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Sample records for excess iron accumulation

  1. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (Prunners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (Prunners but in runners had signs of iron overload. Although iron supplements are widely used by athletes in an effort to increase performance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.

  2. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.)

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    Fan Jianling [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71st East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu Zhengyi, E-mail: zhyhu@gucas.ac.c [College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Ziadi, Noura [Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2560 Hochelaga Boulevard, Quebec, QC, G1V 2J3 (Canada); Xia Xu; Wu Congyanghui [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71st East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg{sup -1}) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg{sup -1}). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. - Excessive sulfur reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice.

  3. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  4. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettler, S.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. Methods: We investigated the iron status of 170 male and

  5. Effect of excess iron on oxidative stress and gluconeogenesis through hepcidin during mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Joo Sun; Lee, Hye Ja; Kim, Won-Ho; Park, Sang Ick; Song, Jihyun

    2015-12-01

    Excessive tissue iron levels are a risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are associated with alterations in iron metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study used human liver SK-HEP-1 cells to examine how excess iron induces mitochondrial dysfunction and how hepcidin controls gluconeogenesis. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulated iron due to iron overload induced mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate content and cytochrome c oxidase III expression, with an associated increase in gluconeogenesis. Disturbances in mitochondrial function caused excess iron deposition and unbalanced expression of iron metabolism-related proteins such as hepcidin, ferritin H and ferroportin during the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are responsible for increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression. Desferoxamine and n-acetylcysteine ameliorated these deteriorations by inhibiting p38 MAPK and C/EBPα activity through iron chelation and ROS scavenging activity. Based on experiments using hepcidin shRNA and hepcidin overexpression, the activation of hepcidin affects ROS generation and iron deposition, which disturbs mitochondrial function and causes an imbalance in iron metabolism and increased gluconeogenesis. Repression of hepcidin activity can reverse these changes. Our results demonstrate that iron overload is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and that together they can cause abnormal hepatic gluconeogenesis. Hepcidin expression may modulate this disorder by regulating ROS generation and iron deposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative damage and photosynthetic impairment in tropical rice cultivars upon exposure to excess iron

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    Samuel de Souza Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iron plays a pivotal role in the redox reactions of photosynthesis and metabolic processes such as chlorophyll synthesis. Iron availability in waterlogged soils can reach toxic levels and promote oxidative stress. Fe toxicity is the most concerning of stresses for rice in many lowland environments around the world and may cause severe impairments in rice photosynthesis. This study aimed to investigate the extension of oxidative stress after excess Fe exposure and its effects on the photosynthesis of rice cultivars with differential sensitivity. Three Brazilian rice cultivars (EPAGRI 107, BRSMG SELETA and BR IRGA 409 were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 4.0 with two Fe-EDTA doses corresponding to excess Fe (7 mM and control (0.009 mM treatments. After just three days of excess Fe exposure, there was a significant increase in iron concentration in the shoots. The BR IRGA 409 cultivar exhibited higher Fe accumulation in its shoots, and the EPAGRI 107 cultivar recorded the lowest values, which were below the critical toxicity level, as a resistance strategy. Impairment in light energy partitioning and oxidative damage became evident before changes in stomatal resistance, chlorophyll content, maximal PSII quantum yield or visual symptoms for the most sensitive cultivar (BR IRGA 409. The photosynthesis limitations, in addition to the impairment of excess energy dissipation in rice from iron toxicity, are the results of oxidative damage.

  7. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  8. Iron accumulates in Huntington's disease neurons: protection by deferoxamine.

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    Jianfang Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-encoding CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene. Iron accumulates in the brains of HD patients and mouse disease models. However, the cellular and subcellular sites of iron accumulation, as well as significance to disease progression are not well understood. We used independent approaches to investigate the location of brain iron accumulation. In R6/2 HD mouse brain, synchotron x-ray fluorescence analysis revealed iron accumulation as discrete puncta in the perinuclear cytoplasm of striatal neurons. Further, perfusion Turnbull's staining for ferrous iron (II combined with transmission electron microscope ultra-structural analysis revealed increased staining in membrane bound peri-nuclear vesicles in R6/2 HD striatal neurons. Analysis of iron homeostatic proteins in R6/2 HD mice revealed decreased levels of the iron response proteins (IRPs 1 and 2 and accordingly decreased expression of iron uptake transferrin receptor (TfR and increased levels of neuronal iron export protein ferroportin (FPN. Finally, we show that intra-ventricular delivery of the iron chelator deferoxamine results in an improvement of the motor phenotype in R6/2 HD mice. Our data supports accumulation of redox-active ferrous iron in the endocytic / lysosomal compartment in mouse HD neurons. Expression changes of IRPs, TfR and FPN are consistent with a compensatory response to an increased intra-neuronal labile iron pool leading to increased susceptibility to iron-associated oxidative stress. These findings, together with protection by deferoxamine, support a potentiating role of neuronal iron accumulation in HD.

  9. Legume seeds and cereal grains' capacity to accumulate iron while sprouting in order to obtain food fortificant.

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    Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Staniek, Halina; Król, Ewelina; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Prepared sprouts, after culturing in a medium with an increased iron concentration, could become a beneficial food iron fortificant. However, the efficient iron accumulation depends on the plants genus, species and/or varieties. The aim of the study was to indicate the seeds or grains which accumulate iron most efficiently during the sprouting process. Alfalfa, lentil, lupine and soybean seeds as well as wheat grains were sprouted in abiotic stress conditions induced by the excess of iron(II) in culture media. The tolerance of these plants to iron concentration and its accumulation in the material obtained (with FAAS method) were analyzed. The smallest tolerance was noted for lentil seeds and wheat grains. Other plants developed in 25 mM solution of FeSO4. The highest accumulation of iron was observed in alfalfa sprouts. However, lupine and soybean seeds are the most recommended raw material for the production of the sprouts on an industrial scale.

  10. Age-related accumulation of non-heme ferric and ferrous iron in mouse ovarian stroma visualized by sensitive non-heme iron histochemistry.

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    Asano, Yoshiya

    2012-03-01

    Sensitive non-heme iron histochemistry--namely, the perfusion-Perls method and perfusion-Turnbull method--was applied to study the distribution and age-related accumulation of non-heme ferric iron and ferrous iron in mouse ovary. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed that non-heme ferric iron is distributed predominantly in stromal tissue, especially in macrophages. By contrast, the distribution of non-heme ferrous iron was restricted to a few ovoid macrophages. Aged ovaries exhibited remarkable non-heme iron accumulation in all stromal cells. In particular, non-heme ferrous iron level was increased in stromal tissue, suggestive of increased levels of redox-active iron, which can promote oxidative stress. Moreover, intense localization of both non-heme ferric and ferrous iron was observed in aggregated large stromal cells that were then characterized as ceroid-laden enlarged macrophages with frothy cytoplasm. Intraperitoneal iron overload in adult mice resulted in non-heme iron deposition in the entire stroma and generation of enlarged macrophages, suggesting that excessive iron accumulation induced macrophage morphological changes. The data indicated that non-heme iron accumulation in ovarian stromal tissue may be related to aging of the ovary due to increasing oxidative stress.

  11. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata

    . A common nutritional base for poor populations is a staple such as maize, wheat, rice, potatoes, cassava, or beans, but many of these have low iron and zinc content as well as potent inhibitors of iron uptake. Nutritional supplements are often unavailable to such populations due to lacking infrastructure...... crops with increased nutritional value. In spite of the discovery of several genes involved in the regulation of iron and zinc metabolism in plants, the key regulators for seed iron accumulation have not yet been described. Little is known about the molecules that are responsible for chelating iron...... in mature seeds, but the ferritin protein was suggested to be the major iron storing protein in legumes [1]. Both iron and zinc localization, as well as speciation, can have an impact on their nutritional availability. We will present detailed information about iron, zinc, and ferritin distribution...

  12. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

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    Jinze Xu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  13. HMOX1 as a marker of iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, affecting glucose uptake and respiratory capacity in human adipocytes.

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    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Rodríguez, Amaia; Latorre, Jèssica; Becerril, Sara; Sabater-Masdeu, Mònica; Ricart, Wifredo; Frühbeck, Gema; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Iron excess in adipose tissue is known to promote adipose tissue dysfunction. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible role of haem oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction. Cross-sectionally, HMOX1 gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue was analysed in two independent cohorts (n = 234 and 40) in relation to obesity. We also evaluated the impact of weight loss (n = 21), weight gain (in rats, n = 20) on HMOX1 mRNA; HMOX1 mRNA levels during human adipocyte differentiation; the effects of inflammation and iron on adipocyte HMOX1; and the effects of HMOX1-induced activity on adipocyte mitochondrial respiratory function, glucose uptake and adipogenesis. Adipose tissue HMOX1 was increased in obese participants (p = 0.01) and positively associated with obesity-related metabolic disturbances, and markers of iron accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress (p iron excess, adipogenesis and inflammation. In human adipocytes, iron excess and inflammation led to increased HMOX1 mRNA levels. HMOX1 induction (by haem arginate [hemin] administration), resulted in a significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory capacity (including basal respiration and spare respiratory capacity), glucose uptake and adipogenesis in parallel with increased expression of inflammatory- and iron excess-related genes. HMOX1 is an important marker of iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction and metabolic disturbances in human obesity.

  14. 77 FR 27175 - Control Date To Limit Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and...

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    2012-05-09

    ... Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and Referendum Eligibility in the Monkfish... of excessive control or ownership of fishing privileges, qualifying landings history for an... verify their ownership or control of monkfish permits and other fishing privileges, as well as monkfish...

  15. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

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    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  16. Self-Mutilation in Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation.

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    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Raj, Pawan; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is the term applied to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Well-known phenotypic features are progressive regression with extra pyramidal involvement and a variable course. A 10-year-old child born to consanguineous parents presented with progressive generalized opisthotonic dystonia, retrocollis, oromandibular dyskinesias, apraxia for swallowing, optic atrophy and severe self-mutilation of lips. MR imaging showed brain iron accumulation. Other causes of self-mutilation were excluded. Early infantile onset, ophisthotonic dystonia with oromandibular dyskinesias and characteristic MR images are suggestive of NBIA. There is only one case reported in the literature of self-mutilation in this condition.

  17. Self-mutilation in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation

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    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is the term applied to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Well-known phenotypic features are progressive regression with extra pyramidal involvement and a variable course. A 10-year-old child born to consanguineous parents presented with progressive generalized opisthotonic dystonia, retrocollis, oromandibular dyskinesias, apraxia for swallowing, optic atrophy and severe self-mutilation of lips. MR imaging showed brain iron accumulation. Other causes of self-mutilation were excluded. Early infantile onset, ophisthotonic dystonia with oromandibular dyskinesias and characteristic MR images are suggestive of NBIA. There is only one case reported in the literature of self-mutilation in this condition.

  18. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+, creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO3, showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in normal production wells. Other groundwater constituents, such as Mn, As and Sr were found to co-accumulate with Fe. Acid extraction and ESEM-EDX showed that Ca occurred together with Fe and by X-ray Powder Diffraction it was identified as calcite. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Disposition, accumulation and toxicity of iron fed as iron (II) sulfate or as sodium iron EDTA in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, M.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    A study was performed to provide data on the disposition, accumulation and toxicity of sodium iron EDTA in comparison with iron (II) sulfate in rats on administration via the diet for 31 and 61 days. Clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, food conversion efficiency, hematology, clinical

  1. Iron deficiency stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine apical leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanico, Leila; Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions. Iron supply interruption produced after one month an increasing of anthocyanin content associated to a more stable profile in both cultivars. In Cabernet sauvignon, the higher red pigment accumulation was associated to a lower intensity of chlorotic symptoms, while in Sangiovese, despite the activation of the metabolism, the lower anthocyanin accumulation was associated to a stronger decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Gene expression data showed a significant increase of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effects on the expression of structural and transcription factor genes of phenylpropanoid pathway were cultivar dependent. F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H and LDOX genes, in Cabernet sauvignon, and AOMT1 and AOMT genes, in Sangiovese, were positively affected by the treatment in response to iron deficiency. All data support the hypothesis of an anthocyanin biosynthesis stimulation rather than a decreased degradation of them due to iron chlorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation: update on pathogenic mechanisms.

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    Sonia eLevi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation of iron distribution is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, but the comprehension of the metal role in the development and progression of such disorders is still very limited. The combination of more powerful brain imaging techniques and faster genomic DNA sequencing procedures has allowed the description of a set of genetic disorders characterized by a constant and often early accumulation of iron in specific brain regions and the identification of the associated genes; these disorders are now collectively included in the category of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA. So far 10 different genetic forms have been described but this number is likely to increase in short time. Two forms are linked to mutations in genes directly involved in iron metabolism: Neuroferritinopathy, associated to mutations in the FTL gene and Aceruloplasminaemia, where the ceruloplasmin gene product is defective. In the other forms the connection with iron metabolism is not evident at all and the genetic data let infer the involvement of other pathways: Pank2, COASY,Pla2G6, C19orf12, and FA2H genes seem to be related to lipid metabolism and to mitochondria functioning, WDR45 and ATP13A2 genes are implicated in lysosomal and autophagosome activity, while the C2orf37 gene encodes a nucleolar protein of unknown function. There is much hope in the scientific community that the study of the NBIA forms may provide important insight as to the link between brain iron metabolism and neurodegenerative mechanisms and eventually pave the way for new therapeutic avenues also for the more common neurodegenerative disorders. In this work we will review the most recent findings in the molecular mechanisms underlining the most common forms of NBIA and analyze their possible link with brain iron metabolism.

  3. Dystonia in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation : outcome of bilateral pallidal stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, L.; Pauls, K. A. M.; Wieland, K.; Jech, R.; Kurlemann, G.; Sharma, N.; Gill, S. S.; Haenggeli, C. A.; Hayflick, S. J.; Hogarth, P.; Leenders, K. L.; Limousin, P.; Malanga, C. J.; Moro, E.; Ostrem, J. L.; Revilla, F. J.; Santens, P.; Schnitzler, A.; Tisch, S.; Valldeoriola, F.; Vesper, J.; Volkmann, J.; Woitalla, D.; Peker, S.

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation encompasses a heterogeneous group of rare neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by iron accumulation in the brain. Severe generalized dystonia is frequently a prominent symptom and can be very disabling, causing gait impairment, difficulty

  4. Development of Molecular Markers for Iron Metabolism Related Genes in Lentil and Their Expression Analysis under Excess Iron Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Debjyoti; McPhee, Kevin; Kumar, Shiv

    2017-01-01

    Multiple genes and transcription factors are involved in the uptake and translocation of iron in plants from soil. The sequence information about iron uptake and translocation related genes is largely unknown in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). This study was designed to develop iron metabolism related molecular markers for Ferritin-1, BHLH-1 (Basic helix loop helix), or FER-like transcription factor protein and IRT-1 (Iron related transporter) genes using genome synteny with barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). The second objective of this study was to analyze differential gene expression under excess iron over time (2 h, 8 h, 24 h). Specific molecular markers were developed for iron metabolism related genes (Ferritin-1, BHLH-1, IRT-1) and validated in lentil. Gene specific markers for Ferritin-1 and IRT-1 were used for quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies based on their amplification efficiency. Significant differential expression of Ferritin-1 and IRT-1 was observed under excess iron conditions through qPCR based gene expression analysis. Regulation of iron uptake and translocation in lentil needs further characterization. Greater emphasis should be given to development of conditions simulating field conditions under external iron supply and considering adult plant physiology.

  5. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Konomi; Watanabe, Haruna; Nakano, Takafumi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Moriya, Kyoji; Shintani, Yoshizumi; Fujie, Hajime; Tsutsumi, Takeya; Miyoshi, Hideyuki; Fujinaga, Hidetake; Shinzawa, Seiko; Koike, Kazuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu, E-mail: t.horie@thu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron ({sup 59}Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates

  6. 77 FR 70988 - Control Date To Limit Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... limited to, qualifying landings and permit history for a limited access or allocation-based management... Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and Referendum Eligibility in the Small... comments. SUMMARY: At the request of the New England Fishery Management Council, this notice announces a...

  7. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2 expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wilton Vasconcelos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg and Mo, pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu and Ni, leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni and Mg and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni. Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and

  8. Dysregulation of cellular iron metabolism in Friedreich ataxia: from primary iron-sulfur cluster deficit to mitochondrial iron accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain eMartelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is the most common recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population and is characterized by a mixed spinocerebellar and sensory ataxia frequently associating cardiomyopathy. The disease results from decreased expression of the FXN gene coding for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Early histological and biochemical study of the pathophysiology in patient’s samples revealed that dysregulation of iron metabolism is a key feature of the disease, mainly characterized by mitochondrial iron accumulation and by decreased activity of iron-sulfur cluster enzymes. In the recent past years, considerable progress in understanding the function of frataxin has been provided through cellular and biochemical approaches, pointing to the primary role of frataxin in iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. However, why and how the impact of frataxin deficiency on this essential biosynthetic pathway leads to mitochondrial iron accumulation is still poorly understood. Herein, we review data on both the primary function of frataxin and the nature of the iron metabolism dysregulation in FRDA. To date, the pathophysiological implication of the mitochondrial iron overload in FRDA remains to be clarified.

  9. Iron and ferritin accumulate in separate cellular locations in Phaseolus seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    2010-01-01

    Background Iron is an important micronutrient for all living organisms. Almost 25% of the world's population is affected by iron deficiency, a leading cause of anemia. In plants, iron deficiency leads to chlorosis and reduced yield. Both animals and plants may suffer from iron deficiency when...... their diet or environment lacks bioavailable iron. A sustainable way to reduce iron malnutrition in humans is to develop staple crops with increased content of bioavailable iron. Knowledge of where and how iron accumulates in seeds of crop plants will increase the understanding of plant iron metabolism...... and will assist in the production of staples with increased bioavailable iron. Results Here we reveal the distribution of iron in seeds of three Phaseolus species including thirteen genotypes of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. lunatus. We showed that high concentrations of iron accumulate in cells surrounding...

  10. Iron accumulates in the lavage and explanted lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Oxidative stress participates in the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF). An underlying disruption in iron homeostasis can frequently be demonstrated in injuries and diseases associated with an oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that iron accumulation and ...

  11. Excessive irradiance and antioxidant responses of an Antarctic marine diatom exposed to iron limitation and to dynamic irradiance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, Willem H.; Janknegt, P. J.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Visser, R. J. W.; Buma, A. G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic effects of iron limitation and irradiance dynamics on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant activity and excessive PAR (400-700 nm) and UV (280-400 nm) sensitivity were investigated for the Antarctic marine diatom Chaetoceros brevis. Iron-limited and iron-replete cultures were exposed

  12. Protective Effects of the Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin against Excess Iron and Ferroptosis in Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuichi; Higa, Jason K; Shimada, Briana K; Horiuchi, Kate M; Suhara, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Motoi; Woo, Jonathan D; Aoyagi, Hiroko; Marh, Karra S; Kitaoka, Hiroaki; Matsui, Takashi

    2017-11-10

    Clinical studies suggest that myocardial iron is a risk factor for left ventricular remodeling in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). Ferroptosis was recently reported as a mechanism of iron-dependent non-apoptotic cell death. However, ferroptosis in the heart is not well understood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protects the heart against pathological stimuli such as ischemia. To define the role of cardiac mTOR on cell survival in iron-mediated cell death, we examined cardiomyocyte (CM) cell viability under excess iron and ferroptosis conditions. Adult mouse CMs were isolated from cardiac-specific mTOR transgenic (mTOR-Tg), cardiac-specific mTOR knockout (mTOR-KO), or control mice. CMs were treated with ferric iron [Fe (III)]-citrate, erastin, a class 1 ferroptosis inducer, or Ras Selective Lethal 3 (RSL3), a class 2 ferroptosis inducer. Live/Dead Cell Viability Assays revealed that Fe (III)-citrate, erastin, and RSL3 induced cell death. Co-treatment with ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor, inhibited cell death in all conditions. mTOR overexpression suppressed Fe (III)-citrate, erastin, and RSL3-induced cell death, while mTOR deletion exaggerated cell death in these conditions. H2DCFDA (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production showed that erastin-induced ROS production was significantly lower in mTOR-Tg versus control CMs. These findings suggest that ferroptosis is a significant type of cell death in CMs, and that mTOR plays an important role in protecting CMs against excess iron and ferroptosis, at least in part by regulating ROS production. Understanding the effects of mTOR in preventing iron-mediated cell death will provide a new therapy for patients with MI. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  13. Transcranial ultrasound in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Jan; Wellmer, Andreas; Rostasy, Kevin; Bähr, Mathias; Kermer, Pawel

    2012-03-01

    NBIA/HSS is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with iron accumulation in specific brain regions. To date, the diagnosis is obtained by typical MRI changes followed by genetic mutation analysis. This procedure is laborious and limited to a few specially equipped medical centres. Since transcranial sonography (TCS) is widely used for the early diagnosis of PD in adults displaying parenchymal metal deposits, it is likely to be a reliable diagnostic tool for the early diagnosis of NBIA. In 7 patients with proven NBIA and 13 age-matched controls without record of neurological disease TCS was performed by an experienced ultrasound examiner. Data were analysed by two blinded investigators regarding hyperechogenicity and size of the substantia nigra (SN). SN size and hyperechogenicity was significantly increased in patients with NBIA compared to controls (students t-test: p < 0.001). TCS appears to be a non-invasive and inexpensive screening technique in patients with suspected NBIA. Performed by an experienced physician, it could enable an earlier diagnosis and pre-selection of patients for the MRI scan and genetic testing, which are still the diagnostic gold standard. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mini-review: the morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of accumulated iron corrosion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Brenda J; Gerke, Tammie L; Lee, Jason S

    2014-09-01

    Despite obvious differences in morphology, substratum chemistry and the electrolyte in which they form, accumulations of iron corrosion products have the following characteristics in common: stratification of iron oxides/hydroxides with a preponderance of α-FeOOH (goethite) and accumulation of metals. Bacteria, particularly iron-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria have been identified in some accumulations. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms have been used to rationalize observations for particular sets of environmental data. This review is the first to compare observations and interpretations.

  15. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Huiying [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Kuanyu, E-mail: likuanyu@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu Province (China); Hang, Chun-Hua, E-mail: hang_neurosurgery@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  16. Branched-chain amino acids reduce hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in hepatitis C virus polyprotein-expressing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Masaaki; Nishina, Sohji; Korenaga, Keiko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Yoshioka, Naoko; Hara, Yuichi; Sasaki, Yusuke; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Hino, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. However, the mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unknown. Previously, we reported that oxidative stress in male transgenic mice that expressed hepatitis C virus polyprotein (HCVTgM) caused hepatic iron accumulation by reducing hepcidin transcription, thereby leading to HCC development. This study investigated whether long-term treatment with BCAA reduced hepatic iron accumulation and oxidative stress in iron-overloaded HCVTgM and in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. Methods Male HCVTgM were fed an excess-iron diet that comprised either casein or 3.0% BCAA, or a control diet, for 6 months. Results For HCVTgM, BCAA supplementation increased the serum hepcidin-25 levels and antioxidant status [ratio of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) relative to derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM)], decreased the hepatic iron contents, attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, and restored mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression and mitochondrial complex I activity in the liver compared with mice fed the control diet. After 48 weeks of BCAA supplementation in patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis, BAP/dROM and serum hepcidin-25 increased and serum ferritin decreased compared with the pretreatment levels. Conclusions BCAA supplementation reduced oxidative stress by restoring mitochondrial function and improved iron metabolism by increasing hepcidin-25 in both iron-overloaded HCVTgM and patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis. These activities of BCAA may partially account for their inhibitory effects on HCC development in cirrhosis patients. PMID:25156780

  17. Lithium suppression of tau induces brain iron accumulation and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P; Ayton, S; Appukuttan, A T; Moon, S; Duce, J A; Volitakis, I; Cherny, R; Wood, S J; Greenough, M; Berger, G; Pantelis, C; McGorry, P; Yung, A; Finkelstein, D I; Bush, A I

    2017-03-01

    Lithium is a first-line therapy for bipolar affective disorder. However, various adverse effects, including a Parkinson-like hand tremor, often limit its use. The understanding of the neurobiological basis of these side effects is still very limited. Nigral iron elevation is also a feature of Parkinsonian degeneration that may be related to soluble tau reduction. We found that magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxation time changes in subjects commenced on lithium therapy were consistent with iron elevation. In mice, lithium treatment lowers brain tau levels and increases nigral and cortical iron elevation that is closely associated with neurodegeneration, cognitive loss and parkinsonian features. In neuronal cultures lithium attenuates iron efflux by lowering tau protein that traffics amyloid precursor protein to facilitate iron efflux. Thus, tau- and amyloid protein precursor-knockout mice were protected against lithium-induced iron elevation and neurotoxicity. These findings challenge the appropriateness of lithium as a potential treatment for disorders where brain iron is elevated (for example, Alzheimer's disease), and may explain lithium-associated motor symptoms in susceptible patients.

  18. The interplay between iron accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation during the execution step of neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Urrutia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing set of observations points to mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, oxidative damage and chronic inflammation as common pathognomonic signs of a number of neurodegenerative diseases that includes Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedrich’s ataxia and Parkinson’s disease. Particularly relevant for neurodegenerative processes is the relationship between mitochondria and iron. The mitochondrion upholds the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and heme, the most abundant iron-containing prosthetic groups in a large variety of proteins, so a fraction of incoming iron must go through this organelle before reaching its final destination. In turn, the mitochondrial respiratory chain is the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS derived from leaks in the electron transport chain. The co-existence of both iron and ROS in the secluded space of the mitochondrion makes this organelle particularly prone to hydroxyl radical-mediated damage. In addition, a connection between the loss of iron homeostasis and inflammation is starting to emerge; thus, inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL-6 induce the synthesis of the divalent metal transporter 1 and promote iron accumulation in neurons and microglia. Here, we review the recent literature on mitochondrial iron homeostasis and the role of inflammation on mitochondria dysfunction and iron accumulation on the neurodegenerative process that lead to cell death in Parkinson’s disease. We also put forward the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation and inflammation are part of a synergistic self-feeding cycle that ends in apoptotic cell death, once the antioxidant cellular defense systems are finally overwhelmed.

  19. Excessive early-life dietary exposure: a potential source of elevated brain iron and a risk factor for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; Cardoso, Bárbara Rita; Raven, Erika P; Double, Kay L; Finkelstein, David I; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Iron accumulates gradually in the ageing brain. In Parkinson's disease, iron deposition within the substantia nigra is further increased, contributing to a heightened pro-oxidant environment in dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesise that individuals in high-income countries, where cereals and infant formulae have historically been fortified with iron, experience increased early-life iron exposure that predisposes them to age-related iron accumulation in the brain. Combined with genetic factors that limit iron regulatory capacity and/or dopamine metabolism, this may increase the risk of Parkinson's diseases. We propose to (a) validate a retrospective biomarker of iron exposure in children; (b) translate this biomarker to adults; (c) integrate it with in vivo brain iron in Parkinson's disease; and (d) longitudinally examine the relationships between early-life iron exposure and metabolism, brain iron deposition and Parkinson's disease risk. This approach will provide empirical evidence to support therapeutically addressing brain iron deposition in Parkinson's diseases and produce a potential biomarker of Parkinson's disease risk in preclinical individuals.

  20. Phytosiderophores determine thresholds for iron and zinc accumulation in biofortified rice endosperm while inhibiting the accumulation of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakar, Raviraj; Alvarez Fernandez, Ana; Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadia, Javier; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2017-10-13

    Nicotianamine (NA) and 2'-deoxymugenic acid (DMA) are metal-chelating ligands that promote the accumulation of metals in rice endosperm, but it is unclear how these phytosiderophores regulate the levels of different metals and limit their accumulation. In this study, transgenic rice plants producing high levels of NA and DMA accumulated up to 4-fold more iron (Fe) and 2-fold more zinc (Zn) in the endosperm compared with wild-type plants. The distribution of Fe and Zn in vegetative tissues suggested that both metals are sequestered as a buffering mechanism to avoid overloading the seeds. The buffering mechanism involves the modulation of genes encoding metal transporters in the roots and aboveground vegetative tissues. As well as accumulating more Fe and Zn, the endosperm of the transgenic plants accumulated less cadmium (Cd), suggesting that higher levels of Fe and Zn competitively inhibit Cd accumulation. Our data show that although there is a strict upper limit for Fe (~22.5 µg g-1 dry weight) and Zn (~84 µg g-1 dry weight) accumulation in the endosperm, the careful selection of strategies to increase endosperm loading with essential minerals can also limit the accumulation of toxic metals such as Cd, thus further increasing the nutritional value of rice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Role of brain iron accumulation in cognitive dysfunction: evidence from animal models and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Nadja; Figueiredo, Luciana Silva; de Lima, Maria Noêmia Martins

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, studies from our laboratory and other groups using animal models have shown that iron overload, resulting in iron accumulation in the brain, produces significant cognitive deficits. Iron accumulation in the hippocampus and the basal ganglia has been related to impairments in spatial memory, aversive memory, and recognition memory in rodents. These results are corroborated by studies showing that the administration of iron chelators attenuates cognitive deficits in a variety of animal models of cognitive dysfunction, including aging and Alzheimer's disease models. Remarkably, recent human studies using magnetic resonance image techniques have also shown a consistent correlation between cognitive dysfunction and iron deposition, mostly in the hippocampus, cortical areas, and basal ganglia. These findings may have relevant implications in the light of the knowledge that iron accumulates in brain regions of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the functional consequences of iron dysregulation in aging and neurological diseases may help to identify novel targets for treating memory problems that afflict a growing aging population.

  2. Iron accumulation and dysregulation in the putamen in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Jeanelle; Rogers, Hailee; Hartvigsen, Anna; Snell, Melissa; Dill, Michael; Judd, Derek; Hagerman, Paul; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2017-04-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is an adult-onset disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene. This disorder is characterized by progressive action tremor, gait ataxia, and cognitive decline. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome pathology includes dystrophic white matter and intranuclear inclusions in neurons and astrocytes. We previously demonstrated that the transport of iron into the brain is altered in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome; therefore, we also expect an alteration of iron metabolism in brain areas related to motor control. Iron is essential for cell metabolism, but uncomplexed iron leads to oxidative stress and contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated a potential iron modification in the putamen - a structure that participates in motor learning and performance - in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. We used samples of putamen obtained from 9 fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and 9 control cases to study iron localization using Perl's method, and iron-binding proteins using immunostaining. We found increased iron deposition in neuronal and glial cells in the putamen in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. We also found a generalized decrease in the amount of the iron-binding proteins transferrin and ceruloplasmin, and decreased number of neurons and glial cells that contained ceruloplasmin. However, we found increased levels of iron, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin in microglial cells, indicating an attempt by the immune system to remove the excess iron. Overall, found a deficit in proteins that eliminate extra iron from the cells with a concomitant increase in the deposit of cellular iron in the putamen in Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Excessive early-life dietary exposure: a potential source of elevated brain iron and a risk factor for Parkinson?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hare, Dominic J.; Cardoso, B?rbara Rita; Raven, Erika P.; Kay L Double; Finkelstein, David I.; Ewa A. Szymlek-Gay; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Iron accumulates gradually in the ageing brain. In Parkinson?s disease, iron deposition within the substantia nigra is further increased, contributing to a heightened pro-oxidant environment in dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesise that individuals in high-income countries, where cereals and infant formulae have historically been fortified with iron, experience increased early-life iron exposure that predisposes them to age-related iron accumulation in the brain. Combined with genetic factors ...

  4. The Combined Effects of Iron Excess in the Diet and Chromium(III) Supplementation on the Iron and Chromium Status in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniek, Halina; Wójciak, Rafał W

    2017-11-21

    Inadequate iron supply has significant consequences to health. There are some relations between the metabolism of different trace elements, such as iron, zinc, copper and chromium. However, the direction of these interactions can be antagonistic or synergistic, and it depends on many factors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effects of supplementary of chromium(III) propionate complex (Cr3) with iron excess on the Cr and Fe status in healthy female rats. The 36 healthy female Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups (six animals in each) with different Fe levels-adequate (45 mg kg(-1)-100% RDA) and high (excessive-180 mg kg(-1)-400% RDA). At the same time, they were supplemented with Cr(III) at doses of 1, 50 and 500 mg kg(-1) of diet: C1-control (Fe 45 mg kg(-1), Cr 1 mg kg(-1)); C50 (Fe 45 mg kg(-1), Cr 50 mg kg(-1)); C500 (Fe 45 mg kg(-1), Cr 500 mg kg(-1)); H1 (Fe 180 mg kg(-1), Cr 1 mg kg(-1)); H50 (Fe 180 mg kg(-1), Cr 50 mg kg(-1)); H500 (Fe 180 mg kg(-1), Cr 500 mg kg(-1)). The serum iron level and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were measured with colorimetric methods. The serum ferritin level was measured by means of electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The serum transferrin level was measured with the ELISA method. Haematological measurements were made with an automated blood analyser. The Cr and Fe tissular levels were measured with the AAS method. The exposure to a high level of Fe(III) alone or in combination with Cr caused Fe accumulation in tissues, especially in the liver and kidneys, but there were no significant changes in the TIBC, transferrin, ferritin concentration in the serum and most haematological parameters. Moreover, the serum, hepatic and renal Cr concentrations decreased. The doses of supplementary Cr(III) given separately or in combination with high level of Fe(III) disturbed the Cr content in the liver and kidneys of healthy female rats. However, they did not change most

  5. Exposure of aconitase to smoking-related oxidants results in iron loss and increased iron response protein-1 activity: potential mechanisms for iron accumulation in human arterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talib, Jihan; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Smokers have an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, but the origin(s) of this increased risk are incompletely defined. Evidence supports an accumulation of the oxidant-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the inflamed artery wall, and smokers have high levels of SCN−, a preferred MPO...... of the cytosolic isoform to iron response protein-1, which regulates intracellular iron levels. We show that exposure of isolated aconitase to increasing concentrations of HOSCN releases iron from the aconitase [Fe-S]4 cluster, and decreases enzyme activity. This is associated with protein thiol loss...... and modification of specific Cys residues in, and around, the [Fe-S]4 cluster. Exposure of HCAEC to HOSCN resulted in increased intracellular levels of chelatable iron, loss of aconitase activity and increased iron response protein-1 (IRP-1) activity. These data indicate HOSCN, an oxidant associated with oxidative...

  6. Determinants of iron accumulation in deep grey matter of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropele, Stefan; Kilsdonk, Iris D; Wattjes, Mike P

    2014-01-01

    controls were included in this multicentre study. R2* mapping was performed on 3T MRI systems. R2*in deep GM was corrected for age and was related to disease duration, disability, T2 lesion load and brain volume. RESULTS: Compared to controls, R2* was increased in all deep GM regions of MS patients except......BACKGROUND: Iron accumulation in deep grey matter (GM) structures is a consistent finding in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study focused on the identification of independent determinants of iron accumulation using R2* mapping. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven MS patients and 81 healthy...

  7. Copper Deficiency in Sheep with High Liver Iron Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Karolina Freitas de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of enzootic ataxia among sheep raised in the northeastern region of Brazil is described. Copper (Cu deficiency was diagnosed in a herd of 56 sheep, among which five presented characteristic clinical symptoms of enzootic ataxia. The symptoms began 30 days after birth, with a clinical condition that included locomotion difficulty, limb ataxia, tremors, and continual falls. Liver biopsies were performed and blood was collected to determine hepatic and plasmatic Cu, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn concentration, respectively. The laboratory results showed that the animals presented low copper concentrations in the plasma and liver, without difference between the clinically healthy animals and those affected by enzootic ataxia. Even after supplementation with adequate Cu levels had been recommended, it was found on a new visit to the farm four months later that one animal still presented a clinical condition and that the hepatic Cu levels of the herd had not risen. Despite the low copper content of the diet, the high hepatic Fe levels found suggest that antagonism due to this element may have been an important factor in triggering copper deficiency in these animals, and thus, additional copper supplementation may be necessary for these animals.

  8. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to present...... and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...

  9. Iron accumulation in the substantia nigra of patients with Alzheimer disease and parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Sonia; Henderson, David; Schenck, John; Zimmerman, Earl A

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary studies have shown an increase in iron accumulation in the substantia nigra but not in the hippocampus in patients with Parkinson disease without dementia and the reverse in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and no parkinsonism. To determine whether iron levels (measured as T2 shortening on magnetic resonance images) are greater in the substantia nigra of patients with AD who have parkinsonism than in those with AD alone. Case-control study. Albany Medical College, Albany, New York. Fifteen patients with only AD (controls) and 18 with AD as well as parkinsonism, aged 56 to 89 years, and with a total Clinical Dementia Rating of 5.0 to 11.5. Patients were selected according to the purity of their disease; patients with a Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score of 15 or greater were considered to have parkinsonism. Main Outcome Measure Area under the curve for short T2 (30 milliseconds) in patients with only AD vs patients with AD who developed parkinsonism. Patients who developed parkinsonism along with their existing dementia had significantly more iron in their substantia nigra than did patients with AD alone (P = .03, 2-sample t test). Iron accumulation may be a predictor of parkinsonism. The development of parkinsonism during the course of AD appears to be associated with the accumulation of iron, which in turn may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurologic decline.

  10. Role of transferrin receptor 2 in hepatic accumulation of iron in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifuji, Rumi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Ma, Ning; Qiang, Qin Li; Urawa, Naohito; Horiike, Shinichiro; Iwasa, Motoh; Kaito, Masahiko; Malavasi, Fabio; Adachi, Yukihiko

    2006-01-01

    Iron deposition in the liver is a common finding in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C). The mechanism of this hepatic accumulation of iron is not completely understood. This study assessed if the protein expression of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is upregulated in the liver of patients with CH-C and if TfR2 protein mediates iron accumulation during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Liver specimens from patients with CH-C that underwent interferon (IFN) therapy (n=23) and from patients with CH-B (n=18) were evaluated. Hepatic expression of TfR2 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Total hepatic iron score (THIS) was evaluated by Prussian blue staining. TfR2 protein was expressed in the cell membrane and cytosol of hepatocytes. Cytosol TfR2 protein was found to co-localize with Tf. THIS (P=0.0198) and hepatic TfR2 (P=0.0047) expression were significantly higher in CH-C than in CH-B. The change in THIS values (rho=0.580, P=0.0079) and the grade of histological activity (rho=0.444, P=0.0373) were significantly correlated with changes in TfR2 expression after IFN therapy. The protein expression of TfR2 is significantly associated with iron deposition in the liver in patients with CH-C. HCV infection may affect the hepatic expression of TfR2, leading to iron accumulation in the liver.

  11. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity in Wilson's disease reflects local copper, but not iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Uwe; Skowrońska, Marta; Litwin, Tomasz; Szpak, Grażyna Maria; Jabłonka-Salach, Katarzyna; Skoloudík, David; Bulska, Ewa; Członkowska, Anna

    2014-10-01

    In patients with Wilson's disease (WD) transcranial brain sonography typically reveals areas of increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity) of the lenticular nucleus (LN). Correlation with T2-hypointensity on magnetic resonance images suggested that LN hyperechogenicity in WD is caused by trace metal accumulation. Accumulation of both, copper and iron, in the brain of WD patients has been reported. The present study was designed to elucidate whether LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects accumulation of copper or iron. Post-mortem brains of 15 WD patients and one non-WD subject were studied with ultrasonography in an investigator-blinded fashion. LN hyperechogenicity was measured planimetrically by manual tracing as well as using digitized image analysis. The putaminal copper content was determined in samples of 11 WD brains and the non-WD brains using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and iron content was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. LN was normal on ultrasonography only in the non-WD brain, but abnormal (hyperechogenic) in all WD brains. Digitized image analysis measures of LN hyperechogenicity and, by trend, manual measures correlated with putaminal copper content (Pearson test; digitized: r = 0.77, p = 0.04; manual: r = 0.57, p = 0.051) but not with iron content (each, p > 0.18). LN hyperechogenicity measures were unrelated to age at death of patients, age at onset of WD, WD duration, age of brain specimen, serum copper or serum ceruloplasmin (each, p > 0.1). We conclude that LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects copper, but not iron accumulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the use of transcranial brain sonography for monitoring therapeutic effects of chelating agents in WD patients.

  12. Metabolic Changes in Synechocystis PCC6803 upon Nitrogen-Starvation: Excess NADPH Sustains Polyhydroxybutyrate Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Hauf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB is a common carbon storage polymer among heterotrophic bacteria. It is also accumulated in some photoautotrophic cyanobacteria; however, the knowledge of how PHB accumulation is regulated in this group is limited. PHB synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is initiated once macronutrients like phosphorus or nitrogen are limiting. We have previously reported a mutation in the gene sll0783 that impairs PHB accumulation in this cyanobacterium upon nitrogen starvation. In this study we present data which explain the observed phenotype. We investigated differences in intracellular localization of PHB synthase, metabolism, and the NADPH pool between wild type and mutant. Localization of PHB synthase was not impaired in the sll0783 mutant; however, metabolome analysis revealed a difference in sorbitol levels, indicating a more oxidizing intracellular environment than in the wild type. We confirmed this by directly measuring the NADPH/NADP ratio and by altering the intracellular redox state of wild type and sll0783 mutant. We were able to physiologically complement the mutant phenotype of diminished PHB synthase activity by making the intracellular environment more reducing. Our data illustrate that the NADPH pool is an important factor for regulation of PHB biosynthesis and metabolism, which is also of interest for potential biotechnological applications.

  13. Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and the Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Peng, Hui-Fang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Ke, Cai-Huan, E-mail: chke@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Huang, He-Qing, E-mail: hqhuang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and the Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Fe accumulated in hepatopancreas tissues after iron-enriched exposure. • Ferritin expression was positively correlated with iron concentration in seawater. • Ferritin appears to be involved in iron homeostasis and immune defense mechanism of M. meretrix. • mRNAs of cytokine genes responded faster than antioxidant enzyme genes in immune defense mechanism. • The study gives a new potential biomarker for monitoring iron levels in seawater. - Abstract: The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and IκB at 3 h, ferritin at 24 h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48 h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis

  14. Size-Dependent Accumulation of PEGylated Silane-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Murine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, T.; Wittenborn, T.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be used as contrast-enhancing agents to visualize tumors by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we describe an easy synthesis method of magnetic nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and demonstrate size-dependent accumulation in murine tumors...... following intravenous injection. Biocompatible iron oxide MNPs coated with PEG were prepared by replacing oleic acid with a biocompatible and commercially available silane-PEG to provide an easy and effective method for chemical coating. The colloidal stable PEGylated MNPs were magnetically separated...... into two distinct size subpopulations of 20 and 40 nm mean diameters with increased phagocytic uptake observed for the 40 nm size range in vitro. MRI detection revealed greater iron accumulation in murine tumors for 40 nm nanoparticles after intravenous injection. The enhanced MRI contrast of the larger...

  15. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  16. Mini-review: The Morphology, Mineralogy and Microbiology of Accumulated Iron Corrosion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-11

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-03-2014 Journal Article Mini-review: the morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of...d Mini-review: the morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of accumulated iron corrosion products Brenda J. Littlea*, Tammie L. Gerkeb and Jason S...Leea aNaval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS, USA; bDepartment of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Middletown

  17. Growth and photosynthetic limitation analysis of the Cd-accumulator Salicornia ramosissima under excessive cadmium concentrations and optimum salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, Jesús Alberto; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element for plants, and its excess impairs plant performance. Physiological impacts of Cd excess are well known in non-tolerant plants, however this information is scarce for Cd-tolerant plants. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of five different Cd levels (0, 0.05, 0.20, 0.65 and 1.35 mM Cd) on the growth, photosynthetic apparatus (PSII chemistry), gas exchange characteristics, photosynthetic pigments profiles, water relations and nutritional balance of the Cd-accumulator Salicornia ramosissima. Ours results confirmed the accumulation capacity of S. ramosissima, as indicated the bioaccumulation factor (BC) greater than 1.0 for all Cd levels. Furthermore, after 21 days of treatment S. ramosissima growth was not highly affected by Cd. Total photosynthetic limitation increased from 38% at 0.05 mM Cd to 70% at 1.35 mM Cd. CO2 diffusion restriction imposed the main contribution to total photosynthetic limitation. Mesophyll conductance reduction was of major importance (with between 69 and 86%), followed by stomatal conductance (with between 9 and 20%). Maximum carboxylation rate (Vc,max), remained stable until 0.2 mM Cd, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, qP) and pigments concentrations were not significantly decreased by increased Cd supply. Finally, S. ramosissima water relations (intrinsic water use efficiency and relative water content) and nutritional level did not highly vary between Cd treatments. Thus, our finding suggested that Cd tolerance S. ramosissima is in certain degree supported by the tolerance of its carbon assimilation enzyme (RuBisCO) and with the high functionality and integrity of the PSII reaction center under Cd excess. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Lethality of sortase depletion in Actinomyces oris caused by excessive membrane accumulation of a surface glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-12-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harbouring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalysed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  20. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. On the complexity of clinical and molecular bases of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, C; Darling, A; Lupo, V; Pérez-Dueñas, B; Espinós, C

    2017-05-23

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of inherited heterogeneous neurodegenerative rare disorders. These patients present with dystonia, spasticity, parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric disturbances, along with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of iron accumulation. In sum, they are devastating disorders and to date, there is no specific treatment. Ten NBIA genes are accepted: PANK2, PLA2G6, C19orf12, COASY, FA2H, ATP13A2, WDR45, FTL, CP, and DCAF17; and nonetheless, a relevant percentage of patients remain without genetic diagnosis, suggesting that other novel NBIA genes remain to be discovered. Overlapping complex clinical pictures render an accurate differential diagnosis difficult. Little is known about the pathophysiology of NBIAs. The reported NBIA genes take part in a variety of pathways: CoA synthesis, lipid and iron metabolism, autophagy, and membrane remodeling. The next-generation sequencing revolution has achieved relevant advances in genetics of Mendelian diseases and provide new genes for NBIAs, which are investigated according to 2 main strategies: genes involved in disorders with similar phenotype and genes that play a role in a pathway of interest. To achieve an effective therapy for NBIA patients, a better understanding of the biological process underlying disease is crucial, moving toward a new age of precision medicine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Implication of eolian delivery and accumulation of highly reactive iron to the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. K.; Owens, J. D.; Lyons, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Iron, although abundant in the Earth's crust, is present at low concentrations in sea water and is a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton. Eolian dust (loess) is a major source of this micronutrient, and its deposition has important implications for the global CO2 budget. In this study, we explore distributions of potentially bioreactive Fe, the soluble fraction required by phytoplankton for photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation, in deep-sea sediments in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. We used a state-of-the-art Fe speciation technique to characterize Fe inputs from different source regions, specifically North Africa and Patagonia to address the patterns and implications across glacial-interglacial time scales. In many open-ocean regions the input of new iron to the surface waters is dominated by the atmospheric deposition of soluble iron in eolian dusts. Multiple records have shown dust accumulation is correlated with glacial-interglacial cycles - glacial periods are substantially dustier. Furthermore, the delivery of eolian dust to the North and South Atlantic Oceans are from two very different source regions and soil types. We analyzed IODP cores from these two regions and our preliminary data shows similar pattern of iron distribution from both the North and South Atlantic Oceans. To date we have found no simple global pattern of bioavailable iron distribution during glacial and interglacial periods. We have analyzed a range of size distributions to isolate the dust-dominated fraction and the data shows no size effects in bioavailable form of iron distribution. We will explore the role of deep-water dust dissolution and sedimentary redox implications and its role on the bioreactive Fe record in marine cores.

  3. Accumulation of iron and arsenic in the Chandina alluvium of the lower delta plain, Southeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, A.; Hassan, M.Q.; Breit, G.N.; Balke, K.-D.; Flegr, M.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulations of iron, manganese, and arsenic occur in the Chandina alluvium of southeastern Bangladesh within 2.5 m of the ground surface. These distinctive orange-brown horizons are subhorizontal and consistently occur within 1 m of the contact of the aerated (yellow-brown) and water-saturated (gray) sediment. Ferric oxyhydroxide precipitates that define the horizons form by oxidation of reduced iron in pore waters near the top of the saturated zone when exposed to air in the unsaturated sediment. Hydrous Fe-oxide has a high specific surface area and thus a high adsorption capacity that absorbs the bulk of arsenic also present in the reduced pore water, resulting in accumulations containing as much as 280 ppm arsenic. The steep redox gradient that characterizes the transition of saturated and unsaturated sediment also favors accumulation of manganese oxides in the oxidized sediment. Anomalous concentrations of phosphate and molybdenum also detected in the ferric oxyhydroxide-enriched sediment are attributed to sorption processes. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  4. Brain iron accumulation affects myelin-related molecular systems implicated in a rare neurogenetic disease family with neuropsychiatric features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, M; Johnstone, D M; Bassett, B; Graham, R M; Chua, A C G; House, M J; Collingwood, J F; Bettencourt, C; Houlden, H; Ryten, M; Olynyk, J K; Trinder, D; Milward, E A

    2016-11-01

    The 'neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA) disease family entails movement or cognitive impairment, often with psychiatric features. To understand how iron loading affects the brain, we studied mice with disruption of two iron regulatory genes, hemochromatosis (Hfe) and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy demonstrated increased iron in the Hfe-/- × Tfr2mut brain (P=0.002, n ≥5/group), primarily localized by Perls' staining to myelinated structures. Western immunoblotting showed increases of the iron storage protein ferritin light polypeptide and microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed decreased transcript levels (P0.05). Overlap (P0.05). These results implicate myelin-related systems involved in NBIA neuropathogenesis in early responses to iron loading. This may contribute to behavioral symptoms in NBIA and hemochromatosis and is relevant to patients with abnormal iron status and psychiatric disorders involving myelin abnormalities or resistant to conventional treatments.

  5. Inhibiting excessive acidification using zero-valent iron in anaerobic digestion of food waste at high organic load rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xin; Wei, Yonghong; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Liu, Yili; Yu, Shuyao

    2016-07-01

    Excessive acidification occurs frequently in food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) due to the high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of FW. In this study, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was applied to prevent the excessive acidification. All of the control groups, without ZVI addition (pH∼5.3), produced little methane (CH4) and had high volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (VFA/ALK). By contrast, at OLR of 42.32gVS/Lreactor, the pH of effluent from the reactors with 0.4g/gVSFWadded of ZVI increased to 7.8-8.2, VFA/ALK decreased to <0.1, and the final CH4 yield was ∼380mL/gVSFWadded, suggesting inhibition of excessive acidification. After adding powdered or scrap metal ZVI to the acidogenic reactors, the fractional content of butyric acid changed from 30-40% to 0%, while, that of acetic acid increased. These results indicate that adding ZVI to FW digestion at high OLRs could eliminate excessive acidification by promoting butyric acid conversion and enhancing methanogen activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell wall targeted in planta iron accumulation enhances biomass conversion and seed iron concentration in Arabidopsis and rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haibing [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Wei, Hui [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Ma, Guojie [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Antunes, Mauricio S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Vogt, Stefan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Cox, Joseph [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Zhang, Xiao [Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Liu, Xiping [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Bu, Lintao [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Gleber, S. Charlotte [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; Carpita, Nicholas C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Makowski, Lee [Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston MA USA; Himmel, Michael E. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA; McCann, Maureen C. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Murphy, Angus S. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Peer, Wendy A. [Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion Of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN USA; Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA; Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park MD USA

    2016-04-07

    Conversion of nongrain biomass into liquid fuel is a sustainable approach to energy demands as global population increases. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a catalyst to enhance the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. However, direct addition of iron catalysts to biomass pretreatment is diffusion-limited, would increase the cost and complexity of biorefinery unit operations and may have deleterious environmental impacts. Here, we show a new strategy for in planta accumulation of iron throughout the volume of the cell wall where iron acts as a catalyst in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. We engineered CBM-IBP fusion polypeptides composed of a carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) and an iron-binding peptide (IBP) for secretion into Arabidopsis and rice cell walls. CBM-IBP transformed Arabidopsis and rice plants show significant increases in iron accumulation and biomass conversion compared to respective controls. Further, CBM-IBP rice shows a 35% increase in seed iron concentration and a 40% increase in seed yield in greenhouse experiments. CBM-IBP rice potentially could be used to address iron deficiency, the most common and widespread nutritional disorder according to the World Health Organization.

  7. Response to copper excess in Arabidopsis thaliana: Impact on the root system architecture, hormone distribution, lignin accumulation and mineral profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, Hélène; Hermans, Christian; Lutts, Stanley; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2010-08-01

    Growth, in particular reorganization of the root system architecture, mineral homeostasis and root hormone distribution were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana upon copper excess. Five-week-old Arabidopsis plants growing in hydroponics were exposed to different Cu(2+) concentrations (up to 5 muM). Root biomass was more severely inhibited than shoot biomass and Cu was mainly retained in roots. Cu(2+) excess also induced important changes in the ionome. In roots, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations increased, whereas K and S decreased. Shoot K, Ca, P, and Mn concentrations decreased upon Cu(2+) exposure. Further, experiments with seedlings vertically grown on agar were carried out to investigate the root architecture changes. Increasing Cu(2+) concentrations (up to 50 muM) reduced the primary root growth and increased the density of short lateral roots. Experiment of split-root system emphasized a local toxicity of Cu(2+) on the root system. Observations of GUS reporter lines suggested changes in auxin and cytokinin accumulations and in mitotic activity within the primary and secondary root tips treated with Cu(2+). At toxic Cu(2+) concentrations (50 muM), these responses were accompanied by higher root apical meristem death. Contrary to previous reports, growth on high Cu(2+) did not induce an ethylene production. Finally lignin deposition was detected in Cu(2+)-treated roots, probably impacting on the translocation of nutrients. The effects on mineral profile, hormonal status, mitotic activity, cell viability and lignin deposition changes on the Cu(2+)-induced reorganization of the root system architecture are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron and copper interact during their uptake and deposition in the brain and other organs of developing rats exposed to dietary excess of the two metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, A; Morgan, E H

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effect of iron and copper loading on rat brain, liver, kidney, femur, blood and plasma concentrations of these metals and iron transport into the organs during development. Dams were fed control diets or iron-loaded diets (20 g/kg carbonyl iron) with either distilled water or copper-loaded water (350 mg/L) beginning at d 20 of pregnancy. The weanlings also had access to the diets and water supply and were examined at 15, 21 and 63 d of age. The iron content of the liver was 17- to 30-fold greater in iron-loaded rats than in controls, whereas liver, kidney and plasma copper levels generally were lower. Iron loading alone did not increase brain iron concentrations, suggesting the blood-brain barrier is already developed at birth. However, dual loading of iron and copper resulted in elevated concentrations of brain non-heme iron and copper in 15- and 63-d-old rats compared with animals loaded with iron alone. These results suggest that brain iron uptake mechanisms may be different when excess copper is present. Liver non-heme iron was also greater in copper-loaded rats, irrespective of iron status. However, kidney iron concentrations generally were not affected by dietary copper. In rats fed the copper-containing diet, the uptake of iron into brain and liver was significantly lower than in those fed the control diet, suggesting that copper loading can decrease iron uptake into organs. It is concluded that combined dietary supplementation with iron and copper can alter the metabolism of each metal. These changes are age and organ dependent. Developing rats may be very susceptible to these combined overload states because significant effects are seen in early adulthood.

  9. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth.

  10. Late-Onset Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation with Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Omar Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neuroferritinopathy is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that includes a movement disorder, cognitive decline, and characteristic findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI due to abnormal iron deposition. Here, we present a late-onset case, along with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 74-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history who presented for evaluation of orofacial dyskinesia, suspected to be edentulous dyskinesia given her history of ill-fitting dentures. She had also developed slowly progressive dysarthria, dysphagia, visual hallucinations as well as stereotypic movements of her hands and feet. Results: The eye-of-the-tiger sign was demonstrated on T2 MRI. Increased fractional anisotropy and T2 hypointensity were observed in the periphery of the globus pallidus, putamen, substantia nigra, and dentate nucleus. T2 hyperintensity was present in the medial dentate nucleus and central globus pallidus. Discussion: The pallidal MRI findings were more typical of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN, but given additional dentate and putamenal involvement, lack of retinopathy, and advanced age of onset, PKAN was less likely. Although the patient’s ferritin levels were within low normal range, her clinical and imaging features led to a diagnosis of neuroferritinopathy. Conclusion: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is a rare cause of orofacial dyskinesia. DTI MRI can confirm abnormal iron deposition. The location of abnormal iron deposits helps in differentiating NBIA subtypes. Degeneration of the dentate and globus pallidus may occur via an analogous process given their similar T2 and DTI MRI appearance.

  11. Excessive Iron and α-Synuclein Oligomer in Brain are Relevant to Pure Apathy in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Cao, Chen-Jie; Hu, Yang; Chen, Ze-Jie; Piao, Ying-Shan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Min; Chen, Sheng-Di; Chan, Piu; Zhang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the demographic features, clinical features, and potential mechanism in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with pure apathy. A total of 145 patients with PD without depression and dementia and 30 age-matched controls were consecutively recruited. Patients with PD were evaluated by Apathy Scale (AS), scales for motor symptoms and quality of life. The levels of iron, oxidative and neuroinflammatory factors, α-synuclein oligomer, and dopamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with PD and controls were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, chemical colorimetric method, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Comparisons between PD with pure apathy and with no pure apathy groups and correlation between AS score and the levels of above factors were analyzed. There were 64 (44.14%) cases in PD-apathy group. The PD-apathy group had older age, (97.81 ± 10.82) years versus (61.86 ± 10.80) years, and severer quality of life (P apathy and PD without apathy groups presented no remarkable differences in motor symptoms (P > .05). The levels of iron, hydroxyl radical (·OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and α-synuclein oligomer in CSF in PD-apathy group were significantly higher than that in PD without the apathy group (P apathy group, iron level was positively correlated with ·OH level (r = .011, P apathy. Patients with PD having pure apathy had older age. Pure apathy reduced quality of life for patients without worsening motor function. Excessive iron and α-synuclein oligomer in brain commonly contributed to pure apathy of PD through potential mechanism of oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Zinc and selenium accumulation and their effect on iron bioavailability in common bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Marislaine A; Boldrin, Paulo F; Hart, Jonathan J; de Andrade, Messias J B; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Glahn, Raymond P; Li, Li

    2017-02-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are the most important legume crops. They represent a major source of micronutrients and a target for essential trace mineral enhancement (i.e. biofortification). To investigate mineral accumulation during seed maturation and to examine whether it is possible to biofortify seeds with multi-micronutrients without affecting mineral bioavailability, three common bean cultivars were treated independently with zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), the two critical micronutrients that can be effectively enhanced via fertilization. The seed mineral concentrations during seed maturation and the seed Fe bioavailability were analyzed. Common bean seeds were found to respond positively to Zn and Se treatments in accumulating these micronutrients. While the seed pods showed a decrease in Zn and Se along with Fe content during pod development, the seeds maintained relatively constant mineral concentrations during seed maturation. Selenium treatment had minimal effect on the seed accumulation of phytic acid and polyphenols, the compounds affecting Fe bioavailability. Zinc treatment reduced phytic acid level, but did not dramatically affect the concentrations of total polyphenols. Iron bioavailability was found not to be greatly affected in seeds biofortified with Se and Zn. In contrast, the inhibitory polyphenol compounds in the black bean profoundly reduced Fe bioavailability. These results provide valuable information for Se and Zn enhancement in common bean seeds and suggest the possibility to biofortify with these essential nutrients without greatly affecting mineral bioavailability to increase the food quality of common bean seeds. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing the Divalent Metal Transporter 1 Exhibit Iron Accumulation and Enhanced Parkin Expression in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Tai, Yee Kit; Chai, Bing-Han; Chew, Katherine C M; Ang, Eng-Tat; Tsang, Fai; Tan, Bryce W Q; Hong, Eugenia T E; Asad, Abu Bakar Ali; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Lim, Kah-Leong; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2017-07-10

    Exposure to divalent metals such as iron and manganese is thought to increase the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Under normal circumstances, cellular iron and manganese uptake is regulated by the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Accordingly, alterations in DMT1 levels may underlie the abnormal accumulation of metal ions and thereby disease pathogenesis. Here, we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing DMT1 under the direction of a mouse prion promoter and demonstrated its robust expression in several regions of the brain. When fed with iron-supplemented diet, DMT1-expressing mice exhibit rather selective accumulation of iron in the substantia nigra, which is the principal region affected in human PD cases, but otherwise appear normal. Alongside this, the expression of Parkin is also enhanced, likely as a neuroprotective response, which may explain the lack of phenotype in these mice. When DMT1 is overexpressed against a Parkin null background, the double-mutant mice similarly resisted a disease phenotype even when fed with iron- or manganese-supplemented diet. However, these mice exhibit greater vulnerability toward 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that iron accumulation alone is not sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and that multiple hits are required to promote PD.

  14. Altered expression of iron regulatory proteins with aging is associated with transient hepatic iron accumulation after environmental heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Steven A; Han, Okhee; Kregel, Kevin C; Brown, Kyle E

    2014-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that dysregulation of iron metabolism contributes to age-related pathologies. We have previously observed increased hepatic iron with aging, and that environmental heat stress stimulates a further increase in iron and oxidative liver injury in old rats. The purpose of this study was to determine a mechanism for the increase in hepatic iron in old rats after heat stress. Young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) Fischer 344 rats were exposed to two heating bouts separated by 24 h. Livers were harvested after the second heat stress, and protein levels of the iron import protein, transferrin receptor-1 (TFR1), and the iron export protein, ferroportin (Fpn) were determined by immunoblot. In the nonheated condition, old rats had lower TFR1 expression, and higher Fpn expression. After heat stress, TFR1 declined in the old rats, and iron chelation studies demonstrated that this decline was dependent on a hyperthermia-induced increase in iron. TFR1 did not change in the young rats after heat stress. Since TFR1 is inversely regulated by iron, our results suggest that the increase in intracellular iron with aging and heat stress lower TFR1 expression. Fpn expression increased in both age groups after heat stress, but this response was delayed in old rats. This delay in the induction of an iron exporter suggests a mechanism for the increase in hepatic iron and oxidative injury after heat stress in aged organisms. © 2013.

  15. Are Lotus species good models for studying iron accumulation in common beans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta; Laszcyca, Katarzyna Malgorzata; Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    , and the effects of different concentrations of iron in the growth media on the plants' iron concentration. Our studies indicate that Lotus plants are good model organisms for studying seed iron loading in legumes. The work was supported by HarvestPlus, 2033 K Street, NW, Washington DC 20006-1002, USA......  Iron is an important micronutrient for all living organisms. Although iron is abundant in the Earth's crust, iron deficiency is a common problem throughout the food chain. Legume seeds have relatively high but also highly variable iron content. Little is known about the mechanisms controlling...... seed iron loading and only a few genes involved in seed iron metabolism have been described. Understanding the mechanisms that control seed iron loading and iron bioavailability can assist in breeding legumes with more bioavailable iron.             The aim of our study is to find Lotus genes...

  16. [Effects of exogenous iron on lead accumulation in Typha latifolia from a lead-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shun-Qing; Xu, Jian-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of adding 100 and 500 mg x kg(-1) of exogenous iron (Fe) on the lead (Pb) accumulation in Typha latifolia growing on a soil with 0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg x kg(-1) of Pb, respectively. In treatment 500 mg Fe x kg(-1), the Pb concen tration in T. latifolia shoots and roots was higher, compared with that in treatment 100 mg Fe x kg(-1). When the soil Pb concentration was 1000 mg x kg(-1), the Pb concentration in T. lati folia shoots and roots in treatment 500 mg Fe x kg(-1) increased by 33.7% and 50.5%, respectively, compared with that in treatment 100 mg Fe x kg(-1). The exchangeable Pb concentration in rhizosphere soil was 77.0% -114.6% higher in treatment 500 mg Fe x kg(-1) than in treatment 100 mg Fe x kg(-1). When the soil Pb concentration was 0, 100 and 1000 mg x kg(-1), the root dry mass in treatment 500 mg Fe x kg(-1) had a significant decrease, compared with that in treatment 100 mg Fe x kg(-1). It was suggested that adding appropriate amount of Fe to Pb-contaminated wetland soil could increase the availability of soil Pb and improve the Pb accumulation in plants.

  17. Brain iron accumulation in unexplained fetal and infant death victims with smoker mothers-The possible involvement of maternal methemoglobinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corna Melissa F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is involved in important vital functions as an essential component of the oxygen-transporting heme mechanism. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative metabolites from maternal cigarette smoke could affect iron homeostasis in the brain of victims of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death, maybe through the induction of maternal hemoglobin damage, such as in case of methemoglobinemia. Methods Histochemical investigations by Prussian blue reaction were made on brain nonheme ferric iron deposits, gaining detailed data on their localization in the brainstem and cerebellum of victims of sudden death and controls. The Gless and Marsland's modification of Bielschowsky's was used to identify neuronal cell bodies and neurofilaments. Results Our approach highlighted accumulations of blue granulations, indicative of iron positive reactions, in the brainstem and cerebellum of 33% of victims of sudden death and in none of the control group. The modified Bielschowsky's method confirmed that the cells with iron accumulations were neuronal cells. Conclusions We propose that the free iron deposition in the brain of sudden fetal and infant death victims could be a catabolic product of maternal methemoglobinemia, a biomarker of oxidative stress likely due to nicotine absorption.

  18. Uptake and metabolism of iron and iron oxide nanoparticles in brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Dringen, Ralf

    2013-12-01

    Astrocytes are considered key regulators of the iron metabolism of the brain. These cells are able to rapidly accumulate iron ions and various iron-containing compounds, store iron efficiently in ferritin and also export iron. The present short review summarizes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the handling of iron by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up iron as ferrous or ferric iron ions or as haem by specific iron transport proteins in their cell membrane. In addition, astrocytes accumulate large amounts of iron oxide nanoparticles by endocytotic mechanisms. Despite the rapid accumulation of high amounts of iron from various iron-containing sources, the viability of astrocytes is hardly affected. A rather slow liberation of iron from accumulated haem or iron oxide nanoparticles as well as the strong up-regulation of the synthesis of the iron storage protein ferritin are likely to contribute to the high resistance of astrocytes to iron toxicity. The efficient uptake of extracellular iron by cultured astrocytes as well as their strong up-regulation of ferritin after iron exposure also suggests that brain astrocytes deal well with an excess of iron and protect the brain against iron-mediated toxicity.

  19. β-Propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration: a new X-linked dominant disorder with brain iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayflick, Susan J; Kruer, Michael C; Gregory, Allison; Haack, Tobias B; Kurian, Manju A; Houlden, Henry H; Anderson, James; Boddaert, Nathalie; Sanford, Lynn; Harik, Sami I; Dandu, Vasuki H; Nardocci, Nardo; Zorzi, Giovanna; Dunaway, Todd; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Skinner, Steven; Holden, Kenton R; Frucht, Steven; Hanspal, Era; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Mignot, Cyril; Héron, Delphine; Saunders, Dawn E; Kaminska, Margaret; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Lascelles, Karine; Cuno, Stephan M; Meyer, Esther; Garavaglia, Barbara; Bhatia, Kailash; de Silva, Rajith; Crisp, Sarah; Lunt, Peter; Carey, Martyn; Hardy, John; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Hogarth, Penelope

    2013-06-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders with high iron in the basal ganglia encompass an expanding collection of single gene disorders collectively known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. These disorders can largely be distinguished from one another by their associated clinical and neuroimaging features. The aim of this study was to define the phenotype that is associated with mutations in WDR45, a new causative gene for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation located on the X chromosome. The study subjects consisted of WDR45 mutation-positive individuals identified after screening a large international cohort of patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Their records were reviewed, including longitudinal clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Twenty-three mutation-positive subjects were identified (20 females). The natural history of their disease was remarkably uniform: global developmental delay in childhood and further regression in early adulthood with progressive dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Common early comorbidities included seizures, spasticity and disordered sleep. The symptoms of parkinsonism improved with l-DOPA; however, nearly all patients experienced early motor fluctuations that quickly progressed to disabling dyskinesias, warranting discontinuation of l-DOPA. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed iron in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, with a 'halo' of T1 hyperintense signal in the substantia nigra. All patients harboured de novo mutations in WDR45, encoding a beta-propeller protein postulated to play a role in autophagy. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration, the only X-linked disorder of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is associated with de novo mutations in WDR45 and is recognizable by a unique combination of clinical, natural history and neuroimaging features.

  20. Deficiency of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2 Beta Induces Brain Iron Accumulation through Upregulation of Divalent Metal Transporter 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goichi Beck

    Full Text Available Mutations in PLA2G6 have been proposed to be the cause of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 2. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying brain iron accumulation during the deficiency of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta (iPLA2β, which is encoded by the PLA2G6 gene. Perl's staining with diaminobenzidine enhancement was used to visualize brain iron accumulation. Western blotting was used to investigate the expression of molecules involved in iron homeostasis, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1 and iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and 2, in the brains of iPLA2β-knockout (KO mice as well as in PLA2G6-knockdown (KD SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, mitochondrial functions such as ATP production were examined. We have discovered for the first time that marked iron deposition was observed in the brains of iPLA2β-KO mice since the early clinical stages. DMT1 and IRP2 were markedly upregulated in all examined brain regions of aged iPLA2β-KO mice compared to age-matched wild-type control mice. Moreover, peroxidized lipids were increased in the brains of iPLA2β-KO mice. DMT1 and IRPs were significantly upregulated in PLA2G6-KD cells compared with cells treated with negative control siRNA. Degeneration of the mitochondrial inner membrane and decrease of ATP production were observed in PLA2G6-KD cells. These results suggest that the genetic ablation of iPLA2β increased iron uptake in the brain through the activation of IRP2 and upregulation of DMT1, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Magnetic field-induced acceleration of the accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkowsky, Marie-Christin; Geppert, Mark; Schmidt, Maike M; Dringen, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) are considered for various biomedical and neurobiological applications that involve the presence of external magnetic fields. However, little is known on the effects of a magnetic field on the uptake of such particles by brain cells. Cultured brain astrocytes accumulated dimercaptosuccinate-coated Fe-NP in a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent manner. This accumulation was strongly enhanced by the presence of the magnetic field generated by a permanent neodymium iron boron magnet that had been positioned below the cells. The magnetic field-induced acceleration of the accumulation of Fe-NP increased almost proportional to the strength of the magnetic field applied, increasing the cellular-specific iron content from an initial 10 nmol/mg protein within 4 h of incubation at 37°C to up to 12,000 nmol/mg protein. However, presence of a magnetic field also increased the amounts of iron that attached to the cells during incubation with Fe-NP at 4°C. These results suggest that the presence of an external magnetic field promotes in cultured astrocytes both the binding of Fe-NP to the cell membrane and the internalization of Fe-NP. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dopamine promotes cellular iron accumulation and oxidative stress responses in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichtl, Stefanie; Haschka, David; Nairz, Manfred; Seifert, Markus; Volani, Chiara; Lutz, Oliver; Weiss, Günter

    2017-12-02

    Iron is essential for many biological functions including neurotransmitter synthesis, where the metal is a co-factor of tyrosine hydroxylase, which converts tyrosine to dopamine and further to norepinephrine. As the shared chemical structure, called catechol, may potentially bind iron we questioned whether tyrosine derived hormones would impact on cellular iron homeostasis in macrophages, which are central for the maintenance of body iron homeostasis. Using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), we investigated the effect of catecholamines and found that only dopamine but neither tyrosine, nor norepinephrine, affected cellular iron homeostasis. Exposure of macrophages to dopamine increased the uptake of non-transferrin bound iron into cells. The expansion of intracellular iron upon dopamine treatment resulted in oxidative stress responses as evidenced by increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α. As a consequence, the transcriptional expression of stress response genes such as heme oxygenase-1 and the iron export protein ferroportin1 were significantly increased. Genetic deletion of Nrf2 abolished these effects of dopamine. Dopamine directly affects cellular iron homeostasis by increasing iron incorporation into macrophages and subsequently promoting intracellular oxidative stress responses. Our observations are of interest for disorders involving dopamine and iron dyshomeostasis such as Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, partly enlightening the underlying pathology or the therapeutic efficacy of dopamine agonists to overcome neuronal iron deficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The Acute Effect of Humic Acid on Iron Accumulation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagin, Yasir Furkan; Sahin, N; Polat, A; Erdogan, M A; Atayan, Y; Eyol, E; Bilgic, Y; Seckin, Y; Colak, C

    2016-05-01

    Free iron leads to the formation of pro-oxidant reactive oxygen species (ROS). Humic acids (HAs) enhance permeability of cellular wall and act as a chelator through electron transferring. This study was designed to test chelator effect of HA on iron as well as its anti-oxidant effect against the iron-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. The rats used were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8/group): group I (the control group); group II (the HA group), humic acid (562 mg/kg) was given over 10 days by oral gavage; group III (the iron group), iron III hydroxide polymaltose (250 mg/kg) was given over 10 days by intraperitoneal route; and group IV (the HA plus iron group), received the iron (similar to group II) plus humic acid (similar to those in groups II and III) group. Blood and two tissue samples both from liver and heart were obtained for biochemical and histopathological evaluations. Iron deposition, the iron-induced hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity were demonstrated by histopathological and biochemical manner. However, no significant differences were observed in the serum biochemical values and the histopathological results among the iron and the HA plus iron groups in the liver tissue but not in the heart tissue. The protective effects of humic acid against iron-induced cardiotoxicity were shown but not against hepatotoxicity in our study.

  4. Iron accumulation, glutathione depletion, and lipid peroxidation must occur simultaneously during ferroptosis and are mutually amplifying events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Robert L

    2017-04-01

    Ferroptosis is a recently discovered form of regulated necrosis that involves iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. How cells die once ferroptosis is triggered remains unclear. Ferroptosis is hypothesized to require three critical events: (1) accumulation of redox-active iron, (2) glutathione depletion, and (3) lipid peroxidation. It is proposed that these three events must unfold simultaneously because stopping any critical event also stops ferroptosis. These events are hypothesized to amplify in severity through positive feedback loops. The cause of death in ferroptosis is therefore the synergistic combination of antioxidant depletion, iron toxicity, and membrane denaturation. The relevance of these feedback loops for cancer and neurodegenerative therapies is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pakistan’s Accumulation of Foreign Exchange Reserves during 2001-2006: Benign or Hostile! Excessive or Moderate! Intent or Fluke!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kumail Abbas Rizvi (Corresponding author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive accumulation of foreign exchange reserves has emerged as an incredible monetary tool particularly after the East Asian crisis of 1997 which somehow seems able not only to stimulate economy but also to stabilize most vulnerable variables like exchange rate, debts and deficits. However there is a dire need to investigate the impacts of this strategy on the financial and economic performance of a country.We analyze the economy of Pakistan during the period of 2001-2006 with reference to the probable use of reserves accumulation as a monetary tool and find convincing evidences that reserves were being accumulated excessively in that period and impacted successfully in stimulating GDP’s, Exports’ and Imports’ growth; stabilizing exchangerate; and reducing debt burdens and deficits. However, it is not evident that this strategy was designed and implemented intentionally by the monetary authorities following in thefootsteps of other economies of the region. It rather seems to be a spontaneous policy or a fluke generated as an aftermath of 9/11 attacks that actually led to the strong capital inflows in the country by way of remittances and net foreign factor income.

  6. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of toxicity test will be necessary in order to identify the most resistive variety on this particular type of contaminated site.

  7. Brain iron accumulation in Wilson disease: a post mortem 7 Tesla MRI - histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, P; Bahn, E; Litwin, T; Jabłonka-Salach, K; Łuciuk, A; Huelnhagen, T; Madai, V I; Dieringer, M A; Bulska, E; Knauth, M; Niendorf, T; Sobesky, J; Paul, F; Schneider, S A; Czlonkowska, A; Brück, W; Wegner, C; Wuerfel, J

    2017-10-01

    In Wilson disease (WD), T2/T2*-weighted (T2*w) MRI frequently shows hypointensity in the basal ganglia that is suggestive of paramagnetic deposits. It is currently unknown whether this hypointensity is related to copper or iron deposition. We examined the neuropathological correlates of this MRI pattern, particularly in relation to iron and copper concentrations. Brain slices from nine WD and six control cases were investigated using a 7T-MRI system. High-resolution T2*w images were acquired and R2* parametric maps were reconstructed using a multigradient recalled echo sequence. R2* was measured in the globus pallidus (GP) and the putamen. Corresponding histopathological sections containing the lentiform nucleus were examined using Turnbull iron staining, and double staining combining Turnbull with immunohistochemistry for macrophages or astrocytes. Quantitative densitometry of the iron staining as well as copper and iron concentrations were measured in the GP and putamen and correlated with R2* values. T2*w hypointensity in the GP and/or putamen was apparent in WD cases and R2* values correlated with quantitative densitometry of iron staining. In WD, iron and copper concentrations were increased in the putamen compared to controls. R2* was correlated with the iron concentration in the GP and putamen, whereas no correlation was observed for the copper concentration. Patients with more pronounced pathological severity in the putamen displayed increased iron concentration, which correlated with an elevated number of iron-containing macrophages. T2/T2*w hypointensity observed in vivo in the basal ganglia of WD patients is related to iron rather than copper deposits. © 2016 British Neuropathological Society.

  8. Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Yuan Lin; Joseph E. Jakes; Bryon S. Donohoe; Peter N. Ciesielski; Haibing Yang; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Shi-You Ding; Wendy A. Peer; Angus S. Murphy; Maureen C. McCann; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited,...

  9. Mining iron: iron uptake and transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun A; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2007-05-25

    Iron uptake in plants is highly regulated in order to supply amounts sufficient for optimal growth while preventing excess accumulation. In response to iron deficiency, plants induce either reduction-based or chelation-based mechanisms to enhance iron uptake from the soil. Genes involved in each mechanism have been identified from various model plants including Arabidopsis and rice. Iron transport within plants is also tightly controlled. New information has emerged on transporters that play a role in xylem loading and phloem loading/unloading of iron, and on the iron chelators involved in iron homeostasis. Some of the components regulating iron deficiency responses also have been elucidated, demonstrating that iron dependent gene regulation occurs at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  10. Excess of the endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation induces overweight, fat accumulation and insulin resistance in adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Carolina A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental conditions in early life can induce permanent physiological changes, sometimes increasing the risk of chronic diseases during adulthood. Neural and peripheral circuits controlling energy balance may be modulated during such a critical period. Since type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R have recently emerged as targets for modulating energy balance, their premature chronic activation during early life may result in long-term metabolic consequences associated to overweight/obesity. Endogenous activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA. Objective To evaluate long-term effects of AEA treatment during lactation on body weight, epididymal fat accumulation and related metabolic parameters during adulthood. Design Male mice pups were orally treated with a solution of AEA (20 μg/g body weight in soy oil or vehicle during the whole lactation period. After weaning, food intake and body weight were recorded every 10 days. Adult animals were subjected to glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Subsequently, animals were sacrificed and epididymal fat pads were extracted. Circulating levels of plasma insulin, leptin, non-sterified fatty acids (NEFA, triglyceride and cholesterol were also evaluated. Results AEA-treated mice during lactation showed a significant increase in accumulated food intake, body weight and epididymal fat during adulthood when compared to control mice. When evaluating CB1R protein expression in epididymal fat, the AEA-treated group showed a 150 % increase in expression compared to the control mice. This group also displayed significantly higher levels of circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, cholesterol and NEFA. Moreover, a marked state of insulin resistance was an important finding in the AEA-treated group. Conclusion This study showed that overweight, accumulation of visceral fat and associated metabolic disturbances, such as a higher lipid

  11. Excessive aluminum accumulation in the bones of patients on long-term parenteral nutrition: postmortem analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Pamela C; Parsons, Patrick J; Galusha, Aubrey L; Morrissette, Michelle; Recker, Robert R; Howard, Lyn J

    2014-08-01

    Aluminum (Al) contamination of parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions remains a concern for long-term PN patients. Al accumulates particularly in bone. Excessive exposure to Al may result in increased Al body burden and impaired bone formation and mineralization, leading to bone disease. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has limited Al contamination in large-volume parenteral solutions, small-volume parenterals may still contribute considerable amounts of Al to PN solutions. The goal of this study is to determine whether or not long-term adult PN patients remain at risk for increased bone Al accumulation. We measured Al accumulation in autopsy bones from 7 patients who had received PN for 2-21 years and compared bone Al levels with those in living control patients undergoing hip or knee replacement. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used for bone Al measurements. When compared with bone Al content in controls, markedly elevated Al levels (P < .0001) were found in the bones of all but 1 patient, who received PN for only 2 years before death. Even greater Al accumulation was found for PN patients who developed late renal impairment (P = .0159). We conclude that long-term adult PN patients continue to be at risk for Al toxicity. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Impact of two iron(III) chelators on the iron, cadmium, lead and nickel accumulation in poplar grown under heavy metal stress in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihucz, Victor G; Csog, Árpád; Fodor, Ferenc; Tatár, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminiţa; Záray, Gyula

    2012-04-15

    Poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. Kopeczkii) was grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) or Pb(II), and Fe as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations. The present study was designed to compare the accumulation and distribution of Fe, Cd, Ni and Pb within the different plant compartments. Generally, Fe and heavy-metal accumulation were higher by factor 2-7 and 1.6-3.3, respectively, when Fe(III) citrate was used. Iron transport towards the shoot depended on the Fe(III) chelate and, generally, on the heavy metal used. Lead was accumulated only in the root. The amounts of Fe and heavy metals accumulated by poplar were very similar to those of cucumber grown in an identical way, indicating strong Fe uptake regulation of these two Strategy I plants: a cultivar and a woody plant. The Strategy I Fe uptake mechanism (i.e. reducing Fe(III) followed by Fe(II) uptake), together with the Fe(III) chelate form in the nutrient solution had significant effects on Fe and heavy metal uptake. Poplar appears to show phytoremediation potential for Cd and Ni, as their transport towards the shoot was characterized by 51-54% and 26-48% depending on the Fe(III) supply in the nutrient solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced lipid accumulation and biodiesel production by oleaginous Chlorella protothecoides under a structured heterotrophic-iron (II) induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqin; Mu, Jinxiu; Chen, Di; Xu, Hua; Han, Fangxin

    2015-05-01

    A structured heterotrophic-iron (II) induction (HII) strategy was proposed to enhance lipid accumulation in oleaginous Chlorella protothecoides. C. protothecoides subjected to heterotrophic-iron (II) induction achieved a favorable lipid accumulation up to 62 % and a maximum lipid productivity of 820.17 mg/day, representing 2.78-fold and 3.64-fold increase respectively over heterotrophic cultivation alone. HII-induced cells produced significantly elevated levels of 16:0, 18:1(Δ9), and 18:2(Δ9,12) fatty acids (over 90 %). The lipid contents and plant lipid-like fatty acid compositions exhibit the potential of HII-induced C. protothecoides as biodiesel feedstock. Furthermore, 31 altered proteins in HII-induced algal cells were successfully identified. These differentially expressed proteins were assigned into nine molecular function categories, including carbohydrate metabolism, lipid biosynthesis, Calvin cycle, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, energy and transport, protein biosynthesis, regulate and defense, and unclassified. Analysis using the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes and gene ontology annotation showed that malic enzyme, acyltransferase, and ACP were key metabolic checkpoints found to modulate lipid accumulation in C. protothecoides. The results provided possible applications of HII cultivation strategy in other microalgal species and new possibilities in developing genetic and metabolic engineering microalgae for desirable lipid productivity.

  14. The effect of silicon on iron plaque formation and arsenic accumulation in rice genotypes with different radial oxygen loss (ROL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Zou, Qi; Xue, Sheng-Guo; Pan, Wei-Song; Huang, Liu; Hartley, William; Mo, Jing-Yu; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-05-01

    Rice is one of the major pathways of arsenic (As) exposure in human food chain, threatening over half of the global population. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to examine the effects of Si application on iron (Fe) plaque formation, As uptake and rice grain As speciation in indica and hybrid rice genotypes with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) ability. The results demonstrated that Si significantly increased root and grain biomass. Indica genotypes with higher ROL induced greater Fe plaque formation, compared to hybrid genotypes and sequestered more As in Fe plaque. Silicon applications significantly increased Fe concentrations in iron plaque of different genotypes, but it decreased As concentrations in the roots, straws and husks by 28-35%, 15-35% and 32-57% respectively. In addition, it significantly reduced DMA accumulation in rice grains but not inorganic As accumulation. Rice of indica genotypes with higher ROL accumulated lower concentrations of inorganic As in grains than hybrid genotypes with lower ROL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of helium production cross sections of iron for d-T neutrons by helium accumulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Yoshiyuki; Kanda, Yukinori; Nagae, Koji; Fujimoto, Toshihiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro

    1997-03-01

    Helium production cross sections of Iron were measured by helium accumulation method for neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.9 MeV. Iron samples were irradiated with FNS, an intense d-T neutron source of JAERI. As the neutron energy varies according to the emission angle at the neutron source, the samples were set around the neutron source and were irradiated by neutrons of different energy depending on each sample position. The amount of helium produced in a sample was measured by Helium Atoms Measurement System at Kyushu University. The results of this work are in good agreement with other experimental data in the literature and also compared with the evaluated values in JENDL-3. (author)

  16. The response of Hordeum spontaneum desert ecotype to drought and excessive light intensity is characterized by induction of O2 dependent photochemical activity and anthocyanin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppel, Amir; Keren, Nir; Salomon, Eitan; Volis, Sergei; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the current research was to study the role of anthocyanin accumulation, O(2)-related photochemical processes and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the response of desert and Mediterranean plants to drought and excessive light. Plants of Hordeum spontaneum were collected from Mediterranean and desert environments and were subjected to terminal drought for 25 days and then measured for PSII yield at 2 and 21% O(2), NPQ, net carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content (LRWC), anthocyanin concentration and leaf absorbance. Under terminal drought, LRWC, carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance decreased similarly and significantly in both the Mediterranean and the desert ecotypes. Anthocyanin accumulated more in the desert ecotype than in the Mediterranean ecotype. NPQ increased more in the Mediterranean ecotype as compared with the desert ecotype. PSII yield decreased significantly in the Mediterranean ecotype under drought and was much lower than in the desert ecotype under drought. The relatively high PSII yield under drought in the desert ecotype was O(2) dependent. The response of the H. spontaneum ecotype from a desert environment to drought stress was characterized by anthocyanin accumulation and induction of O(2) dependent photochemical activity, while the response of the Mediterranean ecotype was based on a higher induction of NPQ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  18. An intracranial aspergilloma with low signal on T2-weighted images corresponding to iron accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States); Zoarski, G.H.; Rothman, M.I.; Zagardo, M.T. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States); Nishimura, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Sun, C.C.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    We present a case of cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. The MRI signal characteristics were compared with the histologic findings. Irregular low-signal zones were demonstrated between the wall of the abscess and the central necrosis on T2-weighted images; the pathology specimen revealed concentrated iron in these transitional zones but no hemosiderin. Iron is an essential element for the growth of fungal hyphae. The low-signal zones may represent the areas where there was active proliferation of aspergillus, and the unique location of the low signal may be a helpful imaging characteristic for the diagnosis of an aspergillus abscess. (orig.)

  19. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roriz, M.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Wilton Vasconcelos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient

  20. The presence of serum alters the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geppert, Mark; Petters, Charlotte [University of Bremen, Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen (Germany); Thiel, Karsten [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (Germany); Dringen, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Such particles are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are taken up into brain cells. To test whether serum components affect the properties of IONPs and/or their uptake into brain cells, we have incubated dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic IONPs without and with fetal calf serum (FCS) and have exposed cultured brain astrocytes with IONPs in the absence or presence of FCS. Incubation with FCS caused a concentration-dependent increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the particles and of their zeta-potential. In the presence of 10 % FCS, the diameter of the IONPs increased from 57 {+-} 2 to 107 {+-} 6 nm and the zeta-potential of the particles from -22 {+-} 5 to -9 {+-} 1 mV. FCS affected also strongly the uptake of IONPs by cultured astrocytes. The efficient time- and temperature-dependent cellular accumulation of IONPs was lowered with increasing concentration of FCS by up to 90 %. In addition, in the absence of serum, endocytosis inhibitors did not alter the IONP accumulation by astrocytes, while chlorpromazine or wortmannin lowered significantly the accumulation of IONPs in the presence of FCS, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are involved in astrocytic IONP uptake from serum-containing medium. These data demonstrate that the presence of FCS strongly affects the properties of IONPs as well as their accumulation by cultured brain cells.

  1. The presence of serum alters the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Mark; Petters, Charlotte; Thiel, Karsten; Dringen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Such particles are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are taken up into brain cells. To test whether serum components affect the properties of IONPs and/or their uptake into brain cells, we have incubated dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic IONPs without and with fetal calf serum (FCS) and have exposed cultured brain astrocytes with IONPs in the absence or presence of FCS. Incubation with FCS caused a concentration-dependent increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the particles and of their zeta-potential. In the presence of 10 % FCS, the diameter of the IONPs increased from 57 ± 2 to 107 ± 6 nm and the zeta-potential of the particles from -22 ± 5 to -9 ± 1 mV. FCS affected also strongly the uptake of IONPs by cultured astrocytes. The efficient time- and temperature-dependent cellular accumulation of IONPs was lowered with increasing concentration of FCS by up to 90 %. In addition, in the absence of serum, endocytosis inhibitors did not alter the IONP accumulation by astrocytes, while chlorpromazine or wortmannin lowered significantly the accumulation of IONPs in the presence of FCS, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are involved in astrocytic IONP uptake from serum-containing medium. These data demonstrate that the presence of FCS strongly affects the properties of IONPs as well as their accumulation by cultured brain cells.

  2. Sulforaphane rescues memory dysfunction and synaptic and mitochondrial alterations induced by brain iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, I C; de Freitas, B S; Kist, L W; Falavigna, L; Dargél, V A; Köbe, L M; Aguzzoli, C; Piffero, B; Florian, P Z; Bogo, M R; de Lima, M N M; Schröder, N

    2015-08-20

    Iron overload contributes to the development of neurodegeneration and the exacerbation of normal apoptosis rates, largely due to its participation in the Fenton reaction and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria constitute the major intracellular source of ROS and the main target of attack by free radicals. They are dynamic organelles that bind (fusion) and divide (fission) in response to environmental stimuli, developmental status, and energy needs of the cells. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural compound that displays antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aims to investigate the effects of SFN on memory deficits and changes in markers of mitochondrial function, DNM1L and OPA1, and the synaptic marker, synaptophysin, induced by neonatal iron treatment. Male rats received vehicle or carbonyl iron (30mg/kg) from the 12th to the 14th postnatal day. In adulthood, they were treated with saline or SFN (0.5 or 5mg/kg) for 14days every other day. Memory deficits were assessed using the object recognition task. DNM1L, OPA1, and synaptophysin levels in the hippocampus were quantified by Western blotting. Results showed that SFN was able to reverse iron-induced decreases in mitochondrial fission protein, DNM1L, as well as synaptophysin levels in the hippocampus, leading to a recovery of recognition memory impairment induced by iron. These findings suggest that SFN may be further investigated as potential agent for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with variably sized polyethylene glycol in murine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, Thomas; Wittenborn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have found widespread applications in different areas including cell separation, drug delivery and as contrast agents. Due to water insolubility and stability issues, nanoparticles utilized for biological applications require coatings such as the commonly employed...... polyethylene glycol (PEG). Despite its frequent use, the influence of PEG coatings on the physicochemical and biological properties of iron nanoparticles has hitherto not been studied in detail. To address this, we studied the effect of 333–20 000 Da PEG coatings that resulted in larger hydrodynamic size......, lower surface charge, longer circulation half-life, and lower uptake in macrophage cells when the particles were coated with high molecular weight (Mw) PEG molecules. By use of magnetic resonance imaging, we show coating-dependent in vivo uptake in murine tumors with an optimal coating Mw of 10 000 Da...

  4. The preventive effect of Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract administered simultaneously to excess iron on markers of iron overload in Spraque-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama Fajri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, there is no agent available for the prevention of iron overload (IO in thalassemia patients. Previous studies showed that Mangifera foetida L. leaf extracts reduced the levels of iron in IO in vitro and in vivo models. The present study aimed to determine the efficacy of Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract in the prevention of IO induced in rats.Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: control (untreated, IO, 3 treatment groups with leaf extract equivalent to 50, 100, and 200 mg of mangiferin per kg BW. Fe-dextran (15 mg was administered intraperitoneally twice a week for 4 weeks to all groups except control (IO, DSM50, DSM100, and DSM200. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after treatments. After 4 weeks of treatment, rats were terminated, and samples of spleen, liver, and heart were taken. Ferritin and mangiferin levels and SOD activities were determined in plasma. Iron levels were measured in plasma, urine, and spleen.Results: Experimental IO increased plasma Fe content 4.23 times and plasma ferritin levels 6.9 times vs normal. Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract DSM50 resulted in the highest blood levels of 212 ng mangiferin per mL and moderately, although not significant, prevented increased plasma ferritin levels and IO in organs and protected against oxidative stress.Conclusion: Aqueous Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract may be useful to prevent IO and oxidative stress in thalassemia patients.

  5. Magnesium and iron deficiencies alter Cd accumulation in Salix viminalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, M; Pajević, S; Nikolić, N; Orlović, S; Župunski, M; Pilipović, A; Kebert, M

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists that Cd and certain nutrient elements, such as Fe and Mg, could share similar mechanisms of plant uptake and accumulation. Here we report that Mg and Fe deficiency in mature plants of Salix viminalis, grown in hydroponic solutions containing 5 µg ml(-1) of Cd, caused a significant increase in Cd accumulation in roots, stems and leaves. Cd (µg g(-1) dry weight) was determined following three treatments: 1) Cd treatment in complete nutrient solution; 2) Cd treatment with Fe deficiency; and 3) Cd treatment with Mg deficiency, yielding, respectively: in young leaves (65.3, 76.1, and 92.2), mature leaves (51.5 to 76.3 and 87.1), upper stems (80.6, 116.8, and 130.6) lower stems (67.2, 119, and 102.3), roots (377.1, 744.8, and 442,5). Our results suggest that Cd utilizes the same uptake and transport pathways as Mg and Fe. Evidence exists that Mg and Fe uptake and translocation could be further facilitated by plants as an adaptive response to deficiency of these elements. Such physiological reaction could additionally stimulate Cd accumulation. Although Cd uptake was mostly confined in roots, high Cd content in aerial plant parts (51.5-130.6 µg g(-1)) indicates that the analysed Salix viminalis genotype is suitable for phytoextraction.

  6. Iron accumulation in deep cortical layers accounts for MRI signal abnormalities in ALS: correlating 7 tesla MRI and pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Y Kwan

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To investigate the utility of this MR signal change as a marker of cortical motor neuron degeneration, signal abnormalities on 3T and 7T MR images of the brain were compared, and pathology was obtained in two ALS patients to determine the origin of the motor cortex hypointensity. Nineteen patients with clinically probable or definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 19 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. A 7T MRI scan was carried out on five ALS patients who had motor cortex hypointensity on the 3T FLAIR sequence and on three healthy controls. Postmortem 7T MRI of the brain was performed in one ALS patient and histological studies of the brains and spinal cords were obtained post-mortem in two patients. The motor cortex hypointensity on 3T FLAIR images was present in greater frequency in ALS patients. Increased hypointensity correlated with greater severity of upper motor neuron impairment. Analysis of 7T T(2(*-weighted gradient echo imaging localized the signal alteration to the deeper layers of the motor cortex in both ALS patients. Pathological studies showed increased iron accumulation in microglial cells in areas corresponding to the location of the signal changes on the 3T and 7T MRI of the motor cortex. These findings indicate that the motor cortex hypointensity on 3T MRI FLAIR images in ALS is due to increased iron accumulation by microglia.

  7. Managing the excessive proliferation of glycogen accumulating organisms in industrial activated sludge by nitrogen supplementation: A FISH-NanoSIMS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetto, Cristobal A; Eales, Kathryn L; Guagliardo, Paul; Kilburn, Matt R; Gambetta, Joanna M; Grbin, Paul R

    2017-10-02

    Defluviicoccus vanus-related glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) regularly proliferate in industrial wastewater treatment plants handling high carbon but nitrogen deficient wastes. When GAO dominate, they are associated with poor performance, characterised by slow settling biomass and turbid effluents. Although their ecophysiology has been studied thoroughly in domestic waste treatment plants, little attention has been paid to them in aerobic industrial systems. In this study, the effect of nitrogen addition on GAO carbon metabolism was investigated during an 8h cycle. Activated sludge dominated by GAO from a winery wastewater sequencing batch reactor was incubated under different carbon to nitrogen (COD:N) ratios (100:1, 60:1 and 20:1) using (13)C - acetate and (15)N - urea. GAO cell assimilation was quantified using FISH-NanoSIMS. The activated sludge community was assessed by 16S rRNA gene profiling, DNA and storage polymer production. Carbon and nitrogen quantification at the cellular level by NanoSIMS revealed that low (COD:N of 100:1) or null nitrogen concentrations enhanced GAO carbon uptake. COD:N ratios of 60:1 and 20:1 reduced GAO carbon uptake and promoted whole microbial community DNA production. Nitrogen dosing at COD:N ratios of 60:1 or higher was demonstrated as feasible strategy for controlling the excessive GAO growth in high COD waste treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of dissolved inorganic carbon and calcium on gas formation and accumulation in iron permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Aki S; Weber, Anne; Jekel, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainties in long-term reactivity and gas accumulation in Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers still hinder a broad application of this groundwater remediation technology. In this study long-term column experiments were conducted under varying geochemical conditions. Generation of hydrogen by anaerobic corrosion in Fe(0) reactive filters was mainly influenced by the mass flux of dissolved inorganic carbon. Both increased concentrations and volume flows led to a substantial rise in gas generation but only to slight differences of gas accumulation within the pores of the reactive filter. Comparisons of columns with different lengths showed higher averaged corrosion rates in the shorter and lower corrosion rates in the longer columns. Calcium in conjunction with dissolved inorganic carbon formed compact and localized aragonite minerals, while in the absence of calcium chukanovite dominated, which covered and passivated the reactive surface to a higher extent. Magnetite was the major crystalline corrosion product in the absence of carbonate and no decline in long term corrosion rates was observed within up to 700 days of operation. Total gas yields of columns were restricted by passivation and approached a volume of approximately 13.5 mL/g granulated cast iron. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Mariana; Carvalho, Susana M P; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient deficiency is essential. Several studies showed that relative humidity (RH) may influence the long distance transport of mineral elements and the nutrient status of plants. Thus, we decided to analyze the response of an "Fe-efficient" (EF) and an "Fe-inefficient" (INF) soybean accession grown under Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions under low (60%) and high (90%) RH, evaluating morphological, and physiological parameters. Furthermore, the mineral content of different plant organs was analyzed. Our results showed beneficial effects of high RH in alleviating IDC symptoms as seen by increased SPAD values, higher plant dry weight (DW), increased plant height, root length, and leaf area. This positive effect of RH in reducing IDC symptoms was more pronounced in the EF accession. Also, Fe content in the different plant organs of the EF accession grown under deficient conditions increased with RH. The lower partitioning of Fe to roots and stems of the EF accessions relative to dry matter also supported our hypothesis, suggesting a greater capacity of this accession in Fe translocation to the aerial parts under Fe deficient conditions, when grown under high RH.

  10. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eRoriz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency chlorosis (IDC in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient deficiency is essential. Several studies showed that relative humidty (RH may influence the long distance transport of mineral elements and the nutrient status of plants. Thus, we decided to analyze the response of an ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF and an ‘Fe-inefficient’ (INF soybean accession grown under Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions under low (60% and high (90% RH, evaluating morphological and physiological parameters. Furthermore, the mineral content of different plant organs was analyzed. Our results showed beneficial effects of high RH in alleviating IDC symptoms as seen by increased SPAD values, higher plant dry weight, increased plant height, root length and leaf area. This positive effect of RH in reducing IDC symptoms was more pronounced in the EF accession. Also, Fe content in the different plant organs of the EF accession grown under deficient conditions increased with RH. The lower partitioning of Fe to roots and stems of the EF accessions relative to dry matter also supported our hypothesis, suggesting a greater capacity of this accession in Fe translocation to the aerial parts under Fe deficient conditions, when grown under high RH.

  11. Accumulation of Mercury, Cadmium, Tin, Nickel, iron and Zinc in canned tuna from Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Velayatzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of heavy metals has led to numerous studies on the accumulation of these elements in fish and fishery products such as canned products. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Sn, Zn, Ni, Fe in canned tuna fish from of Khuzestan Provinces. A total number of 54 tuna fish cans from three brands (A, B and C was collected from Ahvaz retails. The samples were subjected to dry digestion and the concentrations of the heavy metals were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer 4100. In this study, no significant difference was observed between the concentrations of heavy metals in three various samples (P>0.05. The mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, Ni Sn, Zn and Fe in group C samples were determined at 0.048±0.007, 0.297±0.053, 0.171±0.031, 0.062±0.012, 5.36±0.82, 7.63±0.04 mg/Kg. Moreover, the highest level of Cd, Ni and Fe concentrations was observed in group C samples. In comparison with WHO, FAO and FDA standards, concentration of Ni, Sn, Hg and Zn was found lower. Meanwhile, the concentration of Cd was estimated higher than WHO, NHMRC and UKMAFF limits.

  12. Differential Tissue Accumulation of Copper, Iron, and Zinc in Bycatch Fish from the Mexican Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Aramburo-Moran, I S; Bojórquez-Leyva, H; Páez-Osuna, F

    2017-03-01

    In order to ascertain if Cu, Fe, and Zn are differentially accumulated in fish tissues, metal concentrations were measured in the muscle and liver of bycatch fish from the states of Sinaloa (189 specimens, 7 species) and Guerrero (152 individuals, 8 species) in the Mexican Pacific Coast during March and November 2011. Additionally, metal levels were compared with the maximum allowable limits set by international legislation and contrasted with similar ichthyofauna from other regions. Liver had more elevated concentrations of Cu (Sinaloa 28.3, Guerrero 16.3 μg g-1), Fe (Sinaloa 1098, Guerrero 636 μg g-1), and Zn (Sinaloa 226, Guerrero 186 μg g-1) than the muscle in fish from both studied areas. The relative abundances of analyzed metals in both tissues was Fe > Zn > Cu. As far as limits set by international legislation (Australia, India, New Zealand, Zambia), measured concentrations of Cu in the edible portion of fish were not found to be above the set values. In the case of Zn, the maximum allowable limits set by international legislation were exceeded by the Peruvian mojarra Diapterus peruvianus from Guerrero state (Mexican Pacific). No limits exist for Fe in the edible portion of fishery products in the national and international legislations.

  13. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Plant Iron Deficiency Tolerance via Increased Accumulation of Polyamine-Mediated Nitric Oxide

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    Cheng Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin has recently been demonstrated to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, the possible involvement of melatonin in Fe deficiency responses and the underlying mechanisms remained elusive in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, Fe deficiency quickly induced melatonin synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Exogenous melatonin significantly increased the soluble Fe content of shoots and roots, and decreased the levels of root cell wall Fe bound to pectin and hemicellulose, thus alleviating Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, melatonin treatments induced a significant increase of nitric oxide (NO accumulation in roots of Fe-deficient plants, but not in those of polyamine-deficient (adc2-1 and d-arginine-treated plants. Moreover, the melatonin-alleviated leaf chlorosis was blocked in the polyamine- and NO-deficient (nia1nia2noa1 and c-PTIO-treated plants, and the melatonin-induced Fe remobilization was largely inhibited. In addition, the expression of some Fe acquisition-related genes, including FIT1, FRO2, and IRT1 were significantly up-regulated by melatonin treatments, whereas the enhanced expression of these genes was obviously suppressed in the polyamine- and NO-deficient plants. Collectively, our results provide evidence to support the view that melatonin can increase the tolerance of plants to Fe deficiency in a process dependent on the polyamine-induced NO production under Fe-deficient conditions.

  14. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

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    Suzhen Li

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP, is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize.

  15. Soybean genotypic difference in growth, nutrient accumulation and ultrastructure in response to manganese and iron supply in solution culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, M L; Sinclair, T R

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the physiology and cell ultrastructure of two soybean genotypes subjected to nutrient solutions with increasing concentrations of manganese (Mn) at two contrasting iron (Fe) concentrations. Genotypes 'PI227557' and 'Biloxi' were selected based on their distinctly different capacities to accumulate Mn and Fe. * Bradyrhizobium-inoculated plants were grown in hydroponic cultures in a greenhouse. Nutrient solutions were supplied with Mn concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 90 microm, at either 5 or 150 microm Fe as FeEDTA. * For both genotypes and at both Fe concentrations, Mn concentrations from 6.6 to 50 microm did not affect shoot, root and nodule mass, or leaf and nodule ureide concentration. Mn concentrations of 70 and 90 microm did not result in visible toxicity symptoms, but hindered growth and nodulation of 'Biloxi'. An Mn concentration of 0.3 microm was, however, deleterious to growth and nodulation for both genotypes, and caused an accumulation of ureides in leaves and major alterations in the ultrastructure of chloroplasts, nuclei and mitochondria, regardless of the Fe concentration. In 'PI227557', there was also a proliferation of Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of leaf cells, and nodules showed disrupted symbiosomes lacking poly-beta-hydroxybutirate grains concomitantly with a proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum as well as arrested bacterial division. At 15 microm Fe, ferritin-like crystals were formed in the lumen of chloroplasts of 'PI227557' plants. For both genotypes, there was an antagonism between the Fe and Mn concentrations in leaves, the higher values of both microelements being detected in 'PI227557'. The absence of any detectable relationship between Fe or Mn and zinc, phosphorus and copper concentrations in leaves ruled out those micronutrients as relevant for Mn and Fe nutrition in soybeans. * The results confirmed the greater capacity of 'PI227557' for Mn and Fe

  16. MicroRNA miR-29 controls a compensatory response to limit neuronal iron accumulation during adult life and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, Roberto; Dolfi, Luca; Terrigno, Marco; Pandolfini, Luca; Savino, Aurora; Arcucci, Valeria; Groth, Marco; Terzibasi Tozzini, Eva; Baumgart, Mario; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2017-02-13

    A widespread modulation of gene expression occurs in the aging brain, but little is known as to the upstream drivers of these changes. MicroRNAs emerged as fine regulators of gene expression in many biological contexts and they are modulated by age. MicroRNAs may therefore be part of the upstream drivers of the global gene expression modulation correlated with aging and aging-related phenotypes. Here, we show that microRNA-29 (miR-29) is induced during aging in short-lived turquoise killifish brain and genetic antagonism of its function induces a gene-expression signature typical of aging. Mechanicistically, we identified Ireb2 (a master gene for intracellular iron delivery that encodes for IRP2 protein), as a novel miR-29 target. MiR-29 is induced by iron loading and, in turn, it reduces IRP2 expression in vivo, therefore limiting intracellular iron delivery in neurons. Genetically modified fish with neuro-specific miR-29 deficiency exhibit increased levels of IRP2 and transferrin receptor, increased iron content, and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that age-dependent miR-29 upregulation is an adaptive mechanism that counteracts the expression of some aging-related phenotypes and its anti-aging activity is primarily exerted by regulating intracellular iron homeostasis limiting excessive iron-exposure in neurons.

  17. Pulmonary Iron Homeostasis in Hepcidin Knockout Mice

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    Jean-Christophe Deschemin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary iron excess is deleterious and contributes to a range of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. Optimal lung iron concentration is maintained through dynamic regulation of iron transport and storage proteins. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is also expressed in the lung. In order to better understand the interactions between iron-associated molecules and the hepcidin-ferroportin axis in lung iron balance, we examined lung physiology and inflammatory responses in two murine models of systemic iron-loading, either hepcidin knock-out (Hepc KO or liver-specific hepcidin KO mice (Hepc KOliv, which do (Hepc KOliv or do not (Hepc KO express lung hepcidin. We have found that increased plasma iron in Hepc KO mice is associated with increased pulmonary iron levels, consistent with increased cellular iron uptake by pulmonary epithelial cells, together with an increase at the apical membrane of the cells of the iron exporter ferroportin, consistent with increased iron export in the alveoli. Subsequently, alveolar macrophages (AM accumulate iron in a non-toxic form and this is associated with elevated production of ferritin. The accumulation of iron in the lung macrophages of hepcidin KO mice contrasts with splenic and hepatic macrophages which contain low iron levels as we have previously reported. Hepc KOliv mice with liver-specific hepcidin deficiency demonstrated same pulmonary iron overload profile as the Hepc KO mice, suggesting that pulmonary hepcidin is not critical in maintaining local iron homeostasis. In addition, the high iron load in the lung of Hepc KO mice does not appear to enhance acute lung inflammation or injury. Lastly, we have shown that intraperitoneal LPS injection is not associated with pulmonary hepcidin induction, despite high levels of inflammatory cytokines. However, intranasal LPS injection stimulates a hepcidin response, likely derived from AM, and alters pulmonary iron content in Hepc KO mice.

  18. Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-09-15

    This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to NOM and chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Nano Iron and Solupotasse Fertilizers on Accumulation of Nutrient Elements and Quality of Two Onion (Allium cepa Cultivars

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    Ali Joghatay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of nano iron and solupotass on agronomic and physiological traits of two onion cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 32 treatments and three replications in Joghatai of Khorasan-e- Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of two onion cultivars (red, yellow and four levels (0, 1, 2, 3 kg per hectare of nano iron chelat and four levels of solupotass (0, 5, 10, 15 kg per hectare. Results showed that the effect of nano iron and solupotasse on fresh weight, dry weight, pyrovic acid and macro element (N, P, S contents were significant at %1 levels. Application nano iron, solupotasse to red onion cultivar increased dry weight significantly at the %5 level. Highest onion weight was obtained by using 2 kg nano iron and 15 kg solupotasse (17.3 g. Use of nano iron and solupotasse highly increased the pyruvic acid percentage (1.07 mM. Highest rate of pyruvic acid obtained by application of 3 and 15 kg nano iron and solupotasse respectively. Application of nano iron on the sulfur and nitrogen contents of onion were significant. Use of 2 kg/ha of nano iron exhibited highest increase in these elements. Thus, soil application of 10 kg/ha solupotasse, 3 kg/ha nano iron would highly increase red onion traits mentioned above.

  20. Sulfur and iron accumulation in three marine-archaeological shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea: The Ghost, the Crown and the Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Yvonne; Grudd, Håkan; Rindby, Anders; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Sandström, Magnus; Cato, Ingemar; Bornmalm, Lennart

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur and iron concentrations in wood from three 17th century shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea, the Ghost wreck, the Crown and the Sword, were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning. In near anaerobic environments symbiotic microorganisms degrade waterlogged wood, reduce sulfate and promote accumulation of low-valent sulfur compounds, as previously found for the famous wrecks of the Vasa and Mary Rose. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses of Ghost wreck wood show that organic thiols and disulfides dominate, together with elemental sulfur probably generated by sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa bacteria. Iron sulfides were not detected, consistent with the relatively low iron concentration in the wood. In a museum climate with high atmospheric humidity oxidation processes, especially of iron sulfides formed in the presence of corroding iron, may induce post-conservation wood degradation. Subject to more general confirmation by further analyses no severe conservation concerns are expected for the Ghost wreck wood.

  1. Sulfur and iron accumulation in three marine-archaeological shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea: The Ghost, the Crown and the Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Yvonne; Grudd, Håkan; Rindby, Anders; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Sandström, Magnus; Cato, Ingemar; Bornmalm, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur and iron concentrations in wood from three 17th century shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea, the Ghost wreck, the Crown and the Sword, were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning. In near anaerobic environments symbiotic microorganisms degrade waterlogged wood, reduce sulfate and promote accumulation of low-valent sulfur compounds, as previously found for the famous wrecks of the Vasa and Mary Rose. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses of Ghost wreck wood show that organic thiols and disulfides dominate, together with elemental sulfur probably generated by sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa bacteria. Iron sulfides were not detected, consistent with the relatively low iron concentration in the wood. In a museum climate with high atmospheric humidity oxidation processes, especially of iron sulfides formed in the presence of corroding iron, may induce post-conservation wood degradation. Subject to more general confirmation by further analyses no severe conservation concerns are expected for the Ghost wreck wood. PMID:24573214

  2. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657

  3. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-10-01

    Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (piron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion.

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf from the Karabük iron-steel factory in Karabük, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansaran-Duman, Demet; Atakol, Orhan; Atasoy, Ilknur; Kahya, Didem; Aras, Sümer; Beyaztaş, Taylan

    2009-01-01

    Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf lichen specimens were collected every 5 km starting from around an iron-steel factory located in the central area of Karabük province, up to Yenice Forest. Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr contents were analyzed in the samples collected from polluted and unpolluted areas. A Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf sample from Yenice Forest was used as a control. The reason for this choise was the abundance of species diversity, and therefore sample collection might cause a very low impact on natural population density. The forest is among the 100 forested areas that must be urgently taken under protection according to WWF (World Wildlife Fund) researches. Results of the current study manifested significant variations among the contents of these elements between stations. As expected, the pollution sources, such as iron-steel factory, roads and railroads, industry, heavy traffic, and waste treatment plants, have major impact on the heavy metal accumulation in P. furfuracea (L.) Zopf, and, in accordance to their location, samples 8 and 10 displayed high element accumulation. Surprisingly, although Yenice Forest is under protection, results of our study showed that the region is becoming polluted by the influence of many pollution sources in the area. The present study also confirms the efficient metal accumulation capacity of lichens.

  5. A vacuolar iron transporter in tulip, TgVit1, is responsible for blue coloration in petal cells through iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kumi; Mano, Shoji; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Nakamori, Chihiro; Shoji, Kazuaki; Nitta, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2009-08-01

    Blue color in flowers is due mainly to anthocyanins, and a considerable part of blue coloration can be attributed to metal-complexed anthocyanins. However, the mechanism of metal ion transport into vacuoles and subsequent flower color development has yet to be fully explored. Previously, we studied the mechanism of blue color development specifically at the bottom of the inner perianth in purple tulip petals of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho. We found that differences in iron content were associated with the development of blue- and purple-colored cells. Here, we identify a vacuolar iron transporter in T. gesneriana (TgVit1), and characterize the localization and function of this transporter protein in tulip petals. The amino acid sequence of TgVit1 is 85% similar that of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar iron transporter AtVIT1, and also showed similarity to the AtVIT1 homolog in yeast, Ca(2+)-sensitive cross-complementer 1 (CCC1). The gene TgVit1 was expressed exclusively in blue-colored epidermal cells, and protein levels increased with increasing mRNA expression and blue coloration. Transient expression experiments revealed that TgVit1 localizes to the vacuolar membrane, and is responsible for the development of the blue color in purple cells. Expression of TgVit1 in yeast rescued the growth defect of ccc1 mutant cells in the presence of high concentrations of FeSO(4). Our results indicate that TgVit1 plays an essential role in blue coloration as a vacuolar iron transporter in tulip petals. These results suggest a new role for involvement of a vacuolar iron transporter in blue flower color development.

  6. Burkholderia phytofirmans Inoculation-Induced Changes on the Shoot Cell Anatomy and Iron Accumulation Reveal Novel Components of Arabidopsis-Endophyte Interaction that Can Benefit Downstream Biomass Deconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Zeng, Yining; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2016-01-01

    It is known that plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) elicit positive effects on plant growth and biomass yield. However, the actual mechanism behind the plant-PGPB interaction is poorly understood, and the literature is scarce regarding the thermochemical pretreatability and enzymatic degradability of biomass derived from PGPB-inoculated plants. Most recent transcriptional analyses of PGPB strain Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN inoculating potato in literature and Arabidopsis in our present study have revealed the expression of genes for ferritin and the biosynthesis and transport of siderophores (i.e., the molecules with high affinity for iron), respectively. The expression of such genes in the shoots of PsJN-inoculated plants prompted us to propose that PsJN-inoculation can improve the host plant's iron uptake and accumulation, which facilitates the downstream plant biomass pretreatment and conversion to simple sugars. In this study, we employed B. phytofirmans PsJN to inoculate the Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and conducted the first investigation for its effects on the biomass yield, the anatomical organization of stems, the iron accumulation, and the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of harvested biomass. The results showed that the strain PsJN stimulated plant growth in the earlier period of plant development and enlarged the cell size of stem piths, and it also indeed enhanced the essential metals uptake and accumulation in host plants. Moreover, we found that the PsJN-inoculated plant biomass released more glucose and xylose after hot water pretreatment and subsequent co-saccharification, which provided a novel insight into development of lignocellulosic biofuels from renewable biomass resources. PMID:26858740

  7. Burkholderia phytofirmans inoculation-induced changes on the shoot cell anatomy and iron accumulation reveal novel components of Arabidopsis-endophyte interaction that can benefit downstream biomass deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai eZhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB elicit positive effects on plant growth and biomass yield. However, the actual mechanism behind the plant-PGPB interaction is poorly understood, and the literature is scarce regarding the thermochemical pretreatability and enzymatic degradability of biomass derived from PGPB-inoculated plants. Most recent transcriptional analyses of PGPB strain Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN inoculating potato in literature and Arabidopsis in our present study have revealed the expression of genes for ferritin and the biosynthesis and transport of siderophores (i.e. the molecules with high affinity for iron, respectively. The expression of such genes in the shoots of PsJN-inoculated plants prompted us to propose that PsJN-inoculation can improve the host plant’s iron uptake and accumulation, which facilitates the downstream plant biomass pretreatment and conversion to simple sugars. In this study, we employed B. phytofirmans PsJN to inoculate the Arabidopsis thaliana plants, and conducted the first investigation for its effects on the biomass yield, the anatomical organization of stems, the iron accumulation, and the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of harvested biomass. The results showed that the strain PsJN stimulated plant growth in the earlier period of plant development and enlarged the cell size of stem piths, and it also indeed enhanced the essential metals uptake and accumulation in host plants. Moreover, we found that the PsJN-inoculated plant biomass released more glucose and xylose after hot water pretreatment and subsequent co-saccharification, which provided a novel insight into development of lignocellulosic biofuels from renewable biomass resources.

  8. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hypointensity of the Pulvinar Nucleus of Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Its Possible Association with Iron Accumulation as Evidenced by the T2 Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Dept. of Neurology, Hanyang University Medical Center, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seol Heui [Center for Geriatric Neuroscience Research, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 {+-} 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 {+-} 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

  9. Excessive somnolence

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    Stella Tavares

    Full Text Available Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  10. Excessive somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S; Alóe, F; Gentil, V; Scaff, M

    1996-01-01

    Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  11. Characterization of natural variation for zinc, iron and manganese accumulation and zinc exposure response in Brassica rapa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Schat, H.; Koornneef, M.; Wang, X.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Brassica rapa L. is an important vegetable crop in eastern Asia. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variation in leaf Zn, Fe and Mn accumulation, Zn toxicity tolerance and Zn efficiency in B. rapa. In total 188 accessions were screened for their Zn-related characteristics in

  12. An Increased Dietary Supply of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Early Weaning in Rodents Prevents Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood

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    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat until PN day 98. Body composition was monitored by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA. In rats, glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test (GTT and insulin tolerance test (ITT; in mice, the HOmeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. At autopsy on PN day 98, plasma lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured; organs and fat pads were collected and the adipocyte size distribution was analysed. Milk analysis in mice showed that the maternal MCT diet was not translated into milk, and pups were thus only exposed to high MCT levels from early weaning onward: PN day 16 until 42. Mice exposed to MCT showed 28% less fat accumulation vs. CTRL during WSD. The average adipocyte cell size, fasting plasma triglycerides (TG, and leptin levels were reduced in MCT mice. In rats, no effects were found on the adult body composition, but the adipocyte cell size distribution shifted towards smaller adipocytes. Particularly mice showed positive effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increased MCFA intake early-in-life protected against the detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood.

  13. Antifibrotic effect of xanthohumol in combination with praziquantel is associated with altered redox status and reduced iron accumulation during liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnongkan, Wassana; Thanee, Malinee; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Loilome, Watcharin; Thanan, Raynoo; Kimawaha, Phongsaran; Boonmars, Tidarat; Silakit, Runglawan; Namwat, Nisana; Techasen, Anchalee

    2018-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by infection of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini , (Ov) is the major public health problem in northeast Thailand. Following Ov infection the subsequent molecular changes can be associated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced chronic inflammation, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Notably, resistance to an activation of cell death in prolonged oxidative stress conditions can occur but some damaged/mutated cells could survive and enable clonal expansion. Our study used a natural product, xanthohumol (XN), which is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, to examine whether it could prevent Ov-associated CCA carcinogenesis. We measured the effect of XN with or without praziquantel (PZ), an anti-helminthic treatment, on DNA damage, redox status change including iron accumulation and periductal fibrosis during CCA genesis induced by administration of Ov and N -dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA) in hamsters. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I, Ov infection and NDMA administration (ON); group II, Ov infection and NDMA administration and PZ treatment (ONP); the latter 2 groups were similar to group I and II, but group III received additional XN (XON) and group IV received XN plus PZ (XONP). The results showed that high 8-oxodG (a marker of DNA damage) was observed throughout cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of CD44v8-10 (a cell surface in regulation of the ROS defense system), whereas decreased expression of phospho-p38 MAPK (a major ROS target), was found during the progression of the bile duct cell transformation. In addition, high accumulation of iron and expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1) in both malignant bile ducts and inflammatory cells were detected. Furthermore, fibrosis also increased with the highest level being on day 180. On the other hand, the groups of XN with or without PZ supplementations showed an effective reduction in all the markers

  14. Antifibrotic effect of xanthohumol in combination with praziquantel is associated with altered redox status and reduced iron accumulation during liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassana Jamnongkan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA caused by infection of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, (Ov is the major public health problem in northeast Thailand. Following Ov infection the subsequent molecular changes can be associated by reactive oxygen species (ROS induced chronic inflammation, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Notably, resistance to an activation of cell death in prolonged oxidative stress conditions can occur but some damaged/mutated cells could survive and enable clonal expansion. Our study used a natural product, xanthohumol (XN, which is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, to examine whether it could prevent Ov-associated CCA carcinogenesis. We measured the effect of XN with or without praziquantel (PZ, an anti-helminthic treatment, on DNA damage, redox status change including iron accumulation and periductal fibrosis during CCA genesis induced by administration of Ov and N-dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA in hamsters. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I, Ov infection and NDMA administration (ON; group II, Ov infection and NDMA administration and PZ treatment (ONP; the latter 2 groups were similar to group I and II, but group III received additional XN (XON and group IV received XN plus PZ (XONP. The results showed that high 8-oxodG (a marker of DNA damage was observed throughout cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of CD44v8-10 (a cell surface in regulation of the ROS defense system, whereas decreased expression of phospho-p38MAPK (a major ROS target, was found during the progression of the bile duct cell transformation. In addition, high accumulation of iron and expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1 in both malignant bile ducts and inflammatory cells were detected. Furthermore, fibrosis also increased with the highest level being on day 180. On the other hand, the groups of XN with or without PZ supplementations showed an effective reduction in all the

  15. Mutations in DDHD1, encoding a phospholipase A1, is a novel cause of retinopathy and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Rodolphe; Meyniel, Claire; Touitou, Valérie; Stevanin, Giovanni; Lamari, Foudil; Durr, Alexandra; Ewenczyk, Claire; Mochel, Fanny

    2017-12-01

    Defects of phospholipids remodelling and synthesis are inborn errors of metabolism responsible for various clinical presentations including spastic paraplegia, retinopathy, optic atrophy, myo- and cardiomyopathies, and osteo-cutaneous manifestations. DDHD1 encodes a phospholipase A1, which is involved in the remodelling of phospholipids. We previously described a relatively pure hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) phenotype associated with mutations in DDHD1. Here we report a complex form of HSP associated with retinal dystrophy and a pattern of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) on brain MRI, due to a novel homozygous mutation in DDHD1. This observation enlarges the clinical spectrum of DDHD1-associated disorders and sheds light on a new aetiology for syndromes associating retinopathy and NBIA. It also emphasizes the role of complex lipids in the retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism.

  17. Loss of lysosomal membrane protein NCU-G1 in mice results in spontaneous liver fibrosis with accumulation of lipofuscin and iron in Kupffer cells

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    Xiang Y. Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1gt/gt liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1gt/gt Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1gt/gt mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage.

  18. Bio-accumulation of copper, zinc, iron and manganese in oyster Saccostrea cucullata, Snail Cerithium rubus and Clam Tellina angulata from the Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.; Moraes, C.

    and C. rubus. Sexwise, iron content was high in male and manganese in female oysters. In T. angulata male specimens showed maximum zinc content. Stationwise, difference in copper and iron was significant in C. rubus. In general, copper and zinc...

  19. Update on the use of deferasirox in the management of iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali Taher,1 Maria Domenica Cappellini21American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Universitá di Milano, Policlinico Foundation IRCCS, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Regular blood transfusions as supportive care for patients with chronic anemia inevitably lead to iron overload as humans cannot actively remove excess iron. The cumulative effects of iron overload cause significant morbidity and mortality if not effectively treated with chelation therapy. Based on a comprehensive clinical development program, the once-daily, oral iron chelator deferasirox (Exjade® is approved for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in adult and pediatric patients with various transfusion-dependent anemias, including β-thalassemia and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Deferasirox dose should be titrated for each individual patient based on transfusional iron intake, current iron burden and whether the goal is to decrease or maintain body iron levels. Doses of >30 mg/kg/day have been shown to be effective with a safety profile consistent with that observed at doses <30 mg/kg/day. Recent data have highlighted the ability of deferasirox to decrease cardiac iron levels and to prevent the accumulation of iron in the heart. The long-term efficacy and safety of deferasirox for up to 5 years of treatment have now been established. The availability of this effective and generally well tolerated oral therapy represents a significant advance in the management of transfusional iron overload. Keywords: deferasirox, Exjade, oral, iron chelation, iron overload, cardiac iron 

  20. Mechanisms of iron sensing and regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pastor, María Teresa; Perea-García, Ana; Puig, Sergi

    2017-04-01

    Iron is a redox active element that functions as an essential cofactor in multiple metabolic pathways, including respiration, DNA synthesis and translation. While indispensable for eukaryotic life, excess iron can lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Therefore, living organisms have developed sophisticated strategies to optimally regulate iron acquisition, storage and utilization in response to fluctuations in environmental iron bioavailability. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription factors Aft1/Aft2 and Yap5 regulate iron metabolism in response to low and high iron levels, respectively. In addition to producing and assembling iron cofactors, mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster biogenesis has emerged as a central player in iron sensing. A mitochondrial signal derived from Fe/S synthesis is exported and converted into an Fe/S cluster that interacts directly with Aft1/Aft2 and Yap5 proteins to regulate their transcriptional function. Various conserved proteins, such as ABC mitochondrial transporter Atm1 and, for Aft1/Aft2, monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3 and Grx4 are implicated in this iron-signaling pathway. The analysis of a wide range of S. cerevisiae strains of different geographical origins and sources has shown that yeast strains adapted to high iron display growth defects under iron-deficient conditions, and highlighted connections that exist in the response to both opposite conditions. Changes in iron accumulation and gene expression profiles suggest differences in the regulation of iron homeostasis genes.

  1. Iron and Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, E.H.; Trapet, P.L.; Stringlis, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41185206X; Kruijs, Sophie; Bakker, P.A.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623; Pieterse, C.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of

  2. Chronic exposure of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to iron oxide nanoparticles: Effects of particle morphology on accumulation, elimination, hematology and immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Kaya, Hasan; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Camas, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Effects of chronic exposure to alpha and gamma iron oxide nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 NPs) were investigated through exposure of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L (9.2×10−4, 4.6×10−3 and 9.2×10−3 mM) aqueous suspensions for 60 days. Fish were then transferred to NP-free freshwater and allowed to eliminate ingested NPs for 30 days. The organs, including gills, liver, kidney, intestine, brain, spleen, and muscle tissue of the fish were analyzed to determine the accumulation, physiological distribution and elimination of the Fe2O3 NPs. Largest accumulation occurred in spleen followed by intestine, kidney, liver, gills, brain and muscle tissue. Fish exposed to γ-Fe2O3 NPs possessed significantly higher Fe in all organs. Accumulation in spleen was fast and independent of NP concentration reaching to maximum levels by the end of the first sampling period (30th day). Dissolved Fe levels in water were very negligible ranging at 4–6 μg/L for α-Fe2O3 and 17–21 μg/L for γ-Fe2O3 NPs (for 1 mg/L suspensions). Despite that, Fe levels in gills and brain reflect more dissolved Fe accumulation from metastable γ-Fe2O3 polymorph. Ingested NPs cleared from the organs completely within 30-day elimination period, except the liver and spleen. Liver contained about 31% of α- and 46% of γ-Fe2O3, while spleen retained about 62% of α- and 35% of the γ-polymorph. No significant disturbances were observed in hematological parameters, including hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell and white blood cell counts (p > 0.05). Serum glucose (GLU) levels decreased in treatments exposed to 1.0 mg/L of γ-Fe2O3 NPs at day 30 (p 0.05), but increased significantly within elimination period due to mobilization of ingested NPs from liver and spleen to blood. Though respiratory burst activity was not affected (p > 0.05), lysozyme activity (LA) was suppressed suggesting an immunosuppressive effects from both Fe2O3 NPs (p < 0.05). In contrast

  3. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical or occupational therapy, exercise physiology, and/or speech pathology. Many medications are available to treat the primary ... physical or occupational therapy, exercise physiology, and/or speech pathology. Many medications are available to treat the primary ...

  4. Phosphorylation of Akt by SC79 Prevents Iron Accumulation and Ameliorates Early Brain Injury in a Model of Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangying Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Akt may alleviate early brain injury (EBI following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. This study is undertaken to determine whether iron metabolism is involved in the beneficial effect of Akt activation after SAH. Therefore, we used a novel molecule, SC79, to activate Akt in an experimental Sprague–Dawley rat model of SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: sham, SAH, SAH + vehicle, SAH + SC79. The results confirmed that SC79 effectively enhanced the defense against oxidative stress and alleviated EBI in the temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, we found that phosphorylation of Akt by SC79 reduced cell surface transferrin receptor-mediated iron uptake and promoted ferroportin-mediated iron transport after SAH. As a result, SC79 administration diminished the iron content in the brain tissue. Moreover, the impaired Fe-S cluster biogenesis was recovered and loss of the activities of the Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes were regained, indicating that injured mitochondrial functions are restored to healthy levels. These findings suggest that disrupted iron homeostasis could contribute to EBI and Akt activation may regulate iron metabolism to relieve iron toxicity, further protecting neurons from EBI after SAH.

  5. Peripheral iron dextran induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in rat substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Song, Ning; Wang, Jun; Ren, Li-Ying; Xie, Jun-Xia

    2007-07-01

    Iron accumulation is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. To demonstrate the relationship between peripheral iron overload and dopaminergic neuron loss in rat substantia nigra (SN), in the present study we used fast cyclic voltammetry, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry, Perls' iron staining, and high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection to study the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and increased iron content in the SN of iron dextran overloaded animals. The findings showed that peripheral iron dextran overload increased the iron staining positive cells and reduced the number of TH-immunoreactive neurons in the SN. As a result, dopamine release and content, as well as its metabolites contents were decreased in caudate putamen. Even more dramatic changes were found in chronic overload group. These results suggest that peripheral iron dextran can increase the iron level in the SN, where excessive iron causes the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The chronic iron overload may be more destructive to dopaminergic neurons than the acute iron overload.

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria junction is required for iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Schmollinger, Stefan; Attar, Narsis; Campos, Oscar A; Vogelauer, Maria; Carey, Michael F; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2017-08-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) is a protein complex that physically tethers the two organelles to each other and creates the physical basis for communication between them. ERMES functions in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria, protein import into mitochondria, and maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and genome. Here, we report that ERMES is also required for iron homeostasis. Loss of ERMES components activates an Aft1-dependent iron deficiency response even in iron-replete conditions, leading to accumulation of excess iron inside the cell. This function is independent of known ERMES roles in calcium regulation, phospholipid biosynthesis, or effects on mitochondrial morphology. A mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 13 ( VPS13 ) gene that rescues the glycolytic phenotype of ERMES mutants suppresses the iron deficiency response and iron accumulation. Our findings reveal that proper communication between the ER and mitochondria is required for appropriate maintenance of cellular iron levels. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  8. Two-Component Signaling System VgrRS Directly Senses Extracytoplasmic and Intracellular Iron to Control Bacterial Adaptation under Iron Depleted Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both iron starvation and excess are detrimental to cellular life, especially for animal and plant pathogens since they always live in iron-limited environments produced by host immune responses. However, how organisms sense and respond to iron is incompletely understood. Herein, we reveal that in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, VgrS (also named ColS is a membrane-bound receptor histidine kinase that senses extracytoplasmic iron limitation in the periplasm, while its cognate response regulator, VgrR (ColR, detects intracellular iron excess. Under iron-depleted conditions, dissociation of Fe3+ from the periplasmic sensor region of VgrS activates the VgrS autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphotransfer to VgrR, an OmpR-family transcription factor that regulates bacterial responses to take up iron. VgrR-VgrS regulon and the consensus DNA binding motif of the transcription factor VgrR were dissected by comparative proteomic and ChIP-seq analyses, which revealed that in reacting to iron-depleted environments, VgrR directly or indirectly controls the expressions of hundreds of genes that are involved in various physiological cascades, especially those associated with iron-uptake. Among them, we demonstrated that the phosphorylated VgrR tightly represses the transcription of a special TonB-dependent receptor gene, tdvA. This regulation is a critical prerequisite for efficient iron uptake and bacterial virulence since activation of tdvA transcription is detrimental to these processes. When the intracellular iron accumulates, the VgrR-Fe2+ interaction dissociates not only the binding between VgrR and the tdvA promoter, but also the interaction between VgrR and VgrS. This relieves the repression in tdvA transcription to impede continuous iron uptake and avoids possible toxic effects of excessive iron accumulation. Our results revealed a signaling system that directly senses both extracytoplasmic and intracellular

  9. Iron Loading and Overloading due to Ineffective Erythropoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Tanno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoiesis describes the hematopoietic process of cell proliferation and differentiation that results in the production of mature circulating erythrocytes. Adult humans produce 200 billion erythrocytes daily, and approximately 1 billion iron molecules are incorporated into the hemoglobin contained within each erythrocyte. Thus, iron usage for the hemoglobin production is a primary regulator of plasma iron supply and demand. In many anemias, additional sources of iron from diet and tissue stores are needed to meet the erythroid demand. Among a subset of anemias that arise from ineffective erythropoiesis, iron absorption and accumulation in the tissues increases to levels that are in excess of erythropoiesis demand even in the absence of transfusion. The mechanisms responsible for iron overloading due to ineffective erythropoiesis are not fully understood. Based upon data that is currently available, it is proposed in this review that loading and overloading of iron can be regulated by distinct or combined mechanisms associated with erythropoiesis. The concept of erythroid regulation of iron is broadened to include both physiological and pathological hepcidin suppression in cases of ineffective erythropoiesis.

  10. Démantèlement des paysages cuirassés anciens en zones forestières tropicales d'Afrique centrale : formation d'accumulations ferrugineuses actuelles en bas de versantOld ferricrete landscape dismantling in Central Africa rain forest zone: formation of the present downslope iron accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temgoua, Émile; Bitom, Dieudonné; Bilong, Paul; Lucas, Yves; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    Present downslope iron accumulations were investigated in the rainforest zone in southern Cameroon. Six clay and Fe-hydroxide dominated patterns have been identified and occur on the lower part of hill slopes. They can be subdivided in three different sequences, related to gentle, moderate or steep slopes. They are discontinuous with respect to the dismantling zone of the old ferricrete cap formed at Cretaceous period. They show a gradual development from a soft Fe-crust (carapace) to a vesicular facies that will, with time, cover the whole landscape again. To cite this article: É. Temgoua et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 537-543.

  11. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of

  12. Role of Serum Iron in the Activation of Lipid Peroxidation in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Orlov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four critically ill patients due to generalized purulent peritonitis, pancreatonecrosis, thermal skin injuries, and severe poisoning by acetic acid were examined. The general regularities of the effect of high serum iron concentrations on the health status of patients, on the activity of antioxidative enzymes, and on the initiation of lipid peroxidation (LPO processes, as supported by the values of Fe2+-induced chemiluminescence, were revealed. In critically ill patients, iron metabolism occurs with the overload of a transport protein, such as transferrin, which is caused by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobin metabolism to ionized iron. The overload of proteins responsible for iron transport leads to the tissue accumulation of free (ferrous and ferric iron that is actively involved in the processes of LPO initiation with excess synthesis of cytotoxic radicals, which in turn accounts for the severity of endotoxicosis.

  13. The iron-responsive element (IRE)/iron-regulatory protein 1 (IRP1)–cytosolic aconitase iron-regulatory switch does not operate in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Ravet, Karl; Borlotti, Andrea; Touraine, Brigitte; Boucherez, Jossia; Fizames, Cécile; Briat, Jean-François; Cellier, Françoise; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Animal cytosolic ACO (aconitase) and bacteria ACO are able to switch to RNA-binding proteins [IRPs (iron-regulatory proteins)], thereby playing a key role in the regulation of iron homoeostasis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we have identified three IRP1 homologues, named ACO1–3. To determine whether or not they may encode functional IRP proteins and regulate iron homoeostasis in plants, we have isolated loss-of-function mutants in the three genes. The aco1-1 and aco3-1 mutants show a clear decrease in cytosolic ACO activity. However, none of the mutants is affected in respect of the accumulation of the ferritin transcript or protein in response to iron excess. cis-acting elements potentially able to bind to the IRP have been searched for in silico in the Arabidopsis genome. They appear to be very rare sequences, found in the 5′-UTR (5′-untranslated region) or 3′-UTR of a few genes unrelated to iron metabolism. They are therefore unlikely to play a functional role in the regulation of iron homoeostasis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in plants, the cytosolic ACO is not converted into an IRP and does not regulate iron homoeostasis. In contrast with animals, the RNA binding activity of plant ACO, if any, would be more likely to be attributable to a structural element, rather than to a canonical sequence. PMID:17437406

  14. Effects on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc of adding the two inorganic forms of selenium to solution cultures of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longchamp, M; Angeli, N; Castrec-Rouelle, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of selenate or selenite to common fertilizers for crop production could be an effective way of producing selenium-rich food and feed. However, this would be feasible only if the increase in plant selenium (Se) content did not negatively influence the uptake of other essential elements. We therefore need to understand the interactions between Se and other major and trace elements during uptake by the plant. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of inorganic forms of Se on the accumulation of selected macronutrients (Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu). Those essential elements are involved in the oxidative balance of cells. Zea mays seedlings were grown hydroponically in growth chambers in nutrient solutions to which we added 10, 50 or 1000 μg.L(-1) of selenate and/or selenite. Cation accumulation was significantly affected by the addition of 50 μg.L(-1) or 1000 μg.L(-1) Se, but not by the presence of 10 μg.L(-1) of Se in the nutrient solution. The highest concentration (1000 μg.L(-1)) of Se in the nutrient solution affected the accumulation of essential cations in Zea mays: selenate tended to increase the accumulation of Mg, Zn and Mn, whereas a selenate/selenite mixture tended to decrease the accumulation of Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn. Only Fe accumulation was unaffected by Se whatever its form or concentration. Selenium may also affect the distribution of cations on Zea mays. For example, levels of Mg and Zn translocation to the shoots were lower in the presence of selenite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza injection suppresses kidney injury induced by iron overload in mice.

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    Shengjiang Guan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Excessive iron can accumulate in the kidney and induce tissue damage. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza injection is a traditional Chinese medicinal preparation used for preventing and treating chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with Danshen injection on iron overload-induced kidney damage. METHODS: Mice were mock-treated with saline (control group or given a single dose of iron dextran without treatment (iron overload group, 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks or with daily treatments of low-dose Danshen (3 g/kg/day, high-dose Danshen (6 g/kg/day or deferoxamine (100 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: Treatment of iron-overloaded mice with Danshen injection led to significant improvements of body weight and decreased iron levels in the kidney. Danshen injection treatment also reduced concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and malondialdehyde and enhanced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Histopathological examinations showed that Danshen injection ameliorated pathological changes and reduced iron deposition in kidneys of iron overloaded mice. Furthermore, the treatment was demonstrated to suppress apoptosis in nephrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that Danshen injection exerted significant renal protective effects in iron-overloaded mice, which were closely associated with the decrease of iron deposition and suppression of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the kidney.

  16. Characterization of hepatic iron overload following dietary administration of dicyclopentadienyl iron (Ferrocene) to mice: cellular, biochemical, and molecular aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, L G; Petersen, D R

    2000-02-01

    A unique organic form of iron (dicyclopentadienyl iron; ferrocene) has been used to further elucidate specific hepatic histopathologic, biochemical, and molecular parameters associated with dietary iron overload. Male C57BL/6Ibg mice fed a diet containing 0.04-0.2% w/w ferrocene for 115 days displayed severe hepatic siderosis of hepatocytes accompanied by a 15-fold induction of nonheme iron content compared to control mice receiving a diet with normal amounts of iron. The ferrocene treatment led to significant increases in hepatocellular necrosis as measured by plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Histological assessment of hepatic fibrosis revealed mild increases in collagen deposition localized with accumulations of hemosiderin primarily in centrilobular hepatocytes. Hepatic fibrosis was confirmed by measurement of hepatic hydroxyproline content that was increased 4-fold in ferrocene-fed animals compared to control animals not ingesting ferrocene. Hepatic siderosis was accompanied by significant increases in hepatic malondialdehyde content suggesting the ferrocene-induced iron burden initiated lipid peroxidation in vivo. Expression of the heavy-chain isoform of ferritin mRNA and protein measured in liver after ferrocene feeding was increased approximately 8- and 2-fold, respectively, compared to the appropriate controls. These results, using an organic form of iron fed to genetically well-characterized inbred mice, provide new additional insight into the specific molecular and biochemical events that occur in association with histopathologic changes initiated by iron-induced liver injury. These data support the hypothesis that peroxidation of cellular membrane lipids is an important mechanism involved in the toxicity of excess hepatic iron and possibly the initiation of liver fibrogenesis. The results presented here also provide novel in vivo evidence documenting the cellular modulation of ferritin in response to the toxic effects of hepatic iron overloading

  17. Impact of Iron Metabolic Disturbances on Hemostasis in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Orlov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the regularities of iron metabolic disturbances and their impact on the hemostatic system in critically ill patients due to the severe course of generalized purulent peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, and thermal skin injuries. Materials and methods. In 36 patients with an APACHE II of 22.6±3.4 scores, endogenous iron metabolism was assessed by the level of serum iron, total serum syderopexy power, transferrin iron accumulation, ferritin concentrations, and free hemoglobin levels in blood; the antioxidative protective system, lipid peroxidation activity, and hemostatic parameters are studied. Results. There are general regularities in the hemostatic influence of the high concentrations of free hemoglobin and free radical oxidation products in critically ill patients due to generalized peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, or thermal skin injuries. In these patients, iron metabolism occurs with the overload of transporter proteins, such as transferrin and ferritin. Conclusion. Microcirculatory disorders as intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobin metabolism to ionized iron activate lipid peroxidation in the presence of excess Fe2+, which favors strain of the hemostatic system, by determining a tendency toward hypo- or hypercoagulation via the lowered activity of the platelets dependent on the state of free radical processes. Key words: ionized iron, transferrin, ferritin, lipid peroxidation, intravascular hemolysis, hemostasis.

  18. Increased iron accumulation occurs in the earliest stages of demyelinating disease: an ultra-high field susceptibility mapping study in Clinically Isolated Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Radaideh, Ali M; Wharton, Samuel J; Lim, Su-Yin; Tench, Christopher R; Morgan, Paul S; Bowtell, Richard W; Constantinescu, Cris S; Gowland, Penny A

    2013-06-01

    To determine, using ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whether changes in iron content occur in the earliest phases of demyelinating disease, by quantifying the magnetic susceptibility of deep grey matter structures in patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) that is suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), as compared with age-matched healthy subjects. We compared 19 CIS patients to 20 age-matched, healthy controls. Scanning of the study subjects was performed on a 7T Philips Achieva system, using a 3-dimensional, T2*-weighted gradient echo acquisition. Phase data were first high-pass filtered, using a dipole fitting method, and then inverted to produce magnetic susceptibility maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to estimate magnetic susceptibility values for deep grey matter structures (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, the thalamus and its pulvinar). Significantly increased relative susceptibilities were found in the CIS group, compared with controls, for the caudate nucleus (p = 0.05). In CIS patients, the time elapsed since the clinical event and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were not correlated with iron levels in any ROI (r(2) 0.05); however, a moderate correlation (r(2) = 0.3; p disease.

  19. Cardiac iron overload in chronically transfused patients with thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Montalembert

    Full Text Available The risk and clinical significance of cardiac iron overload due to chronic transfusion varies with the underlying disease. Cardiac iron overload shortens the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia, whereas its effect is unclear in those with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. In patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, iron does not seem to deposit quickly in the heart. Our primary objective was to assess through a multicentric study the prevalence of cardiac iron overload, defined as a cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2*8 ECs in the past year, and age older than 6 years. We included from 9 centers 20 patients with thalassemia, 41 with SCA, and 25 with MDS in 2012-2014. Erythrocytapharesis did not consistently prevent iron overload in patients with SCA. Cardiac iron overload was found in 3 (15% patients with thalassemia, none with SCA, and 4 (16% with MDS. The liver iron content (LIC ranged from 10.4 to 15.2 mg/g dry weight, with no significant differences across groups (P = 0.29. Abnormal T2* was not significantly associated with any of the measures of transfusion or chelation. Ferritin levels showed a strong association with LIC. Non-transferrin-bound iron was high in the thalassemia and MDS groups but low in the SCA group (P<0.001. Hepcidin was low in thalassemia, normal in SCA, and markedly elevated in MDS (P<0.001. Two mechanisms may explain that iron deposition largely spares the heart in SCA: the high level of erythropoiesis recycles the iron and the chronic inflammation retains iron within the macrophages. Thalassemia, in contrast, is characterized by inefficient erythropoiesis, unable to handle free iron. Iron accumulation varies widely in MDS syndromes due to the competing influences of abnormal erythropoiesis, excess iron supply, and inflammation.

  20. Misregulation of iron homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gajowiak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for all mammalian cells, but it is toxic in excess. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms ensuring iron homeostasis at both cellular and systemic levels has dramatically increased over the past 15 years. However, despite major advances in this field, homeostatic regulation of iron in the central nervous system (CNS requires elucidation. It is unclear how iron moves in the CNS and how its transfer to the CNS across the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, which separate the CNS from the systemic circulation, is regulated. Increasing evidence indicates the role of iron dysregulation in neuronal cell death observed in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective cortical czynand spinal motor neuron dysfunction that results from a complex interplay among various pathogenic factors including oxidative stress. The latter is known to strongly affect cellular iron balance, creating a vicious circle to exacerbate oxidative injury. The role of iron in the pathogenesis of ALS is confirmed by therapeutic effects of iron chelation in ALS mouse models. These models are of great importance for deciphering molecular mechanisms of iron accumulation in neurons. Most of them consist of transgenic rodents overexpressing the mutated human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene. Mutations in the SOD1 gene constituteone of the most common genetic causes of the inherited form of ALS. However, it should beconsidered that overexpression of the SOD1 gene usually leads to increased SOD1 enzymaticactivity, a condition which does not occur in human pathology and which may itself changethe expression of iron metabolism genes.

  1. Iron Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Menu Donate Treatments Therapies Iron Chelation Iron chelation therapy is the main treatment ... have iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you ...

  2. Contrasting effect of silicon on iron, zinc and manganese status and accumulation of metal-mobilizing compounds in micronutrient-deficient cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityutskii, Nikolai; Pavlovic, Jelena; Yakkonen, Kirill; Maksimović, Vuk; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Although the beneficial role of silicon (Si) in alleviation of abiotic stress is well established, little is known of the relevance of Si nutrition under microelement deficiency. The aim of our work was to investigate the physiological role of Si in relation to micronutrient (Fe, Zn and Mn) deficiencies in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Cucumber (cv. Semkross) plants were grown hydroponically in a complete nutrient solution (control) and in nutrient solutions free from Fe, Zn or Mn, with or without Si supply. Plant tissue concentrations of microelements, organic acids and phenolics were measured. Si supply effectively mitigated the symptoms of Fe deficiency, but only in part, the symptoms of Zn- or Mn deficiency. Leaf Fe concentration significantly increased in plants deprived of Fe but treated with Si, whereas the concentrations of other microelements were not affected by Si supply. The effects of Si supply in increasing accumulation of both organic acids and phenolic compounds in cucumber tissues were exclusively related to Fe nutrition. Enhancement of Fe distribution towards apical shoot parts, along with the tissue accumulation of Fe-mobilizing compounds such as citrate (in leaves and roots) or cathechin (in roots) appears to be the major alleviating effect of Si. Si nutrition, however, was without effect on the mobility and tissue distribution of either Zn or Mn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Progress in iron metabolism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Iron is essential for various cellular processes, but an excess of iron may cause organ damage through the production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the amount of iron in the body must be strictly controlled. The central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis is hepcidin, which is primarily produced in the liver. Various molecules, including HFE, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2), and hemojuvelin (HJV), are involved in sensing systemic iron status. Hepatocytes produce hepcidin in response to excess iron and inflammatory stimuli (e.g., interleukin-6), whereas hepcidin expression is downregulated by hypoxia, anemia, and erythropoietic activity. In mice, erythroferrone, secreted from erythroblasts, suppresses hepcidin expression. Hepcidin downregulates the protein expression of ferroportin, the only iron exporter in mammalian cells, and thereby downregulates iron absorption from intestine and iron release from macrophages. Mutations in the genes HFE, TFR2, HJV, HAMP (encoding hepcidin), and SLC40A1 (encoding ferroportin) cause hereditary hemochromatosis, whereas mutations in TMPRSS6 (which encodes matriptase 2) cause iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia through the upregulation of hepcidin expression. In chronic anemias, such as β-thalassemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and aplastic anemia, repeated red blood cell transfusion can cause systemic iron overload. Iron chelation therapy improves the prognosis of patients with such conditions.

  4. Magnetic resonance assessment of iron overload by separate measurement of tissue ferritin and hemosiderin iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X; Kim, Daniel; Tosti, Christina L; Tang, Haiying; Jensen, Jens H; Cheung, Jerry S; Feng, Li; Au, Wing-Yan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Sheth, Sujit S; Brown, Truman R; Brittenham, Gary M

    2010-08-01

    With transfusional iron overload, almost all the excess iron is sequestered intracellularly as rapidly mobilizable, dispersed, soluble ferritin iron, and as aggregated, insoluble hemosiderin iron for long-term storage. Established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators of tissue iron (R(2), R(2)*) are principally influenced by hemosiderin iron and change slowly, even with intensive iron chelation. Intracellular ferritin iron is evidently in equilibrium with the low-molecular-weight cytosolic iron pool that can change rapidly with iron chelation. We have developed a new MRI method to separately measure ferritin and hemosiderin iron, based on the non-monoexponential signal decay induced by aggregated iron in multiple-spin-echo sequences. We have initially validated the method in agarose phantoms and in human liver explants and shown the feasibility of its application in patients with thalassemia major. Measurement of tissue ferritin iron is a promising new means to rapidly evaluate the effectiveness of iron-chelating regimens.

  5. Coexistence of Copper in the Iron-Rich Particles of Aceruloplasminemia Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kunihiro; Hayashi, Hisao; Wakusawa, Shinya; Shigemasa, Ryota; Koide, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Kato, Koichi; Ohara, Shinji; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between iron and copper has been discussed in association with human health and diseases for many years. Ceruloplasmin, a multi-copper oxidase, is mainly involved in iron metabolism and its genetic defect, aceruloplasminemia (ACP), shows neurological disorders and diabetes associated with excessive iron accumulation, but little is known about the state of copper in the brain. Here, we investigated localization of these metals in the brains of three patients with ACP using electron microscopes equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer. Histochemically, iron deposition was observed mainly in the basal ganglia and dentate nucleus, and to lesser degree in the cerebral cortex of the patients, whereas copper grains were not detected. X-ray microanalysis identified two types of iron-rich particles in their brains: dense bodies, namely hemosiderins, and their aggregated inclusions. A small number of hemosiderins and most inclusions contained a significant amount of copper which was enough for distinct Cu x-ray images. These copper-containing particles were observed more frequently in the putamen and dentate nucleus than the cerebral cortex. Coexistence of iron and copper was supported by good correlations in the molecular ratios between these two metals in iron-rich particles with Cu x-ray image. Iron-dependent copper accumulation in iron-rich particles may suggest that copper recycling is enhanced to meet the increased requirement of cuproproteins in iron overload brain. In conclusion, the iron-rich particles with Cu x-ray image were found in the ACP brain.

  6. The chelation of colonic luminal iron by a unique sodium alginate for the improvement of gastrointestinal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horniblow, Richard D; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Harding, Stephen E; Schneider, Melanie; Almutairi, Fahad M; Sahni, Manroy; Bhatti, Ahsan; Ludwig, Christian; Norton, Ian T; Iqbal, Tariq H; Tselepis, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient. However, in animal models, excess unabsorbed dietary iron residing within the colonic lumen has been shown to exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal cancer. Therefore, the aims of this study were to screen a panel of alginates to identify a therapeutic that can chelate this pool of iron and thus be beneficial for intestinal health. Using several in vitro intestinal models, it is evident that only one alginate (Manucol LD) of the panel tested was able to inhibit intracellular iron accumulation as assessed by iron-mediated ferritin induction, transferrin receptor expression, intracellular (59) Fe concentrations, and iron flux across a Caco-2 monolayer. Additionally, Manucol LD suppressed iron absorption in mice, which was associated with increased fecal iron levels indicating iron chelation within the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the bioactivity of Manucol LD was found to be highly dependent on both its molecular weight and its unique compositional sequence. Manucol LD could be useful for the chelation of this detrimental pool of unabsorbed iron and it could be fortified in foods to enhance intestinal health. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An update on iron physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Villar, Isabel; García-Erce, José Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient, as it is required for adequate erythropoietic function, oxidative metabolism and cellular immune responses. Although the absorption of dietary iron (1-2 mg/d) is regulated tightly, it is just balanced with losses. Therefore, internal turnover of iron is essential to meet the requirements for erythropoiesis (20-30 mg/d). Increased iron requirements, limited external supply, and increased blood loss may lead to iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anemia. Hepcidin, which is made primarily in hepatocytes in response to liver iron levels, inflammation, hypoxia and anemia, is the main iron regulatory hormone. Once secreted into the circulation, hepcidin binds ferroportin on enterocytes and macrophages, which triggers its internalization and lysosomal degradation. Thus, in chronic inflammation, the excess of hepcidin decreases iron absorption and prevents iron recycling, which results in hypoferremia and iron-restricted erythropoiesis, despite normal iron stores (functional ID), and anemia of chronic disease (ACD), which can evolve to ACD plus true ID (ACD + ID). In contrast, low hepcidin expression may lead to iron overload, and vice versa. Laboratory tests provide evidence of iron depletion in the body, or reflect iron-deficient red cell production. The appropriate combination of these laboratory tests help to establish a correct diagnosis of ID status and anemia. PMID:19787824

  8. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  9. Colloidal stability, surface characterisation and intracellular accumulation of Rhodium(II) citrate coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in breast tumour: a promising platform for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Nunes, Eloiza da [Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Lemos Brettas Carneiro, Marcella; Guirelli Simoes de Oliveira, Ricardo; Nair Bao, Sonia [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas (Brazil); Ribeiro de Souza, Aparecido, E-mail: ardsouza@quimica.ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    The colloidal stability of a rhodium(II) citrate, Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4}, coating on the surface of maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles was studied and compared in different dispersion media. The adsorption of Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4} at the water-maghemite interface was evaluated as a function of pH and complex concentration. A slight pH-dependent adsorption of the complex was observed with a maximum at pH 3. The colloidal stability of the functionalised nanoparticles with different amounts of Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4} as a function of pH was evaluated using dynamic light scattering measurements. The particles have a mean magnetic core size of 5.6 nm and the hydrodynamic diameters are approximately 60 nm, which remained unchanged in the pH range in which the samples were a stable sol. The tolerance to different dispersion media, which were deionised water, saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), foetal bovine serum (FBS) and NaCl solutions with different concentrations, was investigated. At moderate ionic strength, the colloidal stability of the dispersions was similar in saline and in PBS compared to the stability of dispersions diluted in water. Moreover, the intracellular accumulation of nanoparticles in 4T1 breast tumour was examined by ultrastructural analysis performed by transmission electron microscopy. The rhodium(II) citrate-coated nanoparticles were found mostly in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Thus, we suggest that these SPIO nanoparticles functionalized with Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}Cit){sub 4} can be potential tools for anticancer therapy.

  10. Accumulation and Secretion of Coumarinolignans and other Coumarins in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots in Response to Iron Deficiency at High pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sisó-Terraza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Root secretion of coumarin-phenolic type compounds has been recently shown to be related to Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to Fe deficiency at high pH. These studies revealed the identity of a few simple coumarins occurring in roots and exudates of Fe-deficient A. thaliana plants, and left open the possible existence of other unknown phenolics. We used HPLC-UV-VIS-ESI-MS(TOF, HPLC/ESI-MSn(ion trap and HPLC-ESI-MS-MS(Q-TOF to characterize (identify and quantify phenolic-type compounds accumulated in roots or secreted into the nutrient solution of A. thaliana plants in response to Fe deficiency. Plants grown with or without Fe and using nutrient solutions buffered at pH 5.5 or 7.5 enabled to identify an array of phenolics. These include several coumarinolignans not previously reported in A. thaliana (cleomiscosins A, B, C and D and the 5’-hydroxycleomiscosins A and/or B, as well as some coumarin precursors (ferulic acid and coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes, and previously reported cathecol (fraxetin and non-cathecol coumarins (scopoletin, isofraxidin and fraxinol, some of them in hexoside forms not previously characterized. The production and secretion of phenolics were more intense when the plant accessibility to Fe was diminished and the plant Fe status deteriorated, as it occurs when plants are grown in the absence of Fe at pH 7.5. Aglycones and hexosides of the four coumarins were abundant in roots, whereas only the aglycone forms could be quantified in the nutrient solution. A comprehensive quantification of coumarins, first carried out in this study, revealed that the catechol coumarin fraxetin was predominant in exudates (but not in roots of Fe-deficient A. thaliana plants grown at pH 7.5. Also, fraxetin was able to mobilize efficiently Fe from a Fe(III-oxide at pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. On the other hand, non-catechol coumarins were much less efficient in mobilizing Fe and were present in much lower concentrations, making unlikely that they

  11. Accumulation of Metals in Juvenile Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Exposed to Sublethal Levels of Iron and Manganese: Survival, Body Weight and Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harangi, Sándor; Baranyai, Edina; Fehér, Milán; Tóth, Csilla Noémi; Herman, Petra; Stündl, László; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla; Simon, Edina

    2017-05-01

    Many oxbows are contaminated by Fe and Mn as a consequence of the elemental concentration of sediment and water originating from the Upper Tisza Region of Hungary. The phenomenon is partly caused by anthropogenic activities and mainly due to the geochemical characteristics of the region. The effects of Fe and Mn on the aquatic ecosystem of these wetlands were investigated in a model experiments in this study. Survival, individual body weight and the elemental concentrations of organs were determined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles reared in Fe and Mn contaminated media (treatment 1: Fe 0.57 mg L -1 , Mn 0.29 mg L -1 , treatment 2: Fe 0.57 mg L -1 , Mn 0.625 mg L -1 , treatment 3: Fe 1.50 mg L -1 , Mn 0.29 mg L -1 , treatment 4: Fe 1.50 mg L -1 , Mn 0.625 mg L -1 and control: Fe 0.005 mg L -1 , Mn 0.003 mg L -1 ), for rearing time of 49 days. The treatment with Fe and Mn did not have any effect on the survival data and individual body weight in the levels tested. The highest concentration of Fe and Mn was found in the liver and brain of carp juveniles, while the lowest concentration of these elements occurred in the muscular tissue and gills. The treatment where Fe and Mn were applied in the highest concentrations resulted in a statistically higher level of these elements in the brain, grills and muscle tissues. The treatment where only Mn was present in the highest concentration caused increased level of Mn only in the liver. We found metal accumulation in almost every organ; however, the applied concentrations and exposure time did not affect the survival and average body weight of carp juveniles.

  12. Arsenic rich iron plaque on macrophyte roots - an ecotoxicological risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, M.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)], E-mail: mark.taggart@uclm.es; Mateo, R. [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); Charnock, J.M.; Bahrami, F. [Synchrotron Radiation Department, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Green, A.J. [Department of Wetland Ecology, Estacion Biologica de Donana, CSIC, Pabellon del Peru, Avenida Maria Luisa s/n, 41013 Seville (Spain); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Bld, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Arsenic is known to accumulate with iron plaque on macrophyte roots. Three to four years after the Aznalcollar mine spill (Spain), residual arsenic contamination left in seasonal wetland habitats has been identified in this form by scanning electron microscopy. Total digestion has determined arsenic concentrations in thoroughly washed 'root + plaque' material in excess of 1000 mg kg{sup -1}, and further analysis using X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests arsenic exists as both arsenate and arsenite. Certain herbivorous species feed on rhizomes and bulbs of macrophytes in a wide range of global environments, and the ecotoxicological impact of consuming arsenic rich iron plaque associated with such food items remains to be quantified. Here, greylag geese which feed on Scirpus maritimus rhizome and bulb material in areas affected by the Aznalcollar spill are shown to have elevated levels of arsenic in their feces, which may originate from arsenic rich iron plaque. - Accumulation of metals with iron plaque on macrophyte roots in wetlands poses an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores.

  13. Induction of Nickel Accumulation in Response to Zinc Deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Nishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive accumulation of nickel (Ni can be toxic to plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Fe2+ transporter, iron (Fe-regulated transporter1 (IRT1, mediates Fe uptake and also implicates in Ni2+ uptake at roots; however, the underlying mechanism of Ni2+ uptake and accumulation remains unelucidated. In the present study, we found that zinc (Zn deficient conditions resulted in increased accumulation of Ni in plants, particularly in roots, in A. thaliana. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of Ni uptake correlating zinc condition, we traced 63Ni isotope in response to Zn and found that (i Zn deficiency induces short-term Ni2+ absorption and (ii Zn2+ inhibits Ni2+ uptake, suggesting competitive uptake between Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the Zrt/Irt-like protein 3 (ZIP3-defective mutant with an elevated Zn-deficient response exhibited higher Ni accumulation than the wild type, further supporting that the response to Zn deficiency induces Ni accumulation. Previously, expression profile study demonstrated that IRT1 expression is not inducible by Zn deficiency. In the present study, we found increased Ni accumulation in IRT1-null mutant under Zn deficiency in agar culture. These suggest that Zn deficiency induces Ni accumulation in an IRT1-independen manner. The present study revealed that Ni accumulation is inducible in response to Zn deficiency, which may be attributable to a Zn uptake transporter induced by Zn deficiency.

  14. Induction of Nickel Accumulation in Response to Zinc Deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Sho; Kato, Aki; Tsuzuki, Chisato; Yoshida, Junko; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of nickel (Ni) can be toxic to plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Fe2+ transporter, iron (Fe)-regulated transporter1 (IRT1), mediates Fe uptake and also implicates in Ni2+ uptake at roots; however, the underlying mechanism of Ni2+ uptake and accumulation remains unelucidated. In the present study, we found that zinc (Zn) deficient conditions resulted in increased accumulation of Ni in plants, particularly in roots, in A. thaliana. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of Ni uptake correlating zinc condition, we traced 63Ni isotope in response to Zn and found that (i) Zn deficiency induces short-term Ni2+ absorption and (ii) Zn2+ inhibits Ni2+ uptake, suggesting competitive uptake between Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the Zrt/Irt-like protein 3 (ZIP3)-defective mutant with an elevated Zn-deficient response exhibited higher Ni accumulation than the wild type, further supporting that the response to Zn deficiency induces Ni accumulation. Previously, expression profile study demonstrated that IRT1 expression is not inducible by Zn deficiency. In the present study, we found increased Ni accumulation in IRT1-null mutant under Zn deficiency in agar culture. These suggest that Zn deficiency induces Ni accumulation in an IRT1-independen manner. The present study revealed that Ni accumulation is inducible in response to Zn deficiency, which may be attributable to a Zn uptake transporter induced by Zn deficiency. PMID:25923075

  15. Prevention of excess gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Truesdale, K P; Wang, C-H; Cai, J

    2009-11-01

    Obesity prevention trials are designed to promote healthy weight. The success of these trials is often assessed using one of three metrics--means, incidence or prevalence. In this study, we point out conceptual shortcomings of these metrics and introduce an alternative that we call 'excess gain'. A mathematical demonstration using simulated data shows a scenario in which the statistical power of excess gain compares favorably with that of incidence and prevalence. Prevention of excess gain communicates an easily understood public health message that is applicable to all individuals regardless of weight status.

  16. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  17. Alginate-Iron Speciation and Its Effect on In Vitro Cellular Iron Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horniblow, Richard D; Dowle, Miriam; Iqbal, Tariq H; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Palmer, Richard E; Pikramenou, Zoe; Tselepis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Alginates are a class of biopolymers with known iron binding properties which are routinely used in the fabrication of iron-oxide nanoparticles. In addition, alginates have been implicated in influencing human iron absorption. However, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles employs non-physiological pH conditions and whether nanoparticle formation in vivo is responsible for influencing cellular iron metabolism is unclear. Thus the aims of this study were to determine how alginate and iron interact at gastric-comparable pH conditions and how this influences iron metabolism. Employing a range of spectroscopic techniques under physiological conditions alginate-iron complexation was confirmed and, in conjunction with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticles were observed. The results infer a nucleation-type model of iron binding whereby alginate is templating the condensation of iron-hydroxide complexes to form iron oxide centred nanoparticles. The interaction of alginate and iron at a cellular level was found to decrease cellular iron acquisition by 37% (p iron transport through extracellular iron chelation with the resulting complexes not internalised. These results infer alginate as being useful in the chelation of excess iron, especially in the context of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer where excess unabsorbed luminal iron is thought to be a driver of disease.

  18. immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ayferr

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Preeclampsia is a disease which involves hypertension and multisystem, it effects approximately 2 to. 8% of all pregnancies and is a significant cause of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. It develops in the placenta and its pathogenesis is associated with placental abnormalities. Classical.

  19. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... movement, and often death by early adulthood. Possible Complications Medicine used to treat symptoms can cause complications. ... Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  20. Iron-Induced Damage in Cardiomyopathy: Oxidative-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gammella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of cardiomyopathy in patients with hemosiderosis, particularly in transfusional iron overload, strongly indicates that iron accumulation in the heart plays a major role in the process leading to heart failure. In this context, iron-mediated generation of noxious reactive oxygen species is believed to be the most important pathogenetic mechanism determining cardiomyocyte damage, the initiating event of a pathologic progression involving apoptosis, fibrosis, and ultimately cardiac dysfunction. However, recent findings suggest that additional mechanisms involving subcellular organelles and inflammatory mediators are important factors in the development of this disease. Moreover, excess iron can amplify the cardiotoxic effect of other agents or events. Finally, subcellular misdistribution of iron within cardiomyocytes may represent an additional pathway leading to cardiac injury. Recent advances in imaging techniques and chelators development remarkably improved cardiac iron overload detection and treatment, respectively. However, increased understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of iron overload cardiomyopathy is needed to pave the way for the development of improved therapeutic strategies.

  1. Ascorbate status modulates reticuloendothelial iron stores and response to deferasirox iron chelation in ascorbate-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Iron chelation is essential to patients on chronic blood transfusions to prevent toxicity from iron overload and remove excess iron. Deferasirox (DFX) is the most commonly used iron chelator in the United States; however, some patients are relatively refractory to DFX therapy. We postulated that ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease: The Mitochondria-Iron Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Carlos M.; Núñez, Marco T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage are conditions often found in damaged brain areas of Parkinson's disease. We propose that a causal link exists between these three events. Mitochondrial dysfunction results not only in increased reactive oxygen species production but also in decreased iron-sulfur cluster synthesis and unorthodox activation of Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1), a key regulator of cell iron homeostasis. In turn, IRP1 activation results in iron accumulation and hydroxyl radical-mediated damage. These three occurrences—mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage—generate a positive feedback loop of increased iron accumulation and oxidative stress. Here, we review the evidence that points to a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and iron accumulation as early events in the development of sporadic and genetic cases of Parkinson's disease. Finally, an attempt is done to contextualize the possible relationship between mitochondria dysfunction and iron dyshomeostasis. Based on published evidence, we propose that iron chelation—by decreasing iron-associated oxidative damage and by inducing cell survival and cell-rescue pathways—is a viable therapy for retarding this cycle. PMID:27293957

  3. Overexpression of native ferritin gene MusaFer1 enhances iron content and oxidative stress tolerance in transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Karuna; Patel, Prashanti; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an indispensable element for plant growth and defense and hence it is essential to improve the plant's ability to accumulate iron. Besides, it is also an important aspect for human health. In view of this, we attempted to increase the iron content in banana cultivar Rasthali using MusaFer1 as a candidate gene. Initially, the expression of all five genes of the MusaFer family (MusaFer1-5) was quantified under iron-excess and -deficient conditions. The supplementation of 250 and 350 μM iron enhanced expression of all MusaFer genes; however, MusaFer1 was increased maximally by 2- and 4- fold in leaves and roots respectively. Under iron deficient condition, all five MusaFer genes were downregulated, indicating their iron dependent regulation. In MusaFer1 overexpressing lines, iron content was increased by 2- and 3-fold in leaves and roots respectively, as compared with that of untransformed lines. The increased iron was mainly localized in the epidermal regions of petiole. The analysis of MusaFer1 promoter indicated that it might control the expression of iron metabolism related genes and also other genes of MusaFer family. MusaFer1 overexpression led to downregulated expression of MusaFer3, MusaFer4 and MusaFer5 in transgenic leaves which might be associated with the plant's compensatory mechanism in response to iron flux. Other iron metabolism genes like Ferric reductase (FRO), transporters (IRT, VIT and YSL) and chelators (NAS, DMAS and NAAT) were also differentially expressed in transgenic leaf and root, suggesting the multifaceted impact of MusaFer1 towards iron uptake and organ distribution. Additionally, MusaFer1 overexpression increased plant tolerance against methyl viologen and excess iron which was quantified in terms of photosynthetic efficiency and malondialdehyde content. Thus, the study not only broadens our understanding about iron metabolism but also highlights MusaFer1 as a suitable candidate gene for iron fortification in banana.

  4. Overexpression of native ferritin gene MusaFer1 enhances iron content and oxidative stress tolerance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Yadav

    Full Text Available Iron is an indispensable element for plant growth and defense and hence it is essential to improve the plant's ability to accumulate iron. Besides, it is also an important aspect for human health. In view of this, we attempted to increase the iron content in banana cultivar Rasthali using MusaFer1 as a candidate gene. Initially, the expression of all five genes of the MusaFer family (MusaFer1-5 was quantified under iron-excess and -deficient conditions. The supplementation of 250 and 350 μM iron enhanced expression of all MusaFer genes; however, MusaFer1 was increased maximally by 2- and 4- fold in leaves and roots respectively. Under iron deficient condition, all five MusaFer genes were downregulated, indicating their iron dependent regulation. In MusaFer1 overexpressing lines, iron content was increased by 2- and 3-fold in leaves and roots respectively, as compared with that of untransformed lines. The increased iron was mainly localized in the epidermal regions of petiole. The analysis of MusaFer1 promoter indicated that it might control the expression of iron metabolism related genes and also other genes of MusaFer family. MusaFer1 overexpression led to downregulated expression of MusaFer3, MusaFer4 and MusaFer5 in transgenic leaves which might be associated with the plant's compensatory mechanism in response to iron flux. Other iron metabolism genes like Ferric reductase (FRO, transporters (IRT, VIT and YSL and chelators (NAS, DMAS and NAAT were also differentially expressed in transgenic leaf and root, suggesting the multifaceted impact of MusaFer1 towards iron uptake and organ distribution. Additionally, MusaFer1 overexpression increased plant tolerance against methyl viologen and excess iron which was quantified in terms of photosynthetic efficiency and malondialdehyde content. Thus, the study not only broadens our understanding about iron metabolism but also highlights MusaFer1 as a suitable candidate gene for iron fortification in

  5. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  6. Iron metabolism: current facts and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandara, Leida; Salamunic, Ilza

    2012-01-01

    Iron metabolism has been intensively examined over the last decade and there are many new players in this field which are worth to be introduced. Since its discovery many studies confirmed role of liver hormone hepcidin as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out liver as the central organ of system iron homeostasis. Liver cells receive multiple signals related to iron balance and respond by transcriptional regulation of hepcidin expression. This liver hormone is negative regulator of iron metabolism that represses iron efflux from macrophages, hepatocytes and enterocytes by its binding to iron export protein ferroportin. Ferroportin degradation leads to cellular iron retention and decreased iron availability. At level of a cell IRE/IRP (iron responsive elements/iron responsive proteins) system allows tight regulation of iron assimilation that prevents an excess of free intracellular iron which could lead to oxidative stress and damage of DNA, proteins and lipid membranes by ROS (reactive oxygen species). At the same time IRE/IRP system provides sufficient iron in order to meet the metabolic needs. Recently a significant progress in understanding of iron metabolism has been made and new molecular participants have been characterized. Article gives an overview of the current understanding of iron metabolism: absorption, distribution, cellular uptake, release, and storage. We also discuss mechanisms underlying systemic and cellular iron regulation with emphasis on central regulatory hormone hepcidin. PMID:23092063

  7. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income tax return has been filed at any time with respect to the trust (or plan or insurance company), and the income of the trust (insurance company, etc.) is reported (and is not disallowed) based on the... actuarial valuation of such accrued benefit performed as of August 1, 1986. Alternatively, accrued benefits...

  8. Reducing Excessive Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty

    1984-01-01

    A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)

  9. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  10. Upregulation of transferrin receptor-1 induces cholangiocarcinoma progression via induction of labile iron pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnongkan, Wassana; Thanan, Raynoo; Techasen, Anchalee; Namwat, Nisana; Loilome, Watcharin; Intarawichian, Piyapharom; Titapun, Attapol; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2017-07-01

    Labile iron pool is a cellular source of ions available for Fenton reactions resulting in oxidative stress. Living organisms avoid an excess of free irons by a tight control of iron homeostasis. We investigated the altered expression of iron regulatory proteins and iron discrimination in the development of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Additionally, the levels of labile iron pool and the functions of transferrin receptor-1 on cholangiocarcinoma development were also identified. Iron deposition was determined using the Prussian blue staining method in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues. We investigated the alteration of iron regulatory proteins including transferrin, transferrin receptor-1, ferritin, ferroportin, hepcidin, and divalent metal transporter-1 in cholangiocarcinoma tissues using immunohistochemistry. The clinicopathological data of cholangiocarcinoma patients and the expressions of proteins were analyzed. Moreover, the level of intracellular labile iron pool in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines was identified by the RhoNox-1 staining method. We further demonstrated transferrin receptor-1 functions on cell proliferation and migration upon small interfering RNA for human transferrin receptor 1 transfection. Results show that Iron was strongly stained in tumor tissues, whereas negative staining was observed in normal bile ducts of healthy donors. Interestingly, high iron accumulation was significantly correlated with poor prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma patients. The expressions of iron regulatory proteins in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues and normal liver from cadaveric donors revealed that transferrin receptor-1 expression was increased in the cancer cells of cholangiocarcinoma tissues when compared with the adjacent normal bile ducts and was significantly correlated with cholangiocarcinoma metastasis. Labile iron pool level and transferrin receptor-1 expression were significantly increased in KKU-214 and KKU-213 when compared with cholangiocyte

  11. The otherness of sexuality: excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruth

    2008-03-01

    The present essay, the second of a series of three, aims at developing an experience-near account of sexuality by rehabilitating the idea of excess and its place in sexual experience. It is suggested that various types of excess, such as excess of excitation (Freud), the excess of the other (Laplanche), excess beyond symbolization and the excess of the forbidden object of desire (Leviticus; Lacan) work synergistically to constitute the compelling power of sexuality. In addition to these notions, further notions of excess touch on its transformative potential. Such notions address excess that shatters psychic structures and that is actively sought so as to enable new ones to evolve (Bersani). Work is quoted that regards excess as a way of dealing with our lonely, discontinuous being by using the "excessive" cosmic energy circulating through us to achieve continuity against death (Bataille). Two contemporary analytic thinkers are engaged who deal with the object-relational and intersubjective vicissitudes of excess.

  12. Shigella Iron Acquisition Systems and their Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yahan; Murphy, Erin R

    2016-01-01

    Survival of Shigella within the host is strictly dependent on the ability of the pathogen to acquire essential nutrients, such as iron. As an innate immune defense against invading pathogens, the level of bio-available iron within the human host is maintained at exceeding low levels, by sequestration of the element within heme and other host iron-binding compounds. In response to sequestration mediated iron limitation, Shigella produce multiple iron-uptake systems that each function to facilitate the utilization of a specific host-associated source of nutrient iron. As a mechanism to balance the essential need for iron and the toxicity of the element when in excess, the production of bacterial iron acquisition systems is tightly regulated by a variety of molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the iron-uptake systems produced by Shigella species, their distribution within the genus, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their production.

  13. Iron and Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of transition metals (e.g., copper, zinc, and iron and the dysregulation of their metabolism are a hallmark in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. This paper will be focused on the mechanism of neurotoxicity mediated by iron. This metal progressively accumulates in the brain both during normal aging and neurodegenerative processes. High iron concentrations in the brain have been consistently observed in Alzheimer's (AD and Parkinson's (PD diseases. In this connection, metalloneurobiology has become extremely important in establishing the role of iron in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons have developed several protective mechanisms against oxidative stress, among them, the activation of cellular signaling pathways. The final response will depend on the identity, intensity, and persistence of the oxidative insult. The characterization of the mechanisms mediating the effects of iron-induced increase in neuronal dysfunction and death is central to understanding the pathology of a number of neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. A loss-of-function mutation in AtYSL1 reveals its role in iron and nicotianamine seed loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jean, Marie; Schikora, Adam; Mari, Stéphane; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2005-12-01

    The Arabidopsis Yellow Stripe 1-Like (YSL) proteins have been identified by homology with the maize (Zea mays) Yellow Stripe 1 (YS1) transporter which is responsible for iron-phytosiderophore (PS) uptake by roots in response to iron shortage. Although dicotyledonous plants do not synthesize PS, they do synthesize the PS precursor nicotianamine, a strong metal chelator essential for maintenance of iron homeostasis and copper translocation. Furthermore, ZmYS1 and the rice (Oryza sativa) protein OsYSL2 have metal-nicotianamine transport activities in heterologous expression systems. In this work, we have characterized the function of AtYSL1 in planta. Two insertional loss-of-function ysl1 mutants of Arabidopsis were found to exhibit increased nicotianamine accumulation in shoots. More importantly, seeds of both ysl1 knockouts contained less iron and nicotianamine than wild-type seeds, even when produced by plants grown in the presence of an excess of iron. This phenotype could be reverted by expressing the wild-type AtYSL1 gene in ysl1 plants. ysl1 seeds germinated slowly, but this defect was rescued by an iron supply. AtYSL1 was expressed in the xylem parenchyma of leaves, where it was upregulated in response to iron excess, as well as in pollen and in young silique parts. This pattern is consistent with long-distance circulation of iron and nicotianamine and their delivery to the seed. Taken together, our work provides strong physiological evidence that iron and nicotianamine levels in seeds rely in part on AtYSL1 function.

  15. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  16. Cp/Heph mutant mice have iron-induced neurodegeneration diminished by deferiprone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangliang; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Wang, Chenguang; Xu, Xueying; Song, Ying; Jinnah, H.A.; Wodzinska, Jolanta; Iacovelli, Jared; Wolkow, Natalie; Krajacic, Predrag; Weissberger, Alyssa Cwanger; Connelly, John; Spino, Michael; Lee, Michael K.; Connor, James; Giasson, Benoit; Harris, Z. Leah; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Brain iron accumulates in several neurodegenerative diseases and can cause oxidative damage, but mechanisms of brain iron homeostasis are incompletely understood. Patients with mutations in the cellular iron-exporting ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) have brain iron accumulation causing neurodegeneration. Here, we assessed the brains of mice with combined mutation of Cp and its homolog hephaestin. Compared to single mutants, brain iron accumulation was accelerated in double mutants in the cerebellum, substantia nigra, and hippocampus. Iron accumulated within glia, while neurons were iron deficient. There was loss of both neurons and glia. Mice developed ataxia and tremor, and most died by 9 months. Treatment with the oral iron chelator deferiprone diminished brain iron levels, protected against neuron loss, and extended lifespan. Ferroxidases play important, partially overlapping roles in brain iron homeostasis by facilitating iron export from glia, making iron available to neurons. PMID:26303407

  17. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  18. Comparing the effects of excess copper in the leaves of Brassica juncea (L. Czern) and Brassica napus (L.) seedlings: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and photosynthetic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Gábor; Kumar, Devanand; Lehotai, Nóra; Pető, Andrea; Molnár, Árpád; Rácz, Éva; Ördög, Attila; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Laskay, Gábor

    2015-06-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to compare the effects of excess copper (Cu) on growth and photosynthesis in young Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We compared the effects of excess Cu on the two Brassica species at different physiological levels from antioxidant levels to photosynthetic activity. Nine-day-old plants were treated with Cu (10, 25 and 50 μM CuSO4) for 7 and 14 days. Both species took up Cu from the external solution to a similar degree but showed slight root-to-shoot translocation. Furthermore, after seven days of treatment, excess Cu significantly decreased other microelement content, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), especially in the shoots of B. napus. As a consequence, the leaves of young Brassica napus plants showed decreased concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and more intense growth inhibition; however, accumulation of highly reactive oxygen species (hROS) were not detected. After 14 days of Cu exposure the reduction of Fe and Mn contents and shoot growth proved to be comparable in the two species. Moreover, a significant Cu-induced hROS accumulation was observed in both Brassica species. The diminution in pigment contents and photosynthetic efficiency were more pronounced in B. napus during prolonged Cu exposure. Based on all the parameters, B. juncea appears to be more resistant to excess Cu than B. napus, rendering it a species with higher potential for phytoremediation.

  19. Brain Iron Metabolism Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Wang, Jun; Rogers, Jack; Xie, Junxia

    2017-05-01

    Dysfunction of iron metabolism, which includes its uptake, storage, and release, plays a key role in neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Understanding how iron accumulates in the substantia nigra (SN) and why it specifically targets dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons is particularly warranted for PD, as this knowledge may provide new therapeutic avenues for a more targeted neurotherapeutic strategy for this disease. In this review, we begin with a brief introduction describing brain iron metabolism and its regulation. We then provide a detailed description of how iron accumulates specifically in the SN and why DAergic neurons are especially vulnerable to iron in PD. Furthermore, we focus on the possible mechanisms involved in iron-induced cell death of DAergic neurons in the SN. Finally, we present evidence in support that iron chelation represents a plausable therapeutic strategy for PD.

  20. A cascade of iron-containing proteins governs the genetic iron starvation response to promote iron uptake and inhibit iron storage in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Encinar del Dedo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters.

  1. Pre-pregnancy iron reserves, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Nuria; Ribot, Blanca; Garcia, Elena; Viteri, Fernando E; Arija, Victoria

    2011-12-01

    Early iron supplementation in women with sufficient reserves could provoke iron excess resulting in haemoconcentration and low infant birth weight (IBW). To clarify the influence of early iron supplementation on maternal iron status and the IBW, taking into account pre-pregnancy iron deposits. Longitudinal, prospective study. Healthy women volunteers (n=82) intending to become pregnant. Women were grouped as a function of their pre-pregnancy (low or present) iron stores (serum ferritin (SF)supplementation during pregnancy; "early" (supplementation with iron was 140.7mg/d and the mean of late supplementation was 99.01mg/d. Early supplementation improves the biochemical status of the mother and does not provoke a significant increase in haemoconcentration relative to late supplementation independently of the pre-pregnancy iron levels. Supplemental iron had a positive effect on birth weight among women with pre-pregnancy low iron stores (β=4.37; SE=1.8; p=0.038) and did not affect birth weight among women with present iron stores (β=-0.008; SE=3.03; p=0.998). Early iron supplementation with doses ~100mg/d improves the biochemical status of the mother independently of her pre-pregnancy iron status. Supplementation with iron improves newborn birth weight in those women who start pregnancy with iron deficiency, and makes no significant difference to those women who are not iron deficient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Iron deficiency towards the year 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layrisse, M

    1999-09-01

    This is a non-comprehensive overview of the latest 50 years about the evolution of iron metabolism and the methodology we currently have for the diagnosis of iron deficiency and its effects on human health. In the 40's iron absorption was determined by chemistry. The amount of iron absorbed was calculated as the difference between dietary iron and excreted iron. The other methods used to measure dietary iron was hemoglobin repletion. In the 70's the measurement of plasmatic ferritin was an important contribution to iron metabolism to assess iron deficiency and iron overload. In the same decade the extrinsic and intrinsic labelled methodology was an important advancement. The 70's and 80's were years where scientists aimed at finding iron absorption inhibitors, namely coffee, calcium, tea, zinc and fiber. The 80's and 90's were characterized for the emerging knowledge an iron absorption from a food, a meal and a complete diet and for the favorable effect of food iron fortification in developing countries. Also for the effect of iron excess in overall health and myocardial infarction in developed countries were studied.

  3. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  4. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    , a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....

  5. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenocorticotropic hormone) can decrease them. Stress and sleep deprivation can temporarily decrease serum iron levels. Is iron ... Home About This Site Contact Us Terms Of Use In The News Policies Editorial Review Board Partner | ...

  6. Identification of Novel Clinical Factors Associated with Hepatic Fat Accumulation in Extreme Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn S. Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The accumulation of lipids stored as excess triglycerides in the liver (steatosis is highly prevalent in obesity and has been associated with several clinical characteristics, but most studies have been based on relatively small sample sizes using a limited set of variables. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with liver fat accumulation in a large cohort of patients with extreme obesity. Methods. We analyzed 2929 patients undergoing intraoperative liver biopsy during a primary bariatric surgery. Univariate and multivariate regression modeling was used to identify associations with over 200 clinical variables with the presence of any fat in the liver and with moderate to severe versus mild fat accumulation. Results. A total of 19 data elements were associated with the presence of liver fat and 11 with severity of liver fat including ALT and AST, plasma lipid, glucose, and iron metabolism variables, several medications and laboratory measures, and sleep apnea. The accuracy of a multiple logistic regression model for presence of liver fat was 81% and for severity of liver fat accumulation was 77%. Conclusions. A limited set of clinical factors can be used to model hepatic fat accumulation with moderate accuracy and may provide potential mechanistic insights in the setting of extreme obesity.

  7. ILLUSION OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to explore, explain and describe this phenomenon to a better understanding of it and also the relationship between advertising and the consumer society members. This paper aims to present an analysis of excessive and unsustainable consumption, the evolution of a phenomenon, and the ability to find a way to combat. Unfortunately, studies show that this tendency to accumulate more than we need to consume excess means that almost all civilizations fined and placed dogmatic among the values that children learn early in life. This has been perpetuated since the time when the goods or products does not get so easy as today. Anti-consumerism has emerged in response to this economic system, not on the long term. We are witnessing the last two decades to establish a new phase of consumer capitalism: society hiperconsumtion.

  8. Differences in activation of mouse hepcidin by dietary iron and parenterally administered iron dextran: compartmentalization is critical for iron sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daba, Alina; Gkouvatsos, Konstantinos; Sebastiani, Giada; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin responds to both oral and parenteral iron. Here, we hypothesized that the diverse iron trafficking routes may affect the dynamics and kinetics of the hepcidin activation pathway. To address this, C57BL/6 mice were administered an iron-enriched diet or injected i.p. with iron dextran and analyzed over time. After 1 week of dietary loading with carbonyl iron, mice exhibited significant increases in serum iron and transferrin saturation, as well as in hepatic iron, Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), and hepcidin mRNAs. Nevertheless, hepcidin expression reached a plateau afterward, possibly due to upregulation of inhibitory Smad7, Id1, and matriptase-2 mRNAs, while hepatic and splenic iron continued to accumulate over 9 weeks. One day following parenteral administration of iron dextran, mice manifested elevated serum and hepatic iron levels and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, but no increases in transferrin saturation or BMP6 mRNA. Surprisingly, hepcidin failed to appropriately respond to acute overload with iron dextran, and a delayed (after 5-7 days) hepcidin upregulation correlated with increased transferrin saturation, partial relocation of iron from macrophages to hepatocytes, and induction of BMP6 mRNA. Our data suggest that the physiological hepcidin response is saturable and are consistent with the idea that hepcidin senses exclusively iron compartmentalized within circulating transferrin and/or hepatocytes.

  9. Episodic Excessive Blinking in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Yasmin Poustchi; Simon, John W; Chaudhri, Imran; Zobal-Ratner, Jitka; Barry, Gerard P

    2016-01-01

    Many children present with excessive blinking. Categorization, associated conditions, and prognosis are controversial. All children with excessive blinking were reviewed, excluding those with known uveitis, glaucoma, or obvious eyelid abnormalities. Parents were telephoned for follow-up. No ocular pathology was identified in 31 of 34 children with excessive blinking (91%). Parents were able to report a specific cause of blinking in 7 (21%). In 24 of 34 (71%), parents reported complete resolution of excessive blinking. No new ophthalmologic diagnoses were uncovered on follow-up. Episodes of excessive blinking rarely indicate neurologic disorders and frequently resolve spontaneously. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Changes in the Antioxidant Capacity and Iron-Binding Properties of Bovine Spermatozoa Following In Vitro Incubation with Ferrous or Ferric Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ferrous (Fe2+ or ferric (Fe3+ iron on the antioxidant capacity and the ability to bind iron of bovine spermatozoa at specific time intervals (0h, 2h, 8h, 16h and 24h during an in vitro culture. 35 semen samples were collected from 7 adult breeding bulls and diluted in physiological saline solution supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 μmol/L of FeCl2 or FeCl3. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the SpermVisionTM CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis system. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay was applied to study the antioxidant capacity of the samples, while the ability of the sample to bind excess iron was determined using the Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC test. Both ferrous and ferric iron exhibited a dose- and time-dependent impact on the spermatozoa motility. Concentrations ≥50 µmol/L FeCl2 and ≥100 µmol/L FeCl3 led to a significant decrease of spermatozoa motion (P<0.001, while concentrations below 10 µmol/L FeCl2 and 50 µmol/L FeCl3 proved to preserve the parameter (P<0.001. The FRAP assay revealed that both ferrous as well as ferric iron had a similar effect on the FRAP marker of the samples: high concentrations led to a dramatic and significant (P<0.001 increase of the parameter, followed by a notable decrease of the reducing ability in the subsequent time periods, whose intensity was dependent upon the time, oxidation state of iron, as well as the time of analysis. Furthermore, supplementation of FeCl2 and FeCl3 had an impact on the capacity of the sperm culture to bind free iron, reflected in a significant decrease of the parameter (P<0.001 early on (Time 2h in case of high doses of both oxidative states of this biometal. In a direct comparison, ferrous iron has been shown to be more toxic than ferric iron.  Results from this in vitro study show that high concentrations of both forms of iron are toxic, while

  11. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  12. The liver in regulation of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Gautam; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2017-09-01

    The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. This hepatic iron-regulatory function can be attributed to the expression of many liver-specific or liver-enriched proteins, all of which play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review focuses on these proteins and their known roles in the regulation of body iron metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES AND IRON CHELATION THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Angelucci

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades we have been fortunate to witness the advent of new technologies and of an expanded knowledge and application of chelation therapies to the benefit of patients with iron overload. However, extrapolation of learnings from thalassemia to the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS has resulted in a fragmented and uncoordinated clinical evidence base. We’re therefore forced to change our understanding of MDS, looking with other eyes to observational studies that inform us about the relationship between iron and tissue damage in these subjects. The available evidence suggests that iron accumulation is prognostically significant in MDS, but levels of accumulation historically associated with organ damage (based on data generated in the thalassemias are infrequent. Emerging experimental data have provided some insight into this paradox, as our understanding of iron-induced tissue damage has evolved from a process of progressive bulking of organs through high-volumes iron deposition, to one of ‘toxic’ damage inflicted through multiple cellular pathways. Damage from iron may therefore occur prior to reaching reference thresholds, and similarly, chelation may be of benefit before overt iron overload is seen. In this review, we revisit the science and clinical evidence for iron overload in MDS to better characterise the iron overload phenotype in these patients, which is distinct from the classical transfusional and non-transfusional iron overload syndrome. We hope this will provide a conceptual framework to better understand the complex associations between anemia, iron and clinical outcomes, to accelerate progress in this area.

  14. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  15. New insights into transfusion-related iron toxicity: Implications for the oncologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porter, J.B.; Witte, T.J. de; Cappellini, M.D.; Gattermann, N.

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload is a potentially life-threatening consequence of multiple red-blood-cell transfusions. Here, we review factors affecting excess iron distribution and its damage to specific tissues, as well as mechanisms of oncogenesis by iron. Although consequences of transfusional iron overload are

  16. Structural and functional studies of the iron storage protein ferritin from Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatur, J.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on the iron storage protein ferritin. Ferritin is a protein involved in iron homeostasis by storing Fe(II) excess in the form of an Fe(III) mineral core in the presence of oxygen and by releasing iron during iron deficiency. Ferritins are vital for human health. Their

  17. Organic complexation of iron in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boye, Marie; Berg, Constant M.G. van den; Jong, Jeroen T.M. de; Leach, Harry; Croot, Peter; Baar, Hein J.W. de

    2001-01-01

    The chemical speciation of iron was determined in the Southern Ocean along a transect from 48 to 70°S at 20°E. Dissolved iron concentrations were low at 0.1–0.6 nM, with average concentrations of 0.25±0.13 nM. Organic iron complexing ligands were found to occur in excess of the dissolved iron

  18. Parkinson’s Disease: The Mitochondria-Iron Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorka Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage are conditions often found in damaged brain areas of Parkinson’s disease. We propose that a causal link exists between these three events. Mitochondrial dysfunction results not only in increased reactive oxygen species production but also in decreased iron-sulfur cluster synthesis and unorthodox activation of Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1, a key regulator of cell iron homeostasis. In turn, IRP1 activation results in iron accumulation and hydroxyl radical-mediated damage. These three occurrences—mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage—generate a positive feedback loop of increased iron accumulation and oxidative stress. Here, we review the evidence that points to a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and iron accumulation as early events in the development of sporadic and genetic cases of Parkinson’s disease. Finally, an attempt is done to contextualize the possible relationship between mitochondria dysfunction and iron dyshomeostasis. Based on published evidence, we propose that iron chelation—by decreasing iron-associated oxidative damage and by inducing cell survival and cell-rescue pathways—is a viable therapy for retarding this cycle.

  19. The role of the iron transporter ABCB7 in refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Boultwood

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Refractory Anemia with Ring Sideroblasts (RARS is an acquired myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS characterized by an excess iron accumulation in the mitochondria of erythroblasts. The pathogenesis of RARS and the cause of this unusual pattern of iron deposition remain unknown. We considered that the inherited X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia (XLSA/A might be informative for the acquired disorder, RARS. XLSA/A is caused by partial inactivating mutations of the ABCB7 ATP-binding cassette transporter gene, which functions to enable transport of iron from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, ABCB7 gene silencing in HeLa cells causes an accumulation of iron in the mitochondria. We have studied the role of ABCB7 in RARS by DNA sequencing, methylation studies, and gene expression studies in primary CD34(+ cells and in cultured erythroblasts. The DNA sequence of the ABCB7 gene is normal in patients with RARS. We have investigated ABCB7 gene expression levels in the CD34(+ cells of 122 MDS cases, comprising 35 patients with refractory anemia (RA, 33 patients with RARS and 54 patients with RA with excess blasts (RAEB, and in the CD34(+ cells of 16 healthy controls. We found that the expression levels of ABCB7 are significantly lower in the RARS group. RARS is thus characterized by lower levels of ABCB7 gene expression in comparison to other MDS subtypes. Moreover, we find a strong relationship between increasing percentage of bone marrow ring sideroblasts and decreasing ABCB7 gene expression levels. Erythroblast cell cultures confirm the low levels of ABCB7 gene expression levels in RARS. These data provide an important link between inherited and acquired forms of sideroblastic anemia and indicate that ABCB7 is a strong candidate gene for RARS.

  20. Measuring Excess Noise in SDL's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, S. J.; Kowitz, H. R.; Rowland, C. W.; Shull, T. A.; Ruggles, S. L.; Matthews, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    New instrument gives quantitive information on "excess noise" in semiconductor-diode laser (SDL's). By proper selection of detector, instrument tests any SDL from visible wavelengths through thermal infrared. Lasers determine excess noise in SKL source by measuring photocurrent generated in photodetector exposed first to reference laser then to SKL under test.

  1. Iron, zinc, and manganese distribution in mature soybean seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    to reveal the distribution of iron, zinc, manganese and phosphorus within soybean seeds. We show that high concentrations of iron accumulate in the seed coats of mature soybean seeds. This iron accounted for 20 to 40% of the total seed iron. Furthermore, manganese and iron accumulated in close proximity...... to each other in the provascular tissue of the soybean radicle. No regions with increased accumulation of iron, zinc, or manganese were observed in the cotyledons. The concentrations of both phosphorus and zinc were higher in the radicle compared to the cotyledons, and zinc accumulated primarily near...... the radicle tip. Our study provides a thorough description of the distribution of important micronutrients within the mature soybean seed....

  2. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  3. Iron metabolism in BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Transferrin-mediated uptake and release of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; du Maine, A.; Simmons, C. F.; Schwartz, A. L.; Strous, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    Growing human choriocarcinoma BeWo b24 cells contain 1.5 X 10(6) functional cell surface transferrin binding sites and 2.0 X 10(6) intracellular binding sites. These cells rapidly accumulate iron at a rate of 360,000 iron atoms/min/cell. During iron uptake the transferrin and its receptor recycle at

  4. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  5. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your body doesn't have enough iron to build healthy red blood cells. Without enough iron, your ... Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements to build up your iron levels as quickly as possible. ...

  7. Nitric oxide and changes of iron metabolism in exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhong Ming

    2002-11-01

    Accumulated data imply that exercise itself might not lead to a true iron deficiency or 'sport anaemia' in a healthy athlete who has adequate iron intake. The higher prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in younger female athletes might be not due to exercise itself, but probably results from dietary choices, inadequate iron intake and menstruation. These factors can also induce iron deficiency or anaemia in the general population. However, exercise does affect iron metabolism, leading to low or sub-optimal iron status. The underlying mechanism is unknown. In this review, recent advances in the study of the effect of exercise on iron metabolism and nitric oxide, and the relationship between nitric oxide and iron status in exercise are discussed. A hypothesis that increased production of nitric oxide might contribute to sub-optimal iron status in exercise is proposed.

  8. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, RG; Rathleff, M

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient...

  9. Iron status of young children in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Liandré F; Eussen, Simone R

    2017-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Various definitions for ID and IDA were applied across studies. ID prevalence varied depending on socioeconomic status and type of milk fed (i.e., human or cow milk or formula). Without regard to these factors, ID was reported in 3-48% of children aged ≥12 mo across the countries. For 6- to 12-mo-old infants, based on studies that did not differentiate these factors, ID prevalence was 4-18%. IDA was Europe but was considerably higher in Eastern Europe (9-50%). According to current iron status data from a sample of healthy Western European children aged 12-36 mo, 69% were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for serum ferritin (SF) was 64.3 μg/L. In another sample, 79% of 24-mo-old children were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for SF was 57.3 μg/L. Average iron intake in most countries studied was close to or below the UK's Recommended Dietary Allowance. In conclusion, even in healthy European children aged 6-36 mo, ID is still common. In Western European populations for whom data were available, approximately three-quarters of children were found to be iron replete, and excess iron stores (SF >100 μg/L) did not appear to be a concern. Consensus on the definitions of iron repletion and excess stores, as well as on ID and IDA, is needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...... pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient is in pain but wanted to investigate if it was possible to measure a change in foot posture after af given treatment....

  11. Seasonal Arsenic Accumulation in Stream Sediments at a Groundwater Discharge Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKay, Allison A.; Gan, Ping; Yu, Ran

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes in arsenic and iron accumulation rates were examined in the sediments of a brook that receives groundwater discharges of arsenic and reduced iron. Clean glass bead columns were deployed in sediments for known periods over the annual hydrologic cycle to monitor changes in arsenic......(As)/mg(Fe)) of unreacted iron oxide solids. The flooded spring (March-June) with high surface water flows showed the lowest arsenic and iron accumulation rates in the sediments. Comparisons of accumulation rates across a shoreline transect were consistent with greater rates at regions exposed above surface water levels...

  12. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... not enough iron is taken in from the diet, blood levels will drop; thus, over time, the ...

  13. Association Studies of HFE C282Y and H63D Variants with Oral Cancer Risk and Iron Homeostasis Among Whites and Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Jones

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis (HFE gene are associated with excessive iron absorption from the diet, and pro-oxidant effects of iron accumulation are thought to be a risk factor for several types of cancer. Methods: The C282Y (rs1800562 and H63D (rs1799945 polymorphisms were genotyped in 301 oral cancer cases and 437 controls and analyzed in relation to oral cancer risk, and serum iron biomarker levels from a subset of 130 subjects. Results: Individuals with the C282Y allele had lower total iron binding capacity (TIBC (321.2 ± 37.2 µg/dL vs. 397.7 ± 89.0 µg/dL, p = 0.007 and higher percent transferrin saturation (22.0 ± 8.7 vs. 35.6 ± 22.9, p = 0.023 than wild type individuals. Iron and ferritin levels approached significantly higher levels for the C282Y allele (p = 0.0632 and p = 0.0588, respectively. Conclusions: Iron biomarker levels were elevated by the C282Y allele, but neither (rs1800562 nor (rs1799945 was associated with oral cancer risk in blacks and whites.

  14. Iron, anemia and hepcidin in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Natasha; Duffy, Patrick E; Drakesmith, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and iron have a complex but important relationship. Plasmodium proliferation requires iron, both during the clinically silent liver stage of growth and in the disease-associated phase of erythrocyte infection. Precisely how the protozoan acquires its iron from its mammalian host remains unclear, but iron chelators can inhibit pathogen growth in vitro and in animal models. In humans, iron deficiency appears to protect against severe malaria, while iron supplementation increases risks of infection and disease. Malaria itself causes profound disturbances in physiological iron distribution and utilization, through mechanisms that include hemolysis, release of heme, dyserythropoiesis, anemia, deposition of iron in macrophages, and inhibition of dietary iron absorption. These effects have significant consequences. Malarial anemia is a major global health problem, especially in children, that remains incompletely understood and is not straightforward to treat. Furthermore, the changes in iron metabolism during a malaria infection may modulate susceptibility to co-infections. The release of heme and accumulation of iron in granulocytes may explain increased vulnerability to non-typhoidal Salmonella during malaria. The redistribution of iron away from hepatocytes and into macrophages may confer host resistance to superinfection, whereby blood-stage parasitemia prevents the development of a second liver-stage Plasmodium infection in the same organism. Key to understanding the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in malaria is the activity of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin is upregulated during blood-stage parasitemia and likely mediates much of the iron redistribution that accompanies disease. Understanding the regulation and role of hepcidin may offer new opportunities to combat malaria and formulate better approaches to treat anemia in the developing world.

  15. Iron, anemia and hepcidin in malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha eSpottiswoode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and iron have a complex but important relationship. Plasmodium proliferation requires iron, both during the clinically silent liver stage of growth and in the disease-associated phase of erythrocyte infection. Precisely how the protozoan acquires its iron from its mammalian host remains unclear, but iron chelators can inhibit pathogen growth in vitro and in animal models. In humans, iron deficiency appears to protect against severe malaria, while iron supplementation increases risks of infection and disease. Malaria itself causes profound disturbances in physiological iron distribution and utilization, through mechanisms that include hemolysis, release of heme, dyserythropoiesis, anemia, deposition of iron in macrophages, and inhibition of dietary iron absorption. These effects have significant consequences. Malarial anemia is a major global health problem, especially in children, that remains incompletely understood and is not straightforward to treat. Furthermore, the changes in iron metabolism during a malaria infection may modulate susceptibility to coinfections. The release of heme and accumulation of iron in granulocytes may explain increased vulnerability to non-typhoidal Salmonella during malaria. The redistribution of iron away from hepatocytes and into macrophages may confer host resistance to superinfection, whereby blood-stage parasitemia prevents the development of a second liver-stage Plasmodium infection in the same organism. Key to understanding the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in malaria is the activity of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin is upregulated during blood-stage parasitemia and likely mediates much of the iron redistribution that accompanies disease. Understanding the regulation and role of hepcidin may offer new opportunities to combat malaria and formulate better approaches to treat anemia in the developing world.

  16. Iron biomineralization by anaerobic neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Morin, Guillaume; Kappler, Andreas; Bernard, Sylvain; Obst, Martin; Férard, Céline; Skouri-Panet, Fériel; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Posth, Nicole; Galvez, Matthieu; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Guyot, François

    2009-02-01

    Minerals formed by bio-oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) at neutral pH, their association with bacterial ultrastructures as well as their impact on the metabolism of iron-oxidizing bacteria remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated iron biomineralization by the anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 in the presence of dissolved Fe(II) using electron microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM). All detected minerals consisted mainly of amorphous iron phosphates, but based on their morphology and localization, three types of precipitates could be discriminated: (1) mineralized filaments at distance from the cells, (2) globules of 100 ± 25 nm in diameter, at the cell surface and (3) a 40-nm thick mineralized layer within the periplasm. All of those phases were shown to be intimately associated with organic molecules. Periplasmic encrustation was accompanied by an accumulation of protein moieties. In the same way, exopolysaccharides were associated with the extracellular mineralized filaments. The evolution of cell encrustation was followed by TEM over the time course of a culture: cell encrustation proceeded progressively, with rapid precipitation in the periplasm (in a few tens of minutes), followed by the formation of surface-bound globules. Moreover, we frequently observed an asymmetric mineral thickening at the cell poles. In parallel, the evolution of iron oxidation was quantified by STXM: iron both contained in the bacteria and in the extracellular precipitates reached complete oxidation within 6 days. While a progressive oxidation of Fe in the bacteria and in the medium could be observed, spatial redox (oxido-reduction state) heterogeneities were detected at the cell poles and in the extracellular precipitates after 1 day. All these findings provide new information to further the understanding of molecular processes involved in iron biomineralization by anaerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria and

  17. Iron biofortification and homeostasis in transgenic cassava roots expressing an algal iron assimilatory protein, FEA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzoma eIhemere

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have engineered the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta to express the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iron assimilatory protein, FEA1, in roots to enhance its nutritional qualities. Iron levels in mature cassava storage roots were increased from 10 to 36 ppm in the highest iron accumulating transgenic lines. These iron levels are sufficient to meet the minimum daily requirement for iron in a 500 gm meal. Significantly, the expression of the FEA1 protein did not alter iron levels in leaves. Transgenic plants also had normal levels of zinc in leaves and roots consistent with the specific uptake of iron mediated by the FEA1 protein. Relative to wild-type plants, FEA1 expressing plants had reduced Fe(III chelate reductase activity and gene expression levels consistent with the more efficient uptake of iron in FEA1 transgenic plants. We also show that genes involved in iron homeostasis in cassava have altered tissue-specific patterns of expression in transgenic plants. Steady state transcript levels of the metal-chelate transporter MeYSL1, and the iron storage proteins, MeFER2 and MeFER6, were elevated in various tissues of FEA1 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. These results suggest that these gene products play a role in iron translocation and homeostasis in FEA1 transgenic cassava plants. These results are discussed in terms of enhanced strategies for the iron biofortification of plants.

  18. NCOA4 Deficiency Impairs Systemic Iron Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bellelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cargo receptor NCOA4 mediates autophagic ferritin degradation. Here we show that NCOA4 deficiency in a knockout mouse model causes iron accumulation in the liver and spleen, increased levels of transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, and liver hepcidin, and decreased levels of duodenal ferroportin. Despite signs of iron overload, NCOA4-null mice had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia. Under an iron-deprived diet (2–3 mg/kg, mice failed to release iron from ferritin storage and developed severe microcytic hypochromic anemia and ineffective erythropoiesis associated with increased erythropoietin levels. When fed an iron-enriched diet (2 g/kg, mice died prematurely and showed signs of liver damage. Ferritin accumulated in primary embryonic fibroblasts from NCOA4-null mice consequent to impaired autophagic targeting. Adoptive expression of the NCOA4 COOH terminus (aa 239–614 restored this function. In conclusion, NCOA4 prevents iron accumulation and ensures efficient erythropoiesis, playing a central role in balancing iron levels in vivo.

  19. NCOA4 Deficiency Impairs Systemic Iron Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, Roberto; Federico, Giorgia; Matte', Alessandro; Colecchia, David; Iolascon, Achille; Chiariello, Mario; Santoro, Massimo; De Franceschi, Lucia; Carlomagno, Francesca

    2016-01-26

    The cargo receptor NCOA4 mediates autophagic ferritin degradation. Here we show that NCOA4 deficiency in a knockout mouse model causes iron accumulation in the liver and spleen, increased levels of transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, and liver hepcidin, and decreased levels of duodenal ferroportin. Despite signs of iron overload, NCOA4-null mice had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia. Under an iron-deprived diet (2-3 mg/kg), mice failed to release iron from ferritin storage and developed severe microcytic hypochromic anemia and ineffective erythropoiesis associated with increased erythropoietin levels. When fed an iron-enriched diet (2 g/kg), mice died prematurely and showed signs of liver damage. Ferritin accumulated in primary embryonic fibroblasts from NCOA4-null mice consequent to impaired autophagic targeting. Adoptive expression of the NCOA4 COOH terminus (aa 239-614) restored this function. In conclusion, NCOA4 prevents iron accumulation and ensures efficient erythropoiesis, playing a central role in balancing iron levels in vivo. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Management of iron overload in hemoglobinopathies: what is the appropriate target iron level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Thomas D; Carson, Susan; Wood, John C; Berdoukas, Vasilios

    2016-03-01

    Patients with thalassemia become iron overloaded from increased absorption of iron, ineffective erythropoiesis, and chronic transfusion. Before effective iron chelation became available, thalassemia major patients died of iron-related cardiac failure in the second decade of life. Initial treatment goals for chelation therapy were aimed at levels of ferritin and liver iron concentrations associated with prevention of adverse cardiac outcomes and avoidance of chelator toxicity. Cardiac deaths were greatly reduced and survival was much longer. Epidemiological data from the general population draw clear associations between increased transferrin saturation (and, by inference, labile iron) and early death, diabetes, and malignant transformation. The rate of cancers now seems to be significantly higher in thalassemia than in the general population. Reduction in iron can reverse many of these complications and reduce the risk of malignancy. As toxicity can result from prolonged exposure to even low levels of excess iron, and survival in thalassemia patients is now many decades, it would seem prudent to refocus attention on prevention of long-term complications of iron overload and to maintain labile iron and total body iron levels within a normal range, if expertise and resources are available to avoid complications of overtreatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Positive Iron Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease: How Much is Too Much and How to Tell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wish, Jay B; Aronoff, George R; Bacon, Bruce R; Brugnara, Carlo; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Ganz, Tomas; Macdougall, Iain C; Núñez, Julio; Perahia, Adam J; Wood, John C

    2018-02-13

    Regulation of body iron occurs at cellular, tissue, and systemic levels. In healthy individuals, iron absorption and losses are minimal, creating a virtually closed system. In the setting of chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis (HD), increased iron losses, reduced iron absorption, and limited iron availability lead to iron deficiency. Intravenous (IV) iron therapy is frequently prescribed to replace lost iron, but determining an individual's iron balance and stores can be challenging and imprecise, contributing to uncertainty about the long-term safety of IV iron therapy. Patients on HD receiving judicious doses of IV iron are likely to be in a state of positive iron balance, yet this does not appear to confer an overt risk for clinically relevant iron toxicity. The concomitant use of iron with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, the use of maintenance iron dosing regimens, and the reticuloendothelial distribution of hepatic iron deposition likely minimize the potential for iron toxicity in patients on HD. Key Messages: Because no single diagnostic test can, at present, accurately assess iron status and risk for toxicity, clinicians need to take an integrative approach to avoid iron doses that impose excessive exposure while ensuring sufficient replenishment of iron stores capable of overcoming hepcidin blockade and allowing for effective erythropoiesis. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Iron enriched yeast biomass--a promising mineral feed supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Maja; Piskur, Barbara; Sustaric, Matevz; Raspor, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Yeast biomass enriched with iron could represent a new and safer solution for prevention from anaemia development. Such an iron source is less toxic and has better absorbability in organisms. The purpose of our research was the determination of the most suitable iron source in the cultivation medium for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, regarding good growth and iron accumulation in cells. Iron(III) citrate, iron(III) chloride, iron(III) nitrate and Fe-EDTA complex were used. The uptake of the chosen iron compound, Fe(III) citrate, by the yeasts Candida intermedia and Kluyveromyces marxianus was also investigated. Different growth behaviour of the three yeast strains in the presence of Fe(III) citrate was observed. The highest amounts of accumulated iron in S. cerevisiae, C. intermedia and K. marxianus biomass were about 13, 20 and 34mgFeg(-1)dry wt., respectively. To optimise the accumulation of iron in K. marxianus and to characterise iron enriched yeast biomass, further experiments are needed.

  3. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles of narrow size distribution on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectra values show that the template is completely removed from the final iron .... Starch is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glu- .... The X-ray diffraction pattern for iron oxide particles syn- thesized in the absence/presence of starch is ...

  4. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  5. Obesity Promotes Alterations in Iron Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Citelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN, a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1, FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  6. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... be treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ... which are the best sources of iron. However, vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ... of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other dark ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enough iron, your body starts using the iron it has stored. Soon, the stored iron gets used ... fewer red blood cells. The red blood cells it does make have less hemoglobin than normal. Iron- ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ... good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods (foods that have iron ... you: Follow a diet that excludes meat and fish, which are the best sources of iron. However, ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ... sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, beans, tofu, dried fruits, and spinach and other ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you eat the ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... Treatment may need to be done in a hospital. The goals of treating iron-deficiency anemia are ...

  17. Crying - excessive (0-6 months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider will check the infant's growth and development. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the baby has a bacterial infection. Alternative Names Infants - excessive crying; Well child - excessive crying ...

  18. Oxidation state of iron in plagioclase from lunar basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, S. S.; Virgo, D.; Warburton, D.

    1971-01-01

    Determination of the oxidation state of iron in the plagioclase from the coarse-grained basalts 10044 and 12021, using Mossbauer spectroscopy. The location of iron in the crystal structure was also investigated. The spectra show that iron is in the high-spin ferrous state, and they located at least two distinct positions with different coordination numbers. Some excess resonant absorption is probably due to Fe(3+), although the Fe(3+) doublet could not be positively resolved.

  19. Liver fibrosis in type I Gaucher disease: magnetic resonance imaging, transient elastography and parameters of iron storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneloes E Bohte

    Full Text Available Long term liver-related complications of type-1 Gaucher disease (GD, a lysosomal storage disorder, include fibrosis and an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenectomy has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of liver pathology in GD. High ferritin concentrations are a feature of GD and iron storage in Gaucher cells has been described, but iron storage in the liver in relation to liver fibrosis has not been studied. Alternatively, iron storage in GD may be the result of iron supplementation therapy or regular blood transfusions in patients with severe cytopenia. In this pilot study, comprising 14 type-1 GD patients (7 splenectomized, 7 non-splenectomized and 7 healthy controls, we demonstrate that liver stiffness values, measured by Transient Elastography and MR-Elastography, are significantly higher in splenectomized GD patients when compared with non-splenectomized GD patients (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively. Liver iron concentration was elevated (>60±30 µmol/g in 4 GD patients of whom 3 were splenectomized. No relationship was found between liver stiffness and liver iron concentration. HFE gene mutations were more frequent in splenectomized (6/7 than in non-splenectomized (2/7 participants (p = 0.10. Liver disease appeared more advanced in splenectomized than in non-splenectomized patients. We hypothesize a relationship with excessive hepatic iron accumulation in splenectomized patients. We recommend that all splenectomized patients, especially those with evidence of substantial liver fibrosis undergo regular screening for HCC, according to current guidelines.

  20. Ferrous iron content of intravenous iron formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ajay; Pratt, Raymond D; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

    2016-01-01

    The observed biological differences in safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron formulations are attributable to physicochemical differences. In addition to differences in carbohydrate shell, polarographic signatures due to ferric iron [Fe(III)] and ferrous iron [Fe(II)] differ among IV iron formulations. Intravenous iron contains Fe(II) and releases labile iron in the circulation. Fe(II) generates toxic free radicals and reactive oxygen species and binds to bacterial siderophores and oth...

  1. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  2. Epidemiological associations between iron and cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debargha eBasuli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in iron homeostasis are linked to a broad spectrum of chronic conditions including cardiovascular, malignant, metabolic and neurodegenerative disease. Evidence supporting this contention derives from a variety of analytical approaches, ranging from molecular to population-based studies. This review focuses on key epidemiological studies that assess the relationship between body iron status and chronic disease, with particular emphasis on atherosclerosis and diabetes/ metabolic syndrome. Multiple surrogates have been used to measure iron status, including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and dietary iron intake. The lack of a uniform and standardized means of assessing body iron status has limited the precision of epidemiological associations. Intervention studies using depletion of iron to alter risk have been conducted. Genetic and molecular techniques have helped to explicate the biochemistry of iron metabolism at the molecular level. Plausible explanations for how iron contributes to the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases are beginning to be elucidated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that excess iron contributes to chronic disease by fostering excess production of free radicals. Overall, epidemiological studies, reinforced by basic science experiments, provide a strong line of evidence supporting the association between iron and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In this narrative review we attempt to condense the information from existing literature on this topic.

  3. Iron importers Zip8 and Zip14 are expressed in retina and regulated by retinal iron levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Jacob; Guttha, Samyuktha; Song, Ying; Song, Delu; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2017-02-01

    Intracellular retinal iron accumulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness among individuals over the age of 50. Ceruloplasmin/hephaestin double knockout mice (Cp/Heph DKO) and hepcidin knockout mice (Hepc KO) accumulate retinal iron and model some features of AMD. Two canonical pathways govern cellular iron import - transferrin-bound iron import and non-transferrin bound iron import. In Cp/Heph DKO and Hepc KO iron-loaded retinas, transferrin-bound iron import is downregulated. Despite this effort to reduce cellular iron burden, iron continues to accumulate in these retinas in an age-dependent manner. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western analysis were used to quantify the expression of three ferrous iron importers, Dmt1, Zip8, and Zip14, in wild-type (Wt), Cp/Heph DKO, and Hepc KO retinas. Zip8 and Zip14 protein levels were analyzed using Western analysis in mice injected intravitreally with either apo- or holo-transferrin to elucidate one possible mechanism of Zip14 regulation in the retina. Both zip8 and zip14 were expressed in the mouse retina. Paradoxically, protein levels of non-transferrin bound iron importers were upregulated in both Cp/Heph DKO and Hepc KO retinas. Intravitreal holo-transferrin injection decreased Zip 14 protein levels. These data indicate that Zip8 and Zip14 may take up increasing amounts of non-transferrin bound iron in these two mouse models of retinal iron accumulation. Their upregulation in these already iron-loaded retinas suggests a vicious cycle leading to toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have enough iron stored in your body to make up for the lost iron, you'll develop iron- ... by mouth. This therapy also is given to people who need immediate treatment for iron-deficiency ... have iron-deficiency anemia, get ongoing care to make sure your iron levels are improving. At your ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Causes Not having enough iron in your body causes iron-deficiency anemia. Lack of iron usually is due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, ... can provide enough iron if you eat the right foods. For example, good nonmeat sources of iron include iron-fortified breads and cereals, ...

  7. Iron in haemoglobinopathies and rare anaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Porter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in haemoglobinopathies and rare anaemias may develop from increased iron absorption secondary to hepcidin suppression, and/or from repeated blood transfusions. While the accumulation of body iron load from blood transfusion is inevitable and predictable from the variable rates of transfusion in the different conditions, there are some important differences in the distribution of iron overload and its consequences between these. Transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT is the best described condition in which transfusional overload occurs. Initially iron loads into macrophages, subsquently hepatocytes, and then the endocrine system including the anterior pituiatry and finally the myocardium. The propensity to extrahepatic iron spread increases with rapid transfusion and with inadequate chelation therapy but there is considerable interpatient and interpopulation variability in this tendency. The conduits though which iron is delivered to tissues is through non transferrin iron species (NTBI which are taken into liver, endocrine tissues and myocardium through L-type calcium channells and possibly through other channells. Recent work by the MSCIO group1 suggests that levels of NTBI are determined by three mechanisms: i increasing with iron overload; ii increasing with ineffective erythropoieis; iii and decreasing when level of transferrin iron utilisation is high. In TDT all three mechanisms increase NTBI levels because transferrin iron utilisation is suppressed by hypertransfusion. It is hypothesized that the transfusion regimen and target mean Hb may have a key impact on NTBI levels because high transfusion regimes may suppress the ‘sink’ effect of the erythron though decreased clearance of transferrin iron. In sickle cell disease (SCD without blood transfusion the anaemia results mainly from haemolysis rather than from ineffective erythropoiesis.2 Thus there is a tendency to iron depletion because of urinary iron loss from

  8. Iron, phytoplankton growth, and the carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Joseph H; Paytan, Adina

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. Iron is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll and of several photosynthetic electron transport proteins and for the reduction of CO2, SO4(2-), and NO3(-) during the photosynthetic production of organic compounds. Iron concentrations in vast areas of the ocean are very low (iron in oxic seawater. Low iron concentrations have been shown to limit primary production rates, biomass accumulation, and ecosystem structure in a variety of open-ocean environments, including the equatorial Pacific, the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean and even in some coastal areas. Oceanic primary production, the transfer of carbon dioxide into organic carbon by photosynthetic plankton (phytoplankton), is one process by which atmospheric CO2 can be transferred to the deep ocean and sequestered for long periods of time. Accordingly, iron limitation of primary producers likely plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. It has been suggested that variations in oceanic primary productivity, spurred by changes in the deposition of iron in atmospheric dust, control atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and hence global climate, over glacial-interglacial timescales. A contemporary application of this "iron hypothesis" promotes the large-scale iron fertilization of ocean regions as a means of enhancing the ability of the ocean to store anthropogenic CO2 and mitigate 21st century climate change. Recent in situ iron enrichment experiments in the HNLC regions, however, cast doubt on the efficacy and advisability of iron fertilization schemes. The experiments have confirmed the role of iron in regulating primary productivity, but resulted in only small carbon export fluxes to the depths necessary for long-term sequestration. Above all, these experiments and other studies of iron biogeochemistry over the last two decades have begun to illustrate the great complexity of the ocean system. Attempts to engineer this system are likely to

  9. Iron deficiency anaemia: with the conclusion of a need for iron reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Feng; Yap, Boon Kar; Lai, Mei I.; Talik, Noorazrina; Nasser, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed Mubarak Ahmed; Sankar Krishnan, Prajindra

    2017-10-01

    In our bloodstream, there are plenty of red blood cells (RBC), which function as an important oxygen carrier in our bodies. Each RBC consists of millions of haemoglobin (Hb), which is made up from globin and iron. If any deficiency/malfunction of any globin, it will lead to anaemia as indicated in low Hb level while iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is anaemic due to the lacking of iron as indicated in low Hb and ferritin levels. IDA affects almost two billion people globally while anaemia without iron deficiency, such as thalassaemia, affects almost 4.5% in Malaysian population. These anaemic conditions have similar clinical symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, in which disturb their cognitive development and productivity in workplace. In areas without proper medical access, many anaemic individuals were misdiagnosed and treated with iron tablets because they were thought to have iron deficiency anaemia due to low Hb content. But, excess iron is toxic to the body. Misdiagnosis can be avoided by iron status assessment. We hereby review the currently available iron status parameters in laboratory and field study with the conclusion of demonstrating the importance of a need for iron reader, in the effort to reduce the prevalence of IDA globally.

  10. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  11. Excess copper induces anoxygenic photosynthesis in Anabaena doliolum: a homology based proteomic assessment of its survival strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Poonam; Mishra, Yogesh; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Narayan, Om Prakash; Rai, Lal Chand

    2008-04-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate operation of anoxygenic photosynthesis in copper acclimated Anabaena doliolum and to offer proteomic comparison with the control cells. The Cu-treated control strain showed a negative correlation in growth and intracellular Cu, partial inhibition of O(2)-evolution, PS II, PS I, whole chain, chlorophyll absorption, and nitrogenase activity. However, the acclimated strain growing in 250-fold excess Cu exhibited near normal growth, ATP content, PS I activity, carbon fixation, and almost complete inhibition of O(2)-evolution, PS II and chlorophyll absorption, but increased nitrogenase activity as compared to control. Proteomic decoding of the survival strategy of Cu-treated control and the acclimated strain using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteins displaying significant and reproducible changes demonstrated involvement of transketolase, phycoerythrocyanin alpha-chain, iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD), hypothetical protein alr 0803, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), phosphoribulokinase, and plastocyanin (PLC). Expression pattern of these proteins was attested at the transcriptional level using RT-PCR. Time course analysis of proteins of Cu-treated control strain revealed almost no change in PLC level, and a minor accumulation of transketolase, phycoerythrocyanin alpha-chain and both isoforms of SOD after 7 and recovery after 10 days. Acclimated strain under excess Cu, however, exhibited significant accumulation of both isoforms of SOD, plastocyanin, phosphoribulokinase and transketolase, which seem to counteract oxidative damage, serve as an alternate electron carrier from cytochrome b6/f complex to photosystem I and meet the NADPH and ATP requirements, respectively, under anoxygenic photosynthesis. In view of the kinetics of the hypothetical protein alr0803 (no change in expression level for 7, maximum after 10 and decline after 15 days) its involvement in metal homeostasis is

  12. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and other... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by the...

  14. IRON METABOLISM IN THALASSEMIA AND SICKLE CELL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Mariani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two main mechanisms by which iron overload develops in thalassemias: increased iron absorption due to ineffective erythropoiesis and blood transfusions. In nontransfused patients with severe thalassemia, abnormal dietary iron absorption increases body iron burden between 2 and 5 g per year. If regular transfusions are required, this doubles the rate of iron accumulation leading to earlier massive iron overload and iron-related damage. Iron metabolism largely differs between thalassemias and sickle cell disease, but chronic transfusion therapy partially normalize many of the disparities between the diseases, making iron overload an important issue to be considered in the management of patients with sickle cell disease too. The present review summarizes the actual knowledge on the regulatory pathways of iron homeostasis. In particular, the data presented indicate the inextricably link between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism and the key role of hepcidin in coordinating iron procurement according to erythropoietic requirement. The role of erythropoietin, hypoxia, erythroid-dependent soluble factors and iron in regulating hepcidin transcription are discussed as well as differences and similarities in iron homeostasis between thalassemia syndromes and sickle cell disease.

  15. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  16. A comparison of iron bioassay diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, J L; Day, E J; Dilworth, B C

    1976-05-01

    Two broiler chick experiments wer conducted to evaluate four basal diets for iron bioassay suitability. The test basal diets, identified according to their principal ingredients and iron content, were: (1) starch-skim milk - 15 p.p.m., (2) degerminated corn-skin milk - 18 p.p.m. (3) degermianted corn-fish meal-isolated soy - 45 p.p.m., and (4) degermianted corn-fish meal-dehulled soy - 59p.p.m. Significant differences between an iron source with known low availability (ferric oxide) and a highly available iron source (ferrous sulfate) were not detected with the degerminated corn-fish meal-isolated soy or the degerminated corn-fish meal-dehulled soy diets. Likewise, there were no significant differences found between supplemental iron levels, 10 and 20 p.p.m. The corn-skim milk and starch-skim milk diets were both found to be satisfactory for iron bioassays. However, the sample size needed to estimate the population mean was almost twice as great for the starch-skim milk fed groups, than was needed for the corn-skim milk fed groups which indicates the corn-skim milk diet obtained greater sensitivity in testing iron sources and levels. Mortality was excessively high in the starch-skim milk fed group. Ferrous sulfate was superior to ferric oxide as a source of iron.

  17. Two kinds of ferritin protect ixodid ticks from iron overload and consequent oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remil Linggatong Galay

    Full Text Available Ticks are obligate hematophagous parasites that have successfully developed counteractive means against their hosts' immune and hemostatic mechanisms, but their ability to cope with potentially toxic molecules in the blood remains unclear. Iron is important in various physiological processes but can be toxic to living cells when in excess. We previously reported that the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis has an intracellular (HlFER1 and a secretory (HlFER2 ferritin, and both are crucial in successful blood feeding and reproduction. Ferritin gene silencing by RNA interference caused reduced feeding capacity, low body weight and high mortality after blood meal, decreased fecundity and morphological abnormalities in the midgut cells. Similar findings were also previously reported after silencing of ferritin genes in another hard tick, Ixodes ricinus. Here we demonstrated the role of ferritin in protecting the hard ticks from oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative stress in Hlfer-silenced ticks was performed after blood feeding or injection of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC through detection of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein oxidation product, protein carbonyl. FAC injection in Hlfer-silenced ticks resulted in high mortality. Higher levels of MDA and protein carbonyl were detected in Hlfer-silenced ticks compared to Luciferase-injected (control ticks both after blood feeding and FAC injection. Ferric iron accumulation demonstrated by increased staining on native HlFER was observed from 72 h after iron injection in both the whole tick and the midgut. Furthermore, weak iron staining was observed after Hlfer knockdown. Taken together, these results show that tick ferritins are crucial antioxidant molecules that protect the hard tick from iron-mediated oxidative stress during blood feeding.

  18. Diphoton excess through dark mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Yi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Lefebvre, Michel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Pospelov, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Zhong, Yi-Ming [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Preliminary ATLAS and CMS results from the first 13 TeV LHC run have encountered an intriguing excess of events in the diphoton channel around the invariant mass of 750 GeV. We investigate a possibility that the current excess is due to a heavy resonance decaying to light metastable states, which in turn give displaced decays to very highly collimated e{sup +}e{sup −} pairs. Such decays may pass the photon selection criteria, and successfully mimic the diphoton events, especially at low counts. We investigate two classes of such models, characterized by the following underlying production and decay chains: gg→S→A{sup ′}A{sup ′}→(e{sup +}e{sup −})(e{sup +}e{sup −}) and qq̄→Z{sup ′}→sa→(e{sup +}e{sup −})(e{sup +}e{sup −}), where at the first step a heavy scalar, S, or vector, Z{sup ′}, resonances are produced that decay to light metastable vectors, A{sup ′}, or (pseudo-)scalars, s and a. Setting the parameters of the models to explain the existing excess, and taking the ATLAS detector geometry into account, we marginalize over the properties of heavy resonances in order to derive the expected lifetimes and couplings of metastable light resonances. We observe that in the case of A{sup ′}, the suggested range of masses and mixing angles ϵ is within reach of several new-generation intensity frontier experiments.

  19. Gender and iron genes may modify associations between brain iron and memory in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H; Tingus, Kathleen; Peters, Douglas G; Amar, Chetan P; Tishler, Todd A; Finn, J Paul; Villablanca, Pablo; Altshuler, Lori L; Mintz, Jim; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2011-06-01

    Brain iron increases with age and is abnormally elevated early in the disease process in several neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Higher brain iron levels are associated with male gender and presence of highly prevalent allelic variants in genes encoding for iron metabolism proteins (hemochromatosis H63D (HFE H63D) and transferrin C2 (TfC2)). In this study, we examined whether in healthy older individuals memory performance is associated with increased brain iron, and whether gender and gene variant carrier (IRON+) vs noncarrier (IRON-) status (for HFE H63D/TfC2) modify the associations. Tissue iron deposited in ferritin molecules can be measured in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging utilizing the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (FDRI) method. FDRI was assessed in hippocampus, basal ganglia, and white matter, and IRON+ vs IRON- status was determined in a cohort of 63 healthy older individuals. Three cognitive domains were assessed: verbal memory (delayed recall), working memory/attention, and processing speed. Independent of gene status, worse verbal-memory performance was associated with higher hippocampal iron in men (r=-0.50, p=0.003) but not in women. Independent of gender, worse verbal working memory performance was associated with higher basal ganglia iron in IRON- group (r=-0.49, p=0.005) but not in the IRON+ group. Between-group interactions (p=0.006) were noted for both of these associations. No significant associations with white matter or processing speed were observed. The results suggest that in specific subgroups of healthy older individuals, higher accumulations of iron in vulnerable gray matter regions may adversely impact memory functions and could represent a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline. Combining genetic and MRI biomarkers may provide opportunities to design primary prevention clinical trials that target high-risk groups.

  20. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  1. Iron-Responsive Olfactory Uptake of Manganese Improves Motor Function Deficits Associated with Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghan; Li, Yuan; Buckett, Peter D.; Böhlke, Mark; Thompson, Khristy J.; Takahashi, Masaya; Maher, Timothy J.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D2 (D2R) levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed “rescue response” with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status. PMID:22479410

  2. Iron-responsive olfactory uptake of manganese improves motor function deficits associated with iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghan Kim

    Full Text Available Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl(2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl(2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT and dopamine receptor D(1 (D1R levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D(2 (D2R levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed "rescue response" with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status.

  3. The release of iron by Sertoli cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauben-Penris, P. J.; Veldscholte, J.; van der Ende, A.; van der Donk, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    In seminiferous tubules, iron transport from the blood to the abluminal germinal cells must occur through the Sertoli cell cytoplasm. We investigated the release of previously accumulated iron by cultured Sertoli cells. We found that Sertoli cells contain easily releasable and less easily releasable

  4. Excessive hoarding in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Djamshidian, Atbin; Evans, Andrew H; Loane, Clare M; Lees, Andrew J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2010-06-15

    Hoarding is seen in several psychiatric conditions, but has not been specifically assessed in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates hoarding tendency amongst patients with PD, and its association with impulsive-compulsive spectrum behaviors (ICBs). We compare clinical features, measures of hoarding, impulse buying, self-control, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in 39 patients with PD with ICBs (PD + ICB), 61 patients with PD without ICBs (PD - ICB), and 50 healthy controls. A much higher proportion of PD + ICB (27.8%) than PD - ICB (3.5%) were hoarders (P = 0.001). 6% of healthy controls were hoarders. Compulsive shoppers scored higher than other varieties of ICB on excessive acquisition measures. Hoarding correlated positively with impulsive buying, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, PD duration, and negatively with self-control measures. Using multivariate regression analyzes, the presence of ICBs and measures of impulsive buying were the only variables independently associated with hoarding in PD. The association of hoarding with other ICBs and low trait impulse control suggests that excessive hoarding is related to the spectrum of impulsive behaviors in PD. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  6. Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on accumulation of catechins in tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of UV-B irradiation time on accumulation of foliar catechins in two tea cultivars was investigated. Low influence rate and short term irradiation of UV-B stimulated accumulation of major tea catechins, resulting in an increase in level of total catechins. Excessive irradiation of UV-B supressed the accumulation of tea ...

  7. Mitochondrial Iron-Sulfur Cluster Dysfunction In Neurodegenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia eIsaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports a role for mitochondrial iron metabolism in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Friedreich ataxia and Parkinson disease as well as in the motor and cognitive decline associated with the aging process. Iron-sulfur enzyme deficits and regional iron accumulation have been observed in each of these conditions. In spite of significant etiological, clinical and pathological differences that exist between Friedreich ataxia and Parkinson disease, it is possible that defects in mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters biogenesis represent a common underlying mechanism leading to abnormal intracellular iron distribution with mitochondrial iron accumulation, OXPHOS deficits and oxidative stress in susceptible cells and specific regions of the nervous system. Moreover, a similar mechanism may contribute to the age-dependent iron accumulation that occurs in certain brain regions such as the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. Targeting chelatable iron and reactive oxygen species appear as possible therapeutic options for Friedreich ataxia and Parkinson disease, and possibly other age-related neurodegenerative conditions. However, new technology to interrogate iron-sulfur cluster synthesis in humans is needed to (i assess how defects in this pathway contribute to the natural history of neurodegenerative disorders and (ii develop treatments to correct those defects early in the disease process, before they cause irreversible neuronal cell damage.

  8. The iron cycle in chronic kidney disease (CKD): from genetics and experimental models to CKD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly; Babitt, Jodie L.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for most living organisms but iron excess can be toxic. Cellular and systemic iron balance is therefore tightly controlled. Iron homeostasis is dysregulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to the anemia that is prevalent in this patient population. Iron supplementation is one cornerstone of anemia management in CKD patients, but has not been rigorously studied in large prospective randomized controlled trials. This review highlights important advances from genetic studies and animal models that have provided key insights into the molecular mechanisms governing iron homeostasis and its disturbance in CKD, and summarizes how these findings may yield advances in the care of this patient population. PMID:24235084

  9. Investigation into Iron Chelating and Antioxidant Potential of Melilotus officinalis in Iron Dextran Induced Iron Overloaded Sprague Dawley Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N A; Desai, T R; Tirgar, P R

    2016-12-01

    Excess of iron leads to generates free radicals, causes organ damage. Melilotus officinalis (Fabaceae) reported to have various pharmacological activities. It contains flavonoids and phenolic compounds which have iron chelating and antioxidant property. Hence, present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different fractions of M. officinalis for the management of iron overload disease and its complications. Iron overload was induced by 6 IP injections of iron dextran (12.5 mg/100 g) uniformly distributed over the period of 30 days. The different fractions of M. officinalis were given orally and Deferoxamine (DFO) subcutaneously for 30 days. The iron chelating and various biochemical parameters were estimated on 15th and 30th day. The different fractions of M. officinalis demonstrated dose dependant in-vitro iron chelating ability. There were significant (Piron chelating potential shows in rats treated with methanolic fraction of methanolic extract (MFME) and methanolic fraction of aqueous extract (MFAE) of M. officinalis as compared to disease control (DC) rats. The rats treated with MFME and MFAE of M. officinalis shows significant (Piron chelation was observed on 30th day and at higher dose (300 mg/kg) as compared to 15th day and at lower dose (150 mg/kg). The present study concludes that MFME and MFAE of M. officinalis have reversible iron chelating and antioxidant potential in rats. The study also proves the possible mechanism of action, as an iron chelator by increasing the excretion of iron in urine and feces. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Microbial diversity and iron oxidation at Okuoku-hachikurou Onsen, a Japanese hot spring analog of Precambrian iron formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L M; Idei, A; Terajima, S; Kakegawa, T; Fischer, W W; McGlynn, S E

    2017-11-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are rock deposits common in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic (and regionally Neoproterozoic) sedimentary successions. Multiple hypotheses for their deposition exist, principally invoking the precipitation of iron via the metabolic activities of oxygenic, photoferrotrophic, and/or aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria. Some isolated environments support chemistry and mineralogy analogous to processes involved in BIF deposition, and their study can aid in untangling the factors that lead to iron precipitation. One such process analog system occurs at Okuoku-hachikurou (OHK) Onsen in Akita Prefecture, Japan. OHK is an iron- and CO2 -rich, circumneutral hot spring that produces a range of precipitated mineral textures containing fine laminae of aragonite and iron oxides that resemble BIF fabrics. Here, we have performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of microbial communities across the range of microenvironments in OHK to describe the microbial diversity present and to gain insight into the cycling of iron, oxygen, and carbon in this ecosystem. These analyses suggest that productivity at OHK is based on aerobic iron-oxidizing Gallionellaceae. In contrast to other BIF analog sites, Cyanobacteria, anoxygenic phototrophs, and iron-reducing micro-organisms are present at only low abundances. These observations support a hypothesis where low growth yields and the high stoichiometry of iron oxidized per carbon fixed by aerobic iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophs like Gallionellaceae result in accumulation of iron oxide phases without stoichiometric buildup of organic matter. This system supports little dissimilatory iron reduction, further setting OHK apart from other process analog sites where iron oxidation is primarily driven by phototrophic organisms. This positions OHK as a study area where the controls on primary productivity in iron-rich environments can be further elucidated. When compared with geological data, the metabolisms and mineralogy at

  11. Depositionally controlled recycling of iron and sulfur in marine sediments and its isotopic consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, N.; Formolo, M.; Arnold, G. L.; Vossmeyer, A.; Henkel, S.; Sawicka, J.; Kasten, S.; Lyons, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    The continental margin off Uruguay and Argentina is characterized by highly dynamic depositional conditions. This variable depositional regime significantly impacts the biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Mass deposit related redeposition of reduced minerals can lead to the reoxidation of these phases and thus to an overprint of their geochemical primary signatures. Due to rapid burial these oxidized phases are still present in deeper subsurface sediments. To study the effects of sediment relocation on the sulfur and iron inventory we collected shallow and deep subsurface sediment samples via multicorer and gravity cores, respectively, in the western Argentine Basin during the RV Meteor Expedition M78/3 in May-July 2009. The samples were retrieved from shelf, slope and deep basin sites. The concentration and sulfur isotope composition of acid volatile sulfur (AVS), chromium reducible sulfur (CRS), elemental sulfur and total organic sulfur were determined. Furthermore, sequential iron extraction techniques were applied assess the distribution of iron oxide phases within the sediment. The investigated sediments are dominated by terrigenous inputs, with high amounts of reactive ferric iron minerals and only low concentrations of calcium carbonate. Total organic carbon concentrations show strong variation in the shallow subsurface sediments ranging between approximately 0.7 and 6.4 wt% for different sites. These concentrations do not correlate with water depths. Pore water accumulations of hydrogen sulfide are restricted to an interval at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) zone a few meters below the sediment surface. In these deeper subsurface sediments pyrite is precipitated in this zone of hydrogen sulfide excess, whereas the accumulation of authigenic AVS and elemental sulfur (up to 2000 ppm) occurs at the upper and lower boundary of the sulfidic zone due the reaction of iron oxides with limited amounts of sulfide. Furthermore, our preliminary results

  12. The effects of excessive humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1998-06-01

    Humidification devices and techniques can expose the airway mucosa to a wide range of gas temperatures and humidities, some of which are excessive and may cause injury. Humidified gas is a carrier of both water and energy. The volume of water in the gas stream depends on whether the water is in a molecular form (vapor), particulate form (aerosol), or bulk form (liquid). The energy content of gas stream is the sum of the sensible heat (temperature) of the air and any water droplets in it and the heat of vaporization (latent energy) of any water vapor present. Latent heat energy is much larger than sensible heat energy, so saturated air contains much more energy than dry air. Thus every breath contains a water volume and energy (thermal) challenge to the airway mucosa. When the challenge exceeds the homeostatic mechanisms airway dysfunction begins, starting at the cellular and secretion level and progressing to whole airway function. A large challenge will result in quick progression of dysfunction. Early dysfunction is generally reversible, however, so large challenges with short exposure times may not cause irreversible injury. The mechanisms of airway injury owing to excess water are not well studied. The observation of its effects lends itself to some general conclusions, however. Alterations in the ventilation-perfusion ratio, decrease in vital capacity and compilance, and atelectasis are suggestive of partial or full occlusion of small airways. Changes in surface tension and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient are consistent with flooding of alveoli. There also may be osmotic challenges to mucosal cell function as evidenced by the different reaction rates with hyper- and hypotonic saline. The reaction to nonisotonic saline also may partly explain increases in specific airway resistance. Aerosolized water and instilled water may be hazardous because of their demonstrated potential for delivering excessive water to the airway. Their use for airway humidification or

  13. Siderophore-mediated iron trafficking in humans is regulated by iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuoming; Lanford, Robert; Mueller, Sebastian; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Luscieti, Sara; Sanchez, Mayka; Devireddy, L.

    2013-01-01

    Siderophores are best known as small iron binding molecules that facilitate microbial iron transport. In our previous study we identified a siderophore-like molecule in mammalian cells and found that its biogenesis is evolutionarily conserved. A member of the short chain dehydrogenase family of reductases, 3-OH butyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2) catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of the mammalian siderophore. We have shown that depletion of the mammalian siderophore by inhibiting expression of bdh2 results in abnormal accumulation of cellular iron and mitochondrial iron deficiency. These observations suggest that the mammalian siderophore is a critical regulator of cellular iron homeostasis and facilitates mitochondrial iron import. By utilizing bioinformatics, we identified an iron-responsive element (IRE; a stem-loop structure that regulates genes expression post-transcriptionally upon binding to iron regulatory proteins or IRPs) in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the human BDH2 (hBDH2) gene. In cultured cells as well as in patient samples we now demonstrate that the IRE confers iron-dependent regulation on hBDH2 and binds IRPs in RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition, we show that the hBDH2 IRE associates with IRPs in cells and that abrogation of IRPs by RNAi eliminates the iron-dependent regulation of hBDH2 mRNA. The key physiologic implication is that iron-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of hBDH2 controls mitochondrial iron homeostasis in human cells. These observations provide a new and an unanticipated mechanism by which iron regulates its intracellular trafficking. PMID:22527885

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia What Is Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  15. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extra iron in their diets. People following a vegetarian diet might also need added iron. What's Iron ... as Whole Milk? About Anemia Minerals What's a Vegetarian? Word! Anemia Anemia Food Labels Vitamins and Minerals ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and iron. Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron You may need iron supplements ... are improving. At your checkups, your doctor may change your medicines or supplements. He or she also ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your doctor may advise you to eat more foods that are rich in iron. The best source ... iron from meat better than iron from nonmeat foods. However, some nonmeat foods also can help you ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... because your need for iron increases during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or iron supplements, when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children. ... in the diet. Too much milk also may prevent children's bodies from absorbing iron from other foods. ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have iron-deficiency anemia, you'll have a high level of transferrin that has no iron. Other ... may include dietary changes and supplements, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require a blood ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... much of the transferrin in your blood isn't carrying iron. If you have iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron in your body (a condition called iron overload). Too much iron in your body can damage ... talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Blood Tests Blood Transfusion ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. ... beans. Other lifestyle changes, such as getting enough sleep and exercising, also have helped Susan feel better. ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... is low in iron. For this and other reasons, cow's milk isn't recommended for babies in ... iron in your body is low. For this reason, other iron tests also are done. Serum ferritin. ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... been used. Transferrin level, or total iron-binding capacity. Transferrin is a protein that carries iron in your blood. Total iron-binding capacity measures how much of the transferrin in your ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the ... enough iron. Your child's doctor may recommend iron drops. However, giving a child too much iron can ...

  9. Experimental oral iron administration: Histological investigations and expressions of iron handling proteins in rat retina with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jha, Kumar Abhiram; Dey, Sanjay Kumar; Kathpalia, Poorti; Maurya, Meenakshi; Gupta, Chandan Lal; Bhatia, Jagriti; Roy, Tara Sankar; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Iron is implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to see if long-term, experimental iron administration with aging modifies retinal and choroidal structures and expressions of iron handling proteins, to understand some aspects of iron homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were fed with ferrous sulphate heptahydrate (500mg/kg body weight/week, oral; elemental iron availability: 20%) from 2 months of age onward until they were 19.5 month-old. At 8, 14 and 20 months of age, they were sacrificed and serum and retinal iron levels were detected by HPLC. Oxidative stress was analyzed by TBARS method. The retinas were examined for cell death (TUNEL), histology (electron microscopy) and the expressions of transferrin, transferrin receptor-1 [TFR-1], H- and L-ferritin. In control animals, at any age, there was no difference in the serum and retinal iron levels, but the latter increased significantly in 14- and 20 month-old iron-fed rats, indicating that retinal iron accumulation proceeds with progression of aging (>14 months). The serum and retinal TBARS levels increased significantly with progression of aging in experimental but not in control rats. There was significant damage to choriocapillaris, accumulation of phagosomes in retinal pigment epithelium and increased incidence of TUNEL+ cells in outer nuclear layer and vacuolation in inner nuclear layer (INL) of 20 month-aged experimental rats, compared to those in age-matched controls. Vacuolations in INL could indicate a long-term effect of iron accumulation in the inner retina. These events paralleled the increased expression of ferritins and transferrin and a decrease in the expression of TFR-1 in iron-fed rats with aging, thereby maintaining iron homeostasis in the retina. As some of these changes mimic with those happening in eyes with AMD, this model can be utilized to understand iron-induced pathophysiological changes in AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vacuolar iron transporter BnMEB2 is involved in enhancing iron tolerance of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron toxicity is a major nutrient disorder that severely affects crop development and yield. Vacuolar detoxification of metal stress is an important strategy for plants to survive and adapt to this adverse environment. Vacuolar iron transporter (VIT members are involved in this process and play essential roles in iron storage and transport. In this study, a rapeseed VIT gene BnMEB2 (BnaC07g30170D was identified. BnMEB2 is a homolog to Arabidopsis MEB2 (At5g24290 and acts as a detoxifier in vacuolar sequestration of divalent metal. Transient expression analysis revealed that BnMEB2 was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Q-PCR detection showed a high expression of BnMEB2 in mature (60-day-old leaves and could be obviously induced by exogenous iron stress in both roots and leaves. Over-expressed BnMEB2 in both Arabidopsis wild type and meb2 mutant seedlings resulted in greatly improved iron tolerability with no significant changes in the expression level of other vacuolar iron transporter genes. The mutant meb2 grew slowly and its root hair elongation was inhibited under high iron concentration condition while BnMEB2 over-expressed transgenic plants of the mutant restored the phenotypes with apparently higher iron storage in roots and dramatically increased iron content in the whole plant. Taken together, these results suggested that BnMEB2 was a VIT gene in rapeseed which was necessary for safe storage and vacuole detoxification function of excess iron to enhance the tolerance of iron toxicity. This research sheds light on a potentially new strategy for attenuating hazardous metal stress from environment and improving iron biofortification in Brassicaceae crops.

  11. The decreased growth performance and impaired immune function and structural integrity by dietary iron deficiency or excess are associated with TOR, NF-κB, p38MAPK, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling in head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Feng, Lin

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary iron on the growth, and immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin as well as the underlying signaling of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Total 630 grass carp (242.32 ± 0.58 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of iron at 12.15 (basal diet), 35.38, 63.47, 86.43, 111.09, 136.37 mg/kg (diets 2-6 were added with ferrous fumarate) and 73.50 mg/kg (diet 7 was added with ferrous sulfate) diet for 60 days. Then, a challenge test was conducted by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results firstly showed that compared with optimal iron level, iron deficiency decreased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antibacterial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), whereas up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, IκB kinases β (IKKβ) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) in head kidney and spleen of young grass carp (P growth and impaired the immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin of fish. Besides, in young grass carp, based on PWG and ability against skin hemorrhage and lesion, the efficacy of ferrous fumarate relative to ferrous sulfate was 140.32% and 126.48%, respectively, and the iron requirements based on PWG, ability against skin hemorrhage and lesion, ACP activities and MDA contents in head kidney and spleen were estimated to be 75.65, 87.03, 79.74, 78.93, 83.17 and 82.14 mg/kg diet (based on ferrous fumarate), respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Iron Overload in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Pullarkat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT frequently have iron overload resulting from chronic transfusion therapy for anemia. In some cases, for example, in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and thalassemia, this can be further exacerbated by increased absorption of iron from the gut as a result of ineffective erythropoiesis. Accumulating evidence has established the negative impact of elevated pretransplantation serum ferritin, a surrogate marker of iron overload, on overall survival and nonrelapse mortality after HSCT. Complications of HSCT associated with iron overload include increased bacterial and fungal infections as well as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome and possibly other regimen-related toxicities. Based on current evidence, particular attention should be paid to prevention and management of iron overload in allogeneic HSCT candidates, especially in patients with thalassemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The pathophysiology of iron overload in the HSCT patient and optimum strategies to deal with iron overload during and after HSCT require further study.

  13. Salinomycin kills cancer stem cells by sequestering iron in lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Trang Thi; Hamaï, Ahmed; Hienzsch, Antje; Cañeque, Tatiana; Müller, Sebastian; Wicinski, Julien; Cabaud, Olivier; Leroy, Christine; David, Amandine; Acevedo, Verónica; Ryo, Akihide; Ginestier, Christophe; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Codogno, Patrice; Mehrpour, Maryam; Rodriguez, Raphaël

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subset of cells within tumours that exhibit self-renewal properties and the capacity to seed tumours. CSCs are typically refractory to conventional treatments and have been associated to metastasis and relapse. Salinomycin operates as a selective agent against CSCs through mechanisms that remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that a synthetic derivative of salinomycin, which we named ironomycin (AM5), exhibits a more potent and selective activity against breast CSCs in vitro and in vivo, by accumulating and sequestering iron in lysosomes. In response to the ensuing cytoplasmic depletion of iron, cells triggered the degradation of ferritin in lysosomes, leading to further iron loading in this organelle. Iron-mediated production of reactive oxygen species promoted lysosomal membrane permeabilization, activating a cell death pathway consistent with ferroptosis. These findings reveal the prevalence of iron homeostasis in breast CSCs, pointing towards iron and iron-mediated processes as potential targets against these cells.

  14. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  15. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified as...

  16. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and...

  17. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements on the dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random transla- tional jump diffusion model. The observed increase in ...

  18. IRON CHELATION THERAPY IN THALASSEMIA SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cianciulli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusional hemosiderosis is a frequent complication in patients with transfusion dependent chronic diseases such as  thalassemias and severe type of sickle cell diseases. As there are no physiological mechanisms to excrete the iron contained in transfused red cells (1 unit of blood contains approximately 200 mg of iron the excess of iron is stored in various organs. Cardiomyopathy is the most severe complication covering more than 70% of the causes of death of thalassemic patients. Although the current reference standard iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO has been used clinically for over four decades, its effectiveness is limited by a demanding therapeutic regimen that leads to poor compliance. Despite poor compliance, because of the inconvenience of subcutaneous infusion, DFO improved considerably the survival and quality of life of patients with thalassemia. Deferiprone since 1998 and Deferasirox since 2005 were licensed for clinical use. The oral chelators have a better compliance because of oral use, a comparable efficacy to DFO in iron excretion and probably a better penetration to myocardial cells. Considerable increase in iron excretion was documented with combination therapy of DFO and Deferiprone. The proper use of the three chelators will improve the prevention and treatment of iron overload, it will reduce  complications, and improve survival and quality of life of transfused patients

  19. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  20. Mapping of cellular iron using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Min

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantianigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy and with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to iron by treatment with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM) for up to 6 hours. The hyperspectral fluorescence imaging signal of iron was examined usinga high- resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/ near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. The 6-hour group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the small amount of iron accumulation in the 1-hour group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small, particulate form, whereas extracellular iron was detected in an aggregated form. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The cellular iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN in PD. This direct iron imaging methodology could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron in PD, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving other metals, such as copper, manganese or zinc.

  1. Professional IronPython

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Part I: Introducing IronPython. This short part is designed to get the reader started using IronPython. It answers basic installation and usage questions, how to get help, and what makes IronPython different from other languages. The reader also discovers how to use familiar tools such as Visual Studio to work with IronPython and creates a very simple IronPython example. Most importantly, the reader becomes familiar with the IronPython environment and discovers how to use it.; Part II: Using the IronPython Language. In this part, the reader learns the IronPython language. It assumes that the r

  2. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  3. SQUID biosusceptometry in the measurement of hepatic iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, Sujit [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Harkness Pavilion, Room HP570, 180 Fort Washington Avenue, NY 10032, New York (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Individuals with primary or secondary abnormalities of iron metabolism, such as hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusional iron loading, may develop potentially lethal systemic iron overload. Over time, this excess iron is progressively deposited in the liver, heart, pancreas, and other organs, resulting in cirrhosis, heart disease, diabetes and other disorders. Unless treated, death usually results from cardiac failure. The amount of iron in the liver is the best indicator of the amount of iron in the whole body. At present, the only sure way to measure the amount of iron in the liver is to remove a sample of the liver by biopsy. Iron stored in the liver can be magnetized to a small degree when placed in a magnetic field. The amount of magnetization is measured by our instrument, called a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) susceptometer. In patients with iron overload, our previous studies have shown that magnetic measurements of liver iron in patients with iron overload are quantitatively equivalent to biochemical determinations on tissue obtained by biopsy. The safety, ease, rapidity, and comfort of magnetic measurements make frequent, serial studies technically feasible and practically acceptable to patients. (orig.)

  4. Decreased serum hepcidin, inflammation, and improved functional iron status six-months post-restrictive bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...

  5. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  6. Current status of iron metabolism: Clinical and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Diez, Susana; de Las Cuevas Allende, Ricardo; Conde García, Eulogio

    2017-03-03

    Hepcidin is the main regulator of iron metabolism and a pathogenic factor in iron disorders. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload, whereas hepcidin excess causes or contributes to the development of iron-restricted anaemia in chronic inflammatory diseases. We know the mechanisms involved in the synthesis of hepcidin and, under physiological conditions, there is a balance between activating signals and inhibitory signals that regulate its synthesis. The former include those related to plasmatic iron level and also those related to chronic inflammatory diseases. The most important inhibitory signals are related to active erythropoiesis and to matriptase-2. Knowing how hepcidin is synthesised has helped design new pharmacological treatments whose main target is the hepcidin. In the near future, there will be effective treatments aimed at correcting the defect of many of these iron metabolism disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleepiness or excessive daytime somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edd, Ethel Mitty; Flores, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) is associated with age-related changes, environment, circadian rhythm or sleep pattern disorder, insomnia, medications, lifestyle factors, depression, pain, and illness. The notion of "sleep architecture" connotes a structure that describes the sleep cycle (i.e., stages) and wakefulness during a single sleep period-that is, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Circadian rhythms perform a variety of functions including regulation of the quality and distribution of the stages of sleep. Insomnia includes delayed sleep onset as well as premature wakening; sleep is nonrestorative. Comorbidities associated with insomnia are Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, delirium, depression, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pain, degenerative diseases of the neurological system, and sleep apnea. Continuous inadequate sleep affects cognitive function, physical performance, overall well-being, and quality of life. There is a greater risk of falls from insomnia than is the use of hypnotics to manage it. Sleep disruption among older adults is underrecognized and undertreated. Assessment using valid tools can be performed rapidly. There are a variety of treatment options, including sleep hygiene and pharmacological and alternative modalities.

  8. Recent advances in the understanding of iron overload in sideroblastic myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Maria L H; Raymakers, Reinier A P; Mackenzie, Marius A; de Witte, Theo J M; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2010-05-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematopoietic stem cell malignancies. A subgroup, the so-called sideroblastic MDS, shows ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow aspirate that represent mitochondrial iron accumulation. Patients with sideroblastic MDS also develop systemic iron overload and generally have a low-risk MDS. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for iron accumulation and the associated toxicity in these patients. Recently, low levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin were found to contribute to body iron overload in beta-thalassaemia patients. A similar mechanism may account for systemic iron accumulation in sideroblastic MDS. Mitochondrial iron accumulation is observed in several subtypes of MDS, and predominantly in refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts. The presence of ring sideroblasts is also the diagnostic hallmark in patients with inherited forms of sideroblastic anaemia. The ever-increasing insights into the affected pathways in inherited sideroblastic anaemia may lead to a better comprehension of the pathogenesis of mitochondrial iron accumulation in MDS patients. Overall, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for iron overload in MDS will lead to novel treatment strategies to reduce both systemic and mitochondrial iron overload, resulting in less tissue damage and more effective erythropoiesis.

  9. Effects of iron supplementation on growth, gut microbiota, metabolomics and cognitive development of rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Erica E; He, Xuan; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common during infancy and therefore iron supplementation is recommended. Recent reports suggest that iron supplementation in already iron replete infants may adversely affect growth, cognitive development, and morbidity. Normal and growth restricted rat pups were given iron daily (30 or 150 μg/d) from birth to postnatal day (PD) 20, and followed to PD56. At PD20, hematology, tissue iron, and the hepatic metabolome were measured. The plasma metabolome and colonic microbial ecology were assessed at PD20 and PD56. T-maze (PD35) and passive avoidance (PD40) tests were used to evaluate cognitive development. Iron supplementation increased iron status in a dose-dependent manner in both groups, but no significant effect of iron on growth was observed. Passive avoidance was significantly lower only in normal rats given high iron compared with controls. In plasma and liver of normal and growth-restricted rats, excess iron increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and decreased several amino acids, urea and myo-inositol. While a profound difference in gut microbiota of normal and growth-restricted rats was observed, with iron supplementation differences in the abundance of strict anaerobes were observed. Excess iron adversely affects cognitive development, which may be a consequence of altered metabolism and/or shifts in gut microbiota.

  10. Effects of iron supplementation on growth, gut microbiota, metabolomics and cognitive development of rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E Alexeev

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during infancy and therefore iron supplementation is recommended. Recent reports suggest that iron supplementation in already iron replete infants may adversely affect growth, cognitive development, and morbidity.Normal and growth restricted rat pups were given iron daily (30 or 150 μg/d from birth to postnatal day (PD 20, and followed to PD56. At PD20, hematology, tissue iron, and the hepatic metabolome were measured. The plasma metabolome and colonic microbial ecology were assessed at PD20 and PD56. T-maze (PD35 and passive avoidance (PD40 tests were used to evaluate cognitive development.Iron supplementation increased iron status in a dose-dependent manner in both groups, but no significant effect of iron on growth was observed. Passive avoidance was significantly lower only in normal rats given high iron compared with controls. In plasma and liver of normal and growth-restricted rats, excess iron increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and decreased several amino acids, urea and myo-inositol. While a profound difference in gut microbiota of normal and growth-restricted rats was observed, with iron supplementation differences in the abundance of strict anaerobes were observed.Excess iron adversely affects cognitive development, which may be a consequence of altered metabolism and/or shifts in gut microbiota.

  11. U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Oaks, Brietta M

    2017-12-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy. Overall, we confirmed a U-shaped curve for the risk of adverse birth outcomes with maternal hemoglobin concentrations, but the relations differ by trimester. For low hemoglobin concentrations, the link with adverse outcomes is more evident when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in early pregnancy. These relations generally became weaker or nonexistent when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in the second or third trimesters. Associations between high hemoglobin concentration and adverse birth outcomes are evident in all 3 trimesters but evidence is mixed. There is less evidence for the associations between maternal iron status and adverse birth outcomes. Most studies used serum ferritin (SF) concentrations as the indicator of iron status, which makes the interpretation of results challenging because SF concentrations increase in response to inflammation or infection. The effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy may depend on initial iron status. There are several mechanisms through which high iron status during pregnancy may have adverse effects on birth outcomes, including oxidative stress, increased blood viscosity, and impaired systemic response to inflammation and infection. Research is needed to understand the biological processes that underlie the U-shaped curves

  12. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... subject proposal. Project owners are permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request...

  13. Influence of welding fume on systemic iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Swaantje; Henry, Jana; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Welge, Peter; Lotz, Anne; Gelder, Rainer Van; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Stiegler, Hugo; Eisele, Lewin; Weiss, Tobias; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2014-11-01

    Iron is the major metal found in welding fumes, and although it is an essential trace element, its overload causes toxicity due to Fenton reactions. To avoid oxidative damage, excess iron is bound to ferritin, and as a result, serum ferritin (SF) is a recognized biomarker for iron stores, with high concentrations linked to inflammation and potentially also cancer. However, little is known about iron overload in welders. Within this study, we assessed the iron status and quantitative associations between airborne iron, body iron stores, and iron homeostasis in 192 welders not wearing dust masks. Welders were equipped with personal samplers in order to determine the levels of respirable iron in the breathing zone during a working shift. SF, prohepcidin and other markers of iron status were determined in blood samples collected after shift. The impact of iron exposure and other factors on SF and prohepcidin were estimated using multiple regression models. Our results indicate that respirable iron is a significant predictor of SF and prohepcidin. Concentrations of SF varied according to the welding technique and respiratory protection used, with a median of 103 μg l(-1) in tungsten inert gas welders, 125 μg l(-1) in those wearing air-purifying respirators, and 161 μg l(-1) in other welders. Compared to welders with low iron stores (SF < 25 μg l(-1)), those with excess body iron (SF ≥ 400 μg l(-1)) worked under a higher median concentration of airborne iron (60 μg m(-3) versus 148 μg m(-3)). Even though air concentrations of respirable iron and manganese were highly correlated, and low iron stores have been reported to increase manganese uptake in the gastrointestinal tract, no correlation was seen between SF and manganese in blood. In conclusion, monitoring SF may be a reasonable method for health surveillance of welders. Respiratory protection with air-purifying respirators can decrease iron exposure and avoid chronically higher SF in welders working with

  14. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  15. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  16. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as larger, full-term infants. Iron-fortified baby food or iron supplements, when used properly, can help prevent iron-deficiency ... Syndrome Other Resources Non-NHLBI Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (Office of Dietary Supplements, National ...

  18. Peroxidase, phenolics, and antioxidative capacity of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.) grown in a zinc excess

    OpenAIRE

    Morina Filis; Jovanović L.; Kukavica Biljana; Veljović-Jovanović Sonja

    2008-01-01

    Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.) is the dominant plant species at a disposal site polluted with metal from the hydrometallurgical jarosite zinc production process. Seeds collected at the site were germinated and plants were grown hydroponically under controlled conditions in a excess of Zn. Induction of total soluble POD activity in the root occurred at 1, 5, and 10 mM Zn, indicating Zn accumulation within the root. Accumulation of Zn in leaves was not accompanied by changes in POD activ...

  19. Iron and thiol redox signaling in cancer: An exquisite balance to escape ferroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya; Ito, Fumiya; Yamashita, Kyoko; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Akatsuka, Shinya

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiological data indicate a constant worldwide increase in cancer mortality, although the age of onset is increasing. Recent accumulation of genomic data on human cancer via next-generation sequencing confirmed that cancer is a disease of genome alteration. In many cancers, the Nrf2 transcription system is activated via mutations either in Nrf2 or Keap1 ubiquitin ligase, leading to persistent activation of the genes with antioxidative functions. Furthermore, deep sequencing of passenger mutations is clarifying responsible cancer causative agent(s) in each case, including aging, APOBEC activation, smoking and UV. Therefore, it is most likely that oxidative stress is the principal initiating factor in carcinogenesis, with the involvement of two essential molecules for life, iron and oxygen. There is evidence based on epidemiological and animal studies that excess iron is a major risk for carcinogenesis, suggesting the importance of ferroptosis-resistance. Microscopic visualization of catalytic Fe(II) has recently become available. Although catalytic Fe(II) is largely present in lysosomes, proliferating cells harbor catalytic Fe(II) also in the cytosol and mitochondria. Oxidative stress catalyzed by Fe(II) is counteracted by thiol systems at different functional levels. Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen (per)sulfide modulate these reactions. Mitochondria generate not only energy but also heme/iron sulfur cluster cofactors and remain mostly dysfunctional in cancer cells, leading to Warburg effects. Cancer cells are under persistent oxidative stress with a delicate balance between catalytic iron and thiols, thereby escaping ferroptosis. Thus, high-dose L-ascorbate and non-thermal plasma as well as glucose/glutamine deprivation may provide additional benefits as cancer therapies over preexisting therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Moessbauer studies of frataxin role in iron-sulfur cluster assembly and dysfunction-related disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Serres, Ricardo [Universite Joseph Fourier (France); Clemancey, Martin [CNRS, UMR5249 (France); Oddou, Jean-Louis [Universite Joseph Fourier (France); Pastore, Annalisa [Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research (United Kingdom); Lesuisse, Emmanuel [Laboratoire Mitochondries, Metaux et Stress oxydant, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris (France); Latour, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.latour@cea.fr [CEA, iRTSV, LCBM (France)

    2012-03-15

    Friedreich ataxia is a disease that is associated with defects in the gene coding for a small protein frataxin. Several different roles have been proposed for the protein, including iron chaperoning and iron storage. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to probe these hypotheses. Iron accumulation in mutant mitochondria unable to assemble iron sulfur clusters proved to be insensitive to overexpression of frataxin, ruling out its potential involvement as an iron storage protein similar to ferritin. Rather, it was found that frataxin negatively regulates iron sulfur cluster assembly.

  1. Physiological and genetic basis of plant tolerance to excess boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B deficit as well as excess may significantly limit the organic production in plants. In extreme cases they may kill the affected plants. Boron excess occurs primarily in arid and semiarid regions, in saline soils or in consequence to human action. Excessive boron concentrations retard plant growth and cause physiological and morphological changes (chlorosis and necrosis first of all in leaf tips and then in marginal or intercostal parts of the lamina. Physiological mechanisms of plant tolerance to boron excess have not been studied in sufficient detail. The predominant opinion holds that they are based on restricted uptake and accumulation of boron in the root and aboveground plant parts. Significant differences in boron excess tolerance have been observed not only between different crops but even between different genotypes of the same crop. This has enabled the breeding of crop genotypes and crops adapted to growing on soils rich in available boron and intensified the research on the inheritance of plant tolerance to high B concentration. Sources of tolerance to high B concentration have been found in many crops (wheat, mustard, pea, lentil, eucalypt. Using different molecular techniques based on PCR (RAPD, SRAP, plant parents and progenies have been analyzed in an attempt to map as precisely as possible the position of B-tolerant genes. Small grains have been studied in greatest detail for inheritance of B tolerance. B tolerance in wheat is controlled by at least four additive genes, Bo1, Bo2, Bo3 and Bo4. Consequently, there exists a broad range of tolerance levels. Studies of Arabidopsis have broadened our understanding of regulation mechanisms of B transport from roots to above ground parts, allowing more direct genetic manipulations.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of reconstructed ferritin as an iron-induced pathological model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balejcikova, Lucia [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Institute of Measurement Science SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Strbak, Oliver [Institute of Measurement Science SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Biomedical Center Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mala Hora 4, 036 01 Martin (Slovakia); Baciak, Ladislav [Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology STU, Radlinskeho 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kovac, Jozef [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Masarova, Marta; Krafcik, Andrej; Frollo, Ivan [Institute of Measurement Science SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Dobrota, Dusan [Biomedical Center Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mala Hora 4, 036 01 Martin (Slovakia); Kopcansky, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2017-04-01

    Iron, an essential element of the human body, is a significant risk factor, particularly in the case of its concentration increasing above the specific limit. Therefore, iron is stored in the non-toxic form of the globular protein, ferritin, consisting of an apoferritin shell and iron core. Numerous studies confirmed the disruption of homeostasis and accumulation of iron in patients with various diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular or neurological conditions), which is closely related to ferritin metabolism. Such iron imbalance enables the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a sensitive technique for the detection of iron-based aggregates through changes in the relaxation times, followed by the change in the inherent image contrast. For our in vitrostudy, modified ferritins with different iron loadings were prepared by chemical reconstruction of the iron core in an apoferritin shell as pathological model systems. The magnetic properties of samples were studied using SQUID magnetometry, while the size distribution was detected via dynamic light scattering. We have shown that MRI could represent the most advantageous method for distinguishing native ferritin from reconstructed ferritin which, after future standardisation, could then be suitable for the diagnostics of diseases associated with iron accumulation. - Highlights: • MRI is the sensitive technique for detecting iron-based aggregates. • Reconstructed Ferritin is suitable model system of iron-related disorders. • MRI allow distinguish of native ferritin from reconstructed ferritin. • MRI could be useful for diagnostics of diseases associated with iron accumulation.

  3. Amyloid fibril systems reduce, stabilize and deliver bioavailable nanosized iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Posavec, Lidija; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Hilty, Florentine M.; Nyström, Gustav; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Hilbe, Monika; Rossi, Antonella; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2017-07-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major global public health problem. A sustainable and cost-effective strategy to reduce IDA is iron fortification of foods, but the most bioavailable fortificants cause adverse organoleptic changes in foods. Iron nanoparticles are a promising solution in food matrices, although their tendency to oxidize and rapidly aggregate in solution severely limits their use in fortification. Amyloid fibrils are protein aggregates initially known for their association with neurodegenerative disorders, but recently described in the context of biological functions in living organisms and emerging as unique biomaterial building blocks. Here, we show an original application for these protein fibrils as efficient carriers for iron fortification. We use biodegradable amyloid fibrils from β-lactoglobulin, an inexpensive milk protein with natural reducing effects, as anti-oxidizing nanocarriers and colloidal stabilizers for iron nanoparticles. The resulting hybrid material forms a stable protein-iron colloidal dispersion that undergoes rapid dissolution and releases iron ions during acidic and enzymatic in vitro digestion. Importantly, this hybrid shows high in vivo iron bioavailability, equivalent to ferrous sulfate in haemoglobin-repletion and stable-isotope studies in rats, but with reduced organoleptic changes in foods. Feeding the rats with these hybrid materials did not result in abnormal iron accumulation in any organs, or changes in whole blood glutathione concentrations, inferring their primary safety. Therefore, these iron-amyloid fibril hybrids emerge as novel, highly effective delivery systems for iron in both solid and liquid matrices.

  4. Effects of phlebotomy-induced reduction of body iron stores on metabolic syndrome: results from a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houschyar Khosrow S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (METS is an increasingly prevalent but poorly understood clinical condition characterized by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Increased oxidative stress catalyzed by accumulation of iron in excess of physiologic requirements has been implicated in the pathogenesis of METS, but the relationships between cause and effect remain uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that phlebotomy-induced reduction of body iron stores would alter the clinical presentation of METS, using a randomized trial. Methods In a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial, 64 patients with METS were randomly assigned to iron reduction by phlebotomy (n = 33 or to a control group (n = 31, which was offered phlebotomy at the end of the study (waiting-list design. The iron-reduction patients had 300 ml of blood removed at entry and between 250 and 500 ml removed after 4 weeks, depending on ferritin levels at study entry. Primary outcomes were change in systolic blood pressure (SBP and insulin sensitivity as measured by Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA index after 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included HbA1c, plasma glucose, blood lipids, and heart rate (HR. Results SBP decreased from 148.5 ± 12.3 mmHg to 130.5 ± 11.8 mmHg in the phlebotomy group, and from 144.7 ± 14.4 mmHg to 143.8 ± 11.9 mmHg in the control group (difference -16.6 mmHg; 95% CI -20.7 to -12.5; P Conclusions In patients with METS, phlebotomy, with consecutive reduction of body iron stores, lowered BP and resulted in improvements in markers of cardiovascular risk and glycemic control. Blood donation may have beneficial effects for blood donors with METS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01328210 Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/53

  5. Divergence of iron metabolism in wild Malaysian yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hana N; Mostovoy, Yulia; Hsu, Tiffany Y; Chang, Amanda H; Brem, Rachel B

    2013-12-09

    Comparative genomic studies have reported widespread variation in levels of gene expression within and between species. Using these data to infer organism-level trait divergence has proven to be a key challenge in the field. We have used a wild Malaysian population of S. cerevisiae as a test bed in the search to predict and validate trait differences based on observations of regulatory variation. Malaysian yeast, when cultured in standard medium, activated regulatory programs that protect cells from the toxic effects of high iron. Malaysian yeast also showed a hyperactive regulatory response during culture in the presence of excess iron and had a unique growth defect in conditions of high iron. Molecular validation experiments pinpointed the iron metabolism factors AFT1, CCC1, and YAP5 as contributors to these molecular and cellular phenotypes; in genome-scale sequence analyses, a suite of iron toxicity response genes showed evidence for rapid protein evolution in Malaysian yeast. Our findings support a model in which iron metabolism has diverged in Malaysian yeast as a consequence of a change in selective pressure, with Malaysian alleles shifting the dynamic range of iron response to low-iron concentrations and weakening resistance to extreme iron toxicity. By dissecting the iron scarcity specialist behavior of Malaysian yeast, our work highlights the power of expression divergence as a signpost for biologically and evolutionarily relevant variation at the organismal level. Interpreting the phenotypic relevance of gene expression variation is one of the primary challenges of modern genomics.

  6. Mitochondrial iron metabolism and sideroblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftel, Alex D; Richardson, Des R; Prchal, Josef; Ponka, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by mitochondrial iron overload in developing red blood cells. The unifying characteristic of all sideroblastic anemias is the ring sideroblast, which is a pathological erythroid precursor containing excessive deposits of non-heme iron in mitochondria with perinuclear distribution creating a ring appearance. Sideroblastic anemias may be hereditary or acquired. Hereditary sideroblastic anemias are caused by defects in genes present on the X chromosome (mutations in the ALAS2, ABCB7, or GRLX5 gene), genes on autosomal chromosomes, or mitochondrial genes. Acquired sideroblastic anemias are either primary (refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, RARS, representing one subtype of the myelodysplastic syndrome) or secondary due to some drugs, toxins, copper deficiency, or chronic neoplastic disease. The pathogenesis of mitochondrial iron loading in developing erythroblasts is diverse. Ring sideroblasts can develop as a result of a heme synthesis defect in erythroblasts (ALAS2 mutations), a defect in iron-sulfur cluster assembly, iron-sulfur protein precursor release from mitochondria (ABCB7 mutations), or by a defect in intracellular iron metabolism in erythroid cells (e.g. RARS). Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Is achlorhydria a cause of iron deficiency anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betesh, Andrea L; Santa Ana, Carol A; Cole, Jason A; Fordtran, John S

    2015-07-01

    We re-evaluated the old hypothesis that gastritis-induced achlorhydria is a cause of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in humans. First, we analyzed the currently available research on the association between achlorhydria and IDA. When gastric acid secretion was measured after maximal stimulation, the frequency of achlorhydria (or severe hypochlorhydria) was 44% in patients with idiopathic IDA and 1.8% in healthy controls. In some patients with pernicious anemia, presumed achlorhydria preceded the development of IDA in time. However, we found no credible evidence that IDA caused gastritis or that IDA preceded the development of achlorhydria. Thus, correlational results favor achlorhydria as the causal factor in the association between achlorhydria and IDA. Second, we sought to determine whether gastritis and achlorhydria cause negative iron balance. When biosynthetic methods were used to isotopically label iron in food, achlorhydric patients were found to have severe malabsorption of nonheme iron, which persisted after the development of IDA. In 1 study, achlorhydria reduced the normal increase in heme-iron absorption from hemoglobin in response to iron deficiency. After an injection of isotopic iron into normal men, the physiologic loss of iron from the body was found to be 1 mg/d. Patients with chronic gastritis had excess fecal loss of isotopically tagged plasma iron. Calculations based on these results indicate that the absorption of iron from a typical Western diet by achlorhydric patients would be less than physiologic iron losses, creating a negative iron balance that could not be overcome by the adaptive increase in duodenal iron absorptive capacity that occurs in response to iron deficiency. The combination of results from these correlational and pathophysiologic studies supports the hypothesis that gastritis-induced achlorhydria can be an independent cause of IDA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Diffusion and surface excess of a confined nanoswimmer dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Song; Wang, Zhengjia; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2014-11-14

    The diffusivity and surface excess of nanoswimmers which are confined in two plates with the separation H are explored by dissipative particle dynamics. Both mean squared displacement and velocity autocorrelation function methods are used to study the diffusive behavior of nanoswimmers with the Brownian diffusivity D0 and the results obtained from both methods are consistent. The active diffusivity of confined nanoswimmers (D - D0) depends on the wall separation, swimming speed v(a), and run time τ. Our simulation results show that (D-D0)/v(a)(2)τ is a function of v(a)τ/H. The reduction in the diffusivity of active colloids is more significant than that of passive particles. The distribution of nanoswimmers between two parallel walls is acquired and two regions can be identified. The accumulation of nanoswimmers near walls is quantitatively described by the surface excess Γ. It is found that Γ grows as the nanoswimmer concentration c(b), swimming speed v(a), and run time τ are increased. The coupling between the ballistic trajectory of nanoswimmers and the walls results in nanoswimmer accumulation. The simulation outcomes indicate that Γ/Hc(b) is a function of H/v(a)τ.

  9. Electrode reactions of iron oxide-hydroxide colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Leila; Kissner, Reinhard

    2014-11-07

    Small-sized FeO(OH) colloids stabilised by sugars, commercially available for the clinical treatment of iron deficiency, show two waves during cathodic polarographic sweeps, or two current maxima with stationary electrodes, in neutral to slightly alkaline aqueous medium. Similar signals are observed with Fe(III) in alkaline media, pH > 12, containing citrate in excess. Voltammetric and polarographic responses reveal a strong influence of fast adsorption processes on gold and mercury. Visible spontaneous accumulation was also observed on platinum. The voltammetric signal at more positive potential is caused by Fe(III)→Fe(II) reduction, while the one at more negative potential has previously been assigned to Fe(II)→Fe(0) reduction. However, the involvement of adsorption phenomena leads us to the conclusion that the second cathodic current is caused again by Fe(III)→Fe(II), of species deeper inside the particles than those causing the first wave. This is further supported by X-ray photoelectron spectra obtained after FeO(OH) particle adsorption and reduction on a gold electrode surface. The same analysis suggests that sucrose stabilising the colloid is still bound to the adsorbed material, despite dilution and rinsing.

  10. Hydrogenation of iron in the early stage of Earth's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka-Oku, Riko; Yagi, Takehiko; Gotou, Hirotada; Okuchi, Takuo; Hattori, Takanori; Sano-Furukawa, Asami

    2017-01-01

    Density of the Earth's core is lower than that of pure iron and the light element(s) in the core is a long-standing problem. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the solar system and thus one of the important candidates. However, the dissolution process of hydrogen into iron remained unclear. Here we carry out high-pressure and high-temperature in situ neutron diffraction experiments and clarify that when the mixture of iron and hydrous minerals are heated, iron is hydrogenized soon after the hydrous mineral is dehydrated. This implies that early in the Earth's evolution, as the accumulated primordial material became hotter, the dissolution of hydrogen into iron occurred before any other materials melted. This suggests that hydrogen is likely the first light element dissolved into iron during the Earth's evolution and it may affect the behaviour of the other light elements in the later processes.

  11. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Deng, Xin [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ma, Mi [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyz@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  12. Role of ferritin in the rice tolerance to iron overload Papel da ferritina na tolerância de arroz ao excesso de ferro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Chagas da Silveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants ordinarily face iron (Fe deficiency, since this mineral is poorly available in soils under aerobic conditions. Nonetheless, wetland and irrigated rice plants can be exposed to excess, highly toxic Fe. Ferritin is a ubiquitous Fe-storage protein, important for iron homeostasis. Increased ferritin accumulation resulting from higher Fe availability was shown in some plant species. However, the role of ferritin in tolerance mechanisms to Fe overload in rice is yet to be established. In this study, recombinant rice ferritin was expressed in Escherichia coli, producing an anti-rice ferritin polyclonal antibody which was used to evaluate ferritin accumulation in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, either susceptible (BR-IRGA 409 or tolerant (EPAGRI 108 to Fe toxicity. Increased ferritin mRNA and protein levels resulting from excess Fe treatment were detected in both cultivars, with higher ferritin protein accumulation in EPAGRI 108 plants, which also reached lower shoot Fe concentrations when submitted to iron overload. The tolerance mechanism to excess Fe in EPAGRI 108 seems to include both restricted Fe translocation and increased ferritin accumulation. This is the first work that shows higher accumulation of the ferritin protein in an iron-excess tolerant Oryza sativa cultivar, providing evidence of a possible role of this protein in iron tolerance mechanisms.Deficiência de ferro (Fe ocorre freqüentemente em plantas, uma vez que este mineral é pouco disponível em condições aeróbicas. Plantas de arroz cultivadas sob alagamento, no entanto, estão sujeitas ao excesso de Fe, que pode ser extremamente tóxico. Alguns cultivares de arroz são resistentes a altas concentrações de ferro, mas os mecanismos fisiológicos responsáveis por essa resistência são pouco conhecidos. A ferritina é uma proteína de ampla distribuição e capaz de armazenar ferro, sendo considerada importante para a homeostase deste metal. Acúmulo de ferritina em

  13. Excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption is independent from lactate accumulation in two cyprinid fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genz, J.; Jyde, M.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2013-01-01

    the increase in oxygen consumption in fish required following strenuous exercise or low environmental oxygen availability has been frequently considered, the primary contributing mechanism remains unknown. This study utilized the close relationship but strongly divergent physiology between C. carpio and C...

  14. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  15. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  16. Ferritins and iron storage in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briat, Jean-François; Duc, Céline; Ravet, Karl; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2010-08-01

    Iron is essential for both plant productivity and nutritional quality. Improving plant iron content was attempted through genetic engineering of plants overexpressing ferritins. However, both the roles of these proteins in the plant physiology, and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of their expression are largely unknown. Although the structure of ferritins is highly conserved between plants and animals, their cellular localization differ. Furthermore, regulation of ferritin gene expression in response to iron excess occurs at the transcriptional level in plants, in contrast to animals which regulate ferritin expression at the translational level. In this review, our knowledge of the specific features of plant ferritins is presented, at the level of their (i) structure/function relationships, (ii) cellular localization, and (iii) synthesis regulation during development and in response to various environmental cues. A special emphasis is given to their function in plant physiology, in particular concerning their respective roles in iron storage and in protection against oxidative stress. Indeed, the use of reverse genetics in Arabidopsis recently enabled to produce various knock-out ferritin mutants, revealing strong links between these proteins and protection against oxidative stress. In contrast, their putative iron storage function to furnish iron during various development processes is unlikely to be essential. Ferritins, by buffering iron, exert a fine tuning of the quantity of metal required for metabolic purposes, and help plants to cope with adverse situations, the deleterious effects of which would be amplified if no system had evolved to take care of free reactive iron. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Excessive libido in a woman with rabies.

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    Rabies is endemic in India in both wildlife and humans. Human rabies kills 25,000 to 30,000 persons every year. Several types of sexual manifestations including excessive libido may develop in cases of human rabies. A laboratory proven case of rabies in an Indian woman who manifested excessive libido is presented below. She later developed hydrophobia and died.

  18. Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting Updated:Nov 2,2015 Many factors can lead to excessive blood clotting, leading to limited or blocked blood flow. Blood clots can travel to the arteries or ...

  19. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  20. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions prior...

  2. Excess Based Allocation of Risk Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulick, G.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Norde, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new rule to allocate risk capital to portfolios or divisions within a firm. Specifically, we determine the capital allocation that minimizes the excesses of sets of portfolios in lexicographical sense. The excess of a set of portfolios is defined as the expected loss of

  3. The excessively crying infant : etiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhnikh, S.; Engelberts, A.C.; Sleuwen, B.E. van; Hoir, M.P. L’; Benninga, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and selflimiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, and underlying organic cause

  4. Triboson interpretations of the ATLAS diboson excess

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS excess in fat jet pair production is kinematically compatible with the decay of a heavy resonance into two gauge bosons plus an extra particle. This possibility would explain the absence of such a localised excess in the analogous CMS analysis of fat dijet final states, as well as the negative results of diboson resonance searches in the semi-leptonic decay modes.

  5. Mining iron: Iron uptake and transport in plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Sun A; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2007-01-01

    .... Iron transport within plants is also tightly controlled. New information has emerged on transporters that play a role in xylem loading and phloem loading/unloading of iron, and on the iron chelators involved in iron homeostasis...

  6. Iron deficiency in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established

  7. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  8. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  9. Trapping a Highly Reactive Nonheme Iron Intermediate That Oxygenates Strong C-H Bonds with Stereoretention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Plana, Joan; Oloo, Williamson N; Acosta-Rueda, Laura; Meier, Katlyn K; Verdejo, Begoña; García-España, Enrique; Basallote, Manuel G; Münck, Eckard; Que, Lawrence; Company, Anna; Costas, Miquel

    2015-12-23

    An unprecedentedly reactive iron species (2) has been generated by reaction of excess peracetic acid with a mononuclear iron complex [Fe(II)(CF3SO3)2(PyNMe3)] (1) at cryogenic temperatures, and characterized spectroscopically. Compound 2 is kinetically competent for breaking strong C-H bonds of alkanes (BDE ≈ 100 kcal·mol(-1)) through a hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism, and the transformations proceed with stereoretention and regioselectively, responding to bond strength, as well as to steric and polar effects. Bimolecular reaction rates are at least an order of magnitude faster than those of the most reactive synthetic high-valent nonheme oxoiron species described to date. EPR studies in tandem with kinetic analysis show that the 490 nm chromophore of 2 is associated with two S = 1/2 species in rapid equilibrium. The minor component 2a (∼5% iron) has g-values at 2.20, 2.19, and 1.99 characteristic of a low-spin iron(III) center, and it is assigned as [Fe(III)(OOAc)(PyNMe3)](2+), also by comparison with the EPR parameters of the structurally characterized hydroxamate analogue [Fe(III)(tBuCON(H)O)(PyNMe3)](2+) (4). The major component 2b (∼40% iron, g-values = 2.07, 2.01, 1.95) has unusual EPR parameters, and it is proposed to be [Fe(V)(O)(OAc)(PyNMe3)](2+), where the O-O bond in 2a has been broken. Consistent with this assignment, 2b undergoes exchange of its acetate ligand with CD3CO2D and very rapidly reacts with olefins to produce the corresponding cis-1,2-hydroxoacetate product. Therefore, this work constitutes the first example where a synthetic nonheme iron species responsible for stereospecific and site selective C-H hydroxylation is spectroscopically trapped, and its catalytic reactivity against C-H bonds can be directly interrogated by kinetic methods. The accumulated evidence indicates that 2 consists mainly of an extraordinarily reactive [Fe(V)(O)(OAc)(PyNMe3)](2+) (2b) species capable of hydroxylating unactivated alkyl C-H bonds with

  10. Metabolomic profiling identifies potential pathways involved in the interaction of iron homeostasis with glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Stechemesser

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that high serum ferritin concentrations are linked to impaired glucose homeostasis in subjects with the MetS. Iron excess is associated to distinct changes in the serum concentrations of phosphatidylcholine subsets. A pathway involving sarcosine and citrulline also may be involved in iron-induced impairment of glucose metabolism.

  11. Hepatitis C, Porphyria Cutanea Tarda, and Liver Iron: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballes, F Ryan; Sendi, Hossein; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2012-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is the most common form of porphyria across the world. Unlike other forms of porphyria, which are inborn errors of metabolism, PCT is usually an acquired liver disease caused by exogenous factors, chief among which are excess alcohol intake, iron overload, chronic hepatitis C, estrogen therapy, and cigarette smoking. The pathogenesis of PCT is complex and varied, but hereditary or acquired factors that lead to hepatic iron loading and increased oxidative stress are of central importance. Iron loading is usually only mild or moderate in degree (less than that associated with full-blown hemochromatosis) and is usually acquired and/or due to mutations in HFE. Among acquired factors are excessive alcohol intake and chronic hepatitis C infection, which, like mutations in HFE, decrease hepcidin production by hepatocytes. The decrease in hepcidin leads to increased iron absorption from the gut. In the liver, iron-loading and increased oxidative stress leads to the formation of non-porphyrin inhibitor(s) of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and to oxidation of porphyrinogens to porphyrins. The treatment of choice of active PCT is iron reduction by phlebotomy and maintenance of a mildly iron-reduced state without anemia. Low-dose anti-malarials (cinchona alkaloids) are also useful as additional therapy or as alternative therapy for active PCT in those without hemochromatosis or chronic hepatitis C. In this review, we provide an update of PCT with special emphasis upon the important role often played by the hepatitis C virus. PMID:22510500

  12. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions. 54.4979-1 Section 54.4979-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-1 Excise tax on certain excess...

  13. Virtual iron concentration imaging based on dual-energy CT for noninvasive quantification and grading of liver iron content: An iron overload rabbit model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian Fu; Yang, Yi; Xie, Xue Qian; Zhang, Huan; Chai, Wei Min; Yan, Fu Hua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Yan, Jing [Siemens Shanghai Medical Equipment Ltd., Shanghai (China); Wang, Li [Fudan University, Center of Analysis and Measurement, Shanghai (China); Schmidt, Bernhard [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To assess the accuracy of liver iron content (LIC) quantification and grading ability associated with clinical LIC stratification using virtual iron concentration (VIC) imaging on dual-energy CT (DECT) in an iron overload rabbit model. Fifty-one rabbits were prepared as iron-loaded models by intravenous injection of iron dextran. DECT was performed at 80 and 140 kVp. VIC images were derived from an iron-specific algorithm. Postmortem LIC assessments were conducted on an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Correlation between VIC and LIC was analyzed. VIC were stratified according to the corresponding clinical LIC thresholds of 1.8, 3.2, 7.0, and 15.0 mg Fe/g. Diagnostic performance of stratification was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. VIC linearly correlated with LIC (r = 0.977, P < 0.01). No significant difference was observed between VIC-derived LICs and ICP (P > 0.05). For the four clinical LIC thresholds, the corresponding cutoff values of VIC were 19.6, 25.3, 36.9, and 61.5 HU, respectively. The highest sensitivity (100 %) and specificity (100 %) were achieved at the threshold of 15.0 mg Fe/g. Virtual iron concentration imaging on DECT showed potential ability to accurately quantify and stratify hepatic iron accumulation in the iron overload rabbit model. (orig.)

  14. [Treatment of iron deficiency in predialysis state by low molecular weight iron dextran high doses intravenously].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, Patrick; Coppin, Mathilde; Brazier, François; Lefèvre, Magali; Stephan, Robin; Demontis, Renato

    2012-02-01

    Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in predialysis stage. Iron deficiency is more common than in normal patients and plays a key role in the genesis of anemia. Its correction avoids the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or reduces their dosage. Treatment with oral iron is often poorly tolerated and ineffective, necessitating the use of intravenous iron. New forms of injectable iron allow the use of high doses and correct iron deficiency in a single administration with consequent preservation of venous capital and lower costs. We studied the effectiveness of iron dextran of low molecular weight (LMWID) in high doses to correct iron deficiency and treat anemia in predialysis CKD patients. Twenty-nine doses of 500 to 1600 mg were administered to 25 patients followed for CKD (GFR between 60 and 10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), selected on biological criteria of iron deficiency defined by a ratio of transferrin saturation (TSAT) iron overload. Their serum ferritin was higher than the rest of the population before treatment, while the TSAT was no different, reflecting a functional deficiency. Their hemoglobin did not increase after treatment in contrast to the rest of the population suggesting the unavailability of iron for erythropoiesis with accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system. Renal function did not change significantly and there were no cases of acute renal failure. No immediate side effect was observed. Three patients presented delayed reactions to such self-limiting myalgia and arthralgia. No venous inflammatory reaction was noted. The administration of high doses of LMWID is effective in treating anemia of CKD in the predialysis stage with a satisfactory tolerance, without affecting kidney function and helps preserve the venous capital. It should be reserved for patients whose serum ferritin is less than or equal to 150 μg/L. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights

  15. Electrostatic accumulation and determination of triclosan in ultrathin carbon nanoparticle composite film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Mandana [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrokhian, Saeed [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Psillakis, Elefteria [Laboratory of Aquatic Chemistry, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechnioupolis, 73100 Chania-Crete (Greece); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: f.marken@bath.ac.uk

    2007-06-12

    A film composed of carbon nanoparticles and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or CNP-PDDAC is formed in a layer-by-layer deposition process at tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) substrates. Excess positive binding sites within this film in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 9.5 are quantified by adsorption of iron(III)phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and indigo carmine. Both anionic redox systems bind with Langmuirian characteristics (K {approx} 10{sup 5} mol{sup -1} dm{sup 3}) and show electrochemical reactivity throughout the film at different thicknesses. Therefore, the electrical conductivity in CNP-PDDAC films is good and the positive binding sites are approximately 140 pmol cm{sup -2} per layer. Structural instability of the CNP-PDDAC film in the presence of high concentrations of iron(III)phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate or indigo carmine is observed. Triclosan, a widely used anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent, exists in aqueous media at pH 9.5 as a negatively charged chlorinated poly-aromatic phenol. Due to the negative charge, triclosan is readily accumulated into CNP-PDDAC films with an efficiency consistent with that expected for simple electrostatic interaction with the cationic binding sites. Oxidation of bound triclosan occurs at 0.6 V versus SCE in a chemically irreversible process. The CNP-PDDAC film electrode is renewed by rinsing in organic solvent and the triclosan oxidation response is shown to correlate with the triclosan concentration in solution from 0.5 to 50 {mu}M. Applications of the CNP-PDDAC film electrode (or improved versions of it) in analysis or in anodic extraction are proposed.

  16. Electrostatic accumulation and determination of triclosan in ultrathin carbon nanoparticle composite film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mandana; Shahrokhian, Saeed; Psillakis, Elefteria; Marken, Frank

    2007-06-12

    A film composed of carbon nanoparticles and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or CNP-PDDAC is formed in a layer-by-layer deposition process at tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) substrates. Excess positive binding sites within this film in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 9.5 are quantified by adsorption of iron(III)phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and indigo carmine. Both anionic redox systems bind with Langmuirian characteristics (K approximately 10(5) mol(-1) dm3) and show electrochemical reactivity throughout the film at different thicknesses. Therefore, the electrical conductivity in CNP-PDDAC films is good and the positive binding sites are approximately 140 pmol cm(-2) per layer. Structural instability of the CNP-PDDAC film in the presence of high concentrations of iron(III)phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate or indigo carmine is observed. Triclosan, a widely used anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent, exists in aqueous media at pH 9.5 as a negatively charged chlorinated poly-aromatic phenol. Due to the negative charge, triclosan is readily accumulated into CNP-PDDAC films with an efficiency consistent with that expected for simple electrostatic interaction with the cationic binding sites. Oxidation of bound triclosan occurs at 0.6 V versus SCE in a chemically irreversible process. The CNP-PDDAC film electrode is renewed by rinsing in organic solvent and the triclosan oxidation response is shown to correlate with the triclosan concentration in solution from 0.5 to 50 microM. Applications of the CNP-PDDAC film electrode (or improved versions of it) in analysis or in anodic extraction are proposed.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, and other complications. Infants ... blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, and ... iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs and ... It must be done in a hospital or clinic by experienced staff. Iron therapy usually is given ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the ... about a healthy diet and food choices that will help your child get enough iron. Your child's ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood ... remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. Anemia also can occur if your red blood ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... or soil, or drinking water that contains lead. Teens Teens are at risk for iron-deficiency anemia ... for increased blood volume and for the fetus' growth. About half of all pregnant women develop iron- ...

  3. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to ... also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood loss isn't always obvious, and ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in ... Urinary tract bleeding Blood loss from severe injuries, surgery, or frequent blood drawings also can cause iron- ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities ... iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron-deficiency ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain health, the American Academy of Pediatrics ... overdose of iron. Iron supplements can cause side effects, such as dark stools, stomach irritation, and heartburn. ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... condition. Women Women of childbearing age are at higher risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of blood ... iron-deficiency anemia. Pregnant women also are at higher risk for the condition because they need twice ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... help prevent overdosing in children. Because recent research supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood ... treat iron-deficiency anemia. These doctors include pediatricians, family doctors, gynecologists/obstetricians, and internal medicine specialists. A ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... more information about diet and supplements, go to "How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?" Infants and young ... who should be screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women ...

  11. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... low iron levels in women. Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency ... a diagnosis, look for a cause, and find out how severe the condition is. Complete Blood Count ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. If ... produce hemoglobin. Tests and Procedures for Gastrointestinal Blood Loss To check whether internal bleeding is causing your ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes, medicines, and surgery. Severe iron-deficiency anemia may require treatment in a hospital, blood transfusions , iron ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and ... Internal bleeding (bleeding inside the body) also may lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This type of blood ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Good sources of vitamin C are vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits. Citrus ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia Explore Iron-Deficiency Anemia What Is... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS ... less hemoglobin than normal. Iron-deficiency anemia can cause fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, chest pain, and ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that ... pregnant women, medical care during pregnancy usually includes screening for anemia. Also, your doctor may prescribe iron ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron-deficiency ... 2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes ...

  20. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron; Ferric acid; Ferrous acid; Ferritin Images Iron supplements References Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... also checks the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in your blood. Abnormal ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... coped with having iron-deficiency anemia. Prior to her diagnosis, Susan had symptoms such as tiredness, poor skin tone, dizziness, and depression. After her doctor diagnosed her with iron-deficiency anemia, Susan ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... specialists also may help treat iron-deficiency anemia. Medical History Your doctor will ask about your signs ... information, go to the Health Topics Blood Transfusion article. Iron Therapy If you have severe anemia, your ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Blood Loss When you lose blood, you lose iron. ... find out how severe the condition is. Complete Blood Count Often, the first test used to diagnose ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... drawings also can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Poor Diet The best sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron-fortified foods (foods that ... happen if you: Follow a diet that excludes meat and fish, which are the best sources of ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the ... hemoglobin than normal. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It helps red blood ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... screened for iron deficiency, and how often: Girls aged 12 to 18 and women of childbearing age ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... stomach also can interfere with iron absorption. Risk Factors Infants and Young Children Infants and young children ... blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... done in a hospital or clinic by experienced staff. Iron therapy usually is given to people who ... Resources Anemia (MedlinePlus) "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health) Building ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... some stages of life, such as pregnancy and childhood, it may be hard to get enough iron ... supports concerns that iron deficiency during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting, negative effects on brain ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your ... body can damage your organs. You may have fatigue (tiredness) and other symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... during these times of growth and development. Inability To Absorb Enough Iron Even if you have enough ... green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. Treatment To Stop Bleeding If blood loss is causing iron- ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may ... the strength of a few medicines and how well they work. Other fruits rich in vitamin C ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... prevent children's bodies from absorbing iron from other foods. Children who have lead in their blood also may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lead can interfere with ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron ... can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & Resources Press Releases Spotlight On Research NHLBI In the News ... you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type ...

  20. Subcellular distribution of molybdenum, ultrastructural and antioxidative responses in soybean seedlings under excess molybdenum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shoujun; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Qin, Shiyu; Sun, Xuecheng

    2017-12-05

    Some studies have shown that excess molybdenum (Mo) could produce toxic effects on plants. However, little is known about the subcellular distribution of Mo and cell ultrastructure within plants under excess Mo stress. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the changes of Mo distribution in subcellular fractions, cell ultrastructure and antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of soybean seedlings in response to excess Mo stress. The results showed that roots exhibited higher Mo accumulation than leaves at the 100 mg L-1 Mo level, about 38.58-, 171.48- and 52.99-fold higher in cell walls, cell organelles and soluble fractions, respectively. Subcellular fractionations of Mo-containing tissues indicated that approximately 90% of Mo was accumulated in the soluble fractions and cell walls of the roots and leaves, and soluble fractions (accumulated 66.3-72.2% Mo) might serve as an effective storage site for excess Mo. Furthermore, excess Mo caused ultrastructural alterations in roots and leaves of soybean seedlings, leading to structural abnormality of chloroplast in leaf cells, plasmolysis, cellular deformity, vacuole enlargement and the swelling of cell wall and cytoplasm in root cells. Meanwhile, under excess Mo stress, the activity of POD, CAT and APX enzymes in roots was 1.43, 2.35 and 1.23 times that under standard Mo condition, while that of SOD and CAT enzymes in leaves was 1.23 and 1.94 times, respectively. This study provided novel insights into the mechanisms of excess Mo toxicity in soybean seedlings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  2. Dissolved and particulate trace metal micronutrients under the McMurdo Sound seasonal sea ice: basal sea ice communities as a capacitor for iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Abigail; Saito, Mak; Moran, Dawn; Allen, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Dissolved and particulate metal concentrations are reported from three sites beneath and at the base of the McMurdo Sound seasonal sea ice in the Ross Sea of Antarctica. This dataset provided insight into Co and Mn biogeochemistry, supporting a previous hypothesis for water column mixing occurring faster than scavenging. Three observations support this: first, Mn-containing particles with Mn/Al ratios in excess of the sediment were present in the water column, implying the presence of bacterial Mn-oxidation processes. Second, dissolved and labile Co were uniform with depth beneath the sea ice after the winter season. Third, dissolved Co:PO43- ratios were consistent with previously observed Ross Sea stoichiometry, implying that over-winter scavenging was slow relative to mixing. Abundant dissolved Fe and Mn were consistent with a winter reserve concept, and particulate Al, Fe, Mn, and Co covaried, implying that these metals behaved similarly. Elevated particulate metals were observed in proximity to the nearby Islands, with particulate Fe/Al ratios similar to that of nearby sediment, consistent with a sediment resuspension source. Dissolved and particulate metals were elevated at the shallowest depths (particularly Fe) with elevated particulate P/Al and Fe/Al ratios in excess of sediments, demonstrating a sea ice biomass source. The sea ice biomass was extremely dense (chl a >9500 μg/L) and contained high abundances of particulate metals with elevated metal/Al ratios. A hypothesis for seasonal accumulation of bioactive metals at the base of the McMurdo Sound sea ice by the basal algal community is presented, analogous to a capacitor that accumulates iron during the spring and early summer. The release and transport of particulate metals accumulated at the base of the sea ice by sloughing is discussed as a potentially important mechanism in providing iron nutrition during polynya phytoplankton bloom formation and could be examined in future oceanographic expeditions.

  3. Graphitized Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, G. I.; Makarenko, K. V.

    2014-05-01

    An analytical review of data on general-purpose grayed cast iron with different forms of graphite (lamellar, vermicular, globular, flaked) is presented. Grades of cast iron, their compositions, special features of structure of the graphite, and properties of gray, high-strength and malleable irons are described. The data on the kinds of iron considered are compared with those stipulated in international and some national standards.

  4. The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Agafonov

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system's response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake.

  5. Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Chloroplasts Prevents Leaf Damage but Not Growth Arrest in Salt-Stressed Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeyro, Anabella F; Giró, Mariana; Poli, Hugo O; Bettucci, Gabriel; Cortadi, Adriana; Ferri, Alejandro M; Carrillo, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Crop yield reduction due to salinity is a growing agronomical concern in many regions. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells accompanies many abiotic stresses including salinity, acting as toxic and signaling molecules during plant stress responses. While ROS are generated in various cellular compartments, chloroplasts represent a main source in the light, and plastid ROS synthesis and/or elimination have been manipulated to improve stress tolerance. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a plastid-targeted cyanobacterial flavodoxin, a flavoprotein that prevents ROS accumulation specifically in chloroplasts, displayed increased tolerance to many environmental stresses, including drought, excess irradiation, extreme temperatures and iron starvation. Surprisingly, flavodoxin expression failed to protect transgenic plants against NaCl toxicity. However, when high salt was directly applied to leaf discs, flavodoxin did increase tolerance, as reflected by preservation of chlorophylls, carotenoids and photosynthetic activities. Flavodoxin decreased salt-dependent ROS accumulation in leaf tissue from discs and whole plants, but this decline did not improve tolerance at the whole plant level. NaCl accumulation in roots, as well as increased osmotic pressure and salt-induced root damage, were not prevented by flavodoxin expression. The results indicate that ROS formed in chloroplasts have a marginal effect on plant responses during salt stress, and that sensitive targets are present in roots which are not protected by flavodoxin.

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best sources of iron. Follow a high-fiber diet. Large amounts of fiber can slow the absorption of iron. Screening and Prevention Eating a well-balanced diet that includes iron-rich foods may help you ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diet. Young children who drink a lot of cow's milk may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. ... her risk for iron-deficiency anemia. For example, cow's milk is low in iron. For this and other ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Iron-Deficiency Anemia Explore ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... all types of anemia . Signs and Symptoms of Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

  10. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich foods in the diet. Too much milk also may prevent children's bodies from absorbing iron from other foods. Children who have lead in their blood also may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lead can interfere with the body's ability to make hemoglobin. Lead may get into the body from ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tumblr. Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia article. Updated: March 26, 2014 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research ... Is Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you don't have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other dark green leafy vegetables Prune juice The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods will show how much iron the items contain. The amount is given as a percentage of the total amount of iron you need every day. Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  17. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have severe anemia, your doctor may recommend iron therapy. For this treatment, iron is injected into a muscle or an IV line in one of your blood vessels. IV iron therapy presents some safety concerns. It must be done ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood transfusions , iron injections, or intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... Institutes of Health—shows how Susan, a full-time worker and student, has coped with having iron- ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, especially if they have: A history of iron-deficiency anemia Heavy blood loss during their monthly periods Other risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed guidelines for who ...

  2. Predictors of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming in Czech teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilková, Jana; Chomynová, Pavla; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Young people's involvement in online gaming and the use of social media are increasing rapidly, resulting in a high number of excessive Internet users in recent years. The objective of this paper is to analyze the situation of excessive Internet use among adolescents in the Czech Republic and to reveal determinants of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming. Methods Data from secondary school students (N = 4,887) were collected within the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Logistic regression models were constructed to describe the individual and familial discriminative factors and the impact of the health risk behavior of (a) excessive users of social media and (b) excessive players of online games. Results The models confirmed important gender-specific distinctions - while girls are more prone to online communication and social media use, online gaming is far more prevalent among boys. The analysis did not indicate an influence of family composition on both the excessive use of social media and on excessive online gaming, and only marginal effects for the type of school attended. We found a connection between the excessive use of social media and binge drinking and an inverse relation between excessive online gaming and daily smoking. Discussion and conclusion The non-existence of significant associations between family environment and excessive Internet use confirmed the general, widespread of this phenomenon across the social and economic strata of the teenage population, indicating a need for further studies on the topic.

  3. Microbial Biosignatures in High Iron Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    The emerging anoxic source waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park contain 2.6 to 11.2 mg/L Fe(II) and are 51-54° C and pH 5.5-6.0. These waters flow down the accumulating iron deposits and over three major phototrophic mat communities: Synechococcus/Chloroflexus at 51-54° C, Pseudanabaena at 51-54° C, and a narrow Oscillatoria at 36-45° C. We are assessing the contribution of the phototrophs to biosignature formation in this high iron system. These biosignatures can be used to assess the biological contribution to ancient iron deposits on Earth (e.g. Precambrian Banded Iron Formations) and, potentially, to those found on Mars. Most studies to date have focused on chemotrophic iron-oxidizing communities; however, recent research has demonstrated that phototrophs have a significant physiological impact on these iron thermal springs (Pierson et al. 1999, Pierson and Parenteau 2000, and Trouwborst et al., 2003). We completed a survey of the microfossils, biominerals, biofabrics, and lipid biomarkers in the phototrophic mats and stromatolitic iron deposits using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat was heavily encrusted with iron silicates while the narrow Oscillatoria mat was encrusted primarily with iron oxides. Encrustation of the cells increased with depth in the mats. Amorphous 2-line ferrihydrite is the primary precipitate in the spring and the only iron oxide mineral associated with the mats. Goethite, hematite, and siderite were detected in dry sediment samples on the face of the main iron deposit. Analysis of polar lipid fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) generated a suite of lipid biomarkers. The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat contained two mono-unsaturated isomers of n-C18:1 with smaller amounts of polyunsaturated n-C18:2, characteristic of cyanobacteria

  4. Plasma protein haptoglobin modulates renal iron loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Gburek, Jakub; Hirsch, Emilio

    2005-01-01

    Haptoglobin is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for hemoglobin. The strength of hemoglobin binding and the existence of a specific receptor for the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the monocyte/macrophage system clearly suggest that haptoglobin may have a crucial role in heme...... morphological and functional parameters of renal damage. These data demonstrate that haptoglobin crucially prevents glomerular filtration of hemoglobin and, consequently, renal iron loading during aging and following acute plasma heme-protein overload....... distribution of hemoglobin in haptoglobin-deficient mice resulted in abnormal iron deposits in proximal tubules during aging. Moreover, iron also accumulated in proximal tubules after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury or after an acute plasma heme-protein overload caused by muscle injury, without affecting...

  5. Explaining CMS lepton excesses with supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. Allanach, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    1) Kostas Theofilatos will give an introduction to CMS result 2) Ben Allanach: Several CMS analyses involving di-leptons have recently reported small 2.4-2.8 sigma local excesses: nothing to get too excited about, but worth keeping an eye on nonetheless. In particular, a search in the $lljj p_T$(miss) channel, a search for $W_R$ in the $lljj$ channel and a di-leptoquark search in the $lljj$ channel and $ljj p_T$(miss) channel have all yielded small excesses. We interpret the first excess in the MSSM, showing that the interpretation is viable in terms of other constraints, despite only having squark masses of around 1 TeV. We can explain the last three excesses with a single R-parity violating coupling that predicts a non-zero contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ogata T. Genomic basis of aromatase excess syndrome: recombination- and replication-mediated rearrangements leading to CYP19A1 overexpression. ... 2013 Oct 18. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  7. Prevention of modern teenager's computer excessive gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsutdinova, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the prevention of young people's excessive gambling. The article organized and convincingly derived the prevention strategies dependent gaming behavior among young people and teenagers.

  8. Excessive deforestation of Gishwati Mountainous forest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sigp1. Excessive deforestation of Gishwati. Mountainous forest & biodiversity changes. Introduction. The Change in Forest cover in. Rwanda is result of the high growth of population density. The latter has doubled between 1978 and 2002. Over.

  9. Cardiac protection by preconditioning is generated via an iron-signal created by proteasomal degradation of iron proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruch E Bulvik

    Full Text Available Ischemia associated injury of the myocardium is caused by oxidative damage during reperfusion. Myocardial protection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC was shown to be mediated by a transient 'iron-signal' that leads to the accumulation of apoferritin and sequestration of reactive iron released during the ischemia. Here we identified the source of this 'iron signal' and evaluated its role in the mechanisms of cardiac protection by hypoxic preconditioning. Rat hearts were retrogradely perfused and the effect of proteasomal and lysosomal protease inhibitors on ferritin levels were measured. The iron-signal was abolished, ferritin levels were not increased and cardiac protection was diminished by inhibition of the proteasome prior to IPC. Similarly, double amounts of ferritin and better recovery after ex vivo ischemia-and-reperfusion (I/R were found in hearts from in vivo hypoxia pre-conditioned animals. IPC followed by normoxic perfusion for 30 min ('delay' prior to I/R caused a reduced ferritin accumulation at the end of the ischemia phase and reduced protection. Full restoration of the IPC-mediated cardiac protection was achieved by employing lysosomal inhibitors during the 'delay'. In conclusion, proteasomal protein degradation of iron-proteins causes the generation of the 'iron-signal' by IPC, ensuing de-novo apoferritin synthesis and thus, sequestering reactive iron. Lysosomal proteases are involved in subsequent ferritin breakdown as revealed by the use of specific pathway inhibitors during the 'delay'. We suggest that proteasomal iron-protein degradation is a stress response causing an expeditious cytosolic iron release thus, altering iron homeostasis to protect the myocardium during I/R, while lysosomal ferritin degradation is part of housekeeping iron homeostasis.

  10. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    of SM and LPC and the amount of alcohol consumption during the past month. The proposal has both scientific and practical significance in... alcohol use (EAU). Drinking becomes excessive when it causes or elevates the risk for alcohol -related problems or complicates the management of other...the quantity of alcohol consumption during the past month. 2. KEYWORDS: Excessive alcohol use, lipidomics, timeline follow back 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  11. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  12. Organizational Inertia and Excessive Product Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuraki, Rie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the internal factors of excessive product proliferation. Since empirical literature on product over-proliferation focused on how to optimize existing product portfolio, the causes of excessive product proliferation have so far attracted little attention. This study employs a case study of Shiseido, a famous Japanese cosmetics company, with particular attention to product proliferation in the Shiseido chain store channel, because external factors are mostly absent from ...

  13. Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Iron overload causes iron deposition and accumulation in the liver, heart, skin, and other tissues resulting in serious tissue damages. Significant blood clearance from iron and ferritin using wet cupping therapy (WCT) has been reported. WCT is an excretory form of treatment that needs more research efforts. WCT is an available, safe, simple, economic, and time-saving outpatient modality of treatment that has no serious side effects. There are no serious limitations or precautions to discontinue WCT. Interestingly, WCT has solid scientific and medical bases (Taibah mechanism) that explain its effectiveness in treating many disease conditions differing in etiology and pathogenesis. WCT utilizes an excretory physiological principle (pressure-dependent excretion) that resembles excretion through renal glomerular filtration and abscess evacuation. WCT exhibits a percutaneous excretory function that clears blood (through fenestrated skin capillaries) and interstitial fluids from pathological substances without adding a metabolic or detoxification burden on the liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores) significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session) and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions). WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor). Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine). Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique); Al-hijamah is a three

  14. Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Iron overload causes iron deposition and accumulation in the liver, heart, skin, and other tissues resulting in serious tissue damages. Significant blood clearance from iron and ferritin using wet cupping therapy (WCT) has been reported. WCT is an excretory form of treatment that needs more research efforts. WCT is an available, safe, simple, economic, and time-saving outpatient modality of treatment that has no serious side effects. There are no serious limitations or precautions to discontinue WCT. Interestingly, WCT has solid scientific and medical bases (Taibah mechanism) that explain its effectiveness in treating many disease conditions differing in etiology and pathogenesis. WCT utilizes an excretory physiological principle (pressure-dependent excretion) that resembles excretion through renal glomerular filtration and abscess evacuation. WCT exhibits a percutaneous excretory function that clears blood (through fenestrated skin capillaries) and interstitial fluids from pathological substances without adding a metabolic or detoxification burden on the liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores) significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session) and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions). WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor). Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine). Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique); Al-hijamah is a three

  15. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging for cellular iron mapping in the in vitro model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Suh, Minah; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong-Min

    2014-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells exposed to iron with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM). The hyperspectral fluorescence signal of iron was examined using a high-resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/near infrared spectral range. The 6-h group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the 1-h group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small particulate form, whereas the extracellular iron was aggregated. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN. This direct iron imaging could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving metals, such as copper, manganese, or zinc.

  16. Two-Phase Accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Charles E.; Kosson, Robert L.; Alario, Joseph P.; Brown, Richard F.; Edlestein, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Two-phase accumulator maintains pressure and temperature in thermal-bus system within predetermined range during variations in heat load on system. Stores liquid and vapor ammonia. Exchanges liquid ammonia with condenser to adjust level of liquid in condenser. Prototype has capacity of 13 gallons (49 liters). Simple and highly reliable. Responds quickly, restoring pressure and temperature to proper values within minutes. Low in cost and requires little further development. Used to dispose of waste heat, such as that from electronic equipment or power-plant.

  17. Iron homeostasis: An anthropocentric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Richard; Ganz, Tomas

    2017-08-04

    The regulation of iron metabolism in biological systems centers on providing adequate iron for cellular function while limiting iron toxicity. Because mammals cannot excrete iron, mechanisms have evolved to control iron acquisition, storage, and distribution at both systemic and cellular levels. Hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis, controls iron flows into plasma through inhibition of the only known mammalian cellular iron exporter ferroportin. Hepcidin is feedback-regulated by iron status and strongly modulated by inflammation and erythropoietic demand. This review highlights recent advances that have changed our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Mitochondrial dysfunction may explain the cardiomyopathy of chronic iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueshan; Qian, Mingwei; Campian, Jian Li; Marshall, James; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Roberts, Andrew M; Kang, Y James; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Eaton, John W

    2010-08-01

    In patients with hemochromatosis, cardiac dysfunction may appear years after they have reached a state of iron overload. We hypothesized that cumulative iron-catalyzed oxidant damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might explain the cardiomyopathy of chronic iron overload. Mice were given repetitive injections of iron dextran for a total of 4weeks after which the iron-loaded mice had elevated cardiac iron, modest cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction. qPCR amplification of near-full-length ( approximately 16kb) mtDNA revealed >50% loss of full-length product, whereas amounts of a qPCR product of a nuclear gene (13kb region of beta globin) were unaffected. Quantitative rtPCR analyses revealed 60-70% loss of mRNA for proteins encoded by mtDNA with no change in mRNA abundance for nuclear-encoded respiratory subunits. These changes coincided with proportionate reductions in complex I and IV activities and decreased respiration of isolated cardiac mitochondria. We conclude that chronic iron overload leads to cumulative iron-mediated damage to mtDNA and impaired synthesis of mitochondrial respiratory chain subunits. The resulting respiratory dysfunction may explain the slow development of cardiomyopathy in chronic iron overload and similar accumulation of damage to mtDNA may also explain the mitochondrial dysfunction observed in slowly progressing diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Iron fortification of banana by the expression of soybean ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gujulla B Sunil; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi Ramabhatta

    2011-08-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the serious ailments related to nutrition in the developing countries. Fruit and vegetable crops favor the bioavailability of iron. Banana is consumed as a staple food in the tropics. Iron-fortified bananas provide an effective means of controlling the iron deficiency. Embryogenic cells of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) were transformed with soybean ferritin cDNA using two different expression cassettes pSF and pEFE-SF to express ferritin. Transgenic nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR. Transgenic plants were regenerated and analyzed through PCR and PCR-Southern analysis. The expression of ferritin was confirmed by RT-PCR. Iron and zinc levels in the transgenic and control plants were estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A 6.32-fold increase in iron accumulation and a 4.58-fold increase in the zinc levels were noted in the leaves of transgenic plants. Thus, iron- and zinc-fortified bananas could be developed as a functional food to overcome the malnutrition-related iron deficiency. This is the first report on the iron and zinc fortification of banana.

  20. Acetate, lactate, propionate, and isobutyrate as electron donors for iron and sulfate reduction in Arctic marine sediments, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Niko; Vandieken, Verona; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2007-01-01

    . Inhibition of sulfate reduction with selenate resulted in the accumulation of acetate, propionate, and isobutyrate. The acetate turnover rates determined by radiotracer and accumulation after inhibition were similar. VFA turnover accounted for 21% and 52% of the mineralization through sulfate reduction...... by alternative e--donors. The accumulation of VFA in the selenate-inhibited 0-2 cm slurry did not enhance iron reduction, indicating that iron reducers were not limited by VFA availability....

  1. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Xin; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-01-25

    The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enteral iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan John; Davies, Mark W

    2012-03-14

    Preterm infants are at risk of exhausting their body iron stores much earlier than healthy term newborns. It is widespread practice to give enteral iron supplementation to preterm and low birth weight infants to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. However, it is unclear whether supplementing preterm and low birth weight infants with iron improves growth and neurodevelopment. It is suspected that excess exogenous iron can contribute to oxidative injury in preterm babies, causing or exacerbating conditions such as necrotising enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity. Additionally, the optimal dose and timing of commencement and cessation of iron supplementation are uncertain. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic enteral iron supplementation on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm and low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to determine whether iron supplementation results in improved haematological parameters and prevents other causes of morbidity and mortality. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1951 to August 2011), CINAHL (1982 to August 2011) and conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials that compared enteral iron supplementation with no iron supplementation, or different regimens of enteral iron supplementation in preterm or low birth weight infants or both. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Both review authors separately evaluated trial quality and data extraction. We synthesised data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs). Where data about the methodology and results or both were lacking, we made an attempt to contact the study authors for further information. We included twenty-six studies (2726 infants) in the

  3. [What nosographic framework for excessive tanning?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2014-04-01

    Socially valorised tanning, like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. Excessive tanning, defined by the presence of impulsivity and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, is a psychiatric disorder that has only recently been recognized. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report an addictive relationship in their patients with tanning cabins despite announcement of the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on excessive tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, aetiology, and treatment of this disorder. The literature review was conducted from 1983 to 2012, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: Tanning, Addiction, Sunbeds, Skin cancer prevention, and Treatment. We investigated different models to determine how excessive tanning met these criteria. Excessive Tanning was described in the 2000s by an American dermatologist, Carolyn Heckman. Wartham et al. were the first to have proposed a theoretical framework for addiction to sunbathing, as well as two scales (m CAGE and m DSM IV) for the diagnosis and to assess the degree of addiction. These diagnostic criteria describe the craving like-symptoms, the feeling of losing control, or the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of negative consequences. Excessive Tanning is not present in the classifications of the DSM or ICD, but may be related to Addiction, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Impulse control disorders, Anorexia, or Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Excessive tanning can be included in the spectrum of behavioural addictions due its clinical characteristics in common with classics addictive disorders. They are a variety of other models, which may offer an explanation for or insight into tanning behaviour. Further studies must be controlled, notably on

  4. Haemosiderin deposition in Donkey (Equus asinus) livers: Comparison of quantitative histochemistry for iron and liver iron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P J; Whitbread, T J; Burden, F A; Bailey, M; Carley, K; Daniell, L; Jones, C; Bell, N J

    2011-04-01

    Post mortem liver samples from 12 donkeys (Equus asinus) aged 21-57 years (4 females, 1 stallion, 7 geldings), were assessed chemically for copper and iron content on a wet weight basis and histologically for stainable iron. Chemical liver copper content ranged from 2.7 to 4.8μg/g (mean 3.5±0.05μg/g). Chemical liver iron content ranged from 524 to 5010μg/g (mean 1723±1258μg/g). Histochemical iron was measured morphometrically using a computer-based image analysis system; percentage section area staining for iron ranged from 0.84% to 26.69% (mean 10.82±8.36%). There was no clear correlation, within the wide range of iron values, between histochemically demonstrable iron and chemically measured iron content. No clear age-related increase was apparent for either parameter in these aged donkeys. The accumulation of iron in the liver of donkeys may represent a physiological haemosiderosis rather than pathological haemochromatosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of iron in type 1 diabetes etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen L.; Ellervik, Christina; Svensson, Jannet

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is rising, which might be due to the influence of environmental factors. Biological and epidemiological evidence has shown that excess iron is associated with beta-cell damage and impaired insulin secretion. AIM: In this review, our aim was to as...... iron, but not iron in drinking water, to be associated with risk of T1D. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between iron and risk of T1D, especially studies including measurements of body iron status....... been summarized in narrative form. RESULTS: From a total of 931 studies screened, we included 4 observational studies evaluating iron intake from drinking water or food during early life and the risk of T1D. The quality of the studies was moderate to high assessed via the nine-star Newcastle Ottawa...... Scale. One out of the four studies included in this review found estimates of dietary iron intake to be associated with risk of T1D development, whereas three studies found no such relationship for estimates of iron in drinking water. CONCLUSIONS: The limited number of studies included found dietary...

  6. Micronutrient Accumulation in Conilon Coffee Berries with Different Maturation Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Braida Marré

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The number of days between anthesis and maturation of conilon coffee berries varies according to the genotype. Thus, it is believed that periods of greater nutrient demand for fruit formation also vary according to the genotype, directly influencing fertilizer management. The goal of this study was to establish accumulation curves for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in conilon coffee trees with different maturation cycles. The experiment was conducted in Nova Venécia, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the reproductive cycle of the 2010/2011 crop year. Four coffee genotypes with different maturation cycles (early, intermediate, late, and super-late were studied. A completely randomized experimental design was used with five replications. The treatments correspond to the accumulation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the berries every 28 days in the period from flowering to harvest. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated Fe, Cu, and Mn in a similar manner, with sigmoid curves, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated these nutrients exponentially. Zn was accumulated by all four genotypes following a sigmoid curve. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated B linearly, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated B following a sigmoid curve. The maturation cycle of the genotype must be taken into account to apply the correct rate of micronutrient fertilization in coffee plantations.

  7. Mechanisms of Fe biofortification and mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown hydroponically with Fe chelate fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhou, Can; Xie, Shu-Ting; Xiao, Shi; Baker, Alan J M; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium contaminated rice from China has become a global food safety issue. Some research has suggested that chelate addition to substrates can affect metal speciation and plant metal content. We investigated the mitigation of Cd accumulation in hydroponically-grown rice supplied with EDTANa2Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III). A japonica rice variety (Nipponbare) was grown in modified Kimura B solution containing three concentrations (0, 10, 100 μΜ) of the iron chelates EDTANa2Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III) and 1 μΜ Cd. Metal speciation in solution was simulated by Geochem-EZ; growth and photosynthetic efficiency of rice were evaluated, and accumulation of Cd and Fe in plant parts was determined. Net Cd fluxes in the meristematic zone, growth zone, and maturation zone of roots were monitored by a non-invasive micro-test technology. Expression of Fe- and Cd-related genes in Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient roots and leaves were studied by QRT-PCR. Compared to Fe deficiency, a sufficient or excess supply of Fe chelates significantly enhanced rice growth by elevating photosynthetic efficiency. Both Fe chelates increased the Fe content and decreased the Cd content of rice organs, except for the Cd content of roots treated with excess EDDHAFe(III). Compared to EDDHAFe(III), EDTANa2Fe(II) exhibited better mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice by generating the EDTANa2Cd complex in solution, decreasing net Cd influx and increasing net Cd efflux in root micro-zones. Application of EDTANa2Fe(II) and EDDHAFe(III) also reduced Cd accumulation in rice by inhibiting expression of genes involved in transport of Fe and Cd in the xylem and phloem. The 'win-win' situation of Fe biofortification and Cd mitigation in rice was achieved by application of Fe chelates. Root-to-stem xylem transport of Cd and redistribution of Cd in leaves by phloem transport can be regulated in rice through the use of Fe chelates that influence Fe availability and Fe-related gene expression. Fe fertilization decreased Cd

  8. Recent advances in the understanding of iron overload in sideroblastic myelodysplastic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, M.L.H.; Raymakers, R.A.P.; Mackenzie, M.W.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Swinkels, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematopoietic stem cell malignancies. A subgroup, the so-called sideroblastic MDS, shows ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow aspirate that represent mitochondrial iron accumulation. Patients with sideroblastic MDS also develop

  9. Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper Uptake Requirement in Response to Nitrogen Supply and the Increased Grain Yield of Summer Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg−1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield. PMID:24705926

  10. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  11. Antidepressant induced excessive yawning and indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Palazzo Nazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antidepressant induced excessive yawning has been described as a possible side effect of pharmacotherapy. A syndrome of indifference has also been described as another possible side effect. The frequency of those phenomena and their physiopathology are unknown. They are both considered benign and reversible after antidepressant discontinuation but severe cases with complications as temporomandibular lesions, have been described. Methods We report two unprecedented cases in which excessive yawning and indifference occurred simultaneously as side effects of antidepressant therapy, discussing possible physiopathological mechanisms for this co-occurrence. Case 1: A male patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 80/day and apathy after venlafaxine XR treatment. Symptoms reduced after a switch to escitalopram, with a reduction to 50 yawns/day. Case 2: A female patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 25/day and inability to react to environmental stressors with desvenlafaxine. Conclusion Induction of indifference and excessive yawning may be modulated by serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. One proposal to unify these side effects would be enhancement of serotonin in midbrain, especially paraventricular and raphe nucleus.

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling–Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum–North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and ...

  13. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron Compounds. CP van Wyk, DJ Robbins. Abstract. The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was studied in rats, in each case at 4 dietary iron levels ranging from 70 to 206 mg/100 g diet. In one of two series the basic diet was ...

  14. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  15. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  16. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  17. Mapping and characterization of iron compounds in Alzheimer's tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collingwood, Joanna; Dobson, Jon [Keele

    2008-06-16

    Understanding the management of iron in the brain is of great importance in the study of neurodegeneration, where regional iron overload is frequently evident. A variety of approaches have been employed, from quantifying iron in various anatomical structures, to identifying genetic risk factors related to iron metabolism, and exploring chelation approaches to tackle iron overload in neurodegenerative disease. However, the ease with which iron can change valence state ensures that it is present in vivo in a wide variety of forms, both soluble and insoluble. Here, we review recent developments in approaches to locate and identify iron compounds in neurodegenerative tissue. In addition to complementary techniques that allow us to quantify and identify iron compounds using magnetometry, extraction, and electron microscopy, we are utilizing a powerful combined mapping/characterization approach with synchrotron X-rays. This has enabled the location and characterization of iron accumulations containing magnetite and ferritin in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue sections in situ at micron-resolution. It is hoped that such approaches will contribute to our understanding of the role of unusual iron accumulations in disease pathogenesis, and optimise the potential to use brain iron as a clinical biomarker for early detection and diagnosis.

  18. Lung cancer and bronchi-pulmonary diseases of iron uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gneusheva, G. I.; Uspenskaya, K. M.

    2004-07-01

    The lung cancer mortality has been analyzed for 2.582 miners employed from 1943 to 1961. All persons observed had three years occupation at least. Basing upon the lung cancer risk value per unit of the exposure, the assessment of the effective standard of pulmonary organ irradiation to radon progeny was elaborated and mortality excess was calcuated. Medical demography studies of morbidity and mortality were elaborated for silicosis, silicotuberculosis, lung cancer and occupational bronchitis versus the magnitude of dust and radiation exposure. Annual and cumulative exposures have been assessed for seven cohorts of miners employed and vast primary material has been accumulated for the period of 40 years (1943-1984). Intensive indice of mortality were determined for observation periods. The mortality excess was compared to cumulated radiation exposure. The lung cancer mortality excess in iron-uranium miners was 3.3 cases per 106 man-years per 1 WLM; 4.8 cases per 106 man-years per 1 WLM was assessed if first years of occupation are negected. The latent period from radiation exposure to death from lung cancer is generally ten year or more. Changes of miners labor conditions (the magnitude of dust exposure) have been reflected by the bronchi pulmonary disease structure. The input of these dieseases into the occupational lung pathology has been significantly changed with the time course. Within first 18-20 years, pneumoconiosis was the only form of occupational lung pathology in the mine, whereas occupational bronchis and lung cancers were recorded within next then years thereafter. In cohorts of longest observation period, the average age of patients was increasingly ranked versus diseases as follows: silicosis, silicotuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, and lung cancer. (Author)

  19. Recent Advances in Iron Metabolism: Relevance for Health, Exercise, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Paolo; Gammella, Elena; Rybinska, Ilona; Cairo, Gaetano; Recalcati, Stefania

    2015-08-01

    Iron is necessary for physiological processes essential for athletic performance, such as oxygen transport, energy production, and cell division. However, an excess of "free" iron is toxic because it produces reactive hydroxyl radicals that damage biological molecules, thus leading to cell and tissue injury. Therefore, iron homeostasis is strictly regulated; and in recent years, there have been important advancements in our knowledge of the underlying processes. Hepcidin is the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and exerts its function by controlling the presence of the iron exporter ferroportin on the cell membrane. Hepcidin binding induces ferroportin degradation, thus leading to cellular iron retention and decreased levels of circulating iron. As iron is required for hemoglobin synthesis, the tight link between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism is particularly relevant to sports physiology. The iron needed for hemoglobin synthesis is ensured by inhibiting hepcidin to increase ferroportin activity and iron availability and hence to make certain that efficient blood oxygen transport occurs for aerobic exercise. However, hepcidin expression is also affected by exercise-associated conditions, such as iron deficiency, anemia or hypoxia, and, particularly, inflammation, which can play a role in the pathogenesis of sports anemia. Here, we review recent advances showing the relevance of iron for physical exercise and athletic performance. Low body iron levels can cause anemia and thus limit the delivery of oxygen to exercising muscle, but tissue iron deficiency may also affect performance by, for example, hampering muscle oxidative metabolism. Accordingly, a hemoglobin-independent effect of iron on exercise capacity has been demonstrated in animal models and humans. Here, we review recent advances showing the relevance of iron for physical exercise and athletic performance.

  20. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  1. Iron overload in hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 induces liver injury through the Sp1/Tfr2/hepcidin axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wen-Dai; Fan, Yao; Deng, Yue-Zhen; Long, Ling-Yun; Wang, Jing-Jing; Guan, Dong-Xian; Qian, Zhen-Yu; An, Peng; Feng, Yuan-Yuan; He, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Phillip Koeffler, H; Hu, Ronggui; Wang, Jianshe; Wang, Xin; Wang, Fudi; Li, Jing-Jing; Xie, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Iron is an essential metal for fundamental metabolic processes, but little is known regarding the involvement of iron in other nutritional disorders. In the present study, we investigated disordered iron metabolism in a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1), a disease of the tyrosine degradation pathway. We analysed the status of iron accumulation following NTBC withdrawal from Fah(-/-) mice, a murine model for HT1. Liver histology and serum parameters were used to assess the extent of liver injury and iron deposition. To determine the physiological significance of iron accumulation, mice were subjected to a low-iron food intake to reduce the iron accumulation. Mechanistic studies were performed on tissues and cells using immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, adenovirus transfection and other assays. Severe iron overload was observed in the murine model of HT1 with dramatically elevated hepatic and serum iron levels. Mechanistic studies revealed that downregulation and dysfunction of Tfr2 decreased hepcidin, leading to iron overload. The Fah(-/-) hepatocytes lost the ability of transferrin-sensitive induction of hepcidin. Forced expression of Tfr2 in the murine liver reduced the iron accumulation. Moreover, transcription factor Sp1 was downregulated and identified as a new regulator of Tfr2 here. Additionally, low-iron food intake effectively reduced the iron deposits, protected the liver and prolonged the survival in these mice. Iron was severely overloaded in the HT1 mice via the Sp1/Tfr2/Hepcidin axis. The iron overload induced liver injury in the HT1 mice, and reduction of the iron accumulation ameliorated liver injury. Primary and secondary iron overload is an abnormal status affecting millions of people worldwide. Here, we reported severe iron overload in a murine model of HT1, a disease of the tyrosine degradation pathway, and elucidated the mechanistic basis and the physiological significance of iron overload in HT1. These studies are of general interest

  2. Iron overload in Plasmodium-infected placenta as a pathogenesis mechanism of fetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ePenha-Gonçalves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium infection during gestation may lead to severe clinical manifestations including abortion, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight. Mechanisms underlying such poor pregnancy outcomes are still unclear. In the animal model of severe placental malaria (PM, in utero fetal death frequently occurs and mothers often succumb to infection before or immediately after delivery. P.berghei infected erythrocytes (IEs continuously accumulate in the placenta, where they are then phagocytosed by fetal-derived placental cells, namely trophoblasts. Inside the phagosomes, disruption of IEs leads to the release of non-hemoglobin bound heme, which is subsequently catabolized by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 into carbon monoxide, biliverdin and labile iron. Fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms operate to maintain iron homeostasis, preventing the deleterious effect of iron-induced oxidative stress. Our preliminary results demonstrate that iron overload in trophoblasts of P. berghei-infected placenta is associated with fetal death. Placentas which supported normally developing embryos showed no iron accumulation within the trophoblasts. Placentas from dead fetuses showed massive iron accumulation, which was associated with parasitic burden. Here we present preliminary data suggesting that disruption of iron homeostasis in trophoblasts during the course of placental malaria is a consequence of heme accumulation after intense IE engulfment. We propose that iron overload in placenta is a pathogenic component of PM, contributing to fetal death. The mechanism through which it operates still needs to be elucidated.

  3. Determinants of brain iron in multiple sclerosis A quantitative 3T MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, M.B.; Langkammer, C.; Ropele, S.; Petrovic, K.; Wallner-Blazek, M.; Loitfelder, M.; Jehna, M.; Bachmaier, G.; Schmidt, R.; Enzinger, C.; Fuchs, S.; Fazekas, F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Abnormal high cerebral iron deposition may be implicated in chronic neurologic disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). R2* relaxometry has been recently validated in a postmortem study to indicate brain iron accumulation in a quantitative manner. We used this technique to assess

  4. Tracking Iron in Multiple Sclerosis: A Combined Imaging and Histopathological Study at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Francesca; Hametner, Simon; Yao, Bing; van Gelderen, Peter; Merkle, Hellmut; Cantor, Fredric K.; Lassmann, Hans; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous authors have shown that the transverse relaxivity R[subscript 2][superscript *] and frequency shifts that characterize gradient echo signal decay in magnetic resonance imaging are closely associated with the distribution of iron and myelin in the brain's white matter. In multiple sclerosis, iron accumulation in brain tissue may reflect a…

  5. Hepcidin-(In)dependent Mechanisms of Iron Metabolism Regulation during Infection by Listeria and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana C; Neves, João V; Silva, Tânia; Oliveira, Patrícia; Gomes, Maria S; Rodrigues, Pedro N

    2017-09-01

    During bacterial infection, the pathogenic agent and the host battle for iron, due to its importance for fundamental cellular processes. However, iron redistribution and sequestration during infection can culminate in anemia. Although hepcidin has been recognized as the key regulator of iron metabolism, in some infections its levels remain unaffected, suggesting the involvement of other players in iron metabolism deregulation. In this work, we use a mouse model to elucidate the main cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to iron redistribution during infection with two different pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both infections clearly impacted iron metabolism, causing iron redistribution, decreasing serum iron levels, decreasing the saturation of transferrin, and increasing iron accumulation in the liver. Both infections were accompanied by the release of proinflammatory cytokines. However, when analyzing iron-related gene expression in the liver, we observed that hepcidin was induced by S Typhimurium but not by L. monocytogenes In the latter model, the downregulation of hepatic ferroportin mRNA and protein levels suggested that ferroportin plays a major role in iron redistribution. On the other hand, S Typhimurium infection induced the expression of hepcidin mRNA, and we show here, for the first time in vivo, that this induction is Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent. In this work, we compare several aspects of iron metabolism alterations induced by two different pathogens and suggest that hepcidin-(in)dependent mechanisms contribute to iron redistribution upon infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Duodenal Cytochrome b (DCYTB in Iron Metabolism: An Update on Function and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius J. R. Lane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron and ascorbate are vital cellular constituents in mammalian systems. The bulk-requirement for iron is during erythropoiesis leading to the generation of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Additionally; both iron and ascorbate are required as co-factors in numerous metabolic reactions. Iron homeostasis is controlled at the level of uptake; rather than excretion. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance non-heme iron absorption in the gut; ascorbate regulates iron homeostasis. The involvement of ascorbate in dietary iron absorption extends beyond the direct chemical reduction of non-heme iron by dietary ascorbate. Among other activities; intra-enterocyte ascorbate appears to be involved in the provision of electrons to a family of trans-membrane redox enzymes; namely those of the cytochrome b561 class. These hemoproteins oxidize a pool of ascorbate on one side of the membrane in order to reduce an electron acceptor (e.g., non-heme iron on the opposite side of the membrane. One member of this family; duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB; may play an important role in ascorbate-dependent reduction of non-heme iron in the gut prior to uptake by ferrous-iron transporters. This review discusses the emerging relationship between cellular iron homeostasis; the emergent “IRP1-HIF2α axis”; DCYTB and ascorbate in relation to iron metabolism.

  7. PfsR is a key regulator of iron homeostasis in Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Cheng

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in numerous cellular processes. The iron deficiency in the oceans affects the primary productivity of phytoplankton including cyanobacteria. In this study, we examined the function of PfsR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator, in iron homeostasis of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Compared with the wild type, the pfsR deletion mutant displayed stronger tolerance to iron limitation and accumulated significantly more chlorophyll a, carotenoid, and phycocyanin under iron-limiting conditions. The mutant also maintained more photosystem I and photosystem II complexes than the wild type after iron deprivation. In addition, the activities of photosystem I and photosystem II were much higher in pfsR deletion mutant than in wild-type cells under iron-limiting conditions. The transcripts of pfsR were enhanced by iron limitation and inactivation of the gene affected pronouncedly expression of fut genes (encoding a ferric iron transporter, feoB (encoding a ferrous iron transporter, bfr genes (encoding bacterioferritins, ho genes (encoding heme oxygenases, isiA (encoding a chlorophyll-binding protein, and furA (encoding a ferric uptake regulator. The iron quota in pfsR deletion mutant cells was higher than in wild-type cells both before and after exposure to iron limitation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that PfsR bound to its own promoter and thereby auto-regulated its own expression. These data suggest that PfsR is a critical regulator of iron homeostasis.

  8. State of the iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Bhandari, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) frequently occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Nevertheless, the condition appears to be both under-diagnosed and undertreated. Regular biochemical screening of patients with IBD for anemia...... by the gastroenterology community has to be advocated. Oral iron is a low cost treatment however its effectiveness is limited by low bioavailability and poor tolerability. Intravenous (IV) iron rapidly replenishes iron stores and has demonstrated its safe use in a number of studies in various therapeutic areas. A broad...... spectrum of new IV iron formulations is now becoming available offering improved tolerability and patient convenience by rapidly restoring the depleted iron status of patients with IBD. The following article aims to review the magnitude of the problem of IDA in IBD, suggest screening standards...

  9. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  10. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most of these patients do not always present with typical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Treatment can be very challenging as drugs commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism have little effect on already formed thyroid hormone due to iodine excess. PMID:22053166

  11. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, T.P.; Loft, Steffen Huitfeldt; Nyyssonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    with daily urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion, a marker of oxidative stress, in 48 mildly dyslipidemic men in East Finland. In multivariate linear regression analyses allowing for age, smoking, body mass index and physical exercise, serum ferritin concentration predicted the excretion rate at B = 0......The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...

  12. Increased iron sequestration in alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Philippot

    Full Text Available Free iron in lung can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD pathogenesis. Iron accumulation has been implicated in oxidative stress in other diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, but little is known about iron accumulation in COPD. We sought to determine if iron content and the expression of iron transport and/or storage genes in lung differ between controls and COPD subjects, and whether changes in these correlate with airway obstruction. Explanted lung tissue was obtained from transplant donors, GOLD 2-3 COPD subjects, and GOLD 4 lung transplant recipients, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells were obtained from non-smokers, healthy smokers, and GOLD 1-3 COPD subjects. Iron-positive cells were quantified histologically, and the expression of iron uptake (transferrin and transferrin receptor, storage (ferritin and export (ferroportin genes was examined by real-time RT-PCR assay. Percentage of iron-positive cells and expression levels of iron metabolism genes were examined for correlations with airflow limitation indices (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 and the ratio between FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC. The alveolar macrophage was identified as the predominant iron-positive cell type in lung tissues. Furthermore, the quantity of iron deposit and the percentage of iron positive macrophages were increased with COPD and emphysema severity. The mRNA expression of iron uptake and storage genes transferrin and ferritin were significantly increased in GOLD 4 COPD lungs compared to donors (6.9 and 3.22 fold increase, respectively. In BAL cells, the mRNA expression of transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin correlated with airway obstruction. These results support activation of an iron sequestration mechanism by alveolar macrophages in COPD, which we postulate is a protective mechanism against iron induced oxidative

  13. Iron content of food cooked in iron utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, H C; Nossaman, C E

    1986-07-01

    Twenty foods were cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. Also, three foods were cooked in two iron skillets. Three replications were made, and cooking time and pH for each food were determined. Duplicate samples of the raw and the cooked foods were dried, ashed, and analyzed for moisture and iron content. Iron content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Most of the foods (90%) contained significantly more iron when cooked in iron utensils than when cooked in non-iron utensils. Acidity, moisture content, and cooking time of food significantly affected the iron content of food cooked in iron utensils. Perhaps because of differing amounts of previous use, cooking in different iron skillets resulted in some variation in the iron content of food.

  14. Physics of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  15. Effect of zero-valent iron and trivalent iron on UASB rapid start-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Hongyan; Jia, Hui; Yang, Guang; Gao, Fei; Liu, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    In order to realize the rapid start-up of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, the iron ion in different valence state was added to UASB. The results indicated that the start-up time of R3 (FeCl 3 ) was 48 h faster than that of R2 (zero-valent iron (ZVI)). It was because the FeCl 3 could rapidly promote granulation of sludge as a flocculant. However, ZVI released Fe 2+ through corrosion slowly, and then the Fe 2+ increased start-up speed by enhancing enzyme activity and enriching methanogens. In addition, the ZVI and FeCl 3 could promote hydrolysis acidification and strengthen the decomposition of long-chain fatty acids. The detection of iron ions showed that iron ions mainly existed in the sludge. Because the high concentration of Fe 2+ could inhibit anaerobic bacteria activity, excess Fe 3+ could be changed into iron hydroxide precipitation to hinder the mass transfer process of anaerobic bacteria under the alkaline condition. The FeCl 3 was suitable to be added at the initial stage of UASB start-up, and the ZVI was more fitted to be used in the middle stage of reactor start-up to improve the redox ability.

  16. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  17. Impairment of interrelated iron- and copper homeostatic mechanisms in brain contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation...... is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead......) is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, all highly...

  18. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  19. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary: High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report, ...

  20. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...