investigation allowed to directly monitor the voids formation through the Kirkendall effect. Once the nanostructures were oxidised, it was possible to reduce them back to the metallic phase using a dihydrogen flux. Under a pure hydrogen atmosphere, the sintering of the whole structure occurred, which illustrates the high reactivity of such structures as well as the fundamental role of the present ligands as morphology stabilisers. The last type of environmental study under pure CO and syngas (i.e. a mixture of H2 :CO = 2:1) revealed the metal particles carburisation at high temperature. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Pretransplant antithymocyte globulin has increased efficacy in controlling donor-reactive memory T cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayasoufi, K; Yu, H; Fan, R; Wang, X; Williams, J; Valujskikh, A

    2013-03-01

    Antibody-mediated lymphocyte depletion is frequently used as induction therapy in sensitized transplant patients. Although T cells with an effector/memory phenotype remain detectable after lymphoablative therapies in human transplant recipients, the role of preexisting donor-reactive memory in reconstitution of the T cell repertoire and induction of alloimmune responses following lymphoablation is poorly understood. We show in a mouse cardiac transplantation model that antidonor immune responses following treatment with rabbit antimouse thymocyte globulin (mATG) were dominated by T cells derived from the preexisting memory compartment. Administration of mATG 1 week prior to transplantation (pre-TP) was more efficient in targeting preexisting donor-reactive memory T cells, inhibiting overall antidonor T cell responses, and prolonging heart allograft survival than the commonly used treatment at the time of transplantation (peri-TP). The failure of peri-TP mATG to control antidonor memory responses was due to faster recovery of preexisting memory T cells rather than their inefficient depletion. This rapid recovery did not depend on T cell specificity for donor alloantigens suggesting an important role for posttransplant inflammation in this process. Our findings provide insights into the components of the alloimmune response remaining after lymphoablation and may help guide the future use of ATG in sensitized transplant recipients. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Alpha- and beta-band oscillations subserve different processes in reactive control of limb movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo ePani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to rapidly suppress a behavioral act in response to sudden instruction to stop is a key cognitive function. This function, called reactive control, is tested in experimental settings using the stop signal task, which requires subjects to generate a movement in response to a go signal or suppress it when a stop signal appears. The ability to inhibit this movement fluctuates over time: sometimes, subjects can stop their response, and at other times, they can not. To determine the neural basis of this fluctuation, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs in the alpha (6-12 Hz and beta (13-35 Hz bands from the dorsal premotor cortex of 2 nonhuman primates that were performing the task. The ability to countermand a movement after a stop signal was predicted by the activity of both bands, each purportedly representing a distinct neural process. The beta band represents the level of movement preparation; higher beta power corresponds to a lower level of movement preparation, whereas the alpha band supports a proper phasic, reactive inhibitory response: movements are inhibited when alpha band power increases immediately after a stop signal. Our findings support the function of LFP bands in generating the signatures of various neural computations that are multiplexed in the brain.

  20. Characterizing switching and congruency effects in the Implicit Association Test as reactive and proactive cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Bartholow, Bruce D; Dickter, Cheryl L; Blanton, Hart

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has identified an important role for task switching, a cognitive control process often associated with executive functioning, in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). However, switching does not fully account for IAT effects, particularly when performance is scored using more recent d-score formulations. The current study sought to characterize multiple control processes involved in IAT performance through the use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants performed a race-evaluative IAT while ERPs were recorded. Behaviorally, participants experienced superadditive reaction time costs of incongruency and task switching, consistent with previous studies. The ERP showed a marked medial frontal negativity (MFN) 250-450 ms post-stimulus at midline fronto-central locations that were more negative for incongruent than congruent trials but more positive for switch than for no-switch trials, suggesting separable control processes are engaged by these two factors. Greater behavioral IAT bias was associated with both greater switch-related and congruency-related ERP activity. Findings are discussed in terms of the Dual Mechanisms of Control model of reactive and proactive cognitive control. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout – Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Golonka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80, two components of error-related potential (ERP, error-related negativity (ERN, and error positivity (Pe, were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40, a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40. Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN and proactive and conscious (Pe aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger ‘reactive control mode’ that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe, showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics.

  2. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout - Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Krystyna; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Gawlowska, Magda; Popiel, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80), two components of error-related potential (ERP), error-related negativity (ERN), and error positivity (Pe), were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40), a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40). Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN) and proactive and conscious (Pe) aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger 'reactive control mode' that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN) and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe), showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics.

  3. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout – Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Krystyna; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Gawlowska, Magda; Popiel, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80), two components of error-related potential (ERP), error-related negativity (ERN), and error positivity (Pe), were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40), a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40). Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN) and proactive and conscious (Pe) aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger ‘reactive control mode’ that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN) and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe), showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics. PMID:28507528

  4. Reactive arthritis in relation to internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bodil; Holmlund, Anders; Wretlind, Bengt; Jalal, Shah; Rosén, Annika

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if reactive arthritis was involved in the aetiology of chronic closed lock of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by looking for bacterial antigens in the synovial membrane of the TMJ, and by studying the antibody serology and carriage of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 in patients with chronic closed lock. Patients with reciprocal clicking and healthy subjects acted as controls. We studied a total of 43 consecutive patients, 15 with chronic closed lock, 13 with reciprocal clicking, and 15 healthy controls with no internal derangements of the TMJ. Venous blood samples were collected from all subjects for measurement of concentrations of HLA tissue antigen and serology against Chlamydia trachomatis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Samples of synovial tissue from patients with closed lock and reciprocal clicking were obtained during discectomy and divided into two pieces, the first of which was tested by strand displacement amplification for the presence of C trachomatis, and the second of which was analysed for the presence of species-specific bacterial DNA using 16s rRNA pan-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of antibodies against M pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. or Y enterocolitica. No patient had antibodies towards C trachomatis or C jejuni. We found no bacterial DNA in the synovial fluid from any patient. The HLA B27 antigen was present in 2/15 subjects in both the closed lock and control groups, and none in the reciprocal clicking group. In conclusion, reactive arthritis does not seem to be the mechanism of internal derangement of the TMJ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Reactivity-based industrial volatile organic compounds emission inventory and its implications for ozone control strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jiani; Shi, Tianli; Sun, Xibo; Fan, Liya; Wang, Liming; Ye, Daiqi

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly serious ozone (O3) pollution, along with decreasing NOx emission, is creating a big challenge in the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China. More efficient and effective measures are assuredly needed for controlling VOCs. In this study, a reactivity-based industrial VOCs emission inventory was established in China based on the concept of ozone formation potential (OFP). Key VOCs species, major VOCs sources, and dominant regions with high reactivity were identified. Our results show that the top 15 OFP-based species, including m/p-xylene, toluene, propene, o-xylene, and ethyl benzene, contribute 69% of the total OFP but only 30% of the total emission. The architectural decoration industry, oil refinery industry, storage and transport, and seven other sources constituted the top 10 OFP subsectors, together contributing a total of 85%. The provincial and spatial characteristics of OFP are generally consistent with those of mass-based inventory. The implications for O3 control strategies in China are discussed. We propose a reactivity-based national definition of VOCs and low-reactive substitution strategies, combined with evaluations of health risks. Priority should be given to the top 15 or more species with high reactivity through their major emission sources. Reactivity-based policies should be flexibly applied for O3 mitigation based on the sensitivity of O3 formation conditions.

  6. Multi-Objective Advanced Inverter Controls to Dispatch the Real and Reactive Power of Many Distributed PV Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seuss, John [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Grijalva, Santiago [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this report compares several real - time control strategies for the power output of a large number of PV distributed throughout a large distribution feeder circuit. Both real and reactive power controls are considered with the goal of minimizing network over - voltage violations caused by large amounts of PV generation. Several control strategies are considered under various assumptions regarding the existence and latency of a communication network. The control parameters are adjusted to maximize the effectiveness of each control. The controls are then compared based on their ability to achieve multiple objectiv es. These objectives include minimizing the total number of voltage violations , minimizing the total amount of PV energy curtailed or reactive power generated, and maximizing the fairness of any control action among all PV systems . The controls are simulat ed on the OpenDSS platform using time series load and spatially - distributed irradiance data.

  7. Containment and Consensus-based Distributed Coordination Control for Voltage Bound and Reactive Power Sharing in AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers a highly flexible and reliable control strategy to achieve voltage bounded regulation and accurate reactive power sharing coordinately in AC Micro-Grids. A containment and consensus-based distributed coordination controller is proposed, by which each output voltage magnitude can...

  8. A Comparison between Voltage and Reactive Power Feedback Schemes of DFIGs for Inter-Area Oscillation Damping Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power modulation of wind power plants is an effective way to damp inter-area oscillation in wind power penetrated power systems. For doubly fed induction generator (DFIG based wind farms, there are two different ways to achieve reactive power modulation: one is via reactive power feedback control, and the other method is via voltage feedback control. While both of the control schemes are feasible, their effectiveness may differ, and there has not been a systematic comparison between them. This paper investigates the differences between these two feedback schemes for inter-area oscillation damping control. The principles of utilizing DFIG for damping control is introduced at first. Then, analytical techniques including the frequency domain analysis, μ -analysis and time domain analysis are used to systematically study the performance of the two control schemes against inter-area oscillation. The robustness of the control schemes with respect to the variety of system operation points is also studied. The results from this paper can provide an insight into the understatement of DFIG reactive modulation against oscillation and guidance for controller design.

  9. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improves emotional reactivity to social stress: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B; Shahar, Ben; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Jacobs, W Jake

    2012-06-01

    The high likelihood of recurrence in depression is linked to a progressive increase in emotional reactivity to stress (stress sensitization). Mindfulness-based therapies teach mindfulness skills designed to decrease emotional reactivity in the face of negative affect-producing stressors. The primary aim of the current study was to assess whether Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing emotional reactivity to social evaluative threat in a clinical sample with recurrent depression. A secondary aim was to assess whether improvement in emotional reactivity mediates improvements in depressive symptoms. Fifty-two individuals with partially remitted depression were randomized into an 8-week MBCT course or a waitlist control condition. All participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) before and after the 8-week trial period. Emotional reactivity to stress was assessed with the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory at several time points before, during, and after the stressor. MBCT was associated with decreased emotional reactivity to social stress, specifically during the recovery (post-stressor) phase of the TSST. Waitlist controls showed an increase in anticipatory (pre-stressor) anxiety that was absent in the MBCT group. Improvements in emotional reactivity partially mediated improvements in depressive symptoms. Limitations include small sample size, lack of objective or treatment adherence measures, and non-generalizability to more severely depressed populations. Given that emotional reactivity to stress is an important psychopathological process underlying the chronic and recurrent nature of depression, these findings suggest that mindfulness skills are important in adaptive emotion regulation when coping with stress. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, RG; Rathleff, M

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient...

  11. Development of novel control system to grow ZnO thin films by reactive evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gordillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel system implemented to grow ZnO thin films by plasma assisted reactive evaporation with adequate properties to be used in the fabrication of photovoltaic devices with different architectures. The innovative aspect includes both an improved design of the reactor used to activate the chemical reaction that leads to the formation of the ZnO compound as an electronic system developed using the virtual instrumentation concept. ZnO thin films with excellent opto-electrical properties were prepared in a reproducible way, controlling the deposition system through a virtual instrument (VI with facilities to control the amount of evaporated zinc involved in the process that gives rise to the formation of ZnO, by means of the incorporation of PID (proportional integral differential and PWM (pulse width modulation control algorithms. The effectiveness and reliability of the developed system was verified by obtaining with good reproducibility thin films of n+-ZnO and i-ZnO grown sequentially in situ with thicknesses and resistivities suitable for use as window layers in chalcopyrite based thin film solar cells.

  12. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Lisa R; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these "mixed" repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  13. Quality control of Photosystem II: reversible and irreversible protein aggregation decides the fate of Photosystem II under excessive illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi eYamamoto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to excessive light, the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts show dynamic changes including the degradation and reassembly of proteins, a change in the distribution of proteins, and large-scale structural changes such as unstacking of the grana. Here, we examined the aggregation of light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes and Photosystem II core subunits of spinach thylakoid membranes under light stress with 77K chlorophyll fluorescence; aggregation of these proteins was found to proceed with increasing light intensity. Measurement of changes in the fluidity of thylakoid membranes with fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene showed that membrane fluidity increased at a light intensity of 500–1,000 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and decreased at very high light intensity (1,500 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The aggregation of light-harvesting complexes at moderately high light intensity is known to be reversible, while that of Photosystem II core subunits at extremely high light intensity is irreversible. It is likely that the reversibility of protein aggregation is closely related to membrane fluidity: increases in fluidity should stimulate reversible protein aggregation, whereas irreversible protein aggregation might decrease membrane fluidity. When spinach leaves were pre-illuminated with moderately high light intensity, the qE component of non-photochemical quenching and the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II increased, indicating that Photosystem II/ light-harvesting complexes rearranged in the thylakoid membranes to optimize Photosystem II activity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the thylakoids underwent partial unstacking under these light stress conditions. Thus, protein aggregation is involved in thylakoid dynamics and regulates photochemical reactions, thereby deciding the fate of Photosystem II.

  14. Reactivity of organic matter in aquifer sediments: geological and geochemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, N.; van Bergen, P. F.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Griffioen, J.

    2004-03-01

    Reduction rates in aquifers are commonly carbon limited, but little is known about the molecular composition and degradability of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in aquifer sediments. The composition, source and degradation status of SOM in aquifer sediments of fluvio-glacial (Pleistocene) and shallow marine (Pliocene) origin, were determined using flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Incubation experiments (106 d) were used to assess the reactivity of SOM towards molecular oxygen. A dominance of lignin-derived components and long chain odd-over-even predominant alkanes indicate that terrestrial higher land plants were the main source of SOM even in the shallow marine sediments, while bacterial lipid-derived hopanoids and iso- and anteiso-C15 and C17 fatty acids indicate a minor contribution of microbial biomass. No compositional difference was observed between SOM present in the fine (<63 μm) and coarse fraction (63-2000 μm). A significant part of SOM was not present as low-molecular-weight compounds but was macromolecularly bound. For the fluvio-glacial sediments, a relatively higher abundance of resistant macromolecular compounds was in agreement with stronger signs of aerobic lignin, alkane and hopanoid oxidation. The more degraded status of SOM in the fluvio-glacial sediments was consistent with their significantly lower SOM mineralization (2-6%) during incubation, as compared with the shallow marine sediments (9-14%). The reactivity towards oxygen of SOM was controlled by the extent of past aerobic oxidation. Not the age of SOM, but the extent of oxygen exposure during syn- and postdepositional conditions seems most important in affecting the degradation status of SOM in aquifer sediments and thus their ability to reduce oxidants.

  15. Chocolate or orange juice for non-reactive non-stress test (NST) patterns: a randomized prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, Sertac; Baser, Eralp; Cakir, Caner; Ustun Tuncal, Gul Nihal; Kucukozkan, Tuncay

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare bitter chocolate and orange juice with the control group for non-reactive non-stress test (NST) patterns and for maternal perception of fetal movements. Pregnant women who were followed-up on an outpatient basis and admitted for a NST and had a non-reactive result were randomized prospectively into bitter chocolate, orange juice and control groups. 180 patients were evaluable for the final analysis. Although there was a trend for orange juice group for having higher percentages of reactive NST patterns on control, there was no statistically significant difference between three groups (p = 0.159). Besides this, maternal perception of increased fetal movements was similar between groups (p = 0.755). The control group had lower post-test capillary blood glucose concentrations when compared with chocolate and orange juice groups (p = 0.01) and after post-hoc tests, this difference was found to be between orange juice and control groups. Although orange juice resulted in higher blood glucose levels, this was not synonymous with better NST results on control; in such a way that bitter chocolate, orange juice and no intervention had similar effects on non-reactive NST patterns and also on maternal perception of fetal movements.

  16. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Teng, Jessica E; Almazor, Charles P; Jerome, J Gregory; Ternier, Ralph; Boncy, Jacques; Buteau, Josiane; Murray, Megan B; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F

    2015-01-01

    Background Between April and June 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was conducted in Haiti using an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine (BivWC). Methods We conducted a case-control study to estimate field effectiveness of the vaccine. Cases had acute watery diarrhea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units from October 24, 2012 through March 9, 2014, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four controls (individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhea) were matched by location of residence, calendar time, and age. We also conducted a bias-indicator case-control study to assess the likelihood of bias in the vaccine effectiveness (VE) study. Findings During the study period, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhea and were enrolled. 47 were analyzed as cases in the VE case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. In multivariable analyses, VE was 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8%–85%] by self-reported vaccination and 58% [95% CI: 13%–80%] for verified vaccination. Neither self-reported nor verified vaccination was significantly associated with non-cholera diarrhea (VE: 18% [95% CI: −208%–−78%] by self-report and −21% [95%CI: −238%–57%] for verified vaccination). Interpretation BivWC oral cholera vaccine was effective in protecting against cholera in Haiti during the study period –from 4 through 24 months after vaccination. Vaccination is an important component of epidemic cholera control efforts. Funding National Institutes of Health, Delivering Oral Vaccines Effectively project, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:25701994

  17. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-03-24

    Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12-16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents' measured BMI-SDS (SDS=adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents' self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents. Dutch Trial register NTR3228.

  18. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  19. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented

  20. Learning Controllers for Reactive and Proactive Behaviors in Human-Robot Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCalinon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Designed to safely share the same workspace as humans and assist them in a variety of tasks, the new collaborative robots are targeting manufacturing and service applications that once were considered unattainable. The large diversity of tasks to carry out, the unstructured environments and the close interaction with humans call for collaborative robots to seamlessly adapt their behaviors so as to cooperate with the users successfully under different and possibly new situations (characterized, for example, by positions of objects/landmarks in the environment, or by the user pose. This paper investigates how controllers capable of reactive and proactive behaviors in collaborative tasks can be learned from demonstrations. The proposed approach exploits the temporal coherence and dynamic characteristics of the task observed during the training phase to build a probabilistic model that enables the robot to both react to the user actions and lead the task when needed. The method is an extension of the Hidden Semi-Markov Model where the duration probability distribution is adapted according to the interaction with the user. This Adaptive Duration Hidden Semi-Markov Model (ADHSMM is used to retrieve a sequence of states governing a trajectory optimization that provides the reference and gain matrices to the robot controller. A proof-of-concept evaluation is first carried out in a pouring task. The proposed framework is then tested in a collaborative task using a 7 DOF backdrivable manipulator.

  1. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao, E-mail: haohe@tju.edu.cn; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2014-02-24

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  2. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca2+ release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  3. Comprehensive Cost Minimization in Distribution Networks Using Segmented-time Feeder Reconfiguration and Reactive Power Control of Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to deal with segmented-time reconfiguration problem of distribution networks coupled with segmented-time reactive power control of distributed generators. The target is to find the optimal dispatching schedule of all controllable switches...... and distributed generators’ reactive powers in order to minimize comprehensive cost. Corresponding constraints, including voltage profile, maximum allowable daily switching operation numbers (MADSON), reactive power limits, and so on, are considered. The strategy of grouping branches is used to simplify...... (FAHPSO) is implemented in VC++ 6.0 program language. A modified version of the typical 70-node distribution network and several real distribution networks are used to test the performance of the proposed method. Numerical results show that the proposed methodology is an efficient method for comprehensive...

  4. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost in young and old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Rebecca Whitson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost. These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs. Moreover, residual RT mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these ‘mixed’ repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011. In this study, we examine stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We argue that, together with evidence of greater proactive control and more cautious responding for these trials, these findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  5. Impact of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species in the control of energy metabolism and food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eDrougard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus is a key area involved in the control of metabolism and food intake via the integrations of numerous signals (hormones, neurotransmitters, metabolites from various origins. These factors modify hypothalamic neurons activity and generate adequate molecular and behavioral responses to control energy balance. In this complex integrative system, a new concept has been developed in recent years, that includes reactive oxygen species (ROS as a critical player in energy balance. ROS are known to act in many signaling pathways in different peripheral organs, but also in hypothalamus where they regulate food intake and metabolism by acting on different types of neurons, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC and agouti-related protein (AgRP/neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons. Hypothalamic ROS release is under the influence of different factors such as pancreatic and gut hormones, adipokines (leptin, apelin,..., neurotransmitters and nutrients (glucose, lipids,.... The sources of ROS production are multiple including NADPH oxidase, but also the mitochondria which is considered as the main ROS producer in the brain. ROS are considered as signaling molecules, but conversely impairment of this neuronal signaling ROS pathway contributes to alterations of autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine function, leading to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.In this review we focus our attention on factors that are able to modulate hypothalamic ROS release in order to control food intake and energy metabolism, and whose deregulations could participate to the development of pathological conditions. This novel insight reveals an original mechanism in the hypothalamus that controls energy balance and identify hypothalamic ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic disorders.

  6. Variability in proactive and reactive cognitive control processes across the adult lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frini eKarayanidis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Task-switching paradigms produce a highly consistent age-related increase in mixing cost (longer RT on repeat trials in mixed-task than single task blocks but a less consistent age effect on switch cost (longer RT on switch than repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We use two approaches to examine the adult lifespan trajectory of control processes contributing to mixing cost and switch cost: latent variables derived from an evidence accumulation model of choice, and event-related potentials (ERP that temporally differentiate proactive (cue-driven and reactive (target-driven control processes. Under highly practiced and prepared task conditions, ageing was associated with increasing RT mixing cost but reducing RT switch cost. Both effects were largely due to the same cause: an age effect for mixed-repeat trials. In terms of latent variables, increasing age was associated with slower non-decision processes, slower rate of evidence accumulation about the target, and higher response criterion. Age effects on mixing costs were evident only on response criterion, the amount of evidence required to trigger a decision, whereas age effects on switch cost were present for all three latent variables. ERPs showed age-related increases in preparation for mixed-repeat trials, anticipatory attention, and post-target interference. Cue-locked ERPs that are linked to proactive control were associated with early emergence of age differences in response criterion. These results are consistent with age effects on strategic processes controlling decision caution. Consistent with an age-related decline in cognitive flexibility, younger adults flexibly adjusted response criterion from trial-to-trial on mixed-task blocks, whereas older adults maintained a high criterion for all trials.

  7. Control of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in liquid by nonthermal plasma jet with controlled surrounding gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Taiki; Uchida, Giichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takenaka, Kosuke; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    We present the development of a low-frequency nonthermal plasma-jet system, where the surrounding-gas condition of the plasma jet is precisely controlled in open air. By restricting the mixing of the ambient air into the plasma jet, the plasma jet can be selectively changed from a N2 main discharge to an O2 main discharge even in open air. In the plasma-jet system with the controlled surrounding gas, the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is successfully controlled in deionized water: the concentration ratio of NO2 - to H2O2 is tuned from 0 to 0.18, and a high NO2 - concentration ratio is obtained at a N2 gas ratio of 0.80 relative to the total N2/O2 gas mixture in the main discharge gas. We also find that the NO2 - concentration is much higher in the plasma-activated medium than in the plasma-activated deionized water, which is mainly explained by the contribution of amino acids to NO2 - generation in the medium.

  8. Reactivity to smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of depressive symptoms (MoodMonitor): protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Karyotaki, Eirini; Ebert, David D; Smit, Johannes H; Riper, Heleen

    2016-10-21

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of mental health symptoms may influence the symptoms that it measures, i.e. assessment reactivity. In the field of depression, EMA reactivity has received little attention. We aim to investigate whether EMA of depressive symptoms induces assessment reactivity. Reactivity will be operationalised as an effect of EMA on depressive symptoms measured by a retrospective questionnaire, and, secondly, as a change in response rate and variance of the EMA ratings. This study is a 12-week randomised controlled trial comprising three groups: group 1 carries out EMA of mood and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 2 carries out EMA of how energetic they feel and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 3 is the control group, which completes only the retrospective questionnaire. The retrospective questionnaire (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale; CES-D) assesses depressive symptoms and is administered at baseline, 6 weeks after baseline and 12 weeks after baseline. We aim to recruit 160 participants who experience mild to moderate depressive symptoms, defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score of 5 to 15. This study is powered to detect a small between-groups effect, where no clinically relevant effect is defined as the effect size margin -0.25depressive symptoms could induce assessment reactivity among mildly depressed individuals. Netherlands Trial Register NTR5803. Registered 12 April 2016. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5803 .

  9. Reduction of DC-link Capacitor in Case of Cascade Multilevel Converters by means of Reactive Power Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Wang, Huai; Liserre, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A method to selectively control the amount of dc link voltage ripple by processing desired reactive power by a DC/DC converter in isolated AC/DC or AC/DC/AC system is proposed. The concept can reduce the dc link capacitors used for balancing the input and output power and thereby limiting the vol...

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels : a randomized, diet-controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. Design: Randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over study. Setting: The study was performed at TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands. Subjects: Ten

  11. Internally-directed cognition and mindfulness : An integrative perspective derived from predictive and reactive control systems theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Quirin, M.; Ijzerman, H.; Koole, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we will apply the predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the “default mode network” (DMN) and anterior insula (AI) as parts of two different behavioral and

  12. Internally-directed cognition and mindfulness: An integrative perspective derived from predictive and reactive control systems theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Quirin, M.; IJzerman, H.; Koole, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we will apply the predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the "default mode network" (DMN) and anterior insula (AI) as parts of two different behavioral and

  13. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  14. Oscillatory brain activity related to control mechanisms during laboratory-induced reactive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike M Krämer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior is a common reaction in humans after an interpersonal provocation, but little is known about the underlying brain mechanisms. The present study analyzed oscillatory brain activity while participants were involved in an aggressive interaction to examine the neural processes subserving the associated decision and evaluation processes. Participants were selected from a larger sample because of their high scores in trait aggressiveness. We used a competitive reaction time task that induces aggressive behavior through provocation. Each trial is separated in a decision phase, during which the punishment for the opponent is set, and an outcome phase, during which the actual punishment is applied or received. We observed provocation-related differences during the decision phase in the theta band which differed depending on participants’ aggressive behavior: High provocation was associated with an increased frontal theta response in participants refraining from retaliation, but with reduced theta power in those who got back to the opponent. Moreover, more aggressive decisions after being punished were associated with a decrease of frontal theta power. Non-aggressive and aggressive participants differed also in their outcome-related response: Being punished led to an increased frontal theta power compared to win trials in the latter only, pointing to differences in evaluation processes associated with their different behavioral reactions. The data thus support previous evidence for a role of prefrontal areas in the control of reactive aggression and extend behavioral studies on associations between aggression or violence and impaired prefrontal functions.

  15. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles with chemically reactive surface: Controlling spatial distribution in one-step synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, María L; Cánneva, Antonela; Huck-Iriart, Cristián; Requejo, Felix G; Gonzalez, Mónica C; Dell'Arciprete, María L; Calvo, Alejandra

    2017-06-15

    The encapsulation of fluorescent dyes inside silica nanoparticles is advantageous to improve their quality as probes. Inside the particle, the fluorophore is protected from the external conditions and its main emission parameters remains unchanged even in the presence of quenchers. On the other hand, the amine-functionalized nanoparticle surface enables a wide range of applications, as amino groups could be easily linked with different biomolecules for targeting purposes. This kind of nanoparticle is regularly synthesized by methods that employ templates, additional nanoparticle formation or multiple pathway process. However, a one-step synthesis will be an efficient approach in this sort of bifunctional hybrid nanoparticles. A co-condensation sol-gel synthesis of hybrid fluorescent silica nanoparticle where developed. The chemical and morphological characterization of the particles where investigated by DRIFTS, XPS, SEM and SAXS. The nanoparticle fluorescent properties were also assessed by excitation-emission matrices and time resolved experiments. We have developed a one-pot synthesis method that enables the simultaneous incorporation of functionalities, the fluorescent molecule and the amino group, by controlling co-condensation process. An exhaustive characterization allows the definition of the spatial distribution of the fluorescent probe, fluorescein isothiocyanate, inside the particle and reactive amino groups on the surface of the nanoparticle with diameter about 100nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ghrelin potentiates cardiac reactivity to stress by modulating sympathetic control and beta-adrenergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Silva, Gabriel; Turones, Larissa Córdova; da Cruz, Kellen Rosa; Gomes, Karina Pereira; Mendonça, Michelle Mendanha; Nunes, Allancer; de Jesus, Itamar Guedes; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Pansani, Aline Priscila; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Santos, Robson; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky; Guatimosim, Silvia; de Castro, Carlos Henrique; Ianzer, Danielle; Ferreira, Reginaldo Nassar; Xavier, Carlos Henrique

    2018-03-01

    Prior evidence indicates that ghrelin is involved in the integration of cardiovascular functions and behavioral responses. Ghrelin actions are mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtype 1a (GHS-R1a), which is expressed in peripheral tissues and central areas involved in the control of cardiovascular responses to stress. In the present study, we assessed the role of ghrelin - GHS-R1a axis in the cardiovascular reactivity to acute emotional stress in rats. Ghrelin potentiated the tachycardia evoked by restraint and air jet stresses, which was reverted by GHS-R1a blockade. Evaluation of the autonomic balance revealed that the sympathetic branch modulates the ghrelin-evoked positive chronotropy. In isolated hearts, the perfusion with ghrelin potentiated the contractile responses caused by stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor, without altering the amplitude of the responses evoked by acetylcholine. Experiments in isolated cardiomyocytes revealed that ghrelin amplified the increases in calcium transient changes evoked by isoproterenol. Taken together, our results indicate that the Ghrelin-GHS-R1a axis potentiates the magnitude of stress-evoked tachycardia by modulating the autonomic nervous system and peripheral mechanisms, strongly relying on the activation of cardiac calcium transient and beta-adrenergic receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microcomputer-based equipment-control and data-acquisition system for fission-reactor reactivity-worth measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, W.P.; Bucher, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Material reactivity-worth measurements are one of the major classes of experiments conducted on the Zero Power research reactors (ZPR) at Argonne National Laboratory. These measurements require the monitoring of the position of a servo control element as a sample material is positioned at various locations in a critical reactor configuration. In order to guarantee operational reliability and increase experimental flexibility for these measurements, the obsolete hardware-based control unit has been replaced with a microcomputer based equipment control and data acquisition system. This system is based on an S-100 bus, dual floppy disk computer with custom built cards to interface with the experimental system. To measure reactivity worths, the system accurately positions samples in the reactor core and acquires data on the position of the servo control element. The data are then analyzed to determine statistical adequacy. The paper covers both the hardware and software aspects of the design.

  19. Electrostatic control of acetylcholinesterase reactivity. Final technical report, 1 April 1989-31 December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    These studies examined chiral reactivity, the magnitude and importance of steric interactions, and the importance of the electrostatic charge distribution in governing reactivity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE). To do this, we employed a comprehensive series of resolved enantiomeric methylphosphonates, a comprehensive series of alkylphosphonates, and fluorescent methylphosphonates.As a complementary index to detailed stopped-flow analysis of inhibition kinetics, we monitored kinetics of aging and oxime reactivation. Together with equilibrium binding studies, employing the reversible fluorescent ligand decidium diiodide, these provided an independent index of ligand orientation achieved by the organophosphonates within the enzyme active center.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of aryl phosphine oxide containing thermoplastic polyimides and thermosetting polyimides with controlled reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hong

    1998-11-01

    Phosphorus containing monomers, bis(3-aminophenyl)methyl phosphine oxide (m-DAMPO) and bis(3-aminophenyl)phenyl phosphine oxide (m-DAPPO), were synthesized and incorporated into a thermoplastic poly(arylene ether imide) based upon 2,2sp'-bis (4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl) propane dianhydride and 1,3-phenylene diamine, in order to study their influence on flame resistance and other properties. DAMPO or DAPPO were quantitatively incorporated in concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mole percent, using the "one pot" ester-acid method. The number average molecular weights of the prepared materials were controlled to 20,000g/mol by off-setting the stoichiometry and endcapping with phthalic anhydride. This strategy enabled one to distinguish the effects of the phosphine oxide incorporation from the influence of molecular weight. The resulting copolymers demonstrated a significant increase in char yield as a function of the phosphine oxide content, thus suggesting improved fire resistance. Glass transition temperatures similar to the control were determined by DSC analysis. Analysis of the mechanical behavior of the DAMPO system at room temperature showed that tensile strength and elongation at failure values were comparable to the control system, while the DAPPO containing copolymers were surprisingly brittle. The influence of the reactive endgroup on the synthesis, cure behavior and network properties of thermosetting polyetherimides was investigated. Reactive phenylacetylene, acetylene and maleimide terminated poly(ether imide) oligomers were prepared and characterized. Optimal reaction conditions were established to produce fully endcapped oligomers with imidized structures and controlled molecular weight. The phenylacetylene endcapped system was synthesized by a conventional ester-acid method. The acetylene endcapped system was prepared via modified ester-acid method and the maleimide endcapped system was fabricated utilizing an amic-acid route. It was determined

  1. Characterization of combined power plasma jet using AC high voltage and nanosecond pulse for reactive species composition control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kato, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    In the application studies for both bio-medical and agricultural applications, the roles of the reactive oxide and/or nitride species generated in the plasma has been reported as a key to control the effects and ill-effects on the living organism. The correlation between total OH radical exposure from an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet and the sterilization threshold on Botrytis cinerea is presented. With the increase of the OH radical exposure to the Botrytis cinerea, the probability of sterilization is increased. In this study, to resolve the roles of reactive species including OH radicals, a combined power plasma jet using nanosecond pulses and low-frequency sinusoidal AC high voltage (a few kHz) is studied for controlling the composition of the reactive species. The nanosecond pulses are superimposed on the AC voltage which is in synchronization with the AC phase. The undergoing work to characterize the combined power discharge with electric charge and voltage cycle on the plasma jet will also be presented to discuss the discharge characteristics to control the composition of the reactive species.

  2. Optimal reactive power and voltage control in distribution networks with distributed generators by fuzzy adaptive hybrid particle swarm optimisation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi

    2015-01-01

    A new and efficient methodology for optimal reactive power and voltage control of distribution networks with distributed generators based on fuzzy adaptive hybrid PSO (FAHPSO) is proposed. The objective is to minimize comprehensive cost, consisting of power loss and operation cost of transformers...... that the proposed method can search a more promising control schedule of all transformers, all capacitors and all distributed generators with less time consumption, compared with other listed artificial intelligent methods....

  3. Better cognitive control of emotional information is associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to emotional stress

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, GS; Kuchenbecker, SY; Pressman, SD; Sumida, KD; Slavich, GM

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Stress is strongly associated with several mental and physical health problems that involve inflammation, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and depression. It has been hypothesized that better cognitive control of emotional information may lead to reduced inflammatory reactivity to stress and thus better health, but to date no studies have examined whether differences in cognitive control predict pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to ...

  4. SPARC fast reactor design : Design of two passively safe metal-fuelled sodium-cooled pool-type small modular fast reactors with Autonomous Reactivity Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this master thesis a small modular sodium-cooled metal-fuelled pool-type fast reactor design, called SPARC - Safe and Passive with Autonomous Reactivity control, has been designed. The long term reactivity changes in the SPARC are managed by implementation of the the Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) system, which is the novelty of the design. The overall design is mainly based on the Integral Fast Reactor project (IFR), which experimentally demonstrated the passive safety characteristic...

  5. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  6. Power coefficient of reactivity in CANDU 6 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adams, R.; Boyle, S.; Connolly, A.; Kastanya, D.; Khaial, A.; Lau, V. [CANDU Energy Inc., Mississauga (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    The Power Coefficient of Reactivity (PCR) measures the change in reactor core reactivity per unit change in reactor power and is an integral quantity which captures the contributions of the fuel temperature, coolant void and coolant temperature reactivity feedbacks. All nuclear reactor designs provide a balance between the inherent nuclear characteristics and the engineered reactivity control features, to ensure that changes in reactivity in all operating conditions are maintained within a safe range. The CANDU reactor design takes advantage of the inherent nuclear characteristics of small reactivity coefficient, minimal excess reactivity and very long prompt neutron lifetime to mitigate the magnitude of the demand on the engineered systems for controlling reactivity. In particular, CANDU reactors have always taken advantage of the small value of the PCR associated with its design characteristics, such that the overall design of the reactor does not depend on the sign of the PCR. This is a contrast to other reactor design concepts which are dependent on a PCR which is both large and negative in the design of their engineered systems for controlling reactivity. It will be demonstrated that during a Loss of Regulation Control (LORC) event, the impact of having a positive power coefficient, or of hypothesizing a PCR larger than that estimated for CANDU, has no significant impact on the reactor safety. Since the CANDU 6 PCR is small, its role in the operation or safety of the reactor is not significant.

  7. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  8. Single-point reactive power control method on voltage rise mitigation in residential networks with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios; Ahmadi, Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise by ...... system with high r/x ratio. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost study of SPRPC is compared to droop control to evaluate its advantages....... by absorbing adequate reactive power from one selected point. The proposed index utilizes short circuit analysis to select the best point to apply this Volt/Var control method. SPRPC is supported technically and financially by distribution network operator that makes it cost effective, simple and efficient...

  9. Towards a Reactive Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Based on Full Converter Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Kumar, Sathess; Thuring, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a power oscillation damping controller (POD) based on modulation of reactive power (Q POD) is analyzed where the modular and distributed characteristics of the wind power plant (WPP) are considered. For a Q POD it is essential that the phase of the modulated output is tightly...... controlled to achieve a positive damping contribution. It is investigated how a park level voltage, reactive power, and power factor control at different grid strengths interact with the Q POD in terms of a resulting phase shift. A WPP is modular and distributed and a WPP Q POD necessitate that each WT...... contributes to a collective response. This ability is shown with a 150 wind turbine (WT) WPP with all WTs represented, and it is demonstrated that the WPP contributes to the inter-area damping. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT....

  10. Active and reactive power control of the doubly fed induction generator based on wind energy conversion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Sarwar Kaloi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic modeling and control of doubly fed induction-generator (DFIG based on the wind turbine systems. Active and reactive power control of the DFIG are based on the feedback technique by using the suitable voltage vectors on the rotor side. The rotor flux has no impact on the changes of the stator active and reactive power. The proposed controller is based on the feedback technique in order to reduce the oscillation of the generator. The control approach is estimated through the simulation result of the feedback controller assembled with DFIG wind turbines. It is applied by the feedback control based techniques in order to control the power flowing of DFIG and the power grid. Hence, an improved feedback control technique is adopted to get a better power flow transfer and to improve the dynamic system and transient stability. In stable condition, the improved performance of the controller, the proposed method is verified for the effectiveness of the control method is done in stable conditions.

  11. Transient Control of Synchronous Machine Active and Reactive Power in Micro-grid Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Luke G.

    There are two main topics associated with this dissertation. The first is to investigate phase-to-neutral fault current magnitude occurring in generators with multiple zero-sequence current sources. The second is to design, model, and tune a linear control system for operating a micro-grid in the event of a separation from the electric power system. In the former case, detailed generator, AC8B excitation system, and four-wire electric power system models are constructed. Where available, manufacturers data is used to validate the generator and exciter models. A gain-delay with frequency droop control is used to model an internal combustion engine and governor. The four wire system is connected through a transformer impedance to an infinite bus. Phase-to-neutral faults are imposed on the system, and fault magnitudes analyzed against three-phase faults to gauge their severity. In the latter case, a balanced three-phase system is assumed. The model structure from the former case - but using data for a different generator - is incorporated with a model for an energy storage device and a net load model to form a micro-grid. The primary control model for the energy storage device has a high level of detail, as does the energy storage device plant model in describing the LC filter and transformer. A gain-delay battery and inverter model is used at the front end. The net load model is intended to be the difference between renewable energy sources and load within a micro-grid system that has separated from the grid. Given the variability of both renewable generation and load, frequency and voltage stability are not guaranteed. This work is an attempt to model components of a proposed micro-grid system at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, and design, model, and tune a linear control system for operation in the event of a separation from the electric power system. The control module is responsible for management of frequency and active power, and voltage and reactive

  12. Hypothalamic Apelin/Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Onset of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drougard, Anne; Duparc, Thibaut; Brenachot, Xavier; Carneiro, Lionel; Gouazé, Alexandra; Fournel, Audren; Geurts, Lucie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Pénicaud, Luc; Vieau, Didier; Lesage, Jean; Leloup, Corinne; Benani, Alexandre; Cani, Patrice D.; Valet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We have previously demonstrated that central apelin is implicated in the control of peripheral glycemia, and its action depends on nutritional (fast versus fed) and physiological (normal versus diabetic) states. An intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a high dose of apelin, similar to that observed in obese/diabetic mice, increase fasted glycemia, suggesting (i) that apelin contributes to the establishment of a diabetic state, and (ii) the existence of a hypothalamic to liver axis. Using pharmacological, genetic, and nutritional approaches, we aim at unraveling this system of regulation by identifying the hypothalamic molecular actors that trigger the apelin effect on liver glucose metabolism and glycemia. Results: We show that icv apelin injection stimulates liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via an over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to fasted hyperglycemia. The effect of central apelin on liver function is dependent of an increased production of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These data are strengthened by experiments using lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of apelin in hypothalamus of mice that present over-activation of SNS associated to an increase in hepatic glucose production. Finally, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet present major alterations of hypothalamic apelin/ROS signaling, leading to activation of glycogenolysis. Innovation/Conclusion: These data bring compelling evidence that hypothalamic apelin is one master switch that participates in the onset of diabetes by directly acting on liver function. Our data support the idea that hypothalamic apelin is a new potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 557–573. PMID:23879244

  13. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  14. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a specialized health coaching intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women: the HIPP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skouteris Helen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a time of significant physiological and physical change for women. In particular, it is a time at which many women are at risk of gaining excessive weight. We describe the rationale and methods of the Health in Pregnancy and Post-birth (HIPP Study, a study which aims primarily to determine the effectiveness of a specialized health coaching (HC intervention during pregnancy, compared to education alone, in preventing excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention 12 months post birth. A secondary aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanisms by which our HC intervention impacts on weight management both during pregnancy and post birth. Methods/Design The randomized controlled trial will be conducted with 220 women who have a BMI > 18.5 (American IOM cut-off for normal weight, are 18 years of age or older, English speaking, no history of disordered eating or diabetes and are less than 18 weeks gestation at recruitment. Women will be randomly allocated to either a specialized HC intervention group or an Education Alone group. Our specialized HC intervention has two components: (1 one-on-one sessions with a Health Coach, and (2 two by two hour educational group sessions led by a Health Coach. Women in the Education Alone group will receive two by two hour educational group sessions with no HC components. Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and psychological factors including motivation, readiness to change, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and body dissatisfaction will be assessed at baseline (14-16 weeks gestation, and again at follow-up: 32 weeks gestation, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Discussion Our study responds to the urgent need to design effective interventions in pregnancy to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Our pregnancy HC intervention is novel and innovative and has been designed to be easily adopted by health professionals

  15. Reactivity to smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of depressive symptoms (MoodMonitor: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter van Ballegooijen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA of mental health symptoms may influence the symptoms that it measures, i.e. assessment reactivity. In the field of depression, EMA reactivity has received little attention. We aim to investigate whether EMA of depressive symptoms induces assessment reactivity. Reactivity will be operationalised as an effect of EMA on depressive symptoms measured by a retrospective questionnaire, and, secondly, as a change in response rate and variance of the EMA ratings. Methods This study is a 12-week randomised controlled trial comprising three groups: group 1 carries out EMA of mood and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 2 carries out EMA of how energetic they feel and completes a retrospective questionnaire, group 3 is the control group, which completes only the retrospective questionnaire. The retrospective questionnaire (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale; CES-D assesses depressive symptoms and is administered at baseline, 6 weeks after baseline and 12 weeks after baseline. We aim to recruit 160 participants who experience mild to moderate depressive symptoms, defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 score of 5 to 15. This study is powered to detect a small between-groups effect, where no clinically relevant effect is defined as the effect size margin −0.25< d <0.25. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate whether self-rated EMA of depressive symptoms could induce assessment reactivity among mildly depressed individuals. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR5803. Registered 12 April 2016. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5803 .

  16. Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Reactivity-Controlled Solution-Phase Ligand Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Jo, Jea Woong

    2017-10-09

    The energy disorder that arises from colloidal quantum dot (CQD) polydispersity limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. This energy broadening is significantly deteriorated today during CQD ligand exchange and film assembly. Here, a new solution-phase ligand exchange that, via judicious incorporation of reactivity-engineered additives, provides improved monodispersity in final CQD films is reported. It has been found that increasing the concentration of the less reactive species prevents CQD fusion and etching. As a result, CQD solar cells with a VOC of 0.7 V (vs 0.61 V for the control) for CQD films with exciton peak at 1.28 eV and a power conversion efficiency of 10.9% (vs 10.1% for the control) is achieved.

  17. Overweight and Cognitive Performance: High Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impairment in Reactive Control during Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Steenbergen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI < 25, five males and twenty-six overweight (BMI ≥ 25, seven males university students performed a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs. reactive control with regard to cognitive flexibility. Compared to individuals with a BMI lower than 25, overweight (i.e., ≥25 was associated with increased switching costs in the reactive switching condition (i.e., when preparation time is short, representing reduced cognitive flexibility in the preparatory domain. In addition, the overweight group reported significantly more depression and binge eating symptoms, although still indicating minimal depression. No between-group differences were found with regard to self-reported autism spectrum symptoms, impulsiveness, state- and trait anxiety, and cognitive reactivity to depression. The present findings are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that elevated BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with significantly more switching costs due to inefficiency in the retrieval, implementation, and maintenance of task sets, indicating less efficient cognitive control functioning.

  18. The reactive collision mechanism evinced: stereodynamical control of the elementary Br + H2 → H + HBr reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráez-Aguilar, D; Jambrina, P G; Aldegunde, J; Sáez-Rábanos, Vicente; de Miranda, M P; Aoiz, F J

    2013-08-28

    From a kinetics standpoint, reactive molecular collisions are the building blocks of the mechanisms of chemical reactions. In contrast, a dynamics standpoint reveals molecular collisions to have their own internal mechanisms, which are not mere theoretical abstractions: through suitable preparation of the reactants internal and stereochemical states, features of the mechanisms of a reactive molecular collision can be made evident and used as "handles" to control the reaction outcome. Using time-independent quantum dynamical calculations, we demonstrate this for the Br + H2(v = 0-1, j = 2) → H + HBr reaction in the 1.0-1.6 eV range of total energies. Despite its pronounced effect on reactivity, which is in agreement with the predictions from Polanyi rules, reactant vibration is found to have little effect on the mechanism of this endoergic, late-barrier reaction. Analysis of the correlations between directional reaction properties shows that the collision stereochemistry strongly depends on the total energy, but not on how this energy is partitioned between reactant translation and vibration. The stereodynamical preferences implied by the collision mechanisms determine how and to what extent one can control the reaction. Regarding the overall reaction, the extent of control is found to be large near the reaction threshold but not when the total energy is high. Regarding state-to-state reactions, the effect of reactant stereochemistry on the product rotational state distribution is found to be nontrivial and energy dependent.

  19. Overweight and Cognitive Performance: High Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impairment in Reactive Control during Task Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Laura; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs. reactive control with regard to cognitive flexibility. Compared to individuals with a BMI lower than 25, overweight (i.e., ≥25) was associated with increased switching costs in the reactive switching condition (i.e., when preparation time is short), representing reduced cognitive flexibility in the preparatory domain. In addition, the overweight group reported significantly more depression and binge eating symptoms, although still indicating minimal depression. No between-group differences were found with regard to self-reported autism spectrum symptoms, impulsiveness, state- and trait anxiety, and cognitive reactivity to depression. The present findings are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that elevated BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with significantly more switching costs due to inefficiency in the retrieval, implementation, and maintenance of task sets, indicating less efficient cognitive control functioning.

  20. Prevention of anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive worry and rumination in adolescents and young adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Maurice; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Watkins, Ed; Ehring, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a preventive intervention for anxiety disorders and depression by targeting excessive levels of repetitive negative thinking (RNT; worry and rumination) in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N = 251, 83.7% female) showing elevated levels of RNT were randomly allocated to a 6-week cognitive-behavioral training delivered in a group, via the internet, or to a waitlist control condition. Self-report measures were collected at pre-intervention, post-intervention, 3 m and 12 m follow-up. Both versions of the preventive intervention significantly reduced RNT (d = 0.53 to 0.89), and symptom levels of anxiety and depression (d = 0.36 to 0.72). Effects were maintained until 12 m follow-up. The interventions resulted in a significantly lower 12 m prevalence rate of depression (group intervention: 15.3%, internet intervention: 14.7%) and generalized anxiety disorder (group intervention: 18.0%, internet intervention: 16.0%), compared to the waitlist (32.4% and 42.2%, respectively). Mediation analyses demonstrated that reductions in RNT mediated the effect of the interventions on the prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Results provide evidence for the efficacy of this preventive intervention targeting RNT and support a selective prevention approach that specifically targets a known risk factor to prevent multiple disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Symptomatic endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac is associated with impaired sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Bizzarri, Nicolò; Scala, Carolina; Tafi, Emanuela; Siesto, Gabriele; Alessandri, Franco; Ferrero, Simone

    2017-02-01

    To assess the impact of endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac on quality of sleep, average daytime sleepiness and insomnia. This age-matched case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis between May 2012 and December 2013. It included 145 women with endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac (cases; group E) and 145 patients referred to our Institution because of routine gynaecologic consultations (controls; group C). This study investigated whether sleep is impaired in patients with endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac. Sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and insomnia were assessed using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth sleepiness scale and the Insomnia Severity Index, respectively. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate sleep quality in the two study groups. Secondary outcomes of the study were to assess average daytime sleepiness and insomnia in the two study groups. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was significantly higher in group E (64.8%) than in group C (15.1%; psleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal Control of Wind Farms for Coordinated TSO-DSO Reactive Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sebastian Stock

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of renewable generation connected to distribution grids requires an increased coordination between transmission system operators (TSOs and distribution system operators (DSOs for reactive power management. This work proposes a practical and effective interaction method based on sequential optimizations to evaluate the reactive flexibility potential of distribution networks and to dispatch them along with traditional synchronous generators, keeping to a minimum the information exchange. A modular optimal power flow (OPF tool featuring multi-objective optimization is developed for this purpose. The proposed method is evaluated for a model of a real German 110 kV grid with 1.6 GW of installed wind power capacity and a reduced order model of the surrounding transmission system. Simulations show the benefit of involving wind farms in reactive power support reducing losses both at distribution and transmission level. Different types of setpoints are investigated, showing the feasibility for the DSO to fulfill also individual voltage and reactive power targets over multiple connection points. Finally, some suggestions are presented to achieve a fair coordination, combining both TSO and DSO requirements.

  3. Reactive Power Sharing and Voltage Harmonic Distortion Compensation of Droop Controlled Single Phase Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    and reduction of the voltage harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC). Experimental results were then presented to show the suitability of the proposed algorithms in achieving reactive power sharing and in improving the voltage harmonic distortion at the PCC....

  4. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to

  5. The impact of an exercise intervention on C - reactive protein during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Braun, Barry; Marcus, Bess H; Stanek, Edward; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-24

    C-reactive protein (CRP) during pregnancy has been associated with adverse maternal outcomes such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Randomized trials suggest that exercise programs may be associated with reductions in CRP in non-pregnant populations; however, such studies have not been conducted among pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an individually-tailored motivationally-matched exercise intervention on CRP in pregnant women. The Behaviors Affecting Baby and You study was a randomized controlled trial of prenatal physical activity to prevent the development of gestational diabetes mellitus in women at increased risk. Women were randomized to either a 12-week exercise intervention (n = 84) or a comparison health and wellness intervention (n = 87). High sensitivity CRP (mg/dL) was measured using a commercial immunoassay kit. Physical activity was measured using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mixed model analyses were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention on change in CRP using an intent-to-treat approach. CRP decreased (-0.09 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.25, 0.07) from pre- to post-intervention in the exercise arm (p = 0.14) and increased (0.08 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.07, 0.24) (p = 0.64) in the health and wellness arm; however the between group difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.14). Findings did not differ according to ethnic group or pre-pregnancy body mass index. In a secondary analysis based on self-reported physical activity, women who decreased their time spent in sports/exercise experienced a mean increase in CRP (0.09 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.14, 0.33), whereas women who maintained or increased their sports/ exercise experienced a mean decrease in CRP (-0.08 mg/dL, 95 % CI: -0.23, 0.08) (p = 0.046). Findings from this randomized trial in an ethnically and socio-economically diverse population of pregnant women were consistent with a positive impact

  6. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Bovenkamp, van de M.; Boer, de M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; Brug, J.; Vet, de E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  7. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents : rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  8. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: Rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Boer, M.R. de; Seidell, J.C.; Brug, J.; Vet, E. de

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games -i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  9. Excessive daytime sleepiness and adherence to antihypertensive medications among Blacks: analysis of the counseling African Americans to control hypertension (CAATCH trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams NJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natasha J Williams,1 Girardin Jean-Louis,1 Abhishek Pandey,2 Joseph Ravenell,1 Carla Boutin-Foster,3 Gbenga Ogedegbe1 1Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Division of Internal Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York, 2Department of Family Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, 3Center of Excellence in Disparities Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS often occurs as a result of insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, illicit substance use, and other medical and psychiatric conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that blacks exhibiting EDS would have poorer self-reported adherence to hypertensive medication using cross-sectional data from the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH trial. Methods: A total of 1,058 hypertensive blacks (average age 57±12 years participated in CAATCH, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention for participants who receive care from community health centers in New York City. Data analyzed in this study included baseline sociodemographics, medical history, EDS, and medication adherence. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with a cutoff score of ≥10, to define EDS. Medication adherence was measured using an abbreviated Morisky Medication Adherence scale, with a score >0 indicating nonadherence. Results: Of the sample, 71% were female, 72% received at least a high school education, 51% reported a history of smoking, and 33% had a history of alcohol consumption. Overall, 27% of the participants exhibited EDS, and 44% of those who exhibited EDS were classified as adherent to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for effects of age, body mass index, sex, education, and smoking and drinking history indicated that participants who exhibited EDS were more than twice as likely to be nonadherent (odds ratio 2.28, 95

  10. Investigation of the behavior of a three phase grid-connected photovoltaic system to control active and reactive power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsengenes, Georgios; Adamidis, Georgios [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, University Campus Kimmeria, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a photovoltaic (PV) system, with maximum power point tracking (MPPT), connected to a three phase grid is presented. The connection of photovoltaic system on the grid takes place in one stage using voltage source inverter (VSI). For a better utilization of the photovoltaic system, the control strategy applied is based on p-q theory. According to this strategy during sunlight the system sends active power to the grid and at the same time compensates the reactive power of the load. In case there is no sunlight (during the night for instance), the inverter only compensates the reactive power of the load. In this paper the use of p-q theory to supply the grid with active power and compensate the reactive power of the load is investigated. The advantage of this control strategy is that the photovoltaic system is operated the whole day. Furthermore, the p-q theory uses simple algebraic calculations without demanding the use of PLL to synchronize the inverter with the grid. (author)

  11. Prevention of excess gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Truesdale, K P; Wang, C-H; Cai, J

    2009-11-01

    Obesity prevention trials are designed to promote healthy weight. The success of these trials is often assessed using one of three metrics--means, incidence or prevalence. In this study, we point out conceptual shortcomings of these metrics and introduce an alternative that we call 'excess gain'. A mathematical demonstration using simulated data shows a scenario in which the statistical power of excess gain compares favorably with that of incidence and prevalence. Prevention of excess gain communicates an easily understood public health message that is applicable to all individuals regardless of weight status.

  12. Adaptive Reactive Power Control of PV Power Plants for Improved Power Transfer Capability under Ultra-Weak Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Liu, Fangcheng

    2018-01-01

    the ultra-weak grid is significantly improved with the low PF operation. An adaptive reactive power droop control is next proposed to effectively distribute the reactive power demands to the individual inverters, and meanwhile maximize the power transfer capacity of the PV power plant. Simulation results......This paper analyzes the power transfer limitation of the PV power plant under the ultra-weak grid condition, i.e., when the Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) is close to 1. It explicitly identifies that a minimum SCR of 2 is required for the PV power plant to deliver the rated active power when operating...... of a 200 MW PV power plant demonstrate that the proposed method can ensure the rated power transfer of PV power plant with the SCR of 1.25, provided that the PV inverters are operated with the minimal PF=0.9....

  13. Opposition-Based Improved PSO for Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch and Voltage Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengrang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An opposition-based improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (OIPSO is presented for solving multiobjective reactive power optimization problem. OIPSO uses the opposition learning to improve search efficiency, adopts inertia weight factors to balance global and local exploration, and takes crossover and mutation and neighborhood model strategy to enhance population diversity. Then, a new multiobjective model is built, which includes system network loss, voltage dissatisfaction, and switching operation. Based on the market cost prices, objective functions are converted to least-cost model. In modeling process, switching operation cost is described according to the life cycle cost of transformer, and voltage dissatisfaction penalty is developed considering different voltage quality requirements of customers. The experiment is done on the new mathematical model. Through the simulation of IEEE 30-, 118-bus power systems, the results prove that OIPSO is more efficient to solve reactive power optimization problems and the model is more accurate to reflect the real power system operation.

  14. An Optimized Reactive Power Control of Distributed Solar Inverters in Low Voltage Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the reactive power ancillary services of solar inverters which are connected to low voltage (LV) distribution networks by giving attention to the grid voltage support service and grid losses. Two typical reference LV distribution network models as suburban and farm...... are introduced from the literature in order to evaluate contribution of two static droop strategies cosφ(P) and Q(U) on the grid voltage. Photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacities of the suburban and farm networks are estimated and the most predominant limitations of connecting more solar inverters are emphasized...... for each network type. Regarding the overloading of MV/LV distribution transformers, overloading of lines and the grid overvoltage limitations, new local grid voltage support methods (cosφ(P,U) and Q(U,P)) are also proposed. Resulting maximum allowable penetration levels with different reactive power...

  15. Control of the optical properties of silicon and chromium mixed oxides deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara, L., E-mail: vergara@icmm.csic.e [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Galindo, R. Escobar [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Martinez, R. [AIN, Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies, 31191 Cordovilla, Pamplona (Spain); Sanchez, O. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palacio, C. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Albella, J.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-31

    The development of mixed-oxide thin films allows obtaining materials with better properties than those of the different binary oxides, which makes them suitable for a great number of applications in different fields, such as tribology, optics or microelectronics. In this paper we investigate the deposition of mixed chromium and silicon oxides deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering with a view to use them as optical coatings with an adjustable refractive index. These films have been characterized by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry so as to determine how the deposition conditions influence the characteristics of the material. We have found that the deposition parameter whose influence determines the properties of the films to a greater extent is the amount of oxygen in the reactive sputtering gas.

  16. Ligand Control of the Metal Coordination Sphere: Structures, Reactivity and Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Danopoulos Andreas A.; Braunstein Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Two major aspects of coordination/organometallic chemistry are discussed in this article: (i) the use of functional chelating ligands to stabilize metal complexes while allowing easy stereodifferentiation within the coordination sphere and (ii) the choice of suitable ligands to stabilize challenging ‘underligated’ metal complexes with electronically highly unsaturated metal centres, thus potentially displaying unusual reactivity. In both cases, the relevance to homogeneous catalysis will be d...

  17. Ligand Control of the Metal Coordination Sphere: Structures, Reactivity and Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danopoulos Andreas A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major aspects of coordination/organometallic chemistry are discussed in this article: (i the use of functional chelating ligands to stabilize metal complexes while allowing easy stereodifferentiation within the coordination sphere and (ii the choice of suitable ligands to stabilize challenging ‘underligated’ metal complexes with electronically highly unsaturated metal centres, thus potentially displaying unusual reactivity. In both cases, the relevance to homogeneous catalysis will be discussed.

  18. Fast, active droplet interaction: coalescence and reactive mixing controlled by electrowetting on a superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Angelo; Mecarini, Federico; Leoncini, Marco; Brandi, Fernando; Di Cola, Emanuela; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2013-02-07

    A novel electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD) device in open planar geometry allows probing of droplet mixing on a superhydrophobic substrate under quasi contact-free conditions. We demonstrate a droplet-based microreactor with integrated convective-flow mixing for the reactive-mixing of CaCl(2)/Na(2)CO(3) solutions. The device provides unique conditions for scattering, spectroscopy and imaging probes requiring an unobstructed droplet-access.

  19. Excess of Radiation Burden for Young Testicular Cancer Patients using Automatic Exposure Control and Contrast Agent on Whole-body Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniviita, Hannele; Kulmala, Jarmo; Pölönen, Tuukka; Määttänen, Heli; Järvinen, Hannu; Salminen, Eeva

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patient dose from whole-body computed tomography (CT) in association with patient size, automatic exposure control (AEC) and intravenous (IV) contrast agent. Sixty-five testicular cancer patients (mean age 28 years) underwent altogether 279 whole-body CT scans from April 2000 to April 2011. The mean number of repeated examinations was 4.3. The GE LightSpeed 16 equipped with AEC and the Siemens Plus 4 CT scanners were used for imaging. Whole-body scans were performed with (216) and without (63) IV contrast. The ImPACT software was used to determine the effective and organ doses. Patient doses were independent (p agent caused significantly higher (13% Plus 4, 35% LightSpeed 16) exposure than non-contrast imaging (p agent and careful set-up of the AEC modulation parameters is recommended to avoid excessive radiation exposure on the whole-body CT imaging of young patients.

  20. A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; van Hemert, Saskia; Bosch, Jos A; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-08-01

    Recent insights into the role of the human microbiota in cognitive and affective functioning have led to the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation may act as an adjuvant strategy to ameliorate or prevent depression. Heightened cognitive reactivity to normal, transient changes in sad mood is an established marker of vulnerability to depression and is considered an important target for interventions. The present study aimed to test if a multispecies probiotic containing Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W52, Lactobacillus acidophilus W37, Lactobacillus brevis W63, Lactobacillus casei W56, Lactobacillus salivarius W24, and Lactococcus lactis (W19 and W58) may reduce cognitive reactivity in non-depressed individuals. In a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pre- and post-intervention assessment design, 20 healthy participants without current mood disorder received a 4-week probiotic food-supplement intervention with the multispecies probiotics, while 20 control participants received an inert placebo for the same period. In the pre- and post-intervention assessment, cognitive reactivity to sad mood was assessed using the revised Leiden index of depression sensitivity scale. Compared to participants who received the placebo intervention, participants who received the 4-week multispecies probiotics intervention showed a significantly reduced overall cognitive reactivity to sad mood, which was largely accounted for by reduced rumination and aggressive thoughts. These results provide the first evidence that the intake of probiotics may help reduce negative thoughts associated with sad mood. Probiotics supplementation warrants further research as a potential preventive strategy for depression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Controlling diffusion in Ni/Al reactive multilayers by Nb-alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Volker; Sologubenko, Alla S.; Danzi, Stefano; Kurtuldu, Güven; Spolenak, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    Metallic reactive multilayers are known as high energy-density storage systems. Conventionally, these multilayers are tailored for high reaction rates with the purpose to achieve high maximum reaction temperatures and explosive-like behavior upon mixing. However, in some instances such as neutralization of biological hazards or chemical energy-storage systems, a low heat flow rate is desired. In the present work, we show that Nb-alloying presents an efficient approach to stabilize the as-deposited state and to form a diffusion barrier in situ, effectively reducing the heat flow rate by more than 50%. The validation of the concept is carried out by a comparative study of thermally induced phase reactions in Ni/Al and (Nb-Ni)/Al reactive multilayers. Kinetics of the phase reactions in these systems were followed by differential scanning calorimetry, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy, and in situ electron diffraction analysis. The results confirm alloying as a design strategy for tailoring reaction kinetics of reactive multilayers.

  2. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  3. A Study on Real-Time Pricing Method of Reactive Power in Voltage Profile Control Method of Future Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Akira; Tsuji, Takao; Oyama, Tsutomu; Hashiguchi, Takuhei; Goda, Tadahiro; Shinji, Takao; Tsujita, Shinsuke

    It is of prime importance to solve the voltage maintenance problem caused by the introduction of a large number of distributed generators. The authors have proposed “voltage profile control method” using reactive power control of distributed generators and developed new systems which can give economical incentives to DG owners who cooperate the voltage profile management in the previous works. However, it is difficult to apply the proposed economical systems to real-time operation because they are based on the optimization technology and the specific amount of incentive is informed after the control action has finished. Therefore, in this paper, we develop a new method that can determine the amount of incentives in real-time and encourage the costumers to cooperate voltage profile control method. The proposed method is tested in one feeder distribution network and its effectiveness is shown.

  4. Consumption of extra virgin olive oil improves body composition and blood pressure in women with excess body fat: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Xavier Valente, Flávia; da Silva, Laís Emilia; Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Olívia; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia

    2017-08-14

    Despite the fact that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is widely used in obese individuals to treat cardiovascular diseases, the role of EVOO on weight/fat reduction remains unclear. We investigated the effects of energy-restricted diet containing EVOO on body composition and metabolic disruptions related to obesity. This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 41 adult women with excess body fat (mean ± SD 27.0 ± 0.9 year old, 46.8 ± 0.6% of total body fat) received daily high-fat breakfasts containing 25 mL of soybean oil (control group, n = 20) or EVOO (EVOO group, n = 21) during nine consecutive weeks. Breakfasts were part of an energy-restricted normal-fat diets (-2090 kJ, ~32%E from fat). Anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were assessed, and fasting blood was collected on the first and last day of the experiment. Fat loss was ~80% higher on EVOO compared to the control group (mean ± SE: -2.4 ± 0.3 kg vs. -1.3 ± 0.4 kg, P = 0.037). EVOO also reduced diastolic blood pressure when compared to control (-5.1 ± 1.6 mmHg vs. +0.3 ± 1.2 mmHg, P = 0.011). Within-group differences (P EVOO group. There was also a trend for IL-1β EVOO reduction (-0.3 ± 0.1 pg/mL, P = 0.060). EVOO consumption reduced body fat and improved blood pressure. Our results indicate that EVOO should be included into energy-restricted programs for obesity treatment.

  5. Better cognitive control of emotional information is associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Kuchenbecker, Shari Young; Pressman, Sarah D; Sumida, Ken D; Slavich, George M

    2016-01-01

    Stress is strongly associated with several mental and physical health problems that involve inflammation, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and depression. It has been hypothesized that better cognitive control of emotional information may lead to reduced inflammatory reactivity to stress and thus better health, but to date no studies have examined whether differences in cognitive control predict pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to stress. To address this issue, we conducted a laboratory-based experimental study in which we randomly assigned healthy young-adult females to either an acute emotional stress (emotionally evocative video) or no-stress (control video) condition. Salivary levels of the key pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were measured before and after the experimental manipulation, and following the last cytokine sample, we assessed participants' cognitive control of emotional information using an emotional Stroop task. We also assessed participants' cortisol levels before and after the manipulation to verify that documented effects were specific to cytokines and not simply due to increased nonwater salivary output. As hypothesized, the emotional stressor triggered significant increases in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. Moreover, even in fully adjusted models, better cognitive control following the emotional (but not control) video predicted less pronounced cytokine responses to that stressor. In contrast, no effects were observed for cortisol. These data thus indicate that better cognitive control specifically following an emotional stressor is uniquely associated with less pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to such stress. These findings may therefore help explain why superior cognitive control portends better health over the lifespan.

  6. Risk factors for repeatedly reactive HIV-1 EIA and indeterminate western blots. A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celum, C L; Coombs, R W; Jones, M; Murphy, V; Fisher, L; Grant, C; Corey, L; Inui, T; Wener, M H; Holmes, K K

    1994-05-23

    Causes of indeterminate results of Western blot testing (IWB) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 include seroconversion, HIV-2 cross-reactivity, and autoimmune disease, but most IWB results remain unexplained. This case-control study assessed risk factors for IWB results, including early HIV infection, other retroviral infection, autoantibodies, and other medical conditions. Prospective study to determine HIV seroconversion rate, with a case-control design to assess other risk factors for IWB. Cases (persons with one or more repeatedly reactive HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay with IWB), their current sexual partners, and controls (persons with negative enzyme immunoassay and Western blot results) were recruited from blood banks, health department and prenatal clinics, and private providers in Washington and Oregon. Of 244 cases enrolled, 206 were followed up for 6 months or longer, and six (3.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7% to 5.3%) with recent HIV risk behaviors seroconverted. The Western blot banding patterns differed among groups; cases usually had p17 or p24 bands, while controls and cases' sexual partners usually had polymerase bands. Conditional logistic regression indicated that independent risk factors for IWB among male cases and controls were a tetanus booster in the past 2 years (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.6) and sexual contact with a prostitute (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 9.5). Independent risk factors for women were parity (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.4) and autoantibodies, either rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibodies (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.03 to 5.6). No cross-reactivity was detected with HIV-2, human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1, feline immunodeficiency or feline leukemia, or bovine immunodeficiency viruses. Evaluation of persons with reactive HIV-1 enzyme immunoassays and IWB should include an assessment of HIV risk and other possible risk factors, such as alloimmunization (ie, parity or recent immunization

  7. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  8. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  9. Climatic controls on water vapor deuterium excess in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic based on 500 days of in situ, continuous measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous, in situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition have been conducted in the North Atlantic, at the Bermuda Islands (32.26° N, 64.88° W, between November 2011 and June 2013, using a cavity ring-down spectrometer water vapor isotope analyzer and an autonomous self-designed calibration system. Meticulous calibration allows us to reach an accuracy and precision on 10 min average of δ18O, δ D, and d-excess of, 0.14, 0.85, and 1.1‰, verified using two parallel instruments with independent calibration. As a result of more than 500 days with 6-hourly data the relationships between deuterium excess, relative humidity (RH, sea surface temperature (SST, wind speed, and wind direction are assessed. From the whole data set, 84 % of d-excess variance is explained by a strong linear relationship with relative humidity. The slope of this relationship (−42.6 ± 0.4‰ % (RH is similar to the theoretical prediction of Merlivat and Jouzel (1979 for SST between 20 and 30 °C. However, in contrast with theory, no effect of wind speed could be detected on the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity. Separating the data set into winter, spring, summer, and autumn seasons reveals different linear relationships between d-excess and humidity. Changes in wind directions are observed to affect the relationships between d-excess and humidity. The observed seasonal variability in the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity underlines the importance of long-term monitoring to make accurate conclusions.

  10. Photovoltaic Hosting Capacity of Feeders with Reactive Power Control and Tap Changers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oğuzhan; Paudyal, Sumit; Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to determine photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of power distribution networks as a function of number of PV injection nodes, reactive power support from the PVs, and the sub-station load tap changers (LTCs). In the proposed method, several minute by minute simulations are run based on randomly chosen PV injection nodes, daily PV output profiles, and daily load profiles from a pool of high-resolution realistic data set. The simulation setup is built using OpenDSS and MATLAB. The performance of the proposed method is investigated in the IEEE 123-node distribution feeder for multiple scenarios. The case studies are performed particularly for one, two, five and ten PV injection nodes, and looking at the maximum voltage deviations. Case studies show that the PV hosting capacity of the 123-node feeder greatly differs with the number of PV injection nodes. We have also observed that the PV hosting capacity increases with reactive power support and higher tap position of sub-station LTC.

  11. WORKABILITY OF A MANAGEMENT CONTROL MODEL IN SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF REACTIVE, PROACTIVE AND COACTIVE PHILOSOPHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Onome Imoniana

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare and contrast the three philosophies of management control models in the process of decision-making, namely reactive, proactive and the coactive. Research methodology was based on literature review and descriptive/exploratory approach. Additionally, a survey of 20 service organizations was carried out in order to make the analysis wider-reaching. In order to do that, the following steps were followed: firstly, fundamentals of reactive, proactive and coactive models were highlighted; secondly, management behaviors in the three approaches were compared, with concepts and their practical application being highlighted, thus retrieving managerial relationships in the organization. In so doing, we draw the hypothesis that middle and top managers who adopt control models that are distant from a more coactive one, usually spend a greater number of working hours in problem-solving, leaving little or no time for planning purposes. Finally, for study consolidation purpose, we have adopted qualitative data collection, whereby a content analysis was carried out with the assistance of six categories. Results have shown the need for a change in management paradigms so that firms are not only compared through financial perspectives, without considering the analysis of management control models which, according to this study, directly influence the operational results of the organizations.

  12. Gas-Phase Synthesis of Bimetallic Oxide Nanoparticles with Designed Elemental Compositions for Controlling the Explosive Reactivity of Nanoenergetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a simple and viable method for controlling the energy release rate and pressurization rate of nanoenergetic materials by controlling the relative elemental compositions of oxidizers. First, bimetallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs with a homogeneous distribution of two different oxidizer components (CuO and Fe2O3 were generated by a conventional spray pyrolysis method. Next, the Al NPs employed as a fuel were mixed with CuO-Fe2O3 bimetallic oxide NPs by an ultrasonication process in ethanol solution. Finally, after the removal of ethanol by a drying process, the NPs were converted into energetic materials (EMs. The effects of the mass fraction of CuO in the CuO-Fe2O3 bimetallic oxide NPs on the explosive reactivity of the resulting EMs were examined by using a differential scanning calorimeter and pressure cell tester (PCT systems. The results clearly indicate that the energy release rate and pressurization rate of EMs increased linearly as the mass fraction of CuO in the CuO-Fe2O3 bimetallic oxide NPs increased. This suggests that the precise control of the stoichiometric proportions of the strong oxidizer (CuO and mild oxidizer (Fe2O3 components in the bimetallic oxide NPs is a key factor in tuning the explosive reactivity of EMs.

  13. Chemical control over the formation and reactivity of ultra-thin films and amino-terminated layers on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.

    The physical-chemical properties of several interfacial systems of technological relevance are investigated, having as a common goal the elucidation of strategies towards their atomic- and molecular-level control. Such systems can be classified in three groups: (i) ultra-thin films deposited using metalorganic precursors, (ii) metalorganic monolayers on silicon, and (iii) amine-functionalized silicon surfaces. Experimental, theoretical and chemometric methods are conveniently combined to gain a solid understanding of these systems. The ultra-thin films under investigation are titanium carbonitride (TiNC) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). Since these films may serve as substrates for deposition of other materials in circuit components, their surface chemistry needs to be understood and controlled in order to facilitate further deposition steps. The surface of a TiCN film is transformed to titanium nitride (TiN) through nitridation with ammonia; this compositional change can be reversed by the partial decomposition of ethylene molecules on the surface. The surface reactivity is observed to depend on the film composition, and therefore the method described above serves to reversibly tune the reactivity of Ti-based films. As for HfO2 films, it is found that the deposition temperature affects the degree of crystallinity of the films, which in turn affects their surface chemistry. Thus, together with a control of the composition, it is found that the reactivity of a film can be controlled precisely by controlling the crystallinity. The investigation of metalorganic monolayers on silicon surfaces was motivated by the need for understanding the first steps of metalorganic-based deposition of films, which is usually characterized by a heavy presence of contaminants that degrade the film properties. Through a combination of vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy and theoretical methods, a feasible pathway for the adsorption and decomposition of Ti[N(CH3)2]4 is found. This pathway

  14. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  15. The Role of the Trunk Control in Athletic Performance of a Reactive Change-of-Direction Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Suzi; Austin, Aaron P; Bird, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Edwards, S, Austin, AP, and Bird, SP. The role of the trunk control in athletic performance of a reactive change-of-direction task. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 126-139, 2017-Agility is vital to success in team sport competition with the trunk argued to play a key role in sport performance. This study explored the role of trunk control during a reactive change-of-direction task (R-COD) and field-based measures of athletic performance. Twenty male players completed field-based athletic performance assessments (modified Illinois agility test [mIAT], 3 repetition maximum back squat, and 5 countermovement jumps [CMJ]) and R-CODs, during which 3-dimensional ground reaction forces and kinematics were recorded. Trunk control was assessed as the sum of the trunk relative to the pelvis range of motion (ROM) in all 3 planes during the R-COD. Participants with the highest (HIGH, n = 7) and lowest (LOW, n = 7) trunk ROM values were grouped. The HIGH group achieved significantly shorter mIAT time duration, higher CMJ height, and lower knee flexion angles, greater trunk lateral flexion and rotation relative to pelvis, and greater angular momentum during the R-COD compared with the LOW group. Superior athletic performance was associated with decreased trunk control (high trunk ROM) during the R-COD. Although this study suggested that trunk control is a vital component of performance, it is unknown whether this trunk control is inherent or an effect of training history, nor does not support current optimal athletic performance recommendation of decreased trunk motion during R-COD.

  16. Control of topography gradients on residence time distributions, mixing dynamics and reactive hotspot development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Davy, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Topography-driven subsurface flows are thought to play a central role in determining solute turnover and biogeochemical processes at different scales in the critical zone, including river-hyporheic zone exchanges, hillslope solute transport and reactions, and catchment biogeochemical cycles. Hydraulic head gradients, induced by topography gradients at different scales, generate a distribution of streamlines at depth, dictating the spatial distribution of redox sensitive species, the magnitude of surface water - ground water exchanges and ultimately the source/sink function of the subsurface. Flow velocities generally decrease with depth, leading to broad residence time distributions, which have been shown to affect river chemistry and geochemical reactions in catchments. In this presentation, we discuss the impact of topography-driven flows on mixing processes and the formation of localized reactive hotspots. For this, we solve analytically the coupled flow, mixing and reaction equations in two-dimensional vertical cross-sections of subsurface domains with different topography gradients. For a given topography gradient, we derive the spatial distribution of subsurface velocities, the rates of solute mixing accross streamlines and the induced kinetics of redox, precipitation and dissolution reactions using a Lagrangian approach (Le Borgne et al. 2014). We demonstrate that vertical velocity profiles driven by topography variations, act effectively as shear flows, hence stretching continuously the mixing fronts between recently infiltrated and resident water (Bandopadhyay et al. 2017). We thus derive analytical expressions for residence time distributions, mixing rates and kinetics of chemical reactions as a function of the topography gradients. We show that the rates dissolution and precipitation reactions are significantly enhanced by the existence of vertical velocity gradients and that reaction rates reach a maximum in a localized subsurface reactive layer, whose

  17. Kinetic and thermodynamic controls on silica reactivity: an analog for waste disposal media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dove, P.M.; Icenhower, J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Silicate glasses are currently being proposed as the disposal media for radioactive and other toxic wastes. The dissolution behaviour of borosilicate glass is incompletely understood. One approach is to simplify the chemistry and first develop a better understanding of vitreous silica (v-SiO{sub 2}) as a simple analog of waste glass. This article reviews all the knowledge that is known about the dissolution of silica. Studies quantifying the effects of temperature, solution pH, and single salts on dissolution rates of quartz suggest that pH and cation-dependent dissolution trends hold for all of the silica polymorphs. The purpose of this review is to develop a consistent picture of glass reactivity by understanding how the molecular arrangement of constituents within glass, beginning with the Si-O bond, affects the dissolution processes. (A.C.)

  18. Proactive and Reactive Transmission Power Control for Energy-Efficient On-Body Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín.; Ayala, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In wireless body sensor network (WBSNs), the human body has an important effect on the performance of the communication due to the temporal variations caused and the attenuation and fluctuation of the path loss. This fact suggests that the transmission power must adapt to the current state of the link in a way that it ensures a balance between energy consumption and packet loss. In this paper, we validate our two transmission power level policies (reactive and predictive approaches) using the Castalia simulator. The integration of our experimental measurements in the simulator allows us to easily evaluate complex scenarios, avoiding the difficulties associated with a practical realization. Our results show that both schemes perform satisfactorily, providing overall energy savings of 24% and 22% for a case of study, as compared to the maximum transmission power mode. PMID:25769049

  19. Entropy-based critical reaction time for mixing-controlled reactive transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    the concentration distribution of the transported species is Gaussian and we observe that, even in case of an instantaneous complete bimolecular reaction, dilution caused by dispersive processes dominates the entropy balance at early times and results in the net increase of the entropy density of a reactive species...... on the dimensionality of the problem, on the stoichiometry of the reaction and on the initial concentrations of the reactants. Furthermore, we provide simple analytical expressions to compute the critical reaction time, i.e., the time at which the critical dilution index is reached, for selected flow configurations....... Our results show that, differently from the critical dilution index, the critical reaction time depends on solute transport processes such as advection and hydrodynamic dispersion....

  20. Internally-directed cognition and mindfulness:An integrative perspective derived from reactive versus predictive control systems theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattie eTops

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we will apply the Predictive And Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the default mode network (DMN and anterior insula (AI as parts of two different behavioral and homeostatic control systems. The DMN, a network that becomes active at rest when there is no external stimulation or task to perform, has been implicated in self-reflective awareness and prospection. By contrast, the AI is associated with awareness and task-related attention. This has led to competing theories stressing the role of the DMN in self-awareness versus the role of interoceptive and emotional information integration in the AI in awareness of the emotional moment. In PARCS, the respective functions of the DMN and AI in a specific control system explains their association with different qualities of awareness, and how mental states can shift from one state (e.g., prospective self-reflection to the other (e.g., awareness of the emotional moment depending on the relative dominance of control systems. These shifts between reactive and predictive control are part of processes that enable the intake of novel information, integration of this novel information within existing knowledge structures, and the creation of a continuous personal context in which novel information can be integrated and understood. As such, PARCS can explain key characteristics of mental states, such as their temporal and spatial focus (e.g., a focus on the here and now vs. the future; a 1st person vs. a 3rd person perspective. PARCS further relates mental states to brain states and functions, such as activation of the DMN or hemispheric asymmetry in frontal cortical functions. Together, PARCS deepens the understanding of a broad range of mental states, including mindfulness, mind wandering, rumination, autobiographical memory, imagery, and the experience of self.

  1. Adaptive style and physiological reactivity during a laboratory stress paradigm in children with cancer and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Allen, Michael T; Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    Repressive adaptation has been conceptualized as one pathway to psychological resilience in children with cancer, but the physiological costs of maintaining a repressive adaptive style are currently unknown. The goal of this study was to examine physiological functioning as a function of adaptive style in children with cancer (N = 120) and healthy controls (N = 120). Children completed self-report measures of state anxiety and defensiveness prior to participating in three verbal stress tasks while monitoring blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal response, and rated their anxiety following each task. Findings indicated no consistent differences in baseline indices and physiological reactivity as a function of adaptive style or health status (cancer vs. control). In addition, children identified as having a repressive adaptive style did not exhibit greater verbal-autonomic discrepancy than low-anxious children. In contrast to findings with adults, children with a repressive adaptive style do not appear to experience adverse effects of this coping style in terms of physiological reactivity.

  2. Reducing Excessive Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty

    1984-01-01

    A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)

  3. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  4. Out of control: Evidence for anterior insula involvement in motor impulsivity and reactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Schuhmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting impulsive reactions while still defending one's vital resources is paramount to functional self-control and successful development in a social environment. However, this ability of successfully inhibiting, and thus controlling one's impulsivity, often fails, leading to consequences

  5. Altered Brain Reactivity to Game Cues After Gaming Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Chung, Hwan Jun; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-08-01

    Individuals who play Internet games excessively show elevated brain reactivity to game-related cues. This study attempted to test whether this elevated cue reactivity observed in game players is a result of repeated exposure to Internet games. Healthy young adults without a history of excessively playing Internet games were recruited, and they were instructed to play an online Internet game for 2 hours/day for five consecutive weekdays. Two control groups were used: the drama group, which viewed a fantasy TV drama, and the no-exposure group, which received no systematic exposure. All participants performed a cue reactivity task with game, drama, and neutral cues in the brain scanner, both before and after the exposure sessions. The game group showed an increased reactivity to game cues in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The degree of VLPFC activation increase was positively correlated with the self-reported increase in desire for the game. The drama group showed an increased cue reactivity in response to the presentation of drama cues in the caudate, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. The results indicate that exposure to either Internet games or TV dramas elevates the reactivity to visual cues associated with the particular exposure. The exact elevation patterns, however, appear to differ depending on the type of media experienced. How changes in each of the regions contribute to the progression to pathological craving warrants a future longitudinal study.

  6. Containment and Consensus-based Distributed Coordination Control to Achieve Bounded Voltage and Precise Reactive Power Sharing in Islanded AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    for coordinated control design. Furthermore, a containment and consensus-based distributed coordination controller is proposed, by which the bus voltage magnitudes can be bounded within a reasonable range, instead of only controlling average voltage value. Further, the accurate reactive power sharing between...

  7. Excessive hoarding in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Djamshidian, Atbin; Evans, Andrew H; Loane, Clare M; Lees, Andrew J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2010-06-15

    Hoarding is seen in several psychiatric conditions, but has not been specifically assessed in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates hoarding tendency amongst patients with PD, and its association with impulsive-compulsive spectrum behaviors (ICBs). We compare clinical features, measures of hoarding, impulse buying, self-control, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in 39 patients with PD with ICBs (PD + ICB), 61 patients with PD without ICBs (PD - ICB), and 50 healthy controls. A much higher proportion of PD + ICB (27.8%) than PD - ICB (3.5%) were hoarders (P = 0.001). 6% of healthy controls were hoarders. Compulsive shoppers scored higher than other varieties of ICB on excessive acquisition measures. Hoarding correlated positively with impulsive buying, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, PD duration, and negatively with self-control measures. Using multivariate regression analyzes, the presence of ICBs and measures of impulsive buying were the only variables independently associated with hoarding in PD. The association of hoarding with other ICBs and low trait impulse control suggests that excessive hoarding is related to the spectrum of impulsive behaviors in PD. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  9. Craving, cue reactivity, and stimulus control among early-stage young smokers: effects of smoking intensity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Larowe, Steven D; McClure, Erin A; Simonian, Susan; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-02-01

    Smoking initiation usually begins in adolescence, but how and for whom nicotine dependence emerges during this period is unclear. The cue-reactivity paradigm is well suited to examine one marker of dependence: craving-related stimulus control, i.e., the ability of environmental cues to elicit craving to smoke. This study examined the effects of both level of smoking involvement (daily vs. occasional smoking) and gender on reactivity to both smoking and alcohol cues. Young (age range 16-20; 42% female) daily (n = 55) and occasional (n = 52) smokers were exposed to each of three counterbalanced cues: (a) in vivo smoking (e.g., sight, smell, lighting of cigarette), (b) alcohol (e.g., opening, pouring, and smell of preferred beverage), and (c) neutral cue. Daily smokers exhibited higher levels of tonic (i.e., noncue-elicited) craving than did occasional smokers. Both groups showed significant increases in craving in response to cues (i.e., cue-elicited craving), with little evidence that cue-elicited craving differed between groups. Females were more cue reactive to both the alcohol and smoking cues than males, particularly for the positively reinforced aspects of smoking (i.e., hedonic craving). There were no gender × group interaction effects in response to either the alcohol or the smoking cue. Findings show the presence of cue-elicited craving even among occasional smokers and are consistent with literature demonstrating heightened sensitivity to environmental cues among females. Cue-elicited craving may be one mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of smoking behavior and perhaps to the development of nicotine dependence within early stage smokers.

  10. The otherness of sexuality: excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruth

    2008-03-01

    The present essay, the second of a series of three, aims at developing an experience-near account of sexuality by rehabilitating the idea of excess and its place in sexual experience. It is suggested that various types of excess, such as excess of excitation (Freud), the excess of the other (Laplanche), excess beyond symbolization and the excess of the forbidden object of desire (Leviticus; Lacan) work synergistically to constitute the compelling power of sexuality. In addition to these notions, further notions of excess touch on its transformative potential. Such notions address excess that shatters psychic structures and that is actively sought so as to enable new ones to evolve (Bersani). Work is quoted that regards excess as a way of dealing with our lonely, discontinuous being by using the "excessive" cosmic energy circulating through us to achieve continuity against death (Bataille). Two contemporary analytic thinkers are engaged who deal with the object-relational and intersubjective vicissitudes of excess.

  11. Controlled Growth of Conductive AlN Thin Films by Plasma-Assisted Reactive Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M.; Goh, B. T.; Rahman, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the growth of conductive AlN thin films by plasma-assisted reactive evaporation at different filament-to-substrate distances was presented and discussed. The elemental composition, surface morphology, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films were examined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical measurement, and current-voltage ( I- V) characterizations. The electrical study revealed that the films are conductive, as ohmic conductivity was observed from I- V results. The GIXRD results of AlN thin films showed that by decreasing the distance, the intensity of the peak corresponding to metallic Al decreases while that of AlN increases. EDX and XPS results indicated that at shorter distances, the incorporation of N into the AlN films is enhanced. This was further confirmed by FTIR results, which showed that the incorporation of Al-N bonds in the grown AlN films was enhanced by decreasing the distance. It was shown that the optical absorption edge of the grown films shifts from the near-ultraviolet (UV) region to far-UV as the distance is decreased.

  12. Reactivity Control of Rhodium Cluster Ions by Alloying with Tantalum Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuné, Fumitaka; Tawaraya, Yuki; Kudoh, Satoshi

    2016-02-18

    Gas phase, bielement rhodium and tantalum clusters, RhnTam(+) (n + m = 6), were prepared by the double laser ablation of Rh and Ta rods in He carrier gas. The clusters were introduced into a reaction gas cell filled with nitric oxide (NO) diluted with He and were subjected to collisions with NO and He at room temperature. The product species were observed by mass spectrometry, demonstrating that the NO molecules were sequentially adsorbed on the RhnTam(+) clusters to form RhnTam(+)NxOx (x = 1, 2, 3, ...) species. In addition, oxide clusters, RhnTam(+)O2, were also observed, suggesting that the NO molecules were dissociatively adsorbed on the cluster, the N atoms migrated on the surface to form N2, and the N2 molecules were released from RhnTam(+)N2O2. The reactivity, leading to oxide formation, was composition dependent: oxide clusters were dominantly formed for the bielement clusters containing both Rh and Ta atoms, whereas such clusters were hardly formed for the single-element Rhn(+) and Tam(+) clusters. DFT calculations indicated that the Ta atoms induce dissociation of NO on the clusters by lowering the dissociation energy, whereas the Rh atoms enable release of N2 by lowering the binding energy of the N atoms on the clusters.

  13. Navigation towards a goal position: from reactive to generalised learned control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire da Silva, Valdinei [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil); Selvatici, Antonio Henrique [Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 235, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Reali Costa, Anna Helena, E-mail: valdinei.freire@gmail.com, E-mail: antoniohps@uninove.br, E-mail: anna.reali@poli.usp.br [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    The task of navigating to a target position in space is a fairly common task for a mobile robot. It is desirable that this task is performed even in previously unknown environments. One reactive architecture explored before addresses this challenge by denning a hand-coded coordination of primitive behaviours, encoded by the Potential Fields method. Our first approach to improve the performance of this architecture adds a learning step to autonomously find the best way to coordinate primitive behaviours with respect to an arbitrary performance criterion. Because of the limitations presented by the Potential Fields method, especially in relation to non-convex obstacles, we are investigating the use of Relational Reinforcement Learning as a method to not only learn to act in the current environment, but also to generalise prior knowledge to the current environment in order to achieve the goal more quickly in a non-convex structured environment. We show the results of our previous efforts in reaching goal positions along with our current research on generalised approaches.

  14. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  15. Optimization Based Shunt APF Controller to Mitigate Reactive Power, Burden of Neutral Conductor, Current Harmonics and Improve cosɸ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anjana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Modified Gravitational Search Algorithm (MGSA to improve the performance of PI controller in varying load condition. The proposed approach is capable of mitigating reactive power, neutral current, source current THD and significant improvement in power factor nearly unity (0.997. The DC link voltage across the capacitor is controlled by PI controller which is deciding the performance of shunt APF. Hence, the robust optimization technique based integral time square error (ITSE with consideration of weight factor (α & β, maximum overshoot ((|(∆_Ve ̅〖(n〗_max | and setling time t_s-t_0, is providing the optimum solution of Kp & Ki. The robustness of proposed objective function and algorithm compared with GSA based three other error criterion techniques. The efficiency of the proposed controller has been tested over nonlinear and unbalance loading condition. The performance of ITSE based MGSA-PI controller is batter then other three error criterion techniques. The values of THD are below the mark of 5% specified in IEEE-519 standard.

  16. Control of Acid Generation from Pyrite Oxidation in a Highly Reactive Natural Waste: A Laboratory Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory kinetic leach column (KLC tests were carried out to define the conditions required to control acid generation from a highly reactive, potentially acid-forming (PAF iron ore waste rock. It was found that lime addition (0.1 wt % blended plus either blending of silicates (25 wt % K-feldspar and 25 wt % chlorite, or addition of a non-acid forming (NAF top cover containing about 10% dolomite (PAF:NAF = 5:1 wt %, when watered/flushed with lime-saturated water, greatly reduced acid generation as compared to the control KLC (PAF alone, watered/flushed with Milli-Q water, but did not result in circum-neutral pH as required for pyrite surface passivation and effective acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD mitigation. In contrast, the combined use of these treatments—blended lime and silicates with an NAF cover and watering/flushing with lime-saturated water—resulted in leachate pH of 12 (up to 24 weeks. Mass balance calculations for Ca2+ and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses suggest that calcite or gypsum may have formed in the NAF-amended KLCs and lime with added silicate KLC. Although the combined approach in the form trialled here may not be practical or cost-effective, control of a highly reactive natural PAF waste by pyrite surface passivation appears to be possible, and an improved treatment methodology (e.g., slightly increased lime blending without the need for further lime watering/flushing could usefully be examined in the future.

  17. A randomized, controlled, clinical trial of a chemically-reactive heated humidifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, S D; Durbin, C G

    2001-01-01

    Inspired gases can be warmed and humidified in a variety of ways. The effect of a chemically-reactive heated heat and moisture exchanger/hygroscopic condenser humidifier (HME/HCH) on secretions, rate of core body warming, blood loss, and time to extubation was studied in hypothermic post-cardiac surgery patients. Fifty patients with normal ventricular function, undergoing coronary bypass grafting, were randomized to receive either a conventional HME (Gibeck, Humid-Vent 1 [PN 11112], Hudson RCI, Temecula, California) or a chemically-heated HME (Thermax HCH Filter [PN 9302], Enternet Medical, Las Vegas, Nevada) following surgery or on arrival in the ICU. Effects on secretions, core temperature, postoperative bleeding, duration of intubation, and added resistance were measured. The Thermax weighs 67 g and adds 79 mL of dead space. The Humid-Vent 1 weighs 9.4 g and adds 10 mL of dead space. There was no significant difference between the 2 devices in time to extubation, blood loss, or quality or quantity of secretions. Use of the Thermax device, however, resulted in a more rapid rise in body temperature (0.299 degrees C/h with the Thermax vs 0.073 degrees C/h with the Humid-Vent 1, p = 0.001) and more added resistance (0.0672 cm H(2)O/L/s with the Thermax vs 0.0123 cm H(2)O/L/s with the Humid-Vent 1, p = 0.00000172). The Thermax chemically-heated HME results in more rapid warming of mildly hypothermic patients following cardiopulmonary bypass than does a conventional passive HME.

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Control Early Steps of the Legume - Rhizobium Symbiotic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Isabelle; Pauly, Nicolas; Puppo, Alain; Brouquisse, Renaud; Boscari, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of a new organ, the nodule. Early steps of the interaction are characterized by the production of bacterial Nod factors, the reorientation of root-hair tip growth, the formation of an infection thread (IT) in the root hair, and the induction of cell division in inner cortical cells of the root, leading to a nodule primordium formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been detected in early steps of the interaction. ROS/NO are determinant signals to arbitrate the specificity of this mutualistic association and modifications in their content impair the development of the symbiotic association. The decrease of ROS level prevents root hair curling and ITs formation, and that of NO conducts to delayed nodule formation. In root hairs, NADPH oxidases were shown to produce ROS which could be involved in the hair tip growth process. The use of enzyme inhibitors suggests that nitrate reductase and NO synthase-like enzymes are the main route for NO production during the early steps of the interaction. Transcriptomic analyses point to the involvement of ROS and NO in the success of the infection process, the induction of early nodulin gene expression, and the repression of plant defense, thereby favoring the establishment of the symbiosis. The occurrence of an interplay between ROS and NO was further supported by the finding of both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins during early symbiotic interaction, linking ROS/NO production to a redox-based regulation of the symbiotic process.

  19. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  20. Factors controlling the reactivity of divalent metal ions towards pheophytin a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzeł, Ł; Waś, J; Kania, A; Susz, A; Rutkowska-Zbik, D; Staroń, J; Witko, M; Stochel, G; Fiedor, L

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluate the factors which determine the reactivity of divalent metal ions in the spontaneous formation of metallochlorophylls, using experimental and computational approaches. Kinetic studies were carried out using pheophytin a in reactions with various divalent metal ions combined with non- or weakly-coordinative counter ions in a series of organic solvents. To obtain detailed insights into the solvent effect, the metalations with the whole set of cations were investigated in three solvents and with Zn2+ in seven solvents. The reactions were monitored using electronic absorption spectroscopy and the stopped-flow technique. DFT calculations were employed to shed light on the role of solvent in activating the metal ions towards porphyrinoids. This experimental and computational analysis gives detailed information regarding how the solvent and the counter ion assist/hinder the metalation reaction as activators/inhibitors. The metalation course is dictated to a large extent by the reaction medium, via either the activation or deactivation of the incoming metal ion. The solvent may affect the metalation in several ways, mainly via H-bonding with pyrrolenine nitrogens and the activation/deactivation of the incoming cation. It also seems to affect the activation enthalpy by causing slight conformational changes in the macrocyclic ligand. These new mechanistic insights contribute to a better understanding of the "metal-counterion-solvent" interplay in the metalation of porphyrinoids. In addition, they are highly relevant to the mechanisms of metalation reactions catalyzed by chelatases and explain the differences between the insertion of Mg2+ and other divalent cations.

  1. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide control early steps of the legume – Rhizobium symbiotic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eDamiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of a new organ, the nodule. Early steps of the interaction are characterized by the production of bacterial Nod factors, the reorientation of root-hair tip growth, the formation of an infection thread in the root hair, and the induction of cell division in inner cortical cells of the root, leading to a nodule primordium formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO have been detected in early steps of the interaction. ROS/NO are determinant signals to arbitrate the specificity of this mutualistic association and modifications in their content impair the development of the symbiotic association. The decrease of ROS level prevents root hair curling and infection threads formation, and that of NO conducts to delayed nodule formation. In root hairs, NADPH oxidases were shown to produce ROS which could be involved in the hair tip growth process. The use of enzyme inhibitors suggests that nitrate reductase and NO synthase-like enzymes are the main route for NO production during the early steps of the interaction. Transcriptomic analyses point to the involvement of ROS and NO in the success of the infection process, the induction of early nodulin gene expression, and the repression of plant defense, thereby favoring the establishment of the symbiosis. The occurrence of an interplay between ROS and NO was further supported by the finding of both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins during early symbiotic interaction, linking ROS/NO production to a redox-based regulation of the symbiotic process.

  3. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  4. Copper mediated controlled radical copolymerization of styrene and2-ethylhexyl acrylate and determination of their reactivity ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Koiry

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Copolymerization is an important synthetic tool to prepare polymers with desirable combination of properties which are difficult to achieve from the different homopolymers concerned. This investigation reports the copolymerization of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA and styrene using copper bromide (CuBr as catalyst in combination with N,N,N’,N,N- pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA as ligand and 1-phenylethyl bromide (PEBr as initiator. Linear kinetic plot and linear increase in molecular weights versus conversion indicate that copolymerization reactions were controlled. The copolymer composition was calculated using 1H NMR studies. The reactivity ratio of styrene and EHA (r1 and r2 were determined using the Finemann-Ross (FR, inverted Finemann-Ross (FR and Kelen-Tudos (KT methods. Thermal properties of the copolymers were also studied by using TGA and DSC analysis.

  5. A refinement-based approach to developing software controllers for reactive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, V.L.; Kapur, D.; Berg, R.S.

    1999-12-09

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how transformation can be used to derive a high integrity implementation of a train controller from an algorithmic specification. The paper begins with a general discussion of high consequence systems (e.g., software systems) and describes how rewrite-based transformation systems can be used in the development of such systems. The authors then discuss how such transformations can be used to derive a high assurance controller for the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system from an algorithmic specification.

  6. Fatigue Analysis of a Point Absorber WEC subjected to Passive and Reactive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    and generic toolbox which can be applied to any other global response model of a WEC device combined with a control system. The stress responses due to the stochastic wave loads are computed by a FEM model using the frequency-domain approach. The fatigue damage is calculated based on the spectral......-based fatigue analysis in which the fatigue is described by the given spectral moments of the stress response. The question will be discussed, which control case is more favorable regarding the trade off between fatigue damage reduction and increased power production....

  7. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Baird, Scarlett O; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-06-01

    Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for affective eating. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a heated, hatha yoga intervention for reducing cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating. Females (N = 52; ages 25-46 years; 75% White) at risk for obesity and related illnesses were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of Bikram Yoga practice or to waitlist control. Cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress induction were measured at Weeks 0 (pretreatment) and 9 (posttreatment). Self-reported binge eating frequency and coping motives for eating were assessed at Weeks 0, 3, 6, and 9. Among participants with elevated cortisol reactivity at pretreatment ("high reactors"), those randomized to the yoga condition evidenced greater pre- to posttreatment reductions in cortisol reactivity (p = .042, d = .85), but there were not significant condition differences for the "low reactors" (p = .178, d = .53). Yoga participants reported greater decreases in binge eating frequency (p = .040, d = .62) and eating to cope with negative affect (p = .038, d = .54). This study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of heated hatha yoga for treating physiological stress reactivity and affective eating among women at risk for obesity-related illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Review of Active and Reactive Power Sharing Strategies in Hierarchical Controlled Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Li, Hong; Shen, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microgrids consist of multiple parallel-connected distributed generation (DG) units with coordinated control strategies, which are able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded mode. Microgrids are attracting more and more attention since they can alleviate the stress of main transmission s...

  9. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...

  10. Virological and morphological relationships in the phases of the immune control and reactivation in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Gabdrakhmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate relationships between virological and morphological data in patients with chronic hepatitis B in phase immune control and reactivation.Materials and methods: The study involved 46 patients with chronic hepatitis B, indicators defined were content of surface antigen and hepatitis B virus DNA in the peripheral blood, the level of covalently closed circular HBV DNA in liver tissue and fibrosis stage and histological activity index (METAVIR.Results: The study found a direct correlation between the level of covalently closed circular DNA in liver puncture biopsies (number of copies per cell and quantitative content of HBsAg in serum (r = 0,51, p = 0,03 in patients with chronic hepatitis B in phase immune control. Also in the immune control phase a direct correlation between the HBV DNA and the level of HBsAg in serum (r = 0.79, p = 0.0001 is shown. The level of covalently closed circular HBV DNA in liver puncture biopsy specimens did not differ in patients with chronic hepatitis B in the phase of immune control in the phase of reactivation (1,02 ± 0,01 copies / cell and 1,03 ± 0,03 copies / cell, p = 0.72. The index of histological activity and fibrosis were not correlated with any of the investigated virological indicator.Conclusion: Results of the study emphasized the complexity and ambiguity of the relationships between both virological and morphological indicators in patients with chronic hepatitis B, determined the direction for further study (in particular the assessment of the epigenetic regulation of the synthesis of circular covalently closed DNA, as well as set the stage for improving the principles of dynamic observing the patients with chronic hepatitis B in a phase of immune control.

  11. Is blunted cardiovascular reactivity in depression mood-state dependent? A comparison of major depressive disorder remitted depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Kristen; Bylsma, Lauren M; White, Kristi E; Panaite, Vanessa; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Prior work has repeatedly demonstrated that people who have current major depression exhibit blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors (e.g., Salomon et al., 2009). A key question regards the psychobiological basis for these deficits, including whether such deficits are depressed mood-state dependent or whether these effects are trait-like and are observed outside of depression episodes in vulnerable individuals. To examine this issue, we assessed cardiovascular reactivity to a speech stressor task and a forehead cold pressor in 50 individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD), 25 with remitted major depression (RMD), and 45 healthy controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and impedance cardiography were assessed and analyses controlled for BMI and sex. Significant group effects were found for SBP, HR, and PEP for the speech preparation period and HR, CO, and PEP during the speech. For each of these parameters, only the MDD group exhibited attenuated reactivity as well as impaired SBP recovery. Reactivity and recovery in the RMD group more closely resembled the healthy controls. Speeches given by the MDD group were rated as less persuasive than the RMD or healthy controls' speeches. No significant differences were found for the cold pressor. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity and impaired recovery in current major depression may be mood-state dependent phenomena and may be more reflective of motivational deficits than deficits in the physiological integrity of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An optimal reactive power control strategy for a DFIG-based wind farm to damp the sub-synchronous oscillation of a power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Li, Hui; Wang, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive...... compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator speed and the output reactive power of the wind farms was introduced to derive the analytical expression...... of the damping coefficient. The phase range to obtain positive damping was determined. Second, the PID phase compensation parameters of the auxiliary damping controller were optimized by a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimum damping in the entire subsynchronous frequency band. Finally, the validity...

  13. An Optimal Reactive Power Control Strategy for a DFIG-Based Wind Farm to Damp the Sub-Synchronous Oscillation of a Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator speed and the output reactive power of the wind farms was introduced to derive the analytical expression of the damping coefficient. The phase range to obtain positive damping was determined. Second, the PID phase compensation parameters of the auxiliary damping controller were optimized by a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimum damping in the entire subsynchronous frequency band. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary damping control were demonstrated on a modified version of the IEEE first benchmark model by time domain simulation analysis with the use of DigSILENT/PowerFactory. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this derived damping factor expression and the condition of the positive damping can effectively analyze their impact on the system sub-synchronous oscillations, the proposed wind farms reactive power additional damping control strategy can provide the optimal damping effect over the whole sub-synchronous frequency band, and the control effect is better than the active power additional damping control strategy based on the power system stabilizator.

  14. Supervisory Control for Real Time Reactive Power Flow Optimization in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milczarek, Adam; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Malinowski, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    -line measurements. Similarly to any process system, MG hierarchical control is divided into three levels. However, an additional control algorithm is required to manage power transmission between sources and loads, maximizing efficiency and minimizing transmission losses. This real-time optimization problem...... is addressed to locally readjust converters operation to attain global efficiency. An algorithm is presented by formulating and solving the power sharing optimization problem in a two-level approach. The objective function is the sum of the apparent power transferred, whose minimization reduces total power...... losses and energy costs. The performance of the approach proposed is validated on a simulated case study. Different scenarios are tested and the performance of the algorithm is compared and discussed. The power losses reduction obtained with the proposed approach are compared with those obtained...

  15. Reactive Power Management in Islanded Microgrid – Proportional Power Sharing in Hierarchical Droop Control

    OpenAIRE

    Milczarek, Adam; Malinowski, Mariusz; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    A microgrid (MG) is a local energy system consisting a number of energy sources (e.g. wind turbine or solar panels among others), energy storage units and loads that operate connected to the main electrical grid or autonomously. MGs provide flexibility, reduce the main electricity grid dependence and contribute to change the large centralized production paradigm to local and distributed generation. However, such energy systems require complex management, advanced control and optimization. Mor...

  16. Control of nanoparticle size, reactivity and magnetic properties during the bioproduction of magnetite by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, J. M.; Telling, N. D.; Coker, V. S.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Laan, G. van der; Arenholz, E.; Tuna, F.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2011-08-02

    The bioproduction of nano-scale magnetite by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria offers a potentially tunable, environmentally benign route to magnetic nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the size of magnetite nanoparticles produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens, by adjusting the total biomass introduced at the start of the process. The particles have a narrow size distribution and can be controlled within the range of 10-50 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that controlled production of a number of different biominerals is possible via this method including goethite, magnetite and siderite, but their formation is strongly dependent upon the rate of Fe(III) reduction and total concentration and rate of Fe(II) produced by the bacteria during the reduction process. Relative cation distributions within the structure of the nanoparticles has been investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and indicates the presence of a highly reduced surface layer which is not observed when magnetite is produced through abiotic methods. The enhanced Fe(II)-rich surface, combined with small particle size, has important environmental applications such as in the reductive bioremediation of organics, radionuclides and metals. In the case of Cr(VI), as a model high-valence toxic metal, optimised biogenic magnetite is able to reduce and sequester the toxic hexavalent chromium very efficiently in the less harmful trivalent form.

  17. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Reactivities and Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Case-control Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Fernández de Larrea-Baz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have suggested that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC, while others have not confirmed this hypothesis. This work aimed to assess the relation of CRC with H. pylori seropositivity and with seropositivity to 16 H. pylori proteins, in the MultiCase-Control study, MCC-Spain.Methods: MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study carried out in Spain from 2008 to 2013. In total, 2,140 histologically-confirmed incident CRC cases and 4,098 population-based controls were recruited. Controls were frequency-matched by sex, age, and province. Epidemiological data were collected through a questionnaire fulfilled by face-to-face interviews and a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Seroreactivities against 16 H. pylori proteins were determined in 1,488 cases and 2,495 controls using H. pylori multiplex serology. H. pylori seropositivity was defined as positivity to ≥4 proteins. Multivariable logistic regression mixed models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI.Results:H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with increased CRC risk (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.71–1.16. Among H. pylori seropositive subjects, seropositivity to Cagδ showed a lower CRC risk, and risk decreased with increasing number of proteins seropositive. Seropositivity to the most recognized virulence factors, CagA and VacA, was not associated with a higher CRC risk. No statistically significant heterogeneity was identified among tumor sites, although inverse relations were stronger for left colon cancer. An interaction with age and sex was found: H. pylori seropositivity was associated with a lower CRC risk in men younger than 65 and with a higher risk in older women.Conclusions: Our results suggest that neither H. pylori seropositivity, nor seropositivity to the virulence factor CagA are associated with a higher CRC risk. A possible effect modification by age and sex was

  18. Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction of mesolimbic cue reactivity in alcoholism: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Falk; Kirsch, Martina; Bach, Patrick; Hoffmann, Sabine; Reinhard, Iris; Jorde, Anne; von der Goltz, Christoph; Spanagel, Rainer; Mann, Karl; Loeber, Sabine; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Mesocorticolimbic reactivity to alcohol-associated cues has been shown to be associated with relapse to renewed drinking and to be decreased by cue-exposure-based extinction training (CET). Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that the extinction of conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior might be facilitated by drugs increasing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated memory consolidation. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of CET treatment supplemented with the partial NMDA-receptor agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) at reducing mesolimbic cue reactivity (CR), craving, and relapse risk in alcoholism. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we recruited 76 recently detoxified abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-two (16 DCS, 16 placebo) patients showed cue-induced ventral-striatal activation measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to treatment and were thus included in the efficacy analyses. After inpatient detoxification, patients underwent nine sessions of CET spaced over 3 weeks, receiving either 50 mg DCS or placebo 1 h prior to each CET session. FMRI was conducted before treatment and 3 weeks after treatment onset. Following treatment with CET plus DCS, cue-induced brain activation in the ventral and dorsal striatum was decreased compared to treatment with CET plus placebo. Elevated posttreatment ventral striatal CR and increased craving (assessed using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale) were associated with increased relapse risk. DCS was shown to augment the effect of CET for alcohol-dependent subjects. The interaction between craving and ventral-striatal CR on treatment outcome suggests that CET might be especially effective in patients exhibiting both high craving and elevated CR.

  19. Improved control techniques for the reactive magnetron sputtering of silicon to produce silicon oxide and the implications for selected film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danson, N. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Hall, G.W. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Howson, R.P. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-30

    Silicon oxide films were reactively sputtered to give reproducibly controlled properties with refractive indices between 1400 and 1490. They were deposited at rates of up to 0.85 nm s{sup -1} from a 100 mm diameter polycrystalline silicon cathode, sputtered at 200 W, 40 kHz rectified a.c. power in a reactive environment. This frequency, combined with feedback control of the flow of reactive gas, achieved from a d.c. signal derived from the cathode potential, used directly or with a novel gas pulsing unit, has demonstrated that the process can be controlled with at least as much success as conventional optical emission feedback from the plasma. Stress-stoichiometry curves showed a peak in stress at a refractive index of 1460 indicating both a dense structure and optimized SiO{sub 2}. We have demonstrated a reactive-gas pulsing system which allows stable sputtering conditions to be easily established for the duration of the deposition, which gives rapid recovery from arc disruptions and allows various combinations of reactive gas incorporation into the growing film. (orig.)

  20. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  1. CO 2 -Reactive Ionic Liquid Surfactants for the Control of Colloidal Morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Paul; Sresht, Vishnu; Eral, Burak H.; Fiore, Andrew; de la Fuente-Núñez, César [Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, United States; Harvard; O’Mahony, Marcus; Mendes, Gabriel P.; Heller, William T. [Biology; Doyle, Patrick S.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Hatton, T. Alan

    2017-07-24

    This article reports on a new class of stimuli-responsive surfactant generated from commercially available amphiphiles such as dodecyltrimethylammmonium bromide (DTAB) by substitution of the halide counterion with counterions such as 2-cyanopyrrolide, 1,2,3-triazolide, and L-proline that complex reversibly with CO2. Through a combination of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), electrical conductivity measurements, thermal gravimetric analysis, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show how small changes in charge reorganization and counterion shape and size induced by complexation with CO2 allow for fine-tunability of surfactant properties. We then use these findings to demonstrate a range of potential practical uses, from manipulating microemulsion droplet morphology to controlling micellar and vesicular aggregation. In particular, we focus on the binding of these surfactants to DNA and the reversible compaction of surfactant–DNA complexes upon alternate bubbling of the solution with CO2 and N2.

  2. Reactive Nitrogen in Atmospheric Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess reactive Nitrogen (NT) has become one of the most pressing environmental problems leading to air pollution, acidification and eutrophication of ecosystems, biodiversity impacts, leaching of nitrates into groundwater and global warming. This paper investigates how current i...

  3. Effect of instant controlled pressure drop on IgE antibody reactivity to peanut, lentil, chickpea and soybean proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Haddad, Joseph; Allaf, Karim; Rodriguez, Julia; Crespo, Jesus F; Burbano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The use of legume seeds is being expanded in the food industry due to their excellent nutritional and technological properties. However, legumes have been considered causative agents of allergic reactions through ingestion. Previous studies indicated that processing methods combining heat and steam pressure, such as instant controlled pressure drop (DIC®), could decrease allergenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DIC treatment on peanut, lentil, chickpea and soybean IgE antibody reactivity. Peanut, lentil, chickpea and soybean seeds were subjected to DIC treatment at different pressure and time conditions (3 and 6 bar for 1 and 3 min). Control (raw) and DIC-treated extracts were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using a serum pool from sensitized patients. DIC treatment did not affect the total protein content of legume seeds. Nevertheless, modifications of protein profiles after DIC showed a general decrease in IgE binding to legume proteins that was correlated to a higher steam pressure and longer treatment. The immunoreactivity of soybean proteins was almost abolished with treatment at 6 bar for 3 min. The results demonstrated that DIC treatment produces a reduction in the overall in vitro IgE binding of peanut, lentil and chickpea and a drastic reduction in soybean immunoreactivity. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. ATM/Wip1 activities at chromatin control Plk1 re-activation to determine G2 checkpoint duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Himjyot; Benada, Jan; Müllers, Erik; Akopyan, Karen; Burdova, Kamila; Koolmeister, Tobias; Helleday, Thomas; Medema, René H; Macurek, Libor; Lindqvist, Arne

    2017-07-14

    After DNA damage, the cell cycle is arrested to avoid propagation of mutations. Arrest in G2 phase is initiated by ATM-/ATR-dependent signaling that inhibits mitosis-promoting kinases such as Plk1. At the same time, Plk1 can counteract ATR-dependent signaling and is required for eventual resumption of the cell cycle. However, what determines when Plk1 activity can resume remains unclear. Here, we use FRET-based reporters to show that a global spread of ATM activity on chromatin and phosphorylation of ATM targets including KAP1 control Plk1 re-activation. These phosphorylations are rapidly counteracted by the chromatin-bound phosphatase Wip1, allowing cell cycle restart despite persistent ATM activity present at DNA lesions. Combining experimental data and mathematical modeling, we propose a model for how the minimal duration of cell cycle arrest is controlled. Our model shows how cell cycle restart can occur before completion of DNA repair and suggests a mechanism for checkpoint adaptation in human cells. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Reactive Power Control of Single-Stage Three-Phase Photovoltaic System during Grid Faults Using Recurrent Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faa-Jeng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new active and reactive power control scheme for a single-stage three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system during grid faults. The presented PV system utilizes a single-stage three-phase current-controlled voltage-source inverter to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT control of the PV panel with the function of low voltage ride through (LVRT. Moreover, a formula based on positive sequence voltage for evaluating the percentage of voltage sag is derived to determine the ratio of the injected reactive current to satisfy the LVRT regulations. To reduce the risk of overcurrent during LVRT operation, a current limit is predefined for the injection of reactive current. Furthermore, the control of active and reactive power is designed using a two-dimensional recurrent fuzzy cerebellar model articulation neural network (2D-RFCMANN. In addition, the online learning laws of 2D-RFCMANN are derived according to gradient descent method with varied learning-rate coefficients for network parameters to assure the convergence of the tracking error. Finally, some experimental tests are realized to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  6. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Technology-Based Approach for Preventing Excess Weight Gain during Pregnancy among Women with Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana M. Chao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveOverweight/obesity and excess weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Few interventions have been effective in limiting gestational weight gain among women with overweight or obesity. This pilot, randomized clinical trial compared treatment as usual (TAU to a lifestyle modification program delivered via phone for the prevention of excess gestational weight gain in women who had overweight or obesity.MethodsParticipants included 41 pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (mean age = 28.7 ± 5.8 years; mean pre-gravid BMI = 31.2 ± 6.2 kg/m2; 54% black, 39% white. The intervention group (n = 20 received weekly telephone counseling sessions and used WiFi scales to monitor their weight from weeks 16 to 36 of pregnancy. We compared differences in weight and birth outcomes for the intervention vs. the TAU group (n = 21.ResultsThe intervention and TAU groups did not differ with respect to: gestational weight gain (15.5 ± 5.3 vs. 13.3 ± 6.8 kg, respectively; proportion gaining above the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommended weight range (83 vs. 70%; and weight gain from pre-pregnancy weight to 6 weeks postpartum (4.8 ± 4.6 vs. 3.0 ± 5.5 kg. Other birth and health outcomes also did not differ.ConclusionA telemedicine intervention designed to decrease logistical burden on participants was not more successful in reducing excessive weight gain during pregnancy as compared to TAU. Future studies should examine more intensive forms of remote treatment beginning earlier in pregnancy as well as interventions promoting a healthy weight prior to pregnancy.

  7. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Airway Reactivity in Asthma. A Randomized, Sham-controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, Janet T.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Robert H., Jr.; Drye, Lea T.; Irvin, Charles G.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert A; Yasin, Razan Z.; Busk, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Studies have demonstrated that application of stress suppresses airway smooth muscle contractility. In animal models of asthma, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduced airway reactivity. Short-term studies of CPAP in patients with asthma showed reductions in airway reactivity.

  8. Reactivity to smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of depressive symptoms (MoodMonitor) : protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Karyotaki, Eirini; Ebert, David D; Smit, Johannes H; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of mental health symptoms may influence the symptoms that it measures, i.e. assessment reactivity. In the field of depression, EMA reactivity has received little attention. We aim to investigate whether EMA of depressive symptoms induces assessment

  9. Three months of resistance training in overweight and obese individuals improves reactive balance control under unstable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika; Kyselovičová, Ol'ga; Jeleň, Michal; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Ollé, Gábor; Řtefániková, Gabriela; Vilman, Tomáš; Baláž, Miroslav; Kurdiová, Timea; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcová, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to static and dynamic balance, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the training induced changes in reactive balance control in response to unexpected perturbations in overweight and obese individuals. This study evaluates the effect of 3 months of resistance and aerobic training programs on postural responses to unexpected perturbations under stable and unstable conditions in the overweight and obese. A group of 17 overweight and obese subjects, divided into two groups, underwent either resistance or aerobic training for a period of 3 months (3 sessions per week). Prior to and after completing the training, they performed the load release balance test while standing on either a stable or unstable surface, with eyes open and closed. Peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement, and the time to peak posterior CoP displacement during a bipedal stance on a foam surface with eyes open (17.3%, p = 0.019 and 15.4%, p = 0.029) and eyes closed (15.0%, p = 0.027 and 13.2%, p = 0.034), decreased significantly. In addition, the total anterior to posterior CoP displacement, and the time from peak anterior to peak posterior CoP displacement, both with eyes open (18.1%, p = 0.017 and 12.2%, p = 0.040) and eyes closed (16.3%, p = 0.023 and 11.7%, p = 0.044), also significantly decreased. However, after completing the resistance training, the parameters registered while standing on a stable platform, both with eyes open and closed, did not change significantly. The group that underwent an aerobic training also failed to show any significant changes in parameters of the load release balance test. Three months of resistance training in overweight and obese subjects improves reactive balance control in response to unexpected perturbations under unstable conditions, both with and without visual cues. Due to the fact that this unstable load release balance test was found to be sensitive in revealing post-training changes, it would be suitable for implementing in

  10. Episodic Excessive Blinking in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Yasmin Poustchi; Simon, John W; Chaudhri, Imran; Zobal-Ratner, Jitka; Barry, Gerard P

    2016-01-01

    Many children present with excessive blinking. Categorization, associated conditions, and prognosis are controversial. All children with excessive blinking were reviewed, excluding those with known uveitis, glaucoma, or obvious eyelid abnormalities. Parents were telephoned for follow-up. No ocular pathology was identified in 31 of 34 children with excessive blinking (91%). Parents were able to report a specific cause of blinking in 7 (21%). In 24 of 34 (71%), parents reported complete resolution of excessive blinking. No new ophthalmologic diagnoses were uncovered on follow-up. Episodes of excessive blinking rarely indicate neurologic disorders and frequently resolve spontaneously. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Coordination of voltage and reactive power control in the extra high voltage substations based on the example of solutions applied in the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kołodziej

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents examples of coordination between automatic voltage and reactive power control systems (ARST covering adjacent and strongly related extra high voltage substations. Included are conclusions resulting from the use of these solutions. The Institute of Power Engineering, Gdańsk Division has developed and deployed ARST systems in the national power system for a dozen or so years.

  12. Injury incidence, reactivity and ease of handling of horses kept in groups: A matched case control study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keeling, L.J.; Bøe, K.E.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2016-01-01

    horses from groups and horses’ reactivity to a fearful stimulus. Using a matched case control design, 61 groups of horses were studied in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. They were allocated into groups of similar or different age and sex or where membership changed regularly or remained stable...

  13. Neutronic tests and reactivity balance in the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rose Mary Gomes do Prado; Souza, Luiz Claudio Andrade, E-mail: souzarm@cdtn.br, E-mail: lcas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the 2014 neutronic tests performed on CDTN's TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor. Such tests are performed annually, as prescribed by the Safety Analysis Report. The three control rods, Regulating, Shim and Safety, were calibrated and their worth determined to be 0.52 $, 3.08 $ and 2.78 $, respectively. The Shim rod takes 0.44 s to shutdown the reactor and the Safety rod 0.48 s. The maximum reactivity insertion rates are 48 pcm/s by the Shim rod and 46 pcm/s by the Safety rod. Total reactivity excess is 1.88 $. The temperature reactivity coefficient determined is -0.94 cent/deg C. A reactivity insertion of 0.71 $ is necessary in order to achieve the licensed maximum reactor power of 100 kW. Reactivity losses due to xenon poisoning, after operating for 8 h at maximum power, is 0.20 $, and the insertion of a void tube in the Central Thimble corresponds to 0.22 $. A significant amount of reactivity is required to overcome the temperature effect and allow the reactor to operate at full power for extended periods of time. Given all these reactivity losses, a new fuel element should soon be added to the core in order to increase the reactivity excess. Adding this new fuel element to the C ring and moving the element withdrawn from that position to the F ring, replacing a graphite dummy element, would increase 45.5 cents in the reactivity excess worth. Calculations and experimental results will be used to optimize a new core configuration for the reactor. (author)

  14. [What nosographic framework for excessive tanning?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2014-04-01

    Socially valorised tanning, like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. Excessive tanning, defined by the presence of impulsivity and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, is a psychiatric disorder that has only recently been recognized. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report an addictive relationship in their patients with tanning cabins despite announcement of the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on excessive tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, aetiology, and treatment of this disorder. The literature review was conducted from 1983 to 2012, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: Tanning, Addiction, Sunbeds, Skin cancer prevention, and Treatment. We investigated different models to determine how excessive tanning met these criteria. Excessive Tanning was described in the 2000s by an American dermatologist, Carolyn Heckman. Wartham et al. were the first to have proposed a theoretical framework for addiction to sunbathing, as well as two scales (m CAGE and m DSM IV) for the diagnosis and to assess the degree of addiction. These diagnostic criteria describe the craving like-symptoms, the feeling of losing control, or the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of negative consequences. Excessive Tanning is not present in the classifications of the DSM or ICD, but may be related to Addiction, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Impulse control disorders, Anorexia, or Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Excessive tanning can be included in the spectrum of behavioural addictions due its clinical characteristics in common with classics addictive disorders. They are a variety of other models, which may offer an explanation for or insight into tanning behaviour. Further studies must be controlled, notably on

  15. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Arpagaus, Angela; Meister, Rebecca E; von Känel, Roland; Huber, Susanne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2016-10-01

    Flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption relates to lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on inflammatory measures before and after stress. Healthy men, aged 20-50years, were randomly assigned to a single intake of either 50g of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50g of optically identical flavanol-free placebo-chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate intake, both groups underwent the 15-min Trier Social Stress Test. We measured DNA-binding-activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma and whole blood mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, prior to chocolate intake as well as before and several times after stress. We also repeatedly measured the flavanol epicatechin and the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in plasma and saliva, respectively. Compared to the placebo-chocolate-group, the dark-chocolate-group revealed a marginal increase in IL-10 mRNA prior to stress (p=0.065), and a significantly blunted stress reactivity of NF-κB-BA, IL-1β mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA (p's⩽0.036) with higher epicatechin levels relating to lower pro-inflammatory stress reactivity (p's⩽0.033). Stress hormone changes to stress were controlled. None of the other measures showed a significant chocolate effect (p's⩾0.19). Our findings indicate that acute flavanol-rich dark chocolate exerts anti-inflammatory effects both by increasing mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and by attenuating the intracellular pro-inflammatory stress response. This mechanism may add to beneficial effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SIRT3 is regulated by nutrient excess and modulates hepatic susceptibility to lipotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianjun; Scott, Iain; Lu, Zhongping; Pang, Liyan; Dimond, Christopher C.; Gius, David; Sack, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    SIRT3 is the primary mitochondrial deacetylase that modulates mitochondrial metabolic and oxidative stress regulatory pathways. However, its role in response to nutrient excess remains unknown. Thus, we investigated SIRT3 regulation of the electron transfer chain and evaluated the role of SIRT3 in hepatic lipotoxic stress. SIRT3 depleted HepG2 cells shows diffuse disruption in mitochondrial electron transfer chain functioning, a concurrent reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential, and excess basal reactive oxygen species levels. As this phenotype may predispose to increased lipotoxic hepatic susceptibility we evaluated the expression of SIRT3 in murine liver following chronic high-fat feeding. In this nutrient-excess model SIRT3 transcript and protein levels are downregulated in parallel with increased hepatic fat storage and oxidative stress. Palmitate was used to investigate lipotoxic susceptibility in SIRT3 knockout mouse primary hepatocytes and SIRT3 siRNA depleted HepG2 cells. Under SIRT3 deficient conditions palmitate enhances reactive oxygen species and increases hepatocyte cell death. Reconstitution of SIRT3 levels and/or treatment with N-acetylcysteine ameliorates these adverse effects. In conclusion SIRT3 functions to ameliorate hepatic lipotoxicity, although paradoxically, exposure to high-fat downregulates this adaptive program in the liver. This SIRT3-dependent lipotoxic susceptibility is possibly modulated, in part, by SIRT3 mediated control of electron transfer chain flux. PMID:20647045

  17. Transmembrane Tumor Necrosis Factor Controls Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Activity via TNF Receptor 2 and Protects from Excessive Inflammation during BCG-Induced Pleurisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Chavez-Galan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleural tuberculosis (TB is a form of extra-pulmonary TB observed in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC has been observed in animal models of TB and in human patients but their role remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the role of transmembrane TNF (tmTNF in the accumulation and function of MDSC in the pleural cavity during an acute mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced pleurisy was resolved in mice expressing tmTNF, but lethal in the absence of tumor necrosis factor. Pleural infection induced MDSC accumulation in the pleural cavity and functional MDSC required tmTNF to suppress T cells as did pleural wild-type MDSC. Interaction of MDSC expressing tmTNF with CD4 T cells bearing TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2, but not TNFR1, was required for MDSC suppressive activity on CD4 T cells. Expression of tmTNF attenuated Th1 cell-mediated inflammatory responses generated by the acute pleural mycobacterial infection in association with effective MDSC expressing tmTNF and interacting with CD4 T cells expressing TNFR2. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the crucial role played by the tmTNF/TNFR2 pathway in MDSC suppressive activity required during acute pleural infection to attenuate excessive inflammation generated by the infection.

  18. Reactive recruitment of attentional control in math anxiety: an ERP study of numeric conflict monitoring and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    This study uses event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of numeric conflict monitoring in math-anxious individuals, by analyzing whether math anxiety is related to abnormal processing in early conflict detection (as shown by the N450 component) and/or in a later, response-related stage of processing (as shown by the conflict sustained potential; Conflict-SP). Conflict adaptation effects were also studied by analyzing the effect of the previous trial's congruence in current interference. To this end, 17 low math-anxious (LMA) and 17 high math-anxious (HMA) individuals were presented with a numerical Stroop task. Groups were extreme in math anxiety but did not differ in trait or state anxiety or in simple math ability. The interference effect of the current trial (incongruent-congruent) and the interference effect preceded by congruence and by incongruity were analyzed both for behavioral measures and for ERPs. A greater interference effect was found for response times in the HMA group than in the LMA one. Regarding ERPs, the LMA group showed a greater N450 component for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity, while the HMA group showed greater Conflict-SP amplitude for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity. Our study showed that the electrophysiological correlates of numeric interference in HMA individuals comprise the absence of a conflict adaptation effect in the first stage of conflict processing (N450) and an abnormal subsequent up-regulation of cognitive control in order to overcome the conflict (Conflict-SP). More concretely, our study shows that math anxiety is related to a reactive and compensatory recruitment of control resources that is implemented only when previously exposed to a stimuli presenting conflicting information.

  19. Reactive recruitment of attentional control in math anxiety: an ERP study of numeric conflict monitoring and adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study uses event-related brain potentials (ERPs to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of numeric conflict monitoring in math-anxious individuals, by analyzing whether math anxiety is related to abnormal processing in early conflict detection (as shown by the N450 component and/or in a later, response-related stage of processing (as shown by the conflict sustained potential; Conflict-SP. Conflict adaptation effects were also studied by analyzing the effect of the previous trial's congruence in current interference. To this end, 17 low math-anxious (LMA and 17 high math-anxious (HMA individuals were presented with a numerical Stroop task. Groups were extreme in math anxiety but did not differ in trait or state anxiety or in simple math ability. The interference effect of the current trial (incongruent-congruent and the interference effect preceded by congruence and by incongruity were analyzed both for behavioral measures and for ERPs. A greater interference effect was found for response times in the HMA group than in the LMA one. Regarding ERPs, the LMA group showed a greater N450 component for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity, while the HMA group showed greater Conflict-SP amplitude for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity. Our study showed that the electrophysiological correlates of numeric interference in HMA individuals comprise the absence of a conflict adaptation effect in the first stage of conflict processing (N450 and an abnormal subsequent up-regulation of cognitive control in order to overcome the conflict (Conflict-SP. More concretely, our study shows that math anxiety is related to a reactive and compensatory recruitment of control resources that is implemented only when previously exposed to a stimuli presenting conflicting information.

  20. Tissue-type plasminogen activator and C-reactive protein in acute coronary heart disease. A nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Bladbjerg, E-M; Møller, L

    2000-01-01

    and 258 controls. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects with ischaemic heart disease identified in 1991 by the Danish National Hospital Register. Protein concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were measured with ELISA methods in stored serum...... samples. RESULTS: CRP and t-PA concentrations were both significantly higher in cases than in controls (P

  1. Effects of intensive glucose control on platelet reactivity in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Results of the CHIPS Study ("Control de Hiperglucemia y Actividad Plaquetaria en Pacientes con Sindrome Coronario Agudo").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, David; García-Rubira, Juan C; Bernardo, Esther; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Martín, Patricia; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Núñez-Gil, Iván; Macaya, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia has been associated with increased platelet reactivity and impaired prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Whether platelet reactivity can be reduced by lowering glucose in this setting is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the functional impact of intensive glucose control with insulin on platelet reactivity in patients admitted with ACS and hyperglycaemia. This is a prospective, randomised trial evaluating the effects of either intensive glucose control (target glucose 80-120 mg/dl) or conventional control (target glucose 180 mg/dl or less) with insulin on platelet reactivity in patients with ACS and hyperglycaemia. The primary endpoint was platelet aggregation following stimuli with 20 μM ADP at 24 h and at hospital discharge. Aggregation following collagen, epinephrine and thrombin receptor-activated peptide, as well as P2Y₁₂ reactivity index and surface expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin were also measured. Of the 115 patients who underwent random assignment, 59 were assigned to intensive and 56 to conventional glucose control. Baseline platelet functions and inhospital management were similar in both groups. Maximal aggregation after ADP stimulation at hospital discharge was lower in the intensive group (47.9 ± 13.2% vs 59.1 ± 17.3%; p=0.002), whereas no differences were found at 24 h. Similarly all other parameters of platelet reactivity measured at hospital discharge were significantly reduced in the intensive glucose control group. In this randomised trial, early intensive glucose control with insulin in patients with ACS presenting with hyperglycaemia was found to decrease platelet reactivity. Clinical Trial Registration Number http://www.controlledtrials.com/ISRCTN35708451/ISRCTN35708451.

  2. Application of a Virtual Reactivity Feedback Control Loop in Non-Nuclear Testing of a Fast Spectrum Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Forsbacka, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    For a compact, fast-spectrum reactor, reactivity feedback is dominated by core deformation at elevated temperature. Given the use of accurate deformation measurement techniques, it is possible to simulate nuclear feedback in non-nuclear electrically heated reactor tests. Implementation of simulated reactivity feedback in response to measured deflection is being tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF). During tests of the SAFE-100 reactor prototype, core deflection was monitored using a high resolution camera. "virtual" reactivity feedback was accomplished by applying the results of Monte Carlo calculations (MCNPX) to core deflection measurements; the computational analysis was used to establish the reactivity worth of van'ous core deformations. The power delivered to the SAFE-100 prototype was then dusted accordingly via kinetics calculations, The work presented in this paper will demonstrate virtual reactivity feedback as core power was increased from 1 kilowatt(sub t), to 10 kilowatts(sub t), held approximately constant at 10 kilowatts (sub t), and then allowed to decrease based on the negative thermal reactivity coefficient.

  3. Comparison of DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity control methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    A method to reduce the fuel composition heterogeneity effect on the core performance parameters has been studied for the DUPIC fuel which is made of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels by a dry refabrication process. This study focuses on the reactivity control method which uses either slightly enriched, depleted, or natural uranium to minimize the cost rise effect on the manufacturing of DUPIC fuel, when adjusting the excess reactivity of the spent PWR fuel. In order to reduce the variation of isotopic composition of the DUPIC fuel, the inter-assembly mixing operation was taken three times. Then, three options have been considered: reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, reactivity control by natural uranium for high reactivity spent PWR fuels, and reactivity control by natural uranium for linear reactivity spent PWR fuels. The results of this study have shown that the reactivity of DUPIC fuel can be tightly controlled with the minimum amount of fresh uranium feed. For the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, all the spent PWR fuels can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel and the fraction of fresh uranium feed is 3.4% on an average. For the reactivity control by natural uranium, about 88% of spent PWR fuel can be utilized as the DUPIC fuel when the linear reactivity spent PWR fuels are used, and the amount of natural uranium feed needed to control the DUPIC fuel reactivity is negligible. 13 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  4. Problematic Internet use, excessive alcohol consumption, their comorbidity and cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress in a student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Phillips, Anna C; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Problematic Internet use and excessive alcohol consumption have been associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Further, low (blunted) cardiovascular and stress hormone (e.g. cortisol) reactions to acute psychological stress are a feature of individuals with a range of adverse health and behavioural characteristics, including dependencies such as tobacco and alcohol addiction. The present study extended this research by examining whether behavioural dependencies, namely problematic Internet use, excessive alcohol consumption, and their comorbidity would also be associated with blunted stress reactivity. A large sample of university students (N = 2313) were screened using Internet and alcohol dependency questionnaires to select four groups for laboratory testing: comorbid Internet and alcohol dependence (N = 17), Internet dependence (N = 17), alcohol dependence (N = 28), and non-dependent controls (N = 26). Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising of mental arithmetic and public speaking tasks. Neither problematic Internet behaviour nor excessive alcohol consumption, either individually or in combination, were associated with blunted cardiovascular or cortisol stress reactions. Discussion It is possible that problematic Internet behaviour and excessive alcohol consumption in a student population were not related to physiological reactivity as they may not reflect ingrained addictions but rather an impulse control disorder and binging tendency. The present results serve to indicate some of the limits of the developing hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity is a peripheral marker of the central motivational dysregulation in the brain underpinning a wide range of health and behavioural problems.

  5. [Reactive arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloni, V; Fantini, F

    1990-01-01

    The term reactive arthritis was introduced to describe an acute non-purulent arthritis complicating an infection elsewhere in the body. Reactive arthritis can also be classified into HLA-B27 associated and non-associated forms. Rheumatic fever is an example of the HLA-B27 non-associated forms with genetic factors other than HLA-B27 involved. HLA-B27 associated reactive arthritis includes enteric, urogenic and idiopathic arthritides. The bacteria known to trigger post-enteritic reactive arthritis are: Yersinia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile and Brucella; those known to trigger post-urethritic reactive arthritis are Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, but often the germ remains unidentified. Mechanisms through which susceptibility to reactive arthritis is linked to HLA-B27 antigen are still incompletely understood, but a clue could be cross-reactivity between B27 and a surface antigen of pathogenic germs. The clinical profile of the disease is characterized by an asymmetrical oligoarthritis with involvement particularly of the peripheral joints of the lower limbs. The arthritis generally recovers without sequelae within a few weeks or months. Accompanying features can be the involvement of enthesis and tendon sheets in form of a talalgia or dactylitis. In some cases the arthritis can relapse and chronicize. In some cases, in addition, involvement of the axial skeleton can occur (spondylitis and/or sacroiliitis). Another feature of the disease is the frequent association with typical extra-articular manifestations such as uveitis and muco-cutaneous lesions.

  6. Risk mitigation by waste-based permeable reactive barriers for groundwater pollution control at e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Zhang, Weihua; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proved to be a promising passive treatment to control groundwater contamination and associated human health risks. This study explored the potential use of low-cost adsorbents as PRBs media and assessed their longevity and risk mitigation against leaching of acidic rainfall through an e-waste recycling site, of which Cu, Zn, and Pb were the major contaminants. Batch adsorption experiments suggested a higher adsorption capacity of inorganic industrial by-products [acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) and coal fly ash (CFA)] and carbonaceous recycled products [food waste compost (FWC) and wood-derived biochar] compared to natural inorganic minerals (limestone and apatite). Continuous leaching tests of sand columns with 10 wt% low-cost adsorbents were then conducted to mimic the field situation of acidic rainfall infiltration through e-waste-contaminated soils (collected from Qingyuan, China) by using synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) solution. In general, Zn leached out first, followed by Cu, and finally delayed breakthrough of Pb. In the worst-case scenario (e.g., at initial concentrations equal to 50-fold of average SPLP result), the columns with limestone, apatite, AMDS, or biochar were effective for a relatively short period of about 20-40 pore volumes of leaching, after which Cu breakthrough caused non-cancer risk concern and later-stage Pb leaching considerably increased both non-cancer and lifetime cancer risk associated with portable use of contaminated water. In contrast, the columns with CFA or FWC successfully mitigated overall risks to an acceptable level for a prolonged period of 100-200 pore volumes. Therefore, with proper selection of low-cost adsorbents (or their mixture), waste-based PRBs is a technically feasible and economically viable solution to mitigate human health risk due to contaminated groundwater at e-waste recycling sites.

  7. Reactive transport modeling of geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of organic amendments and contaminants in aquifers can trigger secondary water quality impacts that impair groundwater resources. Reactive transport models help elucidate how diverse geochemical reactions control the spatiotemporal evolution of these impacts. Using extensive monitoring data from a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota (USA), we implemented a comprehensive model that simulates secondary plumes of depleted dissolved O2 and elevated concentrations of Mn2+, Fe2+, CH4, and Ca2+ over a two-dimensional cross section for 30 years following the spill. The model produces observed changes by representing multiple oil constituents and coupled carbonate and hydroxide chemistry. The model includes reactions with carbonates and Fe and Mn mineral phases, outgassing of CH4 and CO2 gas phases, and sorption of Fe, Mn, and H+. Model results demonstrate that most of the carbon loss from the oil (70%) occurs through direct outgassing from the oil source zone, greatly limiting the amount of CH4 cycled down-gradient. The vast majority of reduced Fe is strongly attenuated on sediments, with most (91%) in the sorbed form in the model. Ferrous carbonates constitute a small fraction of the reduced Fe in simulations, but may be important for furthering the reduction of ferric oxides. The combined effect of concomitant redox reactions, sorption, and dissolved CO2 inputs from source-zone degradation successfully reproduced observed pH. The model demonstrates that secondary water quality impacts may depend strongly on organic carbon properties, and impacts may decrease due to sorption and direct outgassing from the source zone.

  8. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  9. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most of these patients do not always present with typical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Treatment can be very challenging as drugs commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism have little effect on already formed thyroid hormone due to iodine excess. PMID:22053166

  10. The effects of excessive humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1998-06-01

    toilet should be eliminated or minimized. Water vapor is the best form of humidification because it is unlikely to deliver sufficient water to cause pulmonary injury. The mechanisms of thermal injury in epidermal cells have been well studied, although specific observations of injury mechanisms in the airway are sparse. The findings of the epidermal studies can readily be applied to airway mucosal cells, however. This work demonstrates that it is prudent to avoid raising the average tracheal mucosal temperature above approximately 43 degrees C to 45 degrees C. Thus respiratory gases that arrive at the tracheal end of the endotracheal tube should average less than 43 degrees C to 45 degrees C and 100% RH. It should be noted that to deliver temperatures of this magnitude in the trachea would require higher gas temperatures at the circuit wye. These temperatures are much greater than the upper temperature limits imposed on humidifiers by international standards. Additionally, the reports to date of pulmonary thermal injury associated with humidifiers have been solely as the result of equipment malfunction or misuse--a situation that is increasingly less likely to occur with the control and monitoring features of modern devices. In summary, to avoid the injurious effects of excess heat and water in the airway, inspiratory gases should be delivered to the patient's airway at core temperature and 100% RH. This gas condition is the only one that is neutral to the airway mucosa and poses no water volume and heat energy challenge. Humidifiers, however, do not measure the gas temperature at the patient airway but only at the circuit wye. To compensate for any cooling of the gas as it passes from the wye to the patient the gas temperature at the wye must be set higher than core temperature. To safely avoid the risk that this higher temperature may accidentally reach the patient and cause an injury, the average gas temperature at the wye should restricted to less than 43 degrees

  11. Measuring Excess Noise in SDL's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, S. J.; Kowitz, H. R.; Rowland, C. W.; Shull, T. A.; Ruggles, S. L.; Matthews, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    New instrument gives quantitive information on "excess noise" in semiconductor-diode laser (SDL's). By proper selection of detector, instrument tests any SDL from visible wavelengths through thermal infrared. Lasers determine excess noise in SKL source by measuring photocurrent generated in photodetector exposed first to reference laser then to SKL under test.

  12. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...

  13. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...... into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Denmark and Iceland and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout....

  14. Excessive porcine circovirus type 2 antibody titres may trigger the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Jong, M.F.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2004-01-01

    In a case-control study, the role of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and putative co-factors in the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) were investigated. Pigs with and without PDNS were examined for macroscopic lesions and histopathology. In addition, organs and tissues

  15. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is independent of excess abdominal adiposity in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Frank; Sia, Chang Ling; Shepard, Marguerite K; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

    2012-12-01

    What is the effect of glucose ingestion on leukocytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with and without excess abdominal adiposity (AA)? Normal-weight women with PCOS exhibit an increase in leukocytic ROS generation in response to glucose ingestion, and this increase is independent of excess AA. Excess adipose tissue is a source of oxidative stress. Normal-weight women with PCOS exhibit oxidative stress and can have excess AA. This is a cross-sectional study involving 30 reproductive-age women. Fourteen normal-weight women with PCOS (6 normal AA, 8 excess AA) and 16 body composition-matched controls (8 normal AA, 8 excess AA) underwent body composition assessment by dual-energy absorptiometry and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at a university medical center. Insulin sensitivity was derived from the OGTT (IS(OGTT)). Blood was drawn while fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion to measure leukocytic ROS generation and p47(phox) protein content and plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Compared with controls, both PCOS groups exhibited lower IS(OGTT) (43-54%) and greater percentage change (% change) in ROS generation (96-140%), p47(phox) protein (18-28%) and TBARS (17-48%). Compared with women with PCOS with excess AA, those with normal AA exhibited higher testosterone levels (29%) and lower CRP levels (70%). For the combined groups, IS(OGTT) was negatively correlated with the % change in ROS generation and p47(phox) protein. CRP was positively correlated with abdominal fat. The % change in p47(phox) protein was positively correlated with CRP and androgens. Although this study is adequately powered to assess differences in ROS generation between the women with PCOS and control participants, the modest sample size merits caution when interpreting the corroborative results of the additional measures of oxidative stress and inflammation. This study

  16. Active and Reactive Power Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Six-Phase Generator by Using Multi-Modular Matrix Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Caballero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an active and reactive power control strategy based on predictive control approaches applied to gridconnected renewable energy systems. To accomplish this a multi-modular matrix converter topologies are used in combination with a simple but efficient grid synchronization strategy. The theoretical performance analysis is performed considering a six-phase wind energy generator system interconnected with the grid. Results based on a MATLAB/Simulink simulation environment are discussed and the most relevant characteristics of the proposed control technique are highlighted considering the total harmonic distortion and the mean squared error as a parameters of performance.

  17. Reactive Power Control of Single-Stage Three-Phase Photovoltaic System during Grid Faults Using Recurrent Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Faa-Jeng Lin; Kuang-Chin Lu; Hsuan-Yu Lee

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new active and reactive power control scheme for a single-stage three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system during grid faults. The presented PV system utilizes a single-stage three-phase current-controlled voltage-source inverter to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the PV panel with the function of low voltage ride through (LVRT). Moreover, a formula based on positive sequence voltage for evaluating the percentage of voltage sag is deri...

  18. The effect of Citrus Aurantifolia (Lemon) peels on cardiometabolic risk factors and markers of endothelial function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Kargar, Maryam; Ghannadi, Alireza; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is becoming a global problem and its incidence is increasing. The role of dietary intervention with fruits containing vitamin C and flavonoid to control obesity consequences in childhood has not been yet defined. Lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) peels contain flavonoid, pectin and vitamin C. We aimed to compare the effects of lemon peels and placebo on cardiometabolic risk factors and markers of endothelial function among adolescents with overweight and obesity. Methods: In this triple-masked, randomized controlled trial, 60 overweight/obese adolescents were enrolled in a 4-week trial. Eligible participants were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon powder or placebo. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were compared between the two groups before and after administration of medication and placebo. Results: Of the total 60 enrolled patients, 30 and 29 patients in the lemon and control groups completed the study, respectively. The results of within-group analysis demonstrated a slight reduction in body mass index, LDL-C and systolic blood pressure in the lemon group, but no between group differences existed in the studied variables. Conclusion: This study revealed that consumption of lemon peel extract has some beneficial effects for childhood obesity; however, no considerable effect was documented on anthropometric measures and biochemical factors. Future studies with longer follow up are highly recommended.

  19. Fault structure, stress, or pressure control of the seismicity in shale? Insights from a controlled experiment of fluid-induced fault reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Louis; Daniel, Guillaume; Guglielmi, Yves; Rivet, Diane; Caron, Hervé; Payre, Xavier; Bergery, Guillaume; Henry, Pierre; Castilla, Raymi; Dick, Pierre; Barbieri, Ernesto; Gourlay, Maxime

    2016-06-01

    Clay formations are present in reservoirs and earthquake faults, but questions remain on their mechanical behavior, as they can vary from ductile (aseismic) to brittle (seismic). An experiment, at a scale of 10 m, aims to reactivate a natural fault by fluid pressure in shale materials. The injection area was surrounded by a dense monitoring network comprising pressure, deformation, and seismicity sensors, in a well-characterized geological setting. Thirty-two microseismic events were recorded during several injection phases in five different locations within the fault zone. Their computed magnitude ranged between -4.3 and -3.7. Their spatiotemporal distribution, compared with the measured displacement at the injection points, shows that most of the deformation induced by the injection is aseismic. Whether the seismicity is controlled by the fault architecture, mineralogy of fracture filling, fluid, and/or stress state is then discussed. The fault damage zone architecture and mineralogy are of crucial importance, as seismic slip mainly localizes on the sealed-with-calcite fractures which predominate in the fault damage zone. As no seismicity is observed in the close vicinity of the injection areas, the presence of fluid seems to prevent seismic slips. The fault core acts as an impermeable hydraulic barrier that favors fluid confinement and pressurization. Therefore, the seismic behavior seems to be strongly sensitive to the structural heterogeneity (including permeability) of the fault zone, which leads to a heterogeneous stress response to the pressurized volume.

  20. A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, L.; Sellaro, R.; van Hemert, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Colzato, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent insights into the role of the human microbiota in cognitive and affective functioning have led to the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation may act as an adjuvant strategy to ameliorate or prevent depression. Objective: Heightened cognitive reactivity to normal, transient

  1. A randomized controlled trial comparing foster care and institutional care for children with signs of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyke, Anna T; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Drury, Stacy S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Guthrie, Donald

    2012-05-01

    The authors examined signs of emotionally withdrawn (inhibited type) and indiscriminately social (disinhibited type) reactive attachment disorder in Romanian children enrolled in a randomized trial of foster care compared with institutional care and in a comparison group of never-institutionalized children. At baseline and when children were ages 30, 42, and 54 months and 8 years, caregivers were interviewed with the Disturbances of Attachment Interview to assess changes in signs of reactive attachment disorder in three groups of children: those receiving care as usual (including continued institutional care) (N=68); those placed in foster care after institutional care (N=68); and those who were never institutionalized (N=72). The impact of gender, ethnicity, and baseline cognitive ability was also examined. On the Disturbances of Attachment Interview, signs of the inhibited type of reactive attachment disorder decreased after placement in foster care, and scores were indistinguishable from those of never-institutionalized children after 30 months. Signs of the disinhibited type were highest in the usual care group, lower in the foster care group, and lowest in the never-institutionalized group. Early placement in foster care (before age 24 months) was associated with fewer signs of the disinhibited type. Lower baseline cognitive ability was associated with more signs of the inhibited type in the usual care group and more signs of the disinhibited type in both groups. Signs of the inhibited type of reactive attachment disorder responded quickly to placement in foster care; signs of the disinhibited type showed less robust resolution with foster placement. Lower baseline cognitive ability was linked to signs of reactive attachment disorder.

  2. THE IMPACT OF POWER COEFFICIENT OF REACTIVITY ON CANDU 6 REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KASTANYA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of reactivity coefficients, along with other core nuclear characteristics, determine reactor core behavior in normal operation and accident conditions. The Power Coefficient of Reactivity (PCR is an aggregate indicator representing the change in reactor core reactivity per unit change in reactor power. It is an integral quantity which captures the contributions of the fuel temperature, coolant void, and coolant temperature reactivity feedbacks. All nuclear reactor designs provide a balance between their inherent nuclear characteristics and the engineered reactivity control features, to ensure that changes in reactivity under all operating conditions are maintained within a safe range. The CANDU® reactor design takes advantage of its inherent nuclear characteristics, namely a small magnitude of reactivity coefficients, minimal excess reactivity, and very long prompt neutron lifetime, to mitigate the demand on the engineered systems for controlling reactivity and responding to accidents. In particular, CANDU reactors have always taken advantage of the small value of the PCR associated with their design characteristics, such that the overall design and safety characteristics of the reactor are not sensitive to the value of the PCR. For other reactor design concepts a PCR which is both large and negative is an important aspect in the design of their engineered systems for controlling reactivity. It will be demonstrated that during Loss of Regulation Control (LORC and Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA events, the impact of variations in power coefficient, including a hypothesized larger than estimated PCR, has no safety-significance for CANDU reactor design. Since the CANDU 6 PCR is small, variations in the range of values for PCR on the performance or safety of the reactor are not significant.

  3. The Impact of Power Coefficient of Reactivity on CANDU 6 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, D.; Boyle, S.; Hopwood, J. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga (Canada); Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The combined effects of reactivity coefficients, along with other core nuclear characteristics, determine reactor core behavior in normal operation and accident conditions. The Power Coefficient of Reactivity (PCR) is an aggregate indicator representing the change in reactor core reactivity per unit change in reactor power. It is an integral quantity which captures the contributions of the fuel temperature, coolant void, and coolant temperature reactivity feedbacks. All nuclear reactor designs provide a balance between their inherent nuclear characteristics and the engineered reactivity control features, to ensure that changes in reactivity under all operating conditions are maintained within a safe range. The CANDU reactor design takes advantage of its inherent nuclear characteristics, namely a small magnitude of reactivity coefficients, minimal excess reactivity, and very long prompt neutron lifetime, to mitigate the demand on the engineered systems for controlling reactivity and responding to accidents. In particular, CANDU reactors have always taken advantage of the small value of the PCR associated with their design characteristics, such that the overall design and safety characteristics of the reactor are not sensitive to the value of the PCR. For other reactor design concepts a PCR which is both large and negative is an important aspect in the design of their engineered systems for controlling reactivity. It will be demonstrated that during Loss of Regulation Control (LORC) and Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) events, the impact of variations in power coefficient, including a hypothesized larger than estimated PCR, has no safety-significance for CANDU reactor design. Since the CANDU 6 PCR is small, variations in the range of values for PCR on the performance or safety of the reactor are not significant.

  4. Effect of an obesity pamphlet on parental perception and knowledge of excess weight in their children: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune, Karina T; Mulgrew, Kate; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in increasing parental knowledge of childhood obesity risk factors and ability to correctly identify their child's weight status. Eighty parents were randomly allocated to an experimental group given an obesity pamphlet or a control group given a stress management pamphlet. A survey measured parents' knowledge about risk factors, cause and consequences of childhood obesity, and perception of their child's weight. Parents with overweight or obese children increased their understanding of childhood obesity immediately after receiving the intervention, but did not differ significantly on perception of their child's weight. The experimental intervention increased knowledge of health risks associated with childhood obesity in parents of overweight or obese children. Parental perception of their child's weight status did not improve, suggesting that other factors have a role to play. SO WHAT? The obesity pamphlet may be a useful tool in a multifaceted approach targeting childhood obesity.

  5. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, M; Siegert, B; Pichot, V; Gibot, P; Spitzer, D [Laboratoire ISL/CNRS ' Nanomateriaux pour les Systemes Sous Sollicitations Extremes' (NS3E), FRE 3026, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL), 5 rue du General Cassagnou, 68301 Saint-Louis (France)], E-mail: comet@isl.tm.fr

    2008-07-16

    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode-i.e. combustion versus detonation.

  6. Reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, A

    1999-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is one of the spondyloarthropathy family of clinical syndromes. The clinical features are those shared by other members of the spondyloarthritis family, though it is distinguished by a clear relationship with a precipitating infection. Susceptibility to reactive arthritis is closely linked with the class 1 HLA allele B27; it is likely that all sub-types pre-dispose to this condition. The link between HLA B27 and infection is mirrored by the development of arthritis in HLA B27-transgenic rats. In this model, arthritis does not develop in animals maintained in a germ-free environment. Infections of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory tract appear to provoke reactive arthritis and a wide range of pathogens has now been implicated. Although mechanistic parallels may exist, reactive arthritis is distinguished from Lyme disease, rheumatic fever and Whipple's disease by virtue of the distinct clinical features and the link with HLA B27. As in these conditions both antigens and DNA of several micro-organisms have been detected in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis. The role of such disseminated microbial elements in the provocation or maintenance of arthritis remains unclear. HLA B27-restricted T-cell responses to microbial antigens have been demonstrated and these may be important in disease pathogenesis. The importance of dissemination of bacteria from sites of mucosal infection and their deposition in joints has yet to be fully understood. The role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of reactive arthritis is being explored; in some circumstances, both the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects of certain antibiotics appear to be valuable. The term reactive arthritis should be seen as a transitory one, reflecting a concept which may itself be on the verge of replacement, as our understanding of the condition develops. Nevertheless it appropriately describes arthritis that is associated with demonstrable

  7. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...... pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient is in pain but wanted to investigate if it was possible to measure a change in foot posture after af given treatment....

  8. Speciated OVOC and VOC emission inventories and their implications for reactivity-based ozone control strategy in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiamin; Zheng, Junyu; Li, Rongrong; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Zhuangmin; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-10-15

    The increasing ground-ozone (O3) levels, accompanied by decreasing SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations benefited from air pollution control measures implemented in recent years, initiated a serious challenge to control Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Speciated VOC emission inventory is fundamental for estimating Ozone Formation Potentials (OFPs) to identify key reactive VOC species and sources in order to formulate efficient O3 control strategies. With the use of the latest bulk VOC emission inventory and local source profiles, this study developed the PRD regional speciated Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) and VOC emission inventories to identify the key emission-based and OFP-based VOC sources and species. Results showed that: (1) Methyl alcohol, acetone and ethyl acetate were the major constituents in the OVOC emissions from industrial solvents, household solvents, architectural paints and biogenic sources; (2) from the emission-based perspective, aromatics, alkanes, OVOCs and alkenes made up 39.2%, 28.2%, 15.9% and 10.9% of anthropogenic VOCs; (3) from the OFP-based perspective, aromatics and alkenes become predominant with contributions of 59.4% and 25.8% respectively; (4) ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene and other 24 high OFP-contributing species were the key reactive species that contributed to 52% of anthropogenic emissions and up to 80% of OFPs; and (5) industrial solvents, industrial process, gasoline vehicles and motorcycles were major emission sources of these key reactive species. Policy implications for O3 control strategy were discussed. The OFP cap was proposed to regulate VOC control policies in the PRD region due to its flexibility in reducing the overall OFP of VOC emission sources in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactive and regulative temperament in patients with compulsive buying and non-clinical controls measured by self-report and performance-based tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, Eva M; Claes, Laurence; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Selle, Janine; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid

    2014-10-01

    To examine reactive and regulative temperament in patients with compulsive buying (CB) by means of self-report measures and performance-based tasks and to explore the relationship between both measurement approaches. The study included 31 treatment-seeking patients with CB (25 women, 6 men) and an age and gender matched non-clinical control group without CB (CG). All participants answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). Reactive temperament was assessed using the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Regulative temperament was measured using the Effortful Control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ-EC) and a computerized version of the Stroop Task. To control the results for depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression Scale (PHQ-9) was administered. Crude group comparisons revealed higher BIS and BAS scores, poorer IGT performance and lower ATQ-EC scores in the CB-group compared to the CG. The groups did not differ in their performance on the Stroop task. After controlling for depressive symptoms that were significantly higher in the CB-group, only the group differences in BAS reactivity remained significant. No significant associations were found between questionnaires and performance-based tasks. Overall, the findings indicate that CB in the present clinical sample of treatment-seeking patients was mainly associated with higher approach tendencies and more depressive symptoms. The lacking correlation between self-reports and performance-based tasks is in line with prior research and suggests that both methodologies tap into different aspects of temperament. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Control and analysis of alkyl and benzyl halides and other related reactive organohalides as potential genotoxic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D P; Lipczynski, A M; Teasdale, A

    2008-11-04

    This paper continues the review of the relevant scientific literature associated with the control and analysis of potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs) in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The initial review [D.P. Elder, A. Teasdale, A.M. Lipczynski, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 46 (2008) 1-8.] focused on the specific class of sulfonate esters but in this instance reference is made to the analysis of alkyl and benzyl halides and other related reactive organohalide alkylating agents. Such reactive materials are commonly employed in pharmaceutical research and development as raw materials, reagents and intermediates in the chemical synthesis of new drug substances. Consequently a great deal of attention and effort is extended by the innovative and ethical pharmaceutical industry to ensure that appropriate and practicable control strategies are established during drug development to ensure residues of such agents, as potential impurities in new drug substances, are either eliminated or minimized to such an extent so as to not present a significant safety risk to volunteers and patients in clinical trials and beyond. The reliable trace analysis of such reactive organohalides is central to such control strategies and invariably involves a state-of-the-art combination of high-resolution separation science techniques coupled to sensitive and selective modes of detection. This article reports on the most recent developments in the regulatory environment, overall strategies for the control of alkylating agents and the latest developments in analysis culminating in a literature review of analytical approaches. The literature is sub-categorized by separation technique (gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)) and further tabulated by API type and impurity with brief method details and references. As part of this exercise, a selection of relevant pharmacopoeial

  11. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of post-retrieval propranolol on reconsolidation of memory for craving and cue reactivity in cocaine dependent humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Larowe, Steven D; Yeatts, Sharon D; Baker, Nathaniel L; Hartwell, Karen J; Brady, Kathleen T

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of propranolol vs. placebo, administered immediately after a "retrieval" session of cocaine cue exposure (CCE), on craving and physiological responses occurring 24 h later during a subsequent "test" session of CCE. It was hypothesized that compared to placebo-treated cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals, propranolol-treated CD individuals would evidence attenuated craving and physiological reactivity during the test session. Secondarily, it was expected that group differences identified in the test session would be evident at a 1-week follow-up CCE session. Exploratory analyses of treatment effects on cocaine use were also performed at follow-up. CD participants received either 40 mg propranolol or placebo immediately following a "retrieval" CCE session. The next day, participants received a "test" session of CCE that was identical to the "retrieval" session except no medication was administered. Participants underwent a "follow-up" CCE session 1 week later. Craving and other reactivity measures were obtained at multiple time points during the CCE sessions. Propranolol- vs. placebo-treated participants evidenced significantly greater attenuation of craving and cardiovascular reactivity during the test session. Analysis of the follow-up CCE session data did not reveal any group differences. Although there was no evidence of treatment effects on cocaine use during follow-up, this study was insufficiently powered to rigorously evaluate differential cocaine use. This double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory study provides the first evidence that propranolol administration following CCE may modulate memories for learning processes that subserve cocaine craving/cue reactivity in CD humans. Alternative interpretations of the findings were considered, and implications of the results for treatment were noted.

  12. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...... into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Denmark and Iceland and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout......., the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  13. Individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions: Emotional valence interacts with serotonin transporter genotype to influence brain systems involved in emotional reactivity and cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eStollstorff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR influences emotional reactivity and attentional bias towards or away from emotional stimuli and has been implicated in psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety disorder. The short allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention towards negatively-valenced emotional information, whereas the long allele is associated with that towards positively-valenced emotional information. The neural basis for individual differences in the ability to exert cognitive control over these bottom-up biases in emotional reactivity and attention is unknown, an issue investigated in the present study. Two groups, homozygous 5-HTTLPR long allele carriers or homozygous short allele carriers, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while completing an Emotional Stroop-like task that varied with regards to the congruency of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information and the emotional valence of the task-irrelevant information. Behaviorally, participants demonstrated the classic Stroop effect (slower responses for incongruent than congruent trials, which did not differ by 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, fMRI results revealed that genotype influenced the degree to which neural systems were engaged depending on the valence of the conflicting task-irrelevant information. While the Long group recruited prefrontal control regions and superior temporal sulcus during conflict when task-irrelevant information was positively-valenced, the "Short" group recruited these regions when task-irrelevant information was negatively-valenced. Thus, participants successfully engaged cognitive control to overcome conflict in an emotional context using similar neural circuitry, but the engagement of this circuitry depended on emotional valence and 5-HTTLPR status. These results suggest that the interplay between emotion and cognition is modulated, in part, by a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin

  14. Voltage sensitivity based reactive power control on VSC-HVDC in a wind farm connected hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    With increasing application of both Line Commutated Converter based High Voltage Direct Current (LCC-HVDC) systems and Voltage Source Converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) links, a new type of system structure named Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system is formed in the modern power systems. This paper...... presents the operation and control method of the wind farm connected HMIDC system. The wind power fluctuation takes large influence to the system voltages. In order to reduce the voltage fluctuation of LCC-HVDC infeed bus caused by the wind power variation, a voltage sensitivity-based reactive power...

  15. Orbital-Overlap control in the solid-state reactivity of beta-azido-propiophenones: selective formation of cis-azo-dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Jagadis; Bort, Lauren N; Mandel, Sarah M; Chen, Ping; Krause, Jeanette A; Brooks, Elwood E; Tsang, Pearl; Gudmundsdottir, Anna D

    2008-03-06

    Solid-state photolysis of 1a,b yields selectively cis-3a,b. X-ray analysis of 1a,b reveals the molecules adopt an extended structure and as such the crystal packing arrangement consists of planar, pi-stacked molecules. The shortest intermolecular distance between adjacent N-atoms is approximately 3.76 A and would lead to formation of trans-3a,b, whereas cis-3a,b is formed by dimerization between N-atoms that are approximately 3.9 A apart. We propose that the molecular orbital alignment of the adjacent nitrenes controls the solid-state reactivity.

  16. A point reactivity model for in-core fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, G.T.; Lewins, J.D. (Univ. of Cambridge, Engineering Dept., Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (GB))

    1988-09-01

    A lumped (point) representation of the reactivity of a mixed-assembly reactor is derived from the basis of perturbation theory. This gives good agreement with exact static reactivity calculations for some simple examples. It is also compared with the simple partial reactivity model used widely in fuel management theory. A similar comparison is made for alternative representations in terms of the excess multiplication factor of the system. Although it is shown that the error in using the partial reactivity concept may be regarded as second order, the transient behavior of three simple refueling systems predicted by the point reactivity model differs markedly from previously published partial reactivity results.

  17. The properties of reactively sputtered, stoichiometry-controlled and optimum-conductivity transparent zinc/aluminium oxide films as a function of their aluminium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safi, I.; Danson, N.; Howson, R.P. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1998-02-05

    Zinc oxide films doped with controlled amounts of aluminium were made with their stoichiometry controlled to give optimum electrical and optical properties. They were deposited by the successive sputtering of a thin metal film followed by its anodization, using the plasma created by an unbalanced magnetron. Two processes were used: transport between stages and changing the function of an unbalanced magnetron with time by pulsing the reactive gas. Medium-frequency (40 kHz) power was used to suppress arcing at the target. These simply controlled processes gave high rate deposition of zinc/aluminium oxide with a resistivity of around 40 {mu}{Omega}m{sup -1} and a film/glass substrate transmittance of around 80%, which were obtained at approx. 2 wt% aluminium in zinc. (orig.) 19 refs.

  18. Sliding mode controller for four leg shunt active power filter to eliminating zero sequence current, compensating harmonics and reactive power with fixed switching frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebabhi Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the four leg inverter controlled by the three dimensional space vector modulation (3D SVM is used as the shunt active power filter (SAPF for compensating the three phase four wire electrical network, by using the four leg inverter with 3D SVM advantages to eliminated zero sequence current, fixed switching frequency of inverter switches, and reduced switching losses. This four leg inverter is employed as shunt active power filter to minimizing harmonic currents, reducing magnitude of neutral wire current, eliminating zero sequence current caused by nonlinear single phase loads and compensating reactive power, and a nonlinear sliding mode control technique (SMC is proposed for harmonic currents and DC bus voltage control to improve the performances of the three phase four wire four leg shunt active power filter based on Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF theory in the dq0 axes, and to decoupling the four leg SAPF mathematical model.

  19. Surfactant-controlled synthesis of Pd/Ce{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} catalyst for NO reduction by CO with excess oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.F. [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Materiales, SEPI-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Politecnico S/N, Col. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, G. [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Materiales, SEPI-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Politecnico S/N, Col. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wang, J.A. [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Materiales, SEPI-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Politecnico S/N, Col. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jwang@ipn.mx; Norena, L.E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Toledo, A. [Grupo de Molecular Ingenieria, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castillo, S. [Grupo de Molecular Ingenieria, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Moran-Pineda, M. [Grupo de Molecular Ingenieria, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-04-30

    For the first time, this work reports a surfactant-controlled synthetic method to obtain a nanophase of mesoporous ceria-zirconia solid solution containing cationic defects in the crystalline structure. The incorporation of a cationic surfactant (myristyltrimethylammonium bromide) into the ceria-zirconia solid network not only controlled the pore diameter distribution but also induced creation of the lattice defect. Ceria-zirconia solid solution showed crystal microstrain and structural distortion that varied with the calcination temperature. Compared to pure ceria, the addition of zirconium to the ceria promoted the bulk oxygen reducibility and enhanced the thermal stability of the solid. Hydrogen could be stored into or released from the PdO/Ce{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} catalyst during the TPR procedure, which is associated to the formation/decomposition of a PdH{sub x} phase, due to the hydrogen dissociation catalyzed by metallic Pd. At cool start of reaction, NO reduction by CO with excess oxygen over the Pd/Ce{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} catalyst showed selectivity around 100% to N{sub 2}. A competition between NO reduction by CO and CO oxidation by O{sub 2} was observed: at reaction temperatures below 200 deg. C, NO inhibited CO oxidation activity; however, at reaction temperatures above 200 deg. C, high activity of CO oxidation resulted in an inhibition effect on NO reduction.

  20. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  1. Reduced thrombin formation and excessive fibrinolysis are associated with bleeding complications in patients with dengue fever: a case–control study comparing dengue fever patients with and without bleeding manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue cases have been classified according to disease severity into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Although DF is considered a non-severe manifestation of dengue, it has been recently demonstrated that DF represents a heterogeneous group of patients with varied clinical complications and grades of severity. Particularly, bleeding complications, commonly associated to DHF, can be detected in half of the patients with DF. Although a frequent complication, the causes of bleedings in DF have not been fully addressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of possible pathophysiological mechanisms that could contribute to the bleeding tendency observed in patients with DF. Methods This is a case–control study that enrolled adults with DF without bleeding and adults with DF and bleeding complications during the defervescence period. Healthy controls were also included. Peripheral blood counts, inflammatory, fibrinolysis and endothelial cell activation markers, and thrombin generation were evaluated in patients and controls. Results We included 33 adults with DF without complications, 26 adults with DF and bleeding and 67 healthy controls. Bleeding episodes were mild in 15 (57.6%) and moderate in 11 (42.4%) patients, 8 (30.7%) patients had bleedings in multiple sites. Patients with DF and bleedings had lower platelet counts than DF without bleeding (median = 19,500 vs. 203,500/mm3, P fibrinolysis profiles that are not significantly present in DF without this complication. Particularly, thrombocytopenia, excessive fibrinolysis and reduced thrombin formation may contribute to the bleeding manifestations in DF. PMID:23890510

  2. Spontaneous stabilization of HTGRs without reactor scram and core cooling—Safety demonstration tests using the HTTR: Loss of reactivity control and core cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi, E-mail: takamatsu.kuniyoshi@jaea.go.jp; Yan, Xing L.; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Sakaba, Nariaki; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that a High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has superior safety characteristics; for example, an HTGR has a self-control system that uses only physical phenomena against various accidents. Moreover, the large heat capacity and low power density of the core result in very slow temperature transients. Therefore, an HTGR serves inherently safety features against loss of core cooling accidents such as the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (TEPCO)’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) disaster. Herein we would like to demonstrate the inherent safety features using the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The HTTR is the first HTGR in Japan with a thermal power of 30 MW and a maximum reactor outlet coolant temperature of 950 °C; it was built at the Oarai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). In this study, an all-gas-circulator trip test was analyzed as a loss of forced cooling (LOFC) test with an initial reactor power of 9 MW to demonstrate LOFC accidents. The analytical results indicate that reactor power decreases from 9 MW to 0 MW owing to the negative reactivity feedback effect of the core, even if the reactor shutdown system is not activated. The total reactivity decreases for 2–3 h and then gradually increases in proportion to xenon reactivity; therefore, the HTTR achieves recritical after an elapsed time of 6–7 h, which is different from the elapsed time at reactor power peak occurrence. After the reactor power peak occurs, the total reactivity oscillates several times because of the negative reactivity feedback effect and gradually decreases to zero. Moreover, the new conclusions are as follows: the greater the amount of residual heat removed from the reactor core, the larger the stable reactor power after recriticality owing to the heat balance of the reactor system. The minimum reactor power and the reactor power peak occurrence are affected by the neutron source. The greater the

  3. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    ... world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths...

  4. Excess Alcohol May Speed Muscle Loss in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166348.html Excess Alcohol May Speed Muscle Loss in Older Women After ... risk drinking was defined as frequent and significant alcohol use, along with a lack of control over ...

  5. Crying - excessive (0-6 months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider will check the infant's growth and development. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the baby has a bacterial infection. Alternative Names Infants - excessive crying; Well child - excessive crying ...

  6. Langevin and Fokker-Planck analyses of inhibited molecular passing processes controlling transport and reactivity in nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chi-Jen [Ames Laboratory; Ackerman, David M. [Ames Laboratory; Slowing, Igor I. [Ames Laboratory; Evans, James W. [Ames Laboratory

    2014-07-14

    Inhibited passing of reactant and product molecules within the linear pores of nanoporous catalytic materials strongly reduces reactivity. The dependence of the passing propensity P on pore radius R is analyzed utilizing Langevin dynamics to account for solvent effects. We find that P~(R-Rc)σ, where passing is sterically blocked for R≤Rc, with σ below the transition state theory value. Deeper insight comes from analysis of the corresponding high-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation, which facilitates an effective small-P approximation, and dimensional reduction enabling utilization of conformal mapping ideas. We analyze passing for spherical molecules and also assess the effect of rotational degrees of freedom for elongated molecules.

  7. Improving contour accuracy and strength of reactive air brazed (RAB) ceramic/metal joints by controlling interface microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chichi; Kuhn, Bernd; Brandenberg, Joerg; Beck, Tilmann; Singheiser, Lorenz [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK), Microstructure and Properties of Materials (IEK-2), 52425 Juelich (Germany); Bobzin, Kirsten; Bagcivan, Nazlim; Kopp, Nils [Surface Engineering Institute (IOT), RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 15, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The development of high-temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen, and hydrogen separators and gas reformers poses a great challenge in brazing technology of metal/ceramic joints. To maintain the integrity of such equipment, the resulting seals have to be stable and hermetic during continuous and cyclic high temperature operation. As a solution for joining metal and ceramic materials, reactive air brazing has gained increasing interest in recent years. This paper compares joints brazed by different filler alloys: pure Ag, AgCu, and AgAl in three different aspects: contour accuracy, room temperature delamination resistance, and corresponding microstructures of the as-brazed and fractured brazed joints. Discussion focuses on fracture mechanism and associated delamination resistance. AgAl brazed joints exhibit the most promising mechanical properties and contour accuracy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. A Randomized, Comparative Pilot Trial of Family-Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Reducing Psychosocial Symptoms, Disordered-eating, and Excess Weight Gain in At-Risk Preadolescents with Loss-of-control-eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Matherne, Camden E.; Mehari, Rim D.; Olsen, Cara H.; Marwitz, Shannon E.; Bakalar, Jennifer L.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Burke, Natasha L.; Cassidy, Omni; Brady, Sheila M.; Dietz, Laura J.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children’s psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. Method A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n=15) or FB-HE (n=14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. Results FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI −7.23, −2.01, Cohen’s d=1.23) and anxiety (95% CI −6.08, −0.70, Cohen’s d=.79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI −3.93, −0.03, Cohen’s d=.38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI −0.72, −0.05, Cohen’s d=.66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI −8.82, 0.44, Cohen’s d=.69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. Discussion Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of

  9. A randomized, comparative pilot trial of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy for reducing psychosocial symptoms, disordered-eating, and excess weight gain in at-risk preadolescents with loss-of-control-eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Matherne, Camden E; Mehari, Rim D; Olsen, Cara H; Marwitz, Shannon E; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Kelly, Nichole R; Schvey, Natasha A; Burke, Natasha L; Cassidy, Omni; Brady, Sheila M; Dietz, Laura J; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-09-01

    Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children's psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n = 15) or FB-HE (n = 14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI -7.23, -2.01, Cohen's d = 1.23) and anxiety (95% CI -6.08, -0.70, Cohen's d = .79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI -3.93, -0.03, Cohen's d = .38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI -0.72, -0.05, Cohen's d = .66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI -8.82, 0.44, Cohen's d = .69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of disordered-eating or excess

  10. Microstructure and wear resistance of Al2O3-M7C3/Fe composite coatings produced by laser controlled reactive synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Luo, Zhen; Li, Yang; Yan, Fuyu; Duan, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Based on the principle of thermite reaction of Al and Fe2O3 powders, the Al2O3 ceramic reinforced Fe-based composite coatings were fabricated on a steel substrate by laser controlled reactive synthesis and cladding. The effects of different additions of thermite reactants on the phase transition, microstructure evolution, microhardness and wear resistance of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Vickers microhardness and block-on-ring wear test, respectively. The results show that Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide are in situ synthesized via the laser controlled reactive synthesis. The Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbides prefer to distribute along the γ-Fe phase boundary continuously, which separates the γ-Fe matrix and is beneficial to the grain refinement. With the increase of thermite reactants, the amount of Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide in the composite coatings increases gradually. Moreover the cladding layer changes from dendritic structure to columnar structure and martensite structure in the heat affected zone becomes coarse. The increased thermite reactants improve the microhardness and wear resistance of the in situ composite coatings obviously and enhance the hardness of the heat affected zone, which should be ascribed to the grain refinement, ceramic and carbide precipitation and solid solution strengthening.

  11. The FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised, controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Leone; Maclennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of implementing a dedicated feeding support team on a postnatal ward and pilot the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of team (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after discharge. Design Randomised controlled trial embedded within a before-and-after study. Participatory approach and mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women living in disadvantaged areas initiating breast feeding. Methods Eligible women were recruited to a before-and-after intervention study, a proportion of whom were independently randomised after hospital discharge to intervention: daily proactive and reactive telephone calls for ≤14 days or control: reactive telephone calls ≤ day 14. Intention-to-treat analysis compared the randomised groups on cases with complete outcomes at follow-up. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: any breast feeding at 6–8 weeks assessed by a telephone call from a researcher blind to group allocation. Secondary outcomes: exclusive breast feeding, satisfaction with care, NHS costs and cost per additional woman breast feeding. Results There was no difference in feeding outcomes for women initiating breast feeding before the intervention (n=413) and after (n=388). 69 women were randomised to telephone support: 35 intervention (32 complete cases) and 34 control (26 complete cases). 22 intervention women compared with 12 control women were giving their baby some breast milk (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.40) and 17 intervention women compared with eight control women were exclusively breast feeding (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.37) at 6–8 weeks after birth. The incremental cost of providing proactive calls was £87 per additional woman breast feeding and £91 per additional woman exclusively breast feeding at 6–8 weeks; costs were sensitive to service organisation. Conclusions Proactive telephone care delivered by a dedicated feeding team shows

  12. [Mortality attributable to excess weight in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2014-06-16

    Estimate the mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey, while data on associated mortality were extracted from the National Statistic Institute. Population attributable fractions were applied and mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index was calculated for people between 35 and 79 years. In 2006, among the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 25,671 lives (16,405 males and 9,266 women) were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index. Mortality attributable was 15.8% of total deaths in males and 14.8% in women, but if we refer to those causes where excess body weight is a risk factor, it is about a 30% of mortality (31.6% in men and 28% in women). The most important individual cause was cardiovascular disease (58%), followed by cancer. The individual cause with a major contribution to deaths was type 2 diabetes; nearly 70% in males and 80% in women. Overweight accounted for 54.9% deaths in men and 48.6% in women. Excess body weight is a major public health problem, with an important associated mortality. Attributable deaths are a useful tool to know the real situation and to monitor for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  14. In-Depth Proteomics Identifies a Role for Autophagy in Controlling Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Endothelial Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patella, Francesca; Neilson, Lisa J; Athineos, Dimitris; Erami, Zahra; Anderson, Kurt I; Blyth, Karen; Ryan, Kevin M; Zanivan, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) form the inner layer of blood vessels and physically separate the blood from the surrounding tissue. To support tissues with nutrients and oxygen, the endothelial monolayer is semipermeable. When EC permeability is altered, blood vessels are not functional, and this is associated with disease. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms regulating EC permeability is key in developing strategies to target this mechanism in pathologies. Here we have used an in vitro model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells mimicking the formation of a physiologically permeable vessel and performed time-resolved in-depth molecular profiling using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture mass spectrometry (MS)-proteomics. Autophagy is induced when ECs are assembled into a physiologically permeable monolayer. By using siRNA and drug treatment to block autophagy in combination with functional assays and MS proteomics, we show that ECs require autophagy flux to maintain intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and this is required to maintain the physiological permeability of the cells.

  15. Reactive pulsed-DC sputtered Nb-doped VO2 coatings for smart thermochromic windows with active solar control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, C; Carneiro, J; Ribeiro, R M; Teixeira, V

    2011-10-01

    Thermochromic VO2 thin films have successfully been grown on SiO2-coated float glass by reactive pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering. Different Nb doping amounts were introduced in the VO2 solid solution during the film growing which resulted in films with distinct semiconducting-metal phase transition temperatures. Pure VO2 showed improved thermochromic behavior as compared with VO2 films prepared by conventional DC sputtering. The transition temperatures were linearly decreased from 59 down to 34 degrees C with the increase in Nb content. However, the luminous transmittance and the infrared modulation efficiency were markedly affected. The surface morphology of the films was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed a tendency for grain sized reduction due to Nb addition. Moreover, the films were found to be very dense with no columnar microstructure. Structural analyses carried out by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) revealed that Nb introduces significant amount of defects in the crystal lattice which clearly degrade the optical properties.

  16. IL2-caspase3 chimeric protein controls lymphocyte reactivity by targeted apoptosis, leading to amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irony-Tur-Sinai, Michal; Lichtenstein, Michal; Brenner, Talma; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

    2009-09-01

    IL2-caspase3 chimeric protein was designed to target and kill cells expressing the high affinity IL-2 receptor. Its effects on lymphocyte reactivity and on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a T-cell mediated disease, were tested in this study. Our data show that IL2-caspase3 promoted cell specific apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Cell lines preferentially expressing the IL-2R alpha chain and encephalitogenic lymphocytes derived from EAE-induced mice were highly sensitive to the chimeras' activity. This was demonstrated by increased DNA fragmentation and annexin labeling together with reduced specific T-cell proliferation in response to IL2-casepase3 treatment. Furthermore, IL2-caspase3 treatment of EAE-induced mice caused a significant delay in disease onset together with a reduction in disease burden. The efficacy of IL2-caspase3 treatment was dependent on the time at which treatment begun, with the chimera ameliorating EAE only when administered at maximal activation of peripheral lymphocytes. According to our findings we suggest that the chimeric protein IL2-caspase3 may provide a novel approach for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, as well as for other pathological conditions that involve uncontrolled expansion of activated T cells.

  17. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and other... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by the...

  19. The Relations of Temperament Reactivity and Effortful Control to Children's Adjustment Problems in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wang, Yun

    2009-01-01

    The relations of parents' and teachers' reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children's externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both…

  20. Locus of Control Predicts Cortisol Reactivity and Speech Performance in Response to Acute Stress in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Yvette Z.; Chang, Andrew; Chancellor-Freeland, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that an individual's perception of control in a situation (Locus of Control; LOC) can serve as a protective factor that has physiological and psychological benefits. The present study examines LOC in an acute stress paradigm to examine the relationship between LOC and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning as…

  1. Inflammation in response to glucose ingestion is independent of excess abdominal adiposity in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Frank; Sia, Chang Ling; Shepard, Marguerite K; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

    2012-11-01

    Inflammation and excess abdominal adiposity (AA) are often present in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We determined the effects of hyperglycemia on nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) activation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of normal-weight women with PCOS with and without excess AA. This was a prospective controlled study. The study was conducted at an academic medical center. Fifteen normal-weight, reproductive-age women with PCOS (seven normal AA, eight excess AA) and 16 body composition-matched controls (eight normal AA, eight excess AA) participated in the study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry. Insulin sensitivity was derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (IS(OGTT)). Activated NFκB and the protein content of p65 and inhibitory-κB were quantified from MNC, and TNFα and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in plasma obtained from blood drawn while fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Compared with controls, both PCOS groups exhibited lower IS(OGTT), increases in activated NFκB and p65 protein, and decreases in inhibitory-κB protein. Compared with women with PCOS with excess AA, those with normal AA exhibited higher testosterone levels and lower TNFα and CRP levels. For the combined groups, the percent change in NFκB activation was negatively correlated with IS(OGTT) and positively correlated with androgens. TNFα and CRP were positively correlated with abdominal fat. In normal-weight women with PCOS, the inflammatory response to glucose ingestion is independent of excess AA. Circulating MNC and excess AA are separate and unique sources of inflammation in this population.

  2. Effect of excess iron on oxidative stress and gluconeogenesis through hepcidin during mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Joo Sun; Lee, Hye Ja; Kim, Won-Ho; Park, Sang Ick; Song, Jihyun

    2015-12-01

    Excessive tissue iron levels are a risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are associated with alterations in iron metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study used human liver SK-HEP-1 cells to examine how excess iron induces mitochondrial dysfunction and how hepcidin controls gluconeogenesis. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulated iron due to iron overload induced mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate content and cytochrome c oxidase III expression, with an associated increase in gluconeogenesis. Disturbances in mitochondrial function caused excess iron deposition and unbalanced expression of iron metabolism-related proteins such as hepcidin, ferritin H and ferroportin during the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are responsible for increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression. Desferoxamine and n-acetylcysteine ameliorated these deteriorations by inhibiting p38 MAPK and C/EBPα activity through iron chelation and ROS scavenging activity. Based on experiments using hepcidin shRNA and hepcidin overexpression, the activation of hepcidin affects ROS generation and iron deposition, which disturbs mitochondrial function and causes an imbalance in iron metabolism and increased gluconeogenesis. Repression of hepcidin activity can reverse these changes. Our results demonstrate that iron overload is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and that together they can cause abnormal hepatic gluconeogenesis. Hepcidin expression may modulate this disorder by regulating ROS generation and iron deposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A controlled study shows daily intake of 50 mg of French Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) lowers plasma reactive oxygen metabolites in healthy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Hu, S; Cesarone, M R; Dugall, M

    2013-08-01

    We investigated a low daily dosage of 50 mg of the antioxidant Pycnogenol for lowering oxidative stress in cigarette smokers who presented with good health. A group of 78 smokers were supplemented with 50 mg Pycnogenol over an eight-week period, followed by two weeks cessation. Another 77 smokers took placebo tablets. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites were detected by d-ROM test and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) was quantified by photometric analysis of ferric iron reduction to ferrous form. BAP and d-ROM values in the Pycnogenol and placebo group were comparative at trial start. Pycnogenol lowered d-ROM values by 25.3% from baseline 459.4±65 to 342.2±56 Carr units after 2 weeks. At time points 4, 5 and 8 weeks treatment d-ROM values in the Pycnogenol group were significantly lower than in the control group (PPycnogenol from week 8 to 10 d-ROM values increased from 288.4±32 to 381.3±39 Carr units. BAP values increased in the Pycnogenol group from baseline 1698±231 to 2349±294 μM after 8 weeks and dropped to 2002±203 μM after two weeks washout period. Values in the control group remained largely unaltered with 1669±311, 1673±229 and 1656±221 μM, at 0, 8 and 10 weeks, respectively. A daily dosage of 50 mg Pycnogenol significantly lowers reactive oxygen species as compared to a placebo-treated equivalent control group.

  4. Immune reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with selective control of JC virus reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen Sabrina; Broge, Thomas A; Ngo, Long; Gheuens, Sarah; Viscidi, Raphael; Bord, Evelyn; Rosenblatt, Jacalyn; Wong, Michael; Avigan, David; Koralnik, Igor J

    2014-07-01

    JC virus (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised patients. The mechanism of JCV reactivation and immunity in a transplanted immune system remains unclear. We prospectively studied 30 patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and collected blood and urine samples before HSCT and 3, 6, and 12 to 18 months after HSCT. Before HSCT, JCV DNA was detected in 7 of 30 urine, 5 of 30 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and 6 of 30 plasma samples. Although JC viruria remained stable after HSCT with detection in 5 of 21 samples, viremia was detected in only 1 of 22 plasma and none of 22 PBMC samples 12 to 18 months after HSCT. Prevalence of anti-JCV IgG was 83% before HSCT and decreased to 72% at 12 to 18 months. Anti-JCV IgM was rarely detected. JCV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses increased 12 to 18 months after HSCT. Although JC viruria correlated directly with detection of anti-JCV IgG, the cellular immune response to JCV measured by ELISpot was inversely correlated with anti-JCV IgG response. The diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia and age group were 2 independent patient factors associated with significantly reduced cellular immune responses to JCV. This prospective study in HSCT patients provides a model of interactions between the host immune response and viral activation in multiple compartments during the recovery of the immune system. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Process- and optoelectronic-control of NiOx thin films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraudy, Julien; Delfour-Peyrethon, Brice; Ferrec, Axel; Garcia Molleja, Javier; Richard-Plouet, Mireille; Payen, Christophe; Hamon, Jonathan; Corraze, Benoît; Goullet, Antoine; Jouan, Pierre-Yves

    2017-05-01

    In this contribution, based on the analyses of the discharge behavior as well as final properties of the deposited Ni-O films during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge, we have demonstrated that monitoring the oxygen flow rate leads to 4 different regimes of discharge. Tuning the oxygen partial pressure allows deposition of a large range of chemical compositions from pure nickel to nickel-deficient NiOx (x > 1) in the poisoned mode. Investigation of the plasma dynamics by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy suggests that the discharge behavior in the poisoned mode principally comes from the higher contribution of both oxygen and argon ions in the total ionic current, leading to a change in the ion induced secondary electron emission coefficient. Additionally, material characterizations have revealed that optoelectronic properties of NiOx films can be easily tuned by adjusting the O/Ni ratio, which is influenced by the change of the oxygen flow rate. Stoichiometric NiO films (O/Ni ratio ˜ 1) are transparent in the visible range with a transmittance ˜80% and insulating as expected with an electrical resistivity ˜106 Ω cm. On the other hand, increasing the O/Ni > 1 leads to the deposition of more conductive coating (ρ ˜ 10 Ω cm) films with a lower transmittance ˜ 50%. These optoelectronic evolutions are accompanied by a band-gap narrowing 3.65 to 3.37 eV originating from the introduction of acceptor states between the Fermi level and the valence band maximum. In addition, our analysis has demonstrated that nickel vacancies are homogeneously distributed over the film thickness, explaining the p-type of the films.

  6. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  7. Diphoton excess through dark mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Yi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Lefebvre, Michel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Pospelov, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Zhong, Yi-Ming [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Preliminary ATLAS and CMS results from the first 13 TeV LHC run have encountered an intriguing excess of events in the diphoton channel around the invariant mass of 750 GeV. We investigate a possibility that the current excess is due to a heavy resonance decaying to light metastable states, which in turn give displaced decays to very highly collimated e{sup +}e{sup −} pairs. Such decays may pass the photon selection criteria, and successfully mimic the diphoton events, especially at low counts. We investigate two classes of such models, characterized by the following underlying production and decay chains: gg→S→A{sup ′}A{sup ′}→(e{sup +}e{sup −})(e{sup +}e{sup −}) and qq̄→Z{sup ′}→sa→(e{sup +}e{sup −})(e{sup +}e{sup −}), where at the first step a heavy scalar, S, or vector, Z{sup ′}, resonances are produced that decay to light metastable vectors, A{sup ′}, or (pseudo-)scalars, s and a. Setting the parameters of the models to explain the existing excess, and taking the ATLAS detector geometry into account, we marginalize over the properties of heavy resonances in order to derive the expected lifetimes and couplings of metastable light resonances. We observe that in the case of A{sup ′}, the suggested range of masses and mixing angles ϵ is within reach of several new-generation intensity frontier experiments.

  8. On Infrared Excesses Associated with Li-Rich K Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Black, David V.; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Cashen, Sarah; Clarke, Matthew; hide

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant lithium and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched lithium, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and lithium abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be lithium-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by approximately 20 micrometers (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few lithium-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, 12C/13C. IR excesses by 20 micrometers, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of lithium-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported

  9. ON INFRARED EXCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH Li-RICH K GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center - IPAC, 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Carlberg, Joleen K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibbs, John C.; Cashen, Sarah; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan [Glencoe High School, 2700 NW Glencoe Rd., Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Deeb, J. Elin [Bear Creek High School, 9800 W. Dartmouth Pl., Lakewood, CO 80227 (United States); Larsen, Estefania; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Clarke, Matthew [Millard South High School, 14905 Q St., Omaha, NE 68137 (United States); Black, David V., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Walden School of Liberal Arts, 4230 N. University Ave., Provo, UT 84604 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the

  10. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  11. Fabrication of fluorinated polyimide microgrids using magnetically controlled reactive ion etching (MC-RIE) and their applications to an ion drag integrated micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Akinori; Shimokawa, Fusao; Matsuura, Tohru; Sawada, Renshi

    1996-09-01

    Magnetically controlled reactive ion etching (MC-RIE) of a fluorinated polyimide substrate achieved etching selectivity of up to 2600, resulting in a smoothly etched surface and structures hundreds of micrometers high having good perpendicularity. This technique is useful for three-dimensional microfabrication. As an example of a typical application, we fabricated an ion drag integrated micropump with microgrid sets consisting of 0960-1317/6/3/003/img1 high pole-shaped counter-electrode elements arranged like a pair of interleaved combs by using a fluorinated polyimide as the structural material, metallization, and lift-off using a ZnO sacrificial layer. This micropump moved ethanol with a flow rate of about 0960-1317/6/3/003/img2 when 200 V was applied to the counter electrodes.

  12. Modafinil improves antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism but not excessive daytime sleepiness, psychiatric symptoms or cognition in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, James B; Liu, Lianqi; Caligiuri, Michael P; Kash, Taylor P; May, Todd A; Murphy, Jody Delapena; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    To examine the efficacy and safety of modafinil on parkinsonism and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), as well as on negative symptoms and cognitive abilities in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV criteria) in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 8-week study. Twenty-four male patients, who were aged 20-63 years and on stable dose of second generation antipsychotic medications and with a negative symptom score of ≥ 20 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), were randomized into either the modafinil (n=12) or placebo (n=12) group. The modafinil group received flexible does of modafinil 50-200mg/day. Primary measurements were the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) for extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the PANSS and a neuropsychological (NP) test battery. Data were collected on Days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 for rating scales, and on Days 0, 28 and 56 for NP tests. Mixed model analyses showed a significant group-x-time interaction for total SAS scores (Pmodafinil group but remaining the same in the placebo group. There were no significant group-x-time interactions for scores of ESS (total), PANSS (total, positive and negative), and NP tests (composite and domains) (all P's>0.5). No significant adverse events were observed. The data suggest that modafinil was a safe adjunctive treatment which improved parkinsonian symptoms and signs in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Further studies in larger samples and with longer study time are needed to test/confirm the beneficial effects of modafinil on motor function. © 2013.

  13. Evaluation of serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with aggressive and chronic periodontitis and comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Kanaparthy

    2012-01-01

    Results : Overall, the mean CRP levels were high in subjects with generalized aggressive and chronic periodontitis compared with controls. This was found to be statistically significant. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.012 was found in the CRP level between groups I and II and between groups II and III, and between groups I and III. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated an increase in serum CRP levels in subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis as compared with the controls.

  14. On the Rod Drop technique in integral reactivity measures in control banks and reactor safety; Sobre a tecnica de Rod Drop em medidas de reatividade integral em bancos de controle e seguranca de reatores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, Giovanni Laranjo

    2013-07-01

    This work presents a study on the effect of shading in neutron detectors, when used in measures of reactivity with the rod drop technique. Shading can be understood as a change in the efficiency of the detectors, when it is given in detected neutrons fission occurred in the reactor, more evident in the detectors closest to the bank being inserted. The method of analysis was based on simulations of reactor IPEN/MB-01, using the code CITATION and MCNP program. In both cases, the results were static, showing Neutronic flows in only two situations: before insertion of the control rod and after insertion. The measure of reactivity in this case was achieved using the expression derived from the source jerk technique. In addition to theoretical study, data from a rod drop experiment conducted in the reactor IPEN/MB-01 were also used. In this case, the reactivity was obtained using inverse kinetic method, since experimental data were set of values that vary with time. In all cases, correction factors for the shadowing effect have been proposed. (author)

  15. OH reactivity and potential SOA yields from volatile organic compounds and other trace gases measured in controlled laboratory biomass burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Gilman; C. Warneke; W. C. Kuster; P. D. Goldan; P. R. Veres; J. M. Roberts; J. A. de Gouw; I. R. Burling; R. J. Yokelson

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments were used to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases (e.g., CO, CH4, NO2, etc.) emitted from controlled burns of various fuel types common to the Southeastern and Southwestern United States. These laboratory-based measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Fire...

  16. A TRANSLATIONAL INVESTIGATION TARGETING STRESS-REACTIVITY AND PRE-FRONTAL COGNITIVE CONTROL WITH GUANFACINE FOR SMOKING CESSATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Kober, Hedy; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Ashare, Rebecca; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Stress and pre-frontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking, however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation which attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors. We used a novel translational approach employing a validated laboratory analogue of stress-precipitated smoking, fMRI, and a proof-of-concept treatment period to evaluate whether the noradrenergic α2a agonist, guanfacine (3mg/day) versus placebo (0mg/day) reduced stress-precipitated smoking in the laboratory, altered cortico-striatal activation during the Stroop cognitive-control task, and reduced smoking following a quit attempt. In nicotine-deprived smokers (n=33), stress versus a neutral condition significantly decreased the latency to smoke, and increased tobacco craving, ad-libitum smoking, and systolic blood pressure in placebo-treated subjects, and these effects were absent or reduced in guanfacine-treated subjects. Following stress, placebo-treated subjects demonstrated decreased cortisol levels whereas guanfacine-treated subjects demonstrated increased levels. Guanfacine, compared to placebo, altered prefrontal activity during a cognitive control task, and reduced cigarette use but did not increase complete abstinence during treatment. These preliminary laboratory, neuroimaging and clinical outcome data were consistent and complementary and support further development of guanfacine for smoking cessation. PMID:25516371

  17. Control of the Chemoselectivity of Metal N-Aryl Nitrene Reactivity: C-H Bond Amination versus Electrocyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chen; Jana, Navendu; Jones, Crystalann; Driver, Tom G

    2016-10-04

    A mechanism study to identify the elements that control the chemoselectivity of metal-catalyzed N-atom transfer reactions of styryl azides is presented. Our studies show that the proclivity of the metal N-aryl nitrene to participate in sp3-C-H bond amination or electrocyclization reactions can be controlled by either the substrate or the catalyst. Electrocyclization is favored for mono-β-substituted and sterically noncongested styryl azides, whereas sp3-C-H bond amination through an H-atom abstraction-radical recombination mechanism is preferred when a tertiary allylic reaction center is present. Even when a weakened allylic C-H bond is present, our data suggest that the indole is still formed through an electrocyclization instead of a common allyl radical intermediate. The site selectivity of metal N-aryl nitrenes was found to be controlled by the choice of catalyst: Ir(I)-alkene complexes trigger electrocyclization processes while Fe(III) porphyrin complexes catalyze sp3-C-H bond amination in substrates where Rh2(II) carboxylate catalysts provide both products.

  18. Effect of dietary fiber on circulating C-reactive protein in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jun; Xu, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Weiguo; Han, Shufen; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that dietary fiber intake may have a lowing effect on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a sensitive marker of inflammation, in overweight/obese adults with inconsistent results. A literature search was performed in April 2014 for related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analysis was conducted. Meta-analysis including 14 RCTs showed that intervention with dietary fiber or fiber-rich food, compared with control, produced a slight, but significant reduction of 0.37 mg/L (95% CI -0.74, 0) in circulating CRP level among this population. Subgroup analyses showed that such a significant reduction was only observed after combining studies where the total fiber intake was 8 g/d higher in the intervention group than in the control group. No obvious heterogeneity and publication bias were found in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that dietary fiber or food naturally rich in fiber has beneficial effects on circulating CRP level in overweight/obese adults.

  19. The impact of eating behavior on psychological symptoms typical of reactive hypoglycemia. A pilot study comparing women with polycystic ovary syndrome to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, John A; Bouloux, Pierre; Hardiman, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The idea that diet can affect mood and behavior in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by altering blood glucose levels has become popular in recent years. This paper describes an online survey (N=462) of 24 women with PCOS, 299 healthy control women, 47 women who possibly had undiagnosed PCOS, and 92 men. The groups were compared for symptoms of mood and behavioral symptoms typical of reactive (postprandial) hypoglycemia. The outcome measures were two questionnaires that measure states associated with hypoglycemia: the Hypoglycemia Symptom Checklist-7 (HSC-7), which measures behavioral symptoms and the Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL), which measures emotional states. Controlling for age and body mass index (BMI) using between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), the women with PCOS scored significantly higher than the other three groups (phealthy control women closely matched for age, BMI, and eating behavior. The findings are suggestive of hypoglycemia-related mood and behavioral problems in PCOS. Future research should test whether blood glucose levels correlate with these symptoms in PCOS, and whether a low glycemic index ('low-GI') diet improves the symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental pain ratings and reactivity of cortisol and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II following a trial of hypnosis: results of a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; Quinn, Noel B; Kronfli, Tarek; King, Christopher D; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert R; Stapleton, Laura M; McGuire, Lynanne

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence supports the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing the pain associated with experimental stimulation and various acute and chronic conditions; however, the mechanisms explaining how hypnosis exerts its effects remain less clear. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines represent potential targets for investigation given their purported roles in the perpetuation of painful conditions; yet, no clinical trials have thus far examined the influence of hypnosis on these mechanisms. Healthy participants, highly susceptible to the effects of hypnosis, were randomized to either a hypnosis intervention or a no-intervention control. Using a cold pressor task, assessments of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were collected prior to the intervention (Pre) and following the intervention (Post) along with pain-provoked changes in salivary cortisol and the soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II (sTNFαRII). Compared with the no-intervention control, data analyses revealed that hypnosis significantly reduced pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Hypnosis was not significantly associated with suppression of cortisol or sTNFαRII reactivity to acute pain from Pre to Post; however, the effect sizes for these associations were medium-sized. Overall, the findings from this randomized controlled pilot study support the importance of a future large-scale study on the effects of hypnosis for modulating pain-related changes of the HPA axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial to reduce excessive weight gain in the first two years of life: protocol for the POI follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Galland, Barbara C; Cameron, Sonya L; Lawrence, Julie A; Gray, Andrew R; Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Healey, Dione; Sayers, Rachel M; Hanna, Maha; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Hatch, Burt; Taylor, Barry J

    2016-08-11

    The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study was a four-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 802 families which assessed whether additional education and support on sleep (Sleep group); food, physical activity and breastfeeding (FAB group); or both (Combination group), reduced excessive weight gain from birth to 2 years of age, compared to usual care (Control group). The study had high uptake at recruitment (58 %) and retention at 2 years (86 %). Although the FAB intervention produced no significant effect on BMI or weight status at 2 years, the odds of obesity were halved in those who received the sleep intervention, despite no apparent effect on sleep duration. We speculate that enhanced self-regulatory behaviours may exist in the Sleep group. Self-regulation was not measured in our initial intervention, but extensive measures have been included in this follow-up study. Thus, the overall aim of the POI follow-up is to determine the extent to which augmented parental support and education on infant sleep, feeding, diet, and physical activity in the first 2 years of life reduces BMI at 3.5 and 5 years of age, and to determine the role of self-regulation in any such relationship. We will contact all 802 families and seek renewed consent to participate in the follow-up study. The families have received no POI intervention since the RCT finished at 2 years of age. Follow-up data collection will occur when the children are aged 3.5 and 5 years (i.e. up to 3 years post-intervention). Outcomes of interest include child anthropometry, body composition (DXA scan), diet (validated food frequency questionnaire), physical activity (accelerometry), sleep (questionnaire and accelerometry), and self-regulation (questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment). Our follow-up study has been designed primarily to enable us to determine whether the intriguing benefit of the sleep intervention suggested at 2 years of age remains as children approach school age

  2. Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial to reduce excessive weight gain in the first two years of life: protocol for the POI follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael W. Taylor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI study was a four-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT in 802 families which assessed whether additional education and support on sleep (Sleep group; food, physical activity and breastfeeding (FAB group; or both (Combination group, reduced excessive weight gain from birth to 2 years of age, compared to usual care (Control group. The study had high uptake at recruitment (58 % and retention at 2 years (86 %. Although the FAB intervention produced no significant effect on BMI or weight status at 2 years, the odds of obesity were halved in those who received the sleep intervention, despite no apparent effect on sleep duration. We speculate that enhanced self-regulatory behaviours may exist in the Sleep group. Self-regulation was not measured in our initial intervention, but extensive measures have been included in this follow-up study. Thus, the overall aim of the POI follow-up is to determine the extent to which augmented parental support and education on infant sleep, feeding, diet, and physical activity in the first 2 years of life reduces BMI at 3.5 and 5 years of age, and to determine the role of self-regulation in any such relationship. Methods/design We will contact all 802 families and seek renewed consent to participate in the follow-up study. The families have received no POI intervention since the RCT finished at 2 years of age. Follow-up data collection will occur when the children are aged 3.5 and 5 years (i.e. up to 3 years post-intervention. Outcomes of interest include child anthropometry, body composition (DXA scan, diet (validated food frequency questionnaire, physical activity (accelerometry, sleep (questionnaire and accelerometry, and self-regulation (questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment. Discussion Our follow-up study has been designed primarily to enable us to determine whether the intriguing benefit of the sleep intervention suggested at 2

  3. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  4. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  5. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified as...

  6. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  7. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements on the dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random transla- tional jump diffusion model. The observed increase in ...

  8. [Disability attributable to excess weight in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Alvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2014-08-19

    To estimate the disability attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey (NHS), while the prevalence of associated morbidities was extracted from the 2006 NHS and from a national hospital data base. Population attributable fractions were applied and disability attributable was expressed as years life with disability (YLD). In 2006, in the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 791.650 YLD were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index (46.7% in males and 53.3% in females). Overweight (body mass index 25-29.9) accounted for 45.7% of total YLD. Males YLD were higher than females under 60. The 35-39 quinquennial group showed a difference for males of 16.6% while in the 74-79 group the difference was 23.8% for women. Osteoarthritis and chronic back pain accounted for 60% of YLD while hypertensive disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus were responsible of 37%. Excess body weight is a health risk related to the development of various diseases with an important associated disability burden and social and economical cost. YLD analysis is a useful monitor tool for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would

  10. Functionalization of reactive polymer multilayers with RGD and an anti-fouling motif: RGD density provides control over human corneal epithelial cell-substrate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocce, Elizabeth J.; Broderick, Adam H.; Murphy, Kaitlin C.; Liliensiek, Sara J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Lynn, David M.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Our study demonstrates that substrates fabricated using a ‘reactive’ layer-by-layer approach promote well-defined cell-substrate interactions of human corneal epithelial cells. Specifically, crosslinked and amine-reactive polymer multilayers were produced by alternating ‘reactive’ deposition of an azlactone-functionalized polymer [poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone)] and a primary amine-containing polymer [branched poly(ethylene imine)]. Advantages of our system include a 5 to 30-fold decrease in deposition time compared to traditional polyelectrolyte films and direct modification of the films with peptides. Our films react with mixtures of an adhesion-promoting peptide containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and the small molecule d-glucamine, a chemical motif which is non-fouling. Resulting surfaces prevent protein adsorption and promote cell attachment through specific peptide interactions. The specificity of cell attachment via immobilized RGD sequences was verified using both a scrambled RDG peptide control as well as soluble-RGD competitive assays. Films were functionalized with monotonically increasing surface densities of RGD which resulted in both increased cell attachment and the promotion of a tri-phasic proliferative response of a human corneal epithelial cell line (hTCEpi). The ability to treat PEI/PVDMA films with peptides for controlled cell-substrate interactions enables the use of these films in a wide range of biological applications. PMID:21972074

  11. Effects of supplementation with pomegranate juice on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Gurban, Camelia; Serban, Alexandru; Andrica, Florina; Serban, Maria-Corina

    2016-10-15

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) has a high content of antioxidants and bioactive polyphenols, being widely used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. The objective of this meta-analysis consisted in investigating the impact of PJ on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The search included SCOPUS, Medline and two Iranian bibliographic databases namely MagIran and Scientific Information Database (from inception to December 09, 2014) to identify prospective trials for investigating the impact of pomegranate preparations on serum concentrations of CRP. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods and outcomes. Among 427 participants in the selected studies, 216 were allocated to PJ groups, and 211 to control group. Meta-analysis of data from 5 eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) arms did not provide compelling evidence as to a significant CRP-lowering effect of supplementation with pomegranate juice (WMD: -0.22 mg/l, 95% CI: -0.45, 0.01, p = 0.061). The impact of pomegranate juice on plasma CRP levels was found to be independent of duration of supplementation (slope: 0.003; 95% CI: -0.005, 0.011; p = 0.444). In conclusion, this meta-analysis of data from 5 prospective trials did not indicate a significant effect of PJ on plasma CRP levels, and this effect was independent of duration of supplementation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Role of hydrodynamic factors in controlling the formation and location of unconformity-related uranium deposits: insights from reactive-flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghbelagh, Yousef Beiraghdar; Yang, Jianwen

    2017-03-01

    The role of hydrodynamic factors in controlling the formation and location of unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits in sedimentary basins during tectonically quiet periods is investigated. A number of reactive-flow modeling experiments at the deposit scale were carried out by assigning different dip angles and directions to a fault and various permeabilities to hydrostratigraphic units). The results show that the fault dip angle and direction, and permeability of the hydrostratigraphic units govern the convection pattern, temperature distribution, and uranium mineralization. A vertical fault results in uranium mineralization at the bottom of the fault within the basement, while a dipping fault leads to precipitation of uraninite below the unconformity either away from or along the plane of the fault, depending on the fault permeability. A more permeable fault causes uraninite precipitates along the fault plane, whereas a less permeable one gives rise to the precipitation of uraninite away from it. No economic ore mineralization can form when either very low or very high permeabilities are assigned to the sandstone or basement suggesting that these units seem to have an optimal window of permeability for the formation of uranium deposits. Physicochemical parameters also exert an additional control in both the location and grade of URU deposits. These results indicate that the difference in size and grade of different URU deposits may result from variation in fluid flow pattern and physicochemical conditions, caused by the change in structural features and hydraulic properties of the stratigraphic units involved.

  13. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (Prunners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (Prunners but in runners had signs of iron overload. Although iron supplements are widely used by athletes in an effort to increase performance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.

  14. Containment and Consensus-Based Distributed Coordination Control to Achieve Bounded Voltage and Precise Reactive Power Sharing in Islanded AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed approach to achieve both bounded voltage and accurate reactive power sharing regulation in AC microgrid. The coupling/trade-off effects between bus voltages and reactive power sharing regulation are first analyzed in detail to provide a guideline for coordi...

  15. The Next Step in Understanding Impaired Reactive Balance Control in People With Stroke: The Role of Defective Early Automatic Postural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, D. de; Roelofs, J.M.B.; Bruijnes, A.; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postural muscle responses are often impaired after stroke. We aimed to identify the contribution of deficits in very early postural responses to poorer reactive balance capacity, with a particular focus on reactive stepping as a key strategy for avoiding falls. METHODS: A

  16. Excess nitrate loads to coastal waters reduces nitrate removal efficiency: mechanism and implications for coastal eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Mirko; Voss, Maren; Erickson, Matthew; Dziallas, Claudia; Casciotti, Karen; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly nitrogen-saturated due to anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural loading with artificial fertilizer. Thus, more and more reactive nitrogen is entering streams and rivers, primarily as nitrate, where it is eventually transported towards the coastal zone. The assimilation of nitrate by coastal phytoplankton and its conversion into organic matter is an important feature of the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Dissolved reactive nitrogen is converted into a particulate form, which eventually undergoes nitrogen removal via microbial denitrification. High and unbalanced nitrate loads to the coastal zone may alter planktonic nitrate assimilation efficiency, due to the narrow stochiometric requirements for nutrients typically shown by these organisms. This implies a cascade of changes for the cycling of other elements, such as carbon, with unknown consequences at the ecosystem level. Here, we report that the nitrate removal efficiency (NRE) of a natural phytoplankton community decreased under high, unbalanced nitrate loads, due to the enhanced recycling of organic nitrogen and subsequent production and microbial transformation of excess ammonium. NRE was inversely correlated with the amount of nitrate present, and mechanistically controlled by dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and organic carbon (Corg) availability. These findings have important implications for the management of nutrient runoff to coastal zones. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The influence of anti-infective periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Demmer

    Full Text Available Periodontal infections are hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse systemic outcomes through inflammatory mechanisms. The magnitude of effect, if any, of anti-infective periodontal treatment on systemic inflammation is unknown, as are the patient populations most likely to benefit. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to test the hypothesis that anti-infective periodontal treatment reduces systemic c-reactive protein (CRP.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CINAHL databases were searched using sensitivity-enhancing search terms. Eligible RCTs enrolled patients with periodontal infection, compared a clearly defined anti-infective periodontal intervention (experimental group to an "inactive control" (no periodontal intervention or to an "active control" (lower treatment intensity than the experimental group. Mean differences in final CRP values at the earliest post-treatment time point (typically 1-3 months between experimental and control groups were analyzed using random-effects regression. Among 2,753 possible studies 20 were selected, which included 2,561 randomized patients(median=57. Baseline CRP values were >3.0 mg/L in 40% of trials. Among studies with a control group receiving no treatment, the mean difference in CRP final values among experimental treatment vs. control groups was -0.37 mg/L [95%CI=-0.64, -0.11], (P=0.005, favoring experimental treatment. Trials for which the experimental group received antibiotics had stronger effects (P for interaction=0.03 and the mean difference in CRP final values among experimental treatment vs. control was -0.75 mg/L [95%CI=-1.17,-0.33]. No treatment effect was observed among studies using an active treatment comparator. Treatment effects were stronger for studies that included patients with co-morbidities vs. studies that included "systemically healthy" patients, although the interaction was not significant (P=0.48.Anti-infective periodontal

  18. Excellent adherence and no contamination by physiotherapists involved in a randomized controlled trial on reactivation of COPD patients: a qualitative process evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effing TW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanja W Effing,1,2 Manon Krabbenbos,3 Marcel E Pieterse,4 Paul DLPM van der Valk,3 Gerhard A Zielhuis,5 Huib AM Kerstjens,6 Job van der Palen,371Repatriation General Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Daw Park, 2Flinders University, School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 3Medisch Spectrum Twente, Department of Pulmonology, Enschede, 4Department of Psychology, Health and Technology, Enschede, 5Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and HTA, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, 6Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 7Department of Research Methodology, Measurement and Data Analysis, University of Twente, The Netherlands Objective: To assess the adherence of physiotherapists to the study protocol and the occurrence of contamination bias during the course of a randomized controlled trial with a recruitment period of 2 years and a 1-year follow-up (COPE-II study.Study design and setting: In the COPE-II study, intervention patients received a standardized physiotherapeutic reactivation intervention (COPE-active and control patients received usual care. The latter could include regular physiotherapy treatment. Information about the adherence of physiotherapists with the study protocol was collected by performing a single interview with both intervention and control patients. Patients were only interviewed when they were currently receiving physiotherapy. Interviews were performed during two separate time periods, 10 months apart. Nine characteristics of the COPE-active intervention were scored. Scores were converted into percentages (0%, no aspects of COPE-active; 100%, full implementation of COPE-active.Results: Fifty-one patients were interviewed (first period: intervention n = 14 and control n = 10; second period: intervention n = 18 and control n = 9. Adherence with the COPE-active protocol was high (median scores: period 1, 96.8%; period 2, 92.1%, and

  19. Sleepiness or excessive daytime somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edd, Ethel Mitty; Flores, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) is associated with age-related changes, environment, circadian rhythm or sleep pattern disorder, insomnia, medications, lifestyle factors, depression, pain, and illness. The notion of "sleep architecture" connotes a structure that describes the sleep cycle (i.e., stages) and wakefulness during a single sleep period-that is, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Circadian rhythms perform a variety of functions including regulation of the quality and distribution of the stages of sleep. Insomnia includes delayed sleep onset as well as premature wakening; sleep is nonrestorative. Comorbidities associated with insomnia are Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, delirium, depression, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pain, degenerative diseases of the neurological system, and sleep apnea. Continuous inadequate sleep affects cognitive function, physical performance, overall well-being, and quality of life. There is a greater risk of falls from insomnia than is the use of hypnotics to manage it. Sleep disruption among older adults is underrecognized and undertreated. Assessment using valid tools can be performed rapidly. There are a variety of treatment options, including sleep hygiene and pharmacological and alternative modalities.

  20. Electrical Detection of C-Reactive Protein Using a Single Free-Standing, Thermally Controlled Piezoresistive Microcantilever for Highly Reproducible and Accurate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Sun Huang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 µg/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays.

  1. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... subject proposal. Project owners are permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request...

  2. Evaluation of the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PreCaP) for the hospitalized elderly: a prospective nonrandomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus-Szepesi, Kirsten J; Flinterman, Linda E; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Nieboer, Anna P; Bakker, Ton J; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-01-01

    The hospitalized elderly are at risk of functional decline. We evaluated the effects and care costs of a specialized geriatric rehabilitation program aimed at preventing functional decline among at-risk hospitalized elderly. The prospective nonrandomized controlled trial reported here was performed in three hospitals in the Netherlands. One hospital implemented the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP), while two other hospitals providing usual care served as control settings. Within the PReCaP hospital we compared patients pre-implementation with patients post-implementation of the PReCaP ("within-hospital analysis"), while our nonrandomized controlled trial compared patients of the PReCaP hospital post-implementation with patients from the two control hospitals providing usual care ("between-hospital analysis"). Hospitalized patients 65 years or older and at risk of functional decline were interviewed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months using validated questionnaires to score functioning, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We estimated costs per unit of care from hospital information systems and national data sources. We used adjusted general linear mixed models to analyze functioning and HRQoL. Between-hospital analysis showed no difference in activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) between PReCaP patients and control groups. PReCaP patients did have slightly better cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination; 0.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.6]), lower depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15; -0.9 [95% -1.1 to -0.6]) and higher perceived health (Short-Form 20; 5.6 [95% CI 2.8-8.4]) than control patients. Analyses within the PReCaP hospital comparing patients pre-and post-implementation of the PReCaP showed no improvement over time in functioning, depression, and HRQoL. One-year health care costs were higher for PReCaP patients, both for the within-hospital analysis (+

  3. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive modafinil treatment on residual excessive daytime sleepiness among nasal continuous positive airway pressure-treated japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Takasaki, Yuji; Yamashiro, Yoshihiro

    2013-08-15

    This double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of modafinil for treating excessive daytime sleepiness in Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Patients with residual excessive sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] ≥ 11) on optimal nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy (apnea-hypopnea index ≤ 10) were randomized to either 200 mg modafinil (n = 52) or placebo (n = 62) once daily for 4 weeks. Outcomes included baseline-week 4 changes in ESS total score, sleep latency on maintenance of wakefulness test (SL-MWT), nocturnal polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and safety. All 114 randomized patients completed the study. Mean change in ESS total score (-6.6 vs -2.4, p modafinil than with placebo. ESS total score decreased from > 11 to modafinil-treated patients and 30.6% of placebo-treated patients (p modafinil and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.146). Once-daily modafinil was effective and well tolerated for managing residual daytime sleepiness in Japanese OSAS patients with residual excessive daytime sleepiness on optimal nCPAP therapy.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in control and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis human spinal cord: upregulation in reactive astrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.; Catania, M. V.; Geurts, J.; Yankaya, B.; Troost, D.

    2001-01-01

    Excitotoxicity, which is mediated by the excessive activation of glutamate receptors, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). There is substantial information about the distribution and function of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the spinal cord, although

  5. Controlled reactive HiPIMS—effective technique for low-temperature (300 °C) synthesis of VO2 films with semiconductor-to-metal transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlček, J.; Kolenatý, D.; Houška, J.; Kozák, T.; Čerstvý, R.

    2017-09-01

    Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with a pulsed O2 flow control and to-substrate O2 injection into a high-density plasma in front of the sputtered vanadium target was used for low-temperature (300 °C) deposition of VO2 films with a pronounced semiconductor-to-metal transition onto conventional soda-lime glass substrates without any substrate bias voltage and without any interlayer. The depositions were performed using an unbalanced magnetron with a planar target of 50.8 mm diameter in argon-oxygen gas mixtures at the argon pressure of 1 Pa. The deposition-averaged target power density was close to 13 W cm-2 at a fixed duty cycle of 1% with a peak target power density up to 5 kW cm-2 during voltage pulses ranged from 40 µs to 100 µs. A high modulation of the transmittance at 2500 nm (between 51% and 8% at the film thickness of 88 nm) and the electrical resistivity (changed 350 times) at the transition temperature of 56-57 °C was achieved for the VO2 films synthesized using 50 µs voltage pulses when the crystallization of the thermochromic VO2(M1) phase was supported by the high-energy (up to 50 eV relative to ground potential) ions. Principles of this effective low-temperature deposition technique with a high application potential are presented.

  6. Effects of supplementation with green tea catechins on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Antal, Diana; Ursoniu, Sorin; Banach, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Promising experimental and clinical trials suggest that green tea decreases the inflammatory process in cardiometabolic diseases, but evidence from epidemiologic studies about the effects on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) seems inconsistent and ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of green tea supplementation on plasma CRP concentrations. We searched selected database up to October 26, 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of green tea supplementation on plasma CRP concentrations. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Meta-analysis of data from 11 RCTs arms did not indicate a significant effect of supplementation with green tea catechins on plasma CRP concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD], 0.085 mg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.225 to 0.395; P = 0.592). This effect size was robust in sensitivity analysis and omission of each individual study did not have a significant effect. The nonsignificant effects of green tea catechins on plasma CRP concentrations were also observed in subgroups of studies with green tea supplementation with a duration of catechins doses catechins on plasma CRP concentrations. Furthermore, well-designed trials are necessary to validate these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Level of Circulating High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D might elicit protective effects against cardiovascular disease by decreasing the level of circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, an inflammatory marker. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the association of vitamin D supplementation with circulating hs-CRP level. A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2013 (updated in February 2014 via PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled effects. The results of the meta-analysis of 10 trials involving a total of 924 participants showed that vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased the circulating hs-CRP level by 1.08 mg/L (95% CI, −2.13, −0.03, with the evidence of heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis suggested a higher reduction of 2.21 mg/L (95% CI, −3.50, −0.92 among participants with baseline hs-CRP level ≥5 mg/L. Meta-regression analysis further revealed that baseline hs-CRP level, supplemental dose of vitamin D and intervention duration together may be attributed to the heterogeneity across studies. In summary, vitamin D supplementation is beneficial for the reduction of circulating hs-CRP. However, the result should be interpreted with caution because of the evidence of heterogeneity.

  8. Effect of Flaxseed Intervention on Inflammatory Marker C-Reactive Protein: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Yu Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional food-flaxseed and its derivatives (flaxseed oil or lignans are beneficial for human health, possibly because of their anti-inflammatory effects. C-reactive protein (CRP, a sensitive marker of inflammation was chosen to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of flaxseed. We searched randomized controlled trials from PubMed and the Cochrane Library in October 2015 and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of flaxseed and its derivatives on CRP. The mean differences (net change in CRP (mg/L concentrations were pooled with a random- or a fixed-effects model depending on the results of heterogeneity tests. Overall, flaxseed interventions had no effects on reduction of CRP (p = 0.428. The null effects were consistent in the subgroup analysis with multiple studies and population characteristics. Significant heterogeneity was observed in most of the analyses. Meta-regression identified baseline body mass index (BMI as a significant source of heterogeneity (P-interaction = 0.032, with a significant reduction in CRP of 0.83 mg/L (95% confidence interval −1.34 to −0.31; p = 0.002 among subjects with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2. In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that flaxseed and its derivatives have a beneficial effect on reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP in obese populations.

  9. Worry-inducing stimuli in an aversive Go/NoGo task enhance reactive control in individuals with lower trait-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Rodilla, Carmen Cano; Beauducel, André

    2017-04-01

    This study relates predictions on reactive and proactive cognitive control to findings on anxious apprehension/worry and ERN/Ne. We investigated whether worry-inducing stimuli in an aversive performance setting lead to a more pronounced increase of the ERN/Ne in individuals with lower anxious apprehension/worry. We also explored the N2 amplitude in the context of worry-inducing stimuli. Fifty-eight participants performed an extended Go/NoGo task. A neutral or fearful face was presented at the beginning of each trial, with the fearful face as a worry-inducing, distracting stimulus. In an aversive feedback condition, aversive feedback was provided for false or too slow responses. We found a more pronounced decrease of the ERN/Ne after worry-inducing stimuli compared to neutral stimuli in participants with lower anxious apprehension/worry. Moreover, less pronounced N2 amplitudes were associated with shorter reaction times in the aversive feedback condition. Implications for future research on error monitoring and trait-anxiety are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive and Reactive Control Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Pierucci, Jillian M.; Rondon, Ana T.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be identified in the preschool years, but little is known about the correlates of ADHD symptoms in preschool children. Research to date suggests that factors such as temperament, personality, and neuropsychological functioning may be important in understanding the development of early ADHD…

  11. Dynamics of processes during the deposition of ZrO2 films by controlled reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozák, Tomáš; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    A time-dependent parametric model was applied to controlled reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) depositions of stoichiometric ZrO2 films, carried out in our laboratories, (i) to clarify the complicated dynamics of the processes on the target and substrate surfaces during voltage pulses, and (ii) to corroborate the importance of the O2 inlet configuration (position and direction) which strongly affects the O2 dissociation in the discharge and the chemisorption flux of oxygen atoms and molecules onto the substrate. The repetition frequency was 500 Hz at the deposition-averaged target power densities of 25 Wcm-2, being close to a target power density applicable in industrial HiPIMS systems, and 50 Wcm-2 with a pulse-averaged target power density up to 2 kWcm-2. The pulse duration was 50 μs. For the experimental conditions with the to-substrate O2 inlets, the deposition-averaged target power density of 50 Wcm-2, and the oxygen partial pressure of 0.05 Pa (being close to the mean value during controlled depositions), our model predicts a low compound fraction, changing between 8% and 12%, in the target surface layer at an almost constant high compound fraction, changing between 92% and 93%, in the substrate surface layer during the pulse period (2000 μs). The calculated deposition rate of 89 nm/min for these films is in good agreement with the measured value of 80 nm/min achieved for optically transparent stoichiometric ZrO2 films prepared under these conditions.

  12. A conceptual study on the formulation of a permeable reactive pavement with activated carbon additives for controlling the fate of non-point source environmental organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengyi; Liang, Chenju

    2018-02-01

    To take advantage of the road pavement network where non-point source (NPS) pollution such as benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) from vehicle traffic exhaust via wet and dry atmospheric deposition occurs, the asphalt pavement may be used as a media to control the NPS pollution. An experiment to prepare an adsorptive porous reactive pavement (PRP) was initiated to explore the potential to reduce environmental NPS vehicle pollution. The PRP was prepared and studied as follows: various activated carbons (AC) were initially screened to determine if they were suitable as an additive in the porous asphalt mixture; various mixtures of a selected AC were incorporated with the design of porous asphalt concrete (PAC) to produce PRP, and the PRP formulations were tested to ensure that they comply with the required specifications; qualified specimens were subsequently tested to determine their adsorption capacity for BTEX in aqueous solution, as compared to conventional PAC. The PRP08 and PRP16 samples, named for the design formulations of 0.8% and 1.6% of AC (by wt. in the formulation), exhibited low asphalt drain-down and low abrasion loss and also met all regulated specifications. The BTEX adsorption capacity measurements of PRP08 and PRP16 were 33-46%, 36-51%, 20-22%, and 6-8% respectively, higher than those obtained from PACs. Based on the test results, PRPs showed good physical performance and adsorption and may be considered as a potential method for controlling the transport of NPS vehicle pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Annato extract and β-carotene modulate the production of reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide in neutrophils from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni-Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2012-05-01

    Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body's defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes.

  14. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95% by 2005, goiter rates are still high. This study investigated the association between iodine excess and goiter. Methods: In a case control study, urinary iodine levels, complete blood count, T3, T4 and TSH levels were ...

  15. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  16. Reactive Oxygen Species and the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick J. H. J. Taverne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of free radicals, many hypotheses on the deleterious actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS have been proposed. However, increasing evidence advocates the necessity of ROS for cellular homeostasis. ROS are generated as inherent by-products of aerobic metabolism and are tightly controlled by antioxidants. Conversely, when produced in excess or when antioxidants are depleted, ROS can inflict damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Such a state of oxidative stress is associated with many pathological conditions and closely correlated to oxygen consumption. Although the deleterious effects of ROS can potentially be reduced by restoring the imbalance between production and clearance of ROS through administration of antioxidants (AOs, the dosage and type of AOs should be tailored to the location and nature of oxidative stress. This paper describes several pathways of ROS signaling in cellular homeostasis. Further, we review the function of ROS in cardiovascular pathology and the effects of AOs on cardiovascular outcomes with emphasis on the so-called oxidative paradox.

  17. A comparative study on the effects of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on thyroid oxidative stress in iodine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianshu; Shi, Rui; Qi, Tengche; Yin, Huisi; Mei, Lan; Han, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on treating iodine deficiency-induced goiter from the perspective of oxidative stress and to measure selenium values in Chinese herbs. One hundred twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups after inducing iodine-deficiency goiter: normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), iodine excess group (IE), and herbs with iodine excess group (HIE). The activities of oxidative enzymes and levels of oxidative products were measured using biochemical tests. The expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the thyroid was detected by immunohistochemistry and the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs were measured by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The herbs with iodine excess were tested to contain rich selenium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PRDX5 increased markedly, and the values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-HNE decreased significantly in the HIE group. In conclusion, compared with excess iodine, herbs with excess iodine damaged thyroid follicular cells less, which may be related to the increase of antioxidant capacity and rich selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs.

  18. Controlled Al3+ Incorporation in the ZnO Lattice at 188 °C by Soft Reactive Co-Sputtering for Transparent Conductive Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sanzaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conductive oxide (TCO layers, to be implemented in photo-anodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, were prepared by co-deposition of ZnO and Al using pulsed-direct current (DC-magnetron reactive sputtering processes. The films were deposited at low deposition temperatures (RT-188 °C and at fixed working pressure (1.4 Pa using soft power loading conditions to avoid intrinsic extra-heating. To compensate the layer stoichiometry, O2 was selectively injected close to the sample in a small percentage (Ar:O2 = 69 sccm:2 sccm. We expressly applied the deposition temperature as a controlling parameter to tune the incorporation of the Al3+ species in the targeted position inside the ZnO lattice. With this method, Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide films (ZnO:Al were grown following the typical wurtzite structure, as demonstrated by X-ray Diffraction analyses. A combination of micro-Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE analyses has shown that the incorporated host-atoms are Al3+ species in Zn2+ substitutional position; their amount increases following a direct monotonic trend with the deposition temperature. Correspondently, the c-axis strain into the layer decreases due to the progressive ordering of the lattice structure and reducing clustering phenomena. The maximum average Al content inside the film was ~2%, as measured by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, with a uniform distribution of the dopant species along the layer thickness traced by depth-profile XPS analyses. The optimised ZnO:Al layer, deposited at a rate of ~7 nm/min, exhibits high transmittance in the visible range (~85% and low resistivity values (~13 mΩ × cm. The material therefore fulfils all the requirements to be candidate as TCO for low-cost DSCs on flexible substrates for large area technologies.

  19. Stochastic multicomponent reactive transport analysis of low quality drainage release from waste rock piles: Controls of the spatial distribution of acid generating and neutralizing minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Beckie, Roger D.

    2017-06-01

    In mining environmental applications, it is important to assess water quality from waste rock piles (WRPs) and estimate the likelihood of acid rock drainage (ARD) over time. The mineralogical heterogeneity of WRPs is a source of uncertainty in this assessment, undermining the reliability of traditional bulk indicators used in the industry. We focused in this work on the bulk neutralizing potential ratio (NPR), which is defined as the ratio of the content of non-acid-generating minerals (typically reactive carbonates such as calcite) to the content of potentially acid-generating minerals (typically sulfides such as pyrite). We used a streamtube-based Monte-Carlo method to show why and to what extent bulk NPR can be a poor indicator of ARD occurrence. We simulated ensembles of WRPs identical in their geometry and bulk NPR, which only differed in their initial distribution of the acid generating and acid neutralizing minerals that control NPR. All models simulated the same principal acid-producing, acid-neutralizing and secondary mineral forming processes. We show that small differences in the distribution of local NPR values or the number of flow paths that generate acidity strongly influence drainage pH. The results indicate that the likelihood of ARD (epitomized by the probability of occurrence of pH< 4 in a mixing boundary) within the first 100 years can be as high as 75% for a NPR = 2 and 40% for NPR = 4. The latter is traditionally considered as a ;universally safe; threshold to ensure non-acidic waters in practical applications. Our results suggest that new methods that explicitly account for mineralogical heterogeneity must be sought when computing effective (upscaled) NPR values at the scale of the piles.

  20. Excessive libido in a woman with rabies.

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    Rabies is endemic in India in both wildlife and humans. Human rabies kills 25,000 to 30,000 persons every year. Several types of sexual manifestations including excessive libido may develop in cases of human rabies. A laboratory proven case of rabies in an Indian woman who manifested excessive libido is presented below. She later developed hydrophobia and died.

  1. Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting Updated:Nov 2,2015 Many factors can lead to excessive blood clotting, leading to limited or blocked blood flow. Blood clots can travel to the arteries or ...

  2. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  3. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions prior...

  5. Excess Based Allocation of Risk Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Norde, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new rule to allocate risk capital to portfolios or divisions within a firm. Specifically, we determine the capital allocation that minimizes the excesses of sets of portfolios in lexicographical sense. The excess of a set of portfolios is defined as the expected loss of

  6. The excessively crying infant : etiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhnikh, S.; Engelberts, A.C.; Sleuwen, B.E. van; Hoir, M.P. L’; Benninga, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and selflimiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, and underlying organic cause

  7. Triboson interpretations of the ATLAS diboson excess

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS excess in fat jet pair production is kinematically compatible with the decay of a heavy resonance into two gauge bosons plus an extra particle. This possibility would explain the absence of such a localised excess in the analogous CMS analysis of fat dijet final states, as well as the negative results of diboson resonance searches in the semi-leptonic decay modes.

  8. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Facebook is notably the most widely known and used social network worldwide. It has been described as a valuable tool for leisure and communication between people all over the world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths. If Facebook use seems to be related to the need to belong, affiliate with others and for self-presentation, the beginning of excessive Facebook use and addiction could be associated to reward and gratification mechanisms as well as some personality traits. Studies from several countries indicate different Facebook addiction prevalence rates, mainly due to the use of a wide-range of evaluation instruments and to the lack of a clear and valid definition of this construct. Further investigations are needed to establish if excessive Facebook use can be considered as a specific online addiction disorder or an Internet addiction subtype. PMID:27418940

  9. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Facebook is notably the most widely known and used social network worldwide. It has been described as a valuable tool for leisure and communication between people all over the world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths. If Facebook use seems to be related to the need to belong, affiliate with others and for self-presentation, the beginning of excessive Facebook use and addiction could be associated to reward and gratification mechanisms as well as some personality traits. Studies from several countries indicate different Facebook addiction prevalence rates, mainly due to the use of a wide-range of evaluation instruments and to the lack of a clear and valid definition of this construct. Further investigations are needed to establish if excessive Facebook use can be considered as a specific online addiction disorder or an Internet addiction subtype.

  10. Merits of excess bagasse as fuel for generating electricity. [Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, P.

    1981-05-01

    The rising cost of fuel oil improves the economics for sugar factories of using excess bagasse to produce more electricity than they require for sale to the public utility companies. Recently, the United States Sugar Corporation, in Florida, initiated the operation of a 20 MW plant fueled with excess bagasse only, and the electricity it generates is sold to a local utility. This constitutes a saving of 10 million liters of oil per year. The operating cycle is described of a system of high-pressure boilers and automatically controlled turbogenerator for the production of energy from bagasse. This system is a pre-engineered design which is very simple to install and operate and can be fitted in with the electric-generating installations which are normally found in practically any sugar factory without making significant modifications to the factory. An economic analysis is presented of power generation using excess bagasse for a 3MW unit and a 4MW unit.

  11. Evaluation of the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP for the hospitalized elderly: a prospective nonrandomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmus-Szepesi KJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten J Asmus-Szepesi,1 Linda E Flinterman,1 Marc A Koopmanschap,2 Anna P Nieboer,2 Ton J Bakker,3 Johan P Mackenbach,1 Ewout W Steyerberg1 1Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, 2Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, 3Stichting Wetenschap Balans, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: The hospitalized elderly are at risk of functional decline. We evaluated the effects and care costs of a specialized geriatric rehabilitation program aimed at preventing functional decline among at-risk hospitalized elderly.Methods: The prospective nonrandomized controlled trial reported here was performed in three hospitals in the Netherlands. One hospital implemented the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP, while two other hospitals providing usual care served as control settings. Within the PReCaP hospital we compared patients pre-implementation with patients post-implementation of the PReCaP (“within-hospital analysis”, while our nonrandomized controlled trial compared patients of the PReCaP hospital post-implementation with patients from the two control hospitals providing usual care (“between-hospital analysis”. Hospitalized patients 65 years or older and at risk of functional decline were interviewed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months using validated questionnaires to score functioning, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. We estimated costs per unit of care from hospital information systems and national data sources. We used adjusted general linear mixed models to analyze functioning and HRQoL.Results: Between-hospital analysis showed no difference in activities of daily living (ADL or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL between PReCaP patients and control groups. PReCaP patients did have slightly better cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination; 0.4 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.2–0.6], lower depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15; -0

  12. Protective Effects of the Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin against Excess Iron and Ferroptosis in Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuichi; Higa, Jason K; Shimada, Briana K; Horiuchi, Kate M; Suhara, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Motoi; Woo, Jonathan D; Aoyagi, Hiroko; Marh, Karra S; Kitaoka, Hiroaki; Matsui, Takashi

    2017-11-10

    Clinical studies suggest that myocardial iron is a risk factor for left ventricular remodeling in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). Ferroptosis was recently reported as a mechanism of iron-dependent non-apoptotic cell death. However, ferroptosis in the heart is not well understood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protects the heart against pathological stimuli such as ischemia. To define the role of cardiac mTOR on cell survival in iron-mediated cell death, we examined cardiomyocyte (CM) cell viability under excess iron and ferroptosis conditions. Adult mouse CMs were isolated from cardiac-specific mTOR transgenic (mTOR-Tg), cardiac-specific mTOR knockout (mTOR-KO), or control mice. CMs were treated with ferric iron [Fe (III)]-citrate, erastin, a class 1 ferroptosis inducer, or Ras Selective Lethal 3 (RSL3), a class 2 ferroptosis inducer. Live/Dead Cell Viability Assays revealed that Fe (III)-citrate, erastin, and RSL3 induced cell death. Co-treatment with ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor, inhibited cell death in all conditions. mTOR overexpression suppressed Fe (III)-citrate, erastin, and RSL3-induced cell death, while mTOR deletion exaggerated cell death in these conditions. H2DCFDA (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production showed that erastin-induced ROS production was significantly lower in mTOR-Tg versus control CMs. These findings suggest that ferroptosis is a significant type of cell death in CMs, and that mTOR plays an important role in protecting CMs against excess iron and ferroptosis, at least in part by regulating ROS production. Understanding the effects of mTOR in preventing iron-mediated cell death will provide a new therapy for patients with MI. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  13. Monadic Functional Reactive Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Ploeg (Atze); C Shan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractFunctional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a

  14. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions. 54.4979-1 Section 54.4979-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-1 Excise tax on certain excess...

  15. The Return of the Excessive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2002-01-01

    public, and the way that people use the superfluous landscapes is a way of consuming them. These ‘superfluous landscapes’ almost call for such consumption, just as they deny any idea of the disappearance of the urban heterogeneity. The essay tries to understand and describe this, through Bataillian ideas...... of heterogeneity and formlessness. The superfluous landscapes are seen as something that ’haunts’ not only the planners, but the city itself. As unseen and undeveloped parts of the urban field that has to be understood as a part of an ongoing process of excretion and re-appropriation. In the essay, these ideas......As the cities continue to grow, through the addition of more or less controlled enclaves, they develop into highly differentiated, heterogeneous urban fields of centres and that which lies in-between. It seems like a mechanism or an unknown ‘natural’ law is working against the homogenization...

  16. Excessive internet use in European adolescents: what determines differences in severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinka, Lukas; Škařupová, Kateřina; Ševčíková, Anna; Wölfling, Klaus; Müller, Kai W; Dreier, Michael

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the differences between non-excessive, moderately excessive, and highly excessive internet use among adolescents. These differences were explored in terms of personal characteristics, psychological difficulties, environmental factors, and manner of internet use. A representative sample was investigated, consisting of 18,709 adolescents aged 11-16 and their parents, from 25 European countries. Excessive internet use was measured using a five item scale covering following factors: salience, conflict, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and relapse and reinstatement. The main data analysis utilised multinomial and binary logistic regression models. The vast majority of respondents reported no signs of excessive internet use. Moderately excessive users (4.4%) reported higher emotional and behavioural difficulties, but also more sophisticated digital skills and a broader range of online activities. The highly excessive users (1.4%) differed from the non-excessive and moderately excessive users in their preference for online games and in having more difficulties with self-control. Adolescents who struggle with attention and self-control and who are inclined toward online gaming may be especially vulnerable to the otherwise uncommon phenomenon of excessive internet use.

  17. Pembrolizumab reactivates pulmonary granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Al-dliw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoid like reaction is a well-known entity that occurs as a consequence to several malignancies or their therapies. Immunotherapy has gained a lot of interest in the past few years and has recently gained approval as first line therapy in multiple advanced stage malignancies. Pneumonitis has been described as complication of such therapy. Granulomatous inflammation has been only rarely reported subsequent to immunotherapy. We describe a case of granulomatous inflammation reactivation affecting the lungs in a patient previously exposed to Pembrolizumab and have evidence of a distant granulomatous infection. We discuss potential mechanisms of the inflammation and assert the importance of immunosuppression in controlling the dis-inhibited immune system.

  18. Statistical characteristics of excess fiber length in loose tubes of optical cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Popov, Boris V.; Popov, Victor B.; Vazhdaev, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the data measurements of excess fiber length in the loose tubes of optical cable during the post-process quality control of ready-made products. At determining estimates of numerical characteristics of excess fiber length method of results processing of direct multiple equally accurate measurements has been used. The results of experimental research of the excess length value at the manufacturing technology of loose tube remains constant.

  19. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  20. The effects of rose hip (Rosa canina) on plasma antioxidative activity and C-reactive protein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and normal controls: A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Bente; Christensen, Robin; Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted

    2011-01-01

    reductase and catalase and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). The participants kept a food diary for the first 3 days and the last 3 days of the intervention period. The RA-patients completed The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: CRP...

  1. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, L.B.; Medina, J.L.; Baird, S.O.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for

  2. The P2X7 Receptor Mediates Toxoplasma gondii Control in Macrophages through Canonical NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Souza, Aline Cristina Abreu; Almeida-da-Silva, Cássio Luiz Coutinho; Rangel, Thuany Prado; Rocha, Gabrielle da Costa; Bellio, Maria; Zamboni, Dario Simões; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is the protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a potentially fatal disease to immunocompromised patients, and which affects approximately 30% of the world's population. Previously, we showed that purinergic signaling via the P2X7 receptor contributes to T. gondii elimination in macrophages, through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lysosome fusion with the parasitophorous vacuole. Moreover, we demonstrated that P2X7 receptor activation promotes the production of anti-parasitic pro-inflammatory cytokines during early T. gondii infection in vivo. However, the cascade of signaling events that leads to parasite elimination via P2X7 receptor activation remained to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the cellular pathways involved in T. gondii elimination triggered by P2X7 receptor signaling, during early infection in macrophages. We focused on the potential role of the inflammasome, a protein complex that can be co-activated by the P2X7 receptor, and which is involved in the host immune defense against T. gondii infection. Using peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages from knockout mice deficient for inflammasome components (NLRP3-/-, Caspase-1/11-/-, Caspase-11-/-), we show that the control of T. gondii infection via P2X7 receptor activation by extracellular ATP (eATP) depends on the canonical inflammasome effector caspase-1, but not on caspase-11 (a non-canonical inflammasome effector). Parasite elimination via P2X7 receptor and inflammasome activation was also dependent on ROS generation and pannexin-1 channel. Treatment with eATP increased IL-1β secretion from infected macrophages, and this effect was dependent on the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome. Finally, treatment with recombinant IL-1β promoted parasite elimination via mitochondrial ROS generation (as assessed using Mito-TEMPO). Together, our results support a model where P2X7 receptor activation by eATP inhibits T. gondii growth in macrophages by

  3. Effect of metal ions on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with hydrogen atom donors. Fine control on hydrogen abstraction reactivity determined by Lewis acid-base interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Michela; Mangiacapra, Livia; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2013-01-09

    A time-resolved kinetic study on the effect of metal ions (M(n+)) on hydrogen abstraction reactions from C-H donor substrates by the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) was carried out in acetonitrile. Metal salt addition was observed to increase the CumO(•) β-scission rate constant in the order Li(+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+). These effects were explained in terms of the stabilization of the β-scission transition state determined by Lewis acid-base interactions between M(n+) and the radical. When hydrogen abstraction from 1,4-cyclohexadiene was studied in the presence of LiClO(4) and Mg(ClO(4))(2), a slight increase in rate constant (k(H)) was observed indicating that interaction between M(n+) and CumO(•) can also influence, although to a limited extent, the hydrogen abstraction reactivity of alkoxyl radicals. With Lewis basic C-H donors such as THF and tertiary amines, a decrease in k(H) with increasing Lewis acidity of M(n+) was observed (k(H)(MeCN) > k(H)(Li(+)) > k(H)(Mg(2+))). This behavior was explained in terms of the stronger Lewis acid-base interaction of M(n+) with the substrate as compared to the radical. This interaction reduces the degree of overlap between the α-C-H σ* orbital and a heteroatom lone-pair, increasing the C-H BDE and destabilizing the carbon centered radical formed after abstraction. With tertiary amines, a >2-order of magnitude decrease in k(H) was measured after Mg(ClO(4))(2) addition up to a 1.5:1 amine/Mg(ClO(4))(2) ratio. At higher amine concentrations, very similar k(H) values were measured with and without Mg(ClO(4))(2). These results clearly show that with strong Lewis basic substrates variations in the nature and concentration of M(n+) can dramatically influence k(H), allowing for a fine control of the substrate hydrogen atom donor ability, thus providing a convenient method for C-H deactivation. The implications and generality of these findings are discussed.

  4. Predictors of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming in Czech teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilková, Jana; Chomynová, Pavla; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Young people's involvement in online gaming and the use of social media are increasing rapidly, resulting in a high number of excessive Internet users in recent years. The objective of this paper is to analyze the situation of excessive Internet use among adolescents in the Czech Republic and to reveal determinants of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming. Methods Data from secondary school students (N = 4,887) were collected within the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Logistic regression models were constructed to describe the individual and familial discriminative factors and the impact of the health risk behavior of (a) excessive users of social media and (b) excessive players of online games. Results The models confirmed important gender-specific distinctions - while girls are more prone to online communication and social media use, online gaming is far more prevalent among boys. The analysis did not indicate an influence of family composition on both the excessive use of social media and on excessive online gaming, and only marginal effects for the type of school attended. We found a connection between the excessive use of social media and binge drinking and an inverse relation between excessive online gaming and daily smoking. Discussion and conclusion The non-existence of significant associations between family environment and excessive Internet use confirmed the general, widespread of this phenomenon across the social and economic strata of the teenage population, indicating a need for further studies on the topic.

  5. Explaining CMS lepton excesses with supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. Allanach, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    1) Kostas Theofilatos will give an introduction to CMS result 2) Ben Allanach: Several CMS analyses involving di-leptons have recently reported small 2.4-2.8 sigma local excesses: nothing to get too excited about, but worth keeping an eye on nonetheless. In particular, a search in the $lljj p_T$(miss) channel, a search for $W_R$ in the $lljj$ channel and a di-leptoquark search in the $lljj$ channel and $ljj p_T$(miss) channel have all yielded small excesses. We interpret the first excess in the MSSM, showing that the interpretation is viable in terms of other constraints, despite only having squark masses of around 1 TeV. We can explain the last three excesses with a single R-parity violating coupling that predicts a non-zero contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ogata T. Genomic basis of aromatase excess syndrome: recombination- and replication-mediated rearrangements leading to CYP19A1 overexpression. ... 2013 Oct 18. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  7. Prevention of modern teenager's computer excessive gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsutdinova, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the prevention of young people's excessive gambling. The article organized and convincingly derived the prevention strategies dependent gaming behavior among young people and teenagers.

  8. Excessive deforestation of Gishwati Mountainous forest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sigp1. Excessive deforestation of Gishwati. Mountainous forest & biodiversity changes. Introduction. The Change in Forest cover in. Rwanda is result of the high growth of population density. The latter has doubled between 1978 and 2002. Over.

  9. Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were

  10. Excessive Internet gaming and decision making: do excessive World of Warcraft players have problems in decision making under risky conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2011-08-15

    The dysfunctional behavior of excessive Internet gamers, such as preferring the immediate reward (to play World of Warcraft) despite the negative long-term consequences may be comparable with the dysfunctional behavior in substance abusers or individuals with behavioral addictions, e.g. pathological gambling. In these disorders, general decision-making deficits have been demonstrated. Hence, the aim of the present work was to examine decision-making competences of excessive World of Warcraft players. Nineteen excessive Internet gamers (EIG) and a control group (CG) consisting of 19 non-gamers were compared with respect to decision-making abilities. The Game of Dice Task (GDT) was applied to measure decision-making under risky conditions. Furthermore psychological-psychiatric symptoms were assessed in both groups. The EIG showed a reduced decision-making ability in the GDT. Furthermore the EIG group showed a higher psychological-psychiatric symptomatology in contrast to the CG. The results indicate that the reduced decision-making ability of EIG is comparable with patients with other forms of behavioral addiction (e.g. pathological gambling), impulse control disorders or substance abusers. Thus, these results suggest that excessive Internet gaming may be based on a myopia for the future, meaning that EIG prefer to play World of Warcraft despite the negative long-term consequences in social or work domains of life. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    of SM and LPC and the amount of alcohol consumption during the past month. The proposal has both scientific and practical significance in... alcohol use (EAU). Drinking becomes excessive when it causes or elevates the risk for alcohol -related problems or complicates the management of other...the quantity of alcohol consumption during the past month. 2. KEYWORDS: Excessive alcohol use, lipidomics, timeline follow back 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  12. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  13. Organizational Inertia and Excessive Product Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuraki, Rie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the internal factors of excessive product proliferation. Since empirical literature on product over-proliferation focused on how to optimize existing product portfolio, the causes of excessive product proliferation have so far attracted little attention. This study employs a case study of Shiseido, a famous Japanese cosmetics company, with particular attention to product proliferation in the Shiseido chain store channel, because external factors are mostly absent from ...

  14. Hydrated Excess Protons Can Create Their Own Water Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuxing; Swanson, Jessica M J; Kang, Seung-gu; Zhou, Ruhong; Voth, Gregory A

    2015-07-23

    Grotthuss shuttling of an excess proton charge defect through hydrogen bonded water networks has long been the focus of theoretical and experimental studies. In this work we show that there is a related process in which water molecules move ("shuttle") through a hydrated excess proton charge defect in order to wet the path ahead for subsequent proton charge migration. This process is illustrated through reactive molecular dynamics simulations of proton transport through a hydrophobic nanotube, which penetrates through a hydrophobic region. Surprisingly, before the proton enters the nanotube, it starts "shooting" water molecules into the otherwise dry space via Grotthuss shuttling, effectively creating its own water wire where none existed before. As the proton enters the nanotube (by 2-3 Å), it completes the solvation process, transitioning the nanotube to the fully wet state. By contrast, other monatomic cations (e.g., K(+)) have just the opposite effect, by blocking the wetting process and making the nanotube even drier. As the dry nanotube gradually becomes wet when the proton charge defect enters it, the free energy barrier of proton permeation through the tube via Grotthuss shuttling drops significantly. This finding suggests that an important wetting mechanism may influence proton translocation in biological systems, i.e., one in which protons "create" their own water structures (water "wires") in hydrophobic spaces (e.g., protein pores) before migrating through them. An existing water wire, e.g., one seen in an X-ray crystal structure or MD simulations without an explicit excess proton, is therefore not a requirement for protons to transport through hydrophobic spaces.

  15. Asymptomatic prospective and retrospective cohorts with metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty indicate acquired lymphocyte reactivity varies with metal ion levels on a group basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallab, NJ; Caicedo, M; McAllister, K; Skipor, A; Amstutz, H; Jacobs, JJ

    2012-01-01

    Some tissues from metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty revisions have shown evidence of adaptive-immune reactivity (i.e., excessive peri-implant lymphocyte infiltration/activation). We hypothesized that, prior to symptoms, some people with MoM hip arthroplasty will develop quantifiable metal-induced lymphocyte reactivity responses related to peripheral metal ion levels. We tested 3 cohorts (Group-1: n=21 prospective longitudinal MoM hip arthroplasty; Group-2: n=17 retrospective MoM hip arthroplasty; and Group-3: n=20 controls without implants). We compared implant position, metal-ion release, and immuno-reactivity. MoM cohorts had elevated (p2), compared with 76% of Group-2 and 15% of Group-3 controls (patch testing was a poor diagnostic indicator with only 1/21 Group-1 positive). Higher cup-abduction angles (50° vs. 40°) in Group-1 were associated with higher serum Cr (p<0.07). However, sub-optimal cup-anteversion angles (9° vs. 20°) had higher serum Co (p<0.08). Serum Cr and Co were significantly elevated in reactive vs. non-reactive Group-1 participants (p<0.04). CD4+CD69+ T-helper lymphocytes (but not CD8+) and IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-6 cytokines were all significantly elevated in metal-reactive vs. non-reactive Group-1 participants. Our results showed that lymphocyte reactivity to metals can develop within the first 1 to 4 years after MoM arthroplasty in asymptomatic patients and lags increases in metal ion levels. This increased metal reactivity was more prevalent in those individuals with extreme cup angles and higher amounts of circulating metal. PMID:22941579

  16. Excess Entropy Production in Quantum System: Quantum Master Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Satoshi; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2017-10-01

    For open systems described by the quantum master equation (QME), we investigate the excess entropy production under quasistatic operations between nonequilibrium steady states. The average entropy production is composed of the time integral of the instantaneous steady entropy production rate and the excess entropy production. We propose to define average entropy production rate using the average energy and particle currents, which are ca