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Sample records for excess mortality risk

  1. Risk factors for excess mortality and death in adults with tuberculosis in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Hoog, A. H.; Williamson, J.; Sewe, M.; Mboya, P.; Odeny, L. O.; Agaya, J. A.; Amolloh, M.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Laserson, K. F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate excess mortality and risk factors for death during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Western Kenya. METHODS: We abstracted surveillance data and compared mortality rates during anti-tuberculosis treatment with all-cause mortality from a health and demographic surveillance

  2. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  3. Excess mortality and risk factors for mortality among a cohort of TB patients from rural south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolappan, C; Subramani, R; Kumaraswami, V; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the excess general mortality among tuberculosis (TB) patients in a rural area (Tiruvallur) and identify risk factors for TB-related mortality. The study population consisted of all TB patients aged >or=15 years who were registered under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) during the years 2000 to 2003 at Velliyur TB unit (TU) in south India. This is a retrospective cohort study of 3405 patients treated under the DOTS strategy, followed up from the date of start of treatment till the date of interview (for the survivors) or the date of death (for those who died). There were 2710 (79.6%) survivors and 695 (20.4%) deaths. The excess general mortalities for the cohort, expressed as standardised mortality ratio (SMR), was 4.2 (95%CI 3.9-4.5). High SMR values were obtained for patients belonging to the 15-44 years age group (12.1), patients on Category II regimen (9.3), treatment failures (9.1) and defaulters (7.8). The adjusted hazards ratios (aHR) were high for patients aged 45-59 years (1.9), >or=60 years (3.1) and with incomplete treatment due to default or failure (6.4). TB is one of the main causes of mortality in the younger age group. Among TB patients, the major risk factors for mortality are old age (>or=45 years) and incomplete treatment.

  4. Excess mortality in hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Christensen, Kaare

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding.......Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding....

  5. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  6. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozone-temperature risk surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ander; Reich, Brian J; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Hubbell, Bryan; Rappold, Ana G

    2017-01-01

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate non-linear, spatially varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observed data. Using the risk surfaces and climate projections we estimate daily mortality attributable to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. (moderate level) and 75 p.p.b. (US ozone NAAQS) for each time period. The average increases in city-specific median April-October ozone and temperature between time periods are 1.02 p.p.b. and 1.94 °F; however, the results varied by region. Increases in ozone because of climate change result in an increase in ozone mortality burden. Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. increases by 7.7% (1.6-14.2%). Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 75 p.p.b. increases by 14.2% (1.6 28.9%). The absolute increase in excess ozone mortality is larger for changes in moderate ozone levels, reflecting the larger number of days with moderate ozone levels.

  7. [Mortality attributable to excess weight in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2014-06-16

    Estimate the mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey, while data on associated mortality were extracted from the National Statistic Institute. Population attributable fractions were applied and mortality attributable to higher than optimal body mass index was calculated for people between 35 and 79 years. In 2006, among the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 25,671 lives (16,405 males and 9,266 women) were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index. Mortality attributable was 15.8% of total deaths in males and 14.8% in women, but if we refer to those causes where excess body weight is a risk factor, it is about a 30% of mortality (31.6% in men and 28% in women). The most important individual cause was cardiovascular disease (58%), followed by cancer. The individual cause with a major contribution to deaths was type 2 diabetes; nearly 70% in males and 80% in women. Overweight accounted for 54.9% deaths in men and 48.6% in women. Excess body weight is a major public health problem, with an important associated mortality. Attributable deaths are a useful tool to know the real situation and to monitor for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Mortality attributable to excess adiposity in England and Wales in 2003 and 2015: explorations with a spreadsheet implementation of the Comparative Risk Assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powles John W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the burden of fatal disease attributable to excess adiposity in England and Wales in 2003 and 2015 and to explore the sensitivity of the estimates to the assumptions and methods used. Methods A spreadsheet implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA methodology for continuously distributed exposures was used. For our base case, adiposity-related risks were assumed to be minimal with a mean (SD BMI of 21 (1 Kg m-2. All cause mortality risks for 2015 were taken from the Government Actuary and alternative compositions by cause derived. Disease-specific relative risks by BMI were taken from the CRA project and varied in sensitivity analyses. Results Under base case methods and assumptions for 2003, approximately 41,000 deaths and a loss of 1.05 years of life expectancy were attributed to excess adiposity. Seventy-seven percent of all diabetic deaths, 23% of all ischaemic heart disease deaths and 14% of all cerebrovascular disease deaths were attributed to excess adiposity. Predictions for 2015 were found to be more sensitive to assumptions about the future course of mortality risks for diabetes than to variation in the assumed trend in BMI. On less favourable assumptions the attributable loss of life expectancy in 2015 would rise modestly to 1.28 years. Conclusion Excess adiposity appears to contribute materially but modestly to mortality risks in England and Wales and this contribution is likely to increase in the future. Uncertainty centres on future trends of associated diseases, especially diabetes. The robustness of these estimates is limited by the lack of control for correlated risks by stratification and by the empirical uncertainty surrounding the effects of prolonged excess adiposity beginning in adolescence.

  9. Exposure to secondhand smoke and excess lung cancer mortality risk among workers in the "5 B's": bars, bowling alleys, billiard halls, betting establishments, and bingo parlours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M; Skeer, M

    2003-09-01

    To review existing data on exposure to secondhand smoke in bars, bowling alleys, billiard halls, betting establishments, and bingo parlours (the "5 B's") as assessed by ambient nicotine air concentration measurements and to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with this exposure. Using the Medline, Toxline, and Toxnet databases, the internet, and bibliographies of relevant articles, we identified studies that reported measurements of ambient nicotine concentrations in the 5 B's. Studies were included if they reported a mean concentration of ambient nicotine measured in at least one of the 5 B's. We calculated a weighted average of nicotine concentrations in each of the 5 B's. We then estimated the working lifetime excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with this exposure, as well as with exposure at the upper and lower limits of the range of mean exposures reported in all of the studies in each establishment category. Nicotine concentrations in the 5 B's were 2.4 to 18.5 times higher than in offices or residences, and 1.5 to 11.7 times higher than in restaurants. At these exposure levels, estimated working lifetime excess lung cancer mortality risk from secondhand smoke exposure for workers in the 5 B's is between 1.0-4.1/1000, which greatly exceeds the typical de manifestis risk level of 0.3/1000. Workers in the 5 B's have high levels of occupational exposure to secondhand smoke and must be included in workplace smoking regulations.

  10. Excess heart-disease-related mortality in a national study of patients with mental disorders: identifying modifiable risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Morden, Nancy E; Austin, Karen; Ilgen, Mark; McCarthy, John F; Dalack, Gregory; Blow, Frederic C

    2009-01-01

    People with mental disorders are estimated to die 25 years younger than the general population, and heart disease (HD) is a major contributor to their mortality. We assessed whether Veterans Affairs (VA) health system patients with mental disorders were more likely to die from HD than patients without these disorders, and whether modifiable factors may explain differential mortality risks. Subjects included VA patients who completed the 1999 Large Health Survey of Veteran Enrollees (LHSV) and were either diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, other psychotic disorders, major depressive disorder or other depression diagnosis or diagnosed with none of these disorders. LHSV data on patient sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, smoking) were linked to mortality data from the National Death Index of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess 8-year HD-related mortality risk by diagnosis, adding patient sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors. Of 147,193 respondents, 11,809 (8%) died from HD. After controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors, we found that those with schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR)=1.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15-1.36; Pmental disorders. Controlling for behavioral factors diminished, but did not eliminate, the impact of psychosis on mortality. Smoking (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.26-1.39; Psmoking cessation and physical activity among veterans with psychotic disorders are warranted.

  11. Lung cancer mortality (1950-1999 among Eldorado uranium workers: a comparison of models of carcinogenesis and empirical excess risk models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Eidemüller

    Full Text Available Lung cancer mortality after exposure to radon decay products (RDP among 16,236 male Eldorado uranium workers was analyzed. Male workers from the Beaverlodge and Port Radium uranium mines and the Port Hope radium and uranium refinery and processing facility who were first employed between 1932 and 1980 were followed up from 1950 to 1999. A total of 618 lung cancer deaths were observed. The analysis compared the results of the biologically-based two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE model to the empirical excess risk model. The spontaneous clonal expansion rate of pre-malignant cells was reduced at older ages under the assumptions of the TSCE model. Exposure to RDP was associated with increase in the clonal expansion rate during exposure but not afterwards. The increase was stronger for lower exposure rates. A radiation-induced bystander effect could be a possible explanation for such an exposure response. Results on excess risks were compared to a linear dose-response parametric excess risk model with attained age, time since exposure and dose rate as effect modifiers. In all models the excess relative risk decreased with increasing attained age, increasing time since exposure and increasing exposure rate. Large model uncertainties were found in particular for small exposure rates.

  12. Excess mortality in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from...... January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over...... a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0-30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  13. Excess morbidity and mortality in patients with craniopharyngioma: a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; Olsson, Daniel S; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Hammarstrand, Casper; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; van der Lely, Aart J; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2018-01-01

    Most studies in patients with craniopharyngioma did not investigate morbidity and mortality relative to the general population nor evaluated risk factors for excess morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine excess morbidity and mortality, as well as their determinants in patients with craniopharyngioma. Hospital-based retrospective cohort study conducted between 1987 and 2014. We included 144 Dutch and 80 Swedish patients with craniopharyngioma identified by a computer-based search in the medical records (105 females (47%), 112 patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (50%), 3153 person-years of follow-up). Excess morbidity and mortality were analysed using standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs). Risk factors were evaluated univariably by comparing SIRs and SMRs between non-overlapping subgroups. Patients with craniopharyngioma experienced excess morbidity due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (SIR: 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8-6.8) and cerebral infarction (SIR: 4.9, 95% CI: 3.1-8.0) compared to the general population. Risks for malignant neoplasms, myocardial infarctions and fractures were not increased. Patients with craniopharyngioma also had excessive total mortality (SMR: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.0-3.8), and mortality due to circulatory (SMR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-4.5) and respiratory (SMR: 6.0, 95% CI: 2.5-14.5) diseases. Female sex, childhood-onset craniopharyngioma, hydrocephalus and tumour recurrence were identified as risk factors for excess T2DM, cerebral infarction and total mortality. Patients with craniopharyngioma are at an increased risk for T2DM, cerebral infarction, total mortality and mortality due to circulatory and respiratory diseases. Female sex, childhood-onset craniopharyngioma, hydrocephalus and tumour recurrence are important risk factors. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  15. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Nancy H; Daumit, Gail L; Dua, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders (SMD) is a major public health challenge that warrants action. The number and scope of truly tested interventions in this area remain limited, and strategies for implementation and scaling up of programmes with a strong evidence base...... by that model, we describe a comprehensive framework that may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating interventions and programmes to reduce excess mortality in persons with SMD. This framework includes individual-focused, health system-focused, and community level and policy-focused interventions...

  16. An analysis of the excess mortality profile during the 2006 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Island of Mauritius was affected by a large scale epidemic outbreak of. Chikungunya Fever (CHIKF) from February to April 2006. It was observed that this epidemic was associated with an excess mortality during the months of March to May 2006 in Mauritius. This study was aimed to analyze the gender and age group ...

  17. Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting Updated:Nov 2,2015 Many factors can lead to excessive blood clotting, leading to limited or blocked blood flow. Blood clots can travel to the arteries or ...

  18. Excess Based Allocation of Risk Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Norde, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new rule to allocate risk capital to portfolios or divisions within a firm. Specifically, we determine the capital allocation that minimizes the excesses of sets of portfolios in lexicographical sense. The excess of a set of portfolios is defined as the expected loss of

  19. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, summer 2015 was the second warmest summer for 150 years (after summer 2003). For summer 2003, a 6.9% excess mortality was estimated for Switzerland, which corresponded to 975 extra deaths. The impact of the heat in summer 2015 in Switzerland has not so far been evaluated. Daily age group-, gender- and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer (June-August) 2015 was estimated, based on predictions derived from quasi-Poisson regression models fitted to the daily mortality data for the 10 previous years. Estimates of excess mortality were derived for 1 June to 31 August, at national and regional level, as well as by month and for specific heat episodes identified in summer 2015 by use of seven different definitions. 804 excess deaths (5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0‒7.9%) were estimated for summer 2015 compared with previous summers, with the highest percentage obtained for July (11.6%, 95% CI 3.7‒19.4%). Seventy-seven percent of deaths occurred in people aged 75 years and older. Ticino (10.3%, 95% CI -1.8‒22.4%), Northwestern Switzerland (9.5%, 95% CI 2.7‒16.3%) and Espace Mittelland (8.9%, 95% CI 3.7‒14.1%) showed highest excess mortality during this three-month period, whereas fewer deaths than expected (-3.3%, 95% CI -9.2‒2.6%) were observed in Eastern Switzerland, the coldest region. The largest excess estimate of 23.7% was obtained during days when both maximum apparent and minimum night-time temperature reached extreme values (+32 and +20 °C, respectively), with 31.0% extra deaths for periods of three days or more. Heat during summer 2015 was associated with an increase in mortality in the warmer regions of Switzerland and it mainly affected older people. Estimates for 2015 were only a little lower compared to those of summer 2003, indicating that mitigation measures to prevent heat-related mortality in Switzerland have not become noticeably effective in the last 10 years.

  20. Non-Medical Risk Factors as Avoidable Determinants of Excess Mortality in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study in Nicaragua, a Model Low Income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montini, Giovanni; Edefonti, Alberto; Galán, Yajaira Silva; Sandoval Díaz, Mabel; Medina Manzanarez, Marta; Marra, Giuseppina; Robusto, Fabio; Tognoni, Gianni; Sereni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    %) had died. Cox regression analysis showed an independent contribution to mortality of CKD stage at diagnosis and of level of education, with overlapping HR values (HR and 95%CI: 2.66; 1.93-3.66 and 2.72; 1.71-4.33, respectively). The unfavourable socioeconomic and cultural background of the pediatric study cohort and the severity of kidney damage at diagnosis were the key determinants of the clinical risk conditions at baseline and of the mortality outcome. Long-term structural interventions on such backgrounds must be adopted to assure effectiveness of medical care and to assure an earlier diagnosis of CKD in these patients. The translation-extension of our results is currently underway with an agenda which includes: 1) better integration of chronic pediatric conditions into primary care strategies to promote prevention and early timely referral; 2) the consideration of socioeconomic conditions as a mandatory component of the packages of best-care; 3) the formulation and flexible adaptation of guidelines and educational programs, based on the information generated by a context-specific, epidemiological monitoring of needs and outcomes, guaranteed by an effective database.

  1. Non-Medical Risk Factors as Avoidable Determinants of Excess Mortality in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study in Nicaragua, a Model Low Income Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Montini

    -up and 65 (25% had died. Cox regression analysis showed an independent contribution to mortality of CKD stage at diagnosis and of level of education, with overlapping HR values (HR and 95%CI: 2.66; 1.93-3.66 and 2.72; 1.71-4.33, respectively.The unfavourable socioeconomic and cultural background of the pediatric study cohort and the severity of kidney damage at diagnosis were the key determinants of the clinical risk conditions at baseline and of the mortality outcome. Long-term structural interventions on such backgrounds must be adopted to assure effectiveness of medical care and to assure an earlier diagnosis of CKD in these patients. The translation-extension of our results is currently underway with an agenda which includes: 1 better integration of chronic pediatric conditions into primary care strategies to promote prevention and early timely referral; 2 the consideration of socioeconomic conditions as a mandatory component of the packages of best-care; 3 the formulation and flexible adaptation of guidelines and educational programs, based on the information generated by a context-specific, epidemiological monitoring of needs and outcomes, guaranteed by an effective database.

  2. Excess mortality in women with hospital-acquired bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, L; Paul, M; Weinberger, M; Koenigsberger, H; Drucker, M; Samra, Z; Yahav, J; Pitlik, S D

    2001-08-01

    We examined the outcomes of bloodstream infection in men and in women and whether any sex-related differences were explained by underlying disorders, severity of disease, or clinical management. Using a prospectively collected database, we compared in-hospital mortality in men and women. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to test whether sex-related differences could be due to potential confounders. Of 4250 patients with bloodstream infections, 1750 (41%) had hospital-acquired infections. The overall case fatality was 31% (625 of 2032) in women and 29% (631 of 2218, P = 0.1) in men. However, 43% (325/758) of the women with hospital-acquired infections died, compared with 33% (327/992) of the men (P = 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, female sex was associated with greater mortality in patients with hospital-acquired infections (odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 2.6). The excess mortality in women was mainly seen in patients with major underlying disorders (fatality rate of 45% [234 of 525] in women vs. 32% in men [234 of 743, P = 0.0001). Mortality in women with hospital-acquired bloodstream infections is substantially greater than in men. The excess mortality was concentrated in women with severe underlying disorders, suggesting that sepsis might have accentuated differences in the outcome of underlying disorders in women.

  3. Excess mortality following hip fracture: a systematic epidemiological review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; van Staa, T; Ariely, R

    2009-01-01

    the need for interventions to reduce this risk.Patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable risk for subsequent osteoporotic fractures and premature death. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify all studies that reported unadjusted and excess...

  4. Density-dependent mortality of the human host in onchocerciasis: relationships between microfilarial load and excess mortality.

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    Martin Walker

    Full Text Available The parasite Onchocerca volvulus has, until recently, been regarded as the cause of a chronic yet non-fatal condition. Recent analyses, however, have indicated that in addition to blindness, the parasite can also be directly associated with human mortality. Such analyses also suggested that the relationship between microfilarial load and excess mortality might be non-linear. Determining the functional form of such relationship would contribute to quantify the population impact of mass microfilaricidal treatment.Data from the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP collected from 1974 through 2001 were used to determine functional relationships between microfilarial load and excess mortality of the human host. The goodness-of-fit of three candidate functional forms (a (log- linear model and two saturating functions were explored and a saturating (log- sigmoid function was deemed to be statistically the best fit. The excess mortality associated with microfilarial load was also found to be greater in younger hosts. The attributable mortality risk due to onchocerciasis was estimated to be 5.9%.Incorporation of this non-linear functional relationship between microfilarial load and excess mortality into mathematical models for the transmission and control of onchocerciasis will have important implications for our understanding of the population biology of O. volvulus, its impact on human populations, the global burden of disease due to onchocerciasis, and the projected benefits of control programmes in both human and economic terms.

  5. Excess cardiovascular mortality associated with cold spells in the Czech Republic

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    Kyncl Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between cardiovascular mortality and winter cold spells was evaluated in the population of the Czech Republic over 21-yr period 1986–2006. No comprehensive study on cold-related mortality in central Europe has been carried out despite the fact that cold air invasions are more frequent and severe in this region than in western and southern Europe. Methods Cold spells were defined as periods of days on which air temperature does not exceed -3.5°C. Days on which mortality was affected by epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections were identified and omitted from the analysis. Excess cardiovascular mortality was determined after the long-term changes and the seasonal cycle in mortality had been removed. Excess mortality during and after cold spells was examined in individual age groups and genders. Results Cold spells were associated with positive mean excess cardiovascular mortality in all age groups (25–59, 60–69, 70–79 and 80+ years and in both men and women. The relative mortality effects were most pronounced and most direct in middle-aged men (25–59 years, which contrasts with majority of studies on cold-related mortality in other regions. The estimated excess mortality during the severe cold spells in January 1987 (+274 cardiovascular deaths is comparable to that attributed to the most severe heat wave in this region in 1994. Conclusion The results show that cold stress has a considerable impact on mortality in central Europe, representing a public health threat of an importance similar to heat waves. The elevated mortality risks in men aged 25–59 years may be related to occupational exposure of large numbers of men working outdoors in winter. Early warnings and preventive measures based on weather forecast and targeted on the susceptible parts of the population may help mitigate the effects of cold spells and save lives.

  6. Excess cardiovascular mortality associated with cold spells in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysely, Jan; Pokorna, Lucie; Kyncl, Jan; Kriz, Bohumir

    2009-01-15

    The association between cardiovascular mortality and winter cold spells was evaluated in the population of the Czech Republic over 21-yr period 1986-2006. No comprehensive study on cold-related mortality in central Europe has been carried out despite the fact that cold air invasions are more frequent and severe in this region than in western and southern Europe. Cold spells were defined as periods of days on which air temperature does not exceed -3.5 degrees C. Days on which mortality was affected by epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections were identified and omitted from the analysis. Excess cardiovascular mortality was determined after the long-term changes and the seasonal cycle in mortality had been removed. Excess mortality during and after cold spells was examined in individual age groups and genders. Cold spells were associated with positive mean excess cardiovascular mortality in all age groups (25-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ years) and in both men and women. The relative mortality effects were most pronounced and most direct in middle-aged men (25-59 years), which contrasts with majority of studies on cold-related mortality in other regions. The estimated excess mortality during the severe cold spells in January 1987 (+274 cardiovascular deaths) is comparable to that attributed to the most severe heat wave in this region in 1994. The results show that cold stress has a considerable impact on mortality in central Europe, representing a public health threat of an importance similar to heat waves. The elevated mortality risks in men aged 25-59 years may be related to occupational exposure of large numbers of men working outdoors in winter. Early warnings and preventive measures based on weather forecast and targeted on the susceptible parts of the population may help mitigate the effects of cold spells and save lives.

  7. Excessive infant crying : definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Hirasing, RA

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  8. Obesity and excess mortality among the elderly in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Malena; Noronha, Kenya; Palloni, Alberto; Novak, Beatriz

    2010-02-01

    Increasing levels of obesity could compromise future gains in life expectancy in low- and high-income countries. Although excess mortality associated with obesity and, more generally, higher levels of body mass index (BAI) have been investigated in the United States, there is little research about the impact of obesity on mortality in Latin American countries, where very the rapid rate of growth of prevalence of obesity and overweight occur jointly with poor socioeconomic conditions. The aim of this article is to assess the magnitude of excess mortality due to obesity and overweight in Mexico and the United States. For this purpose, we take advantage of two comparable data sets: the Health and Retirement Study 2000 and 2004 for the United States, and the Mexican Health and Aging Study 2001 and 2003 for Mexico. We find higher excess mortality risks among obese and overweight individuals aged 60 and older in Mexico than in the United States. Yet, when analyzing excess mortality among different socioeconomic strata, we observe greater gaps by education in the United States than in Mexico. We also find that although the probability of experiencing obesity-related chronic diseases among individuals with high BMI is larger for the U.S. elderly, the relative risk of dying conditional on experiencing these diseases is higher in Mexico.

  9. Excess Mortality in Patients Diagnosed With Hypothyroidism: A Nationwide Cohort Study of Singletons and Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0–30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41–1.65). Although the effect attenuated, hypothyroidism remained associated with increased mortality when evaluating subjects with a CS = 0 (HR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05–1.44). In twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid twin had excess mortality compared with the corresponding euthyroid cotwin (HR 1.40; 95% CI 0.95–2.05). However, after stratifying for zygosity, hypothyroidism was associated with excess mortality in dizygotic twin pairs (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.00–2.58), whereas the association attenuated in monozygotic pairs (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.55–2.05). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is associated with an excess mortality of around 50%, which to some degree is explained by comorbidity. In addition, the finding of an association between hypothyroidism and mortality within disease discordant dizygotic but not monozygotic twin pairs indicates that the association between hypothyroidism and mortality is also influenced by genetic confounding. PMID:23365121

  10. Excess mortality during the first year after arterial trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lars; Lindholt, Jes; Roeder, Ole

    2015-01-01

    University Hospital (OUH). METHODS: This study was based on a historical cohort comprising all arterial traumas treated at OUH between 1990 and 2012. The Personal Identification Numbers were drawn and cross-referenced between The Danish Vascular Registry and the Accident Analysis Group. Mortality......INTRODUCTION: Extant studies on arterial trauma originate from outside Denmark and their findings may therefore not apply to a Danish setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term mortality and clinical characteristics of patients with arterial trauma treated in Odense...... adjustment for the effect of the first year. Whether the observed mortality is due to surgery itself, patients' risk behaviour or other factors remains unclear. Further national investigation is needed. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study was approved by the Danish Data...

  11. Excess mortality in people with mental illness: findings from a Northern Italy psychiatric case register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starace, Fabrizio; Mungai, Francesco; Baccari, Flavia; Galeazzi, Gian Maria

    2017-12-22

    People with mental disorders show mortality rates up to 22.2 times higher than that of the general population. In spite of progressive increase in life expectancy observed in the general population, the mortality gap of people suffering from mental health problems has gradually widened. The aim of this paper was to study mortality rates in people suffering from mental illness in a cohort of people (16,981 subjects) in the local mental health register of the province of Modena during the decade 2006-2015. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated to compare the mortality of people with mental disorders to the mortality of people living in the province of Modena and the excess of mortality was studied in relation to the following variables: gender, age group, diagnosis and causes of death. In addition, Poisson regression analysis was performed to study the association between patient characteristics and mortality. An overall excess mortality of 80% was found in subjects under the care of mental health services as compared to the reference population (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.7-1.9). Subjects in the 15-44 year group presented the highest SMR (9.2, 95% CI 6.9-11.4). The most prevalent cause of death was cancer (28.1% of deaths). At the Poisson regression, the diagnosis "Substance abuse and dependence" showed the highest relative risk (RR) (4.00). Moreover, being male, single, unemployed and with a lower qualification was associated with higher RRs. Our study confirms that subjects with mental illness have higher SMR. Noteworthy, the overall higher risk of mortality was observed in the younger age group.

  12. Excess Mortality Attributable to Clostridium difficile and Risk Factors for Infection in an Historic Cohort of Hospitalised Patients Followed Up in the United Kingdom Death Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Reacher

    Full Text Available We compared time from hospital admission to death in a probability sample of 100 Clostridium difficile infected cases and a probability sample of 98 non-cases admitted to an English teaching hospital between 2005 and 2007 with follow up in the UK national death register using survival analysis.Clostridium difficile infection was associated with a 50% increased risk of death (Hazard Ratio 1.51 (95% CI: 1.05-2.19 p = 0.03 at between five to eight years in Cox Regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, diagnosis of a malignant condition and insertion of a nasogastric tube during admission. Acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection was independently associated with an almost six fold higher odds of being admitted with a diagnosis of infection of any other type (OR 5.79 (2.19, 15.25 p<0.001.Our results strongly support continued priority being given to improve prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in the English National Health Service particularly in patients admitted with an infection. Our results may be applicable to other health systems.

  13. Explaining the excess mortality in Scotland compared with England: pooling of 18 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Gerry; Russ, Tom C; Walsh, David; Lewsey, Jim; Smith, Michael; Smith, George Davey; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Batty, G David

    2015-01-01

    Mortality in Scotland is higher than in the rest of west and central Europe and is improving more slowly. Relative to England and Wales, the excess is only partially explained by area deprivation. We tested the extent to which sociodemographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biological factors explain the higher mortality in Scotland compared with England. Pooled data from 18 nationally representative cohort studies comprising the Health Surveys for England (HSE) and the Scottish Health Survey (SHS). Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the excess mortality risk in Scotland relative to England with adjustment for baseline characteristics. A total of 193,873 participants with a mean of 9.6 years follow-up gave rise to 21,345 deaths. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted all-cause mortality HR for Scottish respondents compared with English respondents was 1.40 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.47), which attenuated to 1.29 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.36) with the addition of the baseline socioeconomic and behavioural characteristics. Cause-specific mortality HRs attenuated only marginally to 1.43 (95% 1.28 to 1.60) for ischaemic heart disease, 1.37 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.63) for stroke, 1.41 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.53) for all cancers, 3.43 (95% CI 1.85 to 6.36) for illicit drug-related poisoning and 4.64 (95% CI 3.55 to 6.05) for alcohol-related mortality. The excess was greatest among young adults (16-44 years) and was observed across all occupational social classes with the greatest excess in the unskilled group. Only a quarter of the excess mortality among Scottish respondents could be explained by the available baseline risk factors. Greater understanding is required on the lived experience of poverty, the role of social support, and the historical, environmental, cultural and political influences on health in Scotland. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Excess mortality associated with loiasis: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Takougang, Innocent; Paguélé, Marius; Pion, Sébastien D; Boussinesq, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The burden of loiasis has received limited attention and loiasis is still considered a benign condition. To assess whether loiasis bears any excess mortality, we did a retrospective cohort study in Cameroon. In 2001, 3627 individuals living in 28 villages were examined for Loa loa infection. In 2016, these villages were revisited and the vital status was determined for 3301 individuals (91%). The data were analysed at community level to assess the relation between the level of L loa infection in 2001 and standardised mortality rates (SMRs), and at individual level to assess the excess mortality relative to the 2001 microfilaraemia and to calculate the population-attributable fraction of mortality associated with L loa microfilaraemia. 915 deaths occurred during the follow-up time (mean time of 12·5 years [IQR 10·2-14·9]) between April, 2001, and March 22, 2016. Crude mortality rate was 20·3 deaths per 1000 person-years. SMRs increased by 4·1% when the proportion of participants infected with greater than 30 000 microfilariae per mL increased by 1% (p=0·030). People aged older than 25 years with greater than 30 000 microfilariae per mL in 2001 died significantly earlier than did amicrofilaraemic people (time ratio 0·67, 95% CI 0·48-0·95, p=0·024). The population-attributable fraction of mortality associated with presence of L loa microfilaraemia was 14·5% (95% CI 6·5-21·8, p=0·001). High-grade L loa microfilaraemia is associated with an increased mortality risk, suggesting that loiasis is not a benign condition and merits more attention because of its effect on onchocerciasis and lymphatic control strategies. Loiasis should be considered for inclusion in the WHO's list of neglected tropical diseases. Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Excess Mortality Associated with Influenza among Tuberculosis Deaths in South Africa, 1999-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibongile Walaza

    Full Text Available Published data on the interaction between influenza and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB are limited. We aimed to estimate the influenza-associated mortality among individuals with PTB in South Africa from 1999-2009.We modelled the excess influenza-associated mortality by applying Poisson regression models to monthly PTB and non-tuberculosis respiratory deaths, using laboratory-confirmed influenza as a covariate.PTB deaths increased each winter, coinciding with influenza virus circulation. Among individuals of any age, mean annual influenza-associated PTB mortality rate was 164/100,000 person-years (n = 439. The rate of non-tuberculosis respiratory deaths was 27/100,000 (n = 1125 for HIV-infected and 5/100,000 (n = 2367 for HIV-uninfected individuals of all ages. Among individuals aged <65 years, influenza-associated PTB mortality risk was elevated compared to influenza-associated non-tuberculosis respiratory deaths in HIV-infected (relative risk (RR: 5.2; 95% CI: 4.6-5.9 and HIV-uninfected individuals (RR: 61.0; CI: 41.4-91.0. Among individuals aged ≥65 years, influenza-associated PTB mortality risk was elevated compared to influenza-associated non-tuberculosis respiratory deaths in HIV-uninfected individuals (RR: 13.0; 95% CI: 12.0-14.0.We observed an increased risk of influenza-associated mortality in persons with PTB compared to non-tuberculosis respiratory deaths. If confirmed in other settings, our findings may support recommendations for active inclusion of patients with TB for influenza vaccination and empiric influenza anti-viral treatment of patients with TB during influenza epidemics.

  16. [Liver cirrhosis mortality in Mexico. II. Excess mortality and pulque consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narro-Robles, J; Gutiérrez-Avila, J H; López-Cervantes, M; Borges, G; Rosovsky, H

    1992-01-01

    Over the years high cirrhosis mortality rates have been reported in Mexico City and in the surrounding states (Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Puebla and the State of Mexico); on the contrary, well defined areas, such as the northern states, have shown a considerably lower mortality rate. This situation may indicate that some factors such as the pattern of alcoholic intake and other environmental characteristics could explain this striking difference. To determine the role of alcohol, the availability and consumption of alcohol at regional and state level were compared with cirrhosis mortality rates. A high and statistically significant correlation was found with pulque availability and consumption (r = 72-92%, p less than 0.01) in all periods of time under examination. On the contrary, a statistically significant negative association was observed with beer consumption and a positive, but not significant correlation, with distilled alcoholic beverages. Infectious hepatitis incidence, prevalence of exclusive use of native languages (as an indirect index of ethnic background) and nutritional deficiencies were also studied as possible risk factors. Nutritional deficiencies and the prevalence of exclusive use of náhuatl and otomí languages were positively correlated. These results can be useful to conduct further epidemiological studies still needed to determine the etiologic role of pulque consumption as well as of the other risk factors. Nonetheless, the current data stress the need to implement public health programs to reduce alcohol consumption, especially pulque, and to minimize the impact of these risk factors in high mortality areas.

  17. Excess mortality in men compared with women following a hip fracture. National analysis of comedications, comorbidity and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; van der Mark, Susanne; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2010-01-01

    osteoporosis is a common disease, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures is expected to rise with the growing elderly population. Immediately following, and probably several years after a hip fracture, patients, both men and women, have a higher risk of dying compared to the general population...... regardless of age. The aim of this study was to assess excess mortality following hip fracture and, if possible, identify reasons for the difference between mortality for the two genders....

  18. Ethnicity and excess mortality in severe mental illness: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Dutta, Rina; Morgan, Craig; Nazroo, James; Stewart, Robert; Prince, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Excess mortality in severe mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorders) is well described, but little is known about this inequality in ethnic minorities. We aimed to estimate excess mortality for people with severe mental illness for five ethnic groups (white British, black Caribbean, black African, south Asian, and Irish) and to assess the association of ethnicity with mortality risk. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of individuals with a valid diagnosis of severe mental illness between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2014, from the case registry of the South London and Maudsley Trust (London, UK). We linked mortality data from the UK Office for National Statistics for the general population in England and Wales to our cohort, and determined all-cause and cause-specific mortality by ethnicity, standardised by age and sex to this population in 2011. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios and a modified Cox regression, taking into account competing risks to derive sub-hazard ratios, for the association of ethnicity with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We identified 18 201 individuals with a valid diagnosis of severe mental illness (median follow-up 6·36 years, IQR 3·26-9·92), of whom 1767 died. Compared with the general population, age-and-sex-standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in people with severe mental illness were increased for a range of causes, including suicides (7·65, 95% CI 6·43-9·04), non-suicide unnatural causes (4·01, 3·34-4·78), respiratory disease (3·38, 3·04-3·74), cardiovascular disease (2·65, 2·45-2·86), and cancers (1·45, 1·32-1·60). SMRs were broadly similar in different ethnic groups with severe mental illness, although the south Asian group had a reduced SMR for cancer mortality (0·49, 0·21-0·96). Within the cohort with severe mental illness, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality and sub-hazard ratios for natural

  19. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, pheat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, pheat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June. PMID:24633076

  20. Spectrum of excess mortality due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, C; Cober, E; Richter, S S; Perez, F; Salata, R A; Kalayjian, R C; Watkins, R R; Scalera, N M; Doi, Y; Kaye, K S; Evans, S; Fowler, V G; Bonomo, R A; van Duin, D

    2016-06-01

    Patients infected or colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) are often chronically and acutely ill, which results in substantial mortality unrelated to infection. Therefore, estimating excess mortality due to CRKp infections is challenging. The Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in K. pneumoniae (CRACKLE) is a prospective multicenter study. Here, patients in CRACKLE were evaluated at the time of their first CRKp bloodstream infection (BSI), pneumonia or urinary tract infection (UTI). A control cohort of patients with CRKp urinary colonization without CRKp infection was constructed. Excess hospital mortality was defined as mortality in cases after subtracting mortality in controls. In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for time-to-hospital-mortality at 30 days associated with infection compared with colonization were calculated in Cox proportional hazard models. In the study period, 260 patients with CRKp infections were included in the BSI (90 patients), pneumonia (49 patients) and UTI (121 patients) groups, who were compared with 223 controls. All-cause hospital mortality in controls was 12%. Excess hospital mortality was 27% in both patients with BSI and those with pneumonia. Excess hospital mortality was not observed in patients with UTI. In multivariable analyses, BSI and pneumonia compared with controls were associated with aHR of 2.59 (95% CI 1.52-4.50, p pneumonia is associated with the highest excess hospital mortality. Patients with BSI have slightly lower excess hospital mortality rates, whereas excess hospital mortality was not observed in hospitalized patients with UTI. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacteremia is associated with excess long-term mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2015-01-01

    of birth, residency and calendar time, in Denmark during 2000-2008. We calculated absolute mortality and adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) in predefined follow-up periods. RESULTS: The absolute mortality for bacteremia patients (n = 7783) and population controls (n = 38,906) was 22.0% vs. 0.2% (30 days......), 41.4% vs. 2.6% (1 year) and 75.8% vs. 36.6% (10 years). For bacteremia patients, the MRR was 115.3 (95% CI, 88.2-150.9) 0-30 days after bacteremia and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.8-2.3) from 5 years to end of follow-up. The most common causes of death were cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Within one year...

  2. Long-term excess mortality in pediatric patients with cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroknay-Pál, Päivi; Laakso, Aki; Lehto, Hanna; Seppä, Karri; Kivisaari, Riku; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge of the long-term excess mortality in pediatric aneurysm patients is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term excess mortality of 102 pediatric patients with cerebral aneurysm treated at the department of neurosurgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1937 and 2009. Patients were followed from diagnosis until death or the end of the year 2010. Relative survival ratio provided the measure of excess mortality in these patients compared with mortality of the general Finnish population matched by age, sex, and calendar time. A majority of the patients (n=89) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Aneurysms (n=118) were treated operatively (n=79), endovascularly (n=1), or conservatively (n=36). The mean follow-up time was 26.8 years (range, 0-55.6 years). By the end of follow-up, 34 of the 102 patients had died; 26 of these deaths (76%) were aneurysm-related. There was overall excess mortality of 10% (cumulative relative survival ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96) and 19% (cumulative relative survival ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.91) at 20 and 40 years after the diagnosis among the 1-year subarachnoid hemorrhage survivors, respectively. The excess mortality was particularly high in boys. There was no long-term excess mortality among patients with unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysm-related deaths included rebleedings from open or partially occluded aneurysms, epileptic seizures, de novo and recurrent aneurysms, or sequelae of subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is long-term excess mortality in pediatric patients with aneurysm even decades after successful treatment of a ruptured aneurysm, especially among boys. The excess mortality is mainly aneurysm-related.

  3. Excess mortality during heat waves and cold spells in Moscow, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revich, B; Shaposhnikov, D

    2008-10-01

    To estimate excess mortality during heat waves and cold spells, and to identify vulnerable population groups by age and cause of death. Daily mortality in Moscow, Russia from all non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory causes between January 2000 and February 2006 was analysed. Mortality and displaced mortality during cold spells and heat waves were estimated using independent samples t tests. Cumulative excess non-accidental mortality during the 2001 heat wave was 33% (95% CI 20% to 46%), or approximately 1200 additional deaths, with short-term displaced mortality contributing about 10% of these. Mortality from coronary heart disease increased by 32% (95% CI 16% to 48%), cerebrovascular mortality by 51% (95% CI 29% to 73%) and respiratory mortality by 80% (95% CI 57% to 101%). In the 75+ age group, corresponding mortality increments were consistently higher except respiratory deaths. An estimated 560 extra deaths were observed during the three heat waves of 2002, when non-accidental mortality increased by 8.5%, 7.8% and 6.1%, respectively. About 40% of these deaths were brought forward by only a few days, bringing net mortality change down to 3.2% (95% CI 0.8% to 5.5%). The cumulative effects of the two cold spells in 2006 on mortality were significant only in the 75+ age group, for which average daily mortality from all non-accidental causes increased by 9.9% (95% CI 8.0% to 12%) and 8.9% (95% CI 6.7% to 11%), resulting in 370 extra deaths; there were also significant increases in coronary disease mortality and cerebrovascular mortality. This study confirms that daily mortality in Moscow increases during heat waves and cold spells. A considerable proportion of excess deaths during heat waves occur a short time earlier than they would otherwise have done. Harvesting, or short-term mortality displacement, may be less significant for longer periods of sustained heat stress.

  4. OBESITY AND EXCESS MORTALITY AMONG THE ELDERLY IN THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MALENA MONTEVERDE; KENYA NORONHA; ALBERTO PALLONI; BEATRIZ NOVAK

    2010-01-01

    ... of obesity and overweight occur jointly with poor socioeconomic conditions. The aim of this article is to assess the magnitude of excess mortality due to obesity and overweight in Mexico and the United States...

  5. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation | Washington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%

  6. Survival after Hodgkin lymphoma: causes of death and excess mortality in patients treated in 8 consecutive trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Olav; Heutte, Natacha; Stamatoullas-Bastard, Aspasia; Carde, Patrice; Van't Veer, Mars B; Aleman, Berthe M P; Noordijk, Evert M; Thomas, José; Fermé, Christophe; Henry-Amar, Michel

    2009-04-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze cause-specific excess mortality in adult patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with respect to treatment modality. The study population consisted of 4401 Belgian, Dutch, and French patients aged 15 to 69, in all stages of disease, who were treated between 1964 and 2000. Excess mortality was expressed by using a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and calculating the absolute excess risk (AER). Relative survival was calculated and analyzed using a previously described regression model. At a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 725 of 4401 patients (16.5%) had died, 51% of HL, 10% of treatment-related toxicity, 18% of second cancer, 5% of cardiovascular diseases, 2% of infections, 8% of other causes, and 6% of an unspecified cause. Overall, the SMR was 7.4 (95% confidence limits [CL], 6.9-8.0), and the AER was 182.8 (95% CL, 167.7-198.8). These indicators were 3.8 (95% CL, 3.2-4.5) and 27.9, respectively, for deaths from a second cancer and 4.0 (95% CL, 2.3-6.7) and 3.3, respectively for deaths from infection. After 15 years, the observed survival rate was 75%, and the relative survival rate was 80%. In patients with early-stage disease, the overall excess mortality was associated with age > or =40 years (P = .007), men (P < .001), unfavorable prognosis features (P < .001), and 2 treatments: combined nonstandard nonalkylating chemotherapy plus involved-field radiotherapy (P = .002) and mantle-field irradiation alone (P = .003). With follow-up censored at the first recurrence, no treatment modalities were associated with excess mortality. Progressive disease remained the primary cause of death in patients with HL in the first decades after treatment. Excess mortality in patients with early-stage disease was linked significantly to treatment modalities that were associated with poor treatment failure-free survival.

  7. An explanation of the 25% male excess mortality for all children under 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mage David T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To demonstrate that an epidemiologic probability model of a hypothesized X-linkage for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS that predicted its 50% male excess, also predicts the 25% male excess of all child mortality for ages under 5 years.

  8. Physical Inactivity and Mortality Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kokkinos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a plethora of epidemiologic evidence accumulated supports a strong, independent and inverse, association between physical activity and the fitness status of an individual and mortality in apparently healthy individuals and diseased populations. These health benefits are realized at relatively low fitness levels and increase with higher physical activity patterns or fitness status in a dose-response fashion. The risk reduction is at least in part attributed to the favorable effect of exercise or physical activity on the cardiovascular risk factors, namely, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we examine evidence from epidemiologic and interventional studies in support of the association between exercise and physical activity and health. In addition, we present the exercise effects on the aforementioned risk factors. Finally, we include select dietary approaches and their impact on risk factors and overall mortality risk.

  9. Excess of all-cause mortality after a fracture in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Laguna, D; Nogues, Xavier; Abrahamsen, B

    2017-01-01

    Post-fracture mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients has been poorly studied. We report an absolute and relative excess all-cause mortality following a fracture in these patients compared to non-diabetic patients. INTRODUCTION: T2DM and osteoporotic fractures are independently asso...

  10. Is excess mortality higher in depressed men than in depressed women? A meta-analytic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Vogelzangs, N.; Twisk, J.; Kleiboer, A.M.; Li, J.; Penninx, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not well-established whether excess mortality associated with depression is higher in men than in women. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies in which depression was measured at baseline, where mortality rates were reported at follow-up, and in which separate

  11. Excess mortality rate during adulthood among Danish adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Adoption studies have been used to disentangle the influence of genes from shared familial environment on various traits and disease risks. However, both the factors leading to adoption and living as an adoptee may bias the studies with regard to the relative influence of genes and environment co...

  12. Heat-related mortality in India: excess all-cause mortality associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad heat wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulrez Shah Azhar

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8 °C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1-31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. RESULTS: The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths. In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest "summer" months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001, May (r = 0.77, p<0.001, and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05. During a period of more intense heat (May 19-25, 2010, mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67-1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03-2.21] applying reference periods (May 12-18, 2010 from various years. CONCLUSION: The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures

  13. Factors Influencing Risk of Premature Mortality in Community Cases of Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Baxter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depressive disorders are associated with substantial risk of premature mortality. A number of factors may contribute to reported risk estimates, making it difficult to determine actual risk of excess mortality in community cases of depression. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of excess mortality in population-based studies of clinically defined depression. Methods. Population-based studies reporting all-cause mortality associated with a clinically defined depressive disorder were included in the systematic review. Estimates of relative risk for excess mortality in population-representative cases of clinical depressive disorders were extracted. A meta-analysis was conducted using Stata to pool estimates of excess mortality and identify sources of heterogeneity within the data. Results. Twenty-one studies reporting risk of excess mortality in clinical depression were identified. A significantly higher risk of mortality was found for major depression (RR 1.92 95% CI 1.65–2.23, but no significant difference was found for dysthymia (RR 1.37 95% CI 0.93–2.00. Relative risk of excess mortality was not significantly different following the adjustment of reported risk estimates. Conclusion. A mortality gradient was identified with increasing severity of clinical depression. Recognition of depressive symptoms in general practice and appropriate referral for evidence-based treatment may help improve outcomes, particularly in patients with comorbid physical disorders.

  14. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analysis......). This constituted 89.0% of all warfarin prescriptions in Denmark during the study period. We observed 19,362 switches to generic warfarin during the study period. The adjusted hazard ratio for excessive anticoagulation following a recent switch from branded to generic warfarin was 1.1 (95%CI, 0.8-1.4). The result...... was robust within subgroups and several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Switching from branded to generic warfarin is not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization with excessive anticoagulation. However, a minor excess risk of transient INR increase cannot be excluded. Pharmacoepidemiological...

  15. Obesity and Excess Mortality Among the Elderly in the United States and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    MONTEVERDE, MALENA; NORONHA, KENYA; PALLONI, ALBERTO; NOVAK, BEATRIZ

    2010-01-01

    Increasing levels of obesity could compromise future gains in life expectancy in low- and high-income countries. Although excess mortality associated with obesity and, more generally, higher levels of body mass index (BMI) have been investigated in the United States, there is little research about the impact of obesity on mortality in Latin American countries, where very the rapid rate of growth of prevalence of obesity and overweight occur jointly with poor socioeconomic conditions. The aim ...

  16. Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid representing global volcano mortality risks. The data set was constructed using historical...

  17. Global Flood Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Flood Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global flood mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data provided...

  18. Global Drought Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data...

  19. Global Cyclone Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Cyclone Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global cyclone mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World (GPW) Version 3 (beta)...

  20. Global Landslide Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data...

  1. Global Earthquake Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data...

  2. Global Cyclone Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Cyclone Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global cyclone mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data...

  3. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Guo, Yuming; Sera, Francesco; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria; Huber, Veronika; Tong, Shilu; de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario; Lavigne, Eric; Matus Correa, Patricia; Valdes Ortega, Nicolas; Kan, Haidong; Osorio, Samuel; Kyselý, Jan; Urban, Aleš; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Ryti, Niilo R I; Pascal, Mathilde; Goodman, Patrick G; Zeka, Ariana; Michelozzi, Paola; Scortichini, Matteo; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Hurtado-Diaz, Magali; Cesar Cruz, Julio; Seposo, Xerxes; Kim, Ho; Tobias, Aurelio; Iñiguez, Carmen; Forsberg, Bertil; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Ragettli, Martina S; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Bell, Michelle L; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Van, Dung Do; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Hajat, Shakoor; Haines, Andy; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can directly affect human health by varying exposure to non-optimal outdoor temperature. However, evidence on this direct impact at a global scale is limited, mainly due to issues in modelling and projecting complex and highly heterogeneous epidemiological relationships across different populations and climates. We collected observed daily time series of mean temperature and mortality counts for all causes or non-external causes only, in periods ranging from Jan 1, 1984, to Dec 31, 2015, from various locations across the globe through the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network. We estimated temperature-mortality relationships through a two-stage time series design. We generated current and future daily mean temperature series under four scenarios of climate change, determined by varying trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions, using five general circulation models. We projected excess mortality for cold and heat and their net change in 1990-2099 under each scenario of climate change, assuming no adaptation or population changes. Our dataset comprised 451 locations in 23 countries across nine regions of the world, including 85 879 895 deaths. Results indicate, on average, a net increase in temperature-related excess mortality under high-emission scenarios, although with important geographical differences. In temperate areas such as northern Europe, east Asia, and Australia, the less intense warming and large decrease in cold-related excess would induce a null or marginally negative net effect, with the net change in 2090-99 compared with 2010-19 ranging from -1·2% (empirical 95% CI -3·6 to 1·4) in Australia to -0·1% (-2·1 to 1·6) in east Asia under the highest emission scenario, although the decreasing trends would reverse during the course of the century. Conversely, warmer regions, such as the central and southern parts of America or Europe, and especially southeast Asia, would experience a sharp surge in heat

  4. Relative survival and excess mortality following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Richard A; Alabas, Oras; Almudarra, Sami; Hall, Marlous; Dondo, Tatendashe B; Mamas, Mamas A; Baxter, Paul D; Batin, Phillip D; Curzen, Nick; de Belder, Mark; Ludman, Peter F; Gale, Chris P

    2017-07-01

    High survival rates are commonly reported following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, with most contemporary studies reporting overall survival. The aim of this study was to describe survival following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction corrected for non-cardiovascular deaths by reporting relative survival and investigate clinically significant factors associated with poor long-term outcomes. Using the prospective UK Percutaneous Coronary Intervention registry, primary percutaneous coronary intervention cases ( n=88,188; 2005-2013) were matched to mortality data for the UK populace. Crude five-year relative survival was 87.1% for the patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention and 94.7% for patients 75 years: 4.69, 4.27-5.16). After four years, there was no excess mortality for ages 56-65 years (excess mortality rate ratio 1.27, 0.95-1.70), but persisting excess mortality for older groups (66-75 years: excess mortality rate ratio 1.72, 1.30-2.27; >75 years: 1.66, 1.15-2.41). Excess mortality was associated with cardiogenic shock (excess mortality rate ratio 6.10, 5.72-6.50), renal failure (2.52, 2.27-2.81), left main stem stenosis (1.67, 1.54-1.81), diabetes (1.58, 1.47-1.69), previous myocardial infarction (1.52, 1.40-1.65) and female sex (1.33, 1.26-1.41); whereas stent deployment (0.46, 0.42-0.50) especially drug eluting stents (0.27, 0.45-0.55), radial access (0.70, 0.63-0.71) and previous percutaneous coronary intervention (0.67, 0.60-0.75) were protective. Following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, long-term cardiovascular survival is excellent. Failure to account for non-cardiovascular death may result in an underestimation of the efficacy of primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

  5. Excess Mortality in Treated and Untreated Hyperthyroidism Is Related to Cumulative Periods of Low Serum TSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative time-dependent excess mortality in hyperthyroid patients has been suggested. However, the effect of antithyroid treatment on mortality, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism, remains unclarified. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroid individuals. Register-based cohort study of 235,547 individuals who had at least one serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement in the period 1995 to 2011 (7.3 years median follow-up). Hyperthyroidism was defined as at least two measurements of low serum TSH. Mortality rates for treated and untreated hyperthyroid subjects compared with euthyroid controls were calculated using multivariate Cox regression analyses, controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. Cumulative periods of decreased serum TSH were analyzed as a time-dependent covariate. Hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was increased in untreated [1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 to 1.37; P hyperthyroid patients. When including cumulative periods of TSH in the Cox regression analyses, HR for mortality per every 6 months of decreased TSH was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; P hyperthyroid patients (n = 1137) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.15; P hyperthyroidism, respectively. Mortality is increased in hyperthyroidism. Cumulative periods of decreased TSH increased mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroidism, implying that excess mortality may not be driven by lack of therapy, but rather inability to keep patients euthyroid. Meticulous follow-up during treatment to maintain biochemical euthyroidism may be warranted.

  6. Contributors to Excess Infant Mortality in the U.S. South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Ashley H.; Sappenfield, William M.; Kogan, Michael D.; Barfield, Wanda D.; Goodman, David A.; Ghandour, Reem M.; Lu, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant mortality rates (IMRs) are disproportionally high in the U.S. South; however, the proximate contributors that could inform regional action remain unclear. Purpose To quantify the components of excess infant mortality in the U.S. South by maternal race/ethnicity, underlying cause of death, and gestational age. Methods U.S. Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Files 2007–2009 (analyzed in 2013) were used to compare IMRs between the South (U.S. Public Health Regions IV and VI) and all other regions combined. Results Compared to other regions, there were 1.18 excess infant deaths per 1000 live births in the South, representing about 1600 excess infant deaths annually. New Mexico and Texas did not have elevated IMRs relative to other regions; excess death rates among other states ranged from 0.62 per 1000 in Kentucky to 3.82 per 1000 in Mississippi. Racial/ethnic compositional differences, generally the greater proportion of non-Hispanic black births in the South, explained 59% of the overall regional difference; the remainder was mostly explained by higher IMRs among non-Hispanic whites. The leading causes of excess Southern infant mortality were sudden unexpected infant death (SUID; 36%, range=12% in Florida to 90% in Kentucky) and preterm-related death (22%, range=−71% in Kentucky to 51% in North Carolina). Higher rates of preterm birth, predominantly infant mortality, comprehensive strategies addressing SUID and preterm birth prevention for both non-Hispanic black and white births are needed, with state-level findings used to tailor state-specific efforts. PMID:24512860

  7. High‑risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial drivers in Nigeria is not known. Aim: To assess the prevalence of high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among intra‑city commercial drivers. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross‑sectional study in three ...

  8. Excess mortality in men compared with women following a hip fracture. National analysis of comedications, comorbidity and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; van der Mark, Susanne; Eiken, Pia

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: osteoporosis is a common disease, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures is expected to rise with the growing elderly population. Immediately following, and probably several years after a hip fracture, patients, both men and women, have a higher risk of dying compared...... to the general population regardless of age. The aim of this study was to assess excess mortality following hip fracture and, if possible, identify reasons for the difference between mortality for the two genders. METHODS: this is a nationwide register-based cohort study presenting data from the National...... compared to the general population was 37.1% (9.9%) in men and 26.4% (9.3%) in women. In the first year, the risk of death significantly increased for women with increasing age (hazard ratio, HR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.06-1.07), the number of comedications (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1...

  9. Excess mortality in treated and untreated hyperthyroidism is related to cumulative periods of low serum TSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Cumulative time-dependent excess mortality in hyperthyroid patients has been suggested. However, the effect of anti-thyroid treatment on mortality, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism remains unclarified. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism...... and mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroid individuals. Patients and Methods: Register-based cohort study of 235,547 individuals who had at least one serum-TSH measurement in the period 1995-2011 (7.3 years median follow-up). Hyperthyroidism was defined as at least 2 measurements of low serum TSH....... Mortality rates for treated and untreated hyperthyroid subjects compared to euthyroid controls were calculated using multivariate Cox-regression analyses, controlling for age, sex and comorbidities. Cumulative periods of decreased serum TSH were analyzed as a time-dependent covariate. Results: Hazard ratio...

  10. War, famine and excess child mortality in Africa: the role of parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiros, G E; Hogan, D P

    2001-06-01

    Civilian-targeted warfare and famine constitute two of the greatest public health challenges of our time. Both have devastated many countries in Africa. Social services, and in particular, health services, have been destroyed. Dictatorial and military governments have used the withholding of food as a political weapon to exacerbate human suffering. Under such circumstances, war and famine are expected to have catastrophic impacts on child survival. This study examines the role of parental education in reducing excess child mortality in Africa by considering Tigrai-Ethiopia, which was severely affected by famine and civil war during 1973--1991. This study uses data from the 1994 Housing and Population Census of Ethiopia and on communities' vulnerability to food crises. Child mortality levels and trends by various subgroups are estimated using indirect methods of mortality estimation techniques. A Poisson regression model is used to examine the relationship between number of children dead and parental education. Although child mortality is excessively high (about 200 deaths per 1000 births), our results show enormous variations in child mortality by parental education. Child mortality is highest among children born to illiterate mothers and illiterate fathers. Our results also show that the role of parental education in reducing child mortality is great during famine periods. In the communities devastated by war, however, its impact was significant only when the father has above primary education. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that both mother's and father's education are significantly and negatively associated with child mortality, although this effect diminishes over time if the crisis is severe and prolonged. The policy implications of our study include, obviously, reducing armed conflict, addressing food security in a timely manner, and expansion of educational opportunities.

  11. Using daily excessive concentration hours to explore the short-term mortality effects of ambient PM2.5 in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Ma, Wenjun; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Xiaojie; Trevathan, Edwin; Yao, Zhenjiang; Dong, Guang-Hui; Vaughn, Michael G; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei

    2017-10-01

    We developed a novel indicator, daily excessive concentration hours (DECH), to explore the acute mortality impacts of ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) in Hong Kong. The DECH of PM2.5 was calculated as daily concentration-hours >25 μg/m3. We applied a generalized additive models to quantify the association between DECH and mortality with adjustment for potential confounders. The results showed that the DECH was significantly associated with mortality. The excess mortality risk for an interquartile range (565 μg/m3*hours) increase in DECH of PM2.5 was 1.65% (95% CI: 1.05%, 2.26%) for all natural mortality at lag 02 day, 2.01% (95% CI: 0.82%, 3.21%) for cardiovascular mortality at lag 03 days, and 1.41% (95% CI: 0.34%, 2.49%) for respiratory mortality at lag 2 day. The associations remained consistent after adjustment for gaseous air pollutants (daily mean concentration of SO2, NO2 and O3) and in alternative model specifications. When compared to the mortality burden of daily mean PM2.5, DECH was found to be a relatively conservative indicator. This study adds to the evidence by showing that daily excessive concentration hours of PM2.5 might be a new predictor of mortality in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Suffering from Loneliness Indicates Significant Mortality Risk of Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo S. Tilvis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The harmful associates of suffering from loneliness are still in dispute. Objective. To examine the association of feelings of loneliness with all-cause mortality in a general aged population. Methods. A postal questionnaire was sent to randomly selected community-dwelling of elderly people (>74 years from the Finnish National Population Register. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, living conditions, functioning, health, and need for help. Suffering from loneliness was assessed with one question and participants were categorized as lonely or not lonely. Total mortality was retrieved from the National Population Information System. Results. Of 3687 respondents, 39% suffered from loneliness. Lonely people were more likely to be deceased during the 57-month follow-up (31% than subjects not feeling lonely (23%, <.001. Excess mortality (HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.21-1.57 of lonely people increased over time. After controlling for age and gender, the mortality risk of the lonely individuals was 1.33 (95% CI=1.17-1.51 and after further controlling for subjective health 1.17 (CI=1.02-1.33. The excess mortality was consistent in all major subgroups. Conclusion. Suffering from loneliness is common and indicates significant mortality risk in old age.

  13. Global Multihazard Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Multihazard Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid identifying and characterizing the nature of multihazard risk at the global scale. For this...

  14. All-cause mortality risk of metabolically healthy abdominal obese individuals: The EPIC-MORGEN study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A, van der D.L.; Nooyens, A.J.C.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Verschuren, M.W.W.; Boer, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It appears that a certain proportion of obese individuals have a normal metabolic profile despite having excess weight. Whether these so-called “metabolically healthy” obese express lower disease and mortality risks than “metabolically unhealthy” obese is still unclear. The mortality risk

  15. An internationally generalizable risk index for mortality after one year of antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Janet P.; Justice, Amy C.; Hughes, Michael D.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Reiss, Peter; Mocroft, Amanda; Nattermann, Jacob; Lampe, Fiona C.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Crane, Heidi M.; Kitahata, Mari M.; May, Margaret; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), excess mortality continues for those with HIV infection. A comprehensive approach to risk assessment, addressing multiorgan system injury on ART, is needed. We sought to develop and validate a practical and generalizable mortality risk index for

  16. Viewpoint: paradoxical excess mortality in the PLATO trial should be independently verified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, V L

    2011-05-01

    The PLATO trial revealed excess all-cause (4.5%) and vascular (4.0%) mortality after experimental pyrimidine, ticagrelor, and even higher death rates (5.9% and 5.1%, respectively) after clopidogrel, which have never been seen in any previous acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trial. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted, and recently released the ticagrelor review outlining some paradoxical mortality patterns in PLATO, including the existence of alive patient, who initially was reported dead. The drug was recently approved in Europe, but repeatedly delayed in the USA. The objective of this viewpoint article was to evaluate extremely high death rates in PLATO by scrutinising FDA-released evidence, and comparing mortality patterns in recent ACS trials. These data were first presented as the analytical report submitted to the FDA on October 26, 2010. The available evidence suggest that mortality rates in PLATO, so as death benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel are extreme, despite incomplete follow-up, short duration of the trial, frequent preloading with clopidogrel, and gross mismatch between conventional average myocardial infarction rates but disproportionally frequent vascular fatalities, and heavily imbalanced sepsis-related deaths. In contrast to the overall PLATO results, the deaths rates in the USA were much lower (3.2% vs. 3.8%) not only favouring clopidogrel, but more importanly matching very well with identical rates in TRITON (3.2%), and one-year ACUITY (3.6%-3.9%) fatalities. Since the «play of chance» cannot explain these discrepancies due to excess death rates in both PLATO arms, and considering that study sponsor self-monitored sites in most countries, but not in the USA, the mortality data are questionable, and should be independently virified. It was concluded that excess mortality rates and delayed timing of the benefit onset in PLATO do not match with any recent ACS trial, and do not look natural. Reevaluation of the survival, especially

  17. Cutaneous malignant melanoma show geographic and socioeconomic disparities in stage at diagnosis and excess mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Peterson, Stefan; Holmberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    and the national Melanoma Quality Register. Geographic and socioeconomic differences in incidence per stage at diagnosis were mapped and correlated to excess mortality. Results Disease mapping based on 9743 cases in 99 municipalities and 20 metropolitan districts showed marked, regional disparities in stage......-specific incidence of CMM. The incidence of stage I-II tumors was higher in the western health care region, whereas the incidence of stage III-IV CMMs was higher in the southern region. The divergent incidence patterns per stage at diagnosis were consistent across population strata based on educational level...

  18. Have winter fuel payments reduced excess winter mortality in England and Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, J

    2015-03-01

    The historical series of excess winter mortality (EWM) in England and Wales presents a negative trend. Winter fuel payments (WFPs) are the most important benefits for people aged 65 or over directly related to Winter Mortality in the UK. This study presents a time series analysis of the direct effect of WFPs on EWM in England and Wales. We find a significant structural break in trend and volatility in the EWM series in England and Wales in 1999-2000. After controlling for a number of covariates, an ARIMA-X model finds that WFPs can account for almost half of the reduction in EWM in England and Wales since 1999/2000. Almost half of the reduction in EWM since 1999/2000 is attributable to WFPs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Risk factors for opioid-induced excessive respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungquist, Carla R; Karan, Suzanne; Perlis, Michael L

    2011-09-01

    Opioid use has increased significantly over the past ten years and so has the incidence of reportable adverse events, such as respiratory depression and/or arrest. It is important for nurses to understand and know how to assess patients for risk factors for respiratory depression secondary to opioid therapy. This paper presents the pharmacodynamics of opioids, the risk factors for excessive respiratory depression, recommendations for identifying patients at high risk, and interventions to prevent adverse effects. After reading this paper, nurses will have the knowledge to provide safe administration of opioid medications for the management of acute pain. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives on differing health outcomes by city: accounting for Glasgow’s excess mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser SD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Simon DS Fraser, Steve George Academic Unit of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, UKAbstract: Several health outcomes (including mortality and health-related behaviors are known to be worse in Scotland than in comparable areas of Europe and the United Kingdom. Within Scotland, Greater Glasgow (in West Central Scotland experiences disproportionately poorer outcomes independent of measurable variation in socioeconomic status and other important determinants. Many reasons for this have been proposed, particularly related to deprivation, inequalities, and variation in health behaviors. The use of models (such as the application of Bradford Hill’s viewpoints on causality to the different hypotheses has provided useful insights on potentially causal mechanisms, with health behaviors and inequalities likely to represent the strongest individual candidates. This review describes the evolution of our understanding of Glasgow’s excess mortality, summarizes some of the key work in this area, and provides some suggestions for future areas of exploration. In the context of demographic change, the experience in Glasgow is an important example of the complexity that frequently lies behind observed variations in health outcomes within and between populations. A comprehensive explanation of Glasgow’s excess mortality may continue to remain elusive, but is likely to lie in a complex and difficult-to-measure interplay of health determinants acting at different levels in society throughout the life course. Lessons learned from the detailed examination of different potentially causative determinants in Scotland may provide useful methodological insights that may be applied in other settings. Ongoing efforts to unravel the causal mechanisms are needed to inform public health efforts to reduce health inequalities and improve outcomes in Scotland.Keywords: Glasgow effect, mortality

  1. Cause-specific excess mortality in siblings of patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan

    2007-01-01

    account for the excess mortality of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. We aimed to explore the causes of death contributing to the excess sibling mortality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved causes of death from the Danish National Registry of Deaths and estimated cause-specific excess mortality...... rates (EMR) for siblings of HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals (n = 436) and siblings of HIV mono-infected individuals (n = 1837) compared with siblings of population controls (n = 281,221). Siblings of HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals had an all-cause EMR of 3.03 (95% CI, 1.56-4.50) per 1,000 person...... as underlying cause of death. Siblings of HIV-mono-infected individuals had an all-cause EMR of 0.60 (0.16-1.05) compared with siblings of controls. This modest excess mortality...

  2. Monetary Policy and Bank Excessive Risk-Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Zaghdoudi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between monetary policy and bank excessive risk-taking for a panel of 22 countries over the period 1990- 2014. The sample covers countries from Latin America, OECD and South East Asia. By performing panel cointegration and panel GMM models, results indicate that the adoption of an expansionary monetary policy through high money supply and low interest rates increases non-performing loans. However, a restrictive monetary policy with high interest rates attracts riskier investors.

  3. Excess mortality in Europe following a future Laki-style Icelandic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Ostro, Bart; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Wilson, Marjorie; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Mann, Graham W.; Simmons, Adrian J.

    2011-09-01

    Historical records show that the A.D. 1783-1784 Laki eruption in Iceland caused severe environmental stress and posed a health hazard far beyond the borders of Iceland. Given the reasonable likelihood of such an event recurring, it is important to assess the scale on which a future eruption could impact society. We quantify the potential health effects caused by an increase in air pollution during a future Laki-style eruption using a global aerosol model together with concentration-response functions derived from current epidemiological studies. The concentration of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 2.5 µm is predicted to double across central, western, and northern Europe during the first 3 mo of the eruption. Over land areas of Europe, the current World Health Organization 24-h air quality guideline for particulate matter with diameters smaller than 2.5 µm is exceeded an additional 36 d on average over the course of the eruption. Based on the changes in particulate air pollution, we estimate that approximately 142,000 additional cardiopulmonary fatalities (with a 95% confidence interval of 52,000-228,000) could occur in Europe. In terms of air pollution, such a volcanic eruption would therefore be a severe health hazard, increasing excess mortality in Europe on a scale that likely exceeds excess mortality due to seasonal influenza.

  4. Strategies for preventing excess mortality after discharge from psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Jensen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    AbstractPatients with severe mental illness have increased risk for severe physical diseases. In addition, there is evidence that this patient group is less likely to receive standard levels of care for most physical diseases, which may contribute to their shortened life expectancy. Further, illn.......  Keywords: Psychiatric emergency room; Crisis resolution; mortality; severe mental illness...

  5. Relationships Between Excessive Heat and Daily Mortality over the Coterminous U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maury G., Jr.; Estes, Sue M.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. Using National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) meteorological reanalysis data, we have developed several measures of extreme heat to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. These measures include daily maximum and minimum air temperatures, daily maximum heat indices and a new heat stress variable called Net Daily Heat Stress (NDHS) that gives an integrated measure of heat stress (and relief) over the course of a day. All output has been created on the NLDAS 1/8 degree (approximately 12 km) grid and aggregated to the county level, which is the preferred geographic scale of analysis for public health researchers. County-level statistics have been made available through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) via the Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. We have examined the relationship between excessive heat events, as defined in eight different ways from the various daily heat metrics, and heat-related and all-cause mortality defined in CDC's National Center for Health Statistics 'Multiple Causes of Death 1999-2010' dataset. To do this, we linked daily, county-level heat mortality counts with EHE occurrence based on each of the eight EHE definitions by region and nationally for the period 1999-2010. The objectives of this analysis are to determine (1) whether heat-related deaths can be clearly tied to excessive heat events, (2) what time lags are critical for predicting heat-related deaths, and (3) which of the heat metrics correlates best with mortality in each US region. Results show large regional differences in the correlations between heat and mortality. Also, the heat metric that provides the best indicator of mortality varied by region

  6. Effects of heat waves on daily excess mortality in 14 Korean cities during the past 20 years (1991-2010): an application of the spatial synoptic classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Geun; Kim, Kyu Rang; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Baek-Jo; Cho, Chun-Ho; Sheridan, Scott C.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.; Kim, Ho; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study are to explore the "offensive" summer weather types classified under the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) system and to evaluate their impacts on excess mortality in 14 Korean cities. All-cause deaths per day for the entire population were examined over the summer months (May-September) of 1991-2010. Daily deaths were standardized to account for long-term trends of subcycles (annual, seasonal, and weekly) at the mid-latitudes. In addition, a mortality prediction model was constructed through multiple stepwise regression to develop a heat-health warning system based on synoptic climatology. The result showed that dry tropical (DT) days during early summer caused excess mortality due to non-acclimatization by inhabitants, and moist tropical (MT) plus and double plus resulted in greater spikes of excess mortality due to extremely hot and humid conditions. Among the 14 Korean cities, highly excess mortality for the elderly was observed in Incheon (23.2%, 95%CI 5.6), Seoul (15.8%, 95%CI 2.6), and Jeonju (15.8%, 95%CI 4.6). No time lag effect was observed, and excess mortality gradually increased with time and hot weather simultaneously. The model showed weak performance as its predictions were underestimated for the validation period (2011-2015). Nevertheless, the results clearly revealed the efficiency of relative and multiple-variable approaches better than absolute and single-variable approaches. The results indicate the potential of the SSC as a suitable system for investigating heat vulnerability in South Korea, where hot summers could be a significant risk factor.

  7. A method for determining weights for excess relative risk and excess absolute risk when applied in the calculation of lifetime risk of cancer from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Manchester, The Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Schneider, Uwe [University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Radiation-related risks of cancer can be transported from one population to another population at risk, for the purpose of calculating lifetime risks from radiation exposure. Transfer via excess relative risks (ERR) or excess absolute risks (EAR) or a mixture of both (i.e., from the life span study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors) has been done in the past based on qualitative weighting. Consequently, the values of the weights applied and the method of application of the weights (i.e., as additive or geometric weighted means) have varied both between reports produced at different times by the same regulatory body and also between reports produced at similar times by different regulatory bodies. Since the gender and age patterns are often markedly different between EAR and ERR models, it is useful to have an evidence-based method for determining the relative goodness of fit of such models to the data. This paper identifies a method, using Akaike model weights, which could aid expert judgment and be applied to help to achieve consistency of approach and quantitative evidence-based results in future health risk assessments. The results of applying this method to recent LSS cancer incidence models are that the relative EAR weighting by cancer solid cancer site, on a scale of 0-1, is zero for breast and colon, 0.02 for all solid, 0.03 for lung, 0.08 for liver, 0.15 for thyroid, 0.18 for bladder and 0.93 for stomach. The EAR weighting for female breast cancer increases from 0 to 0.3, if a generally observed change in the trend between female age-specific breast cancer incidence rates and attained age, associated with menopause, is accounted for in the EAR model. Application of this method to preferred models from a study of multi-model inference from many models fitted to the LSS leukemia mortality data, results in an EAR weighting of 0. From these results it can be seen that lifetime risk transfer is most highly weighted by EAR only for stomach cancer. However

  8. Chronic somatic comorbidity and excess mortality due to natural causes in persons with schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Munk Laursen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide and death by accidents in persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are common, but excess mortality from natural death accounts for even more years of life lost. The impact of somatic comorbidity, however, often is not duly considered in analyses and explanations of excess mortality in patients with psychotic disorders. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: This study investigates and evaluates the impact of 19 severe chronic diseases on excess mortality due to diseases and medical conditions (natural death in individuals with psychotic disorders compared with the general population using a population-based cohort study in Denmark. Incidence/mortality rate ratios of admission/mortality were calculated using survival analysis. RESULTS: Cohort members with psychotic disorders had higher incidence rates of hospital contacts for almost all of the 19 disorders than the general population. The mortality rate ratio (MRR of natural death was 7.10 (95% CI 6.45, 7.81 for schizophrenic men, decreasing to 4.64 (95% CI 4.21, 5.10 after adjustment for the somatic disorders. The same pattern existed in women and in both genders with bipolar disorder. Highest MRRs were observed for psychotic patients without hospital admissions with the investigated somatic disorders. CONCLUSION: Chronic somatic diseases accounted for half of the excess mortality in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Chronic disorders investigated in this paper seem to be under-treated or under-detected among such patients.

  9. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.

  10. Is there a link between childhood adversity, attachment style and Scotland’s excess mortality? Evidence, challenges and potential research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Smith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotland has a persistently high mortality rate that is not solely due to the effects of socio-economic deprivation. This “excess” mortality is observed across the entire country, but is greatest in and around the post-industrial conurbation of West Central Scotland. Despite systematic investigation, the causes of the excess mortality remain the subject of ongoing debate. Discussion Attachment processes are a fundamental part of human development, and have a profound influence on adult personality and behaviour, especially in response to stressors. Many studies have also shown that childhood adversity is correlated with adult morbidity and mortality. The interplay between childhood adversity and attachment is complex and not fully elucidated, but will include socio-economic, intergenerational and psychological factors. Importantly, some adverse health outcomes for parents (such as problem substance use or suicide will simultaneously act as risk factors for their children. Data show that some forms of “household dysfunction” relating to childhood adversity are more prevalent in Scotland: such problems include parental problem substance use, rates of imprisonment, rates of suicide and rates of children being taken into care. However other measures of childhood or family wellbeing have not been found to be substantially different in Scotland compared to England. Summary We suggest in this paper that the role of childhood adversity and attachment experience merits further investigation as a plausible mechanism influencing health in Scotland. A model is proposed which sets out some of the interactions between the factors of interest, and we propose parameters for the types of study which would be required to evaluate the validity of the model.

  11. Excess weight confers an increased risk of premature death and shorter life expectancy; a bibliographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease considered a global epidemic by the World Health Organization (WHO. The body mass index (BMI is used internationally for diagnosis and classification, a BMI> 30kg/m2 is a diagnosis of obesity and it correlates positively with the relative risk of general and cardiovascular mortality. Objectives: The main objective of this work is to make known the impact of this disease through a systematic review of the most recent publications. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing alarmingly worldwide, affecting more than 50% of the adult population in the European Union and tripling the number of obese over the last twenty years. Due to this large increase, obesity has become a major threat for the whole world, being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and causal factor of other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipemias, thus increasing morbidity and mortality of these people. It also has association with alterations to other levels such as OSAS, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increased risk of complications during gestation, association with osteoarthrosis and cancer, among others. Conclusions: Excess weight confers an increased risk of premature death and shorter life expectancy so, a multidisciplinary approach focused on weight loss is first needed. Prevention is the key to its control.

  12. Sex Differences in Treatments, Relative Survival, and Excess Mortality Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: National Cohort Study Using the SWEDEHEART Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabas, Oras A; Gale, Chris P; Hall, Marlous; Rutherford, Mark J; Szummer, Karolina; Lawesson, Sofia Sederholm; Alfredsson, Joakim; Lindahl, Bertil; Jernberg, Tomas

    2017-12-14

    This study assessed sex differences in treatments, all-cause mortality, relative survival, and excess mortality following acute myocardial infarction. A population-based cohort of all hospitals providing acute myocardial infarction care in Sweden (SWEDEHEART [Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies]) from 2003 to 2013 was included in the analysis. Excess mortality rate ratios (EMRRs), adjusted for clinical characteristics and guideline-indicated treatments after matching by age, sex, and year to background mortality data, were estimated. Although there were no sex differences in all-cause mortality adjusted for age, year of hospitalization, and comorbidities for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI at 1 year (mortality rate ratio: 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.05] and 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-0.99], respectively) and 5 years (mortality rate ratio: 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99-1.07] and 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-0.99], respectively), excess mortality was higher among women compared with men for STEMI and non-STEMI at 1 year (EMRR: 1.89 [95% CI, 1.66-2.16] and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.16-1.24], respectively) and 5 years (EMRR: 1.60 [95% CI, 1.48-1.72] and 1.26 [95% CI, 1.21-1.32], respectively). After further adjustment for the use of guideline-indicated treatments, excess mortality among women with non-STEMI was not significant at 1 year (EMRR: 1.01 [95% CI, 0.97-1.04]) and slightly higher at 5 years (EMRR: 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02-1.12]). For STEMI, adjustment for treatments attenuated the excess mortality for women at 1 year (EMRR: 1.43 [95% CI, 1.26-1.62]) and 5 years (EMRR: 1.31 [95% CI, 1.19-1.43]). Women with acute myocardial infarction did not have statistically different all-cause mortality, but had higher excess mortality compared with men that was attenuated after adjustment for the use of guideline-indicated treatments. This suggests that improved

  13. Is excess male infant mortality from sudden infant death syndrome and other respiratory diseases X-linked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mage, David T; Donner, E Maria

    2014-02-01

    Male excess infant mortality is well known but unexplained. In 2004, we reported sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other infant respiratory deaths showed a ~50% male excess in the United States between 1979 and 2002. This study analyses expanded US data from 1968 to 2010 to see whether infant respiratory deaths still show similar ~50% male excess and may be X-linked. The analysis compared infant mortality data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1968-2010, with 11 World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases (ICD) rubric groups for respiratory deaths by accidents, congenital anomalies, respiratory diseases and causes unknown. The 11 ICD groupings presented male excesses of ~50% and combining the 453,953 US cases produced a male fraction of 0.6034, a 52.1% male excess. A further 72,380 non-US respiratory cases showed a similar 0.6055 male fraction, a 53.5% male excess. The constant ~50% male excess for quite different causes of respiratory death suggests they all have a common terminal event and that is acute anoxic encephalopathy. We hypothesise that this constant male excess phenomenon must be caused by a single X-linked gene, with a recessive condition, leading to a predisposition to succumb to acute anoxic encephalopathy. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. On risk, leverage and banks: do highly leveraged banks take on excessive risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, M.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the relation between excessive risk taking and capital structure in banks. Examining a quarterly dataset of U.S. banks between 1993 and 2010, we find that equity is valued higher when more risky portfolios are chosen when leverage is high, and that more risk taking has a

  15. Risk factors for mortality in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, H; Chandran, S; Potluri, R

    2015-09-01

    Down syndrome is a genetic condition that contributes to a significantly shorter life expectancy compared with the general population. We investigated the most common comorbidities in a population of acute hospital patients with Down syndrome and further explored what the most common risk factors for mortality are within this population. From our database of one million patients admitted to National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in northern England, we identified 558 people who had Down syndrome. We compared this group with an age- and gender-matched control group of 5580 people. The most prevalent comorbid diseases within the Down's population were hypothyroidism (22.9%) and epilepsy (20.3%). However, the conditions that had the highest relative risks (RRs) in the Down's population were septal defects and dementia. Respiratory failure, dementia and pneumonia were the most significantly related comorbidities to mortality in the Down syndrome population. In the control population, respiratory failure, dementia and renal failure were the most significant disease contributors. When these contributors were analysed using multivariate analysis, heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and epilepsy were the identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality in the Down syndrome population. Respiratory failure was the sole risk factor for mortality in the Down syndrome population [RR = 9.791 (1.6-59.9) P ≤ 0.05], when compared with the risk factors for mortality in the control population. There is significant medical morbidity in Down syndrome. This morbidity contributes to the lower life expectancy. Respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in Down syndrome. We need to thoroughly investigate people with Down syndrome to ensure any treatable illnesses are well managed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pathway from Delirium to Death: Potential In-Hospital Mediators of Excess Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Swami, Sunil; Gou, Ray Y; Jones, Richard N; Inouye, Sharon K

    2017-05-01

    (1) To determine the relationship of incident delirium during hospitalization with 90-day mortality; (2) to identify potential in-hospital mediators through which delirium increases 90-day mortality. Analysis of data from Project Recovery, a controlled clinical trial of a delirium prevention intervention from 1995 to 1998 with follow-up through 2000. Large academic hospital. Patients ≥70 years old without delirium at hospital admission who were at intermediate-to-high risk of developing delirium and received usual care only. (1) Incident delirium; (2) potential mediators of delirium on death including use of restraining devices (physical restraints, urinary catheters), development of hospital acquired conditions (HACs) (falls, pressure ulcers), and exposure to other noxious insults (sleep deprivation, acute malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia); (3) death within 90 days of admission. Among 469 patients, 70 (15%) developed incident delirium. These patients were more likely to experience restraining devices (37% vs 16%, P delirium was 4.2 (95% CI = 2.8-6.3) in bivariable analyses, increased in a graded manner with additional exposures to restraining devices, HACs, and other noxious insults, and declined by 10.9% after addition of these potential mediator categories, providing evidence of mediation. Restraining devices, HACs, and additional noxious insults were more frequent among patients with delirium, increased mortality in a graded manner, and were responsible for a significant percentage of the association of delirium with death. Additional efforts to prevent potential downstream mediators through which delirium increases mortality may help to improve outcomes among hospitalized older adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Cause-specific excess mortality in siblings of patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan

    2007-01-01

    account for the excess mortality of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. We aimed to explore the causes of death contributing to the excess sibling mortality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved causes of death from the Danish National Registry of Deaths and estimated cause-specific excess mortality...... rates (EMR) for siblings of HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals (n = 436) and siblings of HIV mono-infected individuals (n = 1837) compared with siblings of population controls (n = 281,221). Siblings of HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals had an all-cause EMR of 3.03 (95% CI, 1.56-4.50) per 1,000 person...... as underlying cause of death. Siblings of HIV-mono-infected individuals had an all-cause EMR of 0.60 (0.16-1.05) compared with siblings of controls. This modest excess mortality was due to deaths from an unknown cause [EMR = 0.28 (0.07-0.48)], deaths from substance abuse [EMR = 0.19 (-0.04-0.43)], and unnatural...

  18. Upper midwest climate variations: farmer responses to excess water risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Lois Wright; Hobbs, Jonathan; Arbuckle, J Gordon; Loy, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Persistent above average precipitation and runoff and associated increased sediment transfers from cultivated ecosystems to rivers and oceans are due to changes in climate and human action. The US Upper Midwest has experienced a 37% increase in precipitation (1958-2012), leading to increased crop damage from excess water and off-farm loss of soil and nutrients. Farmer adaptive management responses to changing weather patterns have potential to reduce crop losses and address degrading soil and water resources. This research used farmer survey ( = 4778) and climate data (1971-2011) to model influences of geophysical context, past weather, on-farm flood and saturated soils experiences, and risk and vulnerability perceptions on management practices. Seasonal precipitation varied across six Upper Midwest subregions and was significantly associated with variations in management. Increased warm-season precipitation (2007-2011) relative to the past 40 yr was positively associated with no-till, drainage, and increased planting on highly erodible land (HEL). Experience with saturated soils was significantly associated with increased use of drainage and less use of no-till, cover crops, and planting on HEL. Farmers in counties with a higher percentage of soils considered marginal for row crops were more likely to use no-till, cover crops, and plant on HEL. Respondents who sell corn through multiple markets were more likely to have planted cover crops and planted on HEL in 2011.This suggests that regional climate conditions may not well represent individual farmers' actual and perceived experiences with changing climate conditions. Accurate climate information downscaled to localized conditions has potential to influence specific adaptation strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Risk-Adjusted Mortality: Problems and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of observed-to-expected deaths is considered a measure of hospital quality and for this reason will soon become a basis for payment. However, there are drivers of that metric more potent than quality: most important are medical documentation and patient acuity. If hositals underdocument and therefore do not capture the full “expected mortality” they may be tempted to lower their observed/expected ratio by reducing “observed mortality” through limiting access to the very ill. Underdocumentation occurs because hospitals do not recognize, and therefore cannot seek to confirm, specific comorbidities conferring high mortality risk. To help hospitals identify these comorbidities, this paper describes an easily implemented spread-sheet for evaluating comorbid conditions associated, in any particular hospital, with each discharge. This method identifies comorbidities that increase in frequency as mortality risk increases within each diagnostic grouping. The method is inductive and therefore independent of any particular risk-adjustment technique.

  20. Excess Risk of Maternal Death from Sickle Cell Disease in Jamaica: 1998–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Monika R.; McCaw-Binns, Affette M.; Reid, Marvin E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decreases in direct maternal deaths in Jamaica have been negated by growing indirect deaths. With sickle cell disease (SCD) a consistent underlying cause, we describe the epidemiology of maternal deaths in this population. Methods Demographic, service delivery and cause specific mortality rates were compared among women with (n = 42) and without SCD (n = 376), and between SCD women who died in 1998–2002 and 2003–7. Results Women with SCD had fewer viable pregnancies (p: 0.02) despite greater access to high risk antenatal care (p: 0.001), and more often died in an intensive care unit (p: 0.002). In the most recent period (2003–7) SCD women achieved more pregnancies (median 2 vs. 3; p: 0.009), made more antenatal visits (mean 3.3 vs. 7.3; p: 0.01) and were more often admitted antenatally (p:<0.0001). The maternal mortality ratio for SCD decedents was 7–11 times higher than the general population, with 41% of deaths attributable to their disorder. Cause specific mortality was higher for cardiovascular complications, gestational hypertension and haemorrhage. Respiratory failure was the leading immediate cause of death. Conclusions Women with SCD experience a significant excess risk of dying in pregnancy and childbirth [MMR: (SCD) 719/100,000, (non SCD) 78/100,000]. MDG5 cannot be realised without improving care for women with SCD. Tertiary services (e.g. ventilator support) are needed at regional centres to improve outcomes in this and other high risk populations. Universal SCD screening in pregnancy in populations of African and Mediterranean descent is needed as are guidelines for managing SCD pregnancies and educating families with SCD. PMID:22039456

  1. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95% by 2005, goiter rates are still high. This study investigated the association between iodine excess and goiter. Methods: In a case control study, urinary iodine levels, complete blood count, T3, T4 and TSH levels were ...

  2. Reduction of HIV-associated excess mortality by antiretroviral treatment among tuberculosis patients in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, Dickens O.; Yuen, Courtney M.; Cain, Kevin P.; Ngari, Faith; Masini, Enos O.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2017-01-01

    Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living

  3. Second Hand Smoke Exposure and Excess Heart Disease and Lung Cancer Mortality among Hospital Staff in Crete, Greece: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kafatos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS is a serious threat to public health, and a significant cause of lung cancer and heart disease among non-smokers. Even though Greek hospitals have been declared smoke free since 2002, smoking is still evident. Keeping the above into account, the aim of this study was to quantify the levels of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to estimate the attributed lifetime excess heart disease and lung cancer deaths per 1000 of the hospital staff, in a large Greek public hospital. Environmental airborne respirable suspended particles (RSP of PM2.5 were performed and the personnel’s excess mortality risk was estimated using risk prediction formulas. Excluding the intensive care unit and the operating theatres, all wards and clinics were polluted with environmental tobacco smoke. Mean SHS-RSP measurements ranged from 11 to 1461 μg/m3 depending on the area. Open wards averaged 84 μg/m3 and the managing wards averaged 164 μg/m3 thus giving an excess lung cancer and heart disease of 1.12 (range 0.23-1.88 and 11.2 (range 2.3–18.8 personnel in wards and 2.35 (range 0.55-12.2 and 23.5 (range 5.5–122 of the managing staff per 1000 over a 40-year lifespan, respectively. Conclusively, SHS exposure in hospitals in Greece is prevalent and taking into account the excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality risk as also the immediate adverse health effects of SHS exposure, it is clear that proper implementation and enforcement of the legislation that bans smoking in hospitals is imperative to protect the health of patients and staff alike.

  4. Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per binge. 3 Most (90%) people who binge drink are not alcoholics or alcohol dependent. 4 About 2.5% of ... Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group. Carcinogenicity of alcoholic ... MJ, et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. ...

  5. Addressing the source contribution of PM2.5 on mortality: an evaluation study of its impacts on excess mortality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Wentan; Guo, Qun; Wu, Ziting; Pan, Xiaochuan; Li, Guoxing; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    We estimated PM2.5 concentrations using satellite data and population mortality values for cause-specific diseases and employed the integrated exposure–response model to obtain the associations between exposure and response. PM2.5 source apportionment data were then used to evaluate the excess mortality attributable to PM2.5 from different emission sources. In 2013, 1.07 million excess deaths were attributed to PM2.5 exposure in China. The potentially avoidable excess deaths would be 279 000, 459 000, 731 000 and 898 000 if the PM2.5 concentrations were reduced to meet WHO interim target (IT)-1 (35 μg m‑3, also the Chinese standard), IT-2 (25 μg m‑3), IT-3 (15 μg m‑3) and the air quality guidelines (10 μg m‑3), respectively, compared with concentrations experienced in 2013. There were 249 000 (95% CI: 115–337), 228 000 (95% CI: 105–309), 203 000 (95% CI: 94–274), 197 000 (95% CI: 91–266), and 193 000 (95% CI: 88–262) excess deaths attributed to PM2.5 from coal burning, vehicle emissions, industry-related emissions, dust and other sources in 2013, respectively. Coal burning was the main source of atmospheric PM2.5; it contributed the most to excess mortalities and the health effects were likely to have been conservatively estimated. Considerable health benefits could be achieved if more stringent ambient PM2.5 standards were achieved in China.

  6. Base excess determined within one hour of admission predicts mortality in patients with severe pelvic fractures and severe hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Rahel; Lustenberger, Thomas; Stover, John F; Benninger, Emanuel; Lenzlinger, Philipp M; Stocker, Reto; Keel, Marius

    2009-10-01

    Unstable pelvic ring fractures with exsanguinating hemorrhages are rare but potentially lifethreatening injuries. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether early changes in acid- base parameters predict mortality of patients with severe pelvic trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Data for 50 patients with pelvic ring disruption and severe hemorrhage were analyzed retrospectively. In all patients, the pelvic ring was temporarily stabilized by C-clamp. Patients with ongoing bleeding underwent laparotomy with extra and/or intraperitoneal pelvic packing, as required. Base excess, lactate, and pH were measured upon admission and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h postadmission. Patients were categorized as early survivors (surviving the first 12 h after admission) and nonsurvivors. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney test; significance was assumed at p < 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for early mortality from each acid-base variable. Sixteen patients (32%) were nonsurvivors due to hemorrhagic shock (n = 13) or severe traumatic brain injury (n = 3). Thirty-four patients were early survivors. Base excess, lactate, and pH significantly discriminated between early survivors and nonsurvivors. Base excess determined 1 h after admission discriminated most strongly, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.915 (95% confidence interval, 0.836-0.993; p < 0.001). Base excess, lactate, and pH discriminate early survivors from nonsurvivors suffering from severe pelvic trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Base excess measured 1 h after admission best predicted early mortality following pelvic trauma with concomitant hemorrhage.

  7. Excess mortality among patients with multiple sclerosis in Denmark has dropped significantly over the past six decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Laursen, Bjarne; Stenager, Egon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifetime expectancy in multiple sclerosis (MS) is reduced. Few studies have had sufficient follow-up or sufficient number of patients to assess if survival has improved with time. However, a recent meta-analysis found no time-dependent change in MS excess mortality across studies over...... recent decades. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether short-term all-cause excess mortality in patients with MS in the total Danish population has changed over the last six decades. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all patients with MS recorded in the nationwide Danish MS Registry with definite or probable...... 1.98 to 3.18) in the 1990-1999 onset cohort, and SMR dropped from 4.48 (95% CI 4.06 to 4.92) to 1.80 (95% CI 1.62 to 1.99). CONCLUSION: The decline in short-term excess mortality in MS started decades before disease-modifying treatment of MS became available, before use of MRI became widespread...

  8. Type 2 Diabetes and Comorbid Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Longitudinal Associations With Mortality Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Kiyuri; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Skogen, Jens C; Manuel, Douglas; Øverland, Simon; Sivertsen, Børge; Colman, Ian

    2017-03-01

    Depression is strongly linked to increased mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Despite high rates of co-occurring anxiety and depression, the risk of death associated with comorbid anxiety in individuals with type 2 diabetes is poorly understood. This study documented the excess mortality risk associated with symptoms of depression and/or anxiety comorbid with type 2 diabetes. Using data for 64,177 Norwegian adults from the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2), with linkage to the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry, we assessed all-cause mortality from survey participation in 1995 through to 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine mortality risk over 18 years associated with type 2 diabetes status and the presence of comorbid affective symptoms at baseline. Three clear patterns emerged from our findings. First, mortality risk in individuals with diabetes increased in the presence of depression or anxiety, or both. Second, mortality risk was lowest for symptoms of anxiety, higher for comorbid depression-anxiety, and highest for depression. Lastly, excess mortality risk associated with depression and anxiety was observed in men with diabetes but not in women. The highest risk of death was observed in men with diabetes and symptoms of depression only (hazard ratio 3.47, 95% CI 1.96, 6.14). This study provides evidence that symptoms of anxiety affect mortality risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of symptoms of depression, in addition to attenuating the relationship between depressive symptoms and mortality in these individuals. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozone-temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quali...

  10. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    .1%) with schizophrenia had died over a mean follow-up period of 6.6 years. The standardized mortality ratio for all causes, natural causes and unnatural causes was significantly high for the three conditions. Mortality of ATPDs was greater in men, with about two-thirds of all deaths resulting from natural causes mainly...... cardiovascular, digestive, neoplastic and respiratory diseases. Suicide was the major cause of premature death in patients with ATPDs. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ATPDs are associated with an increased mortality from both natural causes and suicide....

  11. Colonoscopy reduced distal colorectal cancer risk and excess cancer risk associated with family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morois, Sophie; Cottet, Vanessa; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Carbonnel, Franck; Bastide, Nadia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2014-10-01

    Colonoscopy efficacy at preventing proximal colorectal cancer (CRC) is questioned, and little is known about efficacy in high-risk versus medium-risk populations. We investigated the relationship between colonoscopy screening, family history of colorectal cancer (FHCC), and CRC risk by site. Among 92,078 women of the E3N prospective cohort, 692 CRCs have been diagnosed after a median follow-up of 15.4 years. Cox proportional hazard models estimated adjusted hazards ratios according to subsites of cancer and FHCC. A personal history of colonoscopy (PHC; n = 37,470) was associated with decreased rectal and distal colon cancer risks (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.42-0.78 and HR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.26-0.52, respectively), but not proximal colon cancer risk (HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.64-1.18). In women with no prior colonoscopy, those with FHCC had a 80% higher CRC risk than those without FHCC. In women with previous colonoscopy, CRC risk was similar in women with and without FHCC (p for interaction = 0.04). Results showed colonoscopy ability to prevent distal cancers, but not proximal cancers in women. Colonoscopy screening also reduced the excess risk of women with FHCC to that of women with no FHCC.

  12. Risk Factors for Morbidity and Mortality Following Gastroenterostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, M.; Trezza, M.; Atimash, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality following traditional surgical treatment of gastric outlet obstruction is high. The aim of this work was to identify risk factors predictive of postoperative complications and mortality following gastroenterostomy. One-hundred sixty-five consecutive patients subjected...

  13. Excessive supraventricular ectopic activity and increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binici, Zeynep; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Wendelboe Nielsen, Olav

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of stroke and atrial fibrillation in healthy individuals is challenging. We examined whether excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (ESVEA) correlates with risk of stroke, death, and atrial fibrillation in subjects without previous stroke or heart disease.......Prediction of stroke and atrial fibrillation in healthy individuals is challenging. We examined whether excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (ESVEA) correlates with risk of stroke, death, and atrial fibrillation in subjects without previous stroke or heart disease....

  14. The excess long-term mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding is explained by nonspecific comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Hansen, Jane Møller; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    with a matched control cohort from the source population. Predictors of mortality were identified using proportional hazards models. Causes of death were retrieved from death certificates. Long-term mortality was analyzed with adjustment for Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and average income in residence...... municipality using proportional hazards models. Results. We included 455 PUB cases and 2224 control subjects. Median follow up was 9.7 years, and median survival for the PUB and control cohorts was 7 and 12 years, respectively (p mean CCI: 0.92 vs. 0...

  15. Excess mortality among male unskilled and semi-skilled workers. A negative slope with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Jeune, B

    1983-01-01

    Mortality for male unskilled and semi-skilled workers in Denmark, Norway, and England and Wales is 40-50%--about the average for all men with equivalent economic status in the younger age groups, but declines towards the average at pensionable age. The negative slope of the graph for relative...

  16. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...

  17. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gasparrini, A.; Guo, Y.; Sera, F.; Vicedo-Cabrera, A.M.; Huber, V.; Tong, S.; Coelho, M. S. Z. S.; Saldiva, P. H. N.; Lavigne, E.; Correa, P.M.; Ortega, N. V.; Kan, H.; Osorio, S.; Kyselý, Jan; Urban, Aleš; Jaakkola, J.J.K.; Ryti, N.R.I.; Pascal, M.; Goodman, P.G.; Zeka, A.; Michelozzi, P.; Scortichini, M.; Hashizume, M.; Honda, Y.; Hurtado-Diaz, M.; Cruz, J.C.; Seposo, X.; Kim, H.; Tobias, A.; Iñiguez, C.; Forsberg, B.; Åström, D.O.; Ragettli, M.S.; Guo, Y.L.; Wu, Ch.; Zanobetti, A.; Schwartz, J.; Bell, M.L.; Dang, T.N.; Van, D.D.; Heaviside, C.; Vardoulakis, S.; Hajat, S.; Haines, A.; Armstrong, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 9 (2017), e360-e367 ISSN 2542-5196 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-22000S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : climate change scenarios * mortality Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2542519617301560#!

  18. Risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain in a healthy, nulliparous cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, Antonia; Taylor, Rennae S; Thompson, John M D; Flower, Deralie; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Kenny, Louise C; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M E

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories ("not excessive" versus "excessive") based on pregravid body mass index (BMI) using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14-16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2-3.8)) or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8-3.5)) before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14-16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14-16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.

  19. A comorbid anxiety disorder does not result in an excess risk of death among patients with a depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Wijnand; Termorshuizen, Fabian; Smeets, Hugo M; Boks, Marco P M; de Wit, Niek J; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated increased mortality associated with depression and with anxiety. Mortality due to comorbidity of two mental disorders may be even more increased. Therefore, we investigated the mortality among patients with depression, with anxiety and with both diagnoses. By linking the longitudinal Psychiatric Case Register Middle-Netherlands, which contains all patients of psychiatric services in the Utrecht region, to the death register of Statistics Netherlands, hazard ratio's of death were estimated overall and for different categories of death causes separately. We found an increased risk of death among patients with an anxiety disorder (N=6919): HR=1.45 (95%CI: 1.25-1.69), and among patients with a depression (N=14,778): HR=1.83, (95%CI: 1.72-1.95), compared to controls (N=103,824). The hazard ratios among both disorders combined (N=4260) were similar to those with only a depression: HR=1.91, (95% CI: 1.64-2.23). Among patients with a depression, mortality across all important disease-related categories of death causes (neoplasms, cardiovascular, respiratory, and other diseases) and due to suicide was increased, without an excess mortality in case of comorbid anxiety. The presented data are restricted to broad categories of patients in specialist services. No data on behavioral or intermediate factors were available. Although anxiety is associated with an increased risk of death, the presence of anxiety as comorbid disorder does not give an additional increase in the risk of death among patients with a depressive disorder. The increased mortality among patients with depression is not restricted to suicide and cardiovascular diseases, but associated with a broad range of death causes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Do repeated risk factor measurements influence the impact of education on cardiovascular mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariansen, Inger; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Stigum, Hein; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Wills, Andrew K; Næss, Øyvind

    2015-12-01

    It has been questioned if the excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality by lower educational level can be fully explained by conventional modifiable CVD risk factors. Our objective was to examine whether repeated measures over time of risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, blood pressure, total cholesterol and body mass index) explain more of the socioeconomic gradient in CVD mortality than if they are measured only once. A cohort of 34 884 men and women attended all three screenings (1974-1978, 1977-1983 and 1985-1988) in the Norwegian Counties Study and were followed for CVD mortality through 2009 by linkage to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR of CVD mortality was 2.32 (95% CI 1.93 to 2.80) for basic relative to tertiary educated individuals. The HR was attenuated by 48% (HR 1.54 (1.28 to 1.87)) when adjusted for CVD risk factors measured at baseline and by 56% (HR 1.45 (1.20 to 1.75)) when two repeated measurements ascertained 5 years apart were added to the model. Similarly, absolute risk difference in CVD mortality by education was attenuated by 62% when adjusted for baseline and by 72% when adjusted for repeated measurements of risk factors. In this cohort, repeated measurements of risk factors seemed to explain more of the educational gradient in CVD mortality. This suggests that a substantial part of the excess CVD mortality among those with lower education might be explained by conventional risk factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. [Risk assessment for sleep apnea syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricić, Lana; Visević, Roberta; Vceva, Andrijana; Vcev, Aleksandar; Labor, Slavica

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the risk of sleep apnea syndrome in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine correlation with the associated cardiovascular comorbidity in these patients. Chronic and occasional sleep disturbances represent a problem for millions of people worldwide. COPD is a multisystem disease and the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. It is estimated that it will be the third cause of death in the world by 2020. Poor quality of sleep in patients with COPD occurs as a result of reduced oxygen saturation, hypercapnia, and the use of auxiliary respiratory muscles. The study included 47 patients with COPD, examined at the Department of Pulmonology, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Osijek University Hospital Center in 2011. The respondents answered questions from the Croatian version of the Snoring, Tired, Observed, Pressure (STOP) questionnaire, which examines the risk of sleep apnea syndrome, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which examines excessive daytime sleepiness. The respondents also provided data related to the current smoking status, bronchodilation therapy they apply at home, the associated cardiovascular comorbidity related to coronary heart disease (previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris), cerebrovascular incident, diabetes, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and anxiety-depressive disorder. According to the STOP questionnaire, the risk of sleep apnea syndrome was recorded in 35 (74.5%) respondents. Patients at risk had a higher frequency of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 and GERD. Excessive daytime sleepiness was recorded in 14.9% of patients with COPD and the mean daytime sleepiness scored 4.76 points. In patients at a high risk according to the STOP questionnaire, the mean daytime sleepiness was 6.24 points versus 3.72 points in the group at a low risk. Snoring was present in 23 (49%), excessive tiredness in 27

  2. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Rodríguez Luis A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To balance the cardiovascular benefits from low-dose aspirin against the gastrointestinal harm caused, studies have considered the coronary heart disease risk for each individual but not their gastrointestinal risk profile. We characterized the gastrointestinal risk profile of low-dose aspirin users in real clinical practice, and estimated the excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin among patients with different gastrointestinal risk profiles. Methods To characterize aspirin users in terms of major gastrointestinal risk factors (i.e., advanced age, male sex, prior ulcer history and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, we used The General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom and the Base de Datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria in Spain. To estimate the baseline risk of upper gastrointestinal complications according to major gastrointestinal risk factors and the excess risk attributable to aspirin within levels of these factors, we used previously published meta-analyses on both absolute and relative risks of upper gastrointestinal complications. Results Over 60% of aspirin users are above 60 years of age, 4 to 6% have a recent history of peptic ulcers and over 13% use other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The estimated average excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin is around 5 extra cases per 1,000 aspirin users per year. However, the excess risk varies in parallel to the underlying gastrointestinal risk and might be above 10 extra cases per 1,000 person-years in over 10% of aspirin users. Conclusion In addition to the cardiovascular risk, the underlying gastrointestinal risk factors have to be considered when balancing harms and benefits of aspirin use for an individual patient. The gastrointestinal harms may offset the cardiovascular benefits in certain groups of patients where the

  3. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2006-09-20

    To balance the cardiovascular benefits from low-dose aspirin against the gastrointestinal harm caused, studies have considered the coronary heart disease risk for each individual but not their gastrointestinal risk profile. We characterized the gastrointestinal risk profile of low-dose aspirin users in real clinical practice, and estimated the excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin among patients with different gastrointestinal risk profiles. To characterize aspirin users in terms of major gastrointestinal risk factors (i.e., advanced age, male sex, prior ulcer history and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), we used The General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom and the Base de Datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria in Spain. To estimate the baseline risk of upper gastrointestinal complications according to major gastrointestinal risk factors and the excess risk attributable to aspirin within levels of these factors, we used previously published meta-analyses on both absolute and relative risks of upper gastrointestinal complications. Over 60% of aspirin users are above 60 years of age, 4 to 6% have a recent history of peptic ulcers and over 13% use other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The estimated average excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin is around 5 extra cases per 1,000 aspirin users per year. However, the excess risk varies in parallel to the underlying gastrointestinal risk and might be above 10 extra cases per 1,000 person-years in over 10% of aspirin users. In addition to the cardiovascular risk, the underlying gastrointestinal risk factors have to be considered when balancing harms and benefits of aspirin use for an individual patient. The gastrointestinal harms may offset the cardiovascular benefits in certain groups of patients where the gastrointestinal risk is high and the cardiovascular risk is low.

  4. [Women and acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation: Excess mortality related to longer delays and spontaneous coronary dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, H; Motreff, P; Jessen, P; Piquet, M; Haziza, F; Chevalier, B

    2015-12-01

    The outcome of patients with ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been increasingly improving in the general population over the past few decades. However, detailed analysis of the results show that the reduction in mortality rates is higher in males compared to their female counterparts. The excess mortality rate observed in women, though sometimes questioned, has been widely reported in the literature. The higher mortality rate observed in women with ST elevation ACS can be explained by the presence of aggravating clinical factors such as older age, a higher percentage of diabetics, and a higher frequency of cardiogenic shock. Other factors pertaining to patient management seem to negatively impact the outcome. These factors include a lower use of reperfusion strategies, longer time to treatment mainly as a result of diagnostic uncertainty with respect to a disease, which is believed to affect principally the male gender. The doubts that female patients themselves and their families have about the nature of their symptoms are also present in the medical environment but cease to exist in the catheterization laboratory. This is illustrated in the first clinical case that we present here. Coronary reperfusion is the cornerstone of the therapeutic management of MI. In this context, bleeding complications associated with the implemented treatments can also result in an increased mortality rate in this more vulnerable population. When all the factors likely to influence the prognosis are taken into account, excess mortality seems to persist in women, especially in younger patients. As described in the second clinical case, a distinct physio-pathological factor, more frequent in women, could account for this higher mortality rate. Indeed, spontaneous coronary dissection and intramural hematoma are not always easy to diagnose and may not be adequately managed by reperfusion treatments. In addition, these coronary reperfusion strategies are probably not adapted

  5. Predictors of the excessive mortality rates of dialysis patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, A R

    1994-05-01

    It is now well recognized that the United States has the highest mortality rate for end-stage renal disease patients receiving dialysis among the industrialized nations. The possible causes of this almost 25% gross mortality rate (23.6% in 1992) are becoming clearer. After numerous investigations of the various possibilities, it is now evident that the causes are multifactorial. Basically, the US reimbursement for dialysis payment rate has been kept low (essentially no increase since 1973) by allowing inflation to advance and maintaining the actual costs. The industry has responded in a number of ways, some of which have proven harmful. For example, the reuse of dialyzers was probably reasonable and has not proven to be a problem: reductions in staff for older and sicker populations has probably been harmful to the patient's well being; and the shortening of dialysis treatments may have produced more problems than any other change. Essentially, as patients receive less dialysis they feel worse and lose their appetite, thus resulting in weight loss. Frequently dialysis is reduced further because of reduction in certain chemical markers, eg, blood urea nitrogen, that nephrologists use as clinical measurements. This results in a malnourished patient with a low serum albumin level. It is believed but not yet proven that an increase in the dialysis prescription, ie, more dialysis, can reverse this decline. Currently the United States faces the challenges of reducing its mortality rate for end-stage renal disease patients to compare with that of other industrial countries while remaining at the current reimbursement rate, which is less than half that of Germany and one quarter that of Japan.

  6. Excess mortality rate associated with hepatitis C virus infection: A community-based cohort study in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Aya; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Medhat, Ahmed; Mikhail, Nabiel N; Chesnais, Cédric B; Arafa, Naglaa; Bakr, Iman; El Hoseiny, Mostafa; El-Daly, Mai; Esmat, Gamal; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    >80% of people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) live in resource-limited countries, yet the excess mortality associated with HCV infection in these settings is poorly documented. Individuals were recruited from three villages in rural Egypt in 1997-2003 and their vital status was determined in 2008-2009. Mortality rates across the cohorts were compared according to HCV status: chronic HCV infection (anti-HCV antibody positive and HCV RNA positive), cleared HCV infection (anti-HCV antibody positive and HCV RNA negative) and never infected (anti-HCV antibody negative). Data related to cause of death was collected from a death registry in one village. Among 18,111 survey participants enrolled in 1997-2003, 9.1% had chronic HCV infection, 5.5% had cleared HCV infection, and 85.4% had never been infected. After a mean time to follow-up of 8.6years, vital status was obtained for 16,282 (89.9%) participants. When compared to those who had never been infected with HCV in the same age groups, mortality rate ratios (MRR) of males with chronic HCV infection aged <35, 35-44, and 45-54years were 2.35 (95% CI 1.00-5.49), 2.87 (1.46-5.63), and 2.22 (1.29-3.81), respectively. No difference in mortality rate was seen in older males or in females. The all-cause mortality rate attributable to chronic HCV infection was 5.7% (95% CI: 1.0-10.1%), while liver-related mortality was 45.5% (11.3-66.4%). Use of a highly potent new antiviral agent to treat all villagers with positive HCV RNA may reduce all-cause mortality rate by up to 5% and hepatic mortality by up to 40% in rural Egypt. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee Cheong; Sumarni, Mohd Ghazali; Lim, Kuang Hock; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Tee, Guat Hiong Helen; Gurpreet, Kaur; Faudzi, Yusoff Ahmad; Amal, Nasir Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey. Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, while obesity (BMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2). Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

  8. Excess mortality in general hospital patients with delirium: A 5-year follow-up of 519 patients seen in psychiatric consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Hemert (Bert); R.C. van der Mast (Roos); M.W. Hengeveld (Michiel); M. Vorstenbosch (Marielle)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractMortality was determined in 519 patients with delirium who were seen in psychiatric consultation in two general hospitals. Among 419 patients with simple delirium (DSM-III: 293.00) in-hospital mortality was 26%. As compared to average hospital patients the age adjusted in-hospital excess

  9. Excess long-term mortality among hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Soroka Acute Myocardial Infarction (SAMI) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakht, Y; Gilutz, H; Shiyovich, A

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in unselected 'real life' patients according to the various risk groups, and it's persistence with time after AMI as compared with the matched general population. Retrospective study. Data were collected from 2671 AMI hospital survivors (tertiary medical centre in Israel), which included demographics, clinical characteristics of AMI, comorbidities, interventions and test results. All-cause mortality during the 10-year follow-up period was compared with age-, sex- and ethnicity/religion-matched general population using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Overall mortality of AMI patients (48.6%) was higher than the general population (SMR, 2.2; P < 0.001). Mortality rates and SMRs tended to be greater in higher risk strata of patients, Jews vs Muslims, women vs men, non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) vs ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-invasive treatment vs invasive treatment, and recurrent vs first AMI. Mortality rates increased with age, but SMRs were highest in the youngest group. Through the follow-up period, SMR was highest during the first year after discharge (SMR, 4.85; P < 0.001) and higher in 7th-10th years compared with 2nd-6th years. Patients who survived hospital admission with AMI continue to be at higher (approximately twice) risk of death compared with the general population for at least 10-year follow-up period and especially throughout the first and 7th-10th years after AMI, young women, high-risk patients, Jews, NSTEMI, non-invasively treated and recurrent AMI. These findings can assist healthcare providers and decision makers prioritizing targets of secondary prevention and allocation of resources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Psychosocial risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Eliza; McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Hill, Briony

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have adverse health outcomes for mother and infant throughout pregnancy. However, few studies have identified the psychosocial factors that contribute to women gaining excessive weight during pregnancy. To review the existing literature that explores the impact of psychosocial risk factors (psychological distress, body image dissatisfaction, social support, self-efficacy and self-esteem) on excessive gestational weight gain. A systematic review of peer-reviewed English articles using Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, Informit, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted. Quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial factors of excessive GWG, published between 2000 and 2014 were included. Studies investigating mothers with a low risk of mental health issues and normally-developing foetuses were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 474 articles located, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full. Significant associations were found between depression, body image dissatisfaction, and social support with excessive gestational weight gain. No significant relationships were reported between anxiety, stress, self-efficacy, or self-esteem and excessive gestational weight gain. The relationship between psychosocial factors and weight gain in pregnancy is complex; however depression, body dissatisfaction and social support appear to have a direct relationship with excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to identify how screening for, and responding to, psychosocial risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain can be successfully incorporated into current antenatal care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia | Wakgari | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An understanding of risk factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal deaths. Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods: The data source for the study was the ...

  12. Insulin Sensitivity and Mortality Risk Estimation in Patients with Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... contribution of insulin resistance to scores obtained from mortality risk estimation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aim: This study determined the mortality risk scores in patients with T2DM and its relationship with insulin resistance. Methods: Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high‑ ...

  13. Information Acquisition and Excessive Risk: Impact of Policy Rate and Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volha Audzei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive risk-taking of financial agents drew a lot of attention in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Low interest rates and subdued market volatility during the Great Moderation are sometimes blamed for stimulating risk-taking and leading to the recent financial crisis. In recent years, with many central banks around the world conducting the policy of low interest rates and mitigating market risks, it has been debatable whether this policy contributes to the building up of another credit boom. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on information acquisition by the financial agents. We build a theoretical model which captures excessive risk taking in response to changes in policy rate and market volatility. This excessive risk takes the form of an increased risk appetite of the agents, but also of decreased incentives to acquire information about risky assets. As a result, with market risk being reduced, agents tend to acquire more risk in their portfolios then they would with the higher market risk. The same forces increase portfolio risk when the safe interest rate is falling. The robustness of the results is considered with different learning rules.

  14. Survived infancy but still vulnerable: spatial-temporal trends and risk factors for child mortality in rural South Africa (Agincourt), 1992-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; COLLINSON, MARK A.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for promoting equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatial-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years) mortality in rural South Africa (the Agincourt sub-district), to assess temporal changes in child mortality pa...

  15. Survived infancy but still vulnerable: spatial-temporal trends and risk factors for child mortality in the Agincourt rural sub-district, South Africa, 1992-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Benn Sartorius; Kathleen Kahn; COLLINSON, MARK A.; Penelope Vounatsou; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for enhancing equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years) mortality in the Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, to assess temporal changes in child mortality patterns w...

  16. Parity and men’s mortality risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Keizer (Renske); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Background: Most studies on associations between parity and mortality focus on women, and find a negative correlation or U-shaped pattern. If and why having children is associated with mortality among men is less clear. Our objective was to improve understanding of the

  17. Excess Mortality, Causes of Death and Life Expectancy in 270,770 Patients with Recent Onset of Mental Disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Hällgren, Jonas; Westman, Jeanette; Ösby, Urban; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Gissler, Mika; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2013-01-01

    Background Excess mortality among patients with severe mental disorders has not previously been investigated in detail in large complete national populations. Objective To investigate the excess mortality in different diagnostic categories due to suicide and other external causes of death, and due to specific causes in connection with diseases and medical conditions. Methods In longitudinal national psychiatric case registers from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, a cohort of 270,770 recent-onset patients, who at least once during the period 2000 to 2006 were admitted due to a psychiatric disorder, were followed until death or the end of 2006. They were followed for 912,279 person years, and 28,088 deaths were analyzed. Life expectancy and standardized cause-specific mortality rates were estimated in each diagnostic group in all three countries. Results The life expectancy was generally approximately 15 years shorter for women and 20 years shorter for men, compared to the general population. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was increased two- to three-fold, while excess mortality from external causes ranged from three- to 77-fold. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was generally lowest in patients with affective disorders and highest in patients with substance abuse and personality disorders, while mortality due to suicide was highest in patients with affective disorders and personality disorders, and mortality due to other external causes was highest in patients with substance abuse. Conclusions These alarming figures call for action in order to prevent the high mortality. PMID:23372832

  18. Comparing early years and childhood experiences and outcomes in Scotland, England and three city-regions: a plausible explanation for Scottish 'excess' mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; O'Dowd, John

    2014-10-10

    Negative early years and childhood experiences (EYCE), including socio-economic circumstances, parental health and parenting style, are associated with poor health outcomes both in childhood and adulthood. It has also been proposed that EYCE were historically worse in Scottish areas, especially Glasgow and the Clyde Valley, compared to elsewhere in the UK and that this variation can provide a partial explanation for the excess of ill health and mortality observed among those Scottish populations. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to two large, representative, British birth cohorts (the NCDS58 and the BCS70), to test the independent association of area of residence at ages 7 and 5 with risk of behavioural problems, respiratory problems and reading/vocabulary problems at the same age. Cohort members resident in Scotland were compared with those who were resident in England, while those resident in Glasgow and the Clyde Valley were compared with those resident in Merseyside and Greater Manchester. After adjustment for a range of relevant variables, the risk of adverse childhood outcomes was found to be either no different, or lower, in the Scottish areas. At a national level, the study reinforces the combined association of socio-economic circumstances, parental health (especially maternal mental health) and parenting with child health outcomes. Based on these samples, the study does not support the hypothesis that EYCE were worse in Scotland and Glasgow and the Clyde Valley. It seems, therefore (based on these data), less likely that the roots of the excess mortality observed in the Scottish areas can be explained by these factors.

  19. Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Restall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive” based on pregravid body mass index (BMI using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8 or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5 before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.

  20. The joint contribution of neighborhood poverty and social integration to mortality risk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Andrea Fleisch; Echeverria, Sandra E; Holland, Bart K; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F; Passannante, Marian R

    2016-04-01

    A well-established literature has shown that social integration strongly patterns health, including mortality risk. However, the extent to which living in high-poverty neighborhoods and having few social ties jointly pattern survival in the United States has not been examined. We analyzed data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) linked to mortality follow-up through 2006 and census-based neighborhood poverty. We fit Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations between social integration and neighborhood poverty on all-cause mortality as independent predictors and in joint-effects models using the relative excess risk due to interaction to test for interaction on an additive scale. In the joint-effects model adjusting for age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and individual-level socioeconomic status, exposure to low social integration alone was associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-1.59) while living in an area of high poverty alone did not have a significant effect (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.95-1.28) when compared with being jointly unexposed. Individuals simultaneously living in neighborhoods characterized by high poverty and having low levels of social integration had an increased risk of mortality (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.35-1.96). However, relative excess risk due to interaction results were not statistically significant. Social integration remains an important determinant of mortality risk in the United States independent of neighborhood poverty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationships between interest for and participation in health screening and risk of mortality: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ai; Iso, Hiroyasu; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Inaba, Yutaka; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether the interest in participation in health screening is associated with reduced mortality in Japan. A total of 68,825 subjects, 40-79 years old, in 29 Japanese communities responded to a questionnaire including interest level and participation status in health screening during 1988-1990. Systematic surveillance was completed until the end of 1999, with 660,682 person-years of follow-up, and the causes of death were determined. Men and women with low/no interest in health screening had 24-94% higher mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes. Women, but not men, with non-participation in health screening had 18-24% excess risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes. Men and women with low/no interest and non-participation in health screening had 23-47% excess risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes. A similar excess risk of mortality was found among men with low/no interest and participation in health screening, but such a trend was less evident among women. Men and women with lower interest and women with no participation in health screening were at high risk for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Additionally, men who participated but had lower interest in health screening are also considered as high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  2. Examining Factors Influencing Internet Addiction and Adolescent Risk Behaviors Among Excessive Internet Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiaolei; Huang, Xiuqin; Tao, Ran

    2017-08-29

    In China, public concern continues to mount regarding the risks of excessive Internet use among adolescents. This study investigated the factors influencing Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors among excessive Internet users. Proposing a conceptual model with a theoretical origin in risk behavior theory and media dependency theory, this study examined the influence of personality traits, online gaming, Internet connectedness (both the overall index and various scopes), and demographics on Internet addiction and risk behaviors (smoking, drinking, gambling, and risky sexual behaviors). Clinical data (N = 467) were retrieved from one of the earliest and largest Internet addiction clinics in China. The findings reveal that certain personality traits are significantly associated with Internet addiction and risk behaviors. Online gaming had a strong impact on both Internet addiction and risk behaviors among excessive Internet users. The study also reveals that various scopes of Internet connectedness, such as site scope, facilitate addictive Internet use, and risk behaviors among adolescents. The findings can contribute to the prevention of and intervention into Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors.

  3. Novel Stratification of Mortality Risk by Kidney Disease Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassa, Allen C; Horne, Benjamin D; McCubrey, Raymond O; Bair, Tami L; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Morris, Donald R; Anderson, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disorder with a variable clinical course and it is associated with increased mortality. The Intermountain Risk Score (IMRS) is an electronic risk calculator that utilizes complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP) values to predict mortality in various healthcare populations. We hypothesized that IMRS would predict mortality in patients with CKD even with adjustment for serum phosphate and urinary albumin. Three thousand eight hundred seventy-two patients with CKD classes IIIA-V had IMRS calculated retrospectively and survival analysis was performed investigating 1- and 5-year mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated for predefined IMRS groups of low, medium and high risk for CKD patients overall and by sex and CKD stage. Serum phosphate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were modeled in multivariate Cox-proportional hazard models. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine c-statistics for mortality. For all patients with CKD, mortality was significantly greater for those with medium- or high-risk compared to low-risk IMRS categories, among each CKD stage. Overall, IMRS was predictive of mortality at both 1 and 5 years, even when adjusted for CKD stage and predicted mortality more accurately than CKD stage alone. Albuminuria was not independently associated with mortality and serum phosphate weakly predicted mortality. IMRS is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with CKD and is robustly complementary to CKD stage in refining risk prediction. Given the universal availability and low cost of the CBC and BMP, IMRS may be of a substantial value in CKD risk assessment and management. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. BMI Is a Risk Factor for Colorectal Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaukat, Aasma; Dostal, Allison; Menk, Jeremiah; Church, Timothy R

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between dietary and lifestyle risk factors and long-term mortality from colorectal cancer is poorly understood. Several factors, such as obesity, intakes of red meat, and use of aspirin, have been reported to be associated with risk of colorectal cancer mortality, though these findings have not been replicated in all studies to date. In the Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study, 46,551 participants 50-80 years old were randomly assigned to usual care (control) or annual or biennial screening by fecal occult blood testing. Colon cancer mortality was assessed after 30 years of follow-up. Dietary intake and lifestyle risk factors were assessed by questionnaire at baseline. Age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.09; 95% CI 1.07, -1.11], male sex (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.01, 1.57), and higher body mass index (BMI) (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.05) increased the risk of CRC mortality, while undergoing screening for CRC was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer mortality (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.61-0.94 and 0.67; 95% CI 0.53-0.83 for biennial and annual screening, respectively). Intakes of grains, meats, proteins, coffee, alcohol, aspirin, fiber, fruits, and vegetables were not associated with colorectal cancer mortality. Our study confirms the relationship between BMI and long-term colorectal cancer mortality. Modulation of BMI may reduce risk of CRC mortality.

  5. Risk factors for mortality in burn children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Rosanova

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: In this series of burn children age ≤ 4 years, Garces index score 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were identified as independent variables related with mortality.

  6. Excess Mortality in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Starts at 20 Years from Clinical Onset: Data from a Large-Scale French Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Leray

    Full Text Available Recent studies in multiple sclerosis (MS showed longer survival times from clinical onset than older hospital-based series. However estimated median time ranges widely, from 24 to 45 years, which makes huge difference for patients as this neurological disease mainly starts around age 20 to 40. Precise and up-to-date reference data about mortality in MS are crucial for patients and neurologists, but unavailable yet in France.Estimate survival in MS patients and compare mortality with that of the French general population.We conducted a multicenter observational study involving clinical longitudinal data from 30,413 eligible patients, linked to the national deaths register. Inclusion criteria were definite MS diagnosis and clinical onset prior to January, 1st 2009 in order to get a minimum of 1-year disease duration.After removing between-center duplicates and applying inclusion criteria, the final population comprised 27,603 MS patients (F/M sex ratio 2.5, mean age at onset 33.0 years, 85.5% relapsing onset. During the follow-up period (mean 15.2 +/- 10.3 years, 1569 deaths (5.7% were identified; half related to MS. Death rates were significantly higher in men, patients with later clinical onset, and in progressive MS. Overall excess mortality compared with the general population was moderate (Standardized Mortality Ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval [1.41-1.55], but increased considerably after 20 years of disease (2.20 [2.10-2.31].This study revealed a moderate decrease in life expectancy in MS patients, and showed that the risk of dying is strongly correlated to disease duration and disability, highlighting the need for early actions that can slow disability progression.

  7. Excess Mortality in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Starts at 20 Years from Clinical Onset: Data from a Large-Scale French Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Emmanuelle; Vukusic, Sandra; Debouverie, Marc; Clanet, Michel; Brochet, Bruno; de Sèze, Jérôme; Zéphir, Hélène; Defer, Gilles; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Moreau, Thibault; Clavelou, Pierre; Pelletier, Jean; Berger, Eric; Cabre, Philippe; Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe; Kalson-Ray, Shoshannah; Confavreux, Christian; Edan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) showed longer survival times from clinical onset than older hospital-based series. However estimated median time ranges widely, from 24 to 45 years, which makes huge difference for patients as this neurological disease mainly starts around age 20 to 40. Precise and up-to-date reference data about mortality in MS are crucial for patients and neurologists, but unavailable yet in France. Estimate survival in MS patients and compare mortality with that of the French general population. We conducted a multicenter observational study involving clinical longitudinal data from 30,413 eligible patients, linked to the national deaths register. Inclusion criteria were definite MS diagnosis and clinical onset prior to January, 1st 2009 in order to get a minimum of 1-year disease duration. After removing between-center duplicates and applying inclusion criteria, the final population comprised 27,603 MS patients (F/M sex ratio 2.5, mean age at onset 33.0 years, 85.5% relapsing onset). During the follow-up period (mean 15.2 +/- 10.3 years), 1569 deaths (5.7%) were identified; half related to MS. Death rates were significantly higher in men, patients with later clinical onset, and in progressive MS. Overall excess mortality compared with the general population was moderate (Standardized Mortality Ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval [1.41-1.55]), but increased considerably after 20 years of disease (2.20 [2.10-2.31]). This study revealed a moderate decrease in life expectancy in MS patients, and showed that the risk of dying is strongly correlated to disease duration and disability, highlighting the need for early actions that can slow disability progression.

  8. 76 FR 23860 - Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: Schedule of Excess Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Fiscal Service Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information: Schedule of Excess Risks AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and...

  9. Relative risk for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events after smoking cessation: 6–9 years excess risk in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelein John JP

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking history is often di- or trichotomized into for example "never, ever or current smoking". However, smoking must be treated as a time-dependent covariate when lifetime data is available. In particular, individuals do not smoke at birth, there is usually a wide variation with respect to smoking history, and smoking cessation must also be considered. Methods Therefore we analyzed smoking as a time-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events in a cohort of 2400 individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia who were followed from birth until 2004. Excess risk after smoking-cessation was modelled in a Cox regression model with linear and exponential decaying trends. The model with the highest likelihood value was used to estimate the decay of the excess risk of smoking. Results Atherosclerotic events were observed in 779 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 1569 individuals had a smoking history. In the model with the highest likelihood value the risk reduction of smoking after cessation follows a linear pattern with time and it appears to take 6 to 9 years before the excess risk is reduced to zero. The risk of atherosclerotic events due to smoking was estimated as 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5; 2.9. Conclusion It was concluded that excess risk due to smoking declined linearly after cessation in at least six to nine years.

  10. Depression and risk of mortality in people with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Nefs, Giesje; Schram, Miranda T

    2013-01-01

    for articles assessing mortality risk associated with depression in diabetes up until August 16, 2012. The pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, which were pooled in an overall all-cause mortality estimate, and five......OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between depression and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in people with diabetes by systematically reviewing the literature and carrying out a meta-analysis of relevant longitudinal studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PUBMED and PSYCINFO were searched...... in a cardiovascular mortality estimate. After adjustment for demographic variables and micro- and macrovascular complications, depression was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.29-1.66), and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11-1.73). Heterogeneity across...

  11. Risk factors for mortality in children with Wilms tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Purwanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Wilms tumor is the most common renal malignancy in children (95% and one of the leading causes of death in children, with high mortality rates in developing countries. Identifying risk factors for mortality is important in order to provide early intervention to improve cure rates. Objective To identify risk factors for mortality in children with Wilms tumor. Methods We performed a case-control study of children (0-18 years of age with Wilms tumor admitted to Dr. Sardjito Hospital between 2005 and 2012. The case group consisted of children who died of Wilms tumor, whereas the control group were children who survived. Data were collected from medical records. Statistical analyses using Chi-square and logistic regression tests were done to determine odds ratios and 95% CI of the potential risk factors for mortality from Wilms tumor. Results Thirty-five children with Wilms tumor were admitted to Dr. Sardjito Hospital during the study period. Nine (26% children died and 26 survived. Stage ≥III was a significant risk factor for mortality in chidren with Wilms tumor (OR 62.8; 95%CI 5.6 to 70.5. Age ≥2 years (OR 1.4; 95%CI 0.1 to 14.3 and male sex (OR 1.2; 95%CI 0.1 to 10.8 were not significant risk factors for mortality. Conclusion Stage ≥III is a risk factor for mortality in children with Wilms tumor.

  12. Risk factors for mortality among tuberculosis patients on treatment at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gunda

    Abstract. Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though it can effectively be treated, still a significant proportion of patients die on the course of their treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome and risk factors of mortality among patients.

  13. Insulin Sensitivity and Mortality Risk Estimation in Patients with Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... Akinlade et al.: Insulin sensitivity and mortality risk estimation in diabetics. 772. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ¦ Volume 20 ¦ Issue 6 ¦ June 2017 albuminuria.[16] It is, however, known that albuminuria is an important biomarker to predict micro and macrovascular complications and mortality in patients.

  14. Risk factors for mortality among tuberculosis patients on treatment at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though it can effectively be treated, still a significant proportion of patients die on the course of their treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome and risk factors of mortality among patients diagnosed with ...

  15. Risks of Mortality in New-Onset Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and centers in Connecticut, the Netherlands and Nova Scotia, pooled data from 4 large pediatric cohorts and obtained direct estimates of the mortality risk overall and from specific causes of mortality, particularly seizure related SUDEP.

  16. Risk Factors For Perinatal Mortality In Arua Regional Referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background In low-income countries, the majority of neonatal deaths occur during the perinatal period. The fourth millennium development goal of reducing child mortality cannot therefore be met without substantial reduction in perinatal deaths. Objective To investigate the risk factors for perinatal mortality in Arua regional ...

  17. Cancer risk and mortality after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Bistrup, Claus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney recipients receive immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, and long-term outcomes such as post-transplant cancer and mortality may vary according to the different protocols of immunosuppression. METHODS: A national register-based historical cohort study was conducted to e...

  18. THE EXCESS OF HUMIDITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED RISKS IN THE REGHIN HILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SZILÁGYI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The excess of humidity and its associated risks in the Reghin Hills. Through its persistence, the excess of humidity can produce a series of natural risks, such as geomorphological, pedological, hydrological and also ecological, each category having a negative impact on the social and economical life.In this paper the focus relies on the analysis of the rain-fall conditions of the Reghin Hills, with a special view on the periods of excess of humidity. For such a purpose we realized an analysis of the main parameters which define the excess of humidity (annual, season and monthly variations in the quantity of rain-fall, the degree of insurance in the different quantities of rain-fall, having as a basis the data recorded between 1978-2008 in the Târgu-Mureş, Eremitu and Gurghiu stations. The establishing of the rain-fall nature for each year, season and month was realized by counting the Standardized Rain-Fall Anomaly.

  19. SGA subtypes and mortality risk among singleton births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Sibylle; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis G; Kirby, Russell S; Fowler, Karen B; Pass, Mary Ann B

    2007-02-01

    To determine whether early mortality (first year of life) risks among small for gestational age (SGA) neonates were similar regardless of SGA subtype based on three chronological classifications (term, preterm and post-term). Retrospective cohort study on all singleton live births in the United States from 1995 to 1999 inclusive. Adjusted risk estimates were computed from logistic regression models using non-SGA infants as the referent. When SGA infants were compared as a homogeneous entity to non-SGA infants, the risks for infant, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality were significantly greater in SGA infants [AOR (adjusted odds ratio)=3.0, 95% CI (confidence interval)=2.9-3.0 for infant mortality; AOR=3.2, 95% CI=3.1-3.2 for neonatal mortality; and AOR=2.6, 95% CI=2.6-2.7 for post-neonatal mortality]. However, heterogeneity existed in terms of mortality risk thresholds across SGA babies. The most remarkable risk magnitude was observed among preterm SGA infants [infant mortality AOR=13.8, 95% CI=13.6-14.1; neonatal death AOR=17.4, 95% CI=17.0-17.7; and post-neonatal death AOR=7.4, 95% CI=7.1-7.6]. The adjusted odds ratio for term and post-term SGA infants were comparable regardless of the period during infancy, and were much less than those observed for preterm SGA infants. SGA is a heterogeneous disease in terms of prognosis for survival. Preterm SGA infants bear an extremely high risk for mortality during infancy, and counseling of affected parents should reflect this risk divergence.

  20. Competing risks to breast cancer mortality in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaprinyo, Ester; Gispert, Rosa; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Carles, Misericòrdia; Pla, Roger; Espinàs, Josep-Alfons; Rué, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality has experienced important changes over the last century. Breast cancer occurs in the presence of other competing risks which can influence breast cancer incidence and mortality trends. The aim of the present work is: 1) to assess the impact of breast cancer deaths among mortality from all causes in Catalonia (Spain), by age and birth cohort and 2) to estimate the risk of death from other causes than breast cancer, one of the inputs needed to model breast cancer mortality reduction due to screening or therapeutic interventions. Methods The multi-decrement life table methodology was used. First, all-cause mortality probabilities were obtained by age and cohort. Then mortality probability for breast cancer was subtracted from the all-cause mortality probabilities to obtain cohort life tables for causes other than breast cancer. These life tables, on one hand, provide an estimate of the risk of dying from competing risks, and on the other hand, permit to assess the impact of breast cancer deaths on all-cause mortality using the ratio of the probability of death for causes other than breast cancer by the all-cause probability of death. Results There was an increasing impact of breast cancer on mortality in the first part of the 20th century, with a peak for cohorts born in 1945–54 in the 40–49 age groups (for which approximately 24% of mortality was due to breast cancer). Even though for cohorts born after 1955 there was only information for women under 50, it is also important to note that the impact of breast cancer on all-cause mortality decreased for those cohorts. Conclusion We have quantified the effect of removing breast cancer mortality in different age groups and birth cohorts. Our results are consistent with US findings. We also have obtained an estimate of the risk of dying from competing-causes mortality, which will be used in the assessment of the effect of mammography screening on breast cancer mortality in Catalonia

  1. Information bias and lifetime mortality risks of radiation-induced cancer: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, L.E.; Schull, W.J.; Davis, B.R. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Health Science Center; Buffler, P.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    1994-04-01

    Additive and multiplicative models of relative risk were used to measure the effect of cancer misclassification and DS86 random errors on lifetime risk projections in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The true number of cancer deaths in each stratum of the cancer mortality cross-classification was estimated using sufficient statistics from the EM algorithm. Average survivor doses in the strata were corrected for DS86 random error ({sigma}=0.45) by use of reduction factors. Poisson regression was used to model the corrected and uncorrected mortality rates with risks in RERF Report 11 (Part 2) and the BEIR-V Report. Bias due to DS86 random error typically ranged from {minus}15% to {minus}30% for both sexes, and all sites and models. The total bias, including diagnostic misclassification, of excess risk of nonleukemia for exposure to 1 Sv from age 18 to 65 under the non-constant relative project model was {minus}37.1% for males and {minus}23.3% for females. Total excess risks of leukemia under the relative projection model were biased {minus}27.1% for males and {minus}43.4% for females. Thus, nonleukemia risks for 1 Sv from ages 18 to 65 (DRREF=2) increased from 1.91%/Sv to 2.68%/Sv among males and from 3.23%/Sv to 4.92%/Sv among females. Leukemia excess risk increased from 0.87%/Sv to 1.10/Sv among males and from 0.73%/Sv to 1.04/Sv among females. Bias was dependent on the gender, site, correction method, exposure profile and projection model considered. Future studies that use LSS data for US nuclear workers may be downwardly biased if lifetime risk projections are not adjusted for random and systematic errors.

  2. Excess risk attributable to traditional cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice settings across Europe - The EURIKA Study

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    Borghi Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians involved in primary prevention are key players in CVD risk control strategies, but the expected reduction in CVD risk that would be obtained if all patients attending primary care had their risk factors controlled according to current guidelines is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess risk attributable, firstly, to the presence of CVD risk factors and, secondly, to the lack of control of these risk factors in primary prevention care across Europe. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA, which involved primary care and outpatient clinics involved in primary prevention from 12 European countries between May 2009 and January 2010. We enrolled 7,434 patients over 50 years old with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but without CVD and calculated their 10-year risk of CVD death according to the SCORE equation, modified to take diabetes risk into account. Results The average 10-year risk of CVD death in study participants (N = 7,434 was 8.2%. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes were responsible for 32.7 (95% confidence interval 32.0-33.4, 15.1 (14.8-15.4, 10.4 (9.9-11.0, and 16.4% (15.6-17.2 of CVD risk, respectively. The four risk factors accounted for 57.7% (57.0-58.4 of CVD risk, representing a 10-year excess risk of CVD death of 5.66% (5.47-5.85. Lack of control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes were responsible for 8.8 (8.3-9.3, 10.6 (10.3-10.9, 10.4 (9.9-11.0, and 3.1% (2.8-3.4 of CVD risk, respectively. Lack of control of the four risk factors accounted for 29.2% (28.5-29.8 of CVD risk, representing a 10-year excess risk of CVD death of 3.12% (2.97-3.27. Conclusions Lack of control of CVD risk factors was responsible for almost 30% of the risk of CVD death among patients participating in the EURIKA Study.

  3. The web of risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain in low income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keriann H; Graham, Meredith L; Olson, Christine M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of issues related to gestational weight gain (GWG) including general health, diet, and physical activity among high and low income women and to elucidate socio-ecological and psychosocial risk factors that increase risk for excessive GWG. We conducted 9 focus groups with high (n = 4 groups) and low (n = 5 groups) income pregnant women aged 18-35 years to discuss health, GWG, diet and physical activity following a discussion guide. The constant comparative method was used to code focus group notes and to identify emergent themes. Themes were categorized within the integrative model of behavioral prediction. Low income women, in contrast to high income women, had higher BMIs, had more children, and were African American. Diet and physical activity behaviors reported by low income women were more likely to promote positive energy balance than were those of high income women. The underlying behavioral, efficacy, and normative beliefs described by both groups of women explained most of these behaviors. Experiencing multiple risk factors may lead to (1) engaging in several behavior changes during pregnancy unrelated to weight and (2) holding more weight gain-promoting beliefs than weight maintaining beliefs. These factors could inhibit diet and physical activity behaviors and/or behavior changes that promote energy balance and in combination, result in excessive GWG. Low income women experience multiple risk factors for excessive GWG and successful interventions to prevent excessive GWG and pregnancy related weight gain will need to recognize the complex web of influences.

  4. EXCESSIVE WEIGHT – MUSCLE DEPLETION PARADOX AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN OUTPATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

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    Maria Izabel Siqueira de ANDRADE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests a nutritional transition process in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Obesity, which was once an uncommon occurrence in such patients, has grown in this population at the same prevalence rate as that found in the general population, bringing with it an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the nutritional status and occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods A case-series cross-sectional study was conducted involving male and female adult outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease. Data were collected on demographic, socioeconomic, clinical and anthropometric variables as well as the following cardiovascular risk factors: sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, abdominal obesity, medications in use, comorbidities, alcohol intake and smoking habits. The significance level for all statistical tests was set to 5% (P< 0.05. Results The sample comprised 80 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 56 of whom (70.0% had ulcerative colitis and 24 of whom (30.0% had Crohn's disease. Mean age was 40.3±11 years and the female genre accounted for 66.2% of the sample. High frequencies of excess weight (48.8% and abdominal obesity (52.5% were identified based on the body mass index and waist circumference, respectively, in both groups, especially among those with ulcerative colitis. Muscle depletion was found in 52.5% of the sample based on arm muscle circumference, with greater depletion among patients with Crohn’s disease (P=0.008. The most frequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease were a sedentary lifestyle (83.8%, abdominal obesity (52.5% and excess weight (48.8%. Conclusion The results of the complete anthropometric evaluation draw one’s attention to a nutritional paradox, with high frequencies of both - muscle depletion, as well as excess weight and abdominal obesity.

  5. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

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    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  6. Drinking problems and mortality risk in the United States.

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    Rogers, Richard G; Boardman, Jason D; Pendergast, Philip M; Lawrence, Elizabeth M

    2015-06-01

    We examine the links between 41 problems related to alcohol consumption and the risk of death among adults in the United States. We use Cox proportional hazards models and data from the nationally representative prospective National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (NHIS-LMF). Drinking problems are relatively common among moderate and heavy drinkers and these problems are associated with increases in the risk of death. The strongest associations between problem drinking and mortality involved cases in which physicians, family members, or friends intervened to suggest reduced drinking. Losing one's job because of drinking problems within their lifetime (HR = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11, 1.65) was strongly linked to mortality risk. Social risks were equally or more strongly linked to mortality than physiological consequences of alcohol abuse such as lifetime reports of needing a drink to stop shaking or getting sick (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.40). Most importantly, these associations were evident despite statistical controls for alcohol consumption levels and demographic, social, economic, behavioral, health, and geographic factors. Our results highlight the independent and additive effects of alcohol-related problems and alcohol consumption levels on the risk of death. We recommend that studies examining the mortality risks of alcohol consumption take into account drinking status and also specific drinking-related problems, paying particular attention to social problems related to alcohol use or abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mortality risk factor analysis in colonic perforation: would retroperitoneal contamination increase mortality in colonic perforation?

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    Yoo, Ri Na; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Gun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2017-10-01

    Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014. Patient characteristics were analyzed to find risk factors correlated with increased postoperative mortality. Using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) audit system, the mortality and morbidity rates were estimated to verify the surgical outcomes. Patients with retroperitoneal contamination, defined by the presence of retroperitoneal air in the preoperative abdominopelvic CT, were compared to those without retroperitoneal contamination. Eight out of 30 patients (26.7%) with colonic perforation had died after urgent surgical treatment. Factors associated with mortality included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and the ischemic cause of colonic perforation. Three out of 6 patients (50%) who presented retroperitoneal contamination were deceased. Although the patients with retroperitoneal contamination did not show significant increase in the mortality rate, they showed significantly higher ASA physical status classification than those without retroperitoneal contamination. The mortality rate predicted from Portsmouth POSSUM was higher in the patients with retroperitoneal contamination. Patients presenting colonic perforation along with retroperitoneal contamination demonstrated severe comorbidity. However, retroperitoneal contamination was not found to be correlated with the mortality rate.

  8. Can the Obesity Surgery Mortality Risk Score predict postoperative complications other than mortality?

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    Piotr Major

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB are bariatric procedures with acceptable risk of postoperative morbidities and mortalities, but identification of high-risk patients is an ongoing issue. DeMaria et al. introduced the Obesity Surgery Mortality Risk Score (OS-MRS, which was designed for mortality risk assessment but not perioperative morbidity risk. Aim : To assess the possibility to use the OS-MRS to predict the risk of perioperative complications related to LSG and LRYGB. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of patients operated on for morbid obesity was performed. Patients were evaluated before and after surgery. We included 408 patients (233 LSG, 175 LRYGB. Perioperative complications were defined as adverse effects in the 30-day period. The Clavien-Dindo scale was used for description of complications. Patients were assigned to five grades and three classes according to the OS-MRS results, then risk of morbidity was analyzed. Results: Complications were observed in 30 (7.35% patients. Similar morbidity was related to both procedures (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.53–2.44, p = 0.744. The reoperation and mortality rates were 1.23% and 0.49% respectively. There were no significant differences in median OS-MRS value between the group without and the group with perioperative complications. There were no significant differences in OS-MRS between groups (p = 0.091. Obesity Surgery Mortality Risk Score was not related to Clavien-Dindo grades (p = 0.800. Conclusions : It appears that OS-MRS is not useful in predicting risk of perioperative morbidity after bariatric procedures.

  9. Mortality risks in new-onset childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Berg (Anne); K. Nickels (Katherine); E.C. Wirrell (Elaine); A.T. Geerts (Ada); P.M.C. Callenbach (Petra); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); C. Rios (Christina); P. Camfield (Peter); C. Camfield (Carol)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Estimate the causes and risk of death, specifically seizure related, in children followed from onset of epilepsy and to contrast the risk of seizure-related death with other common causes of death in the population. METHODS: Mortality experiences from 4 pediatric cohorts of

  10. Mortality Risks in New-Onset Childhood Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Anne T.; Nickels, Katherine; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Geerts, Ada T.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.; Arts, Willem F.; Rios, Christina; Camfield, Peter R.; Camfield, Carol S.

    OBJECTIVES: Estimate the causes and risk of death, specifically seizure related, in children followed from onset of epilepsy and to contrast the risk of seizure-related death with other common causes of death in the population. METHODS: Mortality experiences from 4 pediatric cohorts of newly

  11. Chronic low-dose exposure in the Techa River cohort. Risk of mortality from circulatory diseases

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    Krestinina, Lyudmila Yurievna; Epifanova, Svetlana; Silkin, Stanislav; Mikryukova, Lyudmila; Degteva, Marina; Shagina, Natalia; Akleyev, Alexander [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the mortality from circulatory diseases for about 30,000 members of the Techa River cohort over the period 1950-2003, and to investigate how these rates depend on radiation doses. This population received both external and internal exposures from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and other uranium fission products as a result of waterborne releases from the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals region of the Russian Federation. The analysis included individualized estimates of the total (external plus internal) absorbed dose in muscle calculated based on the Techa River Dosimetry System 2009. The cohort-average dose to muscle tissue was 35 mGy, and the maximum dose was 510 mGy. Between 1950 and 2003, 7,595 deaths from circulatory diseases were registered among cohort members with 901,563 person years at risk. Mortality rates in the cohort were analyzed using a simple parametric excess relative risk (ERR) model. For all circulatory diseases, the estimated excess relative risk per 100 mGy with a 15-year lag period was 3.6 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.2-7.5 %, and for ischemic heart disease it was 5.6 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 0.1-11.9 %. A linear ERR model provided the best fit. Analyses with a lag period shorter than 15 years from the beginning of exposure did not reveal any significant risk of mortality from either all circulatory diseases or ischemic heart disease. There was no evidence of an increased mortality risk from cerebrovascular disease (p > 0.5). These results should be regarded as preliminary, since they will be updated after adjustment for smoking and alcohol consumption. (orig.)

  12. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

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    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H. Marike; Schouten, Jan P.; Schröder, Carolien P.; de Vries, E. G. Elisabeth; Vonk, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and lifetime changes in BMI (calculated over different time periods (i.e. short time period: annual change in BMI between successive surveys, long time period: annual change in BMI over the entire study period) with mortality from any cancer, and lung, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer in a large cohort study (n=8,645. Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen, 1965-1990) with a follow-up on mortality status on December 31st 2008. We used multivariate Cox regression models with adjustments for age, smoking, sex, and place of residence. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =2.22; 95% CI 1.19-4.17). Obesity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of any cancer mortality [all subjects (1.23 (1.01-1.50)), and females (1.40 (1.07-1.84))]. Chronically obese females (females who were obese during the entire study-period) had a higher risk of mortality from any cancer (2.16 (1.47-3.18), lung (3.22 (1.06-9.76)), colorectal (4.32 (1.53-12.20)), and breast cancer (2.52 (1.15-5.54)). We found no significant association between long-term annual change in BMI and cancer mortality risk. Both short-term annual increase and decrease in BMI were associated with a lower mortality risk from any cancer [all subjects: (0.67 (0.47-0.94)) and (0.73 (0.55-0.97)), respectively]. In conclusion, a higher BMI is associated with a higher cancer mortality risk. This study is the first to show that short-term annual changes in BMI were associated with lower mortality from any type of cancer. PMID:25881129

  13. Excessive daytime sleepiness in the elderly: association with cardiovascular risk, obesity and depression.

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    Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Dantas, Fabio Galvao; Medeiros, Jovany Luis Alves de

    2013-12-01

    To observe the relationship between Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) and the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular dysfunction, depression and obesity in the elderly. We interviewed 168 elderly from the community of Campina Grande, Paraíba. They were selected according to health districts in the period of 2010. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to diagnose excessive daytime sleepiness (> 10 points); waist circumference for the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction (> 94 or > 80 cm); Geriatric Depression Scale for depression (>10 points) and body mass index for obesity (> 25 kg/m2). Association analysis was performed by the Chi-square test adjusted for sex and age group, adopting α obesity, in 95 (64.46%); and risk of cardiovascular dysfunction, in 129 (79.6%). Depressed men (78.6%, p = 0.0005) and risk of cardiovascular dysfunction (57.1%, p = 0.02) were more prone to EDS. In women, only obesity was related to sleepiness (42.1%, p = 0.01). Only those aged between 70 - 79 years old showed association between sleepiness and obesity. It was found that obesity for women, and depression and cardiovascular dysfunction risking for men were associated with EDS in the elderly. The variable sex is a confusion condition for the association with sleepiness.

  14. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients

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    Jovanović Dijana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.

  15. Excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with porphyria: a population-based cohort study

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    Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Sandberg, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a heterogeneous group of rare, primarily hereditary, metabolic diseases caused by a partial deficiency in one of the eight enzymes involved in the heme biosynthesis. Our aim was to assess whether acute or cutaneous porphyria has been associated with excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A population-based cohort study was designed by record linkage between the Norwegian Porphyria Register, covering 70% of all known porphyria patients in Norway, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, based on all births in Norway during 1967–2006. The risks of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia, delivery by caesarean section, low birth weight, premature delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), perinatal death, and congenital malformations were compared between porphyric mothers and the rest of the population. The 200 mothers with porphyria had 398 singletons during the study period, whereas the 1,100,391 mothers without porphyria had 2,275,317 singletons. First-time mothers with active acute porphyria had an excess risk of perinatal death [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–16.0], as did mothers with the hereditable form of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) (3.0, 1.2–7.7). Sporadic PCT was associated with an excess risk of SGA [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.0, 1.2–3.4], and for first-time mothers, low birth weight (adjusted OR 3.4, 1.2–10.0) and premature delivery (3.5, 1.2–10.5) in addition. The findings suggest women with porphyria should be monitored closely during pregnancy. PMID:20978938

  16. Excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with porphyria: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Sandberg, Sverre

    2011-02-01

    The porphyrias comprise a heterogeneous group of rare, primarily hereditary, metabolic diseases caused by a partial deficiency in one of the eight enzymes involved in the heme biosynthesis. Our aim was to assess whether acute or cutaneous porphyria has been associated with excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A population-based cohort study was designed by record linkage between the Norwegian Porphyria Register, covering 70% of all known porphyria patients in Norway, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, based on all births in Norway during 1967-2006. The risks of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia, delivery by caesarean section, low birth weight, premature delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), perinatal death, and congenital malformations were compared between porphyric mothers and the rest of the population. The 200 mothers with porphyria had 398 singletons during the study period, whereas the 1,100,391 mothers without porphyria had 2,275,317 singletons. First-time mothers with active acute porphyria had an excess risk of perinatal death [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-16.0], as did mothers with the hereditable form of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) (3.0, 1.2-7.7). Sporadic PCT was associated with an excess risk of SGA [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.0, 1.2-3.4], and for first-time mothers, low birth weight (adjusted OR 3.4, 1.2-10.0) and premature delivery (3.5, 1.2-10.5) in addition. The findings suggest women with porphyria should be monitored closely during pregnancy.

  17. Disease-related nutritional risk and mortality in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Codullo, Veronica; Klersy, Catherine; Breda, Silvia; Crippa, Anna; Rava, Maria Luisa; Orlandi, Margherita; Bonardi, Chiara; Fiorentini, Maria Lina; Caporali, Roberto; Caccialanza, Riccardo

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mortality and nutritional risk associated with disease activity in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). A single-centre prospective cohort study involving 160 SSc outpatients (median age, 62 years [25th-75th, 54-68]). Nutritional risk was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), a screening tool that combines anthropometric parameters of nutritional status (body mass index [BMI] and percentage of unintentional weight loss [WL]) with the presence of an "acute disease" (as defined by a disease activity score ≥3 according to Valentini's criteria). Prevalence of high nutritional risk (MUST score ≥2) was 24.4% [95%CI, 17.4-31.3]. A low nutritional risk (MUST = 1) was detected in 30% of our study sample. In hazard analysis (median follow-up duration = 46 months [25th-75th percentile, 31-54]), high nutritional risk was significantly associated with mortality (HR = 8.3 [95%CI, 2.1-32.1]). The performance of the model based on nutritional risk including disease activity (Harrell's c = 0.74 [95%CI, 0.59-0.89]) was superior to that based on active disease alone (HR = 6.3 [95%CI, 1.8-21.7]; Harrell's c = 0.68 [95%CI, 0.53-0.84]). Risk scored only by anthropometric parameters (prevalence, 9.4% [95%CI, 4.6-14.2]) was not associated with mortality: HR = 2.8 [95%CI, 0.6-13.2]. In SSc outpatients MUST significantly predicts mortality. The combined assessment of nutritional parameters and disease activity significantly improves the evaluation of mortality risk. Disease-related nutritional risk screening should be systematically included in the clinical workup of every SSc patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance in European hospitals: excess mortality and length of hospital stay related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Kraker, Marlieke E A

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is threatening the successful management of nosocomial infections worldwide. Despite the therapeutic limitations imposed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its clinical impact is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) associated with MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI) in European hospitals. Between July 2007 and June 2008, a multicenter, prospective, parallel matched-cohort study was carried out in 13 tertiary care hospitals in as many European countries. Cohort I consisted of patients with MRSA BSI and cohort II of patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) BSI. The patients in both cohorts were matched for LOS prior to the onset of BSI with patients free of the respective BSI. Cohort I consisted of 248 MRSA patients and 453 controls and cohort II of 618 MSSA patients and 1,170 controls. Compared to the controls, MRSA patients had higher 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.4) and higher hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.5). Their excess LOS was 9.2 days. MSSA patients also had higher 30-day (aOR = 2.4) and hospital (aHR = 3.1) mortality and an excess LOS of 8.6 days. When the outcomes from the two cohorts were compared, an effect attributable to methicillin resistance was found for 30-day mortality (OR = 1.8; P = 0.04), but not for hospital mortality (HR = 1.1; P = 0.63) or LOS (difference = 0.6 days; P = 0.96). Irrespective of methicillin susceptibility, S. aureus BSI has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. In addition, MRSA BSI leads to a fatal outcome more frequently than MSSA BSI. Infection control efforts in hospitals should aim to contain infections caused by both resistant and susceptible S. aureus.

  19. Geriatric nutritional risk index: a mortality predictor in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalat-Nejad, Mahnaz; Zameni, Fatemeh; Qlich-Khani, Mahdi; Salehi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) has been introduced as a valuable tool to assess the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) patients. To determine the predictive value of the GNRI score for death in HD, we studied 145 chronic HD patients (%53 men, mean age 60 ± 16 years). The GNRI score was estimated by an equation involving serum albumin and individual's weight and height. According to the highest positive likelihood and risk ratios, the cut-off value of the GNRI for mortality was set at 100. The survival of patients on HD was examined with the Cox proportional hazards model. Mortality was monitored prospectively over an 18-month period, during which 35 patients died. The GNRI (mean 102.6 ± 5.5) was significantly positively correlated with lean body mass, hematocrit, serum lipids and presence of metabolic syndrome. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that the GNRI risk factors that predict all-cause mortality in HD patients.

  20. Social Relationships and Mortality Risk: A Meta-analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, J. Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Background The quality and quantity of individuals' social relationships has been linked not only to mental health but also to both morbidity and mortality. Objectives This meta-analytic review was conducted to determine the extent to which social relationships influence risk for mortality, which aspects of social relationships are most highly predictive, and which factors may moderate the risk. Data Extraction Data were extracted on several participant characteristics, including cause of mortality, initial health status, and pre-existing health conditions, as well as on study characteristics, including length of follow-up and type of assessment of social relationships. Results Across 148 studies (308,849 participants), the random effects weighted average effect size was OR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.59), indicating a 50% increased likelihood of survival for participants with stronger social relationships. This finding remained consistent across age, sex, initial health status, cause of death, and follow-up period. Significant differences were found across the type of social measurement evaluated (psocial integration (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.63 to 2.23) and lowest for binary indicators of residential status (living alone versus with others) (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.44). Conclusions The influence of social relationships on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20668659

  1. How have ART treatment programmes changed the patterns of excess mortality in people living with HIV? Estimates from four countries in East and Southern Africa

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    Emma Slaymaker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substantial falls in the mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH have been observed since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa. However, access and uptake of ART have been variable in many countries. We report the excess deaths observed in PLWH before and after the introduction of ART. We use data from five longitudinal studies in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda, members of the network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA. Methods: Individual data from five demographic surveillance sites that conduct HIV testing were used to estimate mortality attributable to HIV, calculated as the difference between the mortality rates in PLWH and HIV-negative people. Excess deaths in PLWH were standardized for age and sex differences and summarized over periods before and after ART became generally available. An exponential regression model was used to explore differences in the impact of ART over the different sites. Results: 127,585 adults across the five sites contributed a total of 487,242 person years. Before the introduction of ART, HIV-attributable mortality ranged from 45 to 88 deaths per 1,000 person years. Following ART availability, this reduced to 14–46 deaths per 1,000 person years. Exponential regression modeling showed a reduction of more than 50% (HR =0.43, 95% CI: 0.32–0.58, compared to the period before ART was available, in mortality at ages 15–54 across all five sites. Discussion: Excess mortality in adults living with HIV has reduced by over 50% in five communities in sub-Saharan Africa since the advent of ART. However, mortality rates in adults living with HIV are still 10 times higher than in HIV-negative people, indicating that substantial improvements can be made to reduce mortality further. This analysis shows differences in the impact across the sites, and contrasts with developed countries where mortality among PLWH on ART can be

  2. Meta-analysis of self-reported daytime napping and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaokun; Zhang, Qi; Shang, Xiaoming

    2015-05-04

    Whether self-reported daytime napping is an independent predictor of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported daytime napping and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality by conducting a meta-analysis. A computerized literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted up to May 2014. Only prospective studies reporting risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality with respect to baseline self-reported daytime napping were included. Seven studies with 98,163 subjects were included. Self-reported daytime napping was associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.07-1.24) compared with non-nappers. Risk of all-cause mortality appeared to be more pronounced among persons with nap duration >60 min (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.27) than persons with nap duration napping is a mild but statistically significant predictor for all-cause mortality, but not for cardiovascular mortality. However, whether the risk is attributable to excessive sleep duration or napping alone remains controversial. More prospective studies stratified by sleep duration, napping periods, or age are needed.

  3. Excessive work and risk of haemorrhagic stroke: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kim, Chi Kyung; Chung, Jong-Won; Kim, Dohoung; Park, Hong-Kyun; Bae, Hee-Joon; Park, Byung-Joo; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Adverse effect of excessive work on health has been suggested previously, but it was not documented in cerebrovascular diseases. The authors investigated whether excessive working conditions would associate with increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke. A nationwide matched case-control study database, which contains 940 cases of incident haemorrhagic stroke (498 intracerebral haemorrhages and 442 sub-arachnoid haemorrhages) with 1880 gender- and age- (± 5-year) matched controls, was analysed. Work-related information based on the regular job situation, including type of occupation, regular working time, duration of strenuous activity during regular work and shift work, was gathered through face-to-face interviews. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used for the multivariable analyses. Compared with white-collar workers, blue-collar workers had a higher risk for haemorrhagic stroke (odds ratio, 1.33 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.66]). Longer regular working time was associated with increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke [odds ratio, 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.81) for 8-12 h/day; odds ratio, 1.95 (95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.86) for ≥ 13 h/day; compared with ≤ 4 h/day]. Exposure to ≥ 8 h/week of strenuous activity also associated haemorrhagic stroke risk [odds ratio, 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.05); compared with no strenuous activity]. Shift work was not associated with haemorrhagic stroke (P = 0.98). Positive associations between working condition indices and haemorrhagic stroke risk were consistent regardless of haemorrhagic stroke sub-types and current employment status. Blue-collar occupation, longer regular working time and extended duration of strenuous activity during work may relate to an increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  4. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.

  5. Postoperative mortality after inpatient surgery: Incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Anne T Lunney1, Philip G Boysen1, Peter Rock2, Edward A Norfleet11Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USAPurpose: This study determined the incidence of and identified risk factors for 48 hour (h and 30 day (d postoperative mortality after inpatient operations.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Anesthesiology’s Quality Indicator database as the main data source. The database was queried for data related to the surgical procedure, anesthetic care, perioperative adverse events, and birth/death/operation dates. The 48 h and 30 d cumulative incidence of postoperative mortality was calculated and data were analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test and generalized estimating equations.Results: The 48 h and 30 d incidence of postoperative mortality was 0.57% and 2.1%, respectively. Higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores, extremes of age, emergencies, perioperative adverse events and postoperative Intensive Care Unit admission were identified as risk factors. The use of monitored anesthesia care or general anesthesia versus regional or combined anesthesia was a risk factor for 30 d postoperative mortality only. Time under anesthesia care, perioperative hypothermia, trauma, deliberate hypotension and invasive monitoring via arterial, pulmonary artery or cardiovascular catheters were not identified as risk factors.Conclusions: Our findings can be used to track postoperative mortality rates and to test preventative interventions at our institution and elsewhere.Keywords: postoperative mortality, risk factors, operations, anesthesia, inpatient surgery

  6. Multiple lifestyle risk behaviours and excess weight among adolescents in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continente, Xavier; Pérez, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Ariza, Carles; López, María José

    We aimed to analyse the prevalence of having multiple lifestyle risk behaviours (LRB) and the potential relationship between excess weight (including overweight and obesity) and cumulative multiple LRB among adolescents in Barcelona, Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed among a representative sample of 3,114 secondary school students in Barcelona. Height and weight were objectively measured and excess weight was defined in accordance with World Health Organization criteria. Information on screen time, breakfast, physical activity and sleep duration was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. More than 80% of the students had at least two LRBs. In compulsory schooling, the adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of excess weight increased with a higher number of reported LRBs (four LRBs: aPR=1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.05). These results highlight the importance of a multiple-behaviour approach in preventive programmes aimed at reducing adolescent obesity. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and risk of macrosomia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chaoqing; Hu, Chengwen; He, Xiujie; Zhu, Meng; Qin, Fengyun; Liu, Yue; Hu, Chuanlai

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the relation between excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia. We performed a meta-analysis by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for English-language literature from inception to 1 October 2014. Studies assessing the relationship between excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia were included. Characteristics including study design, country, sample size, definition of macrosomia, adjusted odds ratios, CIs and adjustment factors were extracted independently by two reviewers. Summary odds ratios were calculated by using a random-effects model meta-analysis. 15 relevant articles were eligible for the meta-analysis. Incorporated by random-effect model before the heterogeneity tests, the value of OR was 2.35 (95 % CI: 1.95, 2.85). Stratified analysis showed no differences regarding different study design, definition of macrosomia and location of study. There was no indication of a publication bias either from the result of Egger's test (P = 0.572) or Begg's test (P = 0.572). Our meta-analysis indicated that excessive gestational weight gain might increase the risk of macrosomia.

  8. Alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and risk of infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønboek, Morten; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-11-01

    The safety of small amounts of alcohol drinking and occasional binge-level drinking during pregnancy remains unsettled. We examined the association of maternal average alcohol intake and binge drinking (>or=5 drinks per sitting) with infant mortality, both in the neonatal and postneonatal period. Participants were 79,216 mothers who were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in 1996-2002, gave birth to a live-born singleton, and provided information while they were pregnant on alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Information on infant mortality and causes of death was obtained from national registries and medical records. During the first year of life, 279 children (0.35%) died, 204 during the neonatal period. Infant mortality was not associated with alcohol drinking, even at a consumption level of either 4+ drinks per week or 3+ occasions of binge drinking. Postneonatal mortality was associated with an intake of 4+ drinks per week (hazard ratio = 3.56 [95% confidence interval = 1.15-8.43]) and with 3+ binge episodes (2.69 [1.27-5.69]). When restricting analyses to term births, both infant mortality and postneonatal mortality were associated with a weekly average intake of 4+ drinks or 3+ binge episodes. Among term infants, intake of at least 4 drinks of alcohol per week or binging on 3 or more occasions during pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of infant mortality, especially during the postneonatal period.

  9. Is obesity truly a risk factor for mortality after tracheotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Ryan; Vieira, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    We sought to determine the short-term and long-term overall mortality rates in obese and non-obese patients after tracheotomy and to evaluate which factors, including the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), predict mortality rates among obese patients. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent open tracheotomy in the operating room at a single hospital from 2005 to 2010. Of 200 patients reviewed, 146 were non-obese and 54 were obese. The rate of mortality was higher at 30 days (p = 0.02) and at 1 year (p = 0.04) in obese patients (35.1% and 59.2%, respectively) than in non-obese patients (19.2% and 42.5%, respectively). The need for tracheotomy due to ventilator-dependent respiratory failure (VDRF) was much higher (p tracheotomy for VDRF (32.8% at 30 days and 57% at 1 year) than in those who required tracheotomy for all other indications (4.2% at 30 days and 25% at 1 year). The mortality risk increased with higher CCI scores at both 30 days (p = 0.08) and 1 year (p = 0.009). The overall mortality rate is higher in obese patients after tracheotomy than in non-obese control subjects in the short and long terms. This increased rate of mortality is due to the heightened incidence of tracheotomy for VDRF among obese patients. The mortality rates after tracheotomy correlate well with the CCI.

  10. Mortality Risk Among Heart Failure Patients With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelborg, Kasper; Schmidt, Morten; Sundbøll, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is 4- to 5-fold higher in heart failure patients than in the general population. We examined the influence of depression on all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Danish medical registries, this nationwide population......-based cohort study included all patients with a first-time hospitalization for heart failure (1995-2014). All-cause mortality risks and 19-year mortality rate ratios were estimated based on Cox regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, time period, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status. The analysis...... was an adverse prognostic factor for all-cause mortality in heart failure patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% but not for other heart failure patients....

  11. Risk factors for candidemia mortality in hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Araujo Motta

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate risk factors associated with death due to bloodstream infection caused by Candida spp. in pediatric patients and evaluate the resistance to the main anti-fungal used in clinical practice. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational, analytical study with retrospective collection that included 65 hospitalized pediatric patients with bloodstream infection by Candida spp. A univariate analysis was performed to estimate the association between the characteristics of the candidemia patients and death. Results: The incidence of candidemia was 0.23 cases per 1000 patients/day, with a mortality rate of 32% (n = 21. Clinical outcomes such as sepsis and septic shock (p = 0.001, comorbidities such as acute renal insufficiency (p = 0.01, and risks such as mechanical ventilation (p = 0.02 and dialysis (p = 0.03 are associated with increased mortality in pediatric patients. The resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility rates against fluconazole were 4.2% and 2.1%, respectively. No resistance to amphotericin B and echinocandin was identified. Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that sepsis and septic shock, acute renal insufficiency, and risks like mechanical ventilation and dialysis are associated with increased mortality in pediatric patients. The mortality among patients with candidemia is high, and there is no species difference in mortality rates. Regarding the resistance rates, it is important to emphasize the presence of low resistance in this series.

  12. Age effects in mortality risk valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Raul; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2017-09-01

    We provide more evidence on the functional relationship between willingness-to-pay for risk reductions and age (the senior discount). We overcome many of the limitations of previous literature that has dealt with this issue, namely, the influence of the assumptions used in statistical models on the final results. Given our large sample size (n = 6024) we can use models that are very demanding on data. We use parametric (linear, quadratic, dummies), semi-nonparametric, and non-parametric models. We also compare the marginal and the total approach and show that they provide similar results. We also overcome one of the limitations of the total approach, that is, we include the effects of socioeconomic characteristics that are correlated with age (education and income). Our main result is that all these different approaches produce very similar results, namely, they show an inverted-U relation between the value of a statistical life (VSL) and age. Those results can hardly be attributed to problems of collinearity, omitted variables or statistical assumptions. We find a clear senior discount effect. This effect seems concentrated on those who have lower education and income levels. We also find that the value of a statistical life year (VSLY) increases with age.

  13. Nutritional risk, functional status and mortality in newly institutionalised elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Pedrolli, Carlo; Zagami, Annunciata; Vanotti, Alfredo; Piffer, Silvano; Faliva, Milena; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Caccialanza, Riccardo

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have reported a close relationship between nutritional and functional domains, but evidence in long-term care residents is still limited. We evaluated the relationship between nutritional risk and functional status and the association of these two domains with mortality in newly institutionalised elderly. In the present multi-centric prospective cohort study, involving 346 long-term care resident elderly, nutritional risk and functional status were determined upon admission by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and the Barthel Index (BI), respectively. The prevalence of high (GNRI nutritional risk were 36·1 and 30·6 %, respectively. At multivariable linear regression, functional status was independently associated with age (P=0·045), arm muscle area (P=0·048), the number of co-morbidities (P=0·027) and mainly with the GNRI (Prisk analysis, based on the variables collected at baseline, both high (hazard ratio (HR) 1·86, 95% CI 1·32, 2·63; Pnutritional risk (HR 1·52, 95% CI 1·08, 2·14; P=0·016) were associated with all-cause mortality. Participants at high nutritional risk (GNRI nutritional risk was an independent predictor of functional status and mortality in institutionalised elderly. Present data support the concept that the nutritional domain is more relevant than functional status to the outcome of newly institutionalised elderly.

  14. Risk charts to identify low and excessive responders among first-cycle IVF/ICSI standard patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour Freiesleben, N; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2011-01-01

    bootstrap cross-validation steps. The best prognostic model to predict low response included AFC and age (Brier score 7.94) and the best model to predict excessive response included AFC and cycle length (Brier score 15.82). Charts were developed to identify risks of low and excessive ovarian response...

  15. Risk factors for mortality in patients with Serratia marcescens bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Jeon, Yong Duk; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Ann, Hea Won; Choi, Heun; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Han, Sang Hoon; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 30 years, Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has emerged as an important pathogen, and a common cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 98 patients who had one or more blood cultures positive for S. marcescens between January 2006 and December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Multiple risk factors were compared with association with 28-day all-cause mortality. The 28-day mortality was 22.4% (22/98 episodes). In a univariate analysis, the onset of bacteremia during the intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), serum albumin level (p=0.011), serum C-reactive protein level (p=0.041), presence of indwelling urinary catheter (p=0.023), and Sequential Oran Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at the onset of bacteremia (pmarcescens bacteremia.

  16. Excessive daytime sleepiness in the elderly: association with cardiovascular risk, obesity and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnatas Mikael Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS and the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular dysfunction, depression and obesity in the elderly. METHODS: We interviewed 168 elderly from the community of Campina Grande, Paraíba. They were selected according to health districts in the period of 2010. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to diagnose excessive daytime sleepiness (> 10 points; waist circumference for the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction (> 94 or > 80 cm; Geriatric Depression Scale for depression (>10 points and body mass index for obesity (> 25 kg/m2. Association analysis was performed by the Chi-square test adjusted for sex and age group, adopting α < 0.05. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty eight elderly individuals with mean age of 72.34 ± 7.8 years old participated in this study, being 122 (72.6% women. EDS was identified in 53 (31.5% of them; depression, in 72 (42.9%; overweight/obesity, in 95 (64.46%; and risk of cardiovascular dysfunction, in 129 (79.6%. Depressed men (78.6%, p = 0.0005 and risk of cardiovascular dysfunction (57.1%, p = 0.02 were more prone to EDS. In women, only obesity was related to sleepiness (42.1%, p = 0.01. Only those aged between 70 - 79 years old showed association between sleepiness and obesity. CONCLUSION: It was found that obesity for women, and depression and cardiovascular dysfunction risking for men were associated with EDS in the elderly. The variable sex is a confusion condition for the association with sleepiness.

  17. Rates and Risk Factors for Mortality among Tuberculosis Patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to identify risk factors associated with mortality during TB treatment and report on other treatment outcome within the National tuberculosis and leprosy treatment control programme (NTBLCP) programme in rural primary health care centres in Nigeria. Retrospective, cohort study. This study was ...

  18. Mortality risks and limits to population growth of fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick A. Sweitzer; Viorel D. Popescu; Craig M. Thompson; Kathryn L. Purcell; Reginald H. Barrett; Greta M. Wengert; Mourad W. Gabriel; Leslie W. Woods

    2015-01-01

    Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in the west coast states of Washington, Oregon, and California, USA have not recovered from population declines and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed options for listing them as threatened. Our objectives were to evaluate differences in survival and mortality risk from natural (e.g., predation, disease, injuries,...

  19. Second cancer risk and mortality in men treated with radiotherapy for stage I seminoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwich, A; Fossa, S D; Huddart, R; Dearnaley, D P; Stenning, S; Aresu, M; Bliss, J M; Hall, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with stage I testicular seminoma are typically diagnosed at a young age and treatment is associated with low relapse and mortality rates. The long-term risks of adjuvant radiotherapy in this patient group are therefore particularly relevant. Methods: We identified patients and obtained treatment details from 12 cancer centres (11 United Kingdom, 1 Norway) and ascertained second cancers and mortality through national registries. Data from 2629 seminoma patients treated with radiotherapy between 1960 and 1992 were available, contributing 51 151 person-years of follow-up. Results: Four hundred and sixty-eight second cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) were identified. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–1.76, P<0.0001). The SIR was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.39–1.68, P<0.0001) when the 32 second testicular cancers were also excluded. This increase was largely due to an excess risk to organs in the radiation field; for pelvic–abdominal sites the SIR was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.43–1.83), with no significant elevated risk of cancers in organs elsewhere. There was no overall increase in mortality with a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.98–1.14), despite an increase in the cancer-specific mortality (excluding testicular cancer deaths) SMR of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.30–1.65, P<0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of stage I seminoma is excellent and it is important to avoid conferring long-term increased risk of iatrogenic disease such as radiation-associated second cancers. PMID:24263066

  20. Clostridium Difficile Infection Due to Pneumonia Treatment: Mortality Risk Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, M; Zycinska, K; Lenartowicz, B; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, M; Cieplak, M; Kur, Z; Wardyn, K A

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common gastrointestinal infection after the antibiotic treatment of community or nosocomial pneumonia is caused by the anaerobic spore Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess mortality due to C. difficile infection (CDI) in patients treated for pneumonia. We identified 94 cases of post-pneumonia CDI out of the 217 patients with CDI. The mortality issue was addressed by creating a mortality risk models using logistic regression and multivariate fractional polynomial analysis. The patients' demographics, clinical features, and laboratory results were taken into consideration. To estimate the influence of the preceding respiratory infection, a pneumonia severity scale was included in the analysis. The analysis showed two statistically significant and clinically relevant mortality models. The model with the highest prognostic strength entailed age, leukocyte count, serum creatinine and urea concentration, hematocrit, coexisting neoplasia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, we report on two prognostic models, based on clinically relevant factors, which can be of help in predicting mortality risk in C. difficile infection, secondary to the antibiotic treatment of pneumonia. These models could be useful in preventive tailoring of individual therapy.

  1. Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality among men and women starting dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrero, Juan J; de Jager, Dinanda J; Verduijn, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Although women have a survival advantage in the general population, women on dialysis have similar mortality to men. We hypothesized that this paired mortality risk during dialysis may be explained by a relative excess of cardiovascular-related mortality in women.......Although women have a survival advantage in the general population, women on dialysis have similar mortality to men. We hypothesized that this paired mortality risk during dialysis may be explained by a relative excess of cardiovascular-related mortality in women....

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Theodore D

    2011-08-01

    There has been a growing consensus that moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a lower risk of mortality and that this association is probably causal. However, a recent review article has raised a serious challenge to this consensus. In short, it determined that most prior research in this area committed serious misclassification errors; furthermore, among those studies that were free of these misclassification errors, no support for a protective role of alcohol consumption was found. This article reexamines the issue using prospective data for more than 124,000 persons interviewed in the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys of 1997 through 2000 with mortality follow-up through 2002 using the Linked Mortality File. The study involves about 488,000 person-years. Controlling for a variety of covariates, this study finds that compared with nondrinkers, those who consume a moderate amount of alcohol have lower all-cause and CHD mortality. The fact that the current study has taken care to avoid the pitfalls of some earlier studies and still finds that those who consume a moderate amount of alcohol have lower all-cause mortality and CHD mortality lends credence to the argument that the relationship is causal.

  3. Sensory Impairments and Risk of Mortality in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carla R; Fischer, Mary E; Pinto, A Alex; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S; Cruickshanks, Karen J

    2017-05-01

    Sensory impairments increase with age and the majority of older people will experience a sensory impairment if they live long enough. However, the relationships of hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments with mortality are not well understood. Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study participants (n = 2,418) aged 53-97 years (mean = 69 years) were examined in 1998-2000 and hearing, visual acuity, and olfaction were measured. Participants were followed for mortality for up to 17 years (mean = 12.8 years). Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between prevalent sensory impairments and the 15-year cumulative incidence of death. A total of 1,099 (45.4%) of participants died during the follow-up period. In age- and sex-adjusted Cox models, the risk of mortality was higher among participants with one (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 1.64) or two or more (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.74, 2.58) sensory impairments than among participants with no sensory impairments. Olfactory impairment at baseline was significantly associated with mortality (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.52) after adjusting for age, sex, sensory comorbidities, cardiovascular risk factors and disease, cognitive impairment, frailty, subclinical atherosclerosis, and inflammatory marker levels (n = 1,745). Hearing and visual impairment were not associated with mortality after adjusting for subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammation. Olfactory impairment, but not hearing or visual impairment, was associated with an increased risk of mortality. These results suggest that olfactory impairment may be a marker of underlying physiologic processes or pathology that is associated with aging and reduced survival in older adults.

  4. Lifestyle factors and mortality risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Li, Kuanrong

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was formed of 6,384 persons with diabetes and 258,911 EPIC participants without known diabetes. Joint Cox proportional hazard regression models of people with and without diabetes were built for the following...... the associations between lifestyle and mortality risk. People with diabetes may benefit more from a healthy diet, but the directions of association were similar. Thus, our study suggests that lifestyle advice with respect to mortality for patients with diabetes should not differ from recommendations...

  5. Risk assessment of excessive CO{sub 2} emission on diatom heavy metal consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing, E-mail: shunxing_li@aliyun.com; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r = 0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r = 0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidification < acidification + desalination < desalination for Zn, acidification < desalination < acidification + desalination for Cu and Cd, i.e., heavy metal uptake (or release) were controlled by environmental stress. Our findings showed that heavy metal uptake (or release) was already responded to ongoing excessive CO{sub 2} emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans. - Highlights: • Excessive CO{sub 2} in seawater may causes ocean acidification and desalination. • The relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated by desalination. • Significant effects of salinity on intracellular concentration of Cu and Cd • Cu and Cd in marine phytoplankton could be regulated by metal excretion. • Heavy metal consumption was affect by excessive CO{sub 2}.

  6. Adult mortality attributable to preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan: a comparative risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayu Ikeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population of Japan has achieved the longest life expectancy in the world. To further improve population health, consistent and comparative evidence on mortality attributable to preventable risk factors is necessary for setting priorities for health policies and programs. Although several past studies have quantified the impact of individual risk factors in Japan, to our knowledge no study has assessed and compared the effects of multiple modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries using a standard framework. We estimated the effects of 16 risk factors on cause-specific deaths and life expectancy in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained data on risk factor exposures from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and epidemiological studies, data on the number of cause-specific deaths from vital records adjusted for ill-defined codes, and data on relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. We applied a comparative risk assessment framework to estimate effects of excess risks on deaths and life expectancy at age 40 y. In 2007, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure accounted for 129,000 deaths (95% CI: 115,000-154,000 and 104,000 deaths (95% CI: 86,000-119,000, respectively, followed by physical inactivity (52,000 deaths, 95% CI: 47,000-58,000, high blood glucose (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 26,000-43,000, high dietary salt intake (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 27,000-39,000, and alcohol use (31,000 deaths, 95% CI: 28,000-35,000. In recent decades, cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking has increased in the elderly, while stroke mortality attributable to high blood pressure has declined. Life expectancy at age 40 y in 2007 would have been extended by 1.4 y for both sexes (men, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6; women, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7 if exposures to multiple cardiovascular risk factors had been reduced to their optimal levels as determined by a theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution. CONCLUSIONS

  7. Active Multitask Learning With Trace Norm Regularization Based on Excess Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Meng; Yin, Jie; Hall, Lawrence O; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of active learning on multiple tasks, where labeled data are expensive to obtain for each individual task but the learning problems share some commonalities across multiple related tasks. To leverage the benefits of jointly learning from multiple related tasks and making active queries, we propose a novel active multitask learning approach based on trace norm regularized least squares. The basic idea is to induce an optimal classifier which has the lowest risk and at the same time which is closest to the true hypothesis. Toward this aim, we devise a new active selection criterion that takes into account not only the risk but also the excess risk, which measures the distance to the true hypothesis. Based on this criterion, our proposed algorithm actively selects the instance to query for its label based on the combination of the two risks. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets show that our proposed algorithm provides superior performance as compared to other state-of-the-art active learning methods.

  8. Cardiovascular risk escalation with caloric excess: a prospective demonstration of the mechanics in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok K; Johnson, William D; Johannsen, Darcy; Ravussin, Eric

    2013-01-24

    The link between weight gain and cardiovascular risk characterized with circadian blood pressure variability [CBPV] and endothelial function [EF] is unexplored. To prospectively demonstrate weight gain in healthy adults, increases body fat [BF], enlarges waist circumference [WC], expands visceral adipose tissue [VAT], exacerbates systemic inflammation [sIF], worsens insulin resistance [IR] and enhances functional cardiovascular disease [CVD] risk. Healthy men [n=11] and women [n=3] provided initial and eight-week post-caloric excess anthropometric and fasting laboratory measures. Functional CVD risk assessments: CBPV and resting EF were also obtained with 7-day automatic ambulatory BP monitoring and increased test finger peripheral arterial tone [PAT] relative to control [reported as relative hyperemia index (RHI)], respectively. After determining individualized mean energy requirements for weight maintenance over 7-days, each participant received a personalized over feeding prescription (1.4 times; 41% carbohydrate, 44% fat, and 15% protein) for 8-weeks. mean (SEM). Participants increased body weight [BW; +7.4(0.1) kg]*, body mass index [BMI; +2.5(0.2) kg/m²]*, BF [+2.0(0.01)%]*, WC [+8.2(1.0) cm]*, and VAT [+0.2(0.03) L]* and intrahepatic lipid [IHL + 0.0004(0.002) L] :*all p risk [measured as abnormal circadian blood pressure variability and impaired resting endothelial function].

  9. The implications of an epidemiological mistake: a community's response to a perceived excess cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L; Jacobs, P

    1993-02-01

    The response of community residents to a perceived cancer excess may include changes in attitude, health-related behavior, and property values. In 1986, a cancer agency conducted a study of cancer incidence (1979 to 1983) in two suburbs of Edmonton, Alberta, and reported elevations on the order of 25% over expected for most sites. Reanalysis of these data several months later revealed an error. Correction brought the rates into line with Alberta as a whole and with other communities surrounding Edmonton. We used public opinion trends and property value trends (during the period of concern) to study the two communities affected by the allegation of increased cancer risk. A survey of residents found significant differences at the time in health-related behavior and beliefs suggesting increased perception of personal, family, and community risk and modest changes in behavior. Real estate values in one community temporarily lost an average of $4000, or about 5% of total value, compared with a similar, adjacent housing market. The perception of an elevated cancer risk, in the absence of a true risk, may have a substantial negative effect on the affected community, both psychologically and economically.

  10. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness in hospitalized psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talih FR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Farid R Talih,1 Jean J Ajaltouni,1 Hani M Tamim,2 Firas H Kobeissy3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Objectives: This study evaluated the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in hospitalized psychiatric patients at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUB-MC. Factors associated with OSA and EDS occurrence in this sample were also examined. Methods: The Berlin questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale; which respectively evaluate OSA and EDS symptoms, were administered to individuals hospitalized at an acute psychiatric treatment unit at the AUB-MC between the dates of January 2014 and October 2016. Additional data collected included general demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, and questionnaires evaluating depression and anxiety symptoms. Statistical analyses utilizing SPSS were performed to determine the prevalence of OSA and EDS, as well as their respective associations with patient profiles. Results: Our results showed that 39.5% of participants were found to have a high risk of sleep apnea and 9.9% of the participants were found to have abnormal daytime sleepiness. The risk of developing OSA was associated with a higher body mass index (BMI (P=0.02, and depression severity (patient health questionnaire 9 score (P=0.01. Increasing severity of depressive symptoms was associated with a higher risk of sleep apnea (P=0.01. BMI (odds ratio [OR] =5.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89–18.82 and depression severity (OR =4.04, 95% CI 1.80–9.07 were also found to be predictors of OSA. The psychiatric diagnoses of the participants were not found to have a significant association with the risk of sleep apnea. Conclusion: The risk of OSA is increased among hospitalized

  11. Mortality Risk Among Heart Failure Patients With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelborg, Kasper; Schmidt, Morten; Sundbøll, Jens

    2016-01-01

    -based cohort study included all patients with a first-time hospitalization for heart failure (1995-2014). All-cause mortality risks and 19-year mortality rate ratios were estimated based on Cox regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, time period, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status. The analysis...... by left ventricular ejection fraction, with adjusted mortality rate ratios of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.05-1.31) for ≤35%, 0.98 (95% CI 0.81-1.18) for 36% to 49%, and 0.96 (95% CI 0.74-1.25) for ≥50%. Results were consistent after adjustment for alcohol abuse and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: A history of depression...

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: 30-day mortality trends and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 30-day Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG mortality of 8% (1992. Recent concerns suggest that mortality may have increased, prompting a comparison of current practice with that reported earlier. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data regarding PEG insertion with relation to case mix, complications, 30-day mortality and associated risk factors, in 2002, in a British University Hospital was compared with that in 1992. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently predictive of 30-day mortality. RESULTS: In 2002, 112 patients (70% males, mean age 67.5 years; 1992: 63.6 years underwent PEG. The 30-day mortality increased significantly from 8% (1992 to 22% (2002, P= 0.03. During this time, PEG insertion rate increased ten-fold, however, procedure-related mortality decreased from 2% to nil. In terms of percentage, the indications for PEG in 1992 and 2002 respectively were: cerebrovascular disease (33/25, head and neck tumours (16/24, motor neuron disease (27/11, P= 0.01. The proportion of PEGs for non-evidence-based indications increased from 16% in 1992 to 31% in 2002, P= 0.048. The number of PEGs placed radiologically increased (0/17, P= 0.02. Radiological patients received less antibiotic prophylaxis (P< 0.001 and had more PEG site infections than standard placement, P= 0.04. Multivariate analysis identified nil by mouth 7 days or 11.4 (CI 3.2-41.7, albumin 30 g/L or 12 (2.2-66.7 and >1 cardiac factor or 5.1 (1.02-25.6 as independent predictors of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The ten-fold rise in the PEG insertion rate has been accompanied by a three-fold rise in 30-day mortality. This may reflect a lowered threshold of PEG insertion. The risk factors identified may help decision-making in cases where the risk-benefit relationship is not clear-cut.

  13. Early Infant Exposure to Excess Multivitamin: A Risk Factor for Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Sheng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects boys more than girls, is often associated with altered levels of monoamines (serotonin and catecholamines, especially elevated serotonin levels. The monoamines act as both neurotransmitters and signaling molecules in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The evidence related to monoamine metabolism may be summarized as follows: (i monoamine neurotransmitters are enzymatically degraded/inactivated by three mechanisms: oxidative deamination, methylation, and sulfation. The latter two are limited by the supply of methyl groups and sulfate, respectively. (ii A decrease in methylation- and sulfation-mediated monoamine inactivation can be compensated by an increase in the oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase, an X-linked enzyme exhibiting higher activity in females than in males. (iii Vitamins can, on one hand, facilitate the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters and, on the other hand, inhibit their inactivation by competing for methylation and sulfation. Therefore, we postulate that excess multivitamin feeding in early infancy, which has become very popular over the past few decades, may be a potential risk factor for disturbed monoamine metabolism. In this paper, we will focus on the relationship between excess multivitamin exposure and the inactivation/degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters and its possible role in the development of autism.

  14. Dietary phosphorus excess: a risk factor in chronic bone, kidney, and cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Calvo, Mona S

    2013-09-01

    There is growing evidence in the nephrology literature supporting the deleterious health effect of excess dietary phosphorus intake. This issue has largely escaped the attention of nutrition experts until this symposium, which raised the question of whether the same health concerns should be extended to the general population. The potential hazard of a high phosphorus intake in the healthy population is illustrated by findings from acute and epidemiologic studies. Acute studies in healthy young adults demonstrate that phosphorus intakes in excess of nutrient needs may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphorus contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, bone loss, and impaired kidney function. One of the hormonal factors acutely affected by dietary phosphorus loading is fibroblast growth factor-23, which may be a key factor responsible for many of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications of high phosphorus intake. Increasingly, large epidemiological studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphorus within the normal range are associated with CVD risk in healthy populations. Few population studies link high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphorus due to study design issues specific to phosphorus and inaccurate nutrient composition databases. The increasing phosphorus intake due to the use of phosphorus-containing ingredients in processed food and the growing consumption of processed convenience and fast foods is an important factor that needs to be emphasized.

  15. Dietary Phosphorus Excess: A Risk Factor in Chronic Bone, Kidney, and Cardiovascular Disease?123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Calvo, Mona S.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence in the nephrology literature supporting the deleterious health effect of excess dietary phosphorus intake. This issue has largely escaped the attention of nutrition experts until this symposium, which raised the question of whether the same health concerns should be extended to the general population. The potential hazard of a high phosphorus intake in the healthy population is illustrated by findings from acute and epidemiologic studies. Acute studies in healthy young adults demonstrate that phosphorus intakes in excess of nutrient needs may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphorus contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, bone loss, and impaired kidney function. One of the hormonal factors acutely affected by dietary phosphorus loading is fibroblast growth factor-23, which may be a key factor responsible for many of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications of high phosphorus intake. Increasingly, large epidemiological studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphorus within the normal range are associated with CVD risk in healthy populations. Few population studies link high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphorus due to study design issues specific to phosphorus and inaccurate nutrient composition databases. The increasing phosphorus intake due to the use of phosphorus-containing ingredients in processed food and the growing consumption of processed convenience and fast foods is an important factor that needs to be emphasized. PMID:24038251

  16. Fracture risk and mortality post-kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Charles J; Arnold, Julia; Bagnall, David; Ray, Daniel; Sharif, Adnan

    2015-11-01

    Fractures are associated with high morbidity and economic costs. There is a paucity of information on fractures after kidney transplantation outside the United States. Data were obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database on kidney transplants performed in England between 2001 and 2013 and post-transplant fracture-related hospitalization. Mortality data were obtained from the Office for National Statistics. In total, 21 769 first kidney transplant procedures were analyzed with 112 512 patient-years follow-up. Overall, 836 (3.8%) kidney allograft recipients developed a fracture requiring hospitalization. Event rate was 9.99 for any fracture and 1.54 for a hip fracture per 1000 patient-years. Accounting for the competing risk of mortality, increasing age, female gender, white ethnicity, and a history of pre-transplant diabetes mellitus or previous fracture were associated with increased fracture risk post-kidney transplantation. Death occurred in 2407 (11.1%) kidney allograft recipients, with 173 deaths occurring post-fracture. In an extended Cox model, hip fracture as a time-varying factor was independently associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 3.288; 95% confidence intervals, 2.513-4.301; p Fracture rates in English kidney transplant recipients are lower than previously reported in US cohorts. Sustaining a hip fracture is associated with an increased mortality risk. Our results can be used to power future fracture prevention trials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality following hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Salvador Marín, J; Pérez Alba, J M; Ferrández Martínez, J; Orozco Beltrán, D; Martínez López, J F

    To identify and quantify the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients older than 65 years with a hip fracture. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. We studied a cohort of 331 hip fracture patients older than 65 years of age admitted to our hospital from 2011 to 2014. Patients demographics, type of residence, physical function, mobility, prefracture comorbidities data, cognitive status, anti-aggregant and anticoagulant medication, preoperative haemoglobin value, type of fracture, type of treatment, surgical delay, and complications, were recorded. The average age was 83, 73% female, and 57% had sustained a subcapital fracture. In 62.8% pre-fracture baseline co-morbidities were equal or greater than 2. The in-hospital mortality rate was 11.4%. In univariate analysis, age over 90, male gender, haemoglobin ≤ 10g/dl, no antiplatelet agents, orthopaedic treatment, number of co-morbidities≥2, Charlson index≥2, age-adjusted Charlson index≥6, congestive heart failure, asthma, rheumatologic disease, were associated with in-hospital mortality. Preoperative patient-related factors have a strong relationship with in-hospital mortality in a hip fracture patients aged older than 65 years. These factors are non-modifiable; we recommend the development of protocols to reduce in-hospital mortality in this group of patients. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Individual survival curves comparing subjective and observed mortality risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Luc; Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2017-12-01

    We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. This allows us to compare objective and subjective estimates of remaining life expectancy for various groups and compare welfare effects of objective and subjective mortality risk using the life cycle model of consumption. We find that subjective and objective hazards are not the same. The median welfare loss from misperceptions of mortality risk when annuities are not available is 7% of current wealth at age 65 whereas more than 25% of respondents have losses larger than 60% of wealth. When annuities are available and exogenously given, the welfare loss is substantially lower. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Out of control mortality matters: the effect of perceived uncontrollable mortality risk on a health-related decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian V. Pepper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior evidence from the public health literature suggests that both control beliefs and perceived threats to life are important for health behaviour. Our previously presented theoretical model generated the more specific hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable, personal mortality risk should alter the payoff from investment in health protection behaviours. We carried out three experiments to test whether altering the perceived controllability of mortality risk would affect a health-related decision. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a mortality prime could be used to alter a health-related decision: the choice between a healthier food reward (fruit and an unhealthy alternative (chocolate. Experiment 2 demonstrated that it is the controllability of the mortality risk being primed that generates the effect, rather than mortality risk per se. Experiment 3 showed that the effect could be seen in a surreptitious experiment that was not explicitly health related. Our results suggest that perceptions about the controllability of mortality risk may be an important factor in people’s health-related decisions. Thus, techniques for adjusting perceptions about mortality risk could be important tools for use in health interventions. More importantly, tackling those sources of mortality that people perceive to be uncontrollable could have a dual purpose: making neighbourhoods and workplaces safer would have the primary benefit of reducing uncontrollable mortality risk, which could lead to a secondary benefit from improved health behaviours.

  20. State infant mortality: an ecologic study to determine modifiable risks and adjusted infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David A; Mackley, Amy; Locke, Robert G; Stefano, John L; Kroelinger, Charlan

    2009-05-01

    To determine factors contributing to state infant mortality rates (IMR) and develop an adjusted IMR in the United States for 2001 and 2002. Ecologic study of factors contributing to state IMR. State IMR for 2001 and 2002 were obtained from the United States linked death and birth certificate data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Factors investigated using multivariable linear regression included state racial demographics, ethnicity, state population, median income, education, teen birth rate, proportion of obesity, smoking during pregnancy, diabetes, hypertension, cesarean delivery, prenatal care, health insurance, self-report of mental illness, and number of in-vitro fertilization procedures. Final risk adjusted IMR's were standardized and states were compared with the United States adjusted rates. Models for IMR in individual states in 2001 (r2 = 0.66, P rate, and smoking during pregnancy remained independently associated with state infant mortality rates for 2001 and 2002. Ninety five percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated around the regression lines to model the expected IMR. After adjustment, some states maintained a consistent IMR; for instance, Vermont and New Hampshire remained low, while Delaware and Louisiana remained high. However, other states such as Mississippi, which have traditionally high infant mortality rates, remained within the expected 95% CI for IMR after adjustment indicating confounding affected the initial unadjusted rates. Non-modifiable demographic variables, including the percentage of non-Hispanic African-American and Hispanic populations of the state are major factors contributing to individual variation in state IMR. Race and ethnicity may confound or modify the IMR in states that shifted inside or outside the 95% CI following adjustment. Other factors including smoking during pregnancy and teen birth rate, which are potentially modifiable, significantly contributed to differences in state IMR. State risk

  1. Online social integration is associated with reduced mortality risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, William R.; Burke, Moira; Nicholas A Christakis; Fowler, James H.

    2016-01-01

    People who have stronger social networks live longer. However, can we say the same about online social networks? Here, we conduct such a study. Using public California vital records, we compare 12 million Facebook users to nonusers. More importantly, we also look within Facebook users to explore how online social interactions—reflecting both online and offline social activity—are associated with longevity. We find that Facebook users who accept more friendships have a lower risk of mortality,...

  2. How much excess body weight, blood sugar, or age can double the risk of hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Farbakhsh, F; Mahjub, H; Bidarafsh, A; Babaee, E

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-known impact of advanced age, excess body weight, and raised blood glucose on blood pressure, the level of exposure to these risk factors that is necessary to double the risk hypertension is not widely investigated, but was explored in this study. Cross-sectional study. This study reports the results of a screening program conducted on a large population of adults to assess the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and their associated risk factors. The participants were people aged 30 years or older referring to 16 health centers in Tehran. A standard questionnaire was used to collect data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood sugar (FBS), smoking status, and demographic characteristics (age and gender) based on WHO STEPS manual. Of the 7611 people who participated in the screening program, 696 (9.1%) had raised blood pressure. The level of exposure to risk factors for high blood pressure that is necessary to replicate the OR of 2.0 indicated that an OR of 2.0 corresponds to an increase in age of about 9.4 years, an increase in BMI of about 10.3 kg/m(2), an increase in waist-to-hip ratio of about 0.5, and an increase in fasting blood sugar (FBS) of about 85.8 mg/dl. This study indicated how much increase in age, BMI, waist-hip ratio, and FBS can double the risk of hypertension. These results may be helpful for public health policy and prioritizing effective prevention programs to reduce the burden of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors for Mortality in Lower Intestinal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L.; Ayanian, John Z.; Kotler, Gregory; Syngal, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies of Lower Intestinal Bleeding (LIB) have limited power to study mortality. We sought to identify characteristics associated with in-hospital mortality in a large cohort of patients with LIB. Methods We used the 2002 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to study a cross-sectional cohort of 227,022 hospitalized patients with discharge diagnoses indicating LIB. Predictors of mortality were identified using multiple logistic regression. Results In 2002, an estimated 8,737 patients with LIB (3.9%) died while hospitalized. Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were age (age >70 vs. <50, odds ratio (OR) 4.91; 95% CI 2.45–9.87), intestinal ischemia (OR 3.47; 95% CI 2.57–4.68), comorbid illness (≥ 2 vs. 0 comorbidities, OR 3.00; 95% CI 2.25–3.98), bleeding while hospitalized for a separate process (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.81–3.04), coagulation defects (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.50–3.65), hypovolemia (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.69–2.90), transfusion of packed red blood cells (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.23–2.08), and male gender (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.21–1.92). Colorectal polyps (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.15–0.45), and hemorrhoids (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.28–0.64) were associated with a lower risk of mortality, as was diagnostic testing for LIB when added to the multivariate model (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.28–0.48; p<0.001). Hospital characteristics were not significantly related to mortality. Predictors of mortality were similar in an analysis restricted to patients with diverticular bleeding. Conclusions The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate in LIB is low (3.9%). Advanced age, intestinal ischemia and comorbid illness were the strongest predictors of mortality. PMID:18558513

  4. Mortality and risk of dementia in normal-pressure hydrocephalus: A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraj, Daniel; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Östling, Svante; Skoog, Ingmar

    2017-08-01

    We examined mortality, dementia, and progression of hydrocephalic symptoms among untreated individuals with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in a population-based sample. A total of 1235 persons were examined between 1986 and 2012. Shunted individuals were excluded. We examined 53 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement (probable iNPH: n = 24, asymptomatic or possible iNPH: n = 29). Comparisons were made with individuals without hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement. The 5-year mortality was 87.5% among those with probable iNPH. The hazard ratio (HR) for death was 3.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5-6.0) for probable iNPH. Those with possible iNPH and asymptomatic hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement had increased risk of developing dementia, HR 2.8 (95% CI: 1.5-5.2). Only two individuals with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement remained asymptomatic. In the present sample, persons with clinical and imaging signs of iNPH had excess mortality and an increased risk of dementia. The data also suggest that radiological signs of iNPH might be more important than previously supposed. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Apathy: Risk Factor for Mortality in Nursing Home Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsten, Johanna M H; Leontjevas, Ruslan; Pat-El, Ron; Smalbrugge, Martin; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Gerritsen, Debby L

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prognostic value of apathy for mortality in patients of somatic (SC) and dementia special care (DSC) nursing home (NH) units. Longitudinal design, secondary analyses of a 2-year, cluster-randomized trial with six measurements, approximately 4 months in between. SC and DSC-units of Dutch NHs. NH-patients of seventeen SC-units (n = 342) and sixteen DCS-units (n = 371). Data were available for 713 NH-patients, 266 of whom died during the study. Apathy was assessed using the 10-item Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) and applied as categorical variable using known cut-off scores as well as dimensional variable. Additionally, depressive symptoms were assessed using the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Mixed effects cox models using the coxme package in R revealed a higher risk of mortality between two measurements, if apathy was present (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI] = 1.35-2.31, P  .05) in the effect of apathy on mortality. Male gender (HR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.23-2.27, P apathy as a dimensional construct, one standard deviation increase of AES-10 scores was associated with a 62% increase of mortality risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.40-1.88, P Apathy was associated with mortality over a 4-month period in NH patients, even when controlling for depression. These data suggest that screening and treatment strategies for apathy should be developed for this patient population. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Ingrid; Sjölund, Sara; Nordin, Steven; Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Larsson, Maria; Olofsson, Jonas K

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether dementia could explain the association between poor olfactory performance and mortality risk within a decade-long follow-up period. Prospective cohort study. Betula Study, Umeå, Sweden. A population-based sample of adult participants without dementia at baseline aged 40 to 90 (N = 1,774). Olfactory performance using the Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) and self-reported olfactory function; several social, cognitive, and medical risk factors at baseline; and incident dementia during the following decade. Within the 10-year follow-up, 411 of 1,774 (23.2%) participants had died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and lower mortality was significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74 per point interval, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.77, P < .001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, sex, education, and health-related and cognitive variables (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). The association between SOIT score and mortality was retained after controlling for dementia conversion before death (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). Similar results were obtained for self-reported olfactory dysfunction. Poor odor identification and poor self-reported olfactory function are associated with greater likelihood of future mortality. Dementia does not attenuate the association between olfactory loss and mortality, suggesting that olfactory loss might mark deteriorating health, irrespective of dementia. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Study Of Some Maternal Risk Factors Influencing Early Neonatal Mortality

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    Chatterjee Chitra

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of early neonatal mortality (0-7 days amongst neonates delivered in a city hospital and its association with maternal factors. Objectives: 1. To find out the extent of early neonatal mortality amongst the neonates delivered in a city hospital of Calcutta. 2. To identify the maternal and biosocial factors influencing the early neonatal mortality. Setting :Obstetric and nursery wards of Eden Hospital of Medical college, Calcutta. Study design: Case-control study. Sample Size: 139 “case” mothers whose neonates died within 7 days of delivery and 215 “control” mothers who delivered well neonates on the same dates as those of case group. Study Variables: Maternal age, parity, literacy, place of residence, utilization of antenatal care, toxaemia of pregnancy, ante-partumhaemorrhage etc. Statistical analysis: Odds ratio and Chi-square test. Results: Overall early neonatal mortality rate was 55.33 per 1000 live births. Although there was no association of early neonatal mortality with parity and maternal age, but it was found to be significantly higher among illiterate mothers (odds ratio 3.9, those living in rural and slum areas (odds ratio 3 and 2.8 and those who did not receive complete antenatal care(odds ratio 28, The risk of early neonatal mortality was significantly high particularly in presence of two complications during pregnancy e.g. toxaemia (odds ratios 7.48 and antepartum haemorrhage (odds ratio 8.16. Conclusion: Increasing literacy status of mothers will improve their receptivity for antenatal care, which by way of ensuring proper management of pregnancy and its complications will prevent early neonatal deaths to a significant extent.

  8. Valuation of morbidity and mortality risk reductions. Does context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kjær, Trine

    2012-09-01

    The main research purpose of the present study was to test for any differences in the valuation of morbidity and mortality risk reductions across two contexts; traffic and health. A contingent valuation study on preferences for morbidity and mortality risk was carried out in Denmark in 2007. Respondents were randomised into two different arms: one arm in which the valuation took place in the context of health and another arm in which the context was traffic. In both contexts, the inferior health state was described by way of the standardized EQ-5D descriptive system. We obtained a total sample of 520 respondents from an online database. In the present study we found clear evidence of a context effect on expressed valuations of identical risk reductions. This was true irrespective of whether the adverse outcome in question was death or inferior health. This result suggests that interventions targeting risks of death or risks of ill health should not necessarily be valued equally across sectors. From a welfare economic perspective, the use of the same estimates across contexts - and especially across sectors - could be misleading and in worst case lead to inefficient resource allocations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary fiber, kidney function, inflammation, and mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M; Cederholm, Tommy; Arnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2014-12-05

    In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70-71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991-1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFRdietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also associated with lower (cancer) mortality risk, especially in individuals with kidney dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Geriatric nutritional risk index: A mortality predictor in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Edalat-Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI has been introduced as a valuable tool to assess the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD patients. To determine the predictive value of the GNRI score for death in HD, we studied 145 chronic HD patients (%53 men, mean age 60 ± 16 years. The GNRI score was estimated by an equation involving serum albumin and individual′s weight and height. According to the highest positive likelihood and risk ratios, the cut-off value of the GNRI for mortality was set at 100. The survival of patients on HD was examined with the Cox proportional hazards model. Mortality was monitored prospectively over an 18-month period, during which 35 patients died. The GNRI (mean 102.6 ± 5.5 was significantly positively correlated with lean body mass, hematocrit, serum lipids and presence of metabolic syndrome. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that the GNRI <100, serum ferritin ≥ 500 μ g/L and age 65 years or older were significant predictors for mortality (hazard ratio 3.691, 95% CI 1.751-7.779, P = 0.001; hazard ratio 3.105, 95% CI 1.536-6.277, P = 0.002; and hazard ratio 2.806, 95% CI 1.297-6.073, P = 0.009, respectively, after adjustment to gender and vintage time. It can be concluded that, in addition to old age, malnutrition (low GNRI and inflammation (high ferritin are identified as significant independent risk factors that predict all-cause mortality in HD patients.

  11. Mortality risk among workers with exposure to dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J J; Bodner, K M; Aylward, L L; Bender, T J; Anteau, S; Wilken, M; Bodnar, C M

    2016-12-01

    In several studies, dioxin exposure has been associated with increased risk from several causes of death. To compare the mortality experience of workers exposed to dioxins during trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) production to that of the general population and to examine mortality risk by estimated exposure levels. A retrospective cohort study which followed up workers' vital status from 1940 to 2011, with serum surveys to support estimation of historical dioxin exposure levels. Among the 2192 study subjects, there were nine deaths in TCP workers from acute non-lymphatic leukaemia [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-5.47], four mesothelioma deaths (SMR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.39-13.10) and four soft tissue sarcoma (STS) deaths (SMR = 3.08, 95% CI 0.84-7.87). In PCP workers, there were eight deaths from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR = 1.92, 95% CI 0.83-3.79), 150 from ischaemic heart disease (SMR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-7.89) and five from stomach ulcers (SMR = 3.38, 95% CI 1.10-7.89). There were no trends of increased mortality with increased dioxin exposure except for STS and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels. This finding for STS should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of deaths and the uncertainty in diagnosis and nosology. While some causes of death were greater than expected, this study provides little evidence of increased risk when dioxin exposures are considered. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Mortality due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Burden and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Erviti, Anabella; Caballero, Mauricio T; Vallone, Fernando; Zanone, Stella M; Losada, Juan Ves; Bianchi, Alejandra; Acosta, Patricio L; Talarico, Laura B; Ferretti, Adrian; Grimaldi, Luciano Alva; Sancilio, Andrea; Dueñas, Karina; Sastre, Gustavo; Rodriguez, Andrea; Ferrero, Fernando; Barboza, Edgar; Gago, Guadalupe Fernández; Nocito, Celina; Flamenco, Edgardo; Perez, Alberto Rodriguez; Rebec, Beatriz; Ferolla, F Martin; Libster, Romina; Karron, Ruth A; Bergel, Eduardo; Polack, Fernando P

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of hospitalization and an important cause of death in infants in the developing world. The relative contribution of social, biologic, and clinical risk factors to RSV mortality in low-income regions is unclear. To determine the burden and risk factors for mortality due to RSV in a low-income population of 84,840 infants. This was a prospective, population-based, cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted between 2011 and 2013. Hospitalizations and deaths due to severe lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) were recorded during the RSV season. All-cause hospital deaths and community deaths were monitored. Risk factors for respiratory failure (RF) and mortality due to RSV were assessed using a hierarchical, logistic regression model. A total of 2,588 (65.5%) infants with severe LRTI were infected with RSV. A total of 157 infants (148 postneonatal) experienced RF or died with RSV. RSV LRTI accounted for 57% fatal LRTI tested for the virus. A diagnosis of sepsis (odds ratio [OR], 17.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.14-21.16 for RF) (OR, 119.39; 95% CI, 50.98-273.34 for death) and pneumothorax (OR, 17.15; 95% CI, 13.07-21.01 for RF) (OR, 65.49; 95% CI, 28.90-139.17 for death) were the main determinants of poor outcomes. RSV was the most frequent cause of mortality in low-income postneonatal infants. RF and death due to RSV LRTI, almost exclusively associated with prematurity and cardiopulmonary diseases in industrialized countries, primarily affect term infants in a developing world environment. Poor outcomes at hospitals are frequent and associated with the cooccurrence of bacterial sepsis and clinically significant pneumothoraxes.

  13. Combined impact of health risk factors on mortality of a petroleum industry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shan P; Bhojani, Faiyaz A; Wendt, Judy K

    2009-08-01

    To assess the combined impact of health risk factors on mortality. A 21-year mortality follow-up of 12,896 Shell Oil Company employees was conducted. Relative risks of mortality, expressed as hazard ratios, in relation to the six risk factors, including cigarette smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, total cholesterol, serum glucose, and triglycerides, were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Employees with health risk factors had higher mortality rates for all-causes combined and for cardiovascular diseases compared to employees without such risk factors. Smoking, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia independently and significantly predicted cardiovascular disease mortality. Mortality risks from all causes and from cardiovascular disease increased with the number of risk factors present. This study found a positive association between several health risk factors and mortality. A greater number of risk factors corresponded to a higher rate of death. Reductions of employee health risk factors may be an effective means of improving employees' long-term health.

  14. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Çaglar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05, primiparity (P < 0.005, less than four stools (P < 0.001, pink diaper (P < 0.001, delay at initiation of first breast giving (P < 0.01, birth by cesarean section (P < 0.05, extra heater usage (P < 0.005, extra heater usage among mothers who had appropriate conditions associated with breast-feeding (P < 0.001, mean weight loss in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.05, mean uric acid concentration in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.0001, fever in hypernatremic neonates (P < 0.02, and the correlation of weight loss with both serum sodium and uric acid concentrations (P < 0.02 were determined. Excessive weight loss occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and can be complicated by hypernatremia and other morbidities. Prompt initiation of breast-feeding after delivery and prompt intervention if problems occur with breast-feeding, in particular poor breast attachment, breast engorgement, delayed breast milk "coming in", and nipple problems will help promote successful breast-feeding. Careful follow-up of breast-feeding dyads after discharge from hospital, especially regarding infant weight, is important to help detect inadequate breast-feeding. Environmental factors such as heaters may exacerbate infant dehydration.

  15. Risk factors for excessive benzodiazepine use in a working age population: a nationwide 5-year survey in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fride Tvete, Ingunn; Bjørner, Trine; Skomedal, Tor

    2015-01-01

    To identify risk factors for becoming an excessive user over time. Prescription database study over five years. Norwegians between 30 and 60 years with a first dispensation of a benzodiazepine during 2006, encompassing 23 227 individuals. A Cox hazard regression model was defined, initially stratifying on gender, age, county, previous relevant drug dispensations, household income, education level, and vocational rehabilitation support. The time from the first redemption until excessive use was defined as using more than two DDDs per day on average within a three-month period. Women's risk was lower than men's for excessive use (HR = 0.42, CI 0.35-0.51). Initial oxazepam, alprazolam, or nitrazepam/flunitrazepam use indicated higher risk compared with diazepam (HR = 1.51, CI 1.24-1.85, HR = 2.75, CI 1.54-4.91, HR = 1.67, CI 1.29-2.16). Previous antidepressants or lithium, antipsychotics or opioids, anti-alcohol and smoke cessation treatment indicated a higher risk compared with no such use (HR = 1.4, CI 1.16-1.69, HR = 1.92, CI 1.54-2.4, and HR = 2.88, CI 2-4.15). Higher education and average or high household income were associated with a low risk compared with low education and income (HR = 0.68, CI 0.57-0.81, HR = 0.58, CI 0.46-0.73, and HR = 0.37, CI 0.26-0.54). Working in the private or public sector was associated with a low risk compared with no registered work (HR = 0.53, CI 0.4-0.71 and HR = 0.57, CI 0.45-0.74). The prevalence of excessive use over a five-year observation period was 2.34%. Risk factors were indications of psychiatric illness, first benzodiazepine choice, low income, and education. Excessive users were also characterized by a more severe disease, indicated by having prescription fulfilments by a psychiatrist and by switching benzodiazepines. Key points Guidelines state that benzodiazepines should be used for a short time and excessive use indicates drug dependency. Of all new benzodiazepine users 2.34% became excessive users, defined as

  16. Value of routine blood tests for prediction of mortality risk in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosfeldt, Mathias; Pedersen, Ole Birger Vesterager; Riis, Troels

    2012-01-01

    There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission.......There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission....

  17. [The incidence, mortality and risk factors of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvadba, M; Cmorej, P; Mamova, A; Slowik, O

    Prostate cancer is a serious oncological disease in males. There has been a significant escalation in the incidence of this malignancy in the Czech Republic and in developed countries of Europe recently. Conversely, in countries with an altered health system, a minor increase in new cases of this disease is recorded. The causes of the high incidence of prostate cancer in developed countries appear to be the introduction of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and prostate biopsy, an aging population, and the consequent increased risk of cancer. The possible contribution of physical and chemical carcinogens associated with environmental pollution and negative lifestyle changes should not be forgotten either. The mortality rate for prostate cancer remains stable, with a slight decline in recent years. The article provides an overview of trends in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in the Czech Republic and Europe.

  18. The contribution of leading diseases and risk factors to excess losses of healthy life in eastern Europe: burden of disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Hoorn Stephen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The East/West gradient in health across Europe has been described often, but not using metrics as comprehensive and comparable as those of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 and Comparative Risk Assessment studies. Methods Comparisons are made across 3 epidemiological subregions of the WHO region for Europe – A (very low child and adult mortality, B (low child and low adult mortality and C (low child and high adult mortality – with populations in 2000 of 412, 218 and 243 millions respectively, and using the following measures: 1. Probabilities of death by sex and causal group across 7 age intervals; 2. Loss of healthy life (DALYs to diseases and injuries per thousand population; 3. Loss of healthy life (DALYs attributable to selected risk factors across 3 age ranges. Results Absolute differences in mortality are most marked in males and in younger adults, and for deaths from vascular diseases and from injuries. Dominant contributions to east-west differences come from the nutritional/physiological group of risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol concentration, body mass index, low fruit and vegetable consumption and inactivity contributing to vascular disease and from the legal drugs – tobacco and alcohol. Conclusion The main requirements for reducing excess health losses in the east of Europe are: 1 favorable shifts in all amenable vascular risk factors (irrespective of their current levels by population-wide and personal measures; 2 intensified tobacco control; 3 reduced alcohol consumption and injury control strategies (for example, for road traffic injuries. Cost effective strategies are broadly known but local institutional support for them needs strengthening.

  19. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. © 2016 UICC.

  20. Mortality attributable to excess body mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the comparative risk assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Despite the priority of the problem, there is currently no comprehensive program to prevention or control obesity in Iran. The present results show a growing need to comprehensive implications for national and sub-national health policies and interventional programs in Iran.

  1. Improving risk estimates for metabolically healthy obesity and mortality using a refined healthy reference group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Johnson, William; Bell, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to re-examine mortality risk estimates for metabolically healthy obesity by using a 'stable' healthy non-obese referent group. Prospective cohort study. Participants were 5427 men and women (aged 65.9 ± 9.4 years, 45.9% men) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (vs non-obese as below this threshold). Based on blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, participants were classified as 'healthy' (0 or 1 metabolic abnormality) or 'unhealthy' (≥2 metabolic abnormalities). Totally, 671 deaths were observed over an average follow-up of 8 years. When defining the referent group based on 1 clinical assessment, the unhealthy non-obese (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.45) and unhealthy obese (HR = 1.29; CI: 1.05, 1.60) were at greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to the healthy non-obese, yet no excess risk was seen in the healthy obese (HR = 1.14; CI: 0.83, 1.52). When we re-defined the referent group based on 2 clinical assessments, effect estimates were accentuated and healthy obesity was at increased risk of mortality (HR = 2.67; CI: 1.64, 4.34). An unstable healthy referent group may make 'healthy obesity' appear less harmful by obscuring the benefits of remaining never obese without metabolic dysfunction. © 2017 The authors.

  2. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  3. Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, B J; Hong, Y J; Chang, G C; Wang, M T; Cinkotai, F F; Ko, Y C

    1994-09-01

    We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971-1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old among the entire population of Taiwan (national reference) and among the residents of 26 administrative districts, comprising all of Kaohsiung city and Kaohsiung county (local reference), except for 8 sparsely populated, rural districts. Having scrutinized all cancer death certificates, we have identified various statistically significant excess deaths, as compared with the national and local reference, due to cancers at all sites. Cancer of the bone, brain, and bladder in boys and girls 0-9 yr and 10-19 yr of age in the 1981-1990 decade that followed the establishment of petrochemical production in the PIDs was studied. However, excess cancer deaths seemed to have clustered in the 10-19 yr age group, who had been potentially exposed to the petrochemical pollutants for the longest period of time from the youngest age. Almost all bone, brain, and bladder cancer deaths registered were within 3 km of the 3 complexes. Bone and brain cancers in particular occurred in girls in the PIDs more frequently than in boys, even though these are believed to occur more in males than females elsewhere.

  4. Joint nonparametric correction estimator for excess relative risk regression in survival analysis with exposure measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Yun; Cullings, Harry; Song, Xiao; Kopecky, Kenneth J

    2017-11-01

    Observational epidemiological studies often confront the problem of estimating exposure-disease relationships when the exposure is not measured exactly. In the paper, we investigate exposure measurement error in excess relative risk regression, which is a widely used model in radiation exposure effect research. In the study cohort, a surrogate variable is available for the true unobserved exposure variable. The surrogate variable satisfies a generalized version of the classical additive measurement error model, but it may or may not have repeated measurements. In addition, an instrumental variable is available for individuals in a subset of the whole cohort. We develop a nonparametric correction (NPC) estimator using data from the subcohort, and further propose a joint nonparametric correction (JNPC) estimator using all observed data to adjust for exposure measurement error. An optimal linear combination estimator of JNPC and NPC is further developed. The proposed estimators are nonparametric, which are consistent without imposing a covariate or error distribution, and are robust to heteroscedastic errors. Finite sample performance is examined via a simulation study. We apply the developed methods to data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in which chromosome aberration is used to adjust for the effects of radiation dose measurement error on the estimation of radiation dose responses.

  5. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungdo Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726. Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601 when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  6. Co-morbidities only account for a small proportion of excess mortality after fracture: a record linkage study of individual fracture types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwen; Simpson, Judy M; March, Lyn M; Blyth, Fiona M; Bliuc, Dana; Tran, Thach; Nguyen, Tuan V; Eisman, John A; Center, Jacqueline R

    2018-01-04

    Non-hip non-vertebral fractures (NHNV) constitute the majority of osteoporotic fractures but few studies have examined the association between these fractures, co-morbidity and mortality. To examine the relationship between individual non-hip non-vertebral fractures, co-morbidities and mortality. Prospective population-based cohort of 267,043 subjects (45 and Up Study, Australia) had baseline questionnaires linked to hospital administrative and all-cause mortality data from 2006 - 2013. Associations between fracture and mortality examined using multivariate, time dependent Cox models, adjusted for age, prior fracture, body mass index, smoking and co-morbidities (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, thrombosis and cancer) and survival function curves. Population attributable fraction calculated for each level of risk exposure. During 1,490,651 person-years, women and men experienced 7,571 and 4,571 fractures and 7,064 deaths and 11,078 deaths, respectively. In addition to hip and vertebral fractures, pelvis, humerus, clavicle, rib, proximal tibia/fibula, elbow and distal forearm fractures in both sexes, and ankle fractures in men, were associated with increased multivariable adjusted mortality hazard ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.4. Co-morbidity independently added to mortality such that a woman with a humeral fracture and one co-morbidity had a similarly reduced 5 year survival to that of a woman with a hip fracture and no co-morbidities. Population mortality attributable to any fracture without co-morbidity was 9.2% in women and 5.3% in men. All proximal non-hip, non-vertebral fractures in women and men were associated with increased mortality risk. Co-existent co-morbidities independently further increased mortality. Population attributable risk for mortality for fracture was similar to cardiovascular disease and diabetes, highlighting their importance and potential benefit for early intervention and treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All

  7. All-cause mortality among diabetic foot patients and related risk factors in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashouq, Mohammad K.; Youssef, Amira M.; Al-Qumaidi, Hamid; Al Derwish, Mohammad; Ouizi, Samir; Al-Shehri, Khalid; Masoodi, Saba N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region with high rates of diabetic foot complications, there are only limited data concerning mortality among such a high risk group. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to assess all-cause mortality and its related predictors among diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot complications. Methods Using data from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR), a total of 840 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years with current or past history of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) or diabetes related lower extremity amputation (LEA) were recruited in 2007 from active patients’ files and followed up to 2013. These patients were compared with an equal number of age and gender matched diabetic patients without foot complication recruited at the same period. All patients were subjected to living status verification at 31st December 2013. Results The all-cause mortality rate among patients with DFU was 42.54 per 1000 person-years and among LEA patients was 86.80 per 1000 person-years among LEA patients for a total of 2280 and 1129 person-years of follow up respectively. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (95% CI) was 4.39 (3.55–5.23) and 7.21 (5.70–8.72) for cases with foot ulcer and LEA respectively. The percentage of deceased patients increased by almost twofold (18.5%) among patients with diabetic foot ulcer and more than threefold (32.2%) among patients with LEA compared with patients without diabetic foot complications (10.7%). The worst survival was among patients with LEA at 0.679 and the presence of diabetic nephropathy was the only significant independent risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients with diabetic foot complications. On the other hand, obese patients have demonstrated significantly reduced all-cause mortality rate. Conclusions Diabetic patients with diabetic foot complications have an excess

  8. Individual spatial responses towards roads: implications for mortality risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grilo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the ecological consequences of roads and developing ways to mitigate their negative effects has become an important goal for many conservation biologists. Most mitigation measures are based on road mortality and barrier effects data. However, studying fine-scale individual spatial responses in roaded landscapes may help develop more cohesive road planning strategies for wildlife conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated how individuals respond in their spatial behavior toward a highway and its traffic intensity by radio-tracking two common species particularly vulnerable to road mortality (barn owl Tyto alba and stone marten Martes foina. We addressed the following questions: 1 how highways affected home-range location and size in the immediate vicinity of these structures, 2 which road-related features influenced habitat selection, 3 what was the role of different road-related features on movement properties, and 4 which characteristics were associated with crossing events and road-kills. The main findings were: 1 if there was available habitat, barn owls and stone martens may not avoid highways and may even include highways within their home-ranges; 2 both species avoided using areas near the highway when traffic was high, but tended to move toward the highway when streams were in close proximity and where verges offered suitable habitat; and 3 barn owls tended to cross above-grade highway sections while stone martens tended to avoid crossing at leveled highway sections. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality may be the main road-mediated mechanism that affects barn owl and stone marten populations. Fine-scale movements strongly indicated that a decrease in road mortality risk can be realized by reducing sources of attraction, and by increasing road permeability through measures that promote safe crossings.

  9. Individual spatial responses towards roads: implications for mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Clara; Sousa, Joana; Ascensão, Fernando; Matos, Hugo; Leitão, Inês; Pinheiro, Paula; Costa, Monica; Bernardo, João; Reto, Dyana; Lourenço, Rui; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the ecological consequences of roads and developing ways to mitigate their negative effects has become an important goal for many conservation biologists. Most mitigation measures are based on road mortality and barrier effects data. However, studying fine-scale individual spatial responses in roaded landscapes may help develop more cohesive road planning strategies for wildlife conservation. We investigated how individuals respond in their spatial behavior toward a highway and its traffic intensity by radio-tracking two common species particularly vulnerable to road mortality (barn owl Tyto alba and stone marten Martes foina). We addressed the following questions: 1) how highways affected home-range location and size in the immediate vicinity of these structures, 2) which road-related features influenced habitat selection, 3) what was the role of different road-related features on movement properties, and 4) which characteristics were associated with crossing events and road-kills. The main findings were: 1) if there was available habitat, barn owls and stone martens may not avoid highways and may even include highways within their home-ranges; 2) both species avoided using areas near the highway when traffic was high, but tended to move toward the highway when streams were in close proximity and where verges offered suitable habitat; and 3) barn owls tended to cross above-grade highway sections while stone martens tended to avoid crossing at leveled highway sections. Mortality may be the main road-mediated mechanism that affects barn owl and stone marten populations. Fine-scale movements strongly indicated that a decrease in road mortality risk can be realized by reducing sources of attraction, and by increasing road permeability through measures that promote safe crossings.

  10. What drives cold-related excess mortality in a south Asian tropical monsoon climate-season vs. temperatures and diurnal temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the tropical climate which is characterized by generally high temperatures and persistent mild temperatures during the winter season, Bangladesh, along with many other tropical countries, experiences strong winter and cold-related excess mortality. The objective of this paper was to analyse the nature of these cold effects and understand the role of season vs. temperature and diurnal changes in temperature. For approaching these questions, we applied different Poisson regression models. Temperature as well as diurnal temperature range (DTR) were considered as predictor variables. Different approaches to seasonality adjustment were evaluated and special consideration was given to seasonal differences in atmospheric effects. Our findings show that while seasonality adjustment affected the magnitude of cold effects, cold-related mortality persisted regardless the adjustment approach. Strongest effects of low temperatures were observed at the same day (lag 1) with an increase of 1.7% (95% CI = 0.86-2.54%) per 1 °C decrease in temperature during the winter season. Diurnal temperature affected mortality with increasing levels at higher ranges. Mortality increased with 0.97% (95% CI = 0.17-1.75%) when looking at the entire season, but effects of DTR were not significant during winter when running a seasonal model. Different from effects observed in the mid-latitudes, cold effects in Bangladesh occurred on a very short time scale highlighting the role of temperature versus season. Insufficient adaptation with regard to housing and clothing might lead to such cold-related increases in mortality despite rather moderate temperature values. Although the study did not demonstrate an effect of DTR during the cold season, the strong correlation with (minimum) temperature might cause a multicollinearity problem and effects are difficult to attribute to one driver.

  11. A register-based study on excess suicide mortality among unemployed men and women during different levels of unemployment in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka

    2012-04-01

    Suicide mortality is high among the unemployed, but the role of causation and selection models in producing employment status differences remains to be understood. This study analyses the association between unemployment and suicide during different levels of national unemployment adjusting for several factors that might explain or mediate the relationship. The data comprised annual population-register and death-register information on 25-64-year-old Finns at the beginning of each year in the period 1988-2003; thus, forming 16 separate follow-up cohorts. Experience of unemployment was measured at baseline and during the previous year for each cohort. Suicide was followed for 12 months after each baseline giving a total of 7388 suicides. Overall, age-adjusted suicide mortality was two to three times higher among the unstably employed and almost fourfold among the long-term unemployed. Adjustment for social class and living arrangements had small effect on the HRs, but adjustment for household income per consumption unit decreased the differences by 13% and 31% among the long-term unemployed women and men, respectively. When the national unemployment level was high, excess suicide mortality among the unstably employed was lower than during low unemployment when those becoming unemployed might be more selected. No such differences were found among the long-term unemployed. Long-term unemployment seems to have causal effects on suicide, which may be partly mediated by low income. As the effect of unstable employment is lower during the recessionary stage of the economic cycle some part of the excess suicide among the unstably employed is likely to be attributable to selection into unemployment.

  12. Acute non-cancer mortality excess after polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans mixed exposure from contaminated rice oil: Yusho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide

    2011-08-15

    In Japan in 1968, rice-oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans caused severe food poisoning, termed "Yusho" (oil disease). Several previous studies attempted to evaluate the effects targeting officially-certified Yusho patients. However, these studies have several limitations such as the left-truncated nature of the registry or residual confounding arising from the referent population selection. We thus conducted an area-based standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) study using vital statistics. A severely affected area (Tamanoura area) was adopted as the exposure group, with a reference population from Nagasaki prefecture in Kyushu, which included the Tamanoura. A large number of residents in Tamanoura were exposed to the rice-oil (28% of all the certified cases as of 2009). We estimated SMRs of non-cancer and cancer diseases for the years 1968-2002. Shortly after the exposure, SMRs of all causes, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, pneumonia/bronchitis, and bronchus/lung cancer were elevated. In particular, SMRs of heart disease were 1.97 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.09-3.56] in 1968, 2.05 (95% CI: 1.16-3.60) in 1969, and 1.89 (95% CI: 1.05-3.41) in 1975. However, we did not observe clear increase in SMRs more than 10 years after the exposure. This study provides further evidence in Yusho, especially on acute effects on non-cancer mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Undernutrition, subsequent risk of mortality and civil war in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwimp, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The paper investigates the effect of child undernutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi. Using anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007) we find that undernourished children, measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitted variables correlated with both nutritional status and the risk of mortality, we use the length of exposure to civil war prior to 1998 as a source of exogenous variation in a child's nutritional status. Children exposed to civil war in their area of residence have worse nutritional status. The results indicate that one year of exposure translates into a 0.15 decrease in the HAZ, resulting in a 10% increase in the probability to die. For boys, we find a 0.34 decrease in HAZ per year of exposure, resulting in 25% increase in the probability to die. For girls, the results are statistically not significant at the usual thresholds. We show the robustness of our results and we derive policy conclusion for a nutrition intervention in times of conflict. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Betel nut chewing is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yuan; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Lee, Long-Teng; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Yang; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2008-05-01

    Betel nut chewing is related to several kinds of cancer, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Whether it is associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, however, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between betel nut chewing and CVD and all-cause mortality. A baseline cohort of 56,116 male participants > or = 20 y old were recruited from 4 nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan in 1998 and 1999. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of CVD and all-cause mortality for betel nut chewers during an 8-y follow-up period. There were 1549 deaths during the follow-up period, 309 of which were due to CVD. After adjustment for age, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, lipids, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% CI) of CVD and all-cause mortality among the former betel nut chewers were 1.56 (1.02, 2.38) and 1.40 (1.17, 1.68), respectively, and those among current chewers were 2.02 (1.31, 3.13) and 1.40 (1.16, 1.70), respectively, compared with persons who had never chewed betel quid. Current and former betel nut chewers had a higher risk of CVD mortality (RR: 2.10; P betel nut chewing was associated with greater CVD and all-cause mortality. Betel nut chewing was independently associated with a greater risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men. Regular screening for betel nut chewing history may help prevent excess deaths in the future. An anti-betel nut chewing program is urgently warranted for current chewers.

  15. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  16. Is risk-adjusted mortality an indicator of quality of care in general surgery?: a comparison of risk adjustment to peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackford, Steven R; Hyman, Neil; Ben-Jacob, Talia; Ratliff, John

    2010-09-01

    Profiling of hospitals using risk-adjusted mortality rates as a measure of quality is becoming increasingly frequent. We sought to determine the validity of this approach by comparing the risk-adjusted predicted mortality to the findings of concurrent peer review and retrospective chart review of deaths that occur on a general surgery service. Consecutive patients admitted to a busy general surgery service from January 2000 to January 2006 were prospectively entered into the Surgical Activity Tracking System. Rigorous, systematic peer review was performed concurrently by service members on all deaths. Adjudication was later validated by an independent senior surgeon. Three methodologies of risk adjustment (University Health Consortium, Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality, and the Charlson index) were used and compared the "excess mortality" predicted by each to the number of potentially preventable deaths determined by peer review. A total of 9623 patients were admitted and 75 died (0.7%). University Health Consortium and Physiological and Operative Severity Score predicted an excess mortality of 62 and 65 deaths, respectively; Charlson predicted that 73% of the cohort would be dead in 1 year. Concurrent and retrospective peer review found that death was potentially preventable in only 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Peer adjudication and extensive clinical review adds much to the analysis of an adverse outcome, similar to the "black box" in an airplane crash. Although methods of risk adjustment may be helpful in identifying patients for peer review, they should be used for internal process improvement and not published as metrics of hospital or provider performance.

  17. Gaming in risk-adjusted mortality rates: effect of misclassification of risk factors in the benchmarking of cardiac surgery risk-adjusted mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Sabrina; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Versteegh, Michel I M; Noyez, Luc; ter Burg, Willem Jan P P; Bots, Michiel L; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van Herwerden, Lex A

    2013-03-01

    Upcoding or undercoding of risk factors could affect the benchmarking of risk-adjusted mortality rates. The aim was to investigate the effect of misclassification of risk factors on the benchmarking of mortality rates after cardiac surgery. A prospective cohort was used comprising all adult cardiac surgery patients in all 16 cardiothoracic centers in The Netherlands from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2009. A random effects model, including the logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) was used to benchmark the in-hospital mortality rates. We simulated upcoding and undercoding of 5 selected variables in the patients from 1 center. These patients were selected randomly (nondifferential misclassification) or by the EuroSCORE (differential misclassification). In the random patients, substantial misclassification was required to affect benchmarking: a 1.8-fold increase in prevalence of the 4 risk factors changed an underperforming center into an average performing one. Upcoding of 1 variable required even more. When patients with the greatest EuroSCORE were upcoded (ie, differential misclassification), a 1.1-fold increase was sufficient: moderate left ventricular function from 14.2% to 15.7%, poor left ventricular function from 8.4% to 9.3%, recent myocardial infarction from 7.9% to 8.6%, and extracardiac arteriopathy from 9.0% to 9.8%. Benchmarking using risk-adjusted mortality rates can be manipulated by misclassification of the EuroSCORE risk factors. Misclassification of random patients or of single variables will have little effect. However, limited upcoding of multiple risk factors in high-risk patients can greatly influence benchmarking. To minimize "gaming," the prevalence of all risk factors should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lifetime excess cancer risk due to carcinogens in food and beverages: Urban versus rural differences in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheasley, Roslyn; Keller, C Peter; Setton, Eleanor

    2017-09-14

    To explore differences in urban versus rural lifetime excess risk of cancer from five specific contaminants found in food and beverages. Probable contaminant intake is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contaminant concentrations in combination with dietary patterns. Contaminant concentrations for arsenic, benzene, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) were derived from government dietary studies. The dietary patterns of 34 944 Canadians from 10 provinces were available from Health Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004). Associated lifetime excess cancer risk (LECR) was subsequently calculated from the results of the simulations. In the calculation of LECR from food and beverages for the five selected substances, two (lead and PERC) were shown to have excess risk below 10 per million; whereas for the remaining three (arsenic, benzene and PCBs), it was shown that at least 50% of the population were above 10 per million excess cancers. Arsenic residues, ingested via rice and rice cereal, registered the greatest disparity between urban and rural intake, with LECR per million levels well above 1000 per million at the upper bound. The majority of PCBs ingestion comes from meat, with values slightly higher for urban populations and LECR per million estimates between 50 and 400. Drinking water is the primary contributor of benzene intake in both urban and rural populations, with LECR per million estimates of 35 extra cancers in the top 1% of sampled population. Overall, there are few disparities between urban and rural lifetime excess cancer risk from contaminants found in food and beverages. Estimates could be improved with more complete Canadian dietary intake and concentration data in support of detailed exposure assessments in estimating LECR.

  19. Relation of physical activity to cardiovascular disease mortality and the influence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddigan, Jacinta I; Ardern, Chris I; Riddell, Michael C; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2011-11-15

    Physical activity can improve several metabolic risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality. We sought to evaluate the extent to which metabolic risk factors mediate the association between physical activity and CVD mortality and whether physical activity provides protective effects against CVD mortality in healthy adults and those with metabolic risk factors. A sample of 10,261 adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with public-access mortality data linkage (follow-up 13.4 ± 3.9 years) was used. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and classified into inactive, light, and moderate/vigorous activity categories. Metabolic risk factors (dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, inflammation, and insulin resistance) were categorized using clinical thresholds. After adjusting for basic confounders, engaging in light or moderate/vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality (p activity remained at lower risk of CVD mortality. In addition, physical activity provided protective effects for CVD mortality in healthy subjects and those with metabolic risk factors in isolation or in clusters. In conclusion, physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality independent of traditional and inflammatory risk factors. Taken together these results suggest that physical activity may protect against CVD mortality regardless of the presence of metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Missense LRRK2 Variant Is a Risk Factor for Excessive Inflammatory Responses in Leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius M Fava

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the epidemiological setting, a variable proportion of leprosy patients will suffer from excessive pro-inflammatory responses, termed type-1 reactions (T1R. The LRRK2 gene encodes a multi-functional protein that has been shown to modulate pro-inflammatory responses. Variants near the LRRK2 gene have been associated with leprosy in some but not in other studies. We hypothesized that LRRK2 was a T1R susceptibility gene and that inconsistent association results might reflect different proportions of patients with T1R in the different sample settings. Hence, we evaluated the association of LRRK2 variants with T1R susceptibility.An association scan of the LRRK2 locus was performed using 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Evidence of association was evaluated in two family-based samples: A set of T1R-affected and a second set of T1R-free families. Only SNPs significant for T1R-affected families with significant evidence of heterogeneity relative to T1R-free families were considered T1R-specific. An expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analysis was applied to evaluate the impact of T1R-specific SNPs on LRRK2 gene transcriptional levels.A total of 18 T1R-specific variants organized in four bins were detected. The core SNP capturing the T1R association was the LRRK2 missense variant M2397T (rs3761863 that affects LRRK2 protein turnover. Additionally, a bin of nine SNPs associated with T1R were eQTLs for LRRK2 in unstimulated whole blood cells but not after exposure to Mycobacterium leprae antigen.The results support a preferential association of LRRK2 variants with T1R. LRRK2 involvement in T1R is likely due to a pathological pro-inflammatory loop modulated by LRRK2 availability. Interestingly, the M2397T variant was reported in association with Crohn's disease with the same risk allele as in T1R suggesting common inflammatory mechanism in these two distinct diseases.

  1. Study on the Impact of the Private Credit Excess on the Credit Risk under the Massive Capital Inflows Risk under the Massive Capital Inflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hee Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available By examining the relationship between private credit growth and the possibility of credit risk while focusing on international capital in 21 countries over the period 2000:1Q-2015:2Q, this paper shows that the impact of private credit growth on credit risk is apparent under the high ratio of capital inflows, and its impact on credit risk in the seven Asian countries is even stronger. And the possibility of credit risk caused by private credit is mainly coming from portfolio inflows rather than direct inflows. Finally, portfolio inflows strengthen the positive relationship between credit excess and credit risk in Asian countries, and this trend is seen more in these after the global financial crisis. Taken together, the stronger positive relationship between credit excess and credit risk can be strengthen under the massive portfolio inflows in particular in the seven Asian countries such as Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand.

  2. Risk factors for cerebrovascular disease mortality among the elderly in Beijing: a competing risk analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of combined lifestyle factors and physical conditions with cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD mortality, after accounting for competing risk events, including death from cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other diseases. METHODS: Data on 2010 subjects aged over 55 years were finally analyzed using competing risk models. All the subjects were interviewed by the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA, in China, between 1 January 1992 and 30 August 2009. RESULTS: Elderly females were at a lower risk of death from CBVD than elderly males (HR = 0.639, 95% CI = 0.457-0.895. Increasing age (HR = 1.543, 95% CI = 1.013-2.349, poor self-rated health (HR = 1.652, 95% CI = 1.198-2.277, hypertension (HR = 2.201, 95% CI = 1.524-3.178 and overweight (HR = 1.473, 95% CI = 1.013-2.142 or obesity (HR = 1.711, 95% CI = 1.1754-2.490 was associated with higher CBVD mortality risk. Normal cognition function (HR = 0.650, 95% CI = 0.434-0.973 and living in urban (HR = 0.456, 95% CI = 0.286-0.727 was associated with lower CBVD mortality risk. Gray's test also confirmed the cumulative incidence (CIF of CBVD was lower in the 'married' group than those without spouse, and the mortality was lowest in the 'nutrition sufficient' group among the 'frequent consumption of meat group' and the 'medial type group' (P value<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: CBVD mortality was associated with gender, age, blood pressure, residence, BMI, cognitive function, nutrition and the result of self-rated health assessment in the elderly in Beijing, China.

  3. Concurrent use of tramadol and oral vitamin K antagonists and the risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Meegaard, P. M.; Holck, L. H.

    2013-01-01

    .9-5.2). This corresponds to, on average, one excess case per 250 treatment years (CI 125-584). The result is potentially confounded by concomitant paracetamol use and the presence of acute illness. CONCLUSION: Caution is advised when using tramadol in patients using VKA, and if possible, an alternative pain-medication...

  4. Risk factors for mortality during the 2002 landslides in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Carlos; Lee, Tze-San; Young, Stacy; Batts, Dahna; Benjamin, Jefferson; Malilay, Josephine

    2009-10-01

    This study examines health effects resulting from landslides in Chuuk during Tropical Storm Chata'an in July 2002, and suggests strategies to prevent future mortality. In August 2002, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to identify risk factors for mortality during landslides, which included 52 survivors and 40 surrogates for 43 decedents to identify risk factors for death. Findings suggest that 1) females had a higher mortality rate from this event than males, and 2) children aged 5-14 years had a 10-fold increase in mortality when compared with annual mortality rates from all causes. Awareness of landslides occurring elsewhere and knowledge of natural warning signs were significantly associated with lower risks of death; being outside during landslides was not associated with reduced mortality. In Chuuk, improving communication systems during tropical storms and increasing knowledge of natural warnings can reduce the risk for mortality during landslides.

  5. Adjustment for smoking reduces radiation risk: fifth analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1999-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, S.; Ishida, J.; Yoshimoto, K.; Mizuno, S.; Ohshima, S.; Kasagi, F., E-mail: s_kudo@rea.or.jp [Instituto of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, 1-9-16 Kajicho, Chiyoda-ku, 101-0044 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Many cohort studies among nuclear industry workers have been carried out to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation. In those studies, confounding factors, for example, age was adjusted to exclude the effect of difference of mortality by age to estimate radiation risk. But there are few studies adjusting for smoking that is known as a strong factor which affects mortality. Radiation Effects Association (Rea) initiated a cohort study of nuclear industry workers mortality in 1990. To examine non-radiation factors confounding on the mortality risk among the radiation workers, Rea have performed life-style questionnaire surveys among the part of workers at 1997 and 2003 and found the correlation between radiation dose and smoking rate. Mortality follow-up were made on 75,442 male respondents for an average of 8.3 years during the observation period 1999-2010. Estimates of Excess Relative Risk percent (Err %) per 10 mSv were obtained by using the Poisson regression. The Err for all causes was statistically significant (1.05 (90 % CI 0.31 : 1.80)), but no longer significant after adjusting for smoking (0.45 (-0.24 : 1.13)). The Err for all cancers excluding leukemia was not significant (0.92 (-0.30 : 2.16)), but after adjusting for smoking, it decreased (0.36 (-0.79 : 1.50)). Thus smoking has a large effect to obscure a radiation risk, so adjustment for smoking is important to estimate radiation risk. (Author)

  6. Cancer risk and all-cause mortality among Norwegian military United Nations peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Leif Aage; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Borud, Einar Kristian

    2014-08-01

    Media reports of leukaemia and other cancers among European United Nations (UN) peacekeepers who served in the Balkans, and a scientific finding of excess Hodgkin lymphoma among Italian UN peacekeepers who served in Bosnia, suggested a link between cancer incidence and depleted uranium (DU) exposure. This spurred several studies on cancer risk among UN peacekeepers who served in the Balkans. Although these studies turned out to be negative, the debate about possible cancers and other health risks caused by DU exposure continues. The aim of the present study was to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 6076 (4.4% women) Norwegian military UN peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011. The cohort was followed for cancer incidence and mortality from 1999 to 2011. Standardised incidence ratios for cancer (SIR) and mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated from national rates. Sixty-nine cancer cases and 38 deaths were observed during follow-up. Cancer incidence in the cohort was similar to that in the general Norwegian population. No cancers in the overall cohort significantly exceeded incidence rates in the general Norwegian population, but there was an elevated SIR for melanoma of skin in men of 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-3.40). A fivefold increased incidence of bladder cancer was observed among men who served in Kosovo for ≥ 1 year, based on 2 excess cases (SIR=5.27; 95% CI 1.09-15.4). All-cause mortality was half the expected rate (SMR=0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.67). Our study did not support the suggestion that UN peacekeeping service in Kosovo is associated with increased cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risks from Worldwide Terrorism: Mortality and Morbidity Patterns and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T; Jones, E D

    2005-01-25

    Worldwide data on terrorist incidents between 1968 and 2004 gathered by the RAND corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) were assessed for patterns and trends in morbidity/mortality. The data involve a total of 19,828 events, 7,401 ''adverse'' events (each causing {ge}1 victim), 91,346 cases of casualty (either injury or death) and 25,408 deaths. Analyses revealed a number of interesting patterns and apparently significant trends. Most terror-related adverse events, casualties and deaths involved bombs and guns. Weapon-specific patterns and terror-related risk levels in Israel (ISR) have differed markedly from those of all other regions combined (AOR). ISR had a fatal fraction of casualties about half that of AOR, but has experienced relatively constant lifetime terror-related casualty risks on the order of 0.5%--a level 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more than those experienced in AOR, which have increased {approx}100-fold over the same period. Individual event fatality has increased steadily, the median increasing from 14 to 50%. Lorenz curves obtained indicate substantial dispersion among victim/event rates: about half of all victims were caused by the top 2% (10%) of harm-ranked events in OAR (ISR). Extreme values of victim/event rates were found to be well modeled by classic or generalized Pareto distributions, indicating that these rates have been as predictable as similarly extreme phenomena such as rainfall, sea levels, earthquakes, etc. This observation suggests that these extreme-value patterns may be used to improve strategies to prevent and manage risks associated with terror-related consequences.

  8. Mortality risk in children with epilepsy : The Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Westendorp, RGJ; Geerts, AT; Arts, WFM; Peeters, EAJ; van Donselaar, VA; Stroink, H; Brouwer, O.F.

    Objective. Long-term follow-up studies of patients with epilepsy have revealed an increased mortality risk compared with the general population. Mortality of children who have epilepsy in modern times is as yet unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine mortality of children

  9. Risk Factors for 30-Day Mortality in Patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ayau

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study identified significant risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients with MRSA BSI. Interestingly, diabetes mellitus, PVD and readmission were protective effects on 30-day mortality. There was no statistically significant variability in 30-day mortality over the 9-year study period.

  10. Firm maternal parenting associated with decreased risk of excessive snacking in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Boutelle, Kerri N; Jelalian, Elissa; Barnes, Richard; Dickstein, Susan; Wing, Rena R

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between parent feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat), general parenting behaviors (acceptance, psychological control, firm control), and aberrant child eating behaviors (emotional eating and excessive snacking) among overweight and normal weight children. Overweight and normal weight children between 8 and 12 years old and their mothers (n = 79, parent-child dyads) participated in this study. Mothers completed surveys on parent feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and child eating behaviors (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire). Children reported on their mothers' general parenting behaviors (Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory). Parent and child height and weight were measured and demographic characteristics assessed. Logistic regression models, stratified by child weight status and adjusting for parent BMI, were used to determine which parenting dimensions and feeding practices were associated with child emotional eating and snacking behavior. Overweight children displayed significantly more emotional eating and excessive snacking behavior than normal weight children. Mothers of overweight children used more restrictive feeding practices and psychological control. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with emotional eating in the overweight group (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI, 1.02, 1.56) and excessive snacking behavior in the normal weight group (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI, 1.01, 1.26). When examining general parenting, firm control was associated with decreased odds of excessive snacking in the overweight group (OR = 0.51, 95 % CI, 0.28, 0.93). Restrictive feeding practices were associated with aberrant child eating behaviors in both normal weight and overweight children. Firm general parenting however, was associated with decreased snacking behavior among overweight children. Longitudinal studies following children from infancy are needed to better understand the direction of these

  11. Firm maternal parenting associated with decreased risk of excessive snacking in overweight children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Jelalian, Elissa; Barnes, Richard; Dickstein, Susan; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between parent feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat), general parenting behaviors (acceptance, psychological control, firm control), and aberrant child eating behaviors (emotional eating and excessive snacking) among overweight and normal weight children. Methods Overweight and normal weight children between 8 and 12 years old and their mothers (n=79 parent-child dyads) participated in this study. Mothers completed surveys on parent feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and child eating behaviors (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire). Children reported on their mothers’ general parenting behaviors (Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory). Parent and child height and weight were measured and demographic characteristics assessed. Logistic regression models, stratified by child weight status and adjusting for parent BMI, were used to determine which parenting dimensions and feeding practices were associated with child emotional eating and snacking behavior. Results Overweight children displayed significantly more emotional eating and excessive snacking behavior than normal weight children. Mothers of overweight children used more restrictive feeding practices and psychological control. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with emotional eating in the overweight group (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.02, 1.56) and excessive snacking behavior in the normal weight group (OR = 1.13, 95% CI, 1.01, 1.26). When examining general parenting, firm control was associated with decreased odds of excessive snacking in the overweight group (OR=0.51, 95% CI, 0.28, 0.93). Conclusion Restrictive feeding practices were associated with aberrant child eating behaviors in both normal weight and overweight children. Firm general parenting however, was associated with decreased snacking behavior among overweight children. Longitudinal studies following children from infancy are needed to better understand

  12. Disability in young people, increases the risk of excessive Internet use?

    OpenAIRE

    Suriá Martínez, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    While the Internet has become a channel that promotes access to information and communication, its misuse and overuse can cause various personal and social problems. This work compares if there is an abusive Internet use among young people with and without disabilities. It also analyzes if the type of disability may influence the excessive Internet use. 230 young people participated (102 nondisabled and 128 disabled, 77 with motor disability and 51 with sensory disability). They answered the ...

  13. Heritability and mortality risk of insomnia-related symptoms: a genetic epidemiologic study in a population-based twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to estimate heritability in phenotypic insomnia and the association between insomnia and mortality. Representative follow-up study. 1990 survey of the Finnish Twin Cohort (N = 12502 adults; 1554 monozygotic and 2991 dizygotic twin pairs). Current insomnia-related symptoms (insomnia in general, difficulty in initiating sleep, sleep latency, nocturnal awakening, early morning awakening, and non-restorative sleep assessed in the morning and during the day) were asked. Latent class analysis was used to classify subjects into different sleep quality classes. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate heritability. Mortality data was obtained from national registers until end of April 2009. The heritability estimates of each symptom were similar in both genders varying from 34% (early morning awakening) to 45% (nocturnal awakening). The most parsimonious latent class analysis produced 3 classes: good sleepers (48%), average sleepers (up to weekly symptoms, 40%), and poor sleepers (symptoms daily or almost daily, 12%). The heritability estimate for the cluster was 46% (95% confidence interval 41% to 50%). In a model adjusted for smoking, BMI, and depressive symptoms, the all-cause mortality of poor sleepers was elevated (excess mortality 55% in men and 51% in women). Further adjustment for sleep length, use of sleep promoting medications, and sleep apnea-related symptoms did not change the results. Insomnia-related symptoms were common in both genders. The symptoms and their clusters showed moderate heritability estimates. A significant association was found between poor sleep and risk of mortality, especially in those with somatic disease.

  14. Mortality risk in a nationwide cohort of individuals with tic disorders and with tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Dalsgaard, Søren; Mortensen, Preben B

    2017-01-01

    mortality rate ratios and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, urbanicity, maternal and paternal age, and psychiatric disorders to compare individuals with and without tic disorders. RESULTS: The risk of premature death was higher among individuals with tic disorders (mortality rate ratio, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.......49-2.66) and with Tourette syndrome (mortality rate ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.11-2.28) compared with controls. After the exclusion of individuals with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse, tic disorder remained associated with increased mortality risk (mortality...

  15. Risk of Own Death and the Death of Others: An Analysis of Road-Traffic and Baseline Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, H.; Lundborg, N.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals' perception of their own road-traffic and overall mortality risks are examined in this paper. Perceived risk is compared with the objective risk of the respondents' peers, i.e. their own gender and age group, and the results suggest that individuals' risk perception of their own risk is

  16. Stochastic portfolio specific mortality and the quantification of mortality basis risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade a vast literature on stochastic mortality models has been developed. However, these models are often not directly applicable to insurance portfolios because: (a) For insurers and pension funds it is more relevant to model mortality rates measured in insured amounts instead of

  17. Excess Credit Risk and Bank’s Default Risk An Application of Default Prediction’s Models to Banks from Emerging Market Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Godlewski

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the regulatory and institutional factors which may increase excessive risk taking in banks. Few studies deal with the impact of these external factors on bank’s risk taking and probability of default, despite the fact that empirical investigation is crucial for understanding the relationship between the regulatory, legal and institutional environement and bank’s health, especially in emerging market economies. We apply a two step logit model to a da...

  18. Evolution of case-mix in heart surgery: from mortality risk to complication risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, Plinio Pinna; Colangelo, Salvatore; Bobbio, Marco

    2002-12-01

    During the last two decades despite an increase of the average preoperative mortality risk of patients referred to heart surgery a decrease of hospital mortality has been observed in many surgical institutions. The ratio between the increase of risk and the decrease of mortality could be defined as the 'risk paradox' for coronary surgery. Meanwhile an increase of the incidence of postoperative complications is leading to a longer stay in intensive care that involves a remarkable cost increase per single hospitalisation and a disproportionally long-term use of reanimation beds in those patients who survive the operation but have comorbidities complicating the postoperative course. This progressive change of the epidemiology of patients undergoing heart surgery is coupled with a progressive increase of costs. In the present review a comparison of stratification models developed to predict hospital mortality with those developed to predict prolonged stay in intensive care is discussed. Such predictions are not obviously aimed at deciding whether to operate a patient or not, but can be looked in managing high risk patients, e.g. by a daily monitoring and revision of their prognosis and relevant therapeutic choices, as well as in discussing with their relatives about whether to continue or not implacable treatments. After identifying the models, it is desirable that they are spread into professional Societies in order to sensitise field operators' awareness on the issue of proper intervention indications and on the opportunity of identifying those patients for whom an intervention is not to be advised and to whom propose medical or intervention treatments.

  19. [Evaluation of carcinogenic risk assessment of metallurgic copper production based on mortality studies and predictive risk values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russkikh, K Iu; Adrianovskiĭ, V I; Kuz'mina, E A

    2014-01-01

    Comparative evaluation covered carcinogenic jeopardy at metallurgic copper production through studies of the workers' mortality with malignancies and calculation of individual carcinogenic risks. Findings are that the individual carcinogenic risks calucations correspond to the data obtained in epidemiologic study of the mortality with malignancies and could be used for evaluation of carcinogenic jeopardy.

  20. Global Burden of Sickle Cell Anaemia in Children under Five, 2010–2050: Modelling Based on Demographics, Excess Mortality, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B.; Hay, Simon I.; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J.; Williams, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The global burden of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is set to rise as a consequence of improved survival in high-prevalence low- and middle-income countries and population migration to higher-income countries. The host of quantitative evidence documenting these changes has not been assembled at the global level. The purpose of this study is to estimate trends in the future number of newborns with SCA and the number of lives that could be saved in under-five children with SCA by the implementation of different levels of health interventions. Methods and Findings First, we calculated projected numbers of newborns with SCA for each 5-y interval between 2010 and 2050 by combining estimates of national SCA frequencies with projected demographic data. We then accounted for under-five mortality (U5m) projections and tested different levels of excess mortality for children with SCA, reflecting the benefits of implementing specific health interventions for under-five patients in 2015, to assess the number of lives that could be saved with appropriate health care services. The estimated number of newborns with SCA globally will increase from 305,800 (confidence interval [CI]: 238,400–398,800) in 2010 to 404,200 (CI: 242,500–657,600) in 2050. It is likely that Nigeria (2010: 91,000 newborns with SCA [CI: 77,900–106,100]; 2050: 140,800 [CI: 95,500–200,600]) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010: 39,700 [CI: 32,600–48,800]; 2050: 44,700 [CI: 27,100–70,500]) will remain the countries most in need of policies for the prevention and management of SCA. We predict a decrease in the annual number of newborns with SCA in India (2010: 44,400 [CI: 33,700–59,100]; 2050: 33,900 [CI: 15,900–64,700]). The implementation of basic health interventions (e.g., prenatal diagnosis, penicillin prophylaxis, and vaccination) for SCA in 2015, leading to significant reductions in excess mortality among under-five children with SCA, could, by 2050, prolong the lives of 5

  1. Global burden of sickle cell anaemia in children under five, 2010-2050: modelling based on demographics, excess mortality, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B; Hay, Simon I; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J; Williams, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is set to rise as a consequence of improved survival in high-prevalence low- and middle-income countries and population migration to higher-income countries. The host of quantitative evidence documenting these changes has not been assembled at the global level. The purpose of this study is to estimate trends in the future number of newborns with SCA and the number of lives that could be saved in under-five children with SCA by the implementation of different levels of health interventions. First, we calculated projected numbers of newborns with SCA for each 5-y interval between 2010 and 2050 by combining estimates of national SCA frequencies with projected demographic data. We then accounted for under-five mortality (U5m) projections and tested different levels of excess mortality for children with SCA, reflecting the benefits of implementing specific health interventions for under-five patients in 2015, to assess the number of lives that could be saved with appropriate health care services. The estimated number of newborns with SCA globally will increase from 305,800 (confidence interval [CI]: 238,400-398,800) in 2010 to 404,200 (CI: 242,500-657,600) in 2050. It is likely that Nigeria (2010: 91,000 newborns with SCA [CI: 77,900-106,100]; 2050: 140,800 [CI: 95,500-200,600]) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010: 39,700 [CI: 32,600-48,800]; 2050: 44,700 [CI: 27,100-70,500]) will remain the countries most in need of policies for the prevention and management of SCA. We predict a decrease in the annual number of newborns with SCA in India (2010: 44,400 [CI: 33,700-59,100]; 2050: 33,900 [CI: 15,900-64,700]). The implementation of basic health interventions (e.g., prenatal diagnosis, penicillin prophylaxis, and vaccination) for SCA in 2015, leading to significant reductions in excess mortality among under-five children with SCA, could, by 2050, prolong the lives of 5,302,900 [CI: 3,174,800-6,699,100] newborns with

  2. Global burden of sickle cell anaemia in children under five, 2010-2050: modelling based on demographics, excess mortality, and interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric B Piel

    Full Text Available The global burden of sickle cell anaemia (SCA is set to rise as a consequence of improved survival in high-prevalence low- and middle-income countries and population migration to higher-income countries. The host of quantitative evidence documenting these changes has not been assembled at the global level. The purpose of this study is to estimate trends in the future number of newborns with SCA and the number of lives that could be saved in under-five children with SCA by the implementation of different levels of health interventions.First, we calculated projected numbers of newborns with SCA for each 5-y interval between 2010 and 2050 by combining estimates of national SCA frequencies with projected demographic data. We then accounted for under-five mortality (U5m projections and tested different levels of excess mortality for children with SCA, reflecting the benefits of implementing specific health interventions for under-five patients in 2015, to assess the number of lives that could be saved with appropriate health care services. The estimated number of newborns with SCA globally will increase from 305,800 (confidence interval [CI]: 238,400-398,800 in 2010 to 404,200 (CI: 242,500-657,600 in 2050. It is likely that Nigeria (2010: 91,000 newborns with SCA [CI: 77,900-106,100]; 2050: 140,800 [CI: 95,500-200,600] and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010: 39,700 [CI: 32,600-48,800]; 2050: 44,700 [CI: 27,100-70,500] will remain the countries most in need of policies for the prevention and management of SCA. We predict a decrease in the annual number of newborns with SCA in India (2010: 44,400 [CI: 33,700-59,100]; 2050: 33,900 [CI: 15,900-64,700]. The implementation of basic health interventions (e.g., prenatal diagnosis, penicillin prophylaxis, and vaccination for SCA in 2015, leading to significant reductions in excess mortality among under-five children with SCA, could, by 2050, prolong the lives of 5,302,900 [CI: 3

  3. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2005-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  4. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  5. Simple risk stratification at admission to identify patients with reduced mortality from primary angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Hoefsten, Dan Eik; Lindholm, Matias Greve

    2005-01-01

    a patient group with reduced mortality from an invasive strategy would be important for early triage. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score is a simple validated integer score that makes it possible to identify high-risk patients on admission to hospital. We hypothesized that a high...... necessary for calculating the TIMI risk score as low risk (TIMI risk score, 0 to 4) or high risk (TIMI risk score > or =5) and investigated the effect of primary angioplasty versus fibrinolysis on mortality and morbidity in the 2 groups. Follow-up was 3 years. We classified 1134 patients as low risk and 393...... with primary angioplasty (25.3% versus 36.2%; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Risk stratification at admission based on the TIMI risk score identifies a group of high-risk patients who have a significantly reduced mortality with an invasive strategy of primary angioplasty....

  6. Insulin sensitivity and mortality risk estimation in patients with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is at present the dearth of information on the possible contribution of insulin resistance to scores obtained from mortality risk estimation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aim: This study determined the mortality risk scores in patients with T2DM and its relationship with insulin resistance.

  7. Risk factors and mortality rate of severely asphyxiated neonates in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors and mortality rate of severely asphyxiated neonates in a tertiary centre in north-central Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2013) > ... Aim: The study was carried out to determine the maternal and foetal risk factors for the occurrence of severe birth asphyxia and the mortality rate of babies affected with this ...

  8. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H Marike; Schouten, Jan P; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vonk, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and

  9. Well shaped ST segment and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Schouten (Evert); J. Pool (Jan); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To investigate the prognostic value of frequently occurring slight variations in the ST segment for cardiovascular mortality in healthy subjects. DESIGN--Follow up study of mortality in relation to variations in ST segment level in a cohort over the 28 years from 1953 to 1981.

  10. Community Level Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous work in this area uses individual or cross-country data to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community level is imperative because this is the level at which most policy is implemented. The results show that longer travel time from the community to the hospital leads to a high level ...

  11. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.

  12. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Kripke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA. Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills. This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics’ mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia.

  13. Diabetes mortality in Panama and related biological and socioeconomic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Jorge A; Ortega-Paz, Luis G; Gordón, Carlos A; Gómez, Beatriz; Castillo, Eva; Herrera Ballesteros, Víctor; Pereira, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    To estimate mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) for the period 2001-2011 in the Republic of Panama, by province/indigenous territory, and determine its relationship with biological and socioeconomic risk factors. Cases for the years 2001-2011 with DM listed as the principal cause of death were selected from Panama's National Mortality Registry. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were generated by sex, age, and geographic area. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between DM mortality and biological and socioeconomic risk factors. A composite health index (CHI) calculated from biological and socioeconomic risk factors was estimated for each province/indigenous territory in Panama. DM mortality rates did not increase for men or women during 2001-2011. Of the biological risk factors, being overweight had the strongest association with DM mortality. Of the socioeconomic risk factors, earning less than US$ 100 per month had the strongest association with DM mortality. The highest socioeconomic CHI scores were found in a province that is predominantly rural and in areas with indigenous populations. The highest biological CHI scores were found in urban-rural provinces and those with the highest percentage of elderly people. Regional disparities in the association between DM mortality and DM risk factors reaffirm the heterogeneous composition of the Panamanian population and the uneven distribution of biological and social determinant risk factors in the country and point to the need to vary management strategies by geographic area for this important cause of disability and death in Panama.

  14. Joint Effect of Hypertension and Elevated Serum Phosphorus on the Risk of Mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vart, Priya; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Jaglan, Ajay; van Zon, Sander K R; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-05-20

    Elevated serum phosphorus might aggravate the effect of hypertension on mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of hypertension and serum phosphorus on the risk of mortality. A large prospective (n=15 833), population-based cohort of participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III was examined to test potential synergism between hypertension, elevated serum phosphorus, and the risk of mortality. Interaction on additive scale and multiplicative scale was estimated. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 1691 cases of cardiovascular mortality and 3875 cases of all-cause mortality were identified. Interaction was observed between hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus on the additive scale for cardiovascular mortality (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.99, 95% CI: 0.06; 1.92, adjusted for age, gender, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). No statistically significant interaction was found between hypertension and serum phosphorus for all-cause mortality on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants who died in first 2 years and adjustment for additional confounders resulted in essentially similar findings. The joint effect of hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus was larger than the sum of the independent effects on cardiovascular mortality but not on all-cause mortality. Future studies should investigate whether controlling elevated serum phosphorus in hypertensive individuals helps in prevention of extra risk of cardiovascular mortality. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Department of Pediatric Surgery, Aseer Central Hospital', Abha, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: taam .... Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula and early postoperative mortality - T. A.Al-Malki et al further supported by the presence .... nal (e.g. premature rupture of membranes) or neonatal fac- tors (e.g. impaired host ...

  16. The contributions of risk factor trends to cardiometabolic mortality decline in 26 industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bennett, James E; Best, Nicky; Stevens, Gretchen A; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality has declined and diabetes mortality has increased in high-income countries. We estimated the potential role of trends in population body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and smoking in cardiometabolic mortality decline in 26 industrialized countries. Mortality data were from national vital statistics. Body mass index, systolic blood pressure and serum total cholesterol were from a systematic analysis of population-based data. We estimated the associations between change in cardiometabolic mortality and changes in risk factors, adjusted for change in per-capita gross domestic product. We calculated the potential contribution of risk factor trends to mortality decline. Between 1980 and 2009, age-standardized cardiometabolic mortality declined in all 26 countries, with the annual decline between Mexico to ≈ 5% in Australia. Across the 26 countries together, risk factor trends may have accounted for ≈ 48% (men) and ≈ 40% (women) of cardiometabolic mortality decline. Risk factor trends may have accounted for >60% of decline among men and women in Finland and Switzerland, men in New Zealand and France, and women in Italy; their benefits were smallest in Mexican, Portuguese, and Japanese men and Mexican women. Risk factor trends may have slowed down mortality decline in Chilean men and women and had virtually no effect in Argentinean women. The contributions of risk factors to mortality decline seemed substantially larger among men than among women in the USA, Canada and The Netherlands. Industrialized countries have varied widely in the extent of risk factor prevention, and its likely benefits for cardiometabolic mortality.

  17. Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk taking behaviour in travellers to Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, Cusco were more likely to seek medical attention, change itinerary, and report decreased satisfaction with the trip experience. In the multivariate analysis, inebriation was independently associated with reporting higher numbers of unsafe food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting the cumulative risk of death during hospitalization by modeling weekend, weekday and diurnal mortality risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico; Wang, Ying; Magrabi, Farah; Concha, Oscar Perez; Gallego, Blanca; Runciman, William

    2014-05-21

    Current prognostic models factor in patient and disease specific variables but do not consider cumulative risks of hospitalization over time. We developed risk models of the likelihood of death associated with cumulative exposure to hospitalization, based on time-varying risks of hospitalization over any given day, as well as day of the week. Model performance was evaluated alone, and in combination with simple disease-specific models. Patients admitted between 2000 and 2006 from 501 public and private hospitals in NSW, Australia were used for training and 2007 data for evaluation. The impact of hospital care delivered over different days of the week and or times of the day was modeled by separating hospitalization risk into 21 separate time periods (morning, day, night across the days of the week). Three models were developed to predict death up to 7-days post-discharge: 1/a simple background risk model using age, gender; 2/a time-varying risk model for exposure to hospitalization (admission time, days in hospital); 3/disease specific models (Charlson co-morbidity index, DRG). Combining these three generated a full model. Models were evaluated by accuracy, AUC, Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. There was a clear diurnal rhythm to hospital mortality in the data set, peaking in the evening, as well as the well-known 'weekend-effect' where mortality peaks with weekend admissions. Individual models had modest performance on the test data set (AUC 0.71, 0.79 and 0.79 respectively). The combined model which included time-varying risk however yielded an average AUC of 0.92. This model performed best for stays up to 7-days (93% of admissions), peaking at days 3 to 5 (AUC 0.94). Risks of hospitalization vary not just with the day of the week but also time of the day, and can be used to make predictions about the cumulative risk of death associated with an individual's hospitalization. Combining disease specific models with such time varying- estimates appears to

  19. Relationships between body mass index, cardiovascular mortality, and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudina, Alexandra; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bacquer, Dirk De

    2011-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity.......Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity....

  20. Neonatal Mortality and Perinatal Risk Factors in Rural Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULTS: There were 972 live births and 64 infant deaths giving an infant mortality rate of 65.8 per 1000. Neonatal deaths accounted for a half of all infant deaths (N=32) giving a neonatal mortality rate of 32.9 per 1000. Twelve (37.5%) of neonatal deaths occurred on the first day of life; half of all neonatal deaths occurred ...

  1. Survived infancy but still vulnerable: spatial-temporal trends and risk factors for child mortality in the Agincourt rural sub-district, South Africa, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tollman, Stephen M

    2011-05-01

    Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for enhancing equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years) mortality in the Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, to assess temporal changes in child mortality patterns within the study site between 1992 and 2007, and to produce all-cause and cause-specific mortality maps to identify high risk areas. Demographic, maternal, paternal and fertility-related factors, household mortality experience, distance to health care facility and socio-economic status were among the examined risk factors. The analysis was carried out by fitting a Bayesian discrete time Bernoulli survival geostatistical model using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Bayesian kriging was used to produce mortality risk maps. Significant temporal increase in child mortality was observed due to the HIV epidemic. A distinct spatial risk pattern was observed with higher risk areas being concentrated in poorer settlements on the eastern part of the study area, largely inhabited by former Mozambican refugees. The major risk factors for childhood mortality, following multivariate adjustment, were mother's death (especially when due to HIV and tuberculosis), greater number of children under 5 years living in the same household and winter season. This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for accurately quantifying risk factors and producing maps of child mortality risk in a health and demographic surveillance system. According to the space-time analysis, the southeast and upper central regions of the site appear to have the highest mortality risk. The results inform policies to address health inequalities in the Agincourt sub-district and to improve access to

  2. Survived infancy but still vulnerable: spatial-temporal trends and risk factors for child mortality in the Agincourt rural sub-district, South Africa, 1992-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn Sartorius

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for enhancing equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years mortality in the Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, to assess temporal changes in child mortality patterns within the study site between 1992 and 2007, and to produce all-cause and cause-specific mortality maps to identify high risk areas. Demographic, maternal, paternal and fertility-related factors, household mortality experience, distance to health care facility and socio-economic status were among the examined risk factors. The analysis was carried out by fitting a Bayesian discrete time Bernoulli survival geostatistical model using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Bayesian kriging was used to produce mortality risk maps. Significant temporal increase in child mortality was observed due to the HIV epidemic. A distinct spatial risk pattern was observed with higher risk areas being concentrated in poorer settlements on the eastern part of the study area, largely inhabited by former Mozambican refugees. The major risk factors for childhood mortality, following multivariate adjustment, were mother’s death (especially when due to HIV and tuberculosis, greater number of children under 5 years living in the same household and winter season. This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for accurately quantifying risk factors and producing maps of child mortality risk in a health and demographic surveillance system. According to the space-time analysis, the southeast and upper central regions of the site appear to have the highest mortality risk. The results inform policies to address health inequalities in the Agincourt sub-district and to

  3. Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Supermarket Distance Is Associated with Excess Obesity Risk: A UK Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Burgoine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available U.S. policy initiatives have sought to improve health through attracting neighborhood supermarket investment. Little evidence exists to suggest that these policies will be effective, in particular where there are socioeconomic barriers to healthy eating. We measured the independent associations and combined interplay of supermarket access and socioeconomic status with obesity. Using data on 9702 UK adults, we employed adjusted regression analyses to estimate measured BMI (kg/m2, overweight (25 ≥ BMI < 30 and obesity (≥30, across participants’ highest educational attainment (three groups and tertiles of street network distance (km from home location to nearest supermarket. Jointly-classified models estimated combined associations of education and supermarket distance, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI. Participants farthest away from their nearest supermarket had higher odds of obesity (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58, relative to those living closest. Lower education was also associated with higher odds of obesity. Those least-educated and living farthest away had 3.39 (2.46–4.65 times the odds of being obese, compared to those highest-educated and living closest, with an excess obesity risk (RERI = 0.09; results were similar for overweight. Our results suggest that public health can be improved through planning better access to supermarkets, in combination with interventions to address socioeconomic barriers.

  4. Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Supermarket Distance Is Associated with Excess Obesity Risk: A UK Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-10-25

    U.S. policy initiatives have sought to improve health through attracting neighborhood supermarket investment. Little evidence exists to suggest that these policies will be effective, in particular where there are socioeconomic barriers to healthy eating. We measured the independent associations and combined interplay of supermarket access and socioeconomic status with obesity. Using data on 9702 UK adults, we employed adjusted regression analyses to estimate measured BMI (kg/m²), overweight (25 ≥ BMI supermarket. Jointly-classified models estimated combined associations of education and supermarket distance, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Participants farthest away from their nearest supermarket had higher odds of obesity (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), relative to those living closest. Lower education was also associated with higher odds of obesity. Those least-educated and living farthest away had 3.39 (2.46-4.65) times the odds of being obese, compared to those highest-educated and living closest, with an excess obesity risk (RERI = 0.09); results were similar for overweight. Our results suggest that public health can be improved through planning better access to supermarkets, in combination with interventions to address socioeconomic barriers.

  5. The excess risk of major osteoporotic fractures in hypothyroidism is driven by cumulative hyperthyroid as opposed to hypothyroid time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Laulund, Anne Sofie

    2015-01-01

     = 222,138; comparator). We used a Cox proportional hazards analysis incorporating additional time-dependent covariates to represent initiation of thyroxine replacement and cumulative number of periods with high versus low TSH after index date with a mean follow-up of 7.2 years. Elevated baseline TSH...... thyroxine dosing-was significantly associated with increased risk of both hip fracture (HR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.15) and major osteoporotic fracture (HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14). When gender- and age-stratified analyses for major osteoporotic fractures were undertaken, hyperthyroid time was identified......The long-term relationship between hypothyroidism and fracture risk is challenging to dissect because of the modifying influence of subsequent thyroxine replacement with the potential for excessive replacement doses. We studied changes in serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) over time...

  6. Climatic risks and impacts in South Asia: extremes of water scarcity and excess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Kira; Martin, Maria A.; Adams, Sophie; Schaeffer, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of climatic risks and impacts in South Asia associated with anthropogenic warming levels of 1.5–4 °C above pre-industrial values in the twenty-first century. It is based on the World Bank Report “Turn Down the Heat, Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts and the

  7. Measuring risk perceptions : What does the excessive use of 50% mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruine de Bruin, W.; Carman, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives . Risk perceptions are central to good health decisions. People can judge valid probabilities but use 50% disproportionately. The authors hypothesized that 50% is more likely than other responses to reflect not knowing the probability, especially among individuals with low education and

  8. Climatic risks and impacts in South Asia : extremes of water scarcity and excess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Kira; Martin, Maria A.; Adams, Sophie; Baarsch, Florent; Bondeau, Alberte; Coumou, Dim; Donner, Reik V.; Menon, Arathy; Perrette, Mahé; Rehfeld, Kira; Robinson, Alexander; Rocha, Marcia; Schaeffer, Michiel; Schwan, Susanne; Serdeczny, Olivia; Svirejeva-Hopkins, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of climatic risks and impacts in South Asia associated with anthropogenic warming levels of 1.5–4 °C above pre-industrial values in the twenty-first century. It is based on the World Bank Report “Turn Down the Heat, Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts and the

  9. Rivalry, solidarity, and longevity among siblings: A life course approach to the impact of sibship composition and birth order on later life mortality risk, Antwerp (1846-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Donrovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family composition and household dynamics, both in early and in later life, influence individual health and longevity. Both positive and negative effects can be expected in terms of sibling size and composition. On one hand, siblings compete with each other, which may lead to resource dilution and increased adult mortality risks. On the other hand, siblings protect and care for each other, which may have a positive impact on longevity. Objective: To investigate the way in which sibling composition (with respect to sibship size, sex, and birth order in the family of orientation and the proximity of siblings in later life relates to adult mortality risks at ages 50+. Methods: Life courses of 258 men and 275 women from the Antwerp COR*-database were 'reconstructed' and analyzed by way of event history analysis using Gompertz shared frailty models. Results: Being higher in birth order related to significantly higher mortality risk after age 50 for men. Having older brothers, particularly those present in later life, was associated with very high excess mortality risk for both sexes, though men were more strongly disadvantaged. Having (more younger sisters present at RP (research person age 50 was related to significantly lower relative mortality risk for women. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the complex relationships between sibling and gender dynamics and mortality risk in later life. Evidence of a lasting impact of sibling competition on mortality risk over age 50 is found; and competition is only replaced by solidarity in critical times (e.g., widowhood, wherein older sibling presence dissimilarly impacts different social groups.

  10. An assessment of health risks and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke in Chinese restaurants and bars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiling Liu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Smoking is generally not regulated in restaurants or bars in China, or the restrictions are not fully implemented if there are any, while the related hazard health effects are not recognized by the majority of the Chinese population. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the excess health risks and mortality attributed to secondhand smoke (SHS exposure in restaurants and bars for both servers and patrons to provide necessary evidence for advancing tobacco control in this microenvironment. METHODS: Two approaches were used for the assessment. One is a continuous approach based on existing field measurements and Repace and Lowrey's dose-response model, and the other is a categorical approach based on exposure or not and epidemiological studies. RESULTS: Based on the continuous approach, servers were estimated to have a lifetime excess risk (LER of lung cancer death (LCD of 730 to 1,831×10(-6 for working five days a week for 45 years in smoking restaurants and 1,862 to 8,136×10(-6 in smoking bars, and patrons could have a LER of LCD of 47 to 117×10(-6 due to visiting smoking restaurants for an average of 13 minutes a day for 60 years, and 119 to 522×10(-6 due to visiting smoking bars. The categorical approach estimated that SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone caused 84 LCD and 57 ischemic heart disease (IHD deaths among nonsmoking servers and 1,2419 LCDs and 1,689 IHD deaths among the nonsmoking patron population. CONCLUSIONS: SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone can impose high lifetime excess risks of lung cancer death and ischemic heart disease deaths to both servers and patrons, and can cause a significant number of deaths each year in China. These health risks and deaths can be prevented by banning smoking in restaurants and bars and effectively implementing these smoking bans.

  11. Risk factors associated with spatio-temporal clusters of high mortality in Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Ersbøll, Annette; Bihrmann, Kristine

    What were our motivation and objective? Mortality data are recorded to fulfill the European Commission requirements which ensures a continuous data flow for a surveillance system. Before using these data as part of a syndromic surveillance system, it is necessary to understand why increasing...... changes in mortality happen. The aim of this study was to identify spatio-temporal clusters of high mortality in Danish swine herds and associated risk factors....

  12. Heterogeneity in Trajectories of Depression in Response to Divorce is Associated with Differential Risk for Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgaroli, Matteo; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bonanno, George A

    2017-09-01

    Divorce is a common stressful event associated with both increased rates of depression and mortality. Given evidence of significant individual differences in depression following major life stressors, we examined if heterogeneous depression responses confer differential risk for mortality. Data from a population based longitudinal study was utilized to identify individuals who experienced divorce (n=559). Prospective trajectories of depression severity from before to after divorce were identified using latent growth mixture modeling, and rates of mortality between trajectories were compared as a distal outcome. Four trajectories demonstrated strongest model fit: resilience (67%), emergent depression (10%), chronic pre-to-post divorce depression (12%), and decreasing depression (11%). Mortality base rate was 9.7% by 6 years post-event, and depression that emerged due to divorce was associated with significantly greater mortality risk compared to resilient (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.05-5.81) and to married individuals, while chronic depression was not associated with greater risk.

  13. Understanding the impact of mortality-related health-risk information: a terror management theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Donna C; Albery, Ian P; Rutter, Jean; Garrod, Heather

    2008-07-01

    Four studies explored the effects of providing mortality-related health-risk information from a terror management theory perspective. Study 1 (N = 48) revealed that exposure to information about the mortality-related risks of driving made mortality salient for young male drivers. Studies 2 (N = 60) and 3 (N = 139) demonstrated that young male drivers who perceived driving (fast) to be beneficial for self-esteem reported higher intentions to take driving risks (Study 2) and drive fast (Study 3) after exposure to such information compared to controls. Study 3 further demonstrated that the inclusion of a prime to behave responsibly eliminated this effect. Study 4 (N = 92) revealed that exposure to this prime alongside the mortality-related information generated increased accessibility of responsibility-related constructs and reduced accessibility of mortality-related constructs among young male drivers. The implications of these findings for terror management theory are discussed.

  14. Are women who quit smoking at high risk of excess weight gain throughout pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Hulman, Adam; Lutsiv, Olha; Park, Christina K; Krebs, Lynette; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Sarah D

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation has been reported to be associated with high total gestational weight gain (GWG), which itself is a risk factor for adverse maternal-infant outcomes. Recent studies have criticized conventional single measures of GWG, since they may lead to biased results. Therefore, we aimed to compare patterns of GWG based on serial antenatal weight measurements between women who: never smoked, quit during pregnancy, continued to smoke. Methods Participants (N?=?509) of our long...

  15. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

  16. Individual testosterone decline and future mortality risk in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine Agergaard; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male aging is characterized by a decline in testosterone (T) levels with a substantial variability between subjects. However, it is unclear whether differences in age-related changes in T are associated with general health. We investigated associations between mortality and intra-individual......-up examination ten years later (MONICA10) were included. From MONICA10 the men were followed up to 18 years (mean: 15.2 years) in national mortality registries via their unique personal ID number. METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the association between intra-individual hormone...

  17. Assessment of excess lifetime cancer risk from gamma radiation levels in Effurun and Warri city of Delta state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbalagba O. Ezekiel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of the terrestrial BIR levels to estimate the excess lifetime cancer risk in Warri city has been carried out, using a Digilert 100 nuclear radiation monitor and a geographical positioning system (GPS for GIS mapping. Monitoring of the terrestrial BIR levels was carried out between May 2014 and June 2015, and the city was delineated into eight zones. The measured average exposure rates ranged from 0.006 mRh−1 (0.51 mSvy−1 to 0.029 mRh−1 (2.49 mSvy−1 with an overall mean value of 0.016 ± 0.006 mRh−1 (1.37 ± 0.47 mSvy−1. The estimated mean outdoor absorbed dose rate for each zone ranged from 121.90 ± 25.32 nGyh−1 in the Ajamogha zone to 190.16 ± 51.60 nGyh−1 in the industrial zone, with a mean value of 141.30 ± 31.31 nGyh−1. The mean annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE calculated was 0.17 ± 0.04 mSvy−1, while the mean excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR was (0.61 ± 0.14 × 10−3 mSvy−1. The calculated dose to organs showed that the testes have the highest organ dose of 0.11 mSvy−1, while the liver has the lowest organ dose of 0.06 mSvy−1. The GIS maps of the study area revealed that exposure levels at 64 of the 94 sampling locations (68.1% exceeded the world ambient standard levels of 0.013 mRh−1 (1.0 mSvy−1. recommended by UNSCEAR; these values are higher than the values reported in the literature. However, these values may not constitute any immediate health risk to the residents of Warri city. The calculated excess lifetime cancer risk values indicate that the chance of contracting cancer for residents of the study area is low and at the effective dose from the present exposure rate to the adult organs investigated is insignificant.

  18. Process monitoring in intensive care with the use of cumulative expected minus observed mortality and risk-adjusted P charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockings, Jerome G L; Cook, David A; Iqbal, Rehana K

    2006-02-01

    A health care system is a complex adaptive system. The effect of a single intervention, incorporated into a complex clinical environment, may be different from that expected. A national database such as the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme in the UK represents a centralised monitoring, surveillance and reporting system for retrospective quality and comparative audit. This can be supplemented with real-time process monitoring at a local level for continuous process improvement, allowing early detection of the impact of both unplanned and deliberately imposed changes in the clinical environment. Demographic and UK Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) data were prospectively collected on all patients admitted to a UK regional hospital between 1 January 2003 and 30 June 2004 in accordance with the ICNARC Case Mix Programme. We present a cumulative expected minus observed (E-O) plot and the risk-adjusted p chart as methods of continuous process monitoring. We describe the construction and interpretation of these charts and show how they can be used to detect planned or unplanned organisational process changes affecting mortality outcomes. Five hundred and eighty-nine adult patients were included. The overall death rate was 0.78 of predicted. Calibration showed excess survival in ranges above 30% risk of death. The E-O plot confirmed a survival above that predicted. Small transient variations were seen in the slope that could represent random effects, or real but transient changes in the quality of care. The risk-adjusted p chart showed several observations below the 2 SD control limits of the expected mortality rate. These plots provide rapid analysis of risk-adjusted performance suitable for local application and interpretation. The E-O chart provided rapid easily visible feedback of changes in risk-adjusted mortality, while the risk-adjusted p chart allowed statistical evaluation. Local analysis of

  19. Association between unintentional injury during pregnancy and excess risk of preterm birth and its neonatal sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Basso, Olga; Kramer, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    The sequelae of preterm births may differ, depending on whether birth follows an acute event or a chronic condition. In a population-based cohort study of 2,711,645 Canadian hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2012, 3,059 women experienced unintentional injury during pregnancy. We assessed the impact of the acute event on pregnancy outcome and on neonatal complications, such as nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, intubation, and death. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, pregnancy conditions, and (for neonates) gestational age in logistic regression analyses. Injury was significantly associated with fetal mortality and early preterm delivery. For preterm infants born to injured women during the hospitalization for injury versus those born to noninjured women, the adjusted odds ratios were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.17) for neonatal death, 2.44 (95% CI: 1.76, 3.37) for respiratory distress, 2.20 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.84) for nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.60, 2.96) for intubation, despite more favorable fetal growth in those born to noninjured women (adjusted birth-weight-for-gestational-age z score: 0.154 vs. 0.024, P = 0.041; small-for-gestational-age rate: 4.5% vs. 9.5%, P = 0.001). Our findings suggest that adaptation to the suboptimal intrauterine environment underlying chronic causes of preterm birth may protect preterm infants from adverse sequelae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Frequency of nut consumption and mortality risk in the PREDIMED nutrition intervention trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies in non-Mediterranean populations have consistently related increasing nut consumption to lower coronary heart disease mortality. A small protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality has also been suggested. To examine the association between frequency of nut consumption and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a Mediterranean country with a relatively high average nut intake per person. Methods We evaluated 7,216 men and women aged 55 to 80 years randomized to 1 of 3 interventions (Mediterranean diets supplemented with nuts or olive oil and control diet) in the PREDIMED (‘PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea’) study. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and mortality was ascertained by medical records and linkage to the National Death Index. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression and multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the association between yearly repeated measurements of nut consumption and mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths and 130 cancer deaths occurred. Nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (P for trend 3 servings/week (32% of the cohort) had a 39% lower mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.61; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.83). A similar protective effect against cardiovascular and cancer mortality was observed. Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet with nuts group who consumed nuts >3 servings/week at baseline had the lowest total mortality risk (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.66). Conclusions Increased frequency of nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/165. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN

  1. Mortality risk factors among HIV-exposed infants in rural and urban Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, Ragna S.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Orock, Sammy Oben; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Hartdorff, Caroline M.; Bakia, Affuenti; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2015-01-01

    HIV-exposed infants, including those who do not become infected, have higher morbidity and mortality rates than HIV unexposed infants. The underlying mechanisms of this difference are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for mortality among HIV-exposed

  2. Risk Factors Related to Hospital Mortality in Kenyan Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors which influence mortality of patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (ICH). Methods: Following ethical approval, the records of patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical unit between January 2000 and December 2009 and who ...

  3. Alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and risk of infant mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønboek, Morten; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    The safety of small amounts of alcohol drinking and occasional binge-level drinking during pregnancy remains unsettled. We examined the association of maternal average alcohol intake and binge drinking (>or=5 drinks per sitting) with infant mortality, both in the neonatal and postneonatal period....

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in children with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence of CVRFs in children with CKD and their association with mortality in children on chronic dialysis. Methods. This comparative cross-sectional study recruited children aged 5 - 18 years with all stages of CKD. All patients had a short history taken along with a physical examination, and their blood ...

  5. Gendered risk factors associated with self-harm mortality among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this reason, uniform approaches to awareness campaigns need to be altered to address the specific needs of youth. While males have higher rates than females, the prevalence of self-harm mortality in pregnant females is of concern and needs to be addressed specifically, as it relates not only to suicidal ideation and ...

  6. risk indicators of morbidity and mortality in abdominal injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-11

    Dec 11, 2006 ... Conclusion: The greatest determinants of morbidity and mortality in abdominal injuries are the degree of injury and the physiological state of patient at admission. The rest of the indicators are interplays of these two factors. INTRODUCTION. Trauma remains a leading cause of surgical admission the world ...

  7. Effects of coconut oil consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Flávia Xavier; Cândido, Flávia Galvão; Lopes, Lílian Lelis; Dias, Desirrê Morais; Carvalho, Samantha Dalbosco Lins; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Bressan, Josefina

    2017-04-12

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a medium-chain fatty acid source with popularly attributed benefits on obesity management. However, its role on obesity requires elucidation due to its saturated nature. In the study herein, we investigated acute effects of VCO consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat. Fifteen adult women with excess body fat (37.43 ± 0.83%) participated in this randomized, crossover, controlled study. Two isocaloric mixed breakfasts containing 25 mL of VCO or control (extra-virgin olive oil-C) were evaluated. Resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation rate (FOR), diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) and appetitive subjective responses were assessed at fasting and postprandial periods (up to 240 min). Cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed at fasting and up to 180 min postprandially. VCO did not affect REE, FOR, and DIT compared to C. In addition, VCO did not cause deleterious change in triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides/HDL-c ratio, uric acid, glucose and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR) (P time×treatment  > 0.05). However, VCO suppressed less hunger (P time×treatment  = 0.003), total satiety (P iAUC  = 0.021) and total fullness (P iAUC  = 0.035) responses than C. VCO consumption did not acutely change energy metabolism and cardiometabolic risk markers when added to a mixed breakfast but promoted less appetitive responses.

  8. [Mortality risks of migrants: Analysis of the healthy-migrant-effect after the 2011 German Census].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Martin

    2015-06-01

    In Germany there are 16 million people with a migration background, one in five of the total population. There are relatively few migrant mortality studies in Germany, which is primarily due to the restricted quantity and quality of existing data. The official migrant death statistics for Germany suffer from incomplete migrant population stock data due to non-registered remigration events. After the German census in 2011 especially the migrant stock data was adjusted downwards, and therefore realistic estimates of the migrant mortality risk and the healthy-migrant-effect are possible. Between 2010 and 2013 mortality risks of foreigners rose strongly due to the census corrections of the migrant population. However, the risks for adults and pensioners still lie below the risks for Germans in the same age groups. The lower risks indicate a healthy-migrant-effect, whicht was primarily effective shortly after the immigration event. Analysis based on data from the Statutory Pension Insurance (GRV) shows higher migrant mortality risks in the age group from 65 to 84. In that age group there are supposedly a lot of people, who immigrated to Germany in the context of the guest worker recruitment in the 1950s to 1970s and who had hard working conditions in their lifetimes. Their mortality risk, therefore, increased in the long-term perspective. In the future the lack of data in the migrant population will again rise due to unregistered remigration. Alternative databases need to be used for migrant mortality analyses.

  9. Normal weight adiposity in a Swedish population: how well is cardiovascular risk associated with excess body fat captured by BMI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Mehlig, Kirsten; Subramoney, Sreevidya; Lissner, Lauren; Björck, Lena

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how well body mass index (BMI) reflects cardiovascular risk associated with excess adiposity in a Swedish population by examining the association between body fat, BMI and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 3,010 adults participated. Normal weight adiposity was defined as the combination of BMI adiposity, while a wide range of body fat was observed among the normal weight subjects. In total, 9% of the participants were categorised as normal weight with adiposity. Compared with the normal weight leanness group, participants with normal weight adiposity had higher levels of serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, apolipoptotein B and the apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio. In normal weight men, adiposity was also associated with higher blood pressure and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Higher percentage of body fat was associated with less favourable risk factor profile even in subjects who were normal weight. Thus, it might be relevant to screen for metabolic risk factors in the upper end of the normal weight category.

  10. Increased risk of mortality in Alzheimer's disease patients with higher education? A replication study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M. I.; Deeg, D. J.; Schmand, B.; Lindeboom, J.; Jonker, C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to replicate findings from an earlier study by Stern et al. of an increased risk of mortality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with higher levels of education and to compare this risk with the risk of death in the elderly population. As part of a community-based

  11. Patients with chronic gastrointestinal ischemia have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sana (Aria); D. van Noord (Désirée); P.B.F. Mensink (Peter); S. Kooij (Stephanie); K. van Dijk (Kim); B. Bravenboer (Bert); A. Lieverse (Aloysius); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); J.G. Langendonk (Janneke); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: We determined the prevalence of classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and mortality risk in patients with CGI. Methods: A case-control study was conducted. Patients referred with suspected CGI underwent a standard work-up including risk factors for atherosclerosis,

  12. Mortality risk in a nationwide cohort of individuals with tic disorders and with tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra M; Dalsgaard, Søren; Mortensen, Preben B; Leckman, James F; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated mortality risk in individuals with tic disorders. We thus measured the risk of premature death in individuals with tic disorders and with Tourette syndrome in a prospective cohort study with 80 million person-years of follow-up. We estimated mortality rate ratios and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, urbanicity, maternal and paternal age, and psychiatric disorders to compare individuals with and without tic disorders. The risk of premature death was higher among individuals with tic disorders (mortality rate ratio, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.49-2.66) and with Tourette syndrome (mortality rate ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.11-2.28) compared with controls. After the exclusion of individuals with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse, tic disorder remained associated with increased mortality risk (mortality rate ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.57-3.23), as did also Tourette Syndrome (mortality rate ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.11-2.75). These results are of clinical significance for clinicians and advocacy organizations. Several factors may contribute to this increased risk of premature death, and more research mapping out these factors is needed. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Variability modifies life satisfaction's association with mortality risk in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Winning, Ashley; Segerstrom, Suzanne; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction is associated with greater longevity, but its variability across time has not been examined relative to longevity. We investigated whether mean levels of life satisfaction across time, variability in life satisfaction across time, and their interaction were associated with mortality over 9 years of follow-up. Participants were 4,458 Australians initially ≥50 years old. During the follow-up, 546 people died. Adjusting for age, greater mean life satisfaction was associated with reduced risk and greater variability in life satisfaction was associated with increased risk of mortality. These findings were qualified by a significant interaction such that individuals with low mean satisfaction and high variability in satisfaction had the greatest risk of mortality over the follow-up period. In combination with mean levels of life satisfaction, variability in life satisfaction is relevant for mortality risk among older adults. Considering intraindividual variability provides additional insight into associations between psychological characteristics and health. PMID:26048888

  14. Mortality risk amongst nursing home residents evacuated after the Fukushima nuclear accident: a retrospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kami, Masahiro; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    ...; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees...

  15. Liver resection morbidity, mortality, and risk factors at the departments of hepatobiliary surgery in Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martínez-Mier

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The main risk factors associated with the morbidity and mortality of liver resection in our population were those related to the preoperative biochemical parameters of the patient and the factors that occurred during the surgical act.

  16. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index Independently Predicts Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcers Patients Undergoing Amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hailing; Ye, Tingting; Ge, Shengjie; Zhuo, Ruyi; Zhu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Patients with diabetic foot ulcers undergoing amputations have poor prognosis. Malnutrition usually occurs in this population and is associated with increased risk of mortality. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) is a widely used, simple, and well-established tool to assess nutritional risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between GNRI and all-cause mortality in diabetic foot ulcers patients undergoing minor or major amputations. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study including 271 adult patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to a GNRI cutoff value of 92, and characteristics and mortality were compared between the two groups. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to explore the association between GNRI and mortality. Result. GNRI (p risk factors. Conclusion. GNRI on admission might be a novel clinical predictor for the incidence of death in patients with diabetic foot ulcers who were undergoing amputations.

  17. Risk factors affecting morbidity and mortality following emergency laparotomy for small bowel obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Kehlet Watt, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONS: To identify risk factors for increased 30-day morbidity and mortality, using standardized measuring tools for the characterization of complications after emergency surgery for small bowel obstruction. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including patients treated with emergency...... were identified as independent risk factors associated with morbidity by multiple logistic regression analysis. The highest odds for morbidity were seen in patients with chronic nephropathy (Odds Ratio [OR] = 3.9; 95% CI 1.3-15.1), and in patients with a daily use of steroids (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.......2-10.4). Five independent risk factors were associated with increased odds for mortality. Patients with low physical performance (OR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-8.2) or metabolic disorders (OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.5) had the highest risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity and mortality rates were high in this study...

  18. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Villaescusa, J I [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avda Campanar, 21 46009 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Salas, M D [Public Health General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain); Cuevas, M D [Assistential Service General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-02-07

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10{sup -6}, 6 x 10{sup -4}] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10{sup -3}. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  19. Risk factors associated with West Nile virus mortality in American Crow populations in Southern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Antoinette; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Bélanger, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America, a number of public health authorities designated the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) a sentinel for WNV detection. Although preliminary studies have suggested a positive association between American Crow mortality and increased risk of WNV infection in humans, we still know little about dynamic variation in American Crow mortality, both baseline levels and mortality associated with WNV. We hypothesized that the complex social behavior of American Crows, which is shaped by age and seasonal factors, influences both baseline mortality and WNV mortality in American Crow populations. We examined American Crow mortality data from Quebec for the 2005 WNV surveillance year, which lasted from 5 June to 17 September 2005. The variables of interest were age, gender, body condition index, time of year, and land cover. We used a log-linear model to examine baseline mortality. Logistic regression and general linear regression models were constructed to examine variables associated with mortality due to WNV. We found that both age and time of year were key variables in explaining baseline mortality. These two variables were also risk factors for WNV mortality. The probability that a carcass tested positive for WNV increased with the age of the dead bird and as summer progressed. WNV-positive carcasses also had a lower body condition index than WNV-negative carcasses. We believe that the first major wave of American Crow mortality observed in the early summer of 2005 was the result of natural mortality among young American Crows. Because this mortality was not linked to WNV, it appears that American Crow may not be a good species for early detection of WNV activity. Our data also suggest that second-year American Crows play a major role in propagating WNV during their movements to urban land covers during midsummer.

  20. [Risks factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeballos Sarrato, Susana; Villar Castro, Sonia; Ramos Navarro, Cristina; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Sánchez Luna, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Pre-term delivery is one of the leading causes of foetal and perinatal mortality. However, perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal death in preterm deliveries have not been well studied. To analyse foetal mortality and perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pregnancies of less than 32 weeks gestational age. The study included all preterm deliveries between 22 and 31 +1 weeks gestational age (WGA), born in a tertiary-referral hospital, over a period of 7 years (2008-2014). A logistic regression model was used to identify perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality (foetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded). During the study period, the overall foetal mortality was 63.1% (106/168) (≥22 weeks of gestation) occurred in pregnancies of less than 32 WGA. A total of 882 deliveries between 22 and 31+6 weeks of gestation were included for analysis. The rate of foetal mortality was 11.3% (100/882). The rate of intra-partum foetal death was 2.6% (23/882), with 78.2% (18/23) of these cases occurring in hospitalised pregnancies. It was found that Assisted Reproductive Techniques, abnormal foetal ultrasound, no administration of antenatal steroids, lower gestational age, and small for gestational age, were independent risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality. This study showed that there is a significant percentage intra-partum foetal mortality in infants between 22 and 31+6 WGA. The analysis of intrapartum mortality and risk factors associated with this mortality is of clinical and epidemiological interest to optimise perinatal care and improve survival of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Are women who quit smoking at high risk of excess weight gain throughout pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, Adam; Lutsiv, Olha; Park, Christina K; Krebs, Lynette; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Sarah D

    2016-09-06

    Smoking cessation has been reported to be associated with high total gestational weight gain (GWG), which itself is a risk factor for adverse maternal-infant outcomes. Recent studies have criticized conventional single measures of GWG, since they may lead to biased results. Therefore, we aimed to compare patterns of GWG based on serial antenatal weight measurements between women who: never smoked, quit during pregnancy, continued to smoke. Participants (N = 509) of our longitudinal study were recruited from seven antenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario. Serial GWG measurements were abstracted from medical charts, while information on smoking status was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire at a median gestational age of 32 (27-37) weeks. GWG patterns were assessed by fitting piecewise mixed-effects models. First trimester weight gains and weekly rates for the last two trimesters were compared by smoking status. During the first trimester, women who never smoked and those who quit during pregnancy gained on average 1.7 kg (95 % CI: 1.4-2.1) and 1.2 kg (0.3-2.1), respectively, whereas women who continued smoking gained more than twice as much (3.5 kg, 2.4-4.6). Weekly rate of gain in the second and third trimesters was highest in women who quit smoking (0.60 kg/week, 0.54-0.65), approximately 20 and 50 % higher than in women who never smoked and those who smoked during pregnancy, respectively. In this longitudinal study to examine GWG by smoking status based on serial GWG measurements, we found that women who quit smoking experienced a rapid rate of gain during the last two trimesters, suggesting that this high-risk group may benefit from targeted interventions.

  2. Risk Factors of Mortality from All Asbestos-Related Diseases: A Competing Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Garcia-Allas, Isabel; Rosell-Murphy, Isabel-Magdalena; Albertí-Casas, Constança; Tarrés, Josep; Krier-Günther, Illona; Martinez-Artés, Xavier; Orriols, Ramon; Grimau-Malet, Isidre; Canela-Soler, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    Background The mortality from all malignant and nonmalignant asbestos-related diseases remains unknown. The authors assessed the incidence and risk factors for all asbestos-related deaths. Methods The sample included 544 patients from an asbestos-exposed community in the area of Barcelona (Spain), between Jan 1, 1970, and Dec 31, 2006. Competing risk regression through a subdistribution hazard analysis was used to estimate risk factors for the outcomes. Results Asbestos-related deaths were observed in 167 (30.7%) patients and 57.5% of these deaths were caused by some type of mesothelioma. The incidence rate after diagnosis was 3,600 per 100,000 person-years. In 7.5% of patients death was non-asbestos-related, while pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma were identified in 87 (16.0%) and 18 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Conclusions Age, sex, household exposure, cumulative nonmalignant asbestos-related disease, and single malignant pathology were identified as risk factors for asbestos-related death. These findings suggest the need to develop a preventive approach to the community and to improve the clinical follow-up process of these patients. PMID:28680295

  3. Does subclinical atherosclerosis burden identify the increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality among United Kingdom Indian Asians? A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Navtej S; Lim, Tiong K; Jain, Piyush; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Senior, Roxy

    2011-09-01

    Indian Asians living in the United Kingdom have a >50% higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death compared with native European whites. The mechanisms underlying their excess mortality are not clear, and there are no validated tools capable of identifying this increased risk. The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis detected in the carotid arteries is an established prognosticator for major CVD events. We hypothesized that the increased prevalence of CVD among Indian Asians would be reflected by their having a greater burden of subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis compared with European whites. We studied 2,288 healthy subjects and 148 patients with known CVD from the London Life Sciences Prospective Population study who underwent carotid ultrasonography for assessment of intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque prevalence, and plaque echogenicity. The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher among Indian Asians compared with European whites (odds ratio 1.72, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Intima-media thickness was slightly higher in European whites compared with that of Indian Asians (0.66 vs 0.65 mm, P = .06), reflecting their higher Framingham Risk Score. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, there were no significant differences in IMT, plaque prevalence, or plaque echogenicity between the 2 ethnic groups regardless of CVD status. The burden of carotid atherosclerosis does not identify the markedly increased risk of CVD among United Kingdom Indian Asians. Other markers and mechanisms of disease require investigation in this high-risk group. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A risk score for predicting mortality in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Pedersen, Terje R; Boman, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundPrognostic information for asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS) from prospective studies is scarce and there is no risk score available to assess mortality.ObjectivesTo develop an easily calculable score, from which clinicians could stratify patients into high and lower risk ...... of mortality, using data from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study.MethodA search for significant prognostic factors (p...

  5. Mortality risk amongst nursing home residents evacuated after the Fukushima nuclear accident: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nomura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. METHODS: A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04-3.49. There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.76 to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74-4.76. No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07-3.49. CONCLUSION: High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.

  6. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer......-specific mortality and survival. METHODS: Subjects were 125,208 men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at ages 7-13years. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry and the Register of Causes of Death enabled identification of incident and fatal prostate...... cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  7. Number of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors and Mortality in Patients With First Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, John G.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Rogers, William J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Frederick, Paul D.; French, William J.; Gibson, C. Michael; Pollack, Charles V.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Zalenski, Robert J.; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J.; Greenland, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Context Few studies have examined the association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in community practice. Objective To determine the association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors in patients with first myocardial infarction and hospital mortality. Design Observational study from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction, 1994-2006. Patients We examined the presence and absence of 5 major traditional coronary heart disease risk factors (hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and family history of coronary heart disease) and hospital mortality among 542 008 patients with first myocardial infarction and without prior cardiovascular disease. Main Outcome Measure All-cause in-hospital mortality. Results A majority (85.6%) of patients who presented with initial myocardial infarction had at least 1 of the 5 coronary heart disease risk factors, and 14.4% had none of the 5 risk factors. Age varied inversely with the number of coronary heart disease risk factors, from a mean age of 71.5 years with 0 risk factors to 56.7 years with 5 risk factors (P for trend <.001). The total number of in-hospital deaths for all causes was 50 788. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were 14.9%, 10.9%, 7.9%, 5.3%, 4.2%, and 3.6% for patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 risk factors, respectively. After adjusting for age and other clinical factors, there was an inverse association between the number of coronary heart disease risk factors and hospital mortality adjusted odds ratio (1.54; 95% CI, 1.23-1.94) among individuals with 0 vs 5 risk factors. This association was consistent among several age strata and important patient subgroups. Conclusion Among patients with incident acute myocardial infarction without prior cardiovascular disease, in-hospital mortality was inversely related to the number of coronary heart disease risk factors. PMID:22089719

  8. Suffering from Loneliness Indicates Significant Mortality Risk of Older People

    OpenAIRE

    Tilvis, Reijo S; Venla Laitala; Routasalo, Pirkko E.; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The harmful associates of suffering from loneliness are still in dispute. Objective. To examine the association of feelings of loneliness with all-cause mortality in a general aged population. Methods. A postal questionnaire was sent to randomly selected community-dwelling of elderly people (>74 years) from the Finnish National Population Register. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, living conditions, functioning, health, and need for help. Suffering from lone...

  9. Loneliness and risk of mortality: a longitudinal investigation in Alameda County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew C; Veenstra, Gerry

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the prospective impact of self-reported loneliness on all-cause mortality, mortality from ischemic disease and mortality from other cardiovascular diseases. We tested these effects through GEE binomial regression models applied to longitudinal data from the Alameda County Study of persons aged 21 and over arranged into person-years. Controlling for age and gender, the chances of all-cause mortality were significantly higher among respondents reporting that they often feel lonely compared to those who report that they never feel lonely. Frequent loneliness was not significantly associated with mortality from ischemic heart disease but more than doubled the odds of mortality from other ailments of the circulatory system in models controlling for age and gender. Subsequent models showed that physical activity and depression may be important mediators of loneliness-mortality associations. Finally, we find support for the contention that chronic loneliness significantly increases risk of mortality but also find reason to believe that relatively recent changes in feelings of loneliness increase risk of mortality as well. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of mortality risk with various definitions of intradialytic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Xue, Hui; Lynch, Katherine E; Curhan, Gary C; Brunelli, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Intradialytic hypotension is a serious and frequent complication of hemodialysis; however, there is no evidence-based consensus definition of intradialytic hypotension. As a result, coherent evaluation of the effects of intradialytic hypotension is difficult. We analyzed data from 1409 patients in the HEMO Study and 10,392 patients from a single large dialysis organization to investigate the associations of commonly used intradialytic hypotension definitions and mortality. Intradialytic hypotension definitions were selected a priori on the basis of literature review. For each definition, patients were characterized as having intradialytic hypotension if they met the corresponding definition in at least 30% of baseline exposure period treatments or characterized as control otherwise. Overall and within subgroups of patients with predialysis systolic BPhypotension definitions that considered symptoms, interventions, and decreases in BP during dialysis were not associated with outcome, and when added to nadir BP, symptom and intervention criteria did not accentuate associations with mortality. Our results suggest that nadir-based definitions best capture the association between intradialytic hypotension and mortality. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Drought Risk Modeling for Thermoelectric Power Plants Siting using an Excess Over Threshold Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekera, Behailu B [George Washington University; Francis, Royce A [George Washington University; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is among the most important elements of thermoelectric power plant site selection and evaluation criteria. With increased variability and changes in hydrologic statistical stationarity, one concern is the increased occurrence of extreme drought events that may be attributable to climatic changes. As hydrological systems are altered, operators of thermoelectric power plants need to ensure a reliable supply of water for cooling and generation requirements. The effects of climate change are expected to influence hydrological systems at multiple scales, possibly leading to reduced efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. In this paper, we model drought characteristics from a thermoelectric systems operational and regulation perspective. A systematic approach to characterise a stream environment in relation to extreme drought occurrence, duration and deficit-volume is proposed and demonstrated. This approach can potentially enhance early stage decisions in identifying candidate sites for a thermoelectric power plant application and allow investigation and assessment of varying degrees of drought risk during more advanced stages of the siting process.

  12. Psychological Factors and Mortality Risk in a Rural Area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushima, Yasuko; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to assess the association between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Methods We used follow-up data for 4,181 persons from 40 to 79 years over a period of 17.6 years from one part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The status of the individuals comprising the data of the study as of the end of December 2006 was determined from their registration cards and death records. We calculated the proportions of selected variables among 5 psychological factors by sex. Cox’s proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the associations between psychological factors and mortality risk from all causes. Data were adjusted for age, medical history, education, job status, marital status, drinking, smoking, physical activity, sleeping duration, body mass index and breakfast. Results During the follow-up period, a total of 791 deaths were recorded. Men who reported feelings of being trusted had a decreased risk for mortality risk from all causes compared with the risk of those who reported “maybe”, whereas those without feelings of being trusted had increased risk for mortality risk from all causes. Conclusion This study suggests that the absence of feelings of being trusted increases the risk of all causes of mortality among middle-aged and elderly men in a rural area. Our findings suggest that interpersonal relationships comprise an important factor in longevity. PMID:25324588

  13. Risk factors associated with the incidence of foal mortality in an extensively managed mare herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, S D; Bristol, F; Card, C E

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal mortality in a large, extensively managed mare herd and what risk factors were involved in foal mortality. For a 6 wk period between April 18, 1994, and May 31, 1994, 334 foals were born, of which 74 died before reaching 10 d of age, giving an overall mortality of 22% for this period. Seventy four percent of the foal deaths occurred within 48 h of parturition. The major causes of foal mortality included starvation/exposure 27%, septicemia 26%, and dystocia 20%. Weekly incidences varied significantly, ranging from 67% for week 1 to 14% for week 5 (P foal death included failure of passive transfer (P foal sex were not significant risk factors for foal survival (P > 0.1). Further studies are required to determine if changing management procedures will be effective in reducing the incidence of neonatal foal mortality in this extensively managed herd. PMID:8640655

  14. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  15. Risk factors for 48-hours mortality after prehospital treatment of opioid overdose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Sine; Nielsen, Søren Loumann; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2013-01-01

    .4%, 95% CI 7.0 to 10.4) died within 48 h in the period 1999-2003, and 85% (66/78) of these had cardiac arrest and died. The authors found age >50 years and overdose during the weekend significantly associated with 48-h mortality. Gender, former episodes of opioid overdose, time of the day, month or year...... were not significantly associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The author found a 48-hours mortality of 8.4%. Advanced age and opioid overdose in the weekends were significant risk factors. Release on scene after treatment was associated with a very small risk....

  16. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  17. Excess nitrogen in the U.S. environment: Trends, risks, and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E.A.; David, M.B.; Galloway, J.N.; Goodale, C.L.; Haeuber, R.; Harrison, J.A.; Howarth, R.W.; Jaynes, D.B.; Lowrance, R.R.; Thomas, Nolan B.; Peel, J.L.; Pinder, R.W.; Porter, E.; Snyder, C.S.; Townsend, A.R.; Ward, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    , invasive species. ??? More than 1.5 million Americans drink well water contaminated with too much (or close to too much) nitrate (a regulated drinking water pollutant), potentially placing them at increased risk of birth defects and cancer. More research is needed to deepen understanding of these health risks. ??? Several pathogenic infections, including coral diseases, bird die-offs, fish diseases, and human diarrheal diseases and vector-borne infections are associated with nutrient losses from agriculture and from sewage entering ecosystems. ??? Nitrogen is intimately linked with the carbon cycle and has both warming and cooling effects on the climate. Mitigation Options: ??? Regulation of nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions from energy and transportation sectors has greatly improved air quality, especially in the eastern U.S. Nitrogen oxide is expected to decline further as stronger regulations take effect, but ammonia remains mostly unregulated and is expected to increase unless better controls on ammonia emissions from livestock operations are implemented. ??? Nitrogen loss from farm and livestock operations can be reduced 30-50% using current practices and technologies and up to 70-90% with innovative applications of existing methods. Current U.S. agricultural policies and support systems, as well as declining investments in agricultural extension, impede the adoption of these practices. Society faces profound challenges to meet demands for food, fiber, and fuel while minimizing unintended environmental and human health impacts. While our ability to quantify transfers of nitrogen across land, water, and air has improved since the first publication of this series in 1997, an even bigger challenge remains: using the science for effective management policies that reduce climate change, improve water quality, and protect human and environmental health. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  18. Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity, and mortality risk of individuals with diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. METHODS: This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992-2000 with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.91] and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64-0.89]. No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07-1.88], carbohydrate (1.67[1.18-2.37] and sugar intake (1.53[1.12-2.09] were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m(2; 22% of study population but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04. These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. CONCLUSIONS: High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes.

  19. Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity, and mortality risk of individuals with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Koert N J; Beulens, Joline W J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Dethlefsen, Claus; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rolandsson, Olov; Huerta, José María; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992-2000) with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.91]) and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64-0.89]). No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07-1.88]), carbohydrate (1.67[1.18-2.37]) and sugar intake (1.53[1.12-2.09]) were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m(2); 22% of study population) but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04). These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes.

  20. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrate Quality and Quantity, and Mortality Risk of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Koert N. J.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Dethlefsen, Claus; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rolandsson, Olov; Huerta, José María; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. Objective To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. Methods This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992–2000) with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. Results During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75–0.91]) and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64–0.89]). No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07–1.88]), carbohydrate (1.67[1.18–2.37]) and sugar intake (1.53[1.12–2.09]) were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m2; 22% of study population) but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04). These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. Conclusions High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes. PMID:22927948

  1. Excessive somnolence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Tavares

    Full Text Available Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  2. Excessive somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S; Alóe, F; Gentil, V; Scaff, M

    1996-01-01

    Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  3. Comparison of the risks of cancer incidence and mortality following radiation therapy for benign and malignant disease with the cancer risks observed in the Japanese A-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M P

    2001-04-01

    To compare the radiation-associated relative risks of cancer incidence and mortality in groups exposed to ionizing radiation in the course of treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions with those in the Japanese A-bomb survivor cancer incidence and mortality data. Comparison of the excess relative risk coefficients derived from published information for each study with the excess relative risk coefficient in comparable (age at exposure, time since exposure, sex) matched subsets of the Japanese A-bomb survivor cancer incidence and mortality data. Sixty-five studies of persons who have received appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment and for whom there is adequate ascertainment of cancer incidence or mortality are identified, from which 116 cancer-site-specific estimates of excess relative risk are derived. Relative risks tend to be lower in the medical series than in the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The most marked discrepancies between the relative risks in the medical series and in the A-bomb survivors are for leukaemia, where 12 of the 17 medical studies have significantly lower relative risks than those observed in the Japanese data. However, the ratio between the relative risks in the medical studies and in the Japanese data tends to diminish with increasing average or maximal therapy dose. This is observed for all cancer sites and is particularly marked for leukaemia. After taking account of cell sterilization and dose fractionation the apparent differences between the relative risks for leukaemia in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the medical series largely disappear. This suggests that cell sterilization largely accounts for the discrepancy between the relative risks in the Japanese data and the medical studies. Other factors, such as the differences in underlying cancer risks between the Japanese A-bomb survivors and the medical series, and dose-fractionation effects, may also contribute. The relative

  4. Increased respiratory disease mortality at a microwave popcorn production facility with worker risk of bronchiolitis obliterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara N Halldin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000-2003. METHODS: We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10(th revision (ICD-10, we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40-J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40, simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41, unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42, emphysema (J43, and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (J44. We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. RESULTS: We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42. Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of 'other COPD' (J44, while 0.98 'other COPD'-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12-10.49. Three of the 4 'other COPD'-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. CONCLUSION: Workers

  5. Increased respiratory disease mortality at a microwave popcorn production facility with worker risk of bronchiolitis obliterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Suarthana, Eva; Fedan, Kathleen B; Lo, Yi-Chun; Turabelidze, George; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, an irreversible lung disease, was first associated with inhalation of butter flavorings (diacetyl) in workers at a microwave popcorn company. Excess rates of lung-function abnormalities were related to cumulative diacetyl exposure. Because information on potential excess mortality would support development of permissible exposure limits for diacetyl, we investigated respiratory-associated mortality during 2000-2011 among current and former workers at this company who had exposure to flavorings and participated in cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2000-2003. We ascertained workers' vital status through a Social Security Administration search. Causes of death were abstracted from death certificates. Because bronchiolitis obliterans is not coded in the International Classification of Disease 10(th) revision (ICD-10), we identified respiratory mortality decedents with ICD-10 codes J40-J44 which encompass bronchitis (J40), simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis (J41), unspecified chronic bronchitis (J42), emphysema (J43), and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (J44). We calculated expected number of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine if workers exposed to diacetyl experienced greater respiratory mortality than expected. We identified 15 deaths among 511 workers. Based on U.S. population estimates, 17.39 deaths were expected among these workers (SMR = 0.86; CI:0.48-1.42). Causes of death were available for 14 decedents. Four deaths among production and flavor mixing workers were documented to have a multiple cause of 'other COPD' (J44), while 0.98 'other COPD'-associated deaths were expected (SMR = 4.10; CI:1.12-10.49). Three of the 4 'other COPD'-associated deaths occurred among former workers and workers employed before the company implemented interventions reducing diacetyl exposure in 2001. Workers at the microwave popcorn company experienced

  6. Bloodstream infections among solid organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, microbiology, associated risk factors for morbility and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mingjie; Wan, Qiquan; Xie, Wenzhao; Ye, Qifa

    2014-10-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and still threaten the success of SOT. In general, among SOT recipients, risk factors for BSIs are associated with prior ICU admission, catheterization, older recipient or donor age…etc. Pulmonary focus, nosocomial source of BSIs, lack of appropriate antibiotic therapy and other variables have significant impacts on BSIs-related mortality in SOT. Most of BSIs in SOT are caused by gram-negative bacteria. However, all aspects including microbiological spectrum, morbidity and mortality rates, risk factors of BSIs and BSIs-related death depend on the type of transplantation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the epidemiology, microbiologic features including antimicrobial resistance of organisms, and associated risk factors for morbidity and mortality of BSIs according to different type of transplantation to better understand the characteristics of BSIs and improve the outcomes after SOT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The risk factors for mortality in deceased donor liver transplant recipients with bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Q Q; Ye, Q F; Ming, Y Z; Ma, Y; Zhou, J D; Qiao, B B

    2013-01-01

    Information on risk factors for mortality among deceased donor liver transplant recipients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) was sought using a retrospective analysis from January 2002 to January 2012. We performed deceased donor liver transplantations in 135 subjects who experienced 77 episodes of BSIs. We assessed risk factors for mortality among 43 of them using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The 43 recipients (31.9%) who developed BSI showed a mean age of 45.1 (45.1 ± 14.1 years). The majority of infections were nosocomial in origin (97.7%), with more than half being polymicrobial (53.5%). There were 24 deaths among these recipients (55.8%). The univariate analysis identified the following variables as risk factors for BSI-related mortality: polymicrobial (P = .029), platelet count 1.5 mg/dL (P = .008), and septic shock (P risk factors for mortality to be a serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and septic shock. The risk factors significantly associated with increased mortality in deceased donor liver transplant recipients with BSIs are higher serum creatinine levels and septic shock. Despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment, BSIs accompanied by septic shock or higher serum creatinine levels were associated with high mortality rates. It is therefore essential to protect renal function to reduce the incidence of BSIs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cheese Consumption and Risk of All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xing; Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Zheng; Wei, Yu-Lu; Xu, Jia-Ying; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-01-13

    The association between cheese consumption and risk for major health endpoints has been investigated in many epidemiologic studies, but findings are inconsistent. As all-cause mortality can be viewed as the final net health effect of dietary intakes, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the long-term association of cheese consumption with all-cause mortality. Relevant studies were identified by a search of the PubMed database through May 2016. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Pre-specified stratified and dose-response analyses were also performed. The final analysis included nine prospective cohort studies involving 21,365 deaths. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for the highest compared with the lowest cheese consumption was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.06), and little evidence of heterogeneity was observed. The association between cheese consumption and risk of all-cause mortality did not significantly differ by study location, sex, age, number of events, study quality score or baseline diseases excluded. There was no dose-response relationship between cheese consumption and risk of all-cause mortality (RR per 43 g/day = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.07). No significant publication bias was observed. Our findings suggest that long-term cheese consumption was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.

  9. Causes and Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Salud. Publica de Mexico 2006;48(3):183-92. 28. Mbonye A. Risk factors associated with maternal deaths in health units in Uganda. African Journal of. Reproductive Health 2001;5(3). 29. Evjen-Olsen B, Hinderaker SG, Lie RT, Bergsjo P,. Gasheka P, Kvale G. Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern ...

  10. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the

  11. Causes and Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the risk factors associated with maternal deaths. MMR was 412 per 100 000 live births. The main causes of death were haemorrhage (28%), eclampsia (19%) and puerperal sepsis (8%). An increased risk of 154% for maternal death was found for women aged 30-39 ...

  12. Phobic anxiety and increased risk of mortality in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Lana L; Blumenthal, James A; Babyak, Michael A; Davidson, Jonathan R T; McCants, Charles B; O'Connor, Christopher; Sketch, Michael H

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate whether phobic anxiety is associated with increased risk of cardiac mortality in individuals with established coronary heart disease (CHD) and to examine the role of reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in mediating this risk. Previous findings suggest that phobic anxiety may pose increased risk of cardiac mortality in medically healthy cohorts. We performed a prospective cohort study in 947 CHD patients recruited during hospitalization for coronary angiography. At baseline, supine recordings of heart rate for HRV were collected, and participants completed the Crown-Crisp phobic anxiety scale. Fatal cardiac events were identified over an average period of 3 years. Female CHD patients reported significantly elevated levels of phobic anxiety when compared with male patients (p phobic anxiety in the prediction of cardiac mortality (p = .058) and sudden cardiac death (p = .03). In women, phobic anxiety was associated with a 1.6-fold increased risk of cardiac mortality (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.11; p = .004) and a 2.0-fold increased risk of sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.52; p = .01) and was unassociated with increased mortality risk in men (p = .56). Phobic anxiety was weakly associated with reduced high-frequency HRV in female patients (r = -.14, p = .02), but reduced HRV did not alter the association between phobic anxiety on mortality. Phobic anxiety levels are high in women with CHD and may be a risk factor for cardiac-related mortality in women diagnosed with CHD. Reduced HRV measured during rest does not seem to mediate phobic anxiety-related risk.

  13. Rice consumption, incidence of chronic diseases and risk of mortality: meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Larijani, Bagher; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    Findings from cohort studies investigating the association between rice consumption and risk of chronic diseases or mortality have been inconsistent. We performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on all published cohort studies examining white rice consumption in relation to incidence of chronic diseases or risk of mortality. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane review, Google Scholar and Scopus databases for relevant cohort studies published until July 2014. For systematic review, we found nineteen studies examining the association between rice intake and risk of chronic diseases (obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, CVD and cancers) or mortality. Cohort studies which reported relative risk (RR) or odds ratio for highest v. lowest intake of rice and chronic diseases or mortality were included in the meta-analysis. In a meta-analysis on seventeen risk estimates for highest v. lowest category of rice intake, provided from twelve studies, we found a trend towards a positive association (RR; 95 % CI) between rice consumption and risk of all chronic diseases (1·11; 0·96, 1·29); however, significant between-study heterogeneity was found (I 2=70·3 %, Pstudies showed that high consumption of rice was not significantly associated with mortality (0·97; 0·88, 1·06). Subgroup analysis by gender indicated an inverse association between rice consumption and mortality in men (0·87; 0·81, 0·94), but a trend towards a positive association in women (1·08; 0·97, 1·19). Although white rice consumption was not found to be associated with individual chronic conditions, we observed a positive association between white rice intake and risk of all overall chronic diseases in women. High rice consumption was related to a modest reduction in risk of mortality in men but not in women. Further studies of these relationships, in different populations, are needed.

  14. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  15. Excess breast cancer risk in first degree relatives of CHEK2∗1100delC positive familial breast cancer cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, Muriel A.; Verhoef, Senno; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Broeks, Annegien; Rookus, Matti; Waisfisz, Quinten; Witte, Birgit I.; Jonker, Marianne A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    The CHEK2∗1100delC mutation confers a relative risk of two for breast cancer (BC) in the general population. This study aims to explore the excess cancer risk due to the CHEK2∗1100delC mutation within a familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer setting. Cancer incidences were compared between first degree

  16. Evidence of an excessive gender gap in the risk of psychotic disorder among North African immigrants in Europe : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, E.; Veling, W.; Tortelli, A.; Tarricone, I.; Berardi, D.; Bourque, F.; Selten, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in the Netherlands have reported an excessive gender gap in the risk for non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) among immigrants from Morocco with a higher risk elevation in males compared to females. We examined the consistency of these findings and their generalizability

  17. Mortality risk in a historical cohort of nuclear power plant workers in Germany: results from a second follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzenich, Hiltrud; Troeltzsch, Katrin; Ruecker, Kai; Buncke, Johanna; Blettner, Maria [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Hammer, Gael P. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Laboratoire National de Sante E.P., Registre Morphologique des Tumeurs, Dudelange (Luxembourg); Fehringer, Franz [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BGETEM), Cologne (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Possible health effects of low and protracted doses of ionizing radiation are relevant for persons who are exposed to an occupational context like nuclear industry workers. A historical cohort study was therefore conducted to examine mortality risks following occupational radiation exposure among 4,844 German nuclear power plant workers. This cohort included workers from ten nuclear power plants with an observational period from 1991 until 1997. The results of an enlarged cohort with 8,972 workers from all 17 nuclear power plants in West Germany are now available. During the extended follow-up period from 1991 to 2008, a total of 310 deaths among men were observed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from all causes of deaths was estimated at 0.50 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.56]. A total of 126 deaths due to cancer occurred (SMR = 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51-0.82) and seven deaths due to leukemia (SMR = 1.23; 95 % CI 0.42-2.84). Overall, a reduced mortality compared to the general population of West Germany was observed indicating a healthy worker effect. In the dose-response analysis, no statistically significant risk due to ionizing radiation was seen. The hazard ratio (HR/mSv) for leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia was estimated at 1.004 (95 % CI 0.997-1.011). In conclusion, the cohort is small and made up of young workers, most of whom were still employed at the end of the observational period in 2008. Results of the external analysis are difficult to interpret as influenced by a healthy worker effect. In the internal analysis, no excess of risk due to radiation was detected. (orig.)

  18. [Nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by gram-negative bacilli: epidemiology and risk factors for mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizaso, Diego; Aguilera C, Karina; Correa, Malena; Yantorno, María Laura; Cuitiño, Mario; Pérez, Lorena; Lares, Mónica; Parra, Gloria de la; Esposto, Amadeo

    2008-10-01

    Nosocomial bacteremia is a major cause of hospital infection, associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospital stay and higher costs. However, few prospective studies analyse the prognostic factors associated with mortality of gramnegative rods bloodstream infections in hospital wards outside of intensive care units. A prospective/descriptive study was conducted from March to December 2006. All patients with nosocomial-acquired bloodstream infection due to gramnegative rods were included. Epidemiology and clinical features were analysed as potential prognostic factors for mortality. During the study period, 84 cases were detected, being A. baumannii, Burkholderia sp and E. coli the most frequent isolates, with a mortality of 48%>. Bacteremia derived from a high-mortality associated septic focus (RR 4.9, IC95%> 1.3 - 18.8) and admission to intensive care unit (RR 4.78, IC95%> 1.7- 13.1) were independent variables associated with mortality. Inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment was not associated with greater risk of mortality. Nosocomial gramnegative bloodstream infections in our series were mainly due to non-fermentative bacilli and were associated with high mortality rates when their origin was a high risk septic focus or the patient was admitted to intensive care unit.

  19. Association of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with risk of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Jensen, Majken K; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Eliassen, A Heather; Cassidy, Aedín; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, red wine, fruits and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids, and flavonoid-rich foods, have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoid-rich foods, and flavonoids, in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. As such, we examined the association of intake of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with subsequent mortality among 93 145 young and middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study II. During 1 838 946 person-years of follow-up, 1808 participants died. When compared with non-consumers, frequent consumers of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality (Pflavonoid intake were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality in the age-adjusted model; 0·81 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·93). However, this association was attenuated following multivariable adjustment; 0·92 (95 % CI 0·80, 1·06). Similar results were observed for consumption of flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Flavonols, flavanones and flavones were not associated with all-cause mortality in any model. Despite null associations at the compound level and select foods, higher consumption of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries, was associated with reduced risk of total and cause-specific mortality. These findings support the rationale for making food-based dietary recommendations.

  20. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index Is a Simple Predictor of Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Mizuki; Okazaki, Masayuki; Tsuchiya, Ken; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nitta, Kosaku

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and it is associated with increasing risk of mortality. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) has been developed as a tool to assess the nutritional risk. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of the GNRI as a mortality predictor in a Japanese HD cohort. We prospectively examined the GNRI of 332 maintenance HD patients aged 65.4 ± 13.2, 213 males, and followed up on them for 36 months. The patients were divided into quartiles (Q) according to GNRI values (Q1: 102.3). Predictors for all-cause mortality were examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional-hazards analyses. The GNRI presented a normal distribution. During the follow-up period of 36 months, 76 patients died. The overall mortality at the end of the 3-year observational period was 22.3%. At the 3-year follow-up period, Kaplan-Meier survival rates for all-cause mortality were 72.3, 79.3, 84.9 and 92.6% in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively (p = 0.0067). Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards analysis demonstrated that the GNRI was a significant predictor of adjusted all-cause mortality (HR 0.958; 95% CI 0.929-0.989, p = 0.0073). The results of the present study demonstrate that the GNRI is a strong predictor of overall mortality in HD patients. However, cardiovascular mortality was not associated with GNRI values, and did not differ among the GNRI quartiles. The GNRI score can be considered a simple and reliable marker of predictor for mortality risk in Japanese HD patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Interrelated aldosterone and parathyroid hormone mutually modify cardiovascular mortality risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan; Rus-Machan, Jutta; Meinitzer, Andreas; Brandenburg, Vincent M; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kapl, Martin; Grammer, Tanja; Ritz, Eberhard; Horina, Jörg H; Kleber, Marcus E; Pieske, Burkert; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Toplak, Hermann; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Amrein, Karin; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Accumulating evidence suggests bidirectional interplay between aldosterone and PTH. METHODS: We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between plasma aldosterone

  2. Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol-dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases. DESIGN: Register-based matched cohort...... Classification of Diseases (ICD). The main predictor variable was diagnosis of alcohol dependence according to ICD. FINDINGS: Alcohol-dependent men and women compared with controls had statistically significantly higher risks of all disease groups and the majority of subgroups when analysed as disease events...... = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.6-7.0). Similar results were found when disease groups and subgroups were analysed as causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-dependent men and women have significantly higher risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases, both as disease events and as causes of death, relative...

  3. Thyroid hormones and mortality risk in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, both overt and subclinical, are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The association between thyroid hormones and mortality in euthyroid individuals, however, is unclear. To examine the prospective association between thyroid hormones levels within normal ranges and mortality endpoints. A prospective cohort study of 212 456 middle-aged South Korean men and women who had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease at baseline from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2009. Free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), and TSH levels were measured by RIA. Vital status and cause of death ascertainment were based on linkage to the National Death Index death certificate records. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 730 participants died (335 deaths from cancer and 112 cardiovascular-related deaths). FT4 was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.95, comparing the highest vs lowest quartile of FT4; P for linear trend = .01), and FT3 was inversely associated cancer mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.85; P for linear trend = .001). TSH was not associated with mortality endpoints. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, FT4 and FT3 levels within the normal range were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, particularly liver cancer mortality.

  4. Tentativas de suicídio: fatores prognósticos e estimativa do excesso de mortalidade Tentativas de suicidio: factores pronósticos y estimativa del exceso de mortalidad Attempted suicide: prognostic factors and estimated excess mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Leal Vidal

    2013-01-01

    hombres, en las personas casadas y en aquellos con edad superior a los 60 años. La razón de mortalidad estandarizada evidenció un exceso de mortalidad por suicidio. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que la tasa de mortalidad entre pacientes que intentaron el suicidio fue superior a la esperada en la población general, indicando la necesidad de mejorar los cuidados a la salud de esos individuos.This retrospective cohort study aimed to analyze the epidemiological profile of individuals that attempted suicide from 2003 to 2009 in Barbacena, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to calculate the mortality rate from suicide and other causes, and to estimate the risk of death in these individuals. Data were collected from police reports and death certificates. Survival analysis was performed and Cox multiple regression was used. Among the 807 individuals that attempted suicide, there were 52 deaths: 12 by suicide, 10 from external causes, and 30 from other causes. Ninety percent of suicide deaths occurred within 24 months after the attempt. Risk of death was significantly greater in males, married individuals, and individuals over 60 years of age. Standardized mortality ratio showed excess mortality by suicide. The findings showed that the mortality rate among patients that had attempted suicide was higher than expected in the general population, indicating the need to improve health care for these individuals.

  5. Situational versus chronic loneliness as risk factors for all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat

    2010-05-01

    Several international studies have substantiated the role of loneliness as a risk factor for mortality. Although both theoretical and empirical research has supported the classification of loneliness as either situational or chronic, research to date has not evaluated whether this classification has a differential impact upon mortality. To establish the definition of situational vs. chronic loneliness, we used three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of Americans over the age of 50 years. Baseline data for the present study were collected in the years 1996, 1998, and 2000. The present study concerns the 7,638 individuals who completed all three waves; their loneliness was classified as either not lonely, situational loneliness or chronic loneliness. Mortality data were available through to the year 2004. Those identified as "situationally lonely" (HR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.52-1.62) as well as those identified as "chronically lonely" (HR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.71-1.87) had a greater risk for all cause mortality net of the effect of possible demographic and health confounders. Nonetheless, relative to those classified as "situationally lonely," individuals classified as "chronically lonely" had a slightly greater mortality risk. The current study emphasizes the important role loneliness plays in older adults' health. The study further supports current division into situational vs. chronic loneliness, yet suggests that both types serve as substantial mortality risks.

  6. Reducing mortality risk by targeting specific air pollution sources: Suva, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, C F; Nelson, P F; Taylor, M P; Stelcer, E; Atanacio, A J; Cohen, D D; Mani, F S; Maata, M

    2018-01-15

    Health implications of air pollution vary dependent upon pollutant sources. This work determines the value, in terms of reduced mortality, of reducing ambient particulate matter (PM2.5: effective aerodynamic diameter 2.5μm or less) concentration due to different emission sources. Suva, a Pacific Island city with substantial input from combustion sources, is used as a case-study. Elemental concentration was determined, by ion beam analysis, for PM2.5 samples from Suva, spanning one year. Sources of PM2.5 have been quantified by positive matrix factorisation. A review of recent literature has been carried out to delineate the mortality risk associated with these sources. Risk factors have then been applied for Suva, to calculate the possible mortality reduction that may be achieved through reduction in pollutant levels. Higher risk ratios for black carbon and sulphur resulted in mortality predictions for PM2.5 from fossil fuel combustion, road vehicle emissions and waste burning that surpass predictions for these sources based on health risk of PM2.5 mass alone. Predicted mortality for Suva from fossil fuel smoke exceeds the national toll from road accidents in Fiji. The greatest benefit for Suva, in terms of reduced mortality, is likely to be accomplished by reducing emissions from fossil fuel combustion (diesel), vehicles and waste burning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Geriatric nutritional risk index accurately predicts cardiovascular mortality in incident hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Hideki; Aoyama, Toru; Kamoi, Daisuke; Kasuga, Hirotake; Yasuda, Kaoru; Maruyama, Shoichi; Matsuo, Seiichi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Yuzawa, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Protein-energy wasting (PEW) or malnutrition is common in this population, and is associated with increasing risk of mortality. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) has been developed as a tool to assess the nutritional risk, and is associated with mortality not only in elderly patients but also in ESRD patients. However, whether the GNRI could predict the mortality due to CVD remains unclear in this population. We investigated the prognostic value of GNRI at initiation of hemodialysis (HD) therapy for CVD mortality in a large cohort of ESRD patients. Serum albumin, body weight, and height for calculating GNRI were measured in 1568 ESRD patients. Thereafter, the patients were divided into quartiles according to GNRI levels [quartile 1 (Q1): 97.3], and were followed up for up to 10 years. GNRI levels independently correlated with serum C-reactive-protein levels (β = -0.126, p index was also greater in an established CVD risk model with GNRI (0.749) compared to that with albumin (0.730), body mass index (0.732), and alone (0.710). Similar results were observed for all-cause mortality. GNRI at initiation of HD therapy could predict CVD mortality with incremental value of the predictability compared to serum albumin and body mass index in ESRD patients. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amiodarone use after acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure and/or left ventricular dysfunction may be associated with excess mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Kevin L; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Lokhnygina, Yuliya

    2008-01-01

    mellitus and hypertension. Adjusting for baseline predictors of mortality, we found that amiodarone use was associated with a significant increase in mortality during 3 of the 4 periods: hazard ratio 1.5, 95% CI (1.1-2.0), P = .02, for days 1 to 16; 2.1 (1.5-2.9), P

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 5-year Mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has improved over the recent years and may have improved survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the up-to-date prognostic significance of cardiovascular risk factors for 5-year survival in a large unselected ischemic stroke...... and questionnaire for cardiovascular risk factors, age, and sex. Follow-up was performed 5 years after stroke, and data on mortality were obtained for all, except 6, who had left the country. Five-year mortality was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the influence of multiple predictors was analyzed...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors and 5-year mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has improved over the recent years and may have improved survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the up-to-date prognostic significance of cardiovascular risk factors for 5-year survival in a large unselected ischemic stroke...... and questionnaire for cardiovascular risk factors, age, and sex. Follow-up was performed 5 years after stroke, and data on mortality were obtained for all, except 6, who had left the country. Five-year mortality was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the influence of multiple predictors was analyzed...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  11. Risk factors for infant mortality in rural and urban Nigeria: evidence from the national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Emmanuel Olorunleke; Zhao, Yun; Lamichhane, Reeta

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the rural-urban differences in infant mortality rates (IMRs) and the associated risk factors in Nigeria. The dataset from the 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey (NDHS), disaggregated by rural-urban residence, was analyzed using complex samples statistics. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was computed to explore the adjusted relationship and identify risk factors for infant mortality. In rural and urban Nigeria, IMRs were 70 and 49 deaths per 1000 live births, respectively. Risk factors in rural residence were past maternal marital union (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.625, p = 0.020), small birth size (AOR: 1.550, p Infants in rural residence had higher rates of mortality than their urban counterparts and disparities in risk factors exist between the residences.

  12. The short-term and long-term effects of divorce on mortality risk in a large Finnish cohort, 1990-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated time patterns of post-divorce excess mortality. Using register-based data, we followed 252,641 married Finns from 1990 until subsequent date of divorce and death until 2003. Among men, excess mortality is highest immediately after divorce, followed by a decline over 8 years. Among women, excess mortality shows little variation over time, and is lower than among men at all durations of divorce. Social and economic factors--largely adjustment for post-divorce factors--explain about half of the excess mortality. This suggests that excess mortality is partly mediated through poor social and economic resources. Mortality attributable to accidental, violent, and alcohol-related causes is pronounced shortly after divorce. It shows a strong pattern of reduction over the next 4 years among divorced men, and is high for only 6 months after divorce among divorced women. These findings emphasize the importance of short-term psychological distress, particularly among men.

  13. On-farm mortality, causes and risk factors in Estonian beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõtus, Kerli; Reimus, Kaari; Orro, Toomas; Viltrop, Arvo; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High on-farm mortality is associated with lower financial return of production and poor animal health and welfare. Understanding the reasons for on-farm mortality and related risk factors allows focus on specific prevention measures. This retrospective cohort study used cattle registry data from the years 2013 and 2014, collected from cattle from all Estonian cow-calf beef herds. The dataset contained 78,605 animal records from 1321 farms in total. Including unassisted deaths and euthanasia (2199 in total) the on-farm mortality rate was 2.14 per 100 animal-years. Across all age groups of both sexes the mortality rate (MR) was highest for bull calves up to three months old (MR=7.78 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 6.97; 8.68) followed by that for heifer calves (MR=6.21 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 5.49; 7.02). For female cattle the mortality risk declined after three months of age but increased again among animals over 18 months. The reason for death stated by the farmers was analysed for cattle under animal performance testing. Other/unknown reasons, trauma and accidents, as well as metabolic and digestive disorders, formed the three most commonly reported reasons for death in cattle of all age groups. Weibull proportional hazard models with farm frailty effects were applied in three age categories (calves up to three months, youngstock from three to 18 months and cattle aged over 18 months) to identify factors associated with the risk of mortality. Male sex was associated with increased risk of mortality in cattle up to 18 months of age. No difference between breeds was found for cattle up to 18 months of age. Beef cattle breeds rarely represented or dairy breeds (breed category 'Other') had the highest mortality hazard (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.11; 1.78) compared to Hereford. The hazard of mortality generally increased with herd size for calves, young stock and older bulls. In female cattle over 18 months of age there was no difference in mortality hazard over herd size

  14. Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H; Hansen, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a common inflammatory skin disease. The disease has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, but the risk of CV disease in patients with HS is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate CV risk in patients with HS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS....... CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Hidradenitis suppurativa was associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse CV outcomes and all-cause mortality independent of measured confounders. The risk of CV-associated death was higher in patients with HS compared with the risk in those with severe psoriasis...

  15. The effect of excess body mass on the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis of 58 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, R; Pourmemari, M H; Falah-Hassani, K; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to estimate the effects of overweight and obesity on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and to assess whether sex modifies the associations. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases from 1953 to February 2015. Fifty-eight studies consisting of 1,379,372 individuals qualified for a meta-analysis. We used a random-effects meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, and performed sensitivity analyses. Overweight increased the risk of CTS or carpal tunnel release 1.5-fold (pooled confounder-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% CI 1.37-1.57, N = 1,279,546) and obesity twofold (adjusted OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.92-2.13, N = 1,362,207). Each one-unit increase in body mass index increased the risk of CTS by 7.4% (adjusted OR = 1.074, 95% CI 1.071-1.077, N = 1,258,578). Overweight and obesity had stronger effects on carpal tunnel release than CTS. The associations did not differ between men and women, and they were independent of study design. Moreover, the associations were not due to bias or confounding. Excess body mass markedly increases the risk of CTS. As the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally, overweight-related CTS is expected to increase. Future studies should investigate whether a square-shaped wrist and exposure to physical workload factors potentiate the adverse effect of obesity on the median nerve. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Evaluation of excess life time cancer risk due to natural radioactivity of the Lignite samples of the Nichahoma, lignite belt, North Kashmir, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, Mudasir [VIT Univ., Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India). Photonic, Nuclear and Medical Physics Div.; Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar (India). Dept. of Radiological Physics and Bio-engineering; Radha, C. Anu; Ramasubramanian, V. [VIT Univ., Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India). Photonic, Nuclear and Medical Physics Div.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Masood, Sajad [Kashmir Univ., Srinagar (India). Dept. of Physics; Dar, Rayees Ahmad [Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar (India). Div. of Biostatistics

    2016-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K present in the lignite samples was measured by using a low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI(Tl) detector for the measurement and to evaluation the radiation hazard indices and excess life time cancer risk. The average values of specific activity concentrations in the investigated lignite samples was found to be 45.36 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 21.42 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, 40.51 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K and 79.11 Bq kg{sup -1} for Ra{sub eq} respectively. The average value excess life time cancer risk was found to be relatively higher than the world average. Moreover, the correlation analysis shows the strong dependence of excess lifetime cancer risk on measured dose and the radium equivalent activity.

  17. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Kripke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA. Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. Short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics have usually been prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia.

  18. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  19. Smoking and risk for diabetes incidence and mortality in Korean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sun Ha; Foong, Athena W; Hur, Nam Wook; Samet, Jonathan M

    2010-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that smoking is a cause of type 2 diabetes. We explored the association of cigarette smoking with diabetes incidence and mortality in a large cohort of Koreans. A 14-year prospective cohort study was performed on 1,236,443 Korean men and women, aged 30-95 years at baseline, who underwent standardized biennial medical examinations provided by the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC). Incident diabetes was identified on the basis of outpatient visits, hospitalization, or prescription medication treatment for diabetes, as captured in the NHIC database. Diabetes mortality was obtained through the national statistical office. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations of smoking with indicators of diabetes and diabetes mortality. Smoking was significantly associated with increased risk for diabetic outpatient treatment, hospitalization, and mortality among both men and women, and the risk among current smokers increased modestly with the number of cigarettes smoked daily (P(trend) smoked ≥ 20 cigarettes/day had increased risk for incident diabetes defined by outpatient treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.55 [1.51-1.60]), incident diabetes defined by ≥ 3 prescription medications for diabetes (1.71 [1.63-1.80]), and death from diabetes (1.60 [1.25-2.06]). The risks for outpatient treatment among smokers were higher in men than in women with evidence for effect modification by sex and age (P(interaction) smoking increases the risk of incident diabetes and mortality.

  20. Risk of cancer mortality according to the metabolic health status and degree of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the risk of cancer mortality according to obesity status and metabolic health status using sampled cohort data from the National Health Insurance system. Data on body mass index and fasting blood glucose in the sampled cohort database (n=363,881) were used to estimate risk of cancer mortality. Data were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model (Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol level and urinary protein; Model 2 was adjusted for Model 1 plus smoking status, alcohol intake and physical activity). According to the obesity status, the mean hazard ratios were 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.89] and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.72-0.85) for the overweight and obese groups, respectively, compared with the normal weight group. According to the metabolic health status, the mean hazard ratio was 1.26 (95% CI, 1.14-1.40) for the metabolically unhealthy group compared with the metabolically healthy group. The interaction between obesity status and metabolic health status on the risk of cancer mortality was not statistically significant (p=0.31). We found that the risk of cancer mortality decreased according to the obesity status and increased according to the metabolic health status. Given the rise in the rate of metabolic dysfunction, the mortality from cancer is also likely to rise. Treatment strategies targeting metabolic dysfunction may lead to reductions in the risk of death from cancer.

  1. Individual and Combined Associations of Cognitive and Mobility Limitations on Mortality Risk in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Addoh, Ovuokerie; Mann, Joshua R; Windham, B Gwen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the potential independent and combined associations of cognitive and mobility limitations on risk of all-cause mortality in a representative sample of the US older adult population who, at baseline, were free of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Data from the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to identify 1852 adults (age, 60-85 years) with and without mobility and/or cognitive limitations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality risk were calculated for 4 mutually exclusive groups: no limitation (group 1 as reference), mobility limitation only (group 2), cognitive limitation only (group 3), both cognitive and mobility limitations (group 4). Compared with group 1, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) for groups 2, 3, and 4 were 1.72 (1.24-2.38), 2.00 (1.37-2.91), and 2.18 (1.57-3.02), respectively. The mortality risk when comparing group 4 (HR, 2.18) with group 3 (HR, 2.00), however, was not statistically significant (P=.65). Similarly, the mortality risk when comparing group 4 (HR, 2.18) with group 2 (HR, 1.72) was not statistically significant (P=.16). Although the highest mortality risk occurred in those with both limitations (group 4), this point estimate was not statistically significantly different when compared with those with cognitive or mobility limitations alone. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Weight Change in Midlife and Risk of Mortality From Dementia up to 35 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Wills, Andrew K; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Engedal, Knut; Bjertness, Espen

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dementia is complex and controversial. This study investigates the association of weight change during midlife and later dementia-related mortality. Two BMI measurements (average of 9.0 years apart) were available for 43,721 participants in the Norwegian Counties Study (NCS), with mean age 42 years at first BMI measurement and 51 at the final measurement. NCS was linked with the Cause of Death Registry until year 2015 (mean follow-up time 25.9 years). Cox regression with a conditional growth model was used. Our study comprised 1,205 dementia-related deaths. Weight loss was associated with increased dementia-related mortality, irrespectively of baseline BMI and confounders; those with 10% or more loss had hazard ratio (HR) = 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 2.12) compared to those being stable (0%-2.5% BMI gain), and those with 5%-10% loss had HR = 1.38 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.76). Gaining weigh was associated with reduced dementia-related mortality. Associations with BMI change did not vary by baseline BMI. Weight loss during midlife was associated with increased dementia-related mortality risk more than 3 decades later, while weight gain was associated with reduced risk. These associations held both for low and high baseline BMI. Weight loss was an independent risk factor for dementia-related mortality and more strongly related with dementia-related mortality than stable BMI (stable high or low). Overweight and obesity were associated with an increased risk for nondementia-related mortality, which was far more common than dementia-related mortality.

  3. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Toshiaki; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke) were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16-1.97) and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16-2.35) for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep) was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.01), although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06). The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; P for trend = 0.08). The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.64). Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  4. Mortality Risk of Charcot Arthropathy Compared With That of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Diabetes Alone

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Min-Woong; Lee, Todd A.; Stuck, Rodney M.; Frykberg, Robert G.; Budiman-Mak, Elly

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare mortality risks of patients with Charcot arthropathy with those of patients with diabetic foot ulcer and those of patients with diabetes alone (no ulcer or Charcot arthropathy). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort of 1,050 patients with incident Charcot arthropathy in 2003 in a large health care system was compared with patients with foot ulcer and those with diabetes alone. Mortality was determined during a 5-year follow-up pe...

  5. Weak relationship between risk assessment studies and recorded mortality in wind farms

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Miguel; Lucas, Manuela de; Janss, Guyonne, F.E.; Casado, Eva; Muñoz, Antonio R.; Bechard, Mark J.; Calabuig, Cecilia P.

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms generate little or no pollution. However, one of their main adverse impacts is bird mortality through collisions with turbine rotors. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies have been based on observations of birds before the construction of wind farms. We analysed data from 53 EIAs in relation to the actual recorded bird mortalities at 20 fully installed wind farms to determine whether this method is accurate in predicting the risk of new wind farm installations. Bird data f...

  6. Risk of mortality for dementia in a developing country: the Yoruba in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Anthony J; Hui, Siu L; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Gureje, Oyewusi; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Musick, Beverly S; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2002-06-01

    Limited data exist on the impact of dementia in developing nations, including its association with mortality. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between dementia and five-year mortality on a community dwelling elderly Yoruba population in the developing country of Nigeria and to compare those results with those from an elderly African-American community in Indianapolis. A two-phase design was used to ascertain dementia status in two sites. In the first phase, the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI-D) was administered. In the second phase, subjects were sampled for the clinical assessment according to their CSI-D performance category. Proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship between mortality and cognitive status at both sites after adjusting for demographics and chronic disease conditions. For the entire screened population, poor and intermediate performance on the CSI-D is associated with increased mortality at both sites; however the effect of CSI-D performance did not significantly differ between the two sites. For the clinically assessed sample, dementia was significantly associated with increased mortality at both sites (Ibadan RR = 2.83, Indianapolis RR = 2.05), but the effect was not significantly different across the two sites. Dementia resulted in an increased risk of mortality for Yoruba of a magnitude similar to African-Americans suggesting that the impact of dementia on mortality risk may be similar for developing and developed countries. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A review of methods to estimate cause-specific mortality in presence of competing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, Dennis M.; Patterson, Brent R.

    2006-01-01

    Estimating cause-specific mortality is often of central importance for understanding the dynamics of wildlife populations. Despite such importance, methodology for estimating and analyzing cause-specific mortality has received little attention in wildlife ecology during the past 20 years. The issue of analyzing cause-specific, mutually exclusive events in time is not unique to wildlife. In fact, this general problem has received substantial attention in human biomedical applications within the context of biostatistical survival analysis. Here, we consider cause-specific mortality from a modern biostatistical perspective. This requires carefully defining what we mean by cause-specific mortality and then providing an appropriate hazard-based representation as a competing risks problem. This leads to the general solution of cause-specific mortality as the cumulative incidence function (CIF). We describe the appropriate generalization of the fully nonparametric staggered-entry Kaplan–Meier survival estimator to cause-specific mortality via the nonparametric CIF estimator (NPCIFE), which in many situations offers an attractive alternative to the Heisey–Fuller estimator. An advantage of the NPCIFE is that it lends itself readily to risk factors analysis with standard software for Cox proportional hazards model. The competing risks–based approach also clarifies issues regarding another intuitive but erroneous "cause-specific mortality" estimator based on the Kaplan–Meier survival estimator and commonly seen in the life sciences literature.

  8. Mortality risk of Charcot arthropathy compared with that of diabetic foot ulcer and diabetes alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Min-Woong; Lee, Todd A; Stuck, Rodney M; Frykberg, Robert G; Budiman-Mak, Elly

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare mortality risks of patients with Charcot arthropathy with those of patients with diabetic foot ulcer and those of patients with diabetes alone (no ulcer or Charcot arthropathy). A retrospective cohort of 1,050 patients with incident Charcot arthropathy in 2003 in a large health care system was compared with patients with foot ulcer and those with diabetes alone. Mortality was determined during a 5-year follow-up period. Patients with Charcot arthropathy were matched to individuals in the other two groups using propensity score matching based on patient age, sex, race, marital status, diabetes duration, and diabetes control. During follow-up, 28.0% of the sample died; 18.8% with diabetes alone and 37.0% with foot ulcer died compared with 28.3% with Charcot arthropathy. Multivariable Cox regression shows that, compared with Charcot arthropathy, foot ulcer was associated with 35% higher mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.35 [95% CI 1.18-1.54]) and diabetes alone with 23% lower risk (0.77 [0.66-0.90]). Of the patients with Charcot arthropathy, 63% experienced foot ulceration before or after the onset of the Charcot arthropathy. Stratified analyses suggest that Charcot arthropathy is associated with a significantly increased mortality risk independent of foot ulcer and other comorbidities. Charcot arthropathy was significantly associated with higher mortality risk than diabetes alone and with lower risk than foot ulcer. Patients with foot ulcers tended to have a higher prevalence of peripheral vascular disease and macrovascular diseases than patients with Charcot arthropathy. This finding may explain the difference in mortality risks between the two groups.

  9. Nutritional risk screening 2002 and ASA score predict mortality after elective liver resection for malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nelio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate whether Nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002) at hospital admission may predict postoperative mortality and complications within 90 days after elective liver resection for malignancy. Material and methods A retrospective cohort study of a prospective database was performed. Two-hundred and three patients with elective liver resection for malignancy between 9 November 2007 and 27 May 2014 were included. Clinical data, NRS 2002, surgical procedures and histology were recorded. The primary endpoint was 90-day mortality. Complications were registered within 90 days postoperatively according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results The 90-day mortality was 5.9% and the overall complication rate was 59.1%. Multivariate analysis identified NRS 2002 score ≥ 4 (odds ratio (OR) = 9.24; p = 0.005) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥ 3 (OR = 6.20; p = 0.009) as predictors of 90-day mortality. The 90-day mortality was 27.6% (8/29) for patients with both risk factors (NRS 2002 score ≥ 4 and ASA score ≥ 3) vs. 2.3% (4/174) for patients without or with only one risk factor (p < 0.001). Conclusions In the present study NRS 2002 score ≥ 4 and ASA score ≥ 3 were predictors of 90-day mortality after elective liver resection for malignancy. PMID:28261289

  10. Determination of the Risk of Radiation-Associated Circulatory and Cancer Disease Mortality in a NASA Early Astronaut Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Chappell, L.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Little, M.; Patel, Z. S.

    2017-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to determine if there was sufficient evidence for excess risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in early NASA astronaut cohorts. NASA astronauts in selection groups 1-7 were chosen; this relatively homogeneous cohort consists of 73 white males, who unlike today's astronauts, maintained similar smoking and drinking habits to the general US population, and have published radiation doses. The participants flew in space on missions Mercury through Shuttle and received space radiation doses between 0-74.1 milligrays. Cause of death information was obtained from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) program at NASA Johnson Space Center. Mortality was compared with the US male population. Trends of mortality with dose were assessed using a logistic model, fitted by maximum likelihood. Only 32 (43.84 percent) of the 73 early astronauts have died. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) for cancer (n=7, SMR=43.4, 95 percent CI 17.8, 84.9), all circulatory disease (n=7, SMR=33.2, 95 percent CI 13.7, 65.0), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (n=5, SMR=40.1, 95 percent CI 13.2, 89.4) were significantly lower than for the US white male population. For cerebrovascular disease, the upper confidence interval for SMR included 100, indicating it was not significantly different from the US population (n=2, SMR = 77.0, 95 percent CI 9.4, 268.2). The power of the study is low and remains below 10 percent even when risks 10 times those reported in the literature are assumed. Due to small sample size, there is currently insufficient statistical power to evaluate space

  11. Postoperative mortality and morbidity in octogenarians and nonagenarians with hip fracture: an analysis of perioperative risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Ren-shi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the role of high risk factors in octogenarians and nonagenarians with hip trauma, which may lead to excessive mortality and morbi- dity postoperatively. Methods: Fifty-four octogenarians and nonagenarians patients were enrolled in the study, receiving surgical repair of hip fracture in our hospital from January 2006 to January 2010. High risk factors were recorded preoperatively in detail. Complications and survival state were followed up by telephone for 2 years postoperatively. All the data were analyzed by Chi-square test with SPSS 13.0. Results: Twenty-six males (48.1%, aged from 80 to 94 years with a mean age of 84.2 years, and twenty-eight females (51.9%, aged from 80 to 95 years with a mean age of 83.4 years, were presented in the cohort study. The hip traumas were caused by daily slight injuries (52 cases and car accidents (2 cases, respectively. Twenty-eight patients (51.9% with femoral neck fracture while 26 patients (48.1% with intertrochanteric fracture were diagnosed through an anterior-posterior pelvic radiophotograph. In this series, 39 patients (72.2% suffered from one or more comorbidities preoperatively. The morbidity was 48.1% and the major cause was urinary tract infection, while a significant difference was noted between females and males. The mortality was 20.4% with a predominant cause of acute renal failure. Conclusions: The gender should be considered as a critical high risk factor in octogenarians and nonagenarians with hip trauma postoperatively. Females are more likely to suffer complications postoperatively, which is especially obvious in senile patients over 80 years (P<0.05. Urinary tract infection is the most frequent complication after hip surgery, followed by low limb embolism and malnutrition. The mortality is dramatically greater in patients over 80 years old than those below, and major causes are acute renal failure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and mental

  12. Excess Mortality in Hyperthyroidism: The Influence of Preexisting Comorbidity and Genetic Confounding: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study of Twins and Singletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Frans; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2012-01-01

    Context: Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased mortality and, if so, whether the association is influenced by comorbidity and/or genetic confounding. Methods: This was an observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. We identified 4850 singletons and 926 twins from same-sex pairs diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Each case was matched with four controls for age and gender. The Charlson score was calculated from discharge diagnoses on an individual level to measure comorbidity. Cases and controls were followed up for a mean of 10 yr (range 0–31 yr), and the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Results: In singletons there was a significantly higher mortality in individuals diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than in controls [HR 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–1.46]. This persisted after adjustment for preexisting comorbidity (HR 1,28; 95% CI 1.21–1.36). In twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism (625 pairs), the twin with hyperthyroidism had an increased mortality compared with the corresponding cotwin (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.09–1.88). However, this was found only in dizygotic pairs (HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.27–2.55) but not in monozygotic pairs (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.60–1.50). Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased mortality independent of preexisting comorbidity. The study of twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism suggests that genetic confounding influences the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality. PMID:22930783

  13. Cancer and non-cancer excess mortality resulting from mixed exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from contaminated rice oil: "Yusho".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Eboshida, Akira

    2015-05-01

    In 1968, rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans caused a severe outbreak of food poisoning in Japan and was termed locally as "Yusho" (oil disease). In our previous study, we found that area-based standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of some diseases were elevated shortly after the incident. This previous study, however, was unable to determine whether these elevated SMRs were a result of other area-specific factors. To overcome this limitation, we obtained mortality data from the 5 years before the incident and conducted an area-based study using vital statistics records dating from 1963 to 2002. The population of Nagasaki Prefecture was set as the reference population for calculating SMRs. We also included data on cause-specific mortality attributable to cancer and expanded the population to encompass two severely exposed areas where contaminated rice oil was distributed (namely Tamanoura and Naru). We also calculated SMRs in the remainder of the Shimo-Goto region, excluding the exposed area, which was used as a comparison area. Even after considering the time trends in mortality before the incident, mortality due to diabetes mellitus and heart disease, as well as all-cause mortality, was found to be elevated shortly afterward. Additionally, mortalities due to uterine cancer in Tamanoura and leukemia were also elevated at 30-34 and 10-59 years after the event in both exposed areas, respectively. SMRs for leukemia in Tamanoura were as high as 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.4-6.2) and 2.4 (1.2-4.8) 10-19 years later. In this period, SMRs for leukemia in the comparison area were not elevated. Further epidemiological studies are needed regarding this rice-oil, "Yusho" outbreak, especially with regard to cancer and non-cancer mortality.

  14. Risk factors of maternal mortality in Sistan region: 10-year report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sarani

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Based on our findings, some factors including multiparity, pregnancy his-tory more than 4 times, short interval between pregnancies lower than 2 years and ma-ternal age more than 35 years were some risk factors for maternal death. Maternal mortality in the postpartum period was more than pre-delivery period. Bleeding was the main cause of maternal mortality. Therefore monitoring of vital signs in the post-partum period and the proper management of bleeding are very important. It is sug-gested that risk assessment should be done for pregnant women in delivery ward for detecting high risk pregnant women. Suitable management for these women especially for patients with postpartum hemorrhage plays an important role to decrease the ma-ternal mortality.

  15. Risk factors for mortality among malnourished HIV-infected adults eligible for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodd, Susannah L; Kelly, Paul; Koethe, John R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa are malnourished. We aimed to increase understanding of the factors affecting their high mortality, particularly in the high-risk period before ART initiation. METHODS: We...... analysed potential risk factors for mortality of Zambian and Tanzanian participants enrolled in the NUSTART clinical trial. Malnourished adults (n = 1815; body mass index [BMI] ART and randomised to receive different nutritional supplements. Demographics......, measures of body composition, blood electrolytes and clinical conditions were investigated as potential risk factors using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The mortality rate was higher in the period from referral to starting ART (121 deaths/100 person-years; 95 % CI 103, 142) than during the first 12...

  16. Correction of confidence intervals in excess relative risk models using Monte Carlo dosimetry systems with shared errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available In epidemiological studies, exposures of interest are often measured with uncertainties, which may be independent or correlated. Independent errors can often be characterized relatively easily while correlated measurement errors have shared and hierarchical components that complicate the description of their structure. For some important studies, Monte Carlo dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of exposure estimates have been used to represent such complex error structures. While the effects of independent measurement errors on parameter estimation and methods to correct these effects have been studied comprehensively in the epidemiological literature, the literature on the effects of correlated errors, and associated correction methods is much more sparse. In this paper, we implement a novel method that calculates corrected confidence intervals based on the approximate asymptotic distribution of parameter estimates in linear excess relative risk (ERR models. These models are widely used in survival analysis, particularly in radiation epidemiology. Specifically, for the dose effect estimate of interest (increase in relative risk per unit dose, a mixture distribution consisting of a normal and a lognormal component is applied. This choice of asymptotic approximation guarantees that corrected confidence intervals will always be bounded, a result which does not hold under a normal approximation. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the proposed method in survival analysis using a realistic ERR model. We used both simulated Monte Carlo dosimetry systems (MCDS and actual dose histories from the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013, a MCDS for plutonium exposures in the Mayak Worker Cohort. Results show our proposed methods provide much improved coverage probabilities for the dose effect parameter, and noticeable improvements for other model parameters.

  17. Competing risks of mortality with marathons: retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Greenwald, J Ari

    2007-12-22

    To determine from a societal perspective the risk of sudden cardiac death associated with running in an organised marathon compared with the risk of dying from a motor vehicle crash that might otherwise have taken place if the roads had not been closed. Population based retrospective analysis with linked ecological comparisons of sudden death. Marathons with at least 1000 participants that had two decades of history and were on public roads in the United States, 1975-2004. Sudden death attributed to cardiac causes or to motor vehicle trauma. The marathons provided results for 3,292,268 runners on 750 separate days encompassing about 14 million hours of exercise. There were 26 sudden cardiac deaths observed, equivalent to a rate of 0.8 per 100,000 participants (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.1). Because of road closure, an estimated 46 motor vehicle fatalities were prevented, equivalent to a relative risk reduction of 35% (95% confidence interval 17% to 49%). The net reduction in sudden death during marathons amounted to a ratio of about 1.8 crash deaths saved for each case of sudden cardiac death observed (95% confidence interval: 0.7 to 3.8). The net reduction in total deaths could not be explained by re-routing traffic to other regions or days and was consistent across different parts of the country, decades of the century, seasons of the year, days of the week, degree of competition, and course difficulty. Organised marathons are not associated with an increase in sudden deaths from a societal perspective, contrary to anecdotal impressions fostered by news media.

  18. Clinical assessment of mortality risk in renal transplant candidates in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Domingo; de la Nuez, Pablo Castro; Muriel, Alfonso; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; González-Molina, Miguel; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Luengo, Sara; Palma, Eulalia; Ruda, Edisson; Gutiérrez, Elena; Vozmediano, Carmen; Torres, Armando; Alonso, Manuel

    2014-09-27

    Prediction of mortality in wait-listed patients for kidney transplantation (KT) has not been well elucidated. We assessed whether application of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and other uremia-related comorbidities, not included in the CCI, were associated with mortality in these patients. We included 3851 adult patients from the Andalusian Registry who were placed on the waiting list for KT during the study period (1984-2012). A total of 1975 patients received a successful KT and were censored at that point, whereas 1876 were on the waiting list at any time. Multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis and competing risk models, both of which included a propensity score for factors leading to KT, were constructed to examine death in wait-listed patients. Overall mortality on the waiting list was 24%, and cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of death (25%), followed by infections (19%) and malignant disorders (7%). By competing risk models, age older than 50 years (subhazard ratio [SHR] 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9), CCI score higher than 3 (SHR 2.8; 95% CI, 2.1-3.7), a central venous catheter (SHR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.2) and unemployed status (SHR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2) at dialysis entry were significantly associated with mortality. When these factors were incorporated in a composite risk model, mortality risk increased significantly with increasing risk levels. A limited number of comorbidities, easily measurable at entry to dialysis, are associated with mortality in wait-listed patients. This simple clinical assessment may help prioritize high-risk wait-listed patients for receiving an age-matched deceased donor kidney.

  19. Risk Factors for Mortality in Reoperations for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Hincapie, Carlos A; Carreno-Jaimes, Marisol; Obando-Lopez, Carlos E; Camacho-Mackenzie, Jaime; Umaña-Mallarino, Juan P; Sandoval-Reyes, Nestor F

    2017-07-01

    The survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased in the recent years, because of enhanced diagnostic capabilities, better surgical techniques, and improved perioperative care. Many patients will require reoperation as part of staged procedures or to treat grafts deterioration and residual or recurrent lesions. Reoperations favor the formation of cardiac adhesions and consequently increase surgery time; however, the impact on morbidity and operative mortality is certain. The objective of the study was to describe the risk factors for mortality in pediatric patients undergoing a reoperation for congenital heart disease. Historic cohort of patients who underwent reoperation after pediatric cardiac surgery from January 2009 to December 2015. Operations with previous surgical approach different to sternotomy were excluded from the analysis. In seven years, 3,086 surgeries were performed, 481 were reoperations, and 238 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean number of prior surgeries was 1.4 ± 0.6. Median age at the time of reoperation was 6.4 years. The most common surgical procedures were staged palliation for functionally univentricular heart (17.6%). Median cross-clamp time was 66 minutes. Younger age at the moment of resternotomy, longer cross-clamp time, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery (STAT) Mortality Categories risk category greater than three were risk factors for mortality. The number of resternotomies was not associated with mortality. Mortality prior to hospital discharge was 4.6%, and mortality after discharge but prior to 30 days after surgery was 0.54%. Operative mortality was 5.1%. Resternotomy in pediatric cardiac surgery is a safe procedure in our center.

  20. Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S; Kop, Willem J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were assessed annually and self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 7 years. To estimate how much of the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with depressive symptoms was due to physical inactivity, Cox regression with time-varying covariates was used to determine the percentage change in the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality after adding physical activity variables. Results At baseline, 20% of participants scored above the cut-off for depressive symptoms. There were 2915 deaths (49.8%), of which 1176 (20.1%) were from cardiovascular causes. Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity each independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality and were strongly associated with each other (all p<0.001). Individuals with both depressive symptoms and physical inactivity had greater cardiovascular mortality than those with either individually (p<0.001, log rank test). Physical inactivity reduced the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality by 26% after adjustment. This was similar for persons with (25%) and without (23%) established coronary heart disease. Conclusions Physical inactivity accounted for a significant proportion of the risk of cardiovascular mortality due to depressive symptoms in older adults, regardless of coronary heart disease status. PMID:21339320

  1. Trends in hospital volume and operative mortality for high-risk surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finks, Jonathan F; Osborne, Nicholas H; Birkmeyer, John D

    2011-06-02

    There were numerous efforts in the United States during the previous decade to concentrate selected surgical procedures in high-volume hospitals. It remains unknown whether referral patterns for high-risk surgery have changed as a result and how operative mortality has been affected. We used national Medicare data to study patients undergoing one of eight different cancer and cardiovascular operations from 1999 through 2008. For each procedure, we examined trends in hospital volume and market concentration, defined as the proportion of Medicare patients undergoing surgery in the top decile of hospitals by volume per year. We used regression-based techniques to assess the effects of volume and market concentration on mortality over time, adjusting for case mix. Median hospital volumes of four cancer resections (lung, esophagus, pancreas, and bladder) and of repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rose substantially. Depending on the procedure, higher hospital volumes were attributable to an increasing number of cases nationwide, an increasing market concentration, or both. Hospital volumes rose slightly for aortic-valve replacement but fell for coronary-artery bypass grafting and carotid endarterectomy. Operative mortality declined for all eight procedures, ranging from a relative decline of 8% for carotid endarterectomy (1.3% mortality in 1999 and 1.2% in 2008) to 36% for AAA repair (4.4% in 1999 and 2.8% in 2008). Higher hospital volumes explained a large portion of the decline in mortality for pancreatectomy (67% of the decline), cystectomy (37%), and esophagectomy (32%), but not for the other procedures. Operative mortality with high-risk surgery fell substantially during the previous decade. Although increased market concentration and hospital volume have contributed to declining mortality with some high-risk cancer operations, declines in mortality with other procedures are largely attributable to other factors. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging.).

  2. Association between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in the oldest old: untangling the role of frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Bert; Depoortere, David; Van Pottelbergh, Gijs; Matheï, Catharina; Neto, Joana; Degryse, Jan

    2017-10-12

    To date, there is no consensus regarding cardiovascular risk management in the very old. Studies have shown that the relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and mortality is null or even inverted within this age group. This relationship could be modified by the presence of frailty. This study was performed to examine the effect of frailty on the association between cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in the oldest old. The BELFRAIL study is a prospective, observational, population-based cohort study of 567 subjects aged 80 years and older. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Frailty was assessed using three different models: the Groningen Frailty Indicator, Fried and Puts models. Participants were considered robust if they were 'not frail' according to all three models, and frail if they met the frailty criteria for one of the three models. The follow-up data on mortality and cause of death were registered. No cardiovascular risk factor was associated with mortality in subjects with and without cardiovascular disease. The presence of frailty was a strong risk factor for mortality [HR: 2.5, 95%CI: (1.9-3.2) for all-cause mortality; HR: 2.2, 95%CI: (1.4-3.4) for cardiovascular mortality]. In robust patients, a history of cardiovascular disease increased the risk for mortality [HR: 1.7, 95%CI: (1.1-2.5) for all-cause mortality; HR: 2.2, 95%CI: (1.2-3.9) for cardiovascular mortality]. In frail patients, there was no association between any of the traditional risk factors and mortality. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with mortality in very old subjects. Frailty was shown to be a strong risk factor for mortality in this age group. However, frailty could not be used to identify additional subjects who might benefit more from cardiovascular risk management.

  3. Occupational heavy lifting and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Eriksen, Louise; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2012-01-01

    -cause mortality, and the influence of occupational and leisure time physical activity on this association. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 1987, 1994, and 2000 from the Danish National Health Interview Surveys providing a sample of 6,692 working men and 5,921 working women aged 16--85 years without...... cardiovascular disease at baseline. Conventional risk factors for the outcomes IHD and all-cause mortality were controlled for in Cox analyses. RESULTS: Among men, heavy lifting was associated with increased risk for IHD (hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95 % Confidence interval (95 % CI): 1.15, 2.02), while a decreased...

  4. Mortality risk of sotalol and amiodarone for post-CABG atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarasa M A; Brophy, James M

    2016-07-01

    Sotalol and amiodarone are commonly prescribed antiarrhythmics for the treatment of post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Though they are effective in maintaining sinus rhythm in this population, little is known about their association with mortality. To examine the association between sotalol and amiodarone exposure and total mortality in individuals with new-onset POAF following CABG. The computerised health databases of Quebec, Canada were used to identify all patients over 65 who had undergone CABG and were newly diagnosed with POAF (January 1993 to June 2003). A time-matched nested-case-control approach was used to compare current users of sotalol and amiodarone with those not exposed to either medication during the same period. Rate ratios of mortality were estimated using conditional logistic regression. 4770 eligible patients were identified (930 cases, 4648 matched controls). Sotalol users had fewer comorbidities and used fewer concomitant medications than amiodarone users at baseline. Current users of sotalol were at decreased risk of mortality compared to individuals not exposed to either study drug during the same period (RRadj. 0.56 (0.39, 0.80)) while current users of amiodarone were at increased risk of mortality (RRadj. 1.50 (1.15, 1.94)). However this association was not consistently observed across all sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Current use of sotalol was associated with a decreased risk of mortality. Current use of amiodarone was associated with an increased risk of mortality but not for all subgroups. Additional research is required to better understand the safety of sotalol and amiodarone in individuals with POAF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mortality risk in children with epilepsy: the Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenbach, P M; Westendorp, R G; Geerts, A T; Arts, W F; Peeters, E A; van Donselaar, C A; Peters, A C; Stroink, H; Brouwer, O F

    2001-06-01

    Long-term follow-up studies of patients with epilepsy have revealed an increased mortality risk compared with the general population. Mortality of children who have epilepsy in modern times is as yet unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine mortality of children who have epilepsy in comparison with the general population. Between August 1988 and August 1992, 472 children, aged 1 month to 16 years, who presented in 1 of the participating hospitals with 2 or more newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures or at least 1 status epilepticus were enrolled in the study. All children were followed for 5 years or until death. The number of deaths observed during follow-up was compared with the expected number of deaths in the same age group in the general population in the Netherlands. Nine children died during follow-up, amounting to a mortality rate of 3.8/1000 person-years, which is sevenfold higher than expected (95% confidence interval = 2.4-11.5). No deaths were observed among the 328 children who had epilepsy of nonsymptomatic cause. All deceased children had epilepsy that was caused by a static or progressive neurologic disorder (mortality risk = 22.9; 95% confidence interval = 7.9-37.9). None of them died from sudden unexpected and unexplained death of epilepsy. In our cohort, we found no indication that children who have nonsymptomatic epilepsy have an increased mortality risk compared with the general population, whereas children who have symptomatic epilepsy have a 20-fold increased mortality risk. These data provide guidance for counseling parents of children who have epilepsy.

  6. Influence of Comorbidity on the Risk of Mortality in Men With Unfavorable-Risk Prostate Cancer Undergoing High-Dose Radiation Therapy Alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Mai Anh, E-mail: mahuynh@lroc.harvard.edu [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui; Wu, Jing [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Moran, Brian J. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, Illinois (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital–Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To explore whether a subgroup of men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer (PC) exists in whom high-dose radiation therapy (RT) alone is sufficient to avoid excess PC death due to competing risk from cardiometabolic comorbidity. Methods and Materials: This was a cohort study of 7399 men in whom comorbidity (including congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, or myocardial infarction) was assessed and recorded with T1-3NxM0 PC treated with brachytherapy with or without neoadjuvant RT, October 1997 to May 2013 at a single providing institution. Cox and competing risks regression analyses were used to assess whether men with unfavorable–intermediate/high-risk versus favorable–intermediate/low-risk PC were at increased risk of PC-specific, all-cause, or other-cause mortality (PCSM, ACM, OCM), adjusting for number of comorbidities, age at and year of brachytherapy, RT use, and an RT treatment propensity score. Results: After a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 935 men died: 80 of PC and 855 of other causes. Among men with no comorbidity, PCSM risk (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 2.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-5.06], P=.001) and ACM risk (AHR 1.30 [95% CI 1.07-1.58], P=.007) were significantly increased in men with unfavorable–intermediate/high-risk PC versus favorable–intermediate/low-risk PC, with no difference in OCM (P=.07). Although PCSM risk was increased in men with 1 comorbidity (AHR 2.87 [95% CI 1.11-7.40], P=.029), ACM risk was not (AHR 1.03 [95% CI 0.78-1.36], P=.84). Neither PCSM risk (AHR 4.39 [95% CI 0.37-51.98], P=.24) or ACM risk (AHR 1.43 [95% CI 0.83-2.45], P=.20) was increased in men with 2 comorbidities. Conclusions: To minimize death from PC, high-dose RT alone may be sufficient treatment in men with 2 or more cardiometabolic comorbidities and unfavorable–intermediate- and high-risk PC.

  7. The value of customised centiles in assessing perinatal mortality risk associated with parity and maternal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardosi, J; Clausson, B; Francis, A

    2009-09-01

    We wanted to compare customised and population standards for defining smallness for gestational age (SGA) in the assessment of perinatal mortality risk associated with parity and maternal size. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. Swedish Birth Registry database 1992-1995 with 354 205 complete records. Coefficients were derived and applied to determine SGA by the fully customised method, or by adjustment for fetal sex only, and using the same fetal weight standard. Perinatal deaths and rates of small for gestational age (SGA) babies within subgroups stratified by parity, body mass index (BMI) and maternal size within the BMI range of 20.0-24.9. Perinatal mortality rates (PMR) had a U-shaped distribution in parity groups, increased proportionately with maternal BMI, and had no association with maternal size within the normal BMI range. For each of these subgroups, SGA rates determined by the customised method showed strong association with the PMR. In contrast, SGA based on uncustomised, population-based centiles had poor correlation with perinatal mortality. The increased perinatal mortality risk in pregnancies of obese mothers was associated with an increased risk of SGA using customised centiles, and a decreased risk of SGA using population-based centiles. The use of customised centiles to determine SGA improves the identification of pregnancies which are at increased risk of perinatal death.

  8. Evaluating the competing risks of HIV acquisition and maternal mortality in Africa: a decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M I; Reeves, M F; Caughey, A B

    2012-08-01

    To model the risk of HIV acquisition and maternal mortality for women in four African countries in the light of previous data on risk of HIV acquisition and hormonal contraceptive use. Decision analysis. Chad, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda. Women of reproductive age, at risk of HIV, who do not desire pregnancy. A decision analysis model was built to compare the consequences of removing progestin injectables from use, assuming an increased risk of HIV acquisition. Three scenarios were considered in four African countries: replacement of progestin injectables with no method, with combined oral contraceptives (COC) or with an intrauterine device (IUD). Health outcomes measured include: life-years, maternal mortality, HIV acquisition and unsafe abortion. Sensitivity analysis, including Monte Carlo simulation, was performed around all variables. HIV acquisition, maternal mortality and life-years. If progestin injectables are removed from use, without a minimum of 70-100% of women switching to an IUD or COCs, up to nine additional maternal deaths will occur for every case of HIV averted. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that this finding persisted across a broad range of variables. Contraception is critical to preserving life for women in Africa. In the absence of clear evidence regarding hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition, policy decisions must not overlook the very real risk of maternal mortality. © 2012 World Health Organization BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  9. Personal networks and mortality risk in older adults: a twenty-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ellwardt

    Full Text Available Research on aging has consistently demonstrated an increased chance of survival for older adults who are integrated into rich networks of social relationships. Theoretical explanations state that personal networks offer indirect psychosocial and direct physiological pathways. We investigate whether effects on and pathways to mortality risk differ between functional and structural characteristics of the personal network. The objective is to inquire which personal network characteristics are the best predictors of mortality risk after adjustment for mental, cognitive and physical health.Empirical tests were carried out by combining official register information on mortality with data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. The sample included 2,911 Dutch respondents aged 54 to 85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of twenty years. Four functional characteristics (emotional and social loneliness, emotional and instrumental support and four structural characteristics (living arrangement, contact frequency, number of contacts, number of social roles of the personal network as well as mental, cognitive and physical health were assessed at all LASA follow-ups. Statistical analyses comprised of Cox proportional hazard regression models. Findings suggest differential effects of personal network characteristics on survival, with only small gender differences. Mortality risk was initially reduced by functional characteristics, but disappeared after full adjustment for the various health variables. Mortality risk was lowest for older adults embedded in large (HR = 0.986, 95% CI 0.979-0.994 and diverse networks (HR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.917-0.981, and this effect continued to show in the fully adjusted models.Functional characteristics (i.e. emotional and social loneliness are indirectly associated with a reduction in mortality risk, while structural characteristics (i.e. number of contacts and number of social roles have

  10. Risk of Mortality in Elderly Nursing Home Patients with Depression Using Paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vishal; Chatterjee, Satabdi; Johnson, Michael L; Chen, Hua; Carnahan, Ryan M; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2017-03-01

    Among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), paroxetine is strongly anticholinergic and might lead to a higher risk of adverse outcomes such as mortality. This study examined the risk of mortality in depressed elderly nursing home patients using paroxetine and other SSRIs. This study used 2007-2010 Minimum Data Set-linked Medicare data and a propensity score (PS)-matched retrospective cohort study design to achieve the study objective. New users of paroxetine and other SSRIs were followed until they reached the end of the follow-up period (1 year), switched to a different antidepressant class, used psychotherapy, or had a gap of more than 15 days in the use of index antidepressant class, whichever occurred earlier. A robust Cox proportional hazard (PH) model was used to evaluate the risk of mortality associated with the use of paroxetine and other SSRIs in depressed elderly nursing home residents. The PS matching yielded 4620 patients each in the two treatment groups. The unadjusted incidence of mortality was 269 (2.9%) for paroxetine and 288 (3.1%) for other SSRIs users in the matched cohort. The robust Cox PH model did not find any significant difference in the risk mortality between the two groups (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.19). This study did not find any significant difference in the risk of mortality between users of paroxetine and other SSRIs among elderly nursing home patients with depression. There is a need for further evaluation of other adverse effects of paroxetine due to its anticholinergic effects in the geriatric population. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  11. Spatial risk for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Rion

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although economic reforms have brought significant benefits, including improved health care to many Chinese people, accessibility to improved care has not been distributed evenly throughout Chinese society. Also, the effects of the uneven distribution of improved healthcare are not clearly understood. Evidence suggests that mortality is an indicator for evaluating accessibility to improved health care services. We constructed spatially smoothed risk maps for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China comprising both urban and rural areas and identified ecological factors of gender-specific mortality across societies. Results The study analyzed the data of the Hechi Prefecture in southern in China. An average of 124,204 people lived in the area during the study period (2002–2004. Individual level data for 2002–2004 were grouped using identical rectangular cells (regular lattice of 0.25 km2. Poisson regression was fitted to the group level data to identify gender-specific ecological factors of adult (ages 15– Conclusion We found a disparity in mortality rates between rural and urban areas in the study area in southern China, especially for adult men. There were also differences in mortality rates between poorer and wealthy populations in both rural and urban areas, which may in part reflect differences in health care quality. Spatial influences upon adult male versus adult female mortality difference underscore the need for more research on gender-related influences on adult mortality in China.

  12. [Mortality and risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Russia: Specific features, trends, and prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boytsov, S A; Deev, A D; Shalnova, S A

    In the Russian Federation, the increase in all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality began in the 1960s and lasted almost continuously until 2003. In our country, the characteristics of mortality are its substantially higher rates among men and a large regional variability, which is associated with economic, climatic, and geographic factors. Urbanization coupled with dietary changes and the higher prevalence of hypertension is the most likely initial impetus to the rise in mortality rates. The subsequent increase in mortality can be explained by the higher prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors, alcoholism, and, since the 1990s, by heavy and protracted socioeconomic upheavals and lifestyle changes. The mortality decline since 2006 has been linked to the strengthening of the health system and to the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among men and hypertension in women. The slowing down of the pace of mortality decline may be due to the increase in the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among men. The modelling data show that by 2025, reductions in smoking prevalence rates by 23% among men and by 12% among women and increases in the efficiency of hypertension treatment by 17.2% in men and by 11.2% in women will reduce cardiovascular mortality rates by 15%.

  13. Short-term mortality risk of serum potassium levels in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Maria Lukács; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Diuretics and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are central in the treatment of hypertension, but may cause serum potassium abnormalities. We examined mortality in relation to serum potassium in hypertensive patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish National Registries, we...... identified 44 799 hypertensive patients, aged 30 years or older, who had a serum potassium measurement within 90 days from diagnosis between 1995 and 2012. All-cause mortality was analysed according to seven predefined potassium levels: 5.......0 mmol/L (hyperkalaemia). Outcome was 90-day mortality, estimated with multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, with the potassium interval of 4.1-4.4 mmol/L as reference. During 90-day follow-up, mortalities in the seven strata were 4.5, 2.7, 1.8, 1.5, 1.7, 2.7, and 3.6%, respectively. Adjusted risk...

  14. On the avoidability of breast cancer in industrialized societies: Older mean age at first birth as an indicator of excess breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); E. Pukkala (Eero); H. Brenner (Hermann); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Breast cancer incidence continuous to increase. We examined at population level the association between the relative excess risk of breast cancer and previous age of mother at first birth. Method: Incidence of breast cancer in 34 industrialized countries was obtained from the

  15. The risk of perinatal mortality with each week of expectant management in obese pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruofan; Schuh, Brittany L; Caughey, Aaron B

    2017-09-27

    The risk of stillbirth associated with maternal obesity increases with gestational age; however, it is unclear if earlier delivery reduces the overall perinatal mortality rate. Our objective was to compare the risk of perinatal mortality associated with each additional week of expectant management to that of immediate delivery. This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton non-anomalous births in Texas between 2006 and 2011. Analyses were stratified based on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI class. For each BMI class, we calculated the rate of neonatal death and stillbirth at each week of gestation from 34 to 41 weeks. A composite risk of perinatal mortality associated with 1 week of expectant management was estimated combining the stillbirth rate of the current week and the neonatal death rate of the following week. This was compared with the rate of neonatal death of the current week. After all exclusions, 2,149,771 births remained for analysis. In the normal weight group, stillbirth risk increased from 0.8 per 10,000 births at 34 weeks to 5.7 per 10,000 births at 42 weeks, whereas the neonatal death risk decreased from 76.5 per 10,000 births at 34 weeks to 30.4 per 10,000 births at 42 weeks, there were no differences between expectant management and delivery for any gestational week. In the obese group, stillbirth risk increased from 1.8 per 10,000 births at 34 weeks to 10.5 per 10,000 births at 42 weeks, whereas the neonatal death risk decreased from 67.7 per 10,000 births at 34 weeks to 26.2 per 10,000 births at 42 weeks, the perinatal mortality risk favored delivery at 39 weeks (RR: 1.17; 99% CI: 1.01-1.36) and not thereafter. In contrast, in the morbidly obese group, stillbirth risk increased from 8.8 per 10,000 births at 34 weeks to 83.7 per 10,000 births at 42 weeks, whereas the neonatal death risk decreased from 63.6 per 10,000 births at 34 weeks to 15.5 per 10,000 births at 42 weeks, the perinatal mortality risk favored delivery from 38 weeks (RR: 1.53; 99

  16. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B; Baker, Mark; Harris, Tyler; Stephenson, David

    2015-03-01

    Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality. In this meta-analytic review, our objective is to establish the overall and relative magnitude of social isolation and loneliness and to examine possible moderators. We conducted a literature search of studies (January 1980 to February 2014) using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and Google Scholar. The included studies provided quantitative data on mortality as affected by loneliness, social isolation, or living alone. Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively. We found no differences between measures of objective and subjective social isolation. Results remain consistent across gender, length of follow-up, and world region, but initial health status has an influence on the findings. Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years. Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Metabolic acidosis as a risk factor for the development of acute kidney injury and hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiachang; Wang, Yimei; Geng, Xuemei; Chen, Rongyi; Xu, Xialian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Lin, Jing; Teng, Jie; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic acidosis has been proved to be a risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease, but its relation to acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been investigated. In general, a diagnosis of metabolic acidosis is based on arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis, but the diagnostic role of carbon dioxide combining power (CO2CP) in the venous blood may also be valuable to non-respiratory patients. This retrospective study included all adult non-respiratory patients admitted consecutively to our hospital between October 01, 2014 and September 30, 2015. A total of 71,089 non-respiratory patients were included, and only 4,873 patients were evaluated by ABG analysis at admission. In patients with ABG, acidosis, metabolic acidosis, decreased HCO3(-) and hypocapnia at admission was associated with the development of AKI, while acidosis and hypocapnia were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Among non-respiratory patients, decreased CO2CP at admission was an independent risk factor for AKI and hospital mortality. ROC curves indicated that CO2CP was a reasonable biomarker to exclude metabolic acidosis, dual and triple acid-base disturbances. The effect sizes of decreased CO2CP on AKI and hospital mortality varied according to age and different underlying diseases. Metabolic acidosis is an independent risk factor for the development of AKI and hospital mortality. In non-respiratory patient, decreased CO2CP is also an independent contributor to AKI and mortality and can be used as an indicator of metabolic acidosis.

  18. Preoperative statin is associated with decreased operative mortality in high risk coronary artery bypass patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Thomas D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins are widely prescribed to patients with atherosclerosis. A retrospective database analysis was used to examine the role of preoperative statin use in hospital mortality, for patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Methods The study population comprised 2377 patients who had isolated CABG at Allegheny General Hospital between 2000 and 2004. Mean age of the patients was 65 ± 11 years (range 27 to 92 years. 1594 (67% were male, 5% had previous open heart procedures, and 4% had emergency surgery. 1004 patients (42% were being treated with a statin at the time of admission. Univariate, bivariate (Chi2, Fisher's Exact and Student's t-tests and multivariate (stepwise linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of statin use with mortality following CABG. Results Annual prevalence of preoperative statin use was similar over the study period and averaged 40%. Preoperative clinical risk assessment demonstrated a 2% risk of mortality in both the statin and non-statin groups. Operative mortality was 2.4% for all patients, 1.7% for statin users and 2.8% for non-statin users (p Conclusions Between 2000 and 2004 less than 50% of patients at this institution were receiving statins before admission for isolated CABG. A retrospective analysis of this cohort provides evidence that preoperative statin use is associated with lower operative mortality in high-risk patients.

  19. Parenting style in childhood and mortality risk at older ages: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Pillas, Demetris; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Parenting style is associated with offspring health, but whether it is associated with offspring mortality at older ages remains unknown. We examined whether childhood experiences of suboptimal parenting style are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. Longitudinal cohort study of 1964 community-dwelling adults aged 65-79 years. The association between parenting style and mortality was inverse and graded. Participants in the poorest parenting style score quartile had increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.72, 95% CI 1.20-2.48) compared with those in the optimal parenting style score quartile after adjustment for age and gender. Full adjustment for covariates partially explained this association (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.18). Parenting style was inversely associated with cancer and other mortality, but not cardiovascular mortality. Maternal and paternal parenting styles were individually associated with mortality. Experiences of suboptimal parenting in childhood are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. [Interest of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index for mortality prediction in hemodialysis patients: preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajedine, Khaled; Fardous, Rida; Al Adib, Mohamad; Colomb, Henry; Maurin, Audrey

    2012-07-01

    Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) is a simple and quantitative method (based on three objective measurements: weight, height, albumin) for screening patients at risk for malnutrition. However no data are available regarding its relation with mortality in Caucasian hemodialysis patients. We tested the predictive value of GNRI on mortality in a hemodialysis population followed up prospectively for 18 months. A total of 46 stable prevalent (mean age: 76 ± 11 years, range: 42-95) hemodialysis patients from one center were included in the study. GNRI with other nutritional parameters were evaluated for all patients. Sixteen patients (35%) died during the 18 months of follow-up. Multiple logistic model showed that GNRI and Charlson co-morbidity score were significant predictors of mortality. Age and gender were not significant. Our preliminary study carried out on a series of prevalent hemodialysis patients suggests that GNRI is predictor of mortality. To recommend the use of this index for the screening of hemodialysis patients with malnutrition at risk of mortality, our results should be confirmed by a large cohort study. Copyright © 2012 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study

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    Toshiaki Kawachi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke. Results: During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.97 and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16–2.35 for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–1.01, although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06. The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively. There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42–0.98; P for trend = 0.08. The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64. Conclusions: Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  2. Association of Radical Local Treatment with Mortality in Men with Very High-risk Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stattin, Pär; Sandin, Fredrik; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend androgen deprivation therapy only for men with very high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), but there is little evidence to support this stance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between radical local treatment and mortality in men with very high-risk PCa...... in men with very high-risk PCa for whom such treatment has been considered ineffective. PATIENT SUMMARY: Men with very high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed and treated in units with the highest exposure to surgery or radiotherapy had a substantially lower mortality.......BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend androgen deprivation therapy only for men with very high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), but there is little evidence to support this stance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between radical local treatment and mortality in men with very high-risk PCa....... DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Semiecologic study of men aged high-risk PCa (local clinical stage T4 and/or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level 50-200ng/ml, any N, and M0). Men with locally advanced PCa (local...

  3. Digoxin and mortality in survivors of acute myocardial infarction: observations in patients at low and intermediate risk. The SPRINT Study Group. Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israeli Nifedipine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leor, J; Goldbourt, U; Behar, S; Boyko, V; Reicher-Reiss, H; Kaplinsky, E; Rabinowitz, B

    1995-08-01

    Controversy surrounds the safety of digoxin use in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Previous observations yielded contradictory conclusions. To determine whether digoxin therapy is associated with increased mortality in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction, we analyzed data from 1731 survivors of acute myocardial infarction enrolled in the Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israeli Nifedipine Trial (SPRINT), from which patients with severe heart failure were excluded. At the time of hospital discharge, 175 patients (10%) were taking digoxin. Mortality over 1 year after infarction was significantly higher in patients treated with digoxin than in patients who were not receiving digoxin [27 of 175 (15%) vs. 60 of 1556 (4%); p Digoxin administration was associated with increased mortality in several subsets of patients. Since patients treated with digoxin had baseline characteristics predictive of mortality more frequently than their counterparts, we adjusted for these differences. Multivariate analysis performed by the Cox proportional hazards model identified treatment with digoxin as an independent determinant associated with increased death during the first year after myocardial infarction [relative risk (RR) 2.8; 90% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-4.2]. Subgroup multivariate analysis indicated digoxin as an independent predictor of first year death in 464 patients who developed heart failure during their hospital stay (RR 2.3; 90% CI 1.3-4.0), as well as among 1267 patients who did not (RR 3.4; 90% CI 1.7-6.9). The present study suggests a significant excess mortality associated with digoxin therapy after myocardial infarction. The increased mortality risk may be related to unidentified variables associated with the severity of disease in patients treated with digoxin. However, our findings raise concern that the administration of digoxin may contribute to increased mortality in survivors of acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Hyponatremia improvement is associated with a reduced risk of mortality: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, there is no clear demonstration that the improvement of serum sodium concentration ([Na(+] counteracts the increased risk of mortality associated with hyponatremia. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis that included the published studies that addressed the effect of hyponatremia improvement on mortality.A Medline, Embase and Cochrane search was performed to retrieve all English-language studies of human subjects published up to June 30th 2014, using the following words: "hyponatremia", "hyponatraemia", "mortality", "morbidity" and "sodium". Fifteen studies satisfied inclusion criteria encompassing a total of 13,816 patients. The identification of relevant abstracts, the selection of studies and the subsequent data extraction were performed independently by two of the authors, and conflicts resolved by a third investigator. Across all fifteen studies, any improvement of hyponatremia was associated with a reduced risk of overall mortality (OR=0.57[0.40-0.81]. The association was even stronger when only those studies (n=8 reporting a threshold for serum [Na(+] improvement to >130 mmol/L were considered (OR=0.51[0.31-0.86]. The reduced mortality rate persisted at follow-up (OR=0.55[0.36-0.84] at 12 months. Meta-regression analyses showed that the reduced mortality associated with hyponatremia improvement was more evident in older subjects and in those with lower serum [Na(+] at enrollment.This meta-analysis documents for the first time that improvement in serum [Na(+] in hyponatremic patients is associated with a reduction of overall mortality.

  5. Association between nocturia and falls-related long-term mortality risk in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizia, Gianluigi; Langellotto, Assunta; Cacciatore, Francesco; Mazzella, Francesca; Testa, Gianluca; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Ungar, Andrea; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Franco; Abete, Pasquale

    2012-09-01

    A high falls-related mortality rate in the elderly is not exclusively related to injuries. Moreover, the risk of falls increases with urinary disorders such as nocturia. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nocturia in falls-related long-term mortality in elderly subjects. Longitudinal study. The "Osservatorio Geriatrico Regione Campania" was a cross-sectional study performed in 1992 in Campania, a region of Southern Italy. Long-term mortality (12 years' follow-up) in 178 elderly subjects (mean age 74.0 ± 6.3 years) with falls and 1110 elderly subjects (mean age 75.2 ± 6.4 years) without falls at baseline was measured. Subjects were then stratified for the presence/absence of nocturia. In our sample, the prevalence of falls was 13.8% and the prevalence of nocturia was 45.7%. Long-term mortality was 51.3% in nonfallers and 62.9% in fallers (P < .05). In the absence of nocturia, long-term mortality was similar in nonfallers and fallers (49.0% vs 46.7%; P = .514, NS). In contrast, in the presence of nocturia, long-term mortality was higher in fallers than in nonfallers (74.5% vs 53.6%; P < .05). Cox regression analysis confirmed the predictive role of falls on long-term mortality in the presence of nocturia (hazard ratio 60; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.57; P < .05) but not in the absence of nocturia (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.99; P = .28). Our data suggest that falls are related to an increased risk of long-term mortality in the elderly much more in the presence of nocturia. This phenomenon is probably related to the high comorbidity that usually affects elderly subjects with nocturia. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stroke Mortality, Clinical Presentation and Day of Arrival: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. O'Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies report that acute stroke patients who present to the hospital on weekends have higher rates of 28-day mortality than similar patients who arrive during the week. However, how this association is related to clinical presentation and stroke type has not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results. We examined the association between day of arrival and 28-day mortality in 929 validated stroke events in the ARIC cohort from 1987–2004. Weekend arrival was defined as any arrival time from midnight Friday until midnight Sunday. Mortality was defined as all-cause fatal events from the day of arrival through the 28th day of followup. The presence or absence of thirteen stroke signs and symptoms were obtained through medical record review for each event. Binomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI for the association between weekend arrival and 28-day mortality for all stroke events and for stroke subtypes. The overall risk of 28-day mortality was 9.6% for weekday strokes and 10.1% for weekend strokes. In models controlling for patient demographics, clinical risk factors, and event year, weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day mortality (0.87; 0.51, 1.50. When stratified by stroke type, weekend arrival was not associated with increased odds of mortality for ischemic (1.17, 0.62, 2.23 or hemorrhagic (0.37; 0.11, 1.26 stroke patients. Conclusions. Presence or absence of thirteen signs and symptoms was similar for weekday patients and weekend patients when stratified by stroke type. Weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day all-cause mortality or differences in symptom presentation for strokes in this cohort.

  7. Health risks in the cleaning industry: a Belgian census-linked mortality study (1991-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2017-08-14

    Cleaning work has been associated with a wide range of occupational health hazards. However, little is known about mortality risks in the cleaning industry. This study examines differences in cause-specific mortality between cleaners, manual and non-manual workers. Using exhaustive census-linked mortality data, the total Belgian working population aged 30-60 was selected from the 1991 census. Analyses were based on 202,339 male and 58,592 female deaths between 1 March 1991 and 31 December 2011. Standardized Mortality Ratios were calculated and indirectly adjusted for smoking (SMR). In addition, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to account for age, educational level, part-time employment and marital status. Large mortality differences were observed between cleaners, manual and non-manual workers. In 2001-2011, smoking-adjusted SMRs for all-cause mortality were higher among cleaners than among non-manual workers (Men 1.25 CI 1.22-1.28; women 1.10 CI 1.07-1.13). SMRs also show cleaners had significantly more deaths due to COPD (men 2.13 CI 1.92-2.37; women 2.03 CI 1.77-2.31); lung cancer (men 1.31 CI 1.22-1.39; women 1.21 CI 1.11-1.32); pneumonia (men 1.64 CI 1.35-1.97; women 1.31 CI 1.00-1.68); ischaemic heart diseases (men 1.22 CI 1.13-1.31; women 1.40 CI 1.25-1.57) and cerebrovascular diseases (men 1.19 CI 1.05-1.35; women 1.13 CI 1.00-1.27). Mortality risks among cleaners remained elevated after adjustment for education. Respiratory and cardiovascular mortality is considerably higher for male and female cleaners than for non-manual workers.

  8. Risk Factors for 30-Day Mortality in Patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayau, Pedro; Bardossy, Ana C; Sanchez, Guillermo; Ortiz, Ricardo; Moreno, Daniela; Hartman, Pamela; Rizvi, Khulood; Prentiss, Tyler C; Perri, Mary B; Mahan, Meredith; Huang, Vanthida; Reyes, Katherine; Zervos, Marcus J

    2017-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood stream infections (BSI) are a major health care problem accounting for a large percentage of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with MRSA BSI. This was a retrospective study performed in Southeast Michigan. Over a 9- year period, a total of 1,168 patients were identified with MRSA BSI. Patient demographics and clinical data were retrieved and evaluated using electronic medical health records. 30-day mortality during the 9-year study period was 16%. Significant risk factors for 30-day mortality were age, cancer, heart disease, neurologic disease, nursing home residence and Charlson score >3 with Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.03 (CI 1.02-1.04), 2.29 (CI 1.40-3.75), 1.78 (CI 1.20-2.63), 1.65 (CI 1.08-2.25), 1.66 (CI 1.02 - 2.70) and 1.86 (CI 1.18 - 2.95) correspondingly. Diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), and readmission were protective factors for 30-day mortality with OR of 0.53 (CI 0.36-0.78), 0.46 (CI 0.26-0.84) and 0.13 (CI0.05 - 0.32) respectively. Our study identified significant risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients with MRSA BSI. Interestingly, diabetes mellitus, PVD and readmission were protective effects on 30-day mortality. There was no statistically significant variability in 30-day mortality over the 9-year study period. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Sabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA, conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i taxonomic classification, (ii age, and (iii migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius, were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002, while wood-warblers (Parulidae were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p < 0.001. The proportion of juveniles striking windows (45.4% was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827 than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%. Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012. Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes.

  10. Comparative observational study of mortality amenable by health policy and care between rural and urban Finland: no excess segregation of mortality in the capital despite its increasing residential differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehikoinen, Markku; Arffman, Martti; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Elovainio, Marko; Keskimäki, Ilmo

    2016-04-05

    Large cities are often claimed to display more distinct geographical and socioeconomic health inequalities than other areas due to increasing residential differentiation. Our aim was to assess whether geographical inequalities in mortality within the capital (City of Helsinki) both exceeded that in other types of geographical areas in Finland, and whether those differences were dependent on socioeconomic inequalities. We analysed the inequality of distribution separately for overall, ischemic heart disease and alcohol-related mortality, and mortality amenable (AM) to health care interventions in 1992-2008 in three types of geographical areas in Finland: City of Helsinki, other large cities, and small towns and rural areas. Mortality data were acquired as secondary data from the Causes of Death statistics from Statistics Finland. The assessment of changing geographical differences over time, that is geographical inequalities, was performed using Gini coefficients. As some of these differences might arise from socioeconomic factors, we assessed socioeconomic differences with concentration indices in parallel to an analysis of geographical differences. To conclude the analysis, we compared the changes over time of these inequalities between the three geographical areas. While mortality rates mainly decreased, alcohol-related mortality in the lowest income quintile increased. Statistically significant differences over time were found in all mortality groups, varying between geographical areas. Socioeconomic differences existed in all mortality groups and geographical areas. In the study period, geographical differences in mortality remained relatively stable but income differences increased substantially. For instance, the values of concentration indices for AM changed by 54 % in men (p differentiation in the capital may have been mitigated by the policies of positive discrimination and social mixing. One of the main reasons for the increase in health inequalities

  11. Short-term mortality risk of serum potassium levels in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Maria Lukács; Eggers-Kaas, Lotti; Aasbjerg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Diuretic treatment is often needed in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI) and carries a risk of abnormal potassium levels. We examined the relation between different levels of potassium and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish national registries we identified 2596...... patients treated with loop diuretics after their first MI episode where potassium measurement was available within 3 months. All-cause mortality was examined according to seven predefined potassium levels: hypokalaemia ... hazard model. After 90 days, the mortality rates in the seven potassium intervals were 15.7, 13.6, 7.3, 8.1, 10.6, 15.5, and 38.3%, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted risk for death was statistically significant for patients with hypokalaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 1.91, confidence interval (95%CI): 1...

  12. Time-dependent changes in mortality and transformation risk in MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Tuechler, Heinz; Sanz, Guillermo; Schanz, Julie; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Solé, Francesc; Bennett, John M; Bowen, David; Fenaux, Pierre; Dreyfus, Francois; Kantarjian, Hagop; Kuendgen, Andrea; Malcovati, Luca; Cazzola, Mario; Cermak, Jaroslav; Fonatsch, Christa; Le Beau, Michelle M; Slovak, Marilyn L; Levis, Alessandro; Luebbert, Michael; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Machherndl-Spandl, Sigrid; Magalhaes, Silvia M M; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Stauder, Reinhard; Tauro, Sudhir; Valent, Peter; Vallespi, Teresa; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Detlef; Greenberg, Peter L

    2016-08-18

    In myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), the evolution of risk for disease progression or death has not been systematically investigated despite being crucial for correct interpretation of prognostic risk scores. In a multicenter retrospective study, we described changes in risk over time, the consequences for basal prognostic scores, and their potential clinical implications. Major MDS prognostic risk scoring systems and their constituent individual predictors were analyzed in 7212 primary untreated MDS patients from the International Working Group for Prognosis in MDS database. Changes in risk of mortality and of leukemic transformation over time from diagnosis were described. Hazards regarding mortality and acute myeloid leukemia transformation diminished over time from diagnosis in higher-risk MDS patients, whereas they remained stable in lower-risk patients. After approximately 3.5 years, hazards in the separate risk groups became similar and were essentially equivalent after 5 years. This fact led to loss of prognostic power of different scoring systems considered, which was more pronounced for survival. Inclusion of age resulted in increased initial prognostic power for survival and less attenuation in hazards. If needed for practicability in clinical management, the differing development of risks suggested a reasonable division into lower- and higher-risk MDS based on the IPSS-R at a cutoff of 3.5 points. Our data regarding time-dependent performance of prognostic scores reflect the disparate change of risks in MDS subpopulations. Lower-risk patients at diagnosis remain lower risk whereas initially high-risk patients demonstrate decreasing risk over time. This change of risk should be considered in clinical decision making. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Nutritional Risk Index predicts mortality in hospitalized advanced heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, Oluwayemisi L; Koelling, Todd M; Hummel, Scott L

    2015-11-01

    Hospitalized advanced heart failure (HF) patients are at high risk for malnutrition and death. The Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) is a simple, well-validated tool for identifying patients at risk for nutrition-related complications. We hypothesized that, in advanced HF patients from the ESCAPE (Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness) trial, the NRI would improve risk discrimination for 6-month all-cause mortality. We analyzed the 160 ESCAPE index admission survivors with complete follow-up and NRI data, calculated as follows: NRI = (1.519 × discharge serum albumin [in g/dl]) + (41.7 × discharge weight [in kg] / ideal body weight [in kg]); as in previous studies, if discharge weight is greater than ideal body weight (IBW), this ratio was set to 1. The previously developed ESCAPE mortality model includes: age; 6-minute walk distance; cardiopulmonary resuscitation/mechanical ventilation; discharge β-blocker prescription and diuretic dose; and discharge serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen and brain natriuretic peptide levels. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling for the outcome of 6-month all-cause mortality. Thirty of 160 patients died within 6 months of hospital discharge. The median NRI was 96 (IQR 91 to 102), reflecting mild-to-moderate nutritional risk. The NRI independently predicted 6-month mortality, with adjusted HR 0.60 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.93, p = 0.02) per 10 units, and increased Harrell's c-index from 0.74 to 0.76 when added to the ESCAPE model. Body mass index and NRI at hospital admission did not predict 6-month mortality. The discharge NRI was most helpful in patients with high (≥ 20%) predicted mortality by the ESCAPE model, where observed 6-month mortality was 38% in patients with NRI 100 (p = 0.04). The NRI is a simple tool that can improve mortality risk stratification at hospital discharge in hospitalized patients with advanced HF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Competing risks of cancer mortality and cardiovascular events in individuals with multimorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Bayliss

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer patients with cardiovascular and other comorbidities are at concurrent risk of multiple adverse outcomes. However, most treatment decisions are guided by evidence from single-outcome models, which may be misleading for multimorbid patients. Objective: We assessed the interacting effects of cancer, cardiovascular, and other morbidity burdens on the competing outcomes of cancer mortality, serious cardiovascular events, and other-cause mortality. Design: We analyzed a cohort of 6,500 adults with initial cancer diagnosis between 2001 and 2008, SEER 5-year survival ≥26%, and a range of cardiovascular risk factors. We estimated the cumulative incidence of cancer mortality, a serious cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular mortality, and other-cause mortality over 5 years, and identified factors associated with the competing risks of each outcome using cause-specific Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Following cancer diagnosis, there were 996 (15.3% cancer deaths, 328 (5.1% serious cardiovascular events, and 542 (8.3% deaths from other causes. In all, 4,634 (71.3% cohort members had none of these outcomes. Although cancer prognosis had the greatest effect, cardiovascular and other morbidity also independently increased the hazard of each outcome. The effect of cancer prognosis on outcome was greatest in year 1, and the effect of other morbidity was greater in individuals with better cancer prognoses. Conclusion: In multimorbid oncology populations, comorbidities interact to affect the competing risk of different outcomes. Quantifying these risks may provide persons with cancer plus cardiovascular and other comorbidities more accurate information for shared decision-making than risks calculated from single-outcome models.

  15. Excess Mortality and Causes of Death in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow up of the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Deborah; Botts, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Ken R.; Pimentel, Richard; Farley, Megan; Viskochil, Joseph; McMahon, William M.; Block, Heidi; Ritvo, Edward; Ritvo, Riva-Ariella; Coon, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate mortality among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) ascertained during a 1980s statewide autism prevalence study (n = 305) in relation to controls. Twenty-nine of these individuals (9.5 %) died by the time of follow up, representing a hazard rate ratio of 9.9 (95 % CI 5.7-17.2) in relation to…

  16. Cause-specific excess mortality in patients treated for cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Monsjou, H.S.; Schaapveld, M.; Hamming-Vrieze, O.; de Boer, J.P.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Balm, A.J.M.

    Purpose: To assess cause-specific mortality in a large population-based cohort of 14,393 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OC) or oropharynx (OP) in The Netherlands between 1989 and 2006. Patients and methods: Causes of death were obtained for 94.7% of 9620 patients

  17. Cause-specific excess mortality in patients treated for cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Monsjou, H. S.; Schaapveld, M.; Hamming-Vrieze, O.; de Boer, J. P.; van den Brekel, M. W. M.; Balm, A. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    To assess cause-specific mortality in a large population-based cohort of 14,393 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OC) or oropharynx (OP) in The Netherlands between 1989 and 2006. Causes of death were obtained for 94.7% of 9620 patients who had died up to January 1,

  18. Pregnancy termination in Matlab, Bangladesh: maternal mortality risks associated with menstrual regulation and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mizanur; DaVanzo, Julie; Razzaque, Abdur

    2014-09-01

    In Bangladesh, both menstrual regulation (MR), which is thought to be a relatively safe method, and abortion, which in this setting is often performed using unsafe methods, are used to terminate pregnancies (known or suspected). However, little is known about changes over time in the use of these methods or their relative mortality risks. Data from the Demographic Surveillance System in Matlab, Bangladesh, on 110,152 pregnancy outcomes between 1989 and 2008 were used to assess changes in mortality risks associated with MR (and a small number of dilation and curettage procedures), abortion and live birth. Tabulation and logistic regression analyses were used to compare outcomes in two areas of Matlab--the comparison area, which receives standard government health and family planning services, and the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) area, which receives enhanced health and family planning services. In Matlab as a whole, the proportion of pregnancies ending in MR increased from 1.9% in 1989-1999 to 4.2% in 2000-2008, while the proportion ending in abortion decreased from 1.6% to 1.1%. The odds of mortality from MR were 4.1 times those from live birth in 1989-1999, but were no longer elevated in 2000-2008. The odds of mortality from abortion were 12.0 and 4.9 times those of live birth in 1989-1999 and 2000-2008, respectively. Reduction in mortality risk was greater in the MCH-FP area than the comparison area (90% vs. 75%). MR is no longer associated with higher mortality risk than live birth in Bangladesh, but abortion is.

  19. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  20. Renal insufficiency increases mortality in acute coronary syndromes regardless of TIMI risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Dariusz; Chyrchel, Bernadeta; Siudak, Zbigniew; Depukat, Rafał; Chyrchel, Michał; Dziewierz, Artur; Mielecki, Waldemar; Rakowski, Tomasz; Rzeszutko, Łukasz; Dubiel, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) are the most frequent cause of admission to intensive care units. Early risk assessment and implementation of optimal treatment are of special importance in these patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that renal insufficiency is an independent risk factor in patients with cardiovascular disease. To assess the effects of renal function on the course of treatment and prognosis in patients with NSTE ACS admitted to hospitals without on-site invasive facilities but with a possibility of immediate transfer to a reference centre with a catheterisation laboratory. Twenty-nine community hospitals without on-site invasive facilities participated in the Krakow Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes - a prospective, multicentre, web-based, observational registry. Renal insufficiency (RI) was defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) 60 ml/min (NS). In-hospital mortality among patients remaining on conservative treatment in community hospitals was significantly higher among RI patients (4.0 vs. 0.6%; p TIMI risk score group: 7.3 vs. 2.4% (p risk group, 4.1 vs. 1.4% (NS) in the moderate and 3.6 vs. 0% (p risk group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified reduced creatinine clearance and a history of heart failure as independent factors influencing mortality. Renal insufficiency was present in one-third of NSTE ACS patients. Patients with renal insufficiency had worse clinical risk profile and received less aggressive treatment. Patients with NSTE ACS and renal insufficiency treated conservatively had higher in-hospital mortality. Renal insufficiency modifies mortality irrespective of the TIMI risk score. Creatinine clearance should be considered in modification of the TIMI risk score scale.

  1. The duration of obesity and the risk of type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Asnawi

    2017-01-01

    Recent meta-analysis studies have provided clear evidence for the association between obesity and the risk of chronic diseases and mortality. The quantification of this association, however, has primarily been accomplished by considering the severity of bodyweight at a single point in time. The potential impact of the duration of obesity as an independent risk factor has been neglected. As the onset of obesity is becoming earlier with their impact on prolonging the duration of ...