WorldWideScience

Sample records for excess costs

  1. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8)) ...

  2. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost…

  3. Excess costs of social anxiety disorder in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Judith; König, Hans-Helmut; Bleibler, Florian; Hoyer, Jürgen; Wiltink, Jörg; Beutel, Manfred E; Salzer, Simone; Herpertz, Stephan; Willutzki, Ulrike; Strauß, Bernhard; Leibing, Eric; Leichsenring, Falk; Konnopka, Alexander

    2017-04-15

    Social anxiety disorder is one of the most frequent mental disorders. It is often associated with mental comorbidities and causes a high economic burden. The aim of our analysis was to estimate the excess costs of patients with social anxiety disorder compared to persons without anxiety disorder in Germany. Excess costs of social anxiety disorder were determined by comparing two data sets. Patient data came from the SOPHO-NET study A1 (n=495), whereas data of persons without anxiety disorder originated from a representative phone survey (n=3213) of the general German population. Missing data were handled by "Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations". Both data sets were matched using "Entropy Balancing". Excess costs were calculated from a societal perspective for the year 2014 using general linear regression with a gamma distribution and log-link function. Analyses considered direct costs (in- and outpatient treatment, rehabilitation, and professional and informal care) and indirect costs due to absenteeism from work. Total six-month excess costs amounted to 451€ (95% CI: 199€-703€). Excess costs were mainly caused by indirect excess costs due to absenteeism from work of 317€ (95% CI: 172€-461€), whereas direct excess costs amounted to 134€ (95% CI: 110€-159€). Costs for medication, unemployment and disability pension was not evaluated. Social anxiety disorder was associated with statistically significant excess costs, in particular due to indirect costs. As patients in general are often unaware of their disorder or its severity, awareness should be strengthened. Prevention and early treatment might reduce long-term indirect costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Excess Heat Utilization in District Heating Systems by Implementing Levelized Cost of Excess Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Doračić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available District heating plays a key role in achieving high primary energy savings and the reduction of the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This was recently recognized by the European Commission, which emphasizes the importance of these systems, especially when integrated with renewable energy sources, like solar, biomass, geothermal, etc. On the other hand, high amounts of heat are currently being wasted in the industry sector, which causes low energy efficiency of these processes. This excess heat can be utilized and transported to the final customer by a distribution network. The main goal of this research was to calculate the potential for excess heat utilization in district heating systems by implementing the levelized cost of excess heat method. Additionally, this paper proves the economic and environmental benefits of switching from individual heating solutions to a district heating system. This was done by using the QGIS software. The variation of different relevant parameters was taken into account in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, the final result was the determination of the maximum potential distance of the excess heat source from the demand, for different available heat supplies, costs of pipes, and excess heat prices.

  5. Financial costs due to excess health risks among active employees of a utility company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Louis; Schultz, Alyssa; Schnueringer, Elaine; Edington, Dee W

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the health risk-related excess costs of time away from work, medical claims, pharmacy claims, and total costs with and without considering the prevalence of health risks. A total of 2082 of 4266 employees of a Midwest utility participated in a health risk appraisal (HRA). Individuals were classified by their HRA participation status and also by 15 health risks. Total and excess costs were analyzed for all employees. There were significant excess costs due to individual risks and overall excess health risks in all cost measures. Both excess cost per risk and prevalence of the risk were important factors in determining the excess costs in the population. As compared with low-risk participants, HRA nonparticipants and the medium- and high-risk participants were 1.99, 2.22, and 3.97 times more likely to be high cost status. Approximately one third of corporate costs in medical claims, pharmacy claims, and time away from work could be defined as excess costs associated with excess health risks.

  6. Energy costs of feeding excess protein from corn-based byproducts to finishing cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased use of byproducts in finishing diets leads to diets that contain greater concentrations of CP and MP than required by cattle. The hypothesis was that excess dietary CP and MP would increase maintenance energy requirments due to the energy costs of removing excess N as urea in urine. ...

  7. Excess costs from functional somatic syndromes in Germany - An analysis using entropy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Helen; Kaufmann, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Bleibler, Florian; Wild, Beate; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Schäfert, Rainer; Konnopka, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate disorder-specific excess costs in patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS). We compared 6-month direct and indirect costs in a patient group with FSS (n=273) to a control group of the general adult population in Germany without FSS (n=2914). Data on the patient group were collected between 2007 and 2009 in a randomized controlled trial (speciAL). Data on the control group were obtained from a telephone survey, representative for the general German population, conducted in 2014. Covariate balance between the patient group and the control group was achieved using entropy balancing. Excess costs were calculated by estimating generalized linear models and two-part models for direct costs and indirect costs. Further, we estimated excess costs according to the level of somatic symptom severity (SSS). FSS patients differed significantly from the control group regarding 6-month costs of outpatient physicians (+€280) and other outpatient providers (+€74). According to SSS, significantly higher outpatient physician costs were found for mild (+€151), moderate (+€306) and severe (+€376) SSS. We also found significantly higher costs of other outpatient providers in patients with mild, moderate and severe SSS. Regarding costs of rehabilitation and hospital treatments, FSS patients did not differ significantly from the control group for any level of SSS. Indirect costs were significantly higher in patients with severe SSS (+€760). FSS were of major importance in the outpatient sector. Further, we found significantly higher indirect costs in patients with severe SSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transfer prices and the excess cost of Canadian oil imports: New evidence on Bertrand versus Rugman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.; Weiner, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Transfer pricing can be a source for contention between governments and multinational corporations, with suspicion that transfer prices are set so as to report higher income in countries where corporations are taxed more lightly. The first systematic empirical evidence on transfer pricing in multinational corporations is presented, through examination of the Canadian petroleum industry, which is dominated by foreign multinationals. The data cover the period 1974-84 and allow analysis of the allegation of excess cost paid by Canada for crude oil imports. After taking into account crude oil quality indicators, transaction characteristics, and countries of export, the merging of a comparable set of U.S. and Canadian data demonstrates evidence of transfer-price setting at levels significantly different from arm's-length prices for crude oil imports to Canada from 1974-84. However, the evidence runs contrary to Bertrand's assessment: the crude oil prices for affiliate transactions were found to be, in general, lower than comparable prices for third-party transactions. As to transport costs, the converse was found to be the case, however, the effect is much less important than transfer pricing. The overall result is that transfer prices have worked in Canada's favour. 15 refs., 7 tabs

  9. Good things do not always come in threes: On the excess cost of overlapping regulation in EU climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Christoph; Keller, Andreas; Bortolamedi, Markus; Rahmeier Seyffarth, Anelise

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990's the European Union (EU) aims at pushing global climate policy. The objective is to promote international cooperation by the adoption of substantial EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and their least-cost implementation. Our quantitative impact assessment of the EU Climate and Energy Package shows that the myriad of instruments used in the EU to curb greenhouse gas emissions is doomed to generate substantial excess cost. We conclude that EU climate and energy policy should better disentangle its choices of objectives, targets, and policy instruments on rigorous economic grounds in order to improve the coherence and overall cost-effectiveness of policy initiatives. - Highlights: •EU Climate and Energy Package almost quintuples costs for EU-wide emission abatement. •The main source of excess cost of EU climate policy are energy efficiency mandates.

  10. Excess control rights: a study about its reflex on the cost of debt of publicly traded Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Marlon Konraht

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of excess control on the cost of debt in publicly traded Brazilian companies. Its objective is to determine whether a higher misalignment between voting rights and cash flow rights held by controlling shareholder causes an increase in agency cost of debt. For the analysis of the research problem, it was used panel data regression with random effects, in which was compared the level of excess control and the firms cost of debt. The results indicate that there is a positive and statistically significant association between excess control and the cost of debt. This suggests that creditors interpret this misalignment as a control entrenchment, which increases the credit risk, and thereby, increases the cost of debt. From the scientific point of view, the contribution to the literature provided by this study is the finding that ownership structure bears an impact in the creditor perceptions of risk, and thus, the cost of debt. These results can assist in developing actions to reduce the cost of debt, which implies the maximization of the economic performance of firms that have third-party capital in its capital structure. Its social contribution is the distinction of the firms exposed to a higher level of cost of debt, identifying ways to maximize resources, that is a relevant aspect especially in times of crisis whose effects can be very varied, such as bankruptcies, massive layoffs and default.

  11. The international inspection of a US excess fissile material storage facility with and without remote monitoring: A cost comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, M.; Nilsen, C.; Tolk, K.M.; McGilvary, R.C. III

    1996-01-01

    This study estimates the DOE-incurred costs in preparing for and hosting potential IAEA inspections of an excess pit storage facility at the Pantex Site with and without the aid of remote monitoring. Focus was on whether an investment in remote monitoring is recoverable, ie, whether the costs for installing, operating, and maintaining a remote monitoring system (RMS) are overcome by the costs that would be incurred without its use. A baseline RMS incorporating demonstrated technologies is defined and its cost estimated. This estimate and several multiples of it, together with estimates of labor and operational costs incurred under a postulated inspection regime serve as the bases of this study. A key finding is that, for the range of parameters considered, the times for investment recovery are reached relatively quickly, ie, within a decade after the inspection regime's onset. Investment recovery times, expenditures in reaching them, and average annual cost accrual rates are provided as function of RMS initial cost. A guideline indicating when investment recovery is theoretically possible is also provided

  12. Comorbidities as a driver of the excess costs of community-acquired pneumonia in U.S. commercially-insured working age adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polsky Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with certain comorbid conditions have a higher risk of pneumonia than the overall population. If treatment of pneumonia is more costly in certain predictable situations, this would affect the value proposition of populations for pneumonia prevention. We estimate the economic impact of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP for adults with asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and congestive heart failure (CHF in a large U.S. commercially-insured working age population. Methods Data sources consisted of 2003 through 2007 Thomson Reuters MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Thomson Reuters Health Productivity and Management (HPM databases. Pneumonia episodes and selected comorbidities were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. By propensity score matching, controls were identified for pneumonia patients. Excess direct medical costs and excess productivity cost were estimated by generalized linear models (GLM. Results We identified 402,831 patients with CAP between 2003 through 2007, with 25,560, 32,677, 16,343, and 5,062 episodes occurring in patients with asthma, diabetes, COPD and CHF, respectively. Mean excess costs (and standard error, SE of CAP were $14,429 (SE=44 overall. Mean excess costs by comorbidity subgroup were lowest for asthma ($13,307 (SE=123, followed by diabetes ($21,395 (SE=171 and COPD ($23,493 (SE=197; mean excess costs were highest for patients with CHF ($34,436 (SE=549. On average, indirect costs comprised 21% of total excess costs, ranging from 8% for CHF patients to 27% for COPD patients. Conclusions Compared to patients without asthma, diabetes, COPD, or CHF, the excess cost of CAP is nearly twice as high for patients with diabetes and COPD and nearly three times as high for patients with CHF. Indirect costs made up a significant but varying portion of excess CAP costs. Returns on prevention of pneumonia would therefore be higher in adults with these comorbidities.

  13. Fuel poverty, excess winter deaths, and energy costs in Vermont: Burdensome for whom?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller-Elsberg, Jonathan; Sovacool, Benjamin; Smith, Taylor; Laine, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Energy, whether from electricity, natural gas, heating oil, propane, kerosene, or wood, is essential for the well-being of many Americans, yet those who spend more than 10 percent of their income of energy services can be considered “fuel poor.” This study assesses the extent and severity of fuel poverty in Vermont. It analyzes energy burdens in Vermont by household income deciles, using data from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. Approximately 71,000 people suffered from fuel poverty in Vermont in 2000, and in 2012 the number rose to 125,000, or one in five Vermonters. Startlingly, fuel poverty grew 76 percent during this period. Excess winter deaths, caused potentially by fuel poverty, kill more Vermonters each year than car crashes. The article then provides 12 policy recommendations based on a small sample of elite semi-structured research interviews. These include suggestions that the Vermont legislature better fund investments in weatherization among low-income households; that community groups and social service agencies scale up the training of energy efficiency coaches; that state agencies endorse improvements in housing efficiency and appropriate fuel switching; and that utilities and fuel providers offer extra assistance for disconnected households and allow for on-bill financing of efficiency improvements. - Highlights: • Those spending 10 percent of their monthly income or more on energy services are in “fuel poverty”. • In this study we analyze the energy burden in Vermont by household income deciles. • We calculate that excess winter deaths caused potentially by fuel poverty kill more Vermonters each year than car crashes. • We conclude with implications for energy planners and policymakers.

  14. 24 CFR 248.157 - Voluntary sale of housing not in excess of Federal cost limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... costs; (5) Receive a distribution equal to an 8 percent annual return on any actual cash investment made... by a priority purchaser seeking to make an offer during either 6-month priority purchaser marketing...-based nonprofit and the offer is submitted within the marketing period established in paragraph (c)(1...

  15. Special report on taxation and reimbursement. Recovering excess funds from a defined-benefit pension plan: don't forget the hidden costs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renas, D A; Hoffman, S F

    1989-10-01

    In light of the pitfalls and hidden costs associated with recovering excess pension plan funds, providers may consider examining more conventional sources of raising capital before proceeding. In any event, the process should always be initiated by a careful cost-benefit analysis conducted by the employer, with the help of pension consultants and counsel.

  16. The costs of reducing the excess CO{sub 2} emissions. Reduction potential and costs in certain sector; Hvad koster det at reducere CO{sup 2}-mankoen? - Reduktionspotentiale og omkostninger i udvalgte sektorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The report presents the results from the project 'The costs of reducing the excess CO{sub 2} emissions - reduction potential and costs in certain sectors'. The aim of the project has been to elucidate the full extent of the reduction potentials and the costs for certain CO{sub 2} reducing initiatives, which are not included in the present projections of the excess CO{sub 2} emissions. The initiatives included in this report are: Accumulation of methane from Danish disposal facilities; Accumulation of methane from disposal facilities in Russia; Reduction in the use of industrial greenhouse gases; Aquifer disposal of CO{sub 2} in the underground; Offshore CO{sub 2} disposal in oil fields in the North Sea. Furthermore, the report presents a general evaluation of the potential of methane accumulation from wastewater treatment. (ba)

  17. Integrated economic and life cycle assessment of thermochemical production of bioethanol to reduce production cost by exploiting excess of greenhouse gas savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Valle, C.; Villanueva Perales, A.L.; Vidal-Barrero, F.; Ollero, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of economics and sustainability of thermochemical ethanol production. • Exploitation of excess CO 2 saving by either importing fossil energy or CO 2 trading. • Significant increase in alcohol production by replacing biomass with natural gas. • CO 2 emission trading is not cost-competitive versus import of fossil energy. • Lowest ethanol production cost for partial oxidation as reforming technology. - Abstract: In this work, two options are investigated to enhance the economics of the catalytic production of bioethanol from biomass gasification by exploiting the excess of CO 2 emission saving: (i) to import fossil energy, in the form of natural gas and electricity or (ii) to trade CO 2 emissions. To this end, an integrated life cycle and economic assessment is carried out for four process configurations, each using a different light hydrocarbon reforming technology: partial oxidation, steam methane reforming, tar reforming and autothermal reforming. The results show that for all process configurations the production of bioethanol and other alcohols significantly increases when natural gas displaces biomass, maintaining the total energy content of the feedstock. The economic advantage of the partial substitution of biomass by natural gas depends on their prices and this is explored by carrying out a sensitivity analysis, taking historical prices into account. It is also concluded that the trade of CO 2 emissions is not cost-competitive compared to the import of natural gas if the CO 2 emission price remains within historical European prices. The CO 2 emission price would have to double or even quadruple the highest CO 2 historical price for CO 2 emission trading to be a cost-competitive option

  18. Excessive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Vasudha; Rettig, Kenneth R; Bhowmick, Samar K

    2008-09-01

    Tall stature and excessive growth syndrome are a relatively rare concern in pediatric practice. Nevertheless, it is important to identify abnormal accelerated growth patterns in children, which may be the clue in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder. We present a case of pituitary gigantism in a 2 1/2-year-old child and discuss the signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment. Brief discussions on the differential diagnosis of excessive growth/tall stature have been outlined. Pituitary gigantism is very rare in the pediatrics age group; however, it is extremely rare in a child that is less than 3 years of age. The nature of pituitary adenoma and treatment options in children with this condition have also been discussed.

  19. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    Expansion of wind power is an important element in Danish climate change abatement policy. Starting from a high penetration of approx 20% however, momentary excess production will become an important issue in the future. Through energy systems analyses using the EnergyPLAN model and economic...... analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  20. Disease burden and costs from excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis: fourth report of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Alexander, Graeme; Armstrong, Iain; Baker, Alastair; Bhala, Neeraj; Camps-Walsh, Ginny; Cramp, Matthew E; de Lusignan, Simon; Day, Natalie; Dhawan, Anil; Dillon, John; Drummond, Colin; Dyson, Jessica; Foster, Graham; Gilmore, Ian; Hudson, Mark; Kelly, Deirdre; Langford, Andrew; McDougall, Neil; Meier, Petra; Moriarty, Kieran; Newsome, Philip; O'Grady, John; Pryke, Rachel; Rolfe, Liz; Rice, Peter; Rutter, Harry; Sheron, Nick; Taylor, Alison; Thompson, Jeremy; Thorburn, Douglas; Verne, Julia; Wass, John; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-03-17

    This report contains new and follow-up metric data relating to the eight main recommendations of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK, which aim to reduce the unacceptable harmful consequences of excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis. For alcohol, we provide data on alcohol dependence, damage to families, and the documented increase in alcohol consumption since removal of the above-inflation alcohol duty escalator. Alcoholic liver disease will shortly overtake ischaemic heart disease with regard to years of working life lost. The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, affecting more than 60% of adults in the UK, is leading to an increasing liver disease burden. Favourable responses by industry to the UK Government's soft drinks industry levy have been seen, but the government cannot continue to ignore the number of adults being affected by diabetes, hypertension, and liver disease. New direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection have reduced mortality and the number of patients requiring liver transplantation, but more screening campaigns are needed for identification of infected people in high-risk migrant communities, prisons, and addiction centres. Provision of care continues to be worst in regions with the greatest socioeconomic deprivation, and deficiencies exist in training programmes in hepatology for specialist registrars. Firm guidance is needed for primary care on the use of liver blood tests in detection of early disease and the need for specialist referral. This report also brings together all the evidence on costs to the National Health Service and wider society, in addition to the loss of tax revenue, with alcohol misuse in England and Wales costing £21 billion a year (possibly up to £52 billion) and obesity costing £27 billion a year (treasury estimates are as high as £46 billion). Voluntary restraints by the food and drinks industry have had little effect on

  1. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Secretary for the costs the Secretary incurred in providing that excess cash to the institution... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess cash. 668.166 Section 668.166 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...

  2. Costs of war: excess health care burdens during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (relative to the health care experience pre-war).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report estimates the health care burden related to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan by calculating the difference between the total health care delivered to U.S. military members during wartime (October 2001 to June 2012) and that which would have been delivered if pre-war (January 1998 to August 2001) rates of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and hospital bed days of active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces had persisted during the war. Overall, there were estimated excesses of 17,023,491 ambulatory visits, 66,768 hospitalizations, and 634,720 hospital bed days during the war period relative to that expected based on pre-war experience. Army and Marine Corps members and service members older than 30 accounted for the majority of excess medical care during the war period. The illness/injury-specific category of mental disorders was the single largest contributor to the total estimated excesses of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and bed days. The total health care burdens associated with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are undoubtedly greater than those enumerated in this report because this analysis did not address care delivered in deployment locations or at sea, care rendered by civilian providers to reserve component members in their home communities, care of veterans by the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, preventive care for the sake of force health protection, and future health care associated with wartime injuries and illnesses.

  3. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  4. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.

  5. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  6. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  7. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have this type are otherwise healthy. In medical terminology, the word “primary” means that the cause is not another medical condition. Secondary hyperhidrosis In medical terminology, “secondary” means that the excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) has ...

  8. Superconductors with excess quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kopaev, Y.V.

    1981-01-01

    This review presents a systematic kinetic theory of nonequilibrium phenomena in superconductors with excess quasiparticles created by electromagnetic or tunnel injection. The energy distributions of excess quasiparticles and of nonequilibrium phonons, dependence of the order parameter on the power and frequency (or intensity) of the electromagnetic field, magnetic properties of nonequilibrium superconductors, I-V curves of superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions, and other properties are described in detail. The stability of superconducting states far from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated and it is shown that characteristic instabilities leading to the formation of nonuniform states of a new type or phase transitions of the first kind are inherent to superconductors with excess quasiparticles. The results are compared with experimental data

  9. Disposition of excess material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the means available to an enrichment customer to dispose of excess material scheduled for delivery under a fixed-commitment contract, other than through termination of the related separative work. The methods are as follows: (1) sales; (2) use in facilities covered by other DOE contracts; and (3) assignment

  10. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  11. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  12. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  13. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments

  14. The Virtual Diphoton Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the excesses around 750 GeV in the diphoton spectra to be the signal of a new heavy scalar decaying to photons, we point out the possibility of looking for correlated signals with virtual photons. In particular, we emphasize that the effective operator that generates the diphoton decay will also generate decays to two leptons and a photon, as well as to four leptons, independently of the new resonance couplings to $Z\\gamma$ and $ZZ$. Depending on the relative sizes of these effective couplings, we show that the virtual diphoton component can make up a sizable, and sometimes dominant, contribution to the total $2\\ell \\gamma$ and $4\\ell$ partial widths. We also discuss modifications to current experimental cuts in order to maximize the sensitivity to these virtual photon effects. Finally, we briefly comment on prospects for channels involving other Standard Model fermions as well as more exotic decay possibilities of the putative resonance.

  15. Abundance, Excess, Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rox De Luca

    2016-02-01

    Her recent work focuses on the concepts of abundance, excess and waste. These concerns translate directly into vibrant and colourful garlands that she constructs from discarded plastics collected on Bondi Beach where she lives. The process of collecting is fastidious, as is the process of sorting and grading the plastics by colour and size. This initial gathering and sorting process is followed by threading the components onto strings of wire. When completed, these assemblages stand in stark contrast to the ease of disposability associated with the materials that arrive on the shoreline as evidence of our collective human neglect and destruction of the environment around us. The contrast is heightened by the fact that the constructed garlands embody the paradoxical beauty of our plastic waste byproducts, while also evoking the ways by which those byproducts similarly accumulate in randomly assorted patterns across the oceans and beaches of the planet.

  16. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  17. Does excessive pronation cause pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C G; Nielsen, Rasmus Gottschalk N; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...

  18. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that the effect of this treatment has not been documented. Therefore the authors can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive...

  19. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236... § 236.60 Excess Income. (a) Definition. Excess Income consists of cash collected as rent from the... Rent. The unit-by-unit requirement necessitates that, if a unit has Excess Income, the Excess Income...

  20. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  1. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  2. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  3. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  4. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  5. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random transla- tional jump diffusion model. The observed increase in translational diffusivity with increase in the amount of excess water is attributed to the ...

  6. [Disability attributable to excess weight in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Alvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2014-08-19

    To estimate the disability attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey (NHS), while the prevalence of associated morbidities was extracted from the 2006 NHS and from a national hospital data base. Population attributable fractions were applied and disability attributable was expressed as years life with disability (YLD). In 2006, in the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 791.650 YLD were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index (46.7% in males and 53.3% in females). Overweight (body mass index 25-29.9) accounted for 45.7% of total YLD. Males YLD were higher than females under 60. The 35-39 quinquennial group showed a difference for males of 16.6% while in the 74-79 group the difference was 23.8% for women. Osteoarthritis and chronic back pain accounted for 60% of YLD while hypertensive disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus were responsible of 37%. Excess body weight is a health risk related to the development of various diseases with an important associated disability burden and social and economical cost. YLD analysis is a useful monitor tool for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of ethanol from excess ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Adam S.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    will focus on the synthetic method, which employs direct hydration of ethylene. A conceptual process design of an ethyl alcohol producing plant is performed in a MSc-level course on Process Design at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU. In the designed process, 190 proof ethyl...... alcohol (azeotropic mixture) is produced from excess ethylene containing propylene and methane as impurities. The design work is based on a systematic approach consisting of 12 tasks performed in a specified hierarchy. According to this 12-tasks design procedure, information about the product and process...... of the designed process. The resulting design utilizes 75 million kg/year ethylene feed in order to obtain an ethyl alcohol production of 90.5 million kg/year. The total capital investment has been estimated to 43 million USD and the total product cost without depreciation estimated to 58.5 million USD...

  8. Excess electron transport in cryoobjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshchenko, D.G.; Storchak, V.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Cottrell, S.P.; Cox, S.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results on excess electron transport in solid and liquid phases of Ne, Ar, and solid N 2 -Ar mixture are presented and compared with those for He. Muon spin relaxation technique in frequently switching electric fields was used to study the phenomenon of delayed muonium formation: excess electrons liberated in the μ + ionization track converge upon the positive muons and form Mu (μ + e - ) atoms. This process is shown to be crucially dependent upon the electron's interaction with its environment (i.e., whether it occupies the conduction band or becomes localized in a bubble of tens of angstroms in radius) and upon its mobility in these states. The characteristic lengths involved are 10 -6 -10 -4 cm, the characteristic times range from nanoseconds to tens microseconds. Such a microscopic length scale sometimes enables the electron spend its entire free lifetime in a state which may not be detected by conventional macroscopic techniques. The electron transport processes are compared in: liquid and solid helium (where electron is localized in buble); liquid and solid neon (where electrons are delocalized in solid and the coexistence of localized and delocalized electrons states was found in liquid recently); liquid and solid argon (where electrons are delocalized in both phases); orientational glass systems (solid N 2 -Ar mixtures), where our results suggest that electrons are localized in orientational glass. This scaling from light to heavy rare gases enables us to reveal new features of excess electron localization on microscopic scale. Analysis of the experimental data makes it possible to formulate the following tendency of the muon end-of-track structure in condensed rare gases. The muon-self track interaction changes from the isolated pair (muon plus the nearest track electron) in helium to multi-pair (muon in the vicinity of tens track electrons and positive ions) in argon

  9. Excess electron transport in cryoobjects

    CERN Document Server

    Eshchenko, D G; Brewer, J H; Cottrell, S P; Cox, S F J

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results on excess electron transport in solid and liquid phases of Ne, Ar, and solid N sub 2 -Ar mixture are presented and compared with those for He. Muon spin relaxation technique in frequently switching electric fields was used to study the phenomenon of delayed muonium formation: excess electrons liberated in the mu sup + ionization track converge upon the positive muons and form Mu (mu sup + e sup -) atoms. This process is shown to be crucially dependent upon the electron's interaction with its environment (i.e., whether it occupies the conduction band or becomes localized in a bubble of tens of angstroms in radius) and upon its mobility in these states. The characteristic lengths involved are 10 sup - sup 6 -10 sup - sup 4 cm, the characteristic times range from nanoseconds to tens microseconds. Such a microscopic length scale sometimes enables the electron spend its entire free lifetime in a state which may not be detected by conventional macroscopic techniques. The electron transport proc...

  10. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  11. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified as...

  12. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nilesh C.; Starnes, Daniel L.; Sahi, Shivendra V.

    2007-01-01

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils

  13. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nilesh C. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Starnes, Daniel L. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Sahi, Shivendra V. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States)]. E-mail: shiv.sahi@wku.edu

    2007-03-15

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils.

  14. Androgen excess: Investigations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizneva, Daria; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia. Moreover, assessment of biochemical hyperandrogenism is necessary, particularly in patients with unclear or absent hirsutism, and will include assessing total and free testosterone (T), and possibly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, although these latter contribute limitedly to the diagnosis. Assessment of T requires use of the highest quality assays available, generally radioimmunoassays with extraction and chromatography or mass spectrometry preceded by liquid or gas chromatography. Management of clinical hyperandrogenism involves primarily either androgen suppression, with a hormonal combination contraceptive, or androgen blockade, as with an androgen receptor blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor, or a combination of the two. Medical treatment should be combined with cosmetic treatment including topical eflornithine hydrochloride and short-term (shaving, chemical depilation, plucking, threading, waxing, and bleaching) and long-term (electrolysis, laser therapy, and intense pulse light therapy) cosmetic treatments. Generally, acne responds to therapy relatively rapidly, whereas hirsutism is slower to respond, with improvements observed as early as 3 months, but routinely only after 6 or 8 months of therapy. Finally, FPHL is the slowest to respond to therapy, if it will at all, and it may take 12 to 18 months of therapy for an observable response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Reactivity costs in MARIA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowska, Zuzanna E.; Pytel, Krzysztof M.; Frydrysiak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The methodology for calculating consumed fuel cost of excess reactivity is proposed. • Correlation between time integral of the core excess reactivity and released energy. • Reactivity price gives number of fuel elements required for given excess reactivity. - Abstract: For the reactor operation at high power level and carrying out experiments and irradiations the major cost of reactor operation is the expense of nuclear fuel. In this paper the methodology for calculating consumed fuel cost-relatedness of excess reactivity is proposed. Reactivity costs have been determined on the basis of operating data. A number of examples of calculating the reactivity costs for processes such as: strong absorbing material irradiation, molybdenium-99 production, beryllium matrix poisoning and increased moderator temperature illustrates proposed method.

  16. Excess cash holdings and shareholder value

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Edward; Powell, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    We examine the determinants of corporate cash holdings in Australia and the impact on shareholder wealth of holding excess cash. Our results show that a trade-off model best explains the level of a firm’s cash holdings in Australia. We find that 'transitory' excess cash firms earn significantly higher risk-adjusted returns compared to 'persistent' excess cash firms, suggesting that the market penalises firms that hoard cash. The marginal value of cash also declines with larger cash balances, ...

  17. Ethical implications of excessive cluster sizes in cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Taljaard, Monica; Forbes, Gordon; Eldridge, Sandra M; Weijer, Charles

    2018-02-20

    The cluster randomised trial (CRT) is commonly used in healthcare research. It is the gold-standard study design for evaluating healthcare policy interventions. A key characteristic of this design is that as more participants are included, in a fixed number of clusters, the increase in achievable power will level off. CRTs with cluster sizes that exceed the point of levelling-off will have excessive numbers of participants, even if they do not achieve nominal levels of power. Excessively large cluster sizes may have ethical implications due to exposing trial participants unnecessarily to the burdens of both participating in the trial and the potential risks of harm associated with the intervention. We explore these issues through the use of two case studies. Where data are routinely collected, available at minimum cost and the intervention poses low risk, the ethical implications of excessively large cluster sizes are likely to be low (case study 1). However, to maximise the social benefit of the study, identification of excessive cluster sizes can allow for prespecified and fully powered secondary analyses. In the second case study, while there is no burden through trial participation (because the outcome data are routinely collected and non-identifiable), the intervention might be considered to pose some indirect risk to patients and risks to the healthcare workers. In this case study it is therefore important that the inclusion of excessively large cluster sizes is justifiable on other grounds (perhaps to show sustainability). In any randomised controlled trial, including evaluations of health policy interventions, it is important to minimise the burdens and risks to participants. Funders, researchers and research ethics committees should be aware of the ethical issues of excessively large cluster sizes in cluster trials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  18. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Spatiotemporal and economic analysis of industrial excess heat as a resource for district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrović, Stefan; Holm, Fridolin Müller

    2018-01-01

    detailed analysis of the most suitable types of industries and the costs is required, allowing a targeted exploitation of this resource. This work extends the spatial and thermodynamic analysis, to account for the temporal match between industrial excess heat and district heating demands, as well...... as the costs for implementation and operation of the systems. This allows the determination of cost-effective district heating potentials, as well as the analysis of different industries and technological requirements. The results show that the temporal mismatch between excess heat and district heating demand...... and lack of demand, reduces the theoretical substitution potential by almost 30%. If heat storages are introduced, the total potential is reduced by only 10%. A majority of the excess heat can be utilised at socio-economic heating costs lower than the average Danish district heating price and the cost...

  20. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  1. Measuring excess capital capacity in agricultural production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Kumbhakar, S.C.; Myers, R.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept "excess capital capacity" and employ a stochastic input requirement frontier to measure excess capital capacity in agricultural production. We also propose a two-step estimation method that allows endogenous regressors in stochastic frontier models. The first step uses

  2. The excessively crying infant : etiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhnikh, S.; Engelberts, A.C.; Sleuwen, B.E. van; Hoir, M.P. L’; Benninga, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and selflimiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, and underlying organic cause

  3. Hydrogen-based industry from remote excess hydroelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, N.; Rogner, H.-H.; Scott, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines synergies, opportunities and barriers associated with hydrogen and excess hydro-electricity in remote areas. The work is based on a case study that examined the techno-economic feasibility of a new hydrogen-based industry using surplus/off-peak generating capacity of the Taltson Dam and Generating Station in the Northwest Territories, Canada. After evaluating the amount and cost of hydrogen that could be produced from the excess capacity, the study investigates three hydrogen utilization scenarios: (1) merchant liquid or compressed hydrogen, (2) hydrogen as a chemical feedstock for the production of hydrogen peroxide, (3) methanol production from biomass, oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen peroxide production is the most promising and attractive strategy in the Fort Smith context. The study also illustrates patterns that recur in isolated sites throughout the world. (Author)

  4. The US program for disposition of excess weapons plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, M.

    1997-01-01

    After an exhaustive interagency study, the United States has declared that 52.7 tons of plutonium, over half of its stockpile, is excess to its military needs, and has decided to pursue a dual-track approach to eliminating this excess stockpile, burning some of it once-through as power-reactor fuel, and immobilizing the remainder with intensely radioactive fission products. This effort represents a significant step toward increasing the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions and reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation. The United States expects to complete disposition of this material over the next 2-3 decades, at a net discounted present cost of approximately $1.5 billion. Intemational verification and stringent security and accounting for the material are planned for the entire program

  5. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request must be submitted through http://www.pay...

  6. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents.

  7. Predictors of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming in Czech teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilková, Jana; Chomynová, Pavla; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Young people's involvement in online gaming and the use of social media are increasing rapidly, resulting in a high number of excessive Internet users in recent years. The objective of this paper is to analyze the situation of excessive Internet use among adolescents in the Czech Republic and to reveal determinants of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming. Methods Data from secondary school students (N = 4,887) were collected within the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Logistic regression models were constructed to describe the individual and familial discriminative factors and the impact of the health risk behavior of (a) excessive users of social media and (b) excessive players of online games. Results The models confirmed important gender-specific distinctions - while girls are more prone to online communication and social media use, online gaming is far more prevalent among boys. The analysis did not indicate an influence of family composition on both the excessive use of social media and on excessive online gaming, and only marginal effects for the type of school attended. We found a connection between the excessive use of social media and binge drinking and an inverse relation between excessive online gaming and daily smoking. Discussion and conclusion The non-existence of significant associations between family environment and excessive Internet use confirmed the general, widespread of this phenomenon across the social and economic strata of the teenage population, indicating a need for further studies on the topic.

  8. Explaining CMS lepton excesses with supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. Allanach, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    1) Kostas Theofilatos will give an introduction to CMS result 2) Ben Allanach: Several CMS analyses involving di-leptons have recently reported small 2.4-2.8 sigma local excesses: nothing to get too excited about, but worth keeping an eye on nonetheless. In particular, a search in the $lljj p_T$(miss) channel, a search for $W_R$ in the $lljj$ channel and a di-leptoquark search in the $lljj$ channel and $ljj p_T$(miss) channel have all yielded small excesses. We interpret the first excess in the MSSM, showing that the interpretation is viable in terms of other constraints, despite only having squark masses of around 1 TeV. We can explain the last three excesses with a single R-parity violating coupling that predicts a non-zero contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate.

  9. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  10. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  11. Economic analysis of using excess renewable electricity to displace heating fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Kempton, Willett

    2014-01-01

    . Because excess electricity appears to be cost-optimum, this raises the question as to whether the excess electricity, which in the case of wind power is predominately produced in colder weather, might displace other fuels for purposes such as heat. This study models using excess electricity for heating......, based on an analysis of electricity and heat use in a TSO in the North-Eastern part of the United States (PJM Interconnection). The heating system was modeled as heat pump based district heating (HPDH) with thermal energy storage (TES). Thus, excess electricity is transformed into heat, which is easy....... An algorithm that calculates the total cost of a unit of heat was used to determine the economically optimal size of the system’s main components and the influence that natural gas (NG) and electricity prices have on this optimum. It was found that a system based on heat pumps (HP) and centralized thermal...

  12. [Quaternary prevention: An attempt to avoid the excesses of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, María

    2015-09-01

    Seduced by technology, biometrics, practical guidelines and the use of medication, medicine has been driven away from the subject of its care. Quaternary prevention is, among other voices around the world, trying to denounce the consequent excesses of medical practice given by this situation. There are visible excesses, such as the long list of studies being performed on patients without indication, and others, much more subtle, as excessive prevention and the continuous and progressive medicalization of life itself that are rooted in our culture and demanded by a society that requests certainty at almost any cost. Quaternary prevention proposes a series of actions leaning towards avoiding and diminishing the damage produced by health care activities, in order to protect the subject of overdiagnosis and overtreatment; offering also ethical and viable alternatives in which the balance of risks and benefits (based on the best evidences) respects the autonomy of the subject by properly informing and allowing him to decide among the best options he has; altogether in a process that contemplates a rational and equitable use of resources. In order to achieve this, reliable sources of information and a medical education not dependent on industries related to technology or pharmaceuticals, are vital; in conjuction with a medicine that restablishes the subject as its main and central interest.

  13. Antidepressant induced excessive yawning and indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Palazzo Nazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antidepressant induced excessive yawning has been described as a possible side effect of pharmacotherapy. A syndrome of indifference has also been described as another possible side effect. The frequency of those phenomena and their physiopathology are unknown. They are both considered benign and reversible after antidepressant discontinuation but severe cases with complications as temporomandibular lesions, have been described. Methods We report two unprecedented cases in which excessive yawning and indifference occurred simultaneously as side effects of antidepressant therapy, discussing possible physiopathological mechanisms for this co-occurrence. Case 1: A male patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 80/day and apathy after venlafaxine XR treatment. Symptoms reduced after a switch to escitalopram, with a reduction to 50 yawns/day. Case 2: A female patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 25/day and inability to react to environmental stressors with desvenlafaxine. Conclusion Induction of indifference and excessive yawning may be modulated by serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. One proposal to unify these side effects would be enhancement of serotonin in midbrain, especially paraventricular and raphe nucleus.

  14. New vector bosons and the diphoton excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Blas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility that the recently observed diphoton excess at ∼750 GeV can be explained by the decay of a scalar particle (φ to photons. If the scalar is the remnant of a symmetry-breaking sector of some new gauge symmetry, its coupling to photons can be generated by loops of the charged massive vectors of the broken symmetry. If these new W′ vector bosons carry color, they can also generate an effective coupling to gluons. In this case the diphoton excess could be entirely explained in a simplified model containing just φ and W′. On the other hand, if W′ does not carry color, we show that, provided additional colored particles exist to generate the required φ to gluon coupling, the diphoton excess could be explained by the same W′ commonly invoked to explain the diboson excess at ∼2 TeV. We also explore possible connections between the diphoton and diboson excesses with the anomalous tt¯ forward–backward asymmetry.

  15. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  16. Explaining excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006. Somatic diseases were measured from 2007 to 2011 through diagnosis data from hospital discharges. The risk...... of somatic diseases amongst shelter users was analysed through a multivariate model that decomposed the total effect into a direct effect and indirect effects mediated by other risk factors. RESULTS: The excess morbidity associated with shelter use is substantially lower than in studies that did not include...

  17. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  18. On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.

  19. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue Code of 1986, as added by section 1133 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-514) (TRA '86...) Determine the value of the individual's adjusted account balance on the next valuation date by adding (or... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on excess distributions and excess...

  20. Excessive daytime sleepiness among depressed patients | Mume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported among depressed patients in many populations. Many depressed patients seek medical attention partly to deal with EDS, but this sleep disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the ...

  1. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  2. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation

  3. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  4. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  5. Excessive daytime sleepiness among depressed patients | Mume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported among depressed patients in many populations. Many depressed patients seek medical attention partly to deal with EDS, but this sleep disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the ...

  6. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...suspected of alcohol abuse. Toxicol Lett, 151(1), 235-241. Graham, D. P., Cardon , A. L., & Uhl, G. R. (2008). An update on substance use and treatment

  7. Excessive infant crying: Definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  8. Excessive prices as abuse of dominance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Møllgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    firm abused its position by charging excessive prices. We also test whether tightening of the Danish competition act has altered the pricing behaviour on the market. We discuss our results in the light of a Danish competition case against the dominant cement producer that was abandoned by the authority...

  9. Excessive oral intake caffeine altered cerebral cortex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance speed in performance and wakefulness. However, little is known about the deleterious effects it can produce on the brain, this study aimed at determining the extents of effects and damage that can be caused by excessive consumption of caffeine on the cerebral cortex ...

  10. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advertise the sale of the property in farm journals and in newspapers within the county in which the land...; (ii) A recordable contract is amended to remove excess land when the landowner's entitlement increases... eligible buyer at a price and on terms approved by Reclamation; (C) The sale from the previous landowner is...

  11. Excessive Gambling and Online Gambling Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte

    2018-04-05

    The Internet provides an accessible context for online gambling and gambling-related online communities, such as discussion forums for gamblers. These communities may be particularly attractive to young gamblers who are active Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the use of gambling-related online communities and their relevance to excessive gambling among 15-25-year-old Finnish Internet users (N = 1200). Excessive gambling was assessed by using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Respondents were asked in a survey about their use of various kinds of gambling-related online communities, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were adjusted. The results of the study revealed that over half (54.33%) of respondents who had visited gambling-related online communities were either at-risk gamblers or probable pathological gamblers. Discussion in these communities was mainly based on sharing gambling tips and experiences, and very few respondents said that they related to gambling problems and recovery. In three different regression models, visiting gambling-related online communities was a significant predictor for excessive gambling (with 95% confidence level) even after adjusting confounding factors. The association of visiting such sites was even stronger among probable pathological gamblers than among at-risk gamblers. Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online communities in terms of development and persistence of excessive gambling. Monitoring the use of online gambling communities as well as utilizing recovery-oriented support both offline and online would be important in preventing further problems. Gambling platforms should also include warnings about excessive gambling and provide links to helpful sources.

  12. Biological sludge solubilisation for reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Yao, Y; Kihara, Y

    2006-01-01

    A novel sludge disintegration system (JFE-SD system) was developed for the reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment plants. Chemical and biological treatments were applied to disintegrate excess sludge. At the first step, to enhance biological disintegration, the sludge was pretreated with alkali. At the second step, the sludge was disintegrated by biological treatment. Many kinds of sludge degrading microorganisms integrated the sludge. The efficiency of the new sludge disintegration system was confirmed in a full-scale experiment. The JFE-SD system reduced excess sludge production by approximately 50% during the experimental period. The quality of effluent was kept at quite a good level. Economic analysis revealed that this system could significantly decrease the excess sludge treatment cost.

  13. ILLUSION OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to explore, explain and describe this phenomenon to a better understanding of it and also the relationship between advertising and the consumer society members. This paper aims to present an analysis of excessive and unsustainable consumption, the evolution of a phenomenon, and the ability to find a way to combat. Unfortunately, studies show that this tendency to accumulate more than we need to consume excess means that almost all civilizations fined and placed dogmatic among the values that children learn early in life. This has been perpetuated since the time when the goods or products does not get so easy as today. Anti-consumerism has emerged in response to this economic system, not on the long term. We are witnessing the last two decades to establish a new phase of consumer capitalism: society hiperconsumtion.

  14. Country Fundamentals and Currency Excess Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehwan Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether country fundamentals help explain the cross-section of currency excess returns. For this purpose, we consider fundamental variables such as default risk, foreign exchange rate regime, capital control as well as interest rate in the multi-factor model framework. Our empirical results show that fundamental factors explain a large part of the cross-section of currency excess returns. The zero-intercept restriction of the factor model is not rejected for most currencies. They also reveal that our factor model with country fundamentals performs better than a factor model with usual investment-style factors. Our main empirical results are based on 2001-2010 balanced panel data of 19 major currencies. This paper may fill the gap between country fundamentals and practitioners' strategies on currency investment.

  15. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  16. Subdwarf ultraviolet excesses and metal abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    The relation between stellar ultraviolet excesses and abundances is reexamined with the aid of new data, and an investigation is made of the accuracy of previous abundance analyses. A high-resolution echellogram of the subdwarf HD 201891 is analyzed to illustrate some of the problems. Generally, the earliest and latest analytical techniques yield consistent results for dwarfs. New UBV data yield normalized ultraviolet excesses, delta (U-B)/sub 0.6/, which are compared to abundances to produce a graphical relation that may be used to estimate [Fe/H] to +- 0.2 dex, given UBV colors accurate to +- 0.01 mag. The relation suggests a possible discontinuity between the halo and old-disk stars

  17. Neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Ballvé, Anna; Grau-López, Laia; Morillas, Rosa María; Planas, Ramón

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the different acute and chronic neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption that affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Several mechanisms can be implicated depending on the disorder, ranging from nutritional factors, alcohol-related toxicity, metabolic changes and immune-mediated mechanisms. Recognition and early treatment of these manifestations is essential given their association with high morbidity and significantly increased mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. Equine goiter associated with excess dietary iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroksuz, H; Eroksuz, Y; Ozer, H; Ceribasi, A O; Yaman, I; Ilhan, N

    2004-06-01

    Naturally occurring goiter cases are described in 2 newborn Arabian foals whose mares were supplemented with excess iodine during the final 24 w of the pregnancy. Six nursing foals and 2 mares were also affected clinically with thyroid hypertrophy. At least 12 times the maximum tolerable level of iodine supplementation was given, as the daily iodine intake for each mare was 299 mg. The prevalence of goiter cases was 2 and 9% in the mares and foals, respectively.

  19. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  20. Excessive current in wide superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volotskaya, V.G.; Sivakov, A.G.; Turutanov, O.G.

    1986-01-01

    The resistive state of a wide long film due to superconductivity destruction by current is studied. The voltage-independent excess current I 0 is observed on I-V curves at high transport currents. The two-dimensional image of the current-carrying sample obtained by laser scanning technique in this current range indicates that the whole film is in the resistive state. The current I 0 is measured as a function of magnetic field and SHF power

  1. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharto, Moedji, E-mail: moedji@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  2. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  3. An update on the LHC monojet excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Pouya; Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony; Monteux, Angelo; Shih, David

    2018-03-01

    In previous work, we identified an anomalous number of events in the LHC jets+MET searches characterized by low jet multiplicity and low-to-moderate transverse energy variables. Here, we update this analysis with results from a new ATLAS search in the monojet channel which also shows a consistent excess. As before, we find that this "monojet excess" is well-described by the resonant production of a heavy colored state decaying to a quark and a massive invisible particle. In the combined ATLAS and CMS data, we now find a local (global) preference of 3.3 σ (2.5 σ) for the new physics model over the Standard Model-only hypothesis. As the signal regions containing the excess are systematics-limited, we consider additional cuts to enhance the signal-to-background ratio. We show that binning finer in H T and requiring the jets to be more central can increase S/B by a factor of ˜1 .5.

  4. Internet addiction or excessive internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2010-09-01

    Problematic Internet addiction or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use and Internet access that lead to impairment or distress. Currently, there is no recognition of internet addiction within the spectrum of addictive disorders and, therefore, no corresponding diagnosis. It has, however, been proposed for inclusion in the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM). To review the literature on Internet addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Review of published literature between 2000-2009 in Medline and PubMed using the term "internet addiction. Surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated prevalence rate between 1.5% and 8.2%, although the diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires used for diagnosis vary between countries. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients report high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several factors are predictive of problematic Internet use, including personality traits, parenting and familial factors, alcohol use, and social anxiety. Although Internet-addicted individuals have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for Internet addiction. Due to the lack of methodologically adequate research, it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of Internet addiction.

  5. Optimization of polyhydroxylalkanoates production from excess activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, H.; Yu, P.H.F.; Ma, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    Polyhydroxy alkanoates (PHAS) produced by microbial fermentation are biodegradable and can be used as environmentally-friendly substitutes for conventional plastics to resolve the environmental problems associated with plastics wastes. However, widespread applications of PHA are hampered by high production cost. In this study, activated sludge bacteria from a conventional wastewater treatment process were induced, by controlling the carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the reactor liquor, to accumulate PHA as a low-cost source of biodegradable plastic. Specific polymer yield increased to a maximum of O.27 g polymer/g dry cell mass when the C:N ratio was increased from 24 to 144, whereas specific growth yield decreased with increasing C:N ratio. An optimum C:N ratio of 96 provided the highest overall polymer production yield of 0.09 g polymer/g carbonaceous substrate consumed. Moreover, an intermittent nitrogen feeding program was established to further optimize the polymer volumetric productivity. The overall polymer production yield of O.11 g polymer/g carbonaceous substrate consumed was achieved under C:N ratio of 96 by feeding nitrogen in the reactor liquor once every 4 cycles. While reducing the production costs of biodegradable plastics, this technique also reduced the amount of excess sludge generated from the wastewater treatment process as the polymer portion of biomass was extracted for use. (Author)

  6. Sorption of Chromium (VI Using Excess Municipal Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Mohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Removing or decreasing hexavalent Chromium from wastewater to the permitted levels is important due to its non-biodegradation, bioaccumulation, cancer-causing and toxic effects. In this study, biosorption of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions by Excess Active Municipal Sludge was investigated as a function of initial Chromium (VI concentration (in the range of 5-90 mg/l, initial pH (in the range of 2-8, agitation speed (in the range of 50-200 rpm, adsorbent dosage (in the range of 2-10 g/l and agitation time (in the range of 5-480 min in a batch system. The optimum conditions were found by full factorial design approach. The results showed that the equilibrium time for adsorbent is 120 minutes. Also, sorption data have a good fitness by Freundlich isotherm model and adsorption kinetic is adopted with pseudo-second order model. In batch studies, at optimum condition (90 mg/l initial concentration, pH 2, agitation speed 200 rpm and adsorbent dosage 4 g/l, the adsorption performance was about 96%; the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated about 41.69 mg of Cr/g of adsorbent. Overall, it can be concluded that Excess Active Municipal Sludge, has a good performance as a biological, biodegradable, abundant and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI from aqueous solutions.

  7. The Role of Androgen Excess in Metabolic Dysfunction in Women : Androgen Excess and Female Metabolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the association of androgen excess with chronic oligoovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, yet metabolic disorders and classic and nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors cluster in these women from very early in life. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying the association of PCOS with metabolic dysfunction, focusing on the role of androgen excess on the development of visceral adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction.

  8. 7 CFR 2812.7 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs. 2812.7 Section 2812.7 Agriculture Regulations...) § 2812.7 Costs. Donated excess personal property/equipment is free of charge. However, the donee must pay all costs associated with packaging and transportation, unless the sponsoring agency has made other...

  9. 7 CFR 3200.8 - Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs. 3200.8 Section 3200.8 Agriculture Regulations... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.8 Costs. Excess personal property obtained under this part is provided free of charge. However, the institution must pay all costs associated with packaging and transportation. The...

  10. Excessive sleep duration and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Reynolds, Charles F; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic, and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥ 9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥ 18 years (participation rate = 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual II, International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition). Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.0-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4-1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3 to 12× higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2 to 4× more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socioprofessional activities and relationships. Although between 33 and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3 to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. EQS is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  11. Severe excessive daytime sleepiness induced by hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, Bruno; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Albahary, Marie-Victoire; Gressin, Remy; Mallaret, Michel; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Launois, Sandrine H

    2017-06-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported with many drugs, either as an extension of a hypnotic effect (e.g. central nervous system depressants) or as an idiosyncratic response of the patient. Here, we report unexpected and severe subjective and objective EDS induced by hydroxyurea therapy, with a favorable outcome after withdrawal. Clinical history, sleep log, polysomnography, and multiple sleep latency tests confirming the absence of other EDS causes are presented. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. psi and excess leptons in photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.M.

    1976-03-01

    The A-dependence of psi photoproduction was measured on beryllium and tantalum. From this it is found sigma/sub psi N/ = 2.75 +- 0.90 mb. A study was made of excess leptons relative to pion production in photoproduction. A μ/π ratio of 1.40 +- 0.25 x 10 -4 was found at 20 GeV incident photon energy. The energy dependence of psi photoproduction was determined and appeared to have a ''pseudo-threshold'' at 12 GeV

  13. Desaturation of excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Madsbad, S; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    , however, was increased twofold in obese women compared to obese men (Pfasting glucose (P...OBJECTIVE: Excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG), found especially in obese women, is slowly metabolized and, therefore, prone to longer exposure to intracellular desaturases. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that IMTG content correlates inversely with IMTG fatty acid (FA) saturation...... in sedentary subjects. In addition, it was validated if IMTG palmitic acid is associated with insulin resistance as suggested earlier. DESIGN: Cross-sectional human study. SUBJECTS: In skeletal muscle biopsies, which were obtained from sedentary subjects (34 women, age 48+/-2 years (27 obese including 7 type 2...

  14. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark 3Department of Physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 4Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Denmark Correspondence Anders Falk Brekke E-mail: afbrekke@health.sdu.dk Mob: +45 7248 2626 Add: Sdr. Boulevard 29......Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt: A systematic review Anders Falk Brekke1,2,3, Søren Overgaard1,2, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson4, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen1,2 1Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital 2Department...

  15. Inland excess water mapping using hyperspectral imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csendes Bálint

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging combined with the potentials of airborne scanning is a powerful tool to monitor environmental processes. The aim of this research was to use high resolution remotely sensed data to map the spatial extent of inland excess water patches in a Hungarian study area that is known for its oil and gas production facilities. Periodic floodings show high spatial and temporal variability, nevertheless, former studies have proven that the affected soil surfaces can be accurately identified. Besides separability measurements, we performed spectral angle classification, which gave a result of 85% overall accuracy and we also compared the generated land cover map with LIDAR elevation data.

  16. Nonintrusive verification attributes for excess fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Under US initiatives, over two hundred metric tons of fissile materials have been declared to be excess to national defense needs. These excess materials are in both classified and unclassified forms. The US has expressed the intent to place these materials under international inspections as soon as practicable. To support these commitments, members of the US technical community are examining a variety of nonintrusive approaches (i.e., those that would not reveal classified or sensitive information) for verification of a range of potential declarations for these classified and unclassified materials. The most troublesome and potentially difficult issues involve approaches for international inspection of classified materials. The primary focus of the work to date has been on the measurement of signatures of relevant materials attributes (e.g., element, identification number, isotopic ratios, etc.), especially those related to classified materials and items. The authors are examining potential attributes and related measurement technologies in the context of possible verification approaches. The paper will discuss the current status of these activities, including their development, assessment, and benchmarking status

  17. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.

  18. Control rod excess withdrawal prevention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Yoshihito.

    1992-01-01

    Excess withdrawal of a control rod of a BWR type reactor is prevented. That is, the device comprises (1) a speed detector for detecting the driving speed of a control rod, (2) a judging circuit for outputting an abnormal signal if the driving speed is greater than a predetermined level and (3) a direction control valve compulsory closing circuit for controlling the driving direction of inserting and withdrawing a control rod based on an abnormal signal. With such a constitution, when the with drawing speed of a control rod is greater than a predetermined level, it is detected by the speed detector and the judging circuit. Then, all of the direction control valve are closed by way of the direction control valve compulsory closing circuit. As a result, the operation of the control rod is stopped compulsorily and the withdrawing speed of the control rod can be lowered to a speed corresponding to that upon gravitational withdrawal. Accordingly, excess withdrawal can be prevented. (I.S)

  19. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  20. Molecular simulation of excess isotherm and excess enthalpy change in gas-phase adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Nicholson, D

    2009-01-29

    We present a new approach to calculating excess isotherm and differential enthalpy of adsorption on surfaces or in confined spaces by the Monte Carlo molecular simulation method. The approach is very general and, most importantly, is unambiguous in its application to any configuration of solid structure (crystalline, graphite layer or disordered porous glass), to any type of fluid (simple or complex molecule), and to any operating conditions (subcritical or supercritical). The behavior of the adsorbed phase is studied using the partial molar energy of the simulation box. However, to characterize adsorption for comparison with experimental data, the isotherm is best described by the excess amount, and the enthalpy of adsorption is defined as the change in the total enthalpy of the simulation box with the change in the excess amount, keeping the total number (gas + adsorbed phases) constant. The excess quantities (capacity and energy) require a choice of a reference gaseous phase, which is defined as the adsorptive gas phase occupying the accessible volume and having a density equal to the bulk gas density. The accessible volume is defined as the mean volume space accessible to the center of mass of the adsorbate under consideration. With this choice, the excess isotherm passes through a maximum but always remains positive. This is in stark contrast to the literature where helium void volume is used (which is always greater than the accessible volume) and the resulting excess can be negative. Our definition of enthalpy change is equivalent to the difference between the partial molar enthalpy of the gas phase and the partial molar enthalpy of the adsorbed phase. There is no need to assume ideal gas or negligible molar volume of the adsorbed phase as is traditionally done in the literature. We illustrate this new approach with adsorption of argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  1. 31 CFR 353.12 - Disposition of excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary to adjust the excess. Instructions for adjustment of the excess can be obtained by email at [email protected] or by writing to Bureau of the Public Debt, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328. [68 FR 24805...

  2. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Iodine excess, Goiter, Sub Saharan Africa. Iodine Excess is a ... synthesis leading to increased thyroid stimulating hormone ..... study done in Uganda revealed a similar picture ... significant association, probably due to recall bias.

  3. Excessive Fragmentary Myoclonus: What Do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Nepožitek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fragmentary myoclonus (EFM is a polysomnographic finding registered by the surface electromyography (EMG and characterized as a result of the muscle activity consisting of sudden, isolated, arrhythmic, asynchronous and asymmetric brief twitches. The EMG potentials are defined by the exact criteria in The International Classification of the Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition and they appear with high intensity in all sleep stages. Clinical significance of EFM is unclear. It was observed in combination with other diseases and features such as obstructive and central sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movements, insomnia, neurodegenerative disorders and peripheral nerve dysfunction. Relation to such wide range of diseases supports the opinion that EFM is nor a specific sleep disorder nor a specific polysomnographic sign. The option that EFM is a normal variant has also not been ruled out so far.

  4. Di-photon excess illuminates dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backović, Mihailo [Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology - CP3,Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Redigolo, Diego [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589,Universiteé Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2016-03-22

    We propose a simplified model of dark matter with a scalar mediator to accommodate the di-photon excess recently observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Decays of the resonance into dark matter can easily account for a relatively large width of the scalar resonance, while the magnitude of the total width combined with the constraint on dark matter relic density leads to sharp predictions on the parameters of the Dark Sector. Under the assumption of a rather large width, the model predicts a signal consistent with ∼300 GeV dark matter particle and ∼750 GeV scalar mediator in channels with large missing energy. This prediction is not yet severely bounded by LHC Run I searches and will be accessible at the LHC Run II in the jet plus missing energy channel with more luminosity. Our analysis also considers astro-physical constraints, pointing out that future direct detection experiments will be sensitive to this scenario.

  5. Di-photon excess illuminates dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backović, Mihailo; Mariotti, Alberto; Redigolo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simplified model of dark matter with a scalar mediator to accommodate the di-photon excess recently observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Decays of the resonance into dark matter can easily account for a relatively large width of the scalar resonance, while the magnitude of the total width combined with the constraint on dark matter relic density leads to sharp predictions on the parameters of the Dark Sector. Under the assumption of a rather large width, the model predicts a signal consistent with ∼300 GeV dark matter particle and ∼750 GeV scalar mediator in channels with large missing energy. This prediction is not yet severely bounded by LHC Run I searches and will be accessible at the LHC Run II in the jet plus missing energy channel with more luminosity. Our analysis also considers astro-physical constraints, pointing out that future direct detection experiments will be sensitive to this scenario.

  6. Research of Precataclysmic Variables with Radius Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminova, N. R.; Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of the pre-cataclysmic variable NSVS 14256825, which is a HW Vir binary system, were analyzed. The chemical composition is determined, the radial velocities and equivalent widths of a given star are measured. The fundamental parameters of the components were determined (R1 = 0.166 R⊙ , M2 = 0.100 M⊙ , R2 = 0.122 R⊙). It is shown that the secondary component has a mass close to the mass of brown dwarfs. A comparison of two close binary systems is made: HS 2333 + 3927 and NSVS 14256825. A radius-to-mass relationship for the secondary components of the studied pre-cataclysmic variables is constructed. It is concluded that an excess of radii relative to model predictions for MS stars is observed in virtually all systems.

  7. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance

  8. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  9. Origin of Tungsten Excess in Komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Brandon, A. D.; Walker, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The limited database available for W abundances in komatiites (n=7, Newsom et al., 1996) suggests that when melting and fractional crystallization effects are filtered out, these komatiites have about 10 times higher W, compared to other mantle-derived mafic-ultramafic magmas (MORB, OIB). The excess of W in the komatiites relative to lithophile highly incompatible elements becomes obvious when compared with the low concentrations of the light REE Ce and Nd (about 1-2 ug/g in many komatiites, compared to > 10 ug/g in most MORB and OIB). In order to increase the komatiite W database, komatiite samples from Phanerozoic (Gorgona Island) and Archean terraines (Boston Creek/Canada, Belingwe/South Africa, 2.7 Ga) were dissolved and W was separated in order to obtain W concentrations by isotope dilution. Except for one sample from Gorgona Island with low W (23 ng/g), samples from all three locales show high W (516 to 2643 ng/g), with most samples containing near 700 ng/g W. Three Hawaiian picrites (H23, LO-02-04, MK-1-6) were also analyzed for comparative purposes and contain 75, 163 and 418 ng/g W, respectively. The W concentrations in the Hawaiian picrites are comparable or lower than W concentrations in Hawaiian tholeiites (Newsom et al., 1996). Mass balance considerations suggest that it is unlikely that the W excess in komatiites reflects W contributions to the mantle sources of komatiites from the outer core. The W enrichment could result from shallow-level alteration processes if primary W abundances of komatiites were low and W was added via fluids, containing W and other fluid-mobile elements derived from crustal rocks. Because most W in such samples would be of crustal origin, small contributions from the outer core may be difficult to detect using 182W systematics (Schersten et al., 2003).

  10. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-08-25

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis.

  11. Excessive anticoagulation with warfarin or phenprocoumon may have multiple causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meegaard, Peter Martin; Holck, Line H V; Pottegård, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Excessive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a serious condition with a substantial risk of an adverse outcome. We thus found it of interest to review a large case series to characterize the underlying causes of excessive anticoagulation.......Excessive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a serious condition with a substantial risk of an adverse outcome. We thus found it of interest to review a large case series to characterize the underlying causes of excessive anticoagulation....

  12. Use of anaerobic hydrolysis pretreatment to enhance ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjin; Zhu, Tong; Shen, Yang; Chai, Tianyu; Xie, Yuanhua; You, Meiyan; Wang, Youzhao

    2016-01-01

    To improve the excess sludge disintegration efficiency, reduce the sludge disintegration cost, and increase sludge biodegradability, a combined pretreatment of anaerobic hydrolysis (AH) and ultrasonic treatment (UT) was proposed for excess sludge. Results showed that AH had an advantage in dissolving flocs, modifying sludge characteristics, and reducing the difficulty of sludge disintegration, whereas UT was advantageous in damaging cell walls, releasing intracellular substances, and decomposing macromolecular material. The combined AH-UT process was an efficient method for excess sludge pretreatment. The optimized solution involved AH for 3 days, followed by UT for 10 min. After treatment, chemical oxygen demand, protein, and peptidoglycan concentrations reached 3,949.5 mg O2/L, 752.5 mg/L and 619.1 mg/L, respectively. This work has great significance for further engineering applications, namely, reducing energy consumption, increasing the sludge disintegration rate, and improving the biochemical properties of sludge.

  13. APC/C Dysfunction Limits Excessive Cancer Chromosomal Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansregret, Laurent; Patterson, James O; Dewhurst, Sally; López-García, Carlos; Koch, André; McGranahan, Nicholas; Chao, William Chong Hang; Barry, David J; Rowan, Andrew; Instrell, Rachael; Horswell, Stuart; Way, Michael; Howell, Michael; Singleton, Martin R; Medema, René H; Nurse, Paul; Petronczki, Mark; Swanton, Charles

    2017-02-01

    Intercellular heterogeneity, exacerbated by chromosomal instability (CIN), fosters tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. However, extreme CIN correlates with improved cancer outcome, suggesting that karyotypic diversity required to adapt to selection pressures might be balanced in tumors against the risk of excessive instability. Here, we used a functional genomics screen, genome editing, and pharmacologic approaches to identify CIN-survival factors in diploid cells. We find partial anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) dysfunction lengthens mitosis, suppresses pharmacologically induced chromosome segregation errors, and reduces naturally occurring lagging chromosomes in cancer cell lines or following tetraploidization. APC/C impairment caused adaptation to MPS1 inhibitors, revealing a likely resistance mechanism to therapies targeting the spindle assembly checkpoint. Finally, CRISPR-mediated introduction of cancer somatic mutations in the APC/C subunit cancer driver gene CDC27 reduces chromosome segregation errors, whereas reversal of an APC/C subunit nonsense mutation increases CIN. Subtle variations in mitotic duration, determined by APC/C activity, influence the extent of CIN, allowing cancer cells to dynamically optimize fitness during tumor evolution. We report a mechanism whereby cancers balance the evolutionary advantages associated with CIN against the fitness costs caused by excessive genome instability, providing insight into the consequence of CDC27 APC/C subunit driver mutations in cancer. Lengthening of mitosis through APC/C modulation may be a common mechanism of resistance to cancer therapeutics that increase chromosome segregation errors. Cancer Discov; 7(2); 218-33. ©2017 AACR.See related commentary by Burkard and Weaver, p. 134This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 115. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Excessive Testing and Pupils in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the question of excessive testing in public schools, its value in the educational process, and the impact that excessive testing may have on the student and the family unit. While assessments are valuable when used properly, excessive testing may lead to problems with unforeseen consequences.

  15. Monetary Policy and Excessive Bank Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agur, I.; Demertzis, M.

    2010-01-01

    If monetary policy is to aim at financial stability, how would it change? To analyze this question, this paper develops a general-form model with endogenous bank risk profiles. Policy rates affect both bank incentives to search for yield and the cost of wholesale funding. Financial stability

  16. A COMPREHENSIVE CENSUS OF NEARBY INFRARED EXCESS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok, E-mail: tara@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope . We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3 σ or 5 σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (∼1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  17. ATLAS Z Excess in Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Terada, Takahiro

    2015-06-01

    Recently the ATLAS collaboration reported a 3 sigma excess in the search for the events containing a dilepton pair from a Z boson and large missing transverse energy. Although the excess is not sufficiently significant yet, it is quite tempting to explain this excess by a well-motivated model beyond the standard model. In this paper we study a possibility of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for this excess. Especially, we focus on the MSSM spectrum where the sfermions are heavier than the gauginos and Higgsinos. We show that the excess can be explained by the reasonable MSSM mass spectrum.

  18. 75 FR 30846 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income (Correction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income (Correction) AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information.... Project owners are permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request must be...

  19. 40 CFR 35.6285 - Recipient payment of response costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of response costs. The recipient may pay for its share of response costs using cash, services... costs in the form of cash. (b) Services. The recipient may provide equipment and services to satisfy its... CFR part 300). (d) Excess cash cost share contributions/overmatch. The recipient may direct EPA to...

  20. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4, it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  1. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieja, Iwona

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4), it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  2. Dark matter "transporting" mechanism explaining positron excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2018-04-01

    We propose a novel mechanism to explain the positron excesses, which are observed by satellite-based telescopes including PAMELA and AMS-02, in dark matter (DM) scenarios. The novelty behind the proposal is that it makes direct use of DM around the Galactic Center where DM populates most densely, allowing us to avoid tensions from cosmological and astrophysical measurements. The key ingredients of this mechanism include DM annihilation into unstable states with a very long laboratory-frame life time and their "retarded" decay near the Earth to electron-positron pair(s) possibly with other (in)visible particles. We argue that this sort of explanation is not in conflict with relevant constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background. Regarding the resultant positron spectrum, we provide a generalized source term in the associated diffusion equation, which can be readily applicable to any type of two-"stage" DM scenarios wherein production of Standard Model particles occurs at completely different places from those of DM annihilation. We then conduct a data analysis with the recent AMS-02 data to validate our proposal.

  3. Medical Ethics and Protection from Excessive Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, I.

    1998-01-01

    Among artificial sources of ionic radiation people are most often exposed to those emanating from X-ray diagnostic equipment. However, responsible usage of X-ray diagnostic methods may considerably reduce the general exposure to radiation. A research on rational access to X-ray diagnostic methods conducted at the X-ray Cabinet of the Tresnjevka Health Center was followed by a control survey eight years later of the rational methods applied, which showed that the number of unnecessary diagnostic examining was reduced for 34 % and the diagnostic indications were 10-40 $ more precise. The results therefore proved that radiation problems were reduced accordingly. The measures applied consisted of additional training organized for health care workers and a better education of the population. The basic element was then the awareness of both health care workers and the patients that excessive radiation should be avoided. The condition for achieving this lies in the moral responsibility of protecting the patients' health. A radiologist, being the person that promotes and carries out this moral responsibility, should organize and hold continual additional training of medical doctors, as well as education for the patients, and apply modern equipment. The basis of such an approach should be established by implementing medical ethics at all medical schools and faculties, together with the promotion of a wider intellectual and moral integrity of each medical doctor. (author)

  4. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (Pmarathon runners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (Pperformance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.

  5. Excessive Neural Responses and Visual Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L O'Hare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially and temporally periodic patterns can look aversive to some individuals (Wilkins et al, 1984, Brain, 107, 989-1017, especially clinical populations such as migraine (Marcus and Soso, 1989, Arch Neurol., 46(10, 1129-32 epilepsy (Wilkins, Darby and Binnie, 1979, Brain, 102, 1-25. It has been suggested that this might be due to excessive neural responses (Juricevic, Land, Wilkins and Webster, 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884-899. Spatial frequency content has been shown to affect both relative and absolute discomfort judgements for spatially periodic riloid stimuli (Clark, O'Hare and Hibbard, 2013, Perception, ECVP Supp.; O'Hare, Clark and Hibbard, 2013, Perception ECVP Supplement. The current study investigated the possibility of whether neural correlates of visual discomfort from periodic stimuli could be measured using EEG. Stimuli were first matched for perceived contrast using a self adjustment task. EEG measurements were then obtained, alongside subjective discomfort judgements. Subjective discomfort judgements support those found previously, under various circumstances, indicating that spatial frequency plays a role in the perceived discomfort of periodic images. However, trends in EEG responses do not appear to have a straightforward relationship to subjective discomfort judgements.

  6. What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The deuterium excess (d of precipitation is widely used in the reconstruction of past climatic changes from ice cores. However, its most common interpretation as moisture source temperature cannot directly be inferred from present-day water isotope observations. Here, we use a new empirical relation between d and near-surface relative humidity (RH together with reanalysis data to globally predict d of surface evaporation from the ocean. The very good quantitative agreement of the predicted hemispherically averaged seasonal cycle with observed d in precipitation indicates that moisture source relative humidity, and not sea surface temperature, is the main driver of d variability on seasonal timescales. Furthermore, we review arguments for an interpretation of long-term palaeoclimatic d changes in terms of moisture source temperature, and we conclude that there remains no sufficient evidence that would justify to neglect the influence of RH on such palaeoclimatic d variations. Hence, we suggest that either the interpretation of d variations in palaeorecords should be adapted to reflect climatic influences on RH during evaporation, in particular atmospheric circulation changes, or new arguments for an interpretation in terms of moisture source temperature will have to be provided based on future research.

  7. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of 240 Pu to 239 Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime

  8. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de [Theory group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  9. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  10. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.

  11. Cryolipolysis for reduction of excess adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew A; Wasserman, Daniel; Avram, Mathew M

    2009-12-01

    Controlled cold exposure has long been reported to be a cause of panniculitis in cases such as popsicle panniculitis. Cryolipolysis is a new technology that uses cold exposure, or energy extraction, to result in localized panniculitis and modulation of fat. Presently, the Zeltiq cryolipolysis device is FDA cleared for skin cooling, as well as various other indications, but not for lipolysis. There is, however, a pending premarket notification for noninvasive fat layer reduction. Initial animal and human studies have demonstrated significant reductions in the superficial fat layer thickness, ranging from 20% to 80%, following a single cryolipolysis treatment. The decrease in fat thickness occurs gradually over the first 3 months following treatment, and is most pronounced in patients with limited, discrete fat bulges. Erythema of the skin, bruising, and temporary numbness at the treatment site are commonly observed following treatment with the device, though these effects largely resolve in approximately 1 week. To date, there have been no reports of scarring, ulceration, or alterations in blood lipid or liver function profiles. Cryolipolysis is a new, noninvasive treatment option that may be of benefit in the treatment of excess adipose tissue.

  12. Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hektor, Andi [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala pst. 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Marzola, Luca [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala pst. 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-07-25

    Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.

  13. The Cost of Relapse in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Mark; McCrone, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating mental illness characterised by periods of relapse that require resource intensive management. Quantifying the cost of relapse is central to the evaluation of the cost effectiveness of treating schizophrenia. We aimed to undertake a comprehensive search of the available literature on the cost of relapse. We performed a search on multiple databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Health Management Information Consortium) for any study reporting a cost of relapse or data from which such a cost could be calculated. Costs are reported in 2015 international dollars. We found 16 studies reporting costs associated with relapse over a defined period of time and identified a cost associated with hospitalisation for relapse in 43 studies. Eight clinical decision analyses also provided cost estimates. Studies from the US report excess costs of relapse of $6033-$32,753 (2015 Purchasing Power Parity dollars [PPP$]) over periods of 12-15 months. European studies report excess costs of $8665-$18,676 (2015 PPP$) over periods of 6-12 months. Estimates of the cost of hospitalisation for relapse are more diverse, and associated with marked differences in typical length of stay across jurisdictions. Wide ranges in the estimated cost of relapse may reflect differences in sample section and relapse definition as well as practice styles and differences in resource costs. Selection of the most appropriate cost estimate should be guided by the definition of relapse and the analysis setting.

  14. Estimating the cost of a smoking employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Micah; Crane, Rob; Seiber, Eric; Munur, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    We attempted to estimate the excess annual costs that a US private employer may attribute to employing an individual who smokes tobacco as compared to a non-smoking employee. Reviewing and synthesising previous literature estimating certain discrete costs associated with smoking employees, we developed a cost estimation approach that approximates the total of such costs for U.S. employers. We examined absenteeism, presenteesim, smoking breaks, healthcare costs and pension benefits for smokers. Our best estimate of the annual excess cost to employ a smoker is $5816. This estimate should be taken as a general indicator of the extent of excess costs, not as a predictive point value. Employees who smoke impose significant excess costs on private employers. The results of this study may help inform employer decisions about tobacco-related policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Excess Hospitalization Expenses Attributable to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, May Ee; Yoong, Joanne; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chia, Kee Seng

    2018-04-20

    To estimate the excess hospitalization expenses attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a high-income Asian country from the health system perspective and the patient perspective. Electronic medical records from a tertiary academic hospital in Singapore from 2012 to 2013 were used to create propensity score-matched cohorts with and without T2DM on the basis of their entry characteristics. A two-part model was then used to control for remaining differences between the cohorts. Excess cost due to diabetes was defined as the difference in hospital expenses between a patient with diabetes and a matched patient without diabetes. As part of the sensitivity analysis, a two-part model without matching and different matching algorithms were used to obtain the range of hospitalization expenses attributable to patients with T2DM. Balance of covariates after matching was investigated. All costs were presented in 2013 US dollars. Mean adjusted excess hospital expense of one hospital visit attributable to diabetes was approximately $1007 and $113 from the health system perspective and the patient perspective, respectively. For the cohort of patients with T2DM in Singapore, this amounts to a total average expenditure of $117 million and $13 million from the health system perspective and the patient perspective, respectively. Hospitalization expenses from diabetes result in a significant cost to the health care system in Singapore. Nevertheless, the excess burden of hospitalization on patients is mitigated significantly by cost sharing, which may reduce financial incentives to avert admissions through preventative care, which is largely out-of-pocket. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Dynamics of the G-excess illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, K. A.; Reschke, M.; Guedry, F. E.; Mcgrath, B. J.; Rupert, A. H.

    1992-01-01

    The G-excess illusion is increasingly recognized as a cause of aviation mishaps especially when pilots perform high-speed, steeply banked turns at low altitudes. Centrifuge studies of this illusion have examined the perception of subject orientation and/or target displacement during maintained hypergravity with the subject's head held stationary. The transient illusory perceptions produced by moving the head in hypergravity are difficult to study onboard centrifuges because the high angular velocity ensures the presence of strong Coriolis cross-coupled semicircular canal effects that mask immediate transient otolith-organ effects. The present study reports perceptions following head movements in hypergravity produced by high-speed aircraft maintaining a banked attitude with low angular velocity to minimize cross-coupled effects. Methods: Fourteen subjects flew on the NASA KC-135 and were exposed to resultant gravity forces of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 G for 3 minute periods. On command, seated subjects made controlled head movements in roll, pitch, and yaw at 30 second intervals both in the dark and with faint targets at a distance of 5 feet. Results: head movement produced transient perception of target displacement and velocity at levels as low as 1.3 G. Reports of target velocity without appropriate corresponding displacement were common. At 1.8 G when yaw head movements were made from a face down position, 4 subjects reported oscillatory rotational target displacement with fast and slow alternating components suggestive of torsional nystagmus. Head movements evoked symptoms of nausea in most subjects, with 2 subjects and 1 observer vomiting. Conclusions: The transient percepts present conflicting signals, which introduced confusion in target and subject orientation. Repeated head movements in hypergravity generate nausea by mechanisms distinct from cross-coupled Coriolis effects.

  17. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1).

  18. Millisecond Pulsars and the Galactic Center Excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Koh, Yew-Meng; Kust Harding, Alice; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.

    2017-08-01

    Various groups including the Fermi team have confirmed the spectrum of the gamma- ray excess in the Galactic Center (GCE). While some authors interpret the GCE as evidence for the annihilation of dark matter (DM), others have pointed out that the GCE spectrum is nearly identical to the average spectrum of Fermi millisecond pul- sars (MSP). Assuming the Galactic Center (GC) is populated by a yet unobserved source of MSPs that has similar properties to that of MSPs in the Galactic Disk (GD), we present results of a population synthesis of MSPs from the GC. We establish parameters of various models implemented in the simulation code by matching characteristics of 54 detected Fermi MSPs in the first point source catalog and 92 detected radio MSPs in a select group of thirteen radio surveys and targeting a birth rate of 45 MSPs per mega-year. As a check of our simulation, we find excellent agreement with the estimated numbers of MSPs in eight globular clusters. In order to reproduce the gamma-ray spectrum of the GCE, we need to populate the GC with 10,000 MSPs having a Navarro-Frenk-White distribution suggested by the halo density of DM. It may be possible for Fermi to detect some of these MSPs in the near future; the simulation also predicts that many GC MSPs have radio fluxes S1400above 10 �μJy observable by future pointed radio observations. We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (RUI: AST-1009731), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program (NNX09AQ71G).

  19. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  1. Excessive exposures of diagnostic X-ray workers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambiger, T.Y.; Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The excessive exposures (i.e. exceeding 400 mrems per fortnight) of diagnostic X-ray workers revealed under the countrywide personnel monitoring programme in India have been analysed. The analysis covers the data collected over a period of ten years during 1965-1974. The radiation workers in medical X-ray diagnostic group receiving an excess dose are found to be less than 1%. Each case of the excess dose is throughly investigated and nongenuine cases are separated and causes for genuine excessive exposures are traced. The causes and the corrective measures are enumerated. (M.G.B.)

  2. Understanding Excess Emissions from Industrial Facilities: Evidence from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirogiannis, Nikolaos; Hollingsworth, Alex J; Konisky, David M

    2018-03-06

    We analyze excess emissions from industrial facilities in Texas using data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Emissions are characterized as excess if they are beyond a facility's permitted levels and if they occur during startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. We provide summary data on both the pollutants most often emitted as excess emissions and the industrial sectors and facilities responsible for those emissions. Excess emissions often represent a substantial share of a facility's routine (or permitted) emissions. We find that while excess emissions events are frequent, the majority of excess emissions are emitted by the largest events. That is, the sum of emissions in the 96-100th percentile is often several orders of magnitude larger than the remaining excess emissions (i.e., the sum of emissions below the 95th percentile). Thus, the majority of events emit a small amount of pollution relative to the total amount emitted. In addition, a small group of high emitting facilities in the most polluting industrial sectors are responsible for the vast majority of excess emissions. Using an integrated assessment model, we estimate that the health damages in Texas from excess emissions are approximately $150 million annually.

  3. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  4. The effect of excessive iodine diet on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhua; Li Yaming

    2009-01-01

    The modify of the thyroid cell structure can be induced by excessive iodine diet. Then the disordered thyroid function can result in a number of thyroid disease. The radionucline thyroid imaging play an important role in diagnoses of thyroid. Amplify on the effect of excessive diet on thyroid function will be worthy instructing what preparation should do before doing the thyroid nuclide imaging. (authors)

  5. Management of excessive movable tissue: a modified impression technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Michael H C; Pow, Edmond H N

    2014-08-01

    Excessive movable tissue is a challenge in complete denture prosthetics. A modified impression technique is presented with polyvinyl siloxane impression material and a custom tray with relief areas and perforations in the area of the excessive movable tissue. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  7. 30 CFR 75.323 - Actions for excessive methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions for excessive methane. 75.323 Section... excessive methane. (a) Location of tests. Tests for methane concentrations under this section shall be made.... (1) When 1.0 percent or more methane is present in a working place or an intake air course, including...

  8. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excess molar volumes (E) and deviation in isentropic compressibilities (s) have been investigated from the density and speed of sound measurements of six binary liquid mixtures containing -alkanes over the entire range of composition at 298.15 K. Excess molar volume exhibits inversion in sign in one binary ...

  9. Goodwill, Excess Returns, and Determinants of Value Creation and Overpayment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lycklama a Nijeholt, M.; Grift, Y.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073586358

    2007-01-01

    In this article we have investigated whether the determinants of excess returns (especially of target excess returns) are valid for purchased goodwill as well. Among them are acquirer’s and target’s Tobin’s q, and debt assets ratio, that explain value creation of acquisitions, and relative size,

  10. Criminal Liability of Managers for Excessive Risk-Taking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosza, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to analyse and evaluate the criminalisation of excessively risky decisions taken by managers of limited liability companies. The potentially disastrous consequences of excessive risk-taking were powerfully highlighted by the most recent financial crunch, although its

  11. Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    Report No. D-2009-104 September 21, 2009 Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology Equipment...2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sanitization and Disposal of Excess Information Technology ...Defense (Networks and Information Integration)/DOD Chief Information Officer DRMS Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service IT Information

  12. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA must...

  13. 40 CFR 57.304 - Bypass, excess emissions and malfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (performance level of interim constant controls) or § 57.303 (plantwide emission limitation) of this subpart... limitation, as well as the operating data, documents, and calculations used in determining the magnitude of the excess emissions; (3) Time and duration of the excess emissions; (4) Identity of the equipment...

  14. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refunds of excess customs duties. 10.625 Section 10.625 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... and Apparel Goods § 10.625 Refunds of excess customs duties. (a) Applicability. Section 205 of the...

  15. A Practical Approach For Excess Bandwidth Distribution for EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2014-03-09

    This paper introduces a novel approach called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES), which practically reuse the excess bandwidth in EPONs system. DES is suitable for the industrial deployment as it requires no timing constraint and achieves better performance compared to the previously reported schemes.

  16. Excess mortality in mothers of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, Y. V.; Roest-Schalken, M. E.; Kleefstra, N.; van Lennep, J. Roeters; van den Berg, M.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Sijbrands, E. J. G.; Laven, J. S. E.

    STUDY QUESTION: Do diabetic parents of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) encounter excess mortality compared with the mortality of men and women with type 2 diabetes, recruited without selection for PCOS? SUMMARY ANSWER: Type 2 diabetes among mothers of PCOS patients results in excess

  17. 40 CFR 76.13 - Compliance and excess emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance and excess emissions. 76.13 Section 76.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.13 Compliance and excess emissions...

  18. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…

  19. ON INFRARED EXCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH Li-RICH K GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center - IPAC, 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Carlberg, Joleen K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibbs, John C.; Cashen, Sarah; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan [Glencoe High School, 2700 NW Glencoe Rd., Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Deeb, J. Elin [Bear Creek High School, 9800 W. Dartmouth Pl., Lakewood, CO 80227 (United States); Larsen, Estefania; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Clarke, Matthew [Millard South High School, 14905 Q St., Omaha, NE 68137 (United States); Black, David V., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Walden School of Liberal Arts, 4230 N. University Ave., Provo, UT 84604 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the

  20. Carbon source recovery from excess sludge by mechanical disintegration for biological denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrowska-Sudol, M

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the possibility of carbon source recovery from excess sludge by mechanical disintegration for biological denitrification. The total efficiency of denitrification, unit demand for organic compounds for denitrification, unit volume of disintegrated sludge and unit cost of nitrogen removal as a function of energy density used for excess sludge disintegration (70, 140 and 210 kJ/L) were analyzed. In the study a full-scale disc disintegrator was used (motor power: 30 kWh, motor speed: 2,950 rpm). It was shown that the amounts of organic compounds released from the activated sludge flocs at all tested levels of energy density are high enough to be used to intensify the removal of nitrogen compounds from wastewater. It was also documented that the energy density provided during process of disintegration was an important factor determining the characteristics of organic compounds obtained under the disintegration for their use in order to intensify the process of denitrification. The highest value of total efficiency of denitrification (50.5 ± 3.1 mg N/L) was obtained for carbon source recovery from excess sludge at 70 kJ/L, but the lowest unit cost of nitrogen removal occurred for 140 kJ/L (0.0019 ± 0.0011 EUR/g N).

  1. Scheme to reward microgenerators exporting excess electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Many suppliers are offering tariffs for export. However, many of the tariffs on offer deliver a value that is higher than the underlying commercial value of the electricity to the supplier. In most cases suppliers do not currently register the export within the industry's settlement arrangements and so gain no value from the export they have purchased. It is clear from this that the current situation is unlikely to be sustainable and suppliers will not be able to offer significant payment for a product that has little commercial value to them when the numbers of exporting microgenerators increases. Initiatives to simplify and streamline the existing trading arrangements should be progressed; this should include simplification of processes for registering new export customers and improvements in the provision of new export meters. Suppliers should initiate the change management procedures required to progress Option 1 (allowing suppliers to register a customer's export and import under a single registration (a single MPAN)) through the industry's normal change management procedures. Ofgem should ensure that its review of the Structure of Distribution charges includes the treatment of DUoS charges for customers with microgeneration and ensure that they properly reflect the benefits of microgeneration. Any changes that are progressed should not prevent the subsequent introduction of 'smart meters' that could process both import and export electricity data. Ofgem should ensure that the cost effectiveness of including both an import and export capability in all new metering systems is assessed as part of the metering innovation agenda. Suppliers should make the prices they are offering for export more widely available in a simple and easy to understand form. Government should consider whether additional intervention is required to yield a higher value for exported electricity (or total generation) via mechanisms such as those contemplated under Option 3 (The supplier

  2. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrović, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth; Elmegaard, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Method for utilisation potential of industrial excess heat for district heating. •Industrial excess heat from thermal processes is quantified at single production units. •Linking of industrial excess heat sources and district heating demands done in GIS. •Excess heat recovery using direct heat transfer and heat pumps. •5.1% of the Danish district heating demand could be supplied by industrial excess heat. -- Abstract: Excess heat is available from various sources and its utilisation could reduce the primary energy use. The accessibility of this heat is however dependent amongst others on the source and sink temperature, amount and potential users in its vicinity. In this work a new method is developed which analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal processes which equals 5.1% of the current demand. More than half of this heat was found to be usable directly, without the need for a heat pump.

  3. Energetics and dynamics of excess electrons in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space, B.

    1992-01-01

    Excess electronic dynamical and equilibrium properties are modeled in both polarizable and nonpolarizable noble gas fluids. Explicit dynamical calculations are carried out for excess electrons in fluid helium, where excess electronic eigenstates are localized. Energetics and dynamics are considered for fluids which span the entire range of polarizability present in the rare gases. Excess electronic eigenstates and eigenvalues are calculated for fluids of helium, argon and xenon. Both equilibrium and dynamical information is obtained from the calculation of these wavefunctions. A surface hopping trajectory method for studying nonadiabatic excess electronic relaxation in condensed systems is used to explore the nonadiabatic relaxation after photoexciting an equilibrated excess electron in dense fluid helium. The different types on nonadiabatic phenomena which are important in excess electronic relaxation are surveyed. The same surface hopping trajectory method is also used to study the rapid nonadiabatic relaxation after an excess electron is injected into unperturbed fluid helium. Several distinctively different relaxation processes, characterized by their relative importance at different times during the relaxation to a localized equilibrium state, are detailed. Though the dynamical properties of excess electrons under the conditions considered here have never been studied before, the behavior is remarkably similar to that observed in both experimental and theoretical studies of electron hydration dynamics, indicating that the processes described may be very general relaxation mechanisms for localization and trapping in fluids. Additionally, ground state energies of an excess electron, e 0 , are computed as a function of solvent density using model electron-atom pseudopotentials in fluid helium, argon, and xenon. The nonuniqueness of the pseudopotential description of electron-molecule interactions is demonstrated

  4. Efeito do consumo excessivo de oxigênio após exercício e da taxa metabólica de repouso no gasto energético Efecto del consumo excesivo de oxígeno después del ejercicio y de la tasa metabólica de reposo en el desgaste energético Effects of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in energetic cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Foureaux

    2006-12-01

    y recuperación (EPOC - consumo excesivo de oxígeno después del ejercicio, y en la segunda se encuentra la tasa metabólica de reposo (TMR. De esta forma, el objetivo de este trabajo de revisión ha sido el de investigar el efecto de EPOC y de TMR como coadyuvantes en los programas de adelgazamiento, buscando discutir los divergentes resultados encontrados en la literatura, en lo que se refiere a la magnitud y duración de EPOC, así como discutir el efecto del ejercicio en TMR. Los estudios demostraron, de una forma general, que el ejercicio de mayor intensidad es capaz de promover un mayor EPOC, al ser comparado con un ejercicio de intensidad menor y, cuando compararon el ejercicio de resistencia con el aeróbico, se verifica un mayor EPOC en el primero. En relación a las alteraciones de TMR, los resultados agudos muestran un aumento significativo, pero los resultados a largo plazo son más discrepantes, debido a la dificultad de medir esa variable, sin superestimarla. En conclusión, la literatura apunta que la periodicidad de un entrenamiento que pueda maximizar tanto EPOC como TMR, que pueden ser importantes factores para adelgazamiento, a pesar del costo energético de esas variables en una sesión de ejercicio se muestre pequeño, a largo plazo podrá ser bastante significativo. Sin embargo, nuevos estudios deberán ser realizados con el intuito de confirmar estas evidencias.The constant growth of obesity and overweight only goes to show the need of intervention to reverse those figures. In this context, physical activity can contribute with a double effect, through acute and chronic physiological changes: in the first condition one can find the energetic cost from exercising and recovery (EPOC - excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, and in the second, the resting metabolic rate (RMR. Thus, this revision's goal was to investigate the effect of EPOC and RMR as supporting factors in weight-control programs, willing to discuss the different results found

  5. Suppression of excess noise in Transition-Edge Sensors using magnetic field and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Doriese, W.B.; Hilton, G.C.; Beall, J.A.; Deiker, S.; Irwin, K.D.; Reintsema, C.D.; Vale, L.R.; Xu, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We report recent progress at NIST on Mo/Cu Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs). While the signal-band noise of our sensors agrees with theory, we observe excess high-frequency noise. We describe this noise and demonstrate that it can be strongly suppressed by a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the sensor. Both the excess noise and α=(T/R)(dR/dT) depend strongly on field so our results show that accurate comparisons between devices are only possible when the field is well known or constant. We also present results showing the noise performance of TES designs incorporating parallel and perpendicular normal metal bars, an array of normal metal islands, and in wedge-shaped devices. We demonstrate significant reduction of high-frequency noise with the perpendicular bar devices at the cost of reduced α. Both the bars and the magnetic field are useful noise reduction techniques for bolometers

  6. Teacher Costs

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this technical brief is to assess current methodologies for the collection and calculation of teacher costs in European Union (EU) Member States in view of improving data series and indicators related to teacher salaries and teacher costs. To this end, CRELL compares the Eurydice collection on teacher salaries with the similar Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data collection and calculates teacher costs based on the methodology established by Statis...

  7. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color, physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1 and it was higher in males (84.3% compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure.

  8. The development of multi-objective optimization model for excess bagasse utilization: A case study for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddadee, Bancha; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Watts, Daniel J.; Pitakaso, Rapeepan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed as a tool to assist in deciding for the proper utilization scheme of excess bagasse produced in sugarcane industry. Two major scenarios for excess bagasse utilization are considered in the optimization. The first scenario is the typical situation when excess bagasse is used for the onsite electricity production. In case of the second scenario, excess bagasse is processed for the offsite ethanol production. Then the ethanol is blended with an octane rating of 91 gasoline by a portion of 10% and 90% by volume respectively and the mixture is used as alternative fuel for gasoline vehicles in Thailand. The model proposed in this paper called 'Environmental System Optimization' comprises the life cycle impact assessment of global warming potential (GWP) and the associated cost followed by the multi-objective optimization which facilitates in finding out the optimal proportion of the excess bagasse processed in each scenario. Basic mathematical expressions for indicating the GWP and cost of the entire process of excess bagasse utilization are taken into account in the model formulation and optimization. The outcome of this study is the methodology developed for decision-making concerning the excess bagasse utilization available in Thailand in view of the GWP and economic effects. A demonstration example is presented to illustrate the advantage of the methodology which may be used by the policy maker. The methodology developed is successfully performed to satisfy both environmental and economic objectives over the whole life cycle of the system. It is shown in the demonstration example that the first scenario results in positive GWP while the second scenario results in negative GWP. The combination of these two scenario results in positive or negative GWP depending on the preference of the weighting given to each objective. The results on economics of all scenarios show the satisfied outcomes

  9. Timing of Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy Modulates Newborn Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchat, Stephanie-May; Allard, Catherine; Doyon, Myriam; Lacroix, Marilyn; Guillemette, Laetitia; Patenaude, Julie; Battista, Marie-Claude; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Bouchard, Luigi; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-02-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and neonatal adiposity. However, timing of excessive GWG may have a differential impact on birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of early and mid/late excessive GWG on newborn anthropometry in the context of the Canadian clinical recommendations that are specific for first trimester and for second/third trimesters based on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. We included 607 glucose-tolerant women in our main analyses, after excluding women who had less than the recommended total GWG. Maternal body weight was measured in early pregnancy, mid-pregnancy, and late pregnancy. Maternal and fetal clinical outcomes were collected, including newborn anthropometry. Women were divided into four groups according to the Canadian guidelines for GWG in the first and in the second/third trimesters: (1) "overall non-excessive" (reference group); (2) "early excessive GWG"; (3) "mid/late excessive GWG"; and (4) "overall excessive GWG." Differences in newborn anthropometry were tested across GWG categories. Women had a mean (±SD) pre-pregnancy BMI of 24.7 ± 5.2 kg/m(2) and total GWG of 15.3 ± 4.4 kg. Women with mid/late excessive GWG gave birth to heavier babies (gestational age-adjusted birth weight z-score 0.33 ± 0.91) compared with women in the reference group (0.00 ± 0.77, P = 0.007), whereas women with early excessive GWG gave birth to babies of similar weight (gestational age-adjusted z-score 0.01 ± 0.86) to the reference group (0.00 ± 0.77, P = 0.84). When we stratified our analyses and investigated women who gained within the recommendations for total GWG, mid/late excessive GWG specifically was associated with greater newborn size, similar to our main analyses. Excessive GWG in mid/late pregnancy in women who did not gain weight excessively in early pregnancy is associated with increased birth size, even in those who gained within the Canadian recommendations

  10. Thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures of tetrahydropyran with pyridine and isomeric picolines: Excess molar volumes, excess molar enthalpies and excess isentropic compressibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Neeti; Jangra, Sunil K.; Yadav, J.S.; Sharma, Dimple; Sharma, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Densities, ρ and speeds of sound, u of tetrahydropyran (i) + pyridine or α-, β- or γ-picoline (j) binary mixtures at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K and excess molar enthalpies, H E of the same set of mixtures at 308.15 K have been measured as a function of composition. → The observed densities and speeds of sound values have been employed to determine excess molar volumes, V E and excess isentropic compressibilities, κ S E . → Topology of the constituents of mixtures has been utilized (Graph theory) successfully to predict V E , H E and κ S E data of the investigated mixtures. → Thermodynamic data of the various mixtures have also been analyzed in terms of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory. - Abstract: Densities, ρ and speeds of sound, u of tetrahydropyran (i) + pyridine or α-, β- or γ- picoline (j) binary mixtures at 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K and excess molar enthalpies, H E of the same set of mixtures at 308.15 K have been measured as a function of composition using an anton Parr vibrating-tube digital density and sound analyzer (model DSA 5000) and 2-drop micro-calorimeter, respectively. The resulting density and speed of sound data of the investigated mixtures have been utilized to predict excess molar volumes, V E and excess isentropic compressibilities, κ S E . The observed data have been analyzed in terms of (i) Graph theory; (ii) Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory. It has been observed that V E , H E and κ S E data predicted by Graph theory compare well with their experimental values.

  11. Rehabilitation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [BDM Corp., VA (United States); [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates.

  12. Rehabilitation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates

  13. Cost considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evelien Eggink

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Lasten onder de loep The Dutch government spends almost 7 billion euros  each year on care for people with intellectual disabilities, and these costs are rising steadily. This report analyses what underlies the increase in costs that occurred between 2007 and 2011. Was

  14. Troubleshooting Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  15. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  16. Evaluation of effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from indoor and outdoor gamma dose rate of university of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State. ... Therefore, the management of University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital ...

  17. Implications of /sup 36/A excess on Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Space and Aeronautical Science

    1979-05-01

    The finding of /sup 36/A excess on Venus by the mass-spectroscopic measurement of the Venus Pioneer appears to endorse the more rapid accretion theory of Venus than the Earth and the secondary origin of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  18. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... April 15, 2014 Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported ... may lead to the overproduction of androgens — male hormones similar to testosterone — occurring in women with polycystic ...

  19. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excess molar volume; binary liquid mixtures; isentropic compressibility; intermolecular interactions. ... mixtures are essential for fluid flow, mass flow and heat transfer processes in chemical ... Experimentally determined values of density(ρ).

  20. Characteristics of adolescent excessive drinkers compared with consumers and abstainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Introduction and Aims. This study aimed at comparing adolescent abstainers, consumers and excessive drinkers in terms of family characteristics (structure of family, socioeconomic factors), perceived social support, personality characteristics (extraversion, self-esteem, aggression) and well-being.

  1. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. ... Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ... lasting change in the determinants and impact of excess body weight.

  2. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2017-01-01

    analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate...... the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity...... analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal...

  3. Targets to treat androgen excess in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common androgen disorder in reproductive-aged women. Excessive biosynthesis and secretion of androgens by steroidogenic tissues is its central pathogenetic mechanism. The authors review the potential targets and new drugs to treat androgen excess in PCOS. Besides our lab's experience, a systematic search (MEDLINE, Cochrane library, ClinicalTriasl.gov, EU Clinical Trials Register and hand-searching) regarding observational studies, randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and patents about this topic was performed. PCOS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation. It is unlikely that a single drug would cover all its possible manifestations. Available treatments for androgen excess are not free of side effects that are of particular concern in these women who suffer from cardiometabolic risk even without treatment. A precise characterization of the source of androgen excess must tailor antiandrogenic management in each woman, avoiding undesirable side effects.

  4. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  5. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  6. Excess Volumes and Excess Isentropic Compressibilities of Binary Liquid Mixtures of Trichloroethylene with Esters at 303.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaiah, S.; Rao, C. Narasimha; Nagaraja, P.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    2015-11-01

    Exces volumes, VE, and excess isentropic compressibilities, κSE, have been reported as a function of composition for binary liquid mixtures of trichloroethylene with ethyl acetate, n-propyl acetate, and n-butyl acetate at 303.15 K. Isentropic compressibilities are calculated using measured sound speeds and density data for pure components and for binary mixtures. Excess volumes and excess isentropic compressibilities are found to be negative for the three systems studied over the entire composition range at 303.15 K, whereas these values become more negative with an increase of carbon chain length. The results are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions between unlike molecules.

  7. State dependent pseudo-resonances and excess noise

    OpenAIRE

    Papoff, F.; D'Alessandro, G.; Oppo, G.Luca

    2008-01-01

    We show that strong response to nonresonant modulations and excess noise are state dependent in generic nonlinear systems; i.e., they affect some output states but are absent from others. This is demonstrated in complex Swift-Hohenberg models relevant to optics, where it is caused by the non-normality of the linearized stability operators around selected output states, even though the cavity modes are orthogonal. In particular, we find the effective parameters that control excess noise and th...

  8. Variables of excessive computer internet use in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Thalemann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this doctoral thesis is the characterization of excessive computer and video gaming in terms of a behavioral addiction. Therefore, the development of a diagnostic psychometric instrument was central to differentiate between normal and pathological computer gaming in adolescence. In study 1, 323 children were asked about their video game playing behavior to assess the prevalence of pathological computer gaming. Data suggest that excessive computer and video game players use thei...

  9. Excessive computer game playing : evidence for addiction and aggression?

    OpenAIRE

    Grüsser, SM; Thalemann, R; Griffiths, MD

    2007-01-01

    Computer games have become an ever-increasing part of many adolescents’ day-to-day lives. Coupled with this phenomenon, reports of excessive gaming (computer game playing) denominated as “computer/video game addiction” have been discussed in the popular press as well as in recent scientific research. The aim of the present study was the investigation of the addictive potential of gaming as well as the relationship between excessive gaming and aggressive attitudes and behavior. A sample compri...

  10. A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 - 06/01/2016 A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Excess Propellants Michael Walsh USA CRREL USA CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755...Army Alaska XRF X-Ray Florescence vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Project ER-201323, A Portable Burn Pan for the Disposal of Gun Propellants, was a very...contamination problem while allowing troops to train as they fight, we have developed a portable training device for burning excess gun propellants. 1.1

  11. Asymmetric Dark Matter Models and the LHC Diphoton Excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of dark matter (DM) and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are persistent indications that the SM is incomplete. More recently, the ATLAS and CMS experiments have observed an excess of diphoton events with invariant mass of about 750 GeV. One interpretation of this excess is decays...... have for models of asymmetric DM that attempt to account for the similarity of the dark and visible matter abundances....

  12. Limiting excessive postoperative blood transfusion after cardiac procedures. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraris, V A; Ferraris, S P

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of blood product use after cardiac operations reveals that a few patients ( 80%). The risk factors that predispose a minority of patients to excessive blood use include patient-related factors, transfusion practices, drug-related causes, and procedure-related factors. Multivariate studies suggest that patient age and red blood cell volume are independent patient-related variables that predict excessive blood product transfusion aft...

  13. Radiation: cost or benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, D.

    1988-01-01

    In a previous issue of SCRAM it was argued that the apparent increased incidence of child leukaemia around nuclear power stations could have been caused by radioactive discharges into the environment. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) claim that the known levels of contamination could not be responsible for the observed cancer rates. NRPB estimates of radiation risk are, however, considered to be underestimates. The NRPB is criticised for its study of the Sellafield workforce which excluded ex-employees and which revealed, when a statistical mistake was put right, a significant excess of myeloma amongst the Windscale workforce. The radiation protection philosophy of the NRPB is based on a cost benefit analysis which balances the cost of protection against the benefits of power generation. Criticism is made of NRPB, not only for ignoring long-term risks and costs but also for suggesting that some levels of radiation exposure are acceptable. The Board is also accused of not being independent of the nuclear industry. (UK)

  14. Excess Molar Volumes and Excess Molar Enthalpies in Binary Systems N-alkyl-triethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + Methanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machanová, Karolina; Troncoso, J.; Jacquemin, J.; Bendová, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 363, FEB 15 (2014), s. 156-166 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * excess properties * binary mixtures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2014

  15. Excess Readmission vs Excess Penalties: Maximum Readmission Penalties as a Function of Socioeconomics and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Chris; Parker, Devin; Marshall, Emily; Brown, Jeremiah

    2017-08-01

    The Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) penalizes hospitals with "excess" readmissions up to 3% of Medicare reimbursement. Approximately 75% of eligible hospitals received penalties, worth an estimated $428 million, in fiscal year 2015. To identify demographic and socioeconomic disparities between matched and localized maximum-penalty and no-penalty hospitals. A case-control study in which cases included were hospitals to receive the maximum 3% penalty under the HRRP during the 2015 fiscal year. Controls were drawn from no-penalty hospitals and matched to cases by hospital characteristics (primary analysis) or geographic proximity (secondary analysis). A selectiion of 3383 US hospitals eligible for HRRP. Thirty-nine case and 39 control hospitals from the HRRP cohort. Socioeconomic status variables were collected by the American Community Survey. Hospital and health system characteristics were drawn from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, American Hospital Association, and Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. The statistical analysis was conducted using Student t tests. Thirty-nine hospitals received a maximum penalty. Relative to controls, maximum-penalty hospitals in counties with lower SES profiles are defined by increased poverty rates (19.1% vs 15.5%, = 0.015) and lower rates of high school graduation (82.2% vs 87.5%, = 0.001). County level age, sex, and ethnicity distributions were similar between cohorts. Cases were more likely than controls to be in counties with low socioeconomic status; highlighting potential unintended consequences of national benchmarks for phenomena underpinned by environmental factors; specifically, whether maximum penalties under the HRRP are a consequence of underperforming hospitals or a manifestation of underserved communities. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  16. Disposition of excess plutonium using ''off-spec'' MOX pellets as a sintered ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Jardine, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors describe a potential strategy for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium in a way that minimizes (1) technological risks, (2) implementation costs and completion schedules, and (3) requirements for constructing and operating new or duplicative Pu disposition facilities. This is accomplished by an optimized combination of (1) using existing nuclear power reactors to ''burn'' relatively pure excess Pu inventories as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and (2) using the same MOX fuel fabrication facilities to fabricate contaminated or impure excess Pu inventories into an ''off-spec'' MOX solid ceramic waste form for geologic disposition. Diversion protection for the SCWF to meet the ''spent fuel standard'' introduced by the National Academy of Sciences can be achieved in at least three ways. (1) One can utilize the radiation field from defense high-level nuclear waste by first packaging the SCWF pellets in 2- to 4-L cans that are subsequently encapsulated in radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass canisters (a ''can-in-canister'' approach). (2) One can add 137 Cs (recovered from defense wastes at Hanford and currently stored as CsCl in capsules) to an encapsulating matrix such as cement for the SCWF pellets in a small hot-cell facility and thus fabricate large monolithic forms. (3) The SCWF can be fabricated into reactor fuel-like pellets and placed in tubes similar to fuel assemblies, which can then be mixed in sealed repository containers with irradiated spent nuclear fuel for geologic disposition

  17. Performance of Submerged Aerated Biofilters for Wastewater Treatment and Excess Biological Sludge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Baghapour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing sludge production in the treatment facility is a reasonable measure to reduce waste in sewage treatment, especially as regards excess biological sludge. In this regard, submerged aerated filters' (SAFs have recently found increasing applications in treatment facilities. Thanks to their treatment mechanism, they have greatly contributed to reduction of waste production and, thereby, to reduced treatment costs. Biomass growths of both attached and suspended types take place in these filters. However, little attention has been paid to suspended sludge production and to its relationship with the physical properties of the filter. The design and application criterion for these filters is the organic loadings on unit of area or unit of volume of the media used in these filters. In this study, four filters with different physical properties and different specific areas were loaded with synthetic wastewater made of low-fat dry milk powder for five different hydraulic retention times to evaluate excess sludge production rates in submerged aerated filters. It was shown that increasing specific area increased SCOD removal efficiency up to a maximum level in saturated growths after which point the removal efficiency remained unchanging or decreased. The results also revealed that decreased hydraulic retention times increased sludge production rates in all the study columns and that media with higher porosity levels produced less excess sludge despite lower pollutant removal efficiency.

  18. EXCESSIVE INTERNET USE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: THE ROLE OF COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the diagnostic manual as a condition which requires further research, indicating the scientific and clinical community are aware of potential health concerns as a consequence of excessive Internet use. From a clinical point of view, it appears that excessive/addictive Internet use is often comorbid with further psychopathologies and assessing comorbidity is relevant in clinical practice, treatment outcome and prevention as the probability to become addicted to using the Internet accelerates with additional (subclinical symptoms. Moreover, research indicates individuals play computer games excessively to cope with everyday stressors and to regulate their emotions by applying media-focused coping strategies, suggesting pathological computer game players play in order to relieve stress and to avoid daily hassles. The aims of this research were to replicate and extend previous findings and explanations of the complexities of the relationships between excessive Internet use and Internet addiction, psychopathology and dysfunctional coping strategies. Method: Participants included 681 Polish university students sampled using an online battery of validated psychometric instruments. Results: Results of structural equation models revealed dysfunctional coping strategies (i.e., distraction, denial, self-blame, substance use, venting, media use, and behavioural disengagement significantly predict excessive Internet use, and the data fit the theoretical model well. A second SEM showed media-focused coping and substance use coping significantly mediate the relationship between psychopathology (operationalised via the Global Severity Index and excessive Internet use. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders, and suggest psychopathology and dysfunctional coping have additive effects on excessive Internet use.

  19. Calculating excess lifetime risk in relative risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, M.; Pierce, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    When assessing the impact of radiation exposure it is common practice to present the final conclusions in terms of excess lifetime cancer risk in a population exposed to a given dose. The present investigation is mainly a methodological study focusing on some of the major issues and uncertainties involved in calculating such excess lifetime risks and related risk projection methods. The age-constant relative risk model used in the recent analyses of the cancer mortality that was observed in the follow-up of the cohort of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is used to describe the effect of the exposure on the cancer mortality. In this type of model the excess relative risk is constant in age-at-risk, but depends on the age-at-exposure. Calculation of excess lifetime risks usually requires rather complicated life-table computations. In this paper we propose a simple approximation to the excess lifetime risk; the validity of the approximation for low levels of exposure is justified empirically as well as theoretically. This approximation provides important guidance in understanding the influence of the various factors involved in risk projections. Among the further topics considered are the influence of a latent period, the additional problems involved in calculations of site-specific excess lifetime cancer risks, the consequences of a leveling off or a plateau in the excess relative risk, and the uncertainties involved in transferring results from one population to another. The main part of this study relates to the situation with a single, instantaneous exposure, but a brief discussion is also given of the problem with a continuous exposure at a low-dose rate

  20. Shadow Cost of Public Funds and Privatization Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Susumu; Matsumura, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the optimal privatization policy in mixed oligopolies with shadow cost of public funds (excess burden of taxation). The government is concerned with both the total social surplus and the revenue obtained by the privatization of a public firm. We find that the relationship between the shadow cost of public funds and the optimal privatization policy is non-monotone. When the cost is moderate, then higher the cost is, the lower is the optimal degree of privatization. ...

  1. [Excess mortality associated with influenza in Spain in winter 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gómez, Inmaculada; Delgado-Sanz, Concepción; Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Flores, Víctor; Simón, Fernando; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Larrauri, Amparo; de Mateo Ontañón, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    An excess of mortality was detected in Spain in February and March 2012 by the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and the «European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action» program. The objective of this article was to determine whether this excess could be attributed to influenza in this period. Excess mortality from all causes from 2006 to 2012 were studied using time series in the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system, and Poisson regression in the European mortality surveillance system, as well as the FluMOMO model, which estimates the mortality attributable to influenza. Excess mortality due to influenza and pneumonia attributable to influenza were studied by a modification of the Serfling model. To detect the periods of excess, we compared observed and expected mortality. In February and March 2012, both the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and the European mortality surveillance system detected a mortality excess of 8,110 and 10,872 deaths (mortality ratio (MR): 1.22 (95% CI:1.21-1.23) and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.29-1.31), respectively). In the 2011-12 season, the FluMOMO model identified the maximum percentage (97%) of deaths attributable to influenza in people older than 64 years with respect to the mortality total associated with influenza (13,822 deaths). The rate of excess mortality due to influenza and pneumonia and respiratory causes in people older than 64 years, obtained by the Serfling model, also reached a peak in the 2011-2012 season: 18.07 and 77.20, deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. A significant increase in mortality in elderly people in Spain was detected by the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and by the European mortality surveillance system in the winter of 2012, coinciding with a late influenza season, with a predominance of the A(H3N2) virus, and a cold wave in Spain. This study suggests that influenza could have been one of the main factors contributing to the mortality excess

  2. Carbon neutral and flexible underground storage of renewable excess energy; Klimaneutrale Flexibilisierung regenerativer Ueberschussenergie mit Untergrundspeichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Michael; Nakatem, Natalie; Streibel, Martin; Kempka, Thomas [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    We present an innovative, extended and carbon neutral 'Power-to-Gas-to-Power' concept. Excess electricity from wind and sun can be transformed into hydrogen and with carbon dioxide subsequently into methane. When needed, electricity is regained in a combined cycle plant burning the methane. To close the carbon cycle carbon dioxide is captured on site. Two subsurface storage formations for both gases are required for the technology. Our regional showcase of two German cities, Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel, demonstrates that about 30% of their electricity demand can be provided in that way, using 17.2% of renewable electricity generated in the State of Brandenburg. We calculate the overall efficiency of the system with 27.7% and the associated costs of electricity are 20,43 Euro-cent/ kWh. Compared to pump storage hydro power and compressed air storage the determined efficiency is worse, however the costs of electricity are competitive. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980's. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report

  4. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  5. Land-mobile satellite excess path loss measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, G. C.

    1980-05-01

    An experiment conducted with the ATS-6 satellite to determine the additional path loss over free-space loss experienced by land-mobile communication links is described. This excess path loss is measured as a function of 1) local environment, 2) vehicle heading, 3) link frequency, 4) satellite elevation angle, and 5) street side. A statistical description of excess loss developed from the data shows that the first two parameters dominate. Excess path loss on the order of 25 dB is typical in urban situations, but decreases to under 10 dB in suburban/rural areas. Spaced antenna selection diversity is found to provide only a slight decrease (4 dB, typically) in the urban excess path loss observed. Level crossing rates are depressed in satellite links relative to those of Rayleigh-faded terrestrial links, but increases in average fade durations tend to offset that advantage. The measurements show that the excess path loss difference between 860-MHz links and 1550-MHz links is generally negligible.

  6. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  7. Response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Minami, Akira; Sakurada, Naomi; Nakajima, Satoko; Oku, Naoto

    2007-01-01

    The response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release was examined to understand the role of the zinc in excessive excitation in the hippocampus. Extracellular zinc and glutamate concentrations during excessive stimulation with high K(+) were compared between the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 by the in vivo microdialysis. Zinc concentration in the CA3 was more increased than that in the CA1, while glutamate concentration in the CA3 was less increased than that in the CA1. It is likely that more increase in extracellular zinc is linked with less increase in extracellular glutamate in the CA3. To see zinc action in mossy fiber synapses during excessive excitation, furthermore, 1mM glutamate was regionally delivered to the stratum lucidum in the presence of zinc or CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, and intracellular calcium signal was measured in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. The persistent increase in calcium signal during stimulation with glutamate was significantly attenuated in the presence of 100 microM zinc, while significantly enhanced in the presence of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from mossy fibers attenuates the increase in intracellular calcium signal in mossy fiber synapses and postsynaptic CA3 neurons after excessive inputs to dentate granular cells.

  8. H_2 production by the steam reforming of excess boil off gas on LNG vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Ignacio Arias; Gómez, Manuel Romero; Gómez, Javier Romero; López-González, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • BOG excess in LNG vessels is burned in the GCU without energy use. • The gas management plants need to be improved to increase efficiency. • BOG excess in LNG vessels is used for H_2 production by steam reforming. • The availability of different fuels increases the versatility of the ship. - Abstract: The gas management system onboard LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) vessels is crucial, since the exploitation of the BOG (Boil Off Gas) produced is of utmost importance for the overall efficiency of the plant. At present, LNG ships with no reliquefaction plant consume the BOG generated in the engines, and the excess is burned in the GCU (Gas Combustion Unit) without any energy use. The need to improve the gas management system, therefore, is evident. This paper proposes hydrogen production through a steam reforming plant, using the excess BOG as raw material and thus avoiding it being burned in the GCU. To test the feasibility of integrating the plant, an actual study of the gas management process on an LNG vessel with 4SDF (4 Stroke Dual Fuel) propulsion and with no reliquefaction plant was conducted, along with a thermodynamic simulation of the reforming plant. With the proposed gas management system, the vessel disposes of different fuels, including H_2, a clean fuel with zero ozone-depleting emissions. The availability of H_2 on board in areas with strict anti-pollution regulations, such as ECAs (Emission Control Area), means that the vessel may be navigated without using fossil fuels which generate CO_2 and SO_X emissions. Moreover, while at port, Cold Ironing is avoided, which entails high costs. Thus it is demonstrated that the installation of a reforming plant is both energetically viable and provides greater versatility to the ship.

  9. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, Joe A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Psaras, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Jr., Edward L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  10. Plutonium determination in solution with excess hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.; Kuvik, V.; Spevackova, V.

    1975-01-01

    The determination is described of plutonium in solutions in the presence of fluoride ions resulting from the hydrolysis of PuF 6 . The method is based on reduction of Pu(VI) by excess of Fe(II) and on re-titration of Fe(II) with ceric salt. The effect of fluoride ions on plutonium determination was studied. It was found that a 3 mole excess of HF with respect to Pu decreased the results of Pu determination. The interference of fluoride ions was eliminated by a two-fold evaporation of the solution to be titrated with HNO 3 to dryness or by complex formation with boric arid. The amount of 20.50 mg Pu in the presence of a 10 mole excess of fluoride ions (17 mg HF) was determined with an error of +- 0.09 mg ). (author)

  11. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Facebook is notably the most widely known and used social network worldwide. It has been described as a valuable tool for leisure and communication between people all over the world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths. If Facebook use seems to be related to the need to belong, affiliate with others and for self-presentation, the beginning of excessive Facebook use and addiction could be associated to reward and gratification mechanisms as well as some personality traits. Studies from several countries indicate different Facebook addiction prevalence rates, mainly due to the use of a wide-range of evaluation instruments and to the lack of a clear and valid definition of this construct. Further investigations are needed to establish if excessive Facebook use can be considered as a specific online addiction disorder or an Internet addiction subtype. PMID:27418940

  12. The excess in the hate discourse of the haters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Recuero Rebs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify and comprehend the marks of the excess present in the hate discourse of the haters. By using the power of social media’s information diffusion on the internet, the haters appropriate of such spaces to disseminate ideologies related to violence, intending to generate more hate. Among the strategies utilized by this group, there is the excess. However, it is necessary to understand the subject’s social and historical contexts and the meanings of their discourse in these environments. As the corpus, we start off the analysis from the attacks towards the actress Taís Araújo occurred on Facebook. As shown by the results, the excess is perceived on authority demonstrations, on the repetition of ideals and onto the search of values such as visibility, popularity (among participants of the networks and the media, authority and reputation (inside the hater’s group of belonging.elonging.

  13. Excessive computer game playing: evidence for addiction and aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüsser, S M; Thalemann, R; Griffiths, M D

    2007-04-01

    Computer games have become an ever-increasing part of many adolescents' day-to-day lives. Coupled with this phenomenon, reports of excessive gaming (computer game playing) denominated as "computer/video game addiction" have been discussed in the popular press as well as in recent scientific research. The aim of the present study was the investigation of the addictive potential of gaming as well as the relationship between excessive gaming and aggressive attitudes and behavior. A sample comprising of 7069 gamers answered two questionnaires online. Data revealed that 11.9% of participants (840 gamers) fulfilled diagnostic criteria of addiction concerning their gaming behavior, while there is only weak evidence for the assumption that aggressive behavior is interrelated with excessive gaming in general. Results of this study contribute to the assumption that also playing games without monetary reward meets criteria of addiction. Hence, an addictive potential of gaming should be taken into consideration regarding prevention and intervention.

  14. Testing ATLAS diboson excess with dark matter searches at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, Seng Pei [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shirai, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-27

    The ATLAS collaboration has recently reported a 2.6σ excess in the search for a heavy resonance decaying into a pair of weak gauge bosons. Only fully hadronic final states are being looked for in the analysis. If the observed excess really originates from the gauge bosons’ decays, other decay modes of the gauge bosons would inevitably leave a trace on other exotic searches. In this paper, we propose the use of the Z boson decay into a pair of neutrinos to test the excess. This decay leads to a very large missing energy and can be probed with conventional dark matter searches at the LHC. We discuss the current constraints from the dark matter searches and the prospects. We find that optimizing these searches may give a very robust probe of the resonance, even with the currently available data of the 8 TeV LHC.

  15. Testing ATLAS diboson excess with dark matter searches at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, Seng Pei; Shirai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has recently reported a 2.6σ excess in the search for a heavy resonance decaying into a pair of weak gauge bosons. Only fully hadronic final states are being looked for in the analysis. If the observed excess really originates from the gauge bosons’ decays, other decay modes of the gauge bosons would inevitably leave a trace on other exotic searches. In this paper, we propose the use of the Z boson decay into a pair of neutrinos to test the excess. This decay leads to a very large missing energy and can be probed with conventional dark matter searches at the LHC. We discuss the current constraints from the dark matter searches and the prospects. We find that optimizing these searches may give a very robust probe of the resonance, even with the currently available data of the 8 TeV LHC.

  16. Testing ATLAS diboson excess with dark matter searches at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, Seng Pei [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shirai, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    The ATLAS collaboration has recently reported a 2.6σ excess in the search for a heavy resonance decaying into a pair of weak gauge bosons. Only fully hadronic final states are being looked for in the analysis. If the observed excess really originates from the gauge bosons' decays, other decay modes of the gauge bosons would inevitably leave a trace on other exotic searches. In this paper, we propose the use of the Z boson into a pair of neutrinos to test the excess. This decay leads to a very large missing energy and can be probed with conventional dark matter searches at the LHC. We discuss the current constraints from the dark matter searches and the prospects. We find that optimizing these searches may give a very robust probe of the resonance, even with the currently available data of the 8 TeV LHC.

  17. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Facebook is notably the most widely known and used social network worldwide. It has been described as a valuable tool for leisure and communication between people all over the world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths. If Facebook use seems to be related to the need to belong, affiliate with others and for self-presentation, the beginning of excessive Facebook use and addiction could be associated to reward and gratification mechanisms as well as some personality traits. Studies from several countries indicate different Facebook addiction prevalence rates, mainly due to the use of a wide-range of evaluation instruments and to the lack of a clear and valid definition of this construct. Further investigations are needed to establish if excessive Facebook use can be considered as a specific online addiction disorder or an Internet addiction subtype.

  18. Financial Instability - a Result of Excess Liquidity or Credit Cycles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Christensen, Christian

    This paper compares the financial destabilizing effects of excess liquidity versus credit growth, in relation to house price bubbles and real economic booms. The analysis uses a cointegrated VAR model based on US data from 1987 to 2010, with a particulary focus on the period preceding the global...... financial crisis. Consistent with monetarist theory, the results suggest a stable money supply-demand relation in the period in question. However, the implied excess liquidity only resulted in financial destabilizing effect after year 2000. Meanwhile, the results also point to persistent cycles of real...... house prices and leverage, which appear to have been driven by real credit shocks, in accordance with post-Keynesian theories on financial instability. Importantly, however, these mechanisms of credit growth and excess liquidity are found to be closely related. In regards to the global financial crisis...

  19. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  20. (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing)

    OpenAIRE

    Çakıcı, Cemal

    2006-01-01

    (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing) The aim of this study is to explain the super-variable costing method which is a new subject in cost and management accounting and to show it’s working practicly.Shortly, super-variable costing can be defined as a costing method which is use only direct material costs in calculate of product costs and treats all costs except these (direct labor and overhead) as periad costs or operating costs.By using super-variable costing method, product costs ar...

  1. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  2. Excess europium content in Precambrian sedimentary rocks and continental evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, P.; Taylor, S. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is proposed that the europium excess in Precambrian sedimentary rocks, relative to those of younger age, is derived from volcanic rocks of ancient island arcs, which were the source materials for the sediments. Precambrian sedimentary rocks and present-day volcanic rocks of island arcs have similar REE patterns, total REE abundances, and excess Eu, relative to the North American shale composite. The present upper crustal REE pattern, as exemplified by that of sediments, is depleted in Eu, relative to chondrites. This depletion is considered to be a consequence of development of a granodioritic upper crust by partial melting in the lower crust, which selectively retains europium.

  3. Management of excessive gingival display: Lip repositioning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Sthapak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lips form the frame of a smile and define the esthetic zone. Excessive gingival display during smile is often referred to as "gummy smile". A successful management of excessive gingival display with lip repositioning procedure has shown excellent results. The procedure involves removing a strip of partial thickness mucosa from maxillary vestibule, then suturing it back to the lip mucosa at the level of mucogingival junction. This technique results in restricted muscle pull and a narrow vestibule, thereby reducing the gingival display. In this case gummy smile was treated by modification of Rubinstein and Kostianovsky′s surgical lip repositioning technique which resulted in a harmonious smile.

  4. Excess-pressure suppression device in a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To reliably decrease the radioactivity of radioactive gases when they are released externally. Constitution: The exit of a gas exhaust pipe for discharging gases in a reactor container, on generation of an excess pressure in the reactor container upon loss of coolant accident, is adapted to be always fluided in the cooling tank. Then, the exhaust gases discharged in the cooling tank is realeased to the atmosphere. In this way, the excess pressure in the reactor container can be prevented previously and the radioactivity of the gases released externally is significantly reduced by the scrubbing effect. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Thermophysical and excess properties of hydroxamic acids in DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Piyush Kumar; Patre, Sandhya; Pande, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excess molar volumes (V E ) vs mole fraction (x 2 ) of (A) N-o-tolyl-2-nitrobenzo- and (B) N-o-tolyl-4-nitrobenzo-hydroxamic acids in DMSO at different temperatures: ■, 298.15 K; ▪, 303.15 K; ▪, 308.15 K; ▪, 313.15 K; and ▪, 318.15 K. Highlights: ► ρ, n of the system hydroxamic acids in DMSO are reported. ► Apparent molar volume indicates superior solute–solvent interactions. ► Limiting apparent molar expansibility and coefficient of thermal expansion. ► Behaviour of this parameter suggest to hydroxamic acids act as structure maker. ► The excess properties have interpreted in terms of molecular interactions. -- Abstract: In this work, densities (ρ) and refractive indices (n) of N-o-tolyl-2-nitrobenzo- and N-o-tolyl-4-nitrobenzo-, hydroxamic acids have been determined for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a function of their concentrations at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. These measurements were carried out to evaluate some important parameters, viz, molar volume (V), apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), limiting apparent molar volume (V ϕ 0 ), slope (S V ∗ ), molar refraction (R M ) and polarizability (α). The related parameters determined are limiting apparent molar expansivity (ϕ E 0 ), thermal expansion coefficient (α 2 ) and the Hepler constant (∂ 2 V ϕ 0 /∂T 2 ). Excess properties such as excess molar volume (V E ), deviations from the additivity rule of refractive index (n E ), excess molar refraction (R M E ) have also been evaluated. The excess properties were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equations to estimate their coefficients and standard deviations were determined. The variations of these excess parameters with composition were discussed from the viewpoint of intermolecular interactions in these solutions. The excess properties are found to be either positive or negative depending on the molecular interactions and the nature of solutions. Further, these parameters have been interpreted

  6. Real exchange rate persistence and the excess return puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Assenmacher, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The PPP puzzle refers to the wide swings of nominal exchange rates around their long-run equilibrium values whereas the excess return puzzle represents the persistent deviation of the domestic-foreign interest rate differential from the expected change in the nominal exchange rate. Using the I(2......) cointegrated VAR model, much of the excess return puzzle disappears when an uncertainty premium in the foreign exchange market, proxied by the persistent PPP gap, is introduced. Self-reinforcing feedback mechanisms seem to cause the persistence in the Swiss-US parity conditions. These results support imperfect...

  7. Recommended treatment strategies for patients with excessive daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Russell P

    2015-10-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common and bothersome phenomenon. It can be associated with insufficient sleep syndrome, narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, shift work disorder, Kleine-Levin syndrome, or Parkinson's disease. Once the underlying cause of the excessive sleepiness is determined, clinicians must select the most appropriate behavioral and pharmacologic interventions to reduce daytime sleepiness, alleviate other symptoms, improve functioning, and ensure the safety of patients and those around them. Patient history, adverse effects, and efficacy in specific conditions should be considered in pharmacologic treatment options for patients with EDS. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Changes in Blood Components in Aphtha Patients with Excess Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Lu; Li, Yan; Jiao, Yifeng; Fu, Danqing; Ye, Li; Ji, Jinjun; Xie, Guanqun; Fan, Yongsheng; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    “Superior heat” is a popularization expression in TCM heat syndrome and has no counterpart in the modern medical system concept. Oral ulcer is considered to be a kind of clinical manifestation of “superior heat.” Aphtha is a common and frequently occurring disease, which can be divided into excess heat and Yin deficiency. The aphtha of excess heat manifests the syndromes of acute occurrence, severe local symptoms, obvious swelling and pain, red tongue, yellow coating, and fast-powerful pulse....

  9. Simplified Production of Organic Compounds Containing High Enantiomer Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for making an enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses including the steps of a) providing an aqueous solution including an initial reactant and a catalyst; and b) subjecting said aqueous solution simultaneously to a magnetic field and photolysis radiation such that said photolysis radiation produces light rays that run substantially parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field passing through said aqueous solution, wherein said catalyst reacts with said initial reactant to form the enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses.

  10. process setting models for the minimization of costs defectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    determine the mean setting so as to minimise the total loss through under-limit complaints and loss of sales and goodwill as well as over-limit losses through excess materials and rework costs. Models are developed for the two types of setting of the mean so that the minimum costs of losses are achieved. Also, a model is ...

  11. Health Care Costs Attributable to Tobacco in Cambodia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is strong evidence from other countries that smoking increases the TB infection rate and reduces tuberculosis survival rates. Cambodia has high TB and smoking rates, so the cost of tobacco use will also include the cost of excess tuberculosis-related deaths. Cambodia's health information systems are weak and ...

  12. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Nancy H; Daumit, Gail L; Dua, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders (SMD) is a major public health challenge that warrants action. The number and scope of truly tested interventions in this area remain limited, and strategies for implementation and scaling up of programmes with a strong evidence base...

  13. Metallicity and ultraviolet excesses of late main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.; Marsakov, V.A.; Shevelev, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison of the characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) excesses δ(U-B) and metallicity [Fe/H] distributions of F, G, and K dwarfs reveals a number of discrepancies. It is shown that they can be eliminated if we assume that UV excesses of K and late G dwarfs, and [Fe/H] values from detailed analysis for F dwarfs are underestimated. Such an assumption enables to account for low values of for F, K and late G dwarfs, and for the difference of the free terms in the metallicity - UV-excess relation for these stars as compared to early G dwarfs. In this case the F5-F9 dwarfs turn out to be more metal-rich (by 0.1 in [Fe/H]) than G and K dwarfs, and the metallicity of the Hyades cluster turns out to be larger than the solar one, [Fe/H] Hyades =+0.1. The ''conditional'' metallicity - UV-excess calibrations are obtained for four groups of main-sequence stars: F5-F9, G0-G4, G5-G9, K0-K5

  14. High‑risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial drivers in Nigeria is not known. Aim: To assess the prevalence of high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among intra‑city commercial drivers. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross‑sectional study in three ...

  15. Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries' military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities

  16. The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on healthcare expenditure in a comprehensive medical scheme. ... South African Medical Journal ... a body mass index (BMI) of 30 - 35 kg/m2 averaged R2 300 (11%) higher annual medical expenditure in the year 2010 than never-smokers with a BMI <30 kg/m2.

  17. Hjertestop associeret med syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard-Nielsen, Anne; Laugesen, Esben; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is an unknown complication to the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (SAME). This case report describes a young woman admitted with hypo-kalaemia and hypertension. Concentrations of both P-renin and P-aldosterone were low and urinary steroid metabolites revealed...

  18. Stress and emotional problems during pregnancy and excessive infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Marcel F.; van Eijsden, Manon; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that stress and emotional problems during pregnancy are related to adverse health outcomes of the child at birth and in later life. The aim of this study was to determine the association between stress and emotional problems during pregnancy and excessive infant crying.

  19. Fusion reaction using low energy neutron-excess nucleus beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu

    1994-01-01

    The present state and the plan of the experiment of measuring the fusion reaction near barriers by using neutron-excess nucleus beam, which has been advanced at RIKEN are reported. One of the purposes of this experiment is the feasibility investigation of the fusion reaction by using neutron-excess nuclei, which is indispensable for synthesizing superheavy elements. It is intended to systematically explore some enhancing mechanism in the neutron-excess nuclei which are unfavorable in beam intensity. This research can become the good means to prove the dynamic behavior of the neutrons on the surfaces of nuclei in reaction. The fusion reaction of 27 Al + Au was measured by using the stable nucleus beam of 27 Al, and the results are shown. In order to know the low energy fusion reaction of 11 Li and 11 Be which are typical halo nuclei, the identification by characteristic α ray of composite nuclei is carried out in 7,9,11 Li + 209 Bi and 9,10,11 Be + 208 Pb. A new detector having high performance, New MUSIC, is being developed. As the experiment by using this detector, the efficient measurement of the fusion reaction by using heavy neutron-excess nuclei up to Ni is considered. An example of 8 Li + α → 11 B + n reaction for celestial body physics is mentioned. (K.I.)

  20. excess molar volumes, and refractive index of binary mixtures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    because (a) water molecules have hydroxyl group which can make stronger hydrogen bonding than methanol and (b) water molecules and glycerol have suitable kinetic energy for bulk volumes at high temperature. Thus, the mixture of glycerol + water have big excess molar volume than methanol. The hydrogen bonding ...

  1. Excessive crying: behavioral and emotional regulation disorder in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Sik Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the pediatric literature, excessive crying has been reported solely in association with 3-month colic and is described, if at all, as unexplained crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life. The bouts of crying are generally thought to be triggered by abdominal colic (over-inflation of the still immature gastrointestinal tract, and treatment is prescribed accordingly. According to this line of reasoning, excessive crying is harmless and resolves by the end of the third month without long-term consequences. However, there is evidence that it may cause tremendous distress in the mother&#8211;infant relationship, and can lead to disorders of behavioral and emotional regulation at the toddler stage (such as sleep and feeding disorders, chronic fussiness, excessive clinginess, and temper tantrums. Early treatment of excessive crying focuses on parent&#8211;infant communication, and parent-infant interaction in the context of soothing and settling the infant to sleep is a promising approach that may prevent later behavioral and emotional disorders in infancy.

  2. The decline in winter excess mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    In most countries, numbers of deaths rise considerably during the winter season. This winter excess in mortality has, however, been declining during recent decades. The causes of this decline are hardly known. This paper attempts to derive a number of hypotheses on the basis of a detailed

  3. Towards an artificial therapy assistant: Measuring excessive stress from speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Frans; van den Broek, Egon; Dijkstra, Ton; Traver, V.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of (excessive) stress is still a challenging endeavor. Most tools rely on either introspection or expert opinion and are, therefore, often less reliable or a burden on the patient. An objective method could relieve these problems and, consequently, assist diagnostics. Speech was

  4. Do dividend shocks affect excess returns? An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganac Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dividend announcement of a company is an informational event that can cause underreaction, momentum, overreaction, post-dividend announcement drift, and mean reversion. It is the uncertainty surrounding dividend announcements that leads to such behavioural phenomena. Most authors consider that underreaction occurs after dividend shocks because new information about the dividend is being slowly and gradually built into the stock price. The effect of dividend shocks is often reflected in excess returns, which can last up to one year after the shock. The experiment described in this paper tests whether statistically significant excess returns are realized after a shock dividend announcement. Participants trade with the stocks of two companies, which only differ by dividend-generating stochastic process. The dividend process of Company 2 is a Merton-style jump-diffusion process (consisting of two parts: Brownian motion and Poisson jump, while the dividend process of Company 1 contains only the Brownian motion component. Statistically significant excess returns are expected when trading with Company 2 stocks. An autoregressive model is applied in order to test this hypothesis. The conclusion is that a dividend shock is followed by statistically significant excess returns in 20 of the 22 experiments, which implies that markets are inefficient after sudden and large changes in dividends. Underreaction and discount rate effects are identified.

  5. Stringy origin of diboson and dijet excesses at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Anchordoqui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Very recently, the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations reported diboson and dijet excesses above standard model expectations in the invariant mass region of 1.8–2.0 TeV. Interpreting the diboson excess of events in a model independent fashion suggests that the vector boson pair production searches are best described by WZ or ZZ topologies, because states decaying into W+W− pairs are strongly constrained by semileptonic searches. Under the assumption of a low string scale, we show that both the diboson and dijet excesses can be steered by an anomalous U(1 field with very small coupling to leptons. The Drell–Yan bounds are then readily avoided because of the leptophobic nature of the massive Z′ gauge boson. The non-negligible decay into ZZ required to accommodate the data is a characteristic footprint of intersecting D-brane models, wherein the Landau–Yang theorem can be evaded by anomaly-induced operators involving a longitudinal Z. The model presented herein can be viewed purely field-theoretically, although it is particularly well motivated from string theory. Should the excesses become statistically significant at the LHC13, the associated Zγ topology would become a signature consistent only with a stringy origin.

  6. Stringy origin of diboson and dijet excesses at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lüst, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2015-10-01

    Very recently, the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations reported diboson and dijet excesses above standard model expectations in the invariant mass region of 1.8-2.0 TeV. Interpreting the diboson excess of events in a model independent fashion suggests that the vector boson pair production searches are best described by WZ or ZZ topologies, because states decaying into W+W- pairs are strongly constrained by semileptonic searches. Under the assumption of a low string scale, we show that both the diboson and dijet excesses can be steered by an anomalous U (1) field with very small coupling to leptons. The Drell-Yan bounds are then readily avoided because of the leptophobic nature of the massive Z‧ gauge boson. The non-negligible decay into ZZ required to accommodate the data is a characteristic footprint of intersecting D-brane models, wherein the Landau-Yang theorem can be evaded by anomaly-induced operators involving a longitudinal Z. The model presented herein can be viewed purely field-theoretically, although it is particularly well motivated from string theory. Should the excesses become statistically significant at the LHC13, the associated Zγ topology would become a signature consistent only with a stringy origin.

  7. Excess Entropy Production in Quantum System: Quantum Master Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Satoshi; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2017-12-01

    For open systems described by the quantum master equation (QME), we investigate the excess entropy production under quasistatic operations between nonequilibrium steady states. The average entropy production is composed of the time integral of the instantaneous steady entropy production rate and the excess entropy production. We propose to define average entropy production rate using the average energy and particle currents, which are calculated by using the full counting statistics with QME. The excess entropy production is given by a line integral in the control parameter space and its integrand is called the Berry-Sinitsyn-Nemenman (BSN) vector. In the weakly nonequilibrium regime, we show that BSN vector is described by ln \\breve{ρ }_0 and ρ _0 where ρ _0 is the instantaneous steady state of the QME and \\breve{ρ }_0 is that of the QME which is given by reversing the sign of the Lamb shift term. If the system Hamiltonian is non-degenerate or the Lamb shift term is negligible, the excess entropy production approximately reduces to the difference between the von Neumann entropies of the system. Additionally, we point out that the expression of the entropy production obtained in the classical Markov jump process is different from our result and show that these are approximately equivalent only in the weakly nonequilibrium regime.

  8. Atomic absorption photometry of excess Zn in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, K.; Shinkarenko, S.; Tuern, L. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Kirsanova, T.; Grebennik, A.; Vishnjakov, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, D. Mendelejev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Sq. 9, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Zn excess in ZnO is built up automatically at high temperatures. Excess Zn in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals were investigated by the atomic absorption photometry (AAP) method. To determine the excess zinc in ZnO samples, the AAP of zinc vapour was used in the conditions of solid-vapour equilibrium. Zn AAP allowed to eliminate excess Zn connected differentially in ZnO samples. To fix Zn non-stoichiometry, all the ZnO samples tested were previously heat treated at temperature interval from 850 to 900 C and at fixed Zn vapour pressures from 0.1 to 0.9 of saturated zinc vapour pressure at given treatment temperature. The analysis of temperature dependence of zinc vapour pressure indicated that the impurity metals take active role in the determination of non-stoichiometric zinc. The impurities Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu form oxides which will reduce during annealing in Zn vapor up to metals form. During AAP measurement in optical cuvette, these metals react with ZnO and give additional Zn vapor pressure. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Unexpected role of excess noise in spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, C.; Ritsch, H.

    2002-01-01

    A single inverted two-level atom is used as a theoretical model for a quantum noise detector to investigate fundamental properties of excess noise in an unstable optical resonator. For a symmetric unstable spherical mirror cavity, we develop an analytic quantum description of the field in terms of a complete set of normalizable biorthogonal quasimodes and adjoint modes. Including the interaction with a single two-level atom leads to a description analogous to the Jaynes-Cummings model with modified coupling constants. One finds a strong position and geometry-dependent atomic decay probability proportional to the square root √(K) of the excess noise factor K at the cavity center. Introducing an additional homogeneous gain one recovers the K-fold emission enhancement that has been predicted before for the linewidth of an unstable cavity laser. We find that excess noise may be viewed as a spatial redistribution of the field quantum noise inside the resonator. Taking a position average of the atomic decay rate over the cavity volume leads to a cancellation of the excess noise enhancement

  10. Excessive recreational computer use and food consumption behaviour among adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Shi (Lu); Y. Mao (Yuping)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION: Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data, we explore the association between excessive recreational computer use and specific food consumption behavior among California's adolescents aged 12-17. METHOD: The adolescent component of CHIS 2005 measured the

  11. VARIABILITY OF THE INFRARED EXCESS OF EXTREME DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks with extremely large infrared excesses (fractional luminosities >10 –2 ) are rare. Those with ages between 30 and 130 Myr are of interest because their evolution has progressed well beyond that of protoplanetary disks (which dissipate with a timescale of order 3 Myr), yet they represent a period when dynamical models suggest that terrestrial planet building may still be progressing through large, violent collisions that could yield large amounts of debris and large infrared excesses. For example, our Moon was formed through a violent collision of two large protoplanets during this age range. We report two disks around the solar-like stars ID8 and HD 23514 in this age range where the 24 μm infrared excesses vary on timescales of a few years, even though the stars are not variable in the optical. Variations this rapid are difficult to understand if the debris is produced by collisional cascades, as it is for most debris disks. It is possible that the debris in these two systems arises in part from condensates from silicate-rich vapor produced in a series of violent collisions among relatively large bodies. If their evolution is rapid, the rate of detection of extreme excesses would indicate that major collisions may be relatively common in this age range.

  12. Gamma-ray excess and the minimal dark matter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Michael; Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Smirnov, Juri

    2015-10-01

    We point out that the gamma-ray excesses in the galactic center and in the dwarf galaxy Reticulum II can both be well explained within the simplest dark matter model. We find that the corresponding region of parameter space will be tested by direct and indirect dark matter searches in the near future.

  13. Excessive heat removal due to feedwater system malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beader, D.; Peterlin, G.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive heat removal transient of the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, caused by steam generators feedwater system malfunctions was simulated by RELAP5/MOD1 computer code. The results are increase of power and reactor scram caused by high-high steam generator level. (author)

  14. On the concept of critical surface excess of micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens-Alesson, Federico I

    2010-11-16

    The critical surface excess of micellization (CSEM) should be regarded as the critical condition for micellization of ionic surfactants instead of the critical micelle concentration (CMC). There is a correspondence between the surface excesses Γ of anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surfactants at their CMCs, which would be the CSEM values, and the critical association distance for ionic pair association calculated using Bjerrum's correlation. Further support to this concept is given by an accurate method for the prediction of the relative binding of alkali cations onto dodecylsulfate (NaDS) micelles. This method uses a relative binding strength parameter calculated from the values of surface excess Γ at the CMC of the alkali dodecylsulfates. This links both the binding of a given cation onto micelles and the onset for micellization of its surfactant salt. The CSEM concept implies that micelles form at the air-water interface unless another surface with greater affinity for micelles exists. The process would start when surfactant monomers are close enough to each other for ionic pairing with counterions and the subsequent assembly of these pairs becomes unavoidable. This would explain why the surface excess Γ values of different surfactants are more similar than their CMCs: the latter are just the bulk phase concentrations in equilibrium with chemicals with different hydrophobicity. An intriguing implication is that CSEM values may be used to calculate the actual critical distances of ionic pair formation for different cations, replacing Bjerrum's estimates, which only discriminate by the magnitude of the charge.

  15. Diffuse neutron scattering from anion-excess strontium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Clausen, K.N.; Fåk, B.

    1992-01-01

    The defect structure and diffusional processes have been studied in the anion-excess fluorite (Sr, Y)Cl2.03 by diffuse neutron scattering techniques. Static cuboctahedral clusters found at ambient temperature break up at temperatures below 1050 K, where the anion disorder is highly dynamic. The a...

  16. Minimization of Excess Sludge in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Reza Momeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plant represents a rising challenge in activated sludge processes. Hence, the minimization of excess sludge production was investigated by increasing the dissolved oxygen in aeration basin. Units of the pilot include: Primary sedimentation tank, aeration basin, secondary sedimentation tank, and return sludge tank. Volume of aeration basin is 360 l and influent flow rate is 90 L/h. Influent of pilot is taken from effluent of grit chamber of Isfahan's North Wastewater treatment plant. The experiments were done on different parts of pilot during the 5 month of study. Results show that increase of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank affect on decrease of excess sludge. Increase of dissolved oxygen from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L resulted in 25% decrease of excess sludge. Variation of dissolved oxygen affect on settleability of sludge too. By increase of dissolved oxygen, SVI decreased and then increased. Value of 1-3 mg/L was the adequate range of dissolved oxygen by settleability of sludge and optimum range was 2-2.5 mg/L. It could be concluded by increasing of dissolved oxygen up to of 3 mg/L, sludge settleability significant decreased.

  17. Green-Kubo relations for dynamic interfacial excess properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the fluctuations of the in-plane interfacial excess fluxes in multiphase systems, in the context of the extended irreversible thermodynamics formalism. We derive expressions for the time correlation functions of the surface extra stress tensor, the surface mass flux vector,

  18. Excess mortality following hip fracture: a systematic epidemiological review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; van Staa, T; Ariely, R

    2009-01-01

    This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter, highlighting th...

  19. Alternative search strategies to explore ATLAS diboson excess

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charanjit K Khosa

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... the mass range of W/Z boson) and also explore the possibility of three-particle BSM final state mimicking diboson excess. .... electron and muon and /ET > 350 GeV are removed. ..... Energy Phys.1510, 076 (2015), arXiv:1506.06767 [hep- ph] .... [15] A Belyaev, N D Christensen and A Pukhov, Comput. Phys.

  20. Mothers' perception of excessive crying in infancy in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of excessive crying in our area of practice and also determine associated factors. Method: This was a cross sectional, questionnaire based descriptive study on mothers' perception of their infants' crying. Subjects were mother/ infant pairs attending the well baby clinics at ...

  1. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  2. An extended rational thermodynamics model for surface excess fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we derive constitutive equations for the surface excess fluxes in multiphase systems, in the context of an extended rational thermodynamics formalism. This formalism allows us to derive Maxwell–Cattaneo type constitutive laws for the surface extra stress tensor, the surface thermal

  3. Effect of Excess Gravitational Force on Cultured Myotubes in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An effect of an excess gravitational force on cultured myoblasts has been studied in an experimental system with centrifugal force in vitro. Mouse myoblasts (C2C12 were seeded on a culture dish of 35 mm diameter, and cultured in the Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium until the sub-confluent condition. To apply the excess gravitational force on the cultured cells, the dish was set in a conventional centrifugal machine. Constant gravitational force was applied to the cultured cells for three hours. Variations were made on the gravitational force (6 G, 10 G, 100 G, 500 G, and 800 G with control of the rotational speed of the rotator in the centrifugal machine. Morphology of the cells was observed with a phasecontrast microscope for eight days. The experimental results show that the myotube thickens day by day after the exposure to the excess gravitational force field. The results also show that the higher excess gravitational force thickens myotubes. The microscopic study shows that myotubes thicken with fusion each other.

  4. Magnitude and predictors of excessive alcohol use in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnitude and predictors of excessive alcohol use in Ethiopia: Findings from the 2015 national non-communicable diseases STEPS survey. ... overall prevalence of lifetime alcohol consumption was 49.3%, and 40.7% of the study participants reported consumption of alcohol in the past 30 days, defined as current drinkers.

  5. Effect of excess ozone on UV-stimulated tritium oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Horii, Kazuhiro; Matsuyama, Masao; Watanabe, Kuniaki.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have reported that the oxidation of tritium is considerably accelerated by irradiating a mixture gas of HT(H 2 )-O 2 with UV-photons, and this UV-stimulated HT oxidation is mainly due to the formation of intermediates such as ozone and activated oxygen species. This suggests that the oxidation will be much more enhanced in the presence of excess ozone in the reaction system. To examine this possibility, effects of the excess ozone on the UV-stimulated HT oxidation was experimentally studied on the one hand, and reaction mechanisms were investigated by developing a computer simulation program applicable to the three-component system of HT(H 2 )-O 2 -O 3 . The formation rate of HTO was measured for gas mixtures consisting of O 2 (75.5 Torr), O 3 (0.5-2% of O 2 ), H 2 (0.1-3% of O 2 ) and HT(H 2 /HT=12000). The experiments showed considerable enhancement of the HTO production rate in the presence of excess ozone by UV-photons from a low pressure mercury lamp(5W). The time course of the reaction was reproduced quite well by computer simulation, indicating that the assumed reaction mechanism is valid. This is also supported by observations that computer simulation reproduced the experimentally observed dependence of ozone decomposition rate on ozone and hydrogen pressures under the UV-irradiation. Those results showed that UV-stimulated HT oxidation was accelerated by about 14000 times in the presence of excess ozone. It strongly suggests that the UV-stimulated oxidation in the presence of excess ozone will be applicable to tritium handling systems as a non-catalytic tritium removal method. (author)

  6. Steric parameters and excess properties of hydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patre, Sandhya; Thakur, Piyush; Pande, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Plot of excess molar volume, V E , vs X 2 of (A) PBHA in DMF, (B) PMNHA in DMF, and (C) PNHA in DMF, at (■), 298.15 K; (▪), 303.15 K; (▪), 308.15 K; and (▪), 313.15 K. Highlights: ► Apparent molar volume indicates greater solute–solvent interactions. ► Excess properties show higher dispersion force in solution than pure solvent. ► Excess parameters suggest strong solute–solvent and solute–solute interactions. ► Limiting apparent molar expansibilities instigate highly hydrophobic characters. ► Hepler’s constant suggest the structure promoter nature of hydroxamic acids. - Abstract: Steric parameters of N-phenylbenzo-, N-phenyl-4-methyl-3-nitrobenzo-, and N-phenyl-4-nitrobenzo-, hydroxamic acids were measured in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a function of their concentrations at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The apparent molar volume (V φ ), limiting apparent molar volume (V φ 0 ) at infinite dilution and the slope (S V ∗ ) are calculated from the experimental values of density (ρ) by applying the Masson’s equation. The apparent molar expansibility at infinite dilution (φ E 0 ), molar volume (V) and the excess molar volume (V E ) are also computed. The refractive indices (n) have been used to calculate the steric parameters, viz. molar refraction (R M ), polarizability (α) and excess molar refraction (R) of these molecules. The results show the strong solute–solvent interactions present in the system and thus, help to explore the molecular structure.

  7. Physiological and genetic basis of plant tolerance to excess boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B deficit as well as excess may significantly limit the organic production in plants. In extreme cases they may kill the affected plants. Boron excess occurs primarily in arid and semiarid regions, in saline soils or in consequence to human action. Excessive boron concentrations retard plant growth and cause physiological and morphological changes (chlorosis and necrosis first of all in leaf tips and then in marginal or intercostal parts of the lamina. Physiological mechanisms of plant tolerance to boron excess have not been studied in sufficient detail. The predominant opinion holds that they are based on restricted uptake and accumulation of boron in the root and aboveground plant parts. Significant differences in boron excess tolerance have been observed not only between different crops but even between different genotypes of the same crop. This has enabled the breeding of crop genotypes and crops adapted to growing on soils rich in available boron and intensified the research on the inheritance of plant tolerance to high B concentration. Sources of tolerance to high B concentration have been found in many crops (wheat, mustard, pea, lentil, eucalypt. Using different molecular techniques based on PCR (RAPD, SRAP, plant parents and progenies have been analyzed in an attempt to map as precisely as possible the position of B-tolerant genes. Small grains have been studied in greatest detail for inheritance of B tolerance. B tolerance in wheat is controlled by at least four additive genes, Bo1, Bo2, Bo3 and Bo4. Consequently, there exists a broad range of tolerance levels. Studies of Arabidopsis have broadened our understanding of regulation mechanisms of B transport from roots to above ground parts, allowing more direct genetic manipulations.

  8. Steroidogenic alterations and adrenal androgen excess in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Suhail A R; Al-Zaid, Mona; Towers, Philip A; Scott, Christopher J; Al-Shoumer, Kamal A S

    2006-09-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to improve our understanding of the steroidogenic alterations leading to adrenal hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Two-hundred and thirty-four women with clinical and biochemical features suggestive of PCOS underwent metabolic and hormonal evaluation. We used the androstenedione/DHEAS ratio as a surrogate for the level of ovarian 3betaHSD activity. We then selected the 90th percentile for the ratio in those with elevated DHEAS (>9 micromol/l) as the cut-off level beyond which excess DHEAS production will be minimized by excess ovarian 3betaHSD activity. This cut-off level was at a ratio of 1.5 and all PCOS women were then divided into two groups, the higher (>1.5) being the group with excess ovarian 3betaHSD activity. We hypothesized that women with a high ratio would be unlikely to have DHEAS excess due to the rapid conversion of DHEA to androstenedione. Those with a low ratio (concordant ovarian and adrenal steroidogenesis) could then either have high DHEAS or normal DHEAS, depending on whether CYP17 activity was higher or lower respectively. Insulin resistance was found to be associated with decreased CYP17 activity while irregular cycles and neuroendocrine dysfunction were determined to be associated with higher ovarian 3betaHSD activity. Adrenal androgen excess in PCOS seems to be related to insulin sensitivity as well as decreased activity of 3betaHSD, the latter being preferentially present in those women with regular cycles or without neuroendocrine dysfunction.

  9. Cost restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the cost restructuring of the petroleum industry. This current decade is likely to be one of the most challenging for the petroleum industry. Though petroleum remains among the world's biggest businesses, news of consolidations, restructuring, and layoffs permeates the oil patch from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Isles. The recessionary economy has accelerated these changes, particularly in the upstream sector. Today, even the best-managed companies are transforming their cost structures, and companies that fail to do likewise probably won't survive as independent companies. Indeed, significant consolidation took place during the 1980s. More consolidations can be expected in this decade for companies that do not adapt to the economic realities of the mature business

  10. Excessive Internet gaming and decision making: do excessive World of Warcraft players have problems in decision making under risky conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2011-08-15

    The dysfunctional behavior of excessive Internet gamers, such as preferring the immediate reward (to play World of Warcraft) despite the negative long-term consequences may be comparable with the dysfunctional behavior in substance abusers or individuals with behavioral addictions, e.g. pathological gambling. In these disorders, general decision-making deficits have been demonstrated. Hence, the aim of the present work was to examine decision-making competences of excessive World of Warcraft players. Nineteen excessive Internet gamers (EIG) and a control group (CG) consisting of 19 non-gamers were compared with respect to decision-making abilities. The Game of Dice Task (GDT) was applied to measure decision-making under risky conditions. Furthermore psychological-psychiatric symptoms were assessed in both groups. The EIG showed a reduced decision-making ability in the GDT. Furthermore the EIG group showed a higher psychological-psychiatric symptomatology in contrast to the CG. The results indicate that the reduced decision-making ability of EIG is comparable with patients with other forms of behavioral addiction (e.g. pathological gambling), impulse control disorders or substance abusers. Thus, these results suggest that excessive Internet gaming may be based on a myopia for the future, meaning that EIG prefer to play World of Warcraft despite the negative long-term consequences in social or work domains of life. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Case study of an organic Rankine cycle applied for excess heat recovery: Technical, economic and policy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, Sanne; Lecompte, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Case study of an organic Rankine cycle for heat recovery from an industrial kiln. • The costs and financial feasibility of the system are discussed in detail. • The cost structure is most defined by the capital costs, annual costs are limited. • The system is financially feasible, but subsidies remain important. • The results are most sensitive to changes in load hours and electricity price. - Abstract: Many industrial processes inevitably produce excess heat as by-product. Recovering this heat is a matter of waste management and provides opportunities to improve the energy use efficiency. The excess heat can be used for heating purposes (e.g., in processes, or delivered to district heating systems or buildings) or to generate electricity. An increasingly applied technology for industrial excess heat recovery is the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), suitable to recover low-grade heat from 90 °C onwards. Although ORCs are studied intensively, few studies have examined the economics of commissioned ORC systems. This paper investigates a 375 kW_g_r_o_s_s ORC system employed for flue gas heat recovery from an industrial kiln in Flanders, Belgium. The purpose of the study is twofold: providing insight into a practical ORC case; and evaluating the financial feasibility while taking the specific policy circumstances into account. The financial appraisal takes account of the specific technical setup, the diverse costs of the system, the external economic parameters, and the policy circumstances in Europe, Belgium and Flanders. A sensitivity analysis illustrates the influence of each parameter on the results. The analysis demonstrates the dominance of the investment costs (4217 €_2_0_1_3/kW_g_r_o_s_s) in the expenses. Under the valid conditions the investment has a positive financial return, but the financial support from the government is indispensable. Finally, the sensitivity analysis reveals the importance of attaining sufficient load hours and the

  12. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, summer 2015 was the second warmest summer for 150 years (after summer 2003). For summer 2003, a 6.9% excess mortality was estimated for Switzerland, which corresponded to 975 extra deaths. The impact of the heat in summer 2015 in Switzerland has not so far been evaluated. Daily age group-, gender- and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer (June-August) 2015 was estimated, based on predictions derived from quasi-Poisson regression models fitted to the daily mortality data for the 10 previous years. Estimates of excess mortality were derived for 1 June to 31 August, at national and regional level, as well as by month and for specific heat episodes identified in summer 2015 by use of seven different definitions. 804 excess deaths (5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0‒7.9%) were estimated for summer 2015 compared with previous summers, with the highest percentage obtained for July (11.6%, 95% CI 3.7‒19.4%). Seventy-seven percent of deaths occurred in people aged 75 years and older. Ticino (10.3%, 95% CI -1.8‒22.4%), Northwestern Switzerland (9.5%, 95% CI 2.7‒16.3%) and Espace Mittelland (8.9%, 95% CI 3.7‒14.1%) showed highest excess mortality during this three-month period, whereas fewer deaths than expected (-3.3%, 95% CI -9.2‒2.6%) were observed in Eastern Switzerland, the coldest region. The largest excess estimate of 23.7% was obtained during days when both maximum apparent and minimum night-time temperature reached extreme values (+32 and +20 °C, respectively), with 31.0% extra deaths for periods of three days or more. Heat during summer 2015 was associated with an increase in mortality in the warmer regions of Switzerland and it mainly affected older people. Estimates for 2015 were only a little lower compared to those of summer 2003, indicating that mitigation measures to prevent heat-related mortality in Switzerland have not become noticeably effective in the last 10 years.

  13. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvarque, Jean-Francois; Clauzon, Pierre Paul; Lalleve, Gerard Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    A simple calorimeter has been designed that works at constant temperature; that of boiling water. Heat Losses can be estimated accurately with an ohmic heater. As expected, losses are independent of the electric power input to the heater and the amount of evaporated water is linearly dependant on the power input. The device has been used to determine the heating power of a plasma electrolysis (the Ohmori-Mizuno experiment). We confirm that in this experiment, the heat output from electrolysis is greater than the electrical power input. The excess energy increases as the electrolysis voltage is increased from 200 up to 350 V (400 V input). The excess energy may be as high as 120 W. (author)

  14. Stellar origin of the 22Ne excess in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.; Paul, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 22 Ne excess at the cosmic-ray source is discussed in terms of a 22 Ne-rich component injected and accelerated by carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. The overabundance of 22 Ne relative to 20 Ne predicted at the surface of these stars is estimated to a factor approx.120 with respect to solar system abundances. In order to give rise to a 22 Ne excess of about 3 at the cosmic-ray sources as inferred from observations, the carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet contribution to the primary cosmic-ray flux is to be at maximum 1/60. This component would be energized by strong stellar winds producing quasi-standing shocks around the Wolf-Rayet stars

  15. Dark matter for excess of AMS-02 positrons and antiprotons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hung Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a dark matter explanation to simultaneously account for the excess of antiproton-to-proton and positron power spectra observed in the AMS-02 experiment while having the right dark matter relic abundance and satisfying the current direct search bounds. We extend the Higgs triplet model with a hidden gauge symmetry of SU(2X that is broken to Z3 by a quadruplet scalar field, rendering the associated gauge bosons stable weakly-interacting massive particle dark matter candidates. By coupling the complex Higgs triplet and the SU(2X quadruplet, the dark matter candidates can annihilate into triplet Higgs bosons each of which in turn decays into lepton or gauge boson final states. Such a mechanism gives rise to correct excess of positrons and antiprotons with an appropriate choice of the triplet vacuum expectation value. Besides, the model provides a link between neutrino mass and dark matter phenomenology.

  16. The excess enthalpies of liquid Ge-Pb-Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Binder, J.; Schlieper, A.

    1997-01-01

    The excess enthalpies of liquid alloys in the ternary system Ge-Pb-Te were determined at 1210 K in a heat flow calorimeter for five sections Ge y Pb 1-y -Te with y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8 and at 1153 K for Ge 0.5 Pb 0.5 -Te. The enthalpy surface in the ternary system is determined by a valley of exothermic minima, stretching from an exothermic minimum at the composition GeTe to one at the composition PbTe in the respective binaries. The excess enthalpies in the limiting metallic binary were adapted with the Redlich-Kister formalism. For the description of the thermodynamic functions in the ternary system the equation of Bonnier was taken using ternary coefficients. The calculated curves are in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  17. The di-photon excess in a perturbative SUSY model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, Karim, E-mail: kbenakli@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Darmé, Luc, E-mail: darme@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP), 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Goodsell, Mark D., E-mail: goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Harz, Julia, E-mail: jharz@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP), 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2016-10-15

    We show that a 750 GeV di-photon excess as reported by the ATLAS and CMS experiments can be reproduced by the Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard Model (MDGSSM) without the need of any ad-hoc addition of new states. The scalar resonance is identified with the spin-0 partner of the Dirac bino. We perform a thorough analysis of constraints coming from the mixing of the scalar with the Higgs boson, the stability of the vacuum and the requirement of perturbativity of the couplings up to very high energy scales. We exhibit examples of regions of the parameter space that respect all the constraints while reproducing the excess. We point out how trilinear couplings that are expected to arise in supersymmetry-breaking mediation scenarios, but were ignored in the previous literature on the subject, play an important role.

  18. ATLAS diboson excesses from the stealth doublet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS Collaboration has reported excesses in diboson invariant mass searches of new resonances around 2 TeV, which might be a prediction of new physics around that mass range. We interpret these results in the context of a modified stealth doublet model where the extra Higgs doublet has a Yukawa interaction with the first generation quarks, and show that the heavy CP-even Higgs boson can naturally explain the excesses in the WW and ZZ channels with a small Yukawa coupling, ξ∼0.15, and a tiny mixing angle with the SM Higgs boson, α∼0.05. Furthermore, the model satisfies constraints from colliders and electroweak precision measurements.

  19. An excess noise measurement system for weak responsivity avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Dimler, Simon J.; Baharuddin, Aina N. A. P.; Green, James E.; David, John P. R.

    2018-06-01

    A system for measuring, with reduced photocurrent, the excess noise associated with the gain in avalanche photodiodes (APDs), using a transimpedance amplifier front-end and based on phase-sensitive detection is described. The system can reliably measure the excess noise power of devices, even when the un-multiplied photocurrent is low (~10 nA). This is more than one order of magnitude better than previously reported systems and represents a significantly better noise signal to noise ratio. This improvement in performance has been achieved by increasing the value of the feedback resistor and reducing the op-amp bandwidth. The ability to characterise APD performance with such low photocurrents enables the use of low power light sources such as light emitting diode rather than lasers to investigate the APD noise performance.

  20. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analysis....... METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study based on Danish healthcare registries, including data from the introduction of generic warfarin until the repeal (January 2011-April 2015). We followed Danish warfarin users over time and compared the rate of incident hospitalizations due to excessive...... anticoagulation (i.e. increased INR or any bleeding requiring hospitalization) in periods following a recent switch to generic warfarin to the rate in periods without a recent switch. RESULTS: We included 105,751 warfarin users, filling a total of 1,539,640 prescriptions for warfarin (2.5% for generic warfarin...

  1. Characterising the 750 GeV diphoton excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Goudelis, Andreas; Kraml, Sabine; Mawatari, Kentarou; Sengupta, Dipan

    2016-01-01

    We study kinematic distributions that may help characterise the recently observed excess in diphoton events at 750 GeV at the LHC Run 2. Several scenarios are considered, including spin-0 and spin-2 750 GeV resonances that decay directly into photon pairs as well as heavier parent resonances that undergo three-body or cascade decays. We find that combinations of the distributions of the diphoton system and the leading photon can distinguish the topology and mass spectra of the different scenarios, while patterns of QCD radiation can help differentiate the production mechanisms. Moreover, missing energy is a powerful discriminator for the heavy parent scenarios if they involve (effectively) invisible particles. While our study concentrates on the current excess at 750 GeV, the analysis is general and can also be useful for characterising other potential diphoton signals in the future.

  2. Excess Success for Psychology Articles in the Journal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Tanzman, Jay; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a systematic analysis of the relationship between empirical data and theoretical conclusions for a set of experimental psychology articles published in the journal Science between 2005–2012. When the success rate of a set of empirical studies is much higher than would be expected relative to the experiments' reported effects and sample sizes, it suggests that null findings have been suppressed, that the experiments or analyses were inappropriate, or that the theory does not properly follow from the data. The analyses herein indicate such excess success for 83% (15 out of 18) of the articles in Science that report four or more studies and contain sufficient information for the analysis. This result suggests a systematic pattern of excess success among psychology articles in the journal Science. PMID:25474317

  3. Testing ATLAS Z+MET excess with LHC run 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    The ATLAS collaboration reported a 3σ excess in the search of events containing on-Z dilepton, jets, and large missing momentum (MET) in the 8 TeV LHC run. Motivated by this excess, many models of new physics have been proposed. Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported new results for similar Z+MET channels in the 13 TeV run. In this paper, we comprehensively discuss the consistency between the proposed models and the LHC results of Run 1 and Run 2. We find that in models with heavy gluino production, there is generically some tension between the 8 TeV and 13 TeV results. On the other hand, models with light squark production provide relatively better fitting to both results.

  4. Analytical expressions for transition edge sensor excess noise models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Daniel; Fraser, George W.

    2010-01-01

    Transition edge sensors (TESs) are high-sensitivity thermometers used in cryogenic microcalorimeters which exploit the steep gradient in resistivity with temperature during the superconducting phase transition. Practical TES devices tend to exhibit a white noise of uncertain origin, arising inside the device. We discuss two candidate models for this excess noise, phase slip shot noise (PSSN) and percolation noise. We extend the existing PSSN model to include a magnetic field dependence and derive a basic analytical model for percolation noise. We compare the predicted functional forms of the noise current vs. resistivity curves of both models with experimental data and provide a set of equations for both models to facilitate future experimental efforts to clearly identify the source of excess noise.

  5. Operation of transition-edge sensors with excess thermal noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maasilta, I J; Kinnunen, K M; Nuottajaervi, A K; Leppaeniemi, J; Luukanen, A

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) is currently one of the most attractive choices for ultra-high resolution calorimetry in the keV x-ray band, and is being considered for future ESA and NASA missions. We have performed a study on the noise characteristics of Au/Ti bilayer TESs, at operating temperatures around ∼100 mK, with the SQUID readout at 1.5 K. Experimental results indicate that without modifications the back-action noise from the SQUID chip degrades the noise characteristics significantly. We present a simple and effective solution to the problem: by installing an extra shunt resistor which absorbs the excess radiation from the SQUID input, we have reduced the excess thermal (photon) noise power down by approximately a factor of five, allowing high resolution operation of the sensors

  6. Integration of multiple, excess, backup, and expected covering models

    OpenAIRE

    M S Daskin; K Hogan; C ReVelle

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of multiple, excess, backup, and expected coverage are defined. Model formulations using these constructs are reviewed and contrasted to illustrate the relationships between them. Several new formulations are presented as is a new derivation of the expected covering model which indicates more clearly the relationship of the model to other multi-state covering models. An expected covering model with multiple time standards is also presented.

  7. Excess Properties of Aqueous Mixtures of Methanol: Simulation Versus Experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Salgado, D.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 2 (2006), s. 161-166 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072303 Grant - others:BEMUSAC(XE) G1MA/CT/2002/04019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aqueous mixtures * excess properties * partial molar properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.680, year: 2006

  8. Constrained convex minimization via model-based excessive gap

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Dinh, Quoc; Cevher, Volkan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model-based excessive gap technique to analyze first-order primal- dual methods for constrained convex minimization. As a result, we construct new primal-dual methods with optimal convergence rates on the objective residual and the primal feasibility gap of their iterates separately. Through a dual smoothing and prox-function selection strategy, our framework subsumes the augmented Lagrangian, and alternating methods as special cases, where our rates apply.

  9. BENEFITS OF WILDERNESS EXPANSION WITH EXCESS DEMAND FOR INDIAN PEAKS

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Richard G.; Gilliam, Lynde O.

    1982-01-01

    The contingent valuation approach was applied to the problem of estimating the recreation benefits from alleviating congestion at Indian Peaks wilderness area, Colorado. A random sample of 126 individuals were interviewed while hiking and backpacking at the study site in 1979. The results provide an empirical test and confirmation of the Cesario and Freeman proposals that under conditions of excess recreational demand for existing sites, enhanced opportunities to substitute newly designated s...

  10. Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Broecker, W.S.; Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a high flux of radon 222 from the floor of the passages. Since much of the floor is covered with manganese nodules and encrustations, the high flux of radon 222 may be attributable to the high concentrations of radium 226 in the outer few millimeters of such deposits. Laboratory measurements of radon 222 emissivity from maganese encrustations obtained in Vema Channel support this hypothesis. The excess radon 222 in the Vema Channel and Wake Island Passage is found in substantial quantities at heights above bottom greatly exceeding the heights at which excess radon 222 is found in nonpassage areas. The horizontal diffusion of radon emanating from the walls of the passages is unlikely to be the cause of the observed concentrations because the ratio of wall surface area to water volume is very low. The profiles must therefore be a result of exceptionally high apparent vertical mixing in the passages. Further work is needed to determine the nature of this apparent vertical mixing. The excess radon 222 and STD data in all four passages have been fit with an empirical model in which it is assumed that the bouyancy flux is constant with distance above bottom. The fits are very good and yield apparent buoyancy fluxes that are between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude greater than those obtained at nearby stations outside the passages for three of the four passages

  11. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Facebook is notably the most widely known and used social network worldwide. It has been described as a valuable tool for leisure and communication between people all over the world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths. If Facebook use seems to be related to the need to belong, affiliate with others and for self-presentation, the beginning of ...

  12. Intermittent Ozonation to Reduce Excess Biological Sludge in SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of ozonation and an aerobic biological process such as the activated sludge has been recently developed as an alternative solution for sludge reduction with the objective of minimizing the excess biological sludge production. In this study, two SBR reactors each with a capacity of 20 liters and controlled by an on-line system are used. Once the steady state conditions were set in the reactors, sampling and testing of such parameters as COD, MLSS, MLVSS, DO, SOUR, SVI, residual ozone, and Y coefficient were performed over the 8 months of research. Results showed that during the solid retention time of 10 days, the kinetic coefficients of Y and Kd were 0.58 mg biomass/mg COD and 0.058 1/day, respectively. In the next stage of the study, different concentrations of ozone in the reactor were intermittently used to reduce the excess biological sludge production. The results showed that 22 mg of ozone per 1 gram of MLSS in the reactor was able to reduce the yield coefficient Y from 0.58 to 0.23 mg Biomass/mg COD. In other words, the excess biological sludge reduced by 60% but the soluble COD increased slightly in the effluent and the removal percentage decreased from 92 in the blank reactor to 76 in the test reactor. While the amount of SVI and SOUR for this level of ozone concentration reached 6 mgO2/h.gVSS and 27 ml/g, respectively. No excess sludge was observed in the reactor for an ozone concentration of 27 mg per 1 gram of MLSS.

  13. Excess quantum noise in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, C.; Moses, J.; Kärtner, F. X.; Cerullo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Noise evolution in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) differs essentially from that of an optical parametric or a conventional laser amplifier, in that an incoherent pedestal is produced by superfluorescence that can overwhelm the signal under strong saturation. Using a model for the nonlinear dynamics consistent with quantum mechanics, we numerically study the evolution of excess noise in an OPCPA. The observed dynamics explain the macroscopic characteristics seen previous...

  14. Development of wireless intercom for work of excessive noisy places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuo; Yamashita, Shinichi; Fujita, Tsuneaki; Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi; Sakai, Manabu; Nakanishi, Tomokazu.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are often excessively noisy working environments, where conversation and verbal communication are hampered to the extreme. We have developed a small wireless intercom for this and other extremely noisy environments. In the first step of this study, we studied work environment noise and vibration. Results formed the basis of intercom system development. In addition, we have examined the possibilities of optical and microwave intercom systems. (author)

  15. Is acne a sign of androgen excess disorder or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Gulsum; Sahin, Yılmaz; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Ferahbas, Ayten; Uludag, Semih Zeki; Aygen, Ercan; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2017-04-01

    Acne is not solely a cosmetic problem. The clinical importance of acne in the estimation of androgen excess disorders is controversial. Recently, the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored third PCOS Consensus Workshop Group suggested that acne is not commonly associated with hyperandrogenemia and therefore should not be regarded as evidence of hyperandrogenemia. Our aim was to investigate whether acne is a sign of androgen excess disorder or not. This is a cross sectional study that was performed in a university hospital involving 207 women, aged between 18 and 45 years, suffering mainly from acne. The women were assigned as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), idiopathic hirsutism (IH), idiopathic hyperandrogenemia (IHA). Women with acne associated with any of the androgen excess disorders mentioned above were named as hyperandrogenemia associated acne (HAA). Women with acne but without hirsutism and hyperandrogenemia and having ovulatory cycles were named as "isolated acne". Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, total testosterone and lipid levels were measured. Acne score was similar between the women with isolated acne and HAA. The most common cause for acne was PCOS and only 28% of the women had isolated acne. 114 (55%) women had at least one raised serum androgen level. In this study, 72% of acneic women had clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenemia. In contrast to the suggestion of ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored third PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, our data indicate that the presence of androgen excess disorders should be evaluated in women presenting with acne. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Excess androgen during puberty disrupts circadian organization in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellix, Michael T; Murphy, Zachary C; Menaker, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Circadian clocks have been described in each tissue of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. Although a role for the clock in the timing of ovulation is indicated, the impact of diseases that disrupt fertility on clock function or the clocks' role in the etiology of these pathologies has yet to be fully appreciated. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating endocrinopathy, affecting approximately 10% of women at childbearing age. Common features of PCOS are a polycystic ovary, amenorrhea, and excess serum androgen. Approximately 40% of these women have metabolic syndrome, including hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia. It has been suggested that excess androgen is a critical factor in the etiology of PCOS. We have examined the effects of androgen excess during puberty on the phase of circadian clocks in tissues of the metabolic and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axes. Female period1-luciferase (per1-luc) rats were exposed to androgen (5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) or placebo for 4-6 weeks (short term) or 9-15 weeks (long term). As expected, DHT-treated animals gained more weight than controls and had disrupted estrous cycles. At the end of treatment, tissues, including the liver, lung, kidney, white adipose, cornea, pituitary, oviduct, and ovarian follicles, were cultured, and per1-luc expression in each was recorded. Analysis of per1-luc expression revealed that DHT exposure increased phase distribution of multiple oscillators, including ovarian follicles, liver, and adipose, and altered phase synchrony between animals. These data suggest that excess androgen during puberty, a common feature of PCOS, negatively affects internal circadian organization in both the reproductive and metabolic axes.

  17. Reduction of excess sludge production using mechanical disintegration devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strünkmann, G W; Müller, J A; Albert, F; Schwedes, J

    2006-01-01

    The usability of mechanical disintegration techniques for the reduction of excess sludge production in the activated sludge process was investigated. Using three different disintegration devices (ultrasonic homogeniser, stirred media mill, high pressure homogeniser) and different operational parameters of the disintegration, the effect of mechanical disintegration on the excess sludge production and on the effluent quality was studied within a continuously operated, laboratory scale wastewater treatment system with pre-denitrification. Depending on the operational conditions and the disintegration device used, a reduction of excess sludge production of up to 70% was achieved. A combination of mechanical disintegration with a membrane bioreactor process with high sludge age is more energy effective concerning reduction of sludge production than with a conventional activated sludge process at lower sludge ages. Depending on the disintegration parameters, the disintegration has no, or only minor, negative effect on the soluble effluent COD and on the COD-removal capacity of the activated sludge process. Nitrogen-removal was slightly deteriorated by the disintegration, whereas the system used was not optimised for nitrogen removal before disintegration was implemented.

  18. Speech intelligibility after gingivectomy of excess palatal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Balasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate any enhancement in speech following gingivectomy of enlarged anterior palatal gingiva. Periodontal literature has documented various conditions, pathophysiology, and treatment modalities of gingival enlargement. Relationship between gingival maladies and speech alteration has received scant attention. This case report describes on altered speech pattern enhancement secondary to the gingivectomy procedure. A systemically healthy 24-year- female patient reported with bilateral anterior gingival enlargement who was provisionally diagnosed as "gingival abscess with inflammatory enlargement" in relation to palatal aspect of the right maxillary canine to left maxillary canine. Bilateral gingivectomy procedure was performed by external bevel incision in relation to anterior palatal gingiva and a large wedge of epithelium and connective tissue was removed. Patient and her close acquaintances noticed a great improvement in her pronunciation and enunciation of sounds like "t", "d", "n", "l", "th", following removal of excess gingival palatal tissue and was also appreciated with visual analog scale score. Exploration of linguistic research documented the significance of tongue-palate contact during speech. Any excess gingival tissue in palatal region brings about disruption in speech by altering tongue-palate contact. Periodontal surgery like gingivectomy may improve disrupted phonetics. Excess gingival palatal tissue impedes on tongue-palate contact and interferes speech. Pronunciation of consonants like "t", "d", "n", "l", "th", are altered with anterior enlarged palatal gingiva. Excision of the enlarged palatal tissue results in improvement of speech.

  19. Acute acquired comitant esotropia related to excessive Smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Heo, Hwan

    2016-04-09

    To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) related to excessive smartphone use in adolescents. The medical records of 12 patients with AACE and a history of excessive smartphone use were retrospectively reviewed, and the duration of smartphone use, angle of deviation, refractive error, stereopsis, and treatment options were analyzed. All patients showed convergent and comitant esotropia ranging from 15 to 45 prism diopters (PD; average: 27.75 ± 11.47 PD) at far fixation. The angle of deviation was nearly equivalent for far and near fixation. Every patient used a smartphone for more than 4 h a day over a period of several months (minimum 4 months). Myopic refractive errors were detected in eight patients (average:-3.84 ± 1.68 diopters (D]), and the remaining four patients showed mild hyperopic refractive error (average: +0.84 ± 0.53 D). Reductions in esodeviation were noted in all patients after refraining from smartphone use, and bilateral medial rectus recession was performed in three patients with considerable remnant esodeviation. Postoperative exams showed orthophoria with good stereoacuity in these patients. Excessive smartphone use might influence AACE development in adolescents. Refraining from smartphone use can decrease the degree of esodeviation in these patients, and remnant deviation can be successfully managed with surgical correction.

  20. Stringy origin of diboson and dijet excesses at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported diboson and dijet excesses above standard model expectations in the invariant mass region of 1.8 -2.0 TeV. Interpreting the diboson excess of events in a model independent fashion suggests that the vector boson pair production searches are best described by WZ or ZZ topologies, because states decaying into W^+W^- pairs are strongly constrained by semileptonic searches. We show that both the diboson and dijet excesses can be steered by an anomalous U(1) field with very small coupling to leptons. The Drell-Yan bounds are then readily avoided because of the leptophobic nature of the massive Z' gauge boson. The non-negligible decay into ZZ required to accommodate the data is a characteristic footprint of intersecting D-brane models, wherein the Landau-Yang theorem can be evaded by anomaly-induced operators involving a longitudinal Z. The model presented herein can be viewed purely field-theoretically, although it is particularly well motivated from string t...

  1. Speciation of aluminium, arsenic and molybdenum in excessively limed lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestedt, Carin; Waellstedt, Teresia; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Borg, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The possible existence of the potentially toxic oxyanions of Al (Al(OH) 4 - ), As (HAsO 4 2- ), and Mo (MoO 4 2- ) was examined in excessively limed lakes. In-situ dialysis (MWCO 1 kDa) was performed in the surface and bottom waters of two excessively limed lakes (pH 7.1-7.7) and one acidic lake (pH ∼ 5.4). The dialysable metal concentrations were compared to the equilibrium distribution of species as calculated with the geochemical code Visual MINTEQ incorporating the CD-MUSIC and Stockholm Humic models for complexation onto colloidal ferrihydrite and dissolved organic matter. Arsenic and molybdenum in the excessively limed lakes were to a large extent present in the dialysable fraction (> 79% and > 92% respectively). They were calculated to exist as free or adsorbed oxyanions. Most of the Al was observed to reside in the colloidal fraction (51-82%). In agreement with this, model predictions indicated aluminium to be present mostly as colloids or bound to dissolved organic matter. Only a small fraction was modelled as Al(OH) 4 - ions. In most cases, modelled values were in agreement with the dialysis results. The free concentrations of the three oxyanions were mostly low compared to toxic levels.

  2. Deuterium Excess of Waters in Slovenia. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, M.; Torkar, A. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vreca, P. [Jozef Stefan Institut, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    In climatic and hydrological studies, deuterium excess has proven to be a useful parameter; therefore this parameter has been investigated in the waters of slovenia - positioned in central europe. All the data were acquired from publicly available data sources (e.g. journals, databases). Data were collected for four different parts of the water cycle: precipitation, surface water, groundwater and water in the unsaturated zone. For precipitation the value for deuterium excess ranges between -19.9 per mille and 28.8 per mille with the median at 10.1 per mille. Surface water has the minimum at 2.9 per mille, the maximum at 22.4 per mille and the median at 13.2 per mille. Values for groundwater vary between -17.7 per mille and 34.9 per mille with the median at 11.8 per mille. Median for deuterium excess for the unsaturated zone is 15.1 per mille and the values are between -2.8 per mille and 17.6 per mille. (author)

  3. Conventional physics can explain cold fusion excess heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, S. R.

    In 1989, when Fleischmann, Pons and Hawkins (FP), claimed they had created room temperature, nuclear fusion in a solid, a firestorm of controversy erupted. Beginning in 1991, the Office of Naval Research began a decade-long study of the FP excess heat effect. This effort documented the fact that the excess heat that FP observed is the result of a form of nuclear fusion that can occur in solids at reduced temperature, dynamically, through a deuteron (d)+d□4He reaction, without high-energy particles or □ rays. A key reason this fact has not been accepted is the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, justifying it. In the paper, this question is re-examined, based on a generalization of conventional energy band theory that applies to finite, periodic solids, in which d's are allowed to occupy wave-like, ion band states, similar to the kinds of states that electrons occupy in ordinary metals. Prior to being experimentally observed, the Ion Band State Theory (IBST) of cold fusion predicted a potential d+d□4He reaction, without high energy particles, would explain the excess heat, the 4He would be found in an unexpected place (outside heat-producing electrodes), and high-loading, x□1, in PdDx, would be required.

  4. Low-frequency excess flux noise in superconducting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempf, Sebastian; Ferring, Anna; Fleischmann, Andreas; Enss, Christian [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Low-frequency noise is a rather universal phenomenon and appears in physical, chemical, biological or even economical systems. However, there is often very little known about the underlying processes leading to its occurrence. In particular, the origin of low-frequency excess flux noise in superconducting devices has been an unresolved puzzle for many decades. Its existence limits, for example, the coherence time of superconducting quantum bits or makes high-precision measurements of low-frequency signals using SQUIDs rather challenging. Recent experiments suggest that low-frequency excess flux noise in Josephson junction based devices might be caused by the random reversal of interacting spins in surface layer oxides and in the superconductor-substrate interface. Even if it turns out to be generally correct, the underlying physical processes, i.e. the origin of these spins, their physical nature as well as the interaction mechanisms, have not been resolved so far. In this contribution we discuss recent measurements of low-frequency SQUID noise which we performed to investigate the origin of low-frequency excess flux noise in superconducting devices. Within this context we give an overview of our measurement techniques and link our data with present theoretical models and literature data.

  5. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  6. Same-sign dilepton excesses and vector-like quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuan-Ren [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University,Ting-Chou Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsin-Chia [Department of Physics, University of California,One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Low, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University,Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory,S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Multiple analyses from ATLAS and CMS collaborations, including searches for ttH production, supersymmetric particles and vector-like quarks, observed excesses in the same-sign dilepton channel containing b-jets and missing transverse energy in the LHC Run 1 data. In the context of little Higgs theories with T parity, we explain these excesses using vector-like T-odd quarks decaying into a top quark, a W boson and the lightest T-odd particle (LTP). For heavy vector-like quarks, decay topologies containing the LTP have not been searched for at the LHC. The bounds on the masses of the T-odd quarks can be estimated in a simplified model approach by adapting the search limits for top/bottom squarks in supersymmetry. Assuming a realistic decay branching fraction, a benchmark with a 750 GeV T-odd b{sup ′} quark is proposed. We also comment on the possibility to fit excesses in different analyses in a common framework.

  7. Excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent development of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, R D; Ross, G W; White, L R; Tanner, C M; Masaki, K H; Nelson, J S; Curb, J D; Petrovitch, H

    2005-11-08

    To determine if excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) can predate future Parkinson disease (PD). EDS was assessed in 3,078 men aged 71 to 93 years in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study from 1991 to 1993. All were free of prevalent PD and dementia. Follow-up for incident PD was based on three repeat neurologic assessments from 1994 to 2001. During the course of follow-up, 43 men developed PD (19.9/10,000 person-years). After age adjustment, there was more than a threefold excess in the risk of PD in men with EDS vs men without EDS (55.3 vs 17.0/10,000 person-years; odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.4 to 7.0; p = 0.004). Additional adjustment for insomnia, cognitive function, depressed mood, midlife cigarette smoking and coffee drinking, and other factors failed to alter the association between EDS and PD (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.1 to 6.4; p = 0.014). Other sleep related features such as insomnia, daytime napping, early morning grogginess, and frequent nocturnal awakening showed little relation with the risk of PD. Excessive daytime sleepiness may be associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson disease.

  8. Speech pattern improvement following gingivectomy of excess palatal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan; Toscano, Nicholas

    2008-10-01

    Speech disruption secondary to excessive gingival tissue has received scant attention in periodontal literature. Although a few articles have addressed the causes of this condition, documentation and scientific explanation of treatment outcomes are virtually non-existent. This case report describes speech pattern improvements secondary to periodontal surgery and provides a concise review of linguistic and phonetic literature pertinent to the case. A 21-year-old white female with a history of gingival abscesses secondary to excessive palatal tissue presented for treatment. Bilateral gingivectomies of palatal tissues were performed with inverse bevel incisions extending distally from teeth #5 and #12 to the maxillary tuberosities, and large wedges of epithelium/connective tissue were excised. Within the first month of the surgery, the patient noted "changes in the manner in which her tongue contacted the roof of her mouth" and "changes in her speech." Further anecdotal investigation revealed the patient's enunciation of sounds such as "s," "sh," and "k" was greatly improved following the gingivectomy procedure. Palatometric research clearly demonstrates that the tongue has intimate contact with the lateral aspects of the posterior palate during speech. Gingival excess in this and other palatal locations has the potential to alter linguopalatal contact patterns and disrupt normal speech patterns. Surgical correction of this condition via excisional procedures may improve linguopalatal contact patterns which, in turn, may lead to improved patient speech.

  9. Ultrasonic reduction of excess sludge from the activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Zhang Panyue; Yang Jinmei; Chen Yanming

    2007-01-01

    Sludge treatment has long become the most challenging problem in wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies showed that ozone or chlorine effectively liquefies sludge into substrates for bio-degradation in the aeration tank, and thus reduces the excess sludge. This paper employs ultrasound to reduce the excess sludge from the sequential batch reactor (SBR) system. Partial sludge was disintegrated into dissolved substrates by ultrasound in an external sono-tank and was then returned to the SBR for bio-degradation. The results showed that ultrasound (25 kHz) effectively liquefied the sludge. The most effective conditions for sludge reduction were as following: sludge sonication ratio of 3/14, ultrasound intensity of 120 kW/kgDS, and sonication duration of 15 min. The amount of excess sludge was reduced by 91.1% to 17.8 mg/(L d); the organic content and settleability of sludge in the SBR were not impacted. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 81.1%, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 17-66%, and high phosphorus concentration in the effluent was observed

  10. Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy in Somali refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Ruth, Laird J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Danielle; Abdalla, Fathia; Seal, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and excess are both associated with adverse health consequences, with fetuses, children and pregnant women being most vulnerable to the devastating effects of severe deficiency. It is often assumed that the iodine status of a population if displaced or in a remote or emergency situation is low. However, there is little evidence available to support this assumption, especially among long-term food-aid-dependent pregnant women. An effectiveness trial of a prenatal multiple-micronutrient supplement that contained 150 µg day(-1) iodine was conducted in two refugee camps in the North Eastern Province of Kenya in 2002. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a subsample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dagahaley (control camp) (n = 74) and Ifo (intervention camp) (n = 63). There was no significant difference in median UIC between the two camps (P = 0.118). The combined median UIC was 730 µg L(-1) (interquartile range, 780) (5.77 µmol L(-1)) and exceeded the upper safe limit of 500 µg L(-1) (3.95 µmol L(-1)) for pregnant women (P refugee camps. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the source of excess iodine, to determine the measures needed to address excessive iodine intake and to reconsider the World Health Organization/World Food Programme/United Nations Children's Fund guidance on supplementation of vulnerable groups in emergencies.

  11. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  12. Analysis of Gambling in the Media Related to Screens: Immersion as a Predictor of Excessive Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Jean-Jacques; Romo, Lucia

    2018-01-02

    This study investigates the intricacies between the player interface proposed by the screens, (in particular on smartphone applications or in video games) and gambling. Recent research indicates connections between "immersion" and excessive screen practice. We want to understand the causal-effects between online gambling and the "immersion" variable and understand their relationship and its contingencies. This article empirically investigates whether and how it is possible to observe immersion with its sub-dimensions in gambling on different screens. The objective of this study was to analyze: (1) the costs and benefits associated with gambling practice on screens (2) the link between gambling practice and screen practice (video game, Internet, mobile screen); (3) to observe the propensity to immersion for individuals practicing gambling on screens; and (4) to examine the comorbidities and cognitive factors associated with the practice of gambling on screen. A total of 432 adults (212 men, 220 women), recruited from Ile-de-France (France), responded to a battery of questionnaires. Our study suggests that immersion variables make it possible to understand the cognitive participation of individuals towards screens in general, the practice of gambling on screens and the excessive practice of screens.

  13. Will Jakarta Be The Next Atlantis? Excessive Groundwater Use Resulting From A Failing Piped Water Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colbran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the connection between a failing piped water network and excessive groundwater use in Jakarta. It discusses the political history of the city's piped water network, which was privatised in 1998, and how privatisation was intended to increase access to clean, safe water for its residents. The article asserts that this has not eventuated, and that tap water remains costly, unreliable and does not provide noticeable benefits when compared with groundwater. The result is that households, industry, businesses, luxury apartment complexes and hotels choose alternative water sources and distribution methods, in particular groundwater. This is having an unsustainable impact on groundwater levels and Jakarta 's natural environment, causing significant land subsidence, pollution and salinisation of aquifers, and increased levels of flooding. The effect is so severe that the World Bank has predicted much of Jakarta will be inundated by seawater in 2025, rendering one third of the city uninhabitable and displacing millions. The article concludes by discussing and assessing the steps the government has taken to address excessive and unlicensed groundwater use. These steps include new regulations on groundwater, a public awareness campaign on the importance of groundwater and a commitment to improve the raw water supplied to the piped water network. However, the article observes that the government is yet to develop long term policies for improvement of the network itself. The question therefore remains, has the government done enough, or will groundwater use continue unabated making Jakarta the next lost city of Atlantis?

  14. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes 2° < |b| < 20° and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform energy spectrum is compatible with the Fermi-LAT data in our region of interest at 95% CL. Assuming that this excess is the extended counterpart of the one seen in the inner few degrees of the Galaxy, we derive a lower limit of 10.0° (95% CL) on its extension away from the GC. We show that, in light of the large correlated uncertainties that affect the subtraction of the Galactic diffuse emission in the relevant regions, the energy spectrum of the excess is equally compatible with both a simple broken power-law of break energy E(break) = 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, and with spectra predicted by the self-annihilation of dark matter, implying in the case of bar bb final states a dark matter mass of m(χ)=49(+6.4)(-)(5.4)  GeV.

  15. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz, R; Sanchez, L A; Knochenhauer, E S; Moran, C; Lazenby, J; Stephens, K C; Taylor, K; Boots, L R

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of the different pathological conditions causing clinically evident androgen excess and to document the degree of long-term success of suppressive and/or antiandrogen hormonal therapy in a large consecutive population of patients. All patients presenting for evaluation of symptoms potentially related to androgen excess between October 1987 and June 2002 were evaluated, and the data were maintained prospectively in a computerized database. For the assessment of therapeutic response, a retrospective review of the medical chart was performed, after the exclusion of those patients seeking fertility therapy only, or with inadequate follow-up or poor compliance. A total of 1281 consecutive patients were seen during the study period. Excluded from analysis were 408 patients in whom we were unable to evaluate hormonal status, determine ovulatory status, or find any evidence of androgen excess. In the remaining population of 873 patients, the unbiased prevalence of androgen-secreting neoplasms was 0.2%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient classic adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was 0.6%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) was 1.6%, hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome was 3.1%, idiopathic hirsutism was 4.7%, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was 82.0%. Fifty-nine (6.75%) patients had elevated androgen levels and hirsutism but normal ovulation. A total of 257 patients were included in the assessment of the response to hormonal therapy. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months (range, 6-155). Hirsutism improved in 86%, menstrual dysfunction in 80%, acne in 81%, and hair loss in 33% of patients. The major side effects noted were irregular vaginal bleeding (16.1%), nausea (13.0%), and headaches (12.6%); only 36.6% of patients never complained of side effects. In this large study of consecutive patients presenting with clinically evident androgen excess

  16. Economic feasibility of district heating delivery from industrial excess heat: A case study of a Swedish petrochemical cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandin, Matteo; Hackl, Roman; Harvey, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The present work discusses the potential and the economic feasibility of DH (district heating) delivery using industrial excess heat from a petrochemical cluster at the Swedish West Coast. Pinch Analysis was used for estimating the DH capacity targets and for estimating the cost of heat exchanger installation. A discounted cash flow rate of return of 10% was used as a criterion for identifying the minimum yearly DH delivery that should be guaranteed for a given DH capacity at different DH sales prices. The study was conducted for the current scenario in which no heat recovery is achieved between the cluster plants and for a possible future scenario in which 50% of the fuel currently used for heating purposes is saved by increasing the heat recovery at the site. The competition between excess heat export and local energy efficiency measures is also discussed in terms of CO 2 emission consequences. The maximum capacity of DH delivery amounts today to around 235 MW, which reduces to 110 MW in the future scenario of increased site heat recovery. The results of our analysis show that feasible conditions exist that make DH delivery profitable in the entire capacity range. - Highlights: • Pinch Analysis targeting approach and short-cut cost accounting procedure. • Economic analysis for different DH delivery capacities up to maximum targets. • Sensitivity analysis of heat sales prices. • Parallel plants and cluster wide heat collection systems considered. • Competition between cluster internal heat recovery and excess heat export is discussed

  17. Application of kaolin-based catalysts in biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tan Hiep; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol was performed by using as-prepared catalyst from low-cost kaolin clay. This effective heterogeneous catalyst was successfully prepared from natural kaolin firstly by dehydroxylation at 800°C for 10h and, subsequently, by NaOH-activation hydrothermally at 90°C for 24h and calcined again at 500°C for 6h. The as-obtained catalytic material was characterized with instruments, including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and porosimeter (BET/BJH analysis). The as-prepared catalyst was advantageous not only for its easy preparation, but also for its cost-efficiency and superior catalysis in transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Conversion efficiencies of soybean and palm oils to biodiesel over the as-prepared catalysts reached 97.0±3.0% and 95.4±3.7%, respectively, under optimal conditions. Activation energies of transesterification reactions of soybean and palm oils in excess methanol using these catalysts are 14.09 kJ/mol and 48.87 kJ/mol, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of excess air on second-generation PFB combustion plant performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.; Garland, R.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; Rubow, L.; Bonk, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a 1.4-MPa (14-atm) coal-fired second-generation pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustion plant and identifies the performance and economic changes that result as the excess air and thus gas turbine-to-steam turbine power ratio, is changed. The performance of these plants, another second- generation PFB combustion plant, and a conventional pulverized-coal (PC)-fired plant with wet limestone flue gas desulfurization is compared. Depending upon the conditions selected, the PFB combustion plant can achieve a 45 percent efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the coal used as fuel) and a cost of electricity at least 20 percent lower than that of the conventional PC-fired plant

  19. Treating catfish diseases: walking the line between excess and moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost savings by using a cheaper disease treatment will increase profitability of any catfish farm. This invited producer presentation will discuss costs savings using copper sulfate in catfish production and a summation of our research, specifically in the hatchery. Copper sulfate is not approved ...

  20. Design to Cost and Life Cycle Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MANAGEMENT TASK ORIENTATED COST STRUCTURE 5. COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION INIFRA 2. COSTS DURING DEVELOPMENT -6. COSTS OF TRAINING 3. COSTS DURING TESi ...de r~duction des coats, ii faut disponer de ?!vyenr. performants d’eetimation des coats en main-d’oeuvre et en applrvininrinesent. Cam moyenm doivent

  1. Management of Excess Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Doering, O.

    2011-12-01

    Managing the impacts of excessive reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment is a complex problem that begins with the recognition of the obligate dietary need for Nr by all living populations. The human solution to this need has been to devise ways to bring Nr into the biosphere (via the Haber-Bosch process) to grow food. Other Nr is created as a by-product of fossil-fuel combustion. The net result is the introduction of more than five times the Nr created by natural processes in the U.S., only a fraction of which is converted back to diatomic nitrogen through denitrification. This presentation summarizes findings and recommendations of the newly-released US EPA Science Advisory Board's Integrated Nitrogen Committee report, "Reactive Nitrogen in the United States: An Analysis of Flows, Consequences, and Management Options", that deal specifically with approaches for solving the excess Nr problem. These can be grouped into four general areas: (1) Recognition of the Problem. Until there is recognition that excess Nr is a serious problem with economic, health, and societal consequences, there will be little willingness to expend resources on this issue. Education, communication and outreach are critically important to engender in regulators, and the public at large, sufficient will to undertake the large scale effort needed to reduce Nr in the environment. (2) Development of Integrated Regulatory Approaches. Given what is known about the way Nr behaves, efforts to deal with excess Nr must be organized in a way that reflects the nature of the problem. Unfortunately, most approaches tend to conceive of Nr issues within a narrowly focused disciplinary model, and our policy and regulatory institutions are often bound by enabling legislation that stresses source-by-source, chemical-by-chemical, and media-by-media. The resulting regulatory structure that has evolved for problems such as Nr that affect human health and the environment is apt to miss the complex nature of the

  2. Multiscale estimation of excess mass from gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    We describe a multiscale method to estimate the excess mass of gravity anomaly sources, based on the theory of source moments. Using a multipole expansion of the potential field and considering only the data along the vertical direction, a system of linear equations is obtained. The choice of inverting data along a vertical profile can help us to reduce the interference effects due to nearby anomalies and will allow a local estimate of the source parameters. A criterion is established allowing the selection of the optimal highest altitude of the vertical profile data and truncation order of the series expansion. The inversion provides an estimate of the total anomalous mass and of the depth to the centre of mass. The method has several advantages with respect to classical methods, such as the Gauss' method: (i) we need just a 1-D inversion to obtain our estimates, being the inverted data sampled along a single vertical profile; (ii) the resolution may be straightforward enhanced by using vertical derivatives; (iii) the centre of mass is also estimated, besides the excess mass; (iv) the method is very robust versus noise; (v) the profile may be chosen in such a way to minimize the effects from interfering anomalies or from side effects due to the a limited area extension. The multiscale estimation of excess mass method can be successfully used in various fields of application. Here, we analyse the gravity anomaly generated by a sulphide body in the Skelleftea ore district, North Sweden, obtaining source mass and volume estimates in agreement with the known information. We show also that these estimates are substantially improved with respect to those obtained with the classical approach.

  3. MSSM fits to the ATLAS 1 lepton excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalska, Kamila [TU Dortmund, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Dortmund (Germany); Sessolo, Enrico Maria [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    We use the framework of the p19MSSM to perform a fit to the mild excesses over the Standard Model background recently observed in three bins of the ATLAS 1-lepton + (b-)jets + E{sub T}{sup miss} search. We find a few types of spectra that can fit the emerging signal and at the same time are not excluded by other LHC searches. They can be grouped roughly in two categories. The first class is characterized by the presence of one stop or stop and sbottoms with mass in the ballpark of 700-800 GeV and a neutralino LSP of mass around 400 GeV, with or without the additional presence of an intermediate chargino. In the second type of scenarios the stop, lightest chargino, sbottom if present, and the neutralino are about or heavier than ∝ 650 GeV and the signal originates from cascade decays of squarks of the 1st and 2nd generation, which should have a mass of 1.1-1.2 TeV. For the best-fit scenarios, we compare the global chi-squared with several ATLAS and CMS searches with the corresponding chi-squared of the Standard Model expectation, showing that the putative signal is also favored globally with respect to the background-only hypothesis. We point out that if the observed excess persists in the next round of data, it should be accompanied by associated significant excesses in all-hadronic final-state searches. (orig.)

  4. A perspective on safeguarding and monitoring of excess military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective and framework for the development of safeguarding and monitoring procedures for the various stages of disposition of excess military plutonium. The paper briefly outlines and comments on some of the issues involved in safeguarding and monitoring excess military plutonium as it progresses from weapons through dismantlement, to fabrication as reactor fuel, to use in a reactor, and finally to storage and disposal as spent fuel. open-quotes Militaryclose quotes refers to ownership, and includes both reactor-grade and weapon-grade plutonium. open-quotes Excessclose quotes refers to plutonium (in any form) that a government decides is no longer needed for military use and can be irrevocably removed from military stockpiles. Many of the issues and proposals presented in this paper are based on, or are similar to, those mentioned in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on excess military plutonium. Safeguards for plutonium disposition are discussed elsewhere in terms of requirements established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Here, the discussion is less specific. The term open-quotes safeguardingclose quotes is used broadly to refer to materials control and accountancy (MC ampersand A), containment and surveillance (C ampersand S), and physical protection of nuclear materials by the state that possesses those materials. This is also referred to as material protection, control, and accountancy (MPCA). The term open-quotes safeguardingclose quotes was chosen for brevity and to distinguish MPCA considered in this paper from international or IAEA safeguards. open-quotes Monitoringclose quotes is used to refer to activities designed to assure another party (state or international organization) that the nuclear materials of the host state (the United States or Russia) are secure and not subject to unauthorized

  5. Experimental considerations motivated by the diphoton excess at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fan, JiJi; Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Strassler, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We consider the immediate or near-term experimental opportunities offered by some scenarios that could explain the new diphoton excess at the LHC. If the excess is due to a new particle X s at 750 GeV, additional new particles are required, providing further signals. If connected with naturalness, the X s may be produced in top partner decays. Then a t ′ t̄ ′ signal, with t ′ →tX s and X s →gg dominantly, might be discovered by reinterpreting 13 TeV SUSY searches in multijet events with low MET and/or a lepton. If X s is a bound state of quirks, the signal events may be accompanied by an unusual number of soft tracks or soft jets. Other resonances including dilepton and photon+jet as well as dijet may lie at or above this mass, and signatures of hidden glueballs might also be observable. If the “photons" in the excess are actually long-lived particles decaying to photon pairs or to electron pairs, there are opportunities for detecting overlapping photons and/or unusual patterns of apparent photon-conversions in either X s or 125 GeV Higgs decays. There is also the possibility of events with a hard “photon” recoiling against a narrow isolated HCAL-only “jet”, which, after the jet’s energy is corrected for its electromagnetic origin, would show a peak at 750 GeV.

  6. Measuring excess free energies of self-assembled membrane structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizoe, Yuki; Daoulas, Kostas Ch; Müller, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Using computer simulation of a solvent-free, coarse-grained model for amphiphilic membranes, we study the excess free energy of hourglass-shaped connections (i.e., stalks) between two apposed bilayer membranes. In order to calculate the free energy by simulation in the canonical ensemble, we reversibly transfer two apposed bilayers into a configuration with a stalk in three steps. First, we gradually replace the intermolecular interactions by an external, ordering field. The latter is chosen such that the structure of the non-interacting system in this field closely resembles the structure of the original, interacting system in the absence of the external field. The absence of structural changes along this path suggests that it is reversible; a fact which is confirmed by expanded-ensemble simulations. Second, the external, ordering field is changed as to transform the non-interacting system from the apposed bilayer structure to two-bilayers connected by a stalk. The final external field is chosen such that the structure of the non-interacting system resembles the structure of the stalk in the interacting system without a field. On the third branch of the transformation path, we reversibly replace the external, ordering field by non-bonded interactions. Using expanded-ensemble techniques, the free energy change along this reversible path can be obtained with an accuracy of 10(-3)k(B)T per molecule in the n VT-ensemble. Calculating the chemical potential, we obtain the free energy of a stalk in the grandcanonical ensemble, and employing semi-grandcanonical techniques, we calculate the change of the excess free energy upon altering the molecular architecture. This computational strategy can be applied to compute the free energy of self-assembled phases in lipid and copolymer systems, and the excess free energy of defects or interfaces.

  7. Some considerations for excess zeroes in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; DeSantis, Stacia M; Korte, Jeffrey E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-09-01

    Count data collected in substance abuse research often come with an excess of "zeroes," which are typically handled using zero-inflated regression models. However, there is a need to consider the design aspects of those studies before using such a statistical model to ascertain the sources of zeroes. We sought to illustrate hurdle models as alternatives to zero-inflated models to validate a two-stage decision-making process in situations of "excess zeroes." We use data from a study of 45 cocaine-dependent subjects where the primary scientific question was to evaluate whether study participation influences drug-seeking behavior. The outcome, "the frequency (count) of cocaine use days per week," is bounded (ranging from 0 to 7). We fit and compare binomial, Poisson, negative binomial, and the hurdle version of these models to study the effect of gender, age, time, and study participation on cocaine use. The hurdle binomial model provides the best fit. Gender and time are not predictive of use. Higher odds of use versus no use are associated with age; however once use is experienced, odds of further use decrease with increase in age. Participation was associated with higher odds of no-cocaine use; once there is use, participation reduced the odds of further use. Age and study participation are significantly predictive of cocaine-use behavior. The two-stage decision process as modeled by a hurdle binomial model (appropriate for bounded count data with excess zeroes) provides interesting insights into the study of covariate effects on count responses of substance use, when all enrolled subjects are believed to be "at-risk" of use.

  8. Cancers attributable to excess body weight in Canada in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.

  9. The Excessive Profits of Defense Contractors: Evidence and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    UNILEVER NV $112,089,508 292 UL 2000 11 MOOG, INC. $111,608,841 293 MOG.A 3728 11 ALON USA L.P. $111,102,800 296 ALJ 2911 11 COCA - COLA ENTERPRISES...audits and investigations. As a national leader in the fight against procurement fraud, Miller participates in the U.S. Attorney General’s Financial Fraud...Excessive Profits of Defense Contractors: Evidence and Determinants1 Chong Wang—Wang is an assistant professor of financial management in the

  10. Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, T.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another

  11. Nutrient Excess in AMPK Downregulation and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, Kimberly A.; Valentine, Rudy J.; Ruderman, Neil B.; Saha, Asish K.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that chronic exposure to excess nutrients leads to insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle. Since skeletal muscle is responsible for 70-80% of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle IR is a key pathological component of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent evidence suggests that inhibition of the nutrient-sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an early event in the development of IR in response to high glucose, branched chain amino acids (BCAA), o...

  12. Thermal cell solubilization of excess sludge; Thermischer Zellaufschluss von Ueberschussschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duennebeil, A. [LIMUS Umwelttechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Thermal cell solubilization of excess sludge has the following impact on subsequent digestion: cut in the mass of solids to be disposed of, enhancement of gas production and dewatering efficiency, stabilization of the digestion process, reduction of the tendency for foam formation. This does not require additional energy in an amount worth mentioning. (orig.) [German] Durch thermischen Zellaufschluss von Ueberschussschlamm wird in der nachfolgenden Faulung - die zu entsorgende Feststoffmasse reduziert - die Gasproduktion und - der Entwaesserungsgrad gesteigert sowie - der Faulbetrieb stabilisiert und - die Neigung zur Schaumbildung verringert. Dafuer ist keine nennenswerte, zusaetzliche Energie erforderlich. (orig.)

  13. Harmonizing the MSSM with the Galactic Center excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butter, Anja; Murgia, Simona; Plehn, Tilman; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2017-08-01

    The minimal supersymmetric setup offers a comprehensive framework to interpret the Fermi-LAT Galactic Center excess. Taking into account experimental, theoretical, and astrophysical uncertainties we can identify valid parameter regions linked to different annihilation channels. They extend to dark matter masses above 250 GeV. There exists a very mild tension between the observed relic density and the annihilation rate in the center of our Galaxy for specific channels. The strongest additional constraints come from the new generation of direct detection experiments, ruling out much of the light and intermediate dark matter mass regime and giving preference to heavier dark matter annihilating into a pair of top quarks.

  14. Excess Gibbs Energy for Ternary Lattice Solutions of Nonrandom Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Young [DukSung Womens University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    It is assumed for three components lattice solution that the number of ways of arranging particles randomly on the lattice follows a normal distribution of a linear combination of N{sub 12}, N{sub 23}, N{sub 13} which are the number of the nearest neighbor interactions between different molecules. It is shown by random number simulations that this assumption is reasonable. From this distribution, an approximate equation for the excess Gibbs energy of three components lattice solution is derived. Using this equation, several liquid-vapor equilibria are calculated and compared with the results from other equations.

  15. Medulloblastoma with Excessive Nodularity: Radiographic Features and Pathologic Correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yeh-Nayre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity is a rare subtype of the most common malignant childhood brain tumor and has been associated with more favorable prognosis. The authors report the case of a 10-month-old girl with a posterior fossa tumor of excessive nodularity with decreased diffusivity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences and robust grape-like postgadolinium contrast enhancing features. The unique neuroradiographic features were confirmed by histopathology and a diagnosis of medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity was made. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this unique medulloblastoma subtype preoperatively, as the more favorable outcome may preclude less aggressive medical management.

  16. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria M; Hogue, Susan; Preblick, Ronald; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion Costs for VTE treatment are considerable and increasing faster than general inflation for medical care services, with hospitalization costs being the primary cost driver. Readmissions for VTE are generally more costly than the initial VTE admission. Further studies evaluating the economic impact of new

  17. Conservative accounting yields excessive risk-taking; a note

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Becker; Melanie Steinhoff

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the role of business taxation for corporate risk-taking under different accounting principles. We build a model in which investors have complete information and markets are perfect. A representative risk-neutral firm invests in one unit of an asset choosing from a continuum of assets differing in income and risk properties. The corporate tax base is determined following specific accounting principles (such as mark-to-market, lower-of-cost-or-market and historical cost). We demonstr...

  18. Member for conducting excess heat away from heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Should a radioisotope-powered engine (e.g., a Stirling cycle engine for generating electricity) stop working for any reason, the radioisotope heat source will continue to generate heat. This will result in a rise in temperature which may cause overheating of and possible damage to the engine as well as to the heat source itself. The invention provides a support/location member for conducting excess heat from the heat source and which, in normal operation of the engine, will impede the conduction of heat away from the heat source and so reduce thermal losses. The member is of elongated form and comprises a stack of heat-conductive slugs disposed in a tube and in interspaced relationship along the axis of the tube. The tube supports the slugs in axial alignment. Means are provided for attaching an end one of the slugs to the heat source and means operable on overheating of said end one of the slugs are also provided whereby the slugs are able to move into heat-conducting contact with each other so as to conduct the excess heat away from said heat source. The slugs may be brazed to the tube whereby progressive overheating of the slugs along the stack results in an overheated slug being freed from attachment to the tube so as to allow the overheated slug to move along the stack and engage the next slug in line in heat-conducting contact. (U.S.)

  19. Two Qatari siblings with cystic fibrosis and apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Zahraldin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF and apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME syndrome are both autosomal recessive disorders that result from mutations of specific identified genes for each condition. CF is caused by defects in the Cystic fibrosis trans membrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene which encodes for a protein that functions as a chloride channel and regulates the flow of other ions across the apical surface of epithelial cells. AME is due to the deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme (11βHSD2, which is responsible for the peripheral inactivation of cortisol to cortisone. Cortisol excess stimulates the mineralocoritoid receptors (MR resulting in intense sodium retention, hypokalemia and hypertension. We report on a consanguineous Arab family, in which two sibs inherited both CF and AME. Gene testing for AME revealed previously unreported mutation in the 11βHSD2 gene. This report draws attention to the importance of recognizing the possibility of two recessive disorders in the same child in complex consanguineous families. Moreover, it provides a unique opportunity to highlight the implications of the coexistence of two genetic disorders on patient care and genetic counseling of the family.

  20. Excess vitamin intake: An unrecognized risk factor for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yiming

    2014-02-15

    Over the past few decades, food fortification and infant formula supplementation with high levels of vitamins have led to a sharp increase in vitamin intake among infants, children and adults. This is followed by a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity and related diseases, with significant disparities among countries and different groups within a country. It has long been known that B vitamins at doses below their toxicity threshold strongly promote body fat gain. Studies have demonstrated that formulas, which have very high levels of vitamins, significantly promote infant weight gain, especially fat mass gain, a known risk factor for children developing obesity. Furthermore, ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin consumption is strongly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. We therefore hypothesize that excess vitamins may play a causal role in the increased prevalence of obesity. This review will discuss: (1) the causes of increased vitamin intake; (2) the non-monotonic effect of excess vitamin intake on weight and fat gain; and (3) the role of vitamin fortification in obesity disparities among countries and different groups within a country.

  1. Tryptophan levels, excessive exercise, and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, A; Caregaro, L; Burlina, A B; Santonastaso, P

    2000-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that reduced dietary availability of tryptophan may be the cause of impaired serotonin activity in underweight anorexics. The study reported here evaluated the relationship between tryptophan availability in the blood and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa. The total amount of tryptophan and the ratio between tryptophan and other large neutral amino acids (TRP/LNAA) were assessed in a sample of 16 starving anorexic patients. Body weight and composition and energy intake were evaluated in all patients. All subjects also completed self-reported questionnaires such as the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI). The TRP/LNAA ratio seems to be higher in patients with a more severe catabolic status. It is, in fact, significantly inversely correlated with body mass index, body fat, muscle mass, daily energy intake, and daily tryptophan intake. The TRP/LNAA ratio also correlates with growth hormone and the EDI drive for thinness. Patients who exercise excessively had significantly higher TRP/LNAA ratios. In starving anorexic patients, the TRP/LNAA ratio does not seem to be determined by the content of tryptophan in the diet, but it correlates with measures of catabolism. The relationship of the TRP/LNAA ratio to excessive exercise and starvation indicates the importance of further investigations exploring the role of tryptophan availability in maintaining anorexia nervosa.

  2. Induced videokeratography alterations in patients with excessive meibomian secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Kymionis, George D; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Astyrakakis, Nikolaos; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2005-01-01

    To describe lipid-induced specific videokeratographic (VKG) corneal changes and subsequent resolution after eyelid washing. VKG was performed with C-Scan corneal topography. In all patients an excessive meibomian gland lipid secretion was found with or without coexistent chronic posterior blepharitis. After the initial VKG, a meticulous cleaning of the lids with a mild alkali shampoo (10% Johnson's baby shampoo in sterile water) was done, first by gently scrubbing the closed eyelid fissure with the solution to mobilize and emulsify any Meibomian gland secretions followed by cleaning of the upper and lower margins individually, using Q-tip applicators soaked in the detergent. Three patients with tear film lipid layer excess (TFLE), which correlated with the presence of a superior or central corneal steepening in VKG, were studied. In two of the subjects, careful lid washing reversed either completely or partially this VKG effect, whereas in the last patient the VKG changes after artificially increasing the tear film lipid content is described. Meibomian gland lipid secretions may induce mainly superior and occasionally central VKG corneal steepening that is not correlated with any slit-lamp pathologic findings. Computerized corneal topography can help detect such corneal abnormalities, and their reversibility may distinguish them from other pathologic conditions (such as contact lens-induced warpage, eccentric ablations, irregular astigmatism, superior keratoconus).

  3. Metabolic acclimation to excess light intensity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Maria C; Fiehn, Oliver; Durnford, Dion G

    2013-07-01

    There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear metabolic response to HL intensity was observed on global metabolite pools, with major changes in the levels of amino acids and related nitrogen metabolites. Amino acid pools increased during short-term photoacclimation, but were especially prominent in HL-acclimated cultures. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in mitochondrial metabolism through downstream photorespiratory pathways. The expression of two genes encoding key enzymes in the photorespiratory pathway, glycolate dehydrogenase and malate synthase, were highly responsive to the HL stress. We propose that this pathway contributes to metabolite pools involved in nitrogen assimilation and may play a direct role in photoacclimation. Our results suggest that primary and secondary metabolism is highly pliable and plays a critical role in coping with the energetic imbalance during HL exposure and a necessary adjustment to support an increased growth rate that is an effective energy sink for the excess reducing power generated during HL stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. On the nature of the excess heat capacity of mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar

    2011-03-01

    The excess vibrational entropy (Δ S {vib/ex}) of several silicate solid solutions are found to be linearly correlated with the differences in end-member volumes (Δ V i ) and end-member bulk moduli (Δκ i ). If a substitution produces both, larger and elastically stiffer polyhedra, then the substituted ion will find itself in a strong enlarged structure. The frequency of its vibration is decreased because of the increase in bond lengths. Lowering of frequencies produces larger heat capacities, which give rise to positive excess vibrational entropies. If a substitution produces larger but elastically softer polyhedra, then increase and decrease of mean bond lengths may be similar in magnitude and their effect on the vibrational entropy tends to be compensated. The empirical relationship between Δ S {vib/ex}, Δ V i and Δκ i , as described by Δ S {vib/ex} = (Δ V i + mΔκ i ) f, was calibrated on six silicate solid solutions (analbite-sanidine, pyrope-grossular, forsterite-fayalite, analbite-anorthite, anorthite-sanidine, CaTs-diopside) yielding m = 0.0246 and f = 2.926. It allows the prediction of Δ S {vib/ex} behaviour of a solid solution based on its volume and bulk moduli end-member data.

  5. Disposition of excess fissile materials in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.; Danker, W.; Morley, R.

    1995-09-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. Plutonium utilization options have in common the generation of high-level radioactive waste which will be disposed of in a mined geologic disposal system to be developed for spent reactor fuel and defense high level waste. Other final disposition forms, such as plutonium metal, plutonium oxide and plutonium immobilized without high-level radiation sources may be better suited to placement in a custom facility. This paper discusses a leading candidate for such a facility; deep (several kilometer) borehole disposition. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. The safety argument centers around ancient groundwater indicating lack of migration, and thus no expected communication with the accessible environment until the plutonium has decayed

  6. [Excess weight and abdominal obesity in Galician children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge

    2017-12-06

    The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Excessive bodybuilding as pathology? A first neurophysiological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Moritz Julian; Haeussinger, Florian Benedikt; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas Jochen; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2017-11-15

    Excessive bodybuilding as a pathological syndrome has been classified based on two different theories: bodybuilding as dependency or as muscle dysmorphic disorder (MDD). This study is a first attempt to find psychophysiological data supporting one of these classifications. Twenty-four participants (bodybuilders vs healthy controls) were presented with pictures of bodies, exercise equipment or general reward stimuli in a control or experimental condition, and were measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Higher activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) while watching bodies and training equipment in the experimental condition (muscular bodies and bodybuilding-typical equipment) would be an indicator for the addiction theory. Higher activation in motion-related areas would be an indicator for the MDD theory. We found no task-related differences between the groups in the DLPFC and OFC, but a significantly higher activation in bodybuilders in the primary somatosensory cortex (PSC) and left-hemispheric supplementary motor area (SMA) while watching body pictures (across conditions) as compared to the control group. These neurophysiological results could be interpreted as a first evidence for the MDD theory of excessive bodybuilding.

  8. Premature adrenarche: novel lessons from early onset androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkowiak, Jan; Lavery, Gareth G; Dhir, Vivek; Barrett, Timothy G; Stewart, Paul M; Krone, Nils; Arlt, Wiebke

    2011-08-01

    Adrenarche reflects the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis resulting in increased secretion of the adrenal androgen precursor DHEA and its sulphate ester DHEAS. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined by increased levels of DHEA and DHEAS before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys and the concurrent presence of signs of androgen action including adult-type body odour, oily skin and hair and pubic hair growth. PA is distinct from precocious puberty, which manifests with the development of secondary sexual characteristics including testicular growth and breast development. Idiopathic PA (IPA) has long been considered an extreme of normal variation, but emerging evidence links IPA to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS) and thus ultimately cardiovascular morbidity. Areas of controversy include the question whether IPA in girls is associated with a higher rate of progression to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and whether low birth weight increases the risk of developing IPA. The recent discoveries of two novel monogenic causes of early onset androgen excess, apparent cortisone reductase deficiency and apparent DHEA sulphotransferase deficiency, support the notion that PA may represent a forerunner condition for PCOS. Future research including carefully designed longitudinal studies is required to address the apparent link between early onset androgen excess and the development of insulin resistance and the MS.

  9. Idiopathic hirsutism: excessive bodily and facial hair in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    Hirsutism is the excessive and increased bodily and facial hair growth in women in locations where hair is normally minimal or absent. It refers to the growth of hair in a pattern normally occurring only in men, and therefore primarily raises psychological, cosmetic and social concerns. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH), where the cause of excessive hair growth is unknown, is considered to be the most common form of hirsutism. It is suspected that this type of hirsutism may be familial, as there is often a family history of the condition. Women with IH will generally have normal menses and normal levels of testosterone. There are many treatment modalities that fall into two broad groups: medical and mechanical treatment. An example of a medical treatment is when an agent is used, which interferes with the synthesis of androgen at the ovarian or adrenal level, or by inhibiting the effect of androgen at the receptor level. An example of a mechanical treatment is laser hair removal, where the hair follicle is destroyed; however, much depends on the on the skill of the treating practitioner, laser type, laser spot size, skin type, hair colour, and the stage at which the hair follicles were during their hair growth cycle, and the delivered wavelength. Laser offers the fastest method of hair loss. Other mechanical treatments include electrolysis, depilatory creams, plucking and waxing. This article presents a general overview of IH, including a definition, diagnostic measures, clinical manifestations, normal and abnormal physiology, and treatment options.

  10. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  11. Can we determine what controls the spatio-temporal distribution of d-excess and 17O-excess in precipitation using the LMDZ general circulation model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Risi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Combined measurements of the H218O and HDO isotopic ratios in precipitation, leading to second-order parameter D-excess, have provided additional constraints on past climates compared to the H218O isotopic ratio alone. More recently, measurements of H217O have led to another second-order parameter: 17O-excess. Recent studies suggest that 17O-excess in polar ice may provide information on evaporative conditions at the moisture source. However, the processes controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of 17O-excess are still far from being fully understood. We use the isotopic general circulation model (GCM LMDZ to better understand what controls d-excess and 17O-excess in precipitation at present-day (PD and during the last glacial maximum (LGM. The simulation of D-excess and 17O-excess is evaluated against measurements in meteoric water, water vapor and polar ice cores. A set of sensitivity tests and diagnostics are used to quantify the relative effects of evaporative conditions (sea surface temperature and relative humidity, Rayleigh distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins, precipitation re-evaporation and supersaturation during condensation at low temperature. In LMDZ, simulations suggest that in the tropics convective processes and rain re-evaporation are important controls on precipitation D-excess and 17O-excess. In higher latitudes, the effect of distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins and supersaturation are the most important controls. For example, the lower d-excess and 17O-excess at LGM simulated at LGM are mainly due to the supersaturation effect. The effect of supersaturation is however very sensitive to a parameter whose tuning would require more measurements and laboratory experiments. Evaporative conditions had previously been suggested to be key controlling factors of d-excess and 17O-excess, but LMDZ underestimates their role. More generally, some shortcomings in the simulation of 17O-excess

  12. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  13. Excessive Alcohol Use Can Be a Problem (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Excessive alcohol consumption can result in severe health, social, and financial problems. It causes more than 88,000 deaths each year. This podcast discusses the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption.

  14. Fertilizing nature: a tragedy of excess in the commons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G Good

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, we are applying excessive nitrogen (N fertilizers to our agricultural crops, which ultimately causes nitrogen pollution to our ecosphere. The atmosphere is polluted by N₂O and NO(x gases that directly and indirectly increase atmospheric warming and climate change. Nitrogen is also leached from agricultural lands as the water-soluble form NO₃⁻, which increases nutrient overload in rivers, lakes, and oceans, causing "dead zones", reducing property values and the diversity of aquatic life, and damaging our drinking water and aquatic-associated industries such as fishing and tourism. Why do some countries show reductions in fertilizer use while others show increasing use? What N fertilizer application reductions could occur, without compromising crop yields? And what are the economic and environmental benefits of using directed nutrient management strategies?

  15. Management of bimaxillary transverse discrepancy with vertical excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh C Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy reported with a complaint of severe irregularity of lower teeth and forwardly placed upper teeth. History revealed snoring as an occasional complaint. The case was diagnosed as mild class II skeletally with increased lower anterior face height, bimaxillary transverse discrepancy leading to severe crowding in the lower arch, V-shaped upper arch with increased overjet and deep bite. Three phase treatment was planned. In the first phase, bimaxillary expansion with mid-symphyseal distraction osteogenesis and rapid maxillary expansion was carried out. After this phase of treatment, the episodes of snoring vanished. The second phase was 1 year of orthodontics to produce symmetric well-aligned arches in good function and aesthetics. Third, the treatment concluded with reduction-advancement genioplasty for correction of vertical excess and surgical camouflage.

  16. Decaying Dark Atom Constituents and Cosmic Positron Excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belotsky, K.; Khlopov, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a scenario where dark matter is in the form of dark atoms that can accommodate the experimentally observed excess of positrons in PAMELA and AMS-02 while being compatible with the constraints imposed on the gamma-ray ux from Fermi/LAT. This scenario assumes that the dominant component...... of dark matter is in the form of a bound state between a helium nucleus and a -2 particle and a small component is in the form of a WIMP-like dark atom compatible with direct searches in underground detectors. One of the constituents of this WIMP-like state is a +2 metastable particle with a mass of 1 Te...... baryons in the universe to be close to -3....

  17. A floating water bridge produces water with excess charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Elmar C.; Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D.; Kuntke, Philipp; Woisetschläger, Jakob

    2016-03-01

    Excess positive and negative Bjerrum-defect like charge (protonic and ‘aterprotonic’, from ancient Greek ἄ'τɛρ, ‘without’) in anolyte and catholyte of high voltage electrolysis of highly pure water was found during the so-called ‘floating water bridge’ experiment. The floating water bridge is a special case of an electrohydrodynamic liquid bridge and constitutes an intriguing phenomenon that occurs when a high potential difference (~kV cm-1) is applied between two beakers of water. To obtain such results impedance spectroscopy was used. This measurement technique allows the depiction and simulation of complex aqueous systems as simple electric circuits. In the present work we show that there is an additional small contribution from the difference in conductivity between anolyte and catholyte which cannot be measured with a conductivity meter, but is clearly visible in an impedance spectrum.

  18. A floating water bridge produces water with excess charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Sammer, Martina; Wexler, Adam D; Kuntke, Philipp; Woisetschläger, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Excess positive and negative Bjerrum-defect like charge (protonic and ‘aterprotonic’, from ancient Greek ατερ, ‘without’) in anolyte and catholyte of high voltage electrolysis of highly pure water was found during the so-called ‘floating water bridge’ experiment. The floating water bridge is a special case of an electrohydrodynamic liquid bridge and constitutes an intriguing phenomenon that occurs when a high potential difference (∼kV cm −1 ) is applied between two beakers of water. To obtain such results impedance spectroscopy was used. This measurement technique allows the depiction and simulation of complex aqueous systems as simple electric circuits. In the present work we show that there is an additional small contribution from the difference in conductivity between anolyte and catholyte which cannot be measured with a conductivity meter, but is clearly visible in an impedance spectrum. (paper)

  19. Partial pulp necrosis caused by excessive orthodontic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Young Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As the dental pulp is encased with a rigid, noncompliant shell, changes in pulpal blood flow or vascular tissue pressure can have serious implication for the health of pulp. Numerous studies have demonstrated that orthodontic force application may influence both blood flow and cellular metabolism, leading degenerative and/or inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. The aim of this case report is to present a case about tooth with chronic periapical abscess which showed normal vital responses. Excessive orthodontic force is thought to be the prime cause of partial pulp necrosis. Owing to remaining vital tissue, wrong dianosis can be made, and tooth falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissuses. Clinician should be able to utilize various diagnostic tools for the precise diagnosis, and be aware of the endodontic-orthodontic inter-relationship.

  20. Excessive sedentary time during in-patient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew; Snow, John Charles; Kirkland, Megan C; Kelly, Liam P; Gehue, Maria; Downer, Matthew B; McCarthy, Jason; Ploughman, Michelle

    2018-04-03

    Background and Purpose Previous research suggests that patients receiving inpatient stroke rehabilitation are sedentary although there is little data to confirm this supposition within the Canadian healthcare system. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to observe two weeks of inpatient rehabilitation in a tertiary stroke center to determine patients' activity levels and sedentary time. Methods Heart rate (HR) and accelerometer data were measured using an Actiheart monitor for seven consecutive days, 24 h/day, on the second week and the last week of admission. Participants or their proxies completed a daily logbook. Metabolic equivalent (MET) values were calculated and time with MET rehabilitation, there was excessive sedentary time and therapy sessions were less frequent and of lower intensity than recommended levels. Conclusions In this sample of people attending inpatient stroke rehabilitation, institutional structure of rehabilitation rather than patient-related factors contributed to sedentary time.

  1. Development of ARDS after Excessive Kath Consumption: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Wewalka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Khat is a drug widely used in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Khat leaves contain, among other substances, the psychoactive alkaloid cathinone, which induce central nervous system stimulation leading to euphoria, hyperactivity, restlessness, and insomnia. However, it also could cause psychological adverse effects such as lethargy, sleepiness, psychoses, and depression necessitating pharmacologic treatment. Here we report the case of a 35-year-old man from Somalia who became unconscious and developed aspiration pneumonia and subsequent ARDS after excessive consumption of khat leaves. His unconsciousness was possibly caused by the sleepiness developed after khat consumption and a benzodiazepine intake by the patient himself. Thus, khat-induced adverse effects should not primarily be treated pharmacologically, but patients should be urged to quit khat consumption in order to eliminate or, at least, reduce the severity of present psychological adverse effects.

  2. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  3. Management of endocrine disease: GH excess: diagnosis and medical therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is predominantly caused by a pituitary adenoma, which secretes an excess of GH resulting in increased IGF-I levels. Most of the GH assays used currently measure only the 22 kDa form of GH. In theory, the diagnostic sensitivity may be lower compared to the previous assays, which used...... polyclonal antibodies. Many GH-secreting adenomas are plurihormonal and may co-secrete prolactin, TSH and α-subunit. Hyperprolactinemia is found in 30-40% of patients with acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia may occasionally be diagnosed before acromegaly is apparent.Although trans-sphenoidal surgery of a GH......-secreting adenoma remains the first treatment at most centres, the role of somatostatin analogues, octreotide LAR and lanreotide Autogel, as primary therapy is still the subject of some debate. While normalization of GH and IGF-I levels is the main objective in all patients with acromegaly, GH and IGF-I levels may...

  4. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 < 4.2 %. The highest effect of sonolysis-an almost 30-fold increase in the COD dissolved in the supernatant-was obtained for the sludge of lowest dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface

  5. Swift recovery of Sphagnum nutrient concentrations after excess supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique M P D

    2008-08-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the effects of increased N deposition on nutrient-poor environments such as raised bogs, few studies have dealt with to what extent, and on what time-scale, reductions in atmospheric N supply would lead to recovery of the ecosystems in question. Since a considerable part of the negative effects of elevated N deposition on raised bogs can be related to an imbalance in tissue nutrient concentrations of the dominant peat-former Sphagnum, changes in Sphagnum nutrient concentration after excess N supply may be used as an early indicator of ecosystem response. This study focuses on the N and P concentrations of Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax before, during and after a factorial fertilization experiment with N and P in two small peatlands subject to a background bulk deposition of 2 g N m(-2) year(-1). Three years of adding N (4.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)) increased the N concentration, and adding P (0.3 g P m(-2) year(-1)) increased the P concentration in Sphagnum relative to the control treatment at both sites. Fifteen months after the nutrient additions had ceased, N concentrations were similar to the control whereas P concentrations, although strongly reduced, were still slightly elevated. The changes in the N and P concentrations were accompanied by changes in the distribution of nutrients over the capitulum and the stem and were congruent with changes in translocation. Adding N reduced the stem P concentration, whereas adding P reduced the stem N concentration in favor of the capitulum. Sphagnum nutrient concentrations quickly respond to reductions in excess nutrient supply, indicating that a management policy aimed at reducing atmospheric nutrient input to bogs can yield results within a few years.

  6. Measurement techniques for the verification of excess weapons materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Yates, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The end of the superpower arms race has resulted in an unprecedented reduction in stockpiles of deployed nuclear weapons. Numerous proposals have been put forward and actions have been taken to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, including unilateral initiatives such as those made by President Clinton in September 1993 to place fissile materials no longer needed for a deterrent under international inspection, and bilateral and multilateral measures currently being negotiated. For the technologist, there is a unique opportunity to develop the technical means to monitor nuclear materials that have been declared excess to nuclear weapons programs, to provide confidence that reductions are taking place and that the released materials are not being used again for nuclear explosive programs. However, because of the sensitive nature of these materials, a fundamental conflict exists between the desire to know that the bulk materials or weapon components in fact represent evidence of warhead reductions, and treaty commitments and national laws that require the protection of weapons design information. This conflict presents a unique challenge to technologists. The flow of excess weapons materials, from deployed warheads through storage, disassembly, component storage, conversion to bulk forms, and disposition, will be described in general terms. Measurement approaches based on the detection of passive or induced radiation will be discussed along with the requirement to protect sensitive information from release to unauthorized parties. Possible uses of measurement methods to assist in the verification of arms reductions will be described. The concept of measuring attributes of items rather than quantitative mass-based inventory verification will be discussed along with associated information-barrier concepts required to protect sensitive information

  7. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  8. Recent measurements of the flux excess from solar faculae and the implication for the solar oblateness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Direct observation of the excess brightness from photospheric faculae are presented. This excess brightness is, at times, large enough to produce an apparent oblateness that exceeds that reported by Dicke and Goldenberg. These results support the Chapman-Ingersoll facular explanation for the excess solar oblateness and support the findings of Hill et al. by offering a possible source for their excess equatorial brightness which, they showed, can produce an apparent, nongeometrical oblateness

  9. Construction of VLCC marine oil storage cost index system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Yule; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhu, Faxin; Chen, Tian; Qin, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    VLCC as the research object, the basic knowledge of VLCC is summarized. According to the phenomenon that VLCC is applied to offshore oil storage gradually, this paper applies the theoretical analysis method to analyze the excess capacity from VLCC, the drop of oil price, the aging VLCC is more suitable for offshore storage The paper analyzes the reason of VLCC offshore oil storage from three aspects, analyzes the cost of VLCC offshore storage from the aspects of manpower cost and shipping cost, and constructs the cost index system of VLCC offshore oil storage.

  10. Association between refill compliance to oral bisphosphonate treatment, incident fractures, and health care costs--an analysis using national health databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K R; Hansen, C; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    major osteoporotic fractures, and the direct costs related to hospital care, primary care, and pharmaceutical treatment for these excess fractures reached almost 14 M DKK (2.5 M USD) for the study population which compares to a national annual excess cost of around 17 M DKK (3.1 M USD) using 2011...

  11. Bayesian models for cost-effectiveness analysis in the presence of structural zero costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Gianluca

    2014-05-20

    Bayesian modelling for cost-effectiveness data has received much attention in both the health economics and the statistical literature, in recent years. Cost-effectiveness data are characterised by a relatively complex structure of relationships linking a suitable measure of clinical benefit (e.g. quality-adjusted life years) and the associated costs. Simplifying assumptions, such as (bivariate) normality of the underlying distributions, are usually not granted, particularly for the cost variable, which is characterised by markedly skewed distributions. In addition, individual-level data sets are often characterised by the presence of structural zeros in the cost variable. Hurdle models can be used to account for the presence of excess zeros in a distribution and have been applied in the context of cost data. We extend their application to cost-effectiveness data, defining a full Bayesian specification, which consists of a model for the individual probability of null costs, a marginal model for the costs and a conditional model for the measure of effectiveness (given the observed costs). We presented the model using a working example to describe its main features. © 2013 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Attainable high capacity in Li-excess Li-Ni-Ru-O rock-salt cathode for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingbo; Huang, Weifeng; Tao, Shi; Xie, Hui; Wu, Chuanqiang; Yu, Zhen; Su, Xiaozhi; Qi, Jiaxin; Rehman, Zia ur; Song, Li; Zhang, Guobin; Chu, Wangsheng; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Peroxide structure O2n- has proven to appear after electrochemical process in many lithium-excess precious metal oxides, representing extra reversible capacity. We hereby report construction of a Li-excess rock-salt oxide Li1+xNi1/2-3x/2Ru1/2+x/2O2 electrode, with cost effective and eco-friendly 3d transition metal Ni partially substituting precious 4d transition metal Ru. It can be seen that O2n- is formed in pristine Li1.23Ni0.155Ru0.615O2, and stably exists in subsequent cycles, enabling discharge capacities to 295.3 and 198 mAh g-1 at the 1st/50th cycle, respectively. Combing ex-situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical characterization, we demonstrate that the excellent electrochemical performance comes from both percolation network with disordered structure and cation/anion redox couples occurring in charge-discharge process. Li-excess and substitution of common element have been demonstrated to be a breakthrough for designing novel high performance commercial cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion battery field.

  13. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of annual adjustment factors for excess emissions penalty. SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of... excess tons emitted times $2,000 as adjusted by an annual adjustment factor, which must be published in...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.145 - Is GSA required to review each report of excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... landholding agency, in writing, whether the report is acceptable or other information is needed within 15... review each report of excess? 102-75.145 Section 102-75.145 Public Contracts and Property Management... Is GSA required to review each report of excess? Yes, GSA must review each report of excess to...

  15. The prevalence of an excessive prepuce and the effects of distal circumcision on premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: An excessive prepuce is very common in patients affected by PE. Although accepted by only 13% of our patients, distal circumcision was shown to be a very effective surgical treatment for definitive treatment of PE. We therefore recommend assessing patients complaining of lifelong PE for an excessive prepuce and if they have an excessive prepuce to suggest that they undergo distal circumcision.

  16. Identification and Evaluation of Cases for Excess Heat Utilisation Using GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrovic, Stefan; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Excess heat is present in many sectors, and its utilization could reduce the primary energy use and emission of greenhouse gases. This work presents a geographical mapping of excess heat, in which excess heat from the industry and utility sector was distributed to specific geographical locations...

  17. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  18. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement in...

  19. Excess Rainfall Product for the Caribbean Region - Developed by The CCRIF and Swiss Re

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Small island states exposed to natural hazards are often in the worst position to absorb the financial impact of natural disasters. In a moment, they can lose a significant portion of their GDP and not have the resiliency to bounce back. Several leaders pushed to build their own resiliency after suffering from four hurricanes in just one year - Charley, Frances, Ivan and Jeanne, all swept through the region in 2004 and caused losses in excess of US 4 billion. This push to build their own resiliency resulted in the creation of the Caribbean Catastrophic Risk Insurance Facility ("CCRIF"), a facility providing parametric earthquake and tropical cyclone insurance coverage to 16 Caribbean countries. Working well for the past 7 years, the CCRIF has paid out 8 times for a total of more than US 32 million. This dual protection against earthquake and tropical cyclone has become a well-known success globally. However, all stakeholders realized that considerable damage in the region is also caused by rainfall and flooding. This consistent realization was felt most recently, in December 2013, when Saint Lucia, St. Vincent and Dominica were ravaged by a torrential rainstorm, leaving several people dead, and causing massive damage to roads, infrastructure buildings and property. Due to this additional exposure, the Caribbean sought out ways to further build their own resiliency by requesting coverage for this specific third peril. For the past 2 years, Swiss Re has worked closely with the CCRIF to create an xsr product that can benefit the region now and going forward, as the impacts of climate change are felt. Excess rainfall is perhaps the most difficult peril of weather and climate modeling and there exists no scientific consensus on a methodology to underpin excess rainfall coverage. Its nature, prolonged and frequent, causes significant damage to small island states and the costs are only predicted to rise as the population and asset values increase and the climate changes

  20. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The alternative is capable of being done after consideration of cost, logistics, and available... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.35... your operation, you must include the following items in your application— (1) Demonstration of...

  1. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The alternative is capable of being done after consideration of cost, logistics, and available... UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.19... your operation, you must include the following items in your application— (1) Demonstration of...

  2. Current U.S. uranium production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.J.; Douglas, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. uranium industry has undergone significant changes in the 1980s. These changes have come about largely as a result of the much slower growth of nuclear power than that initially anticipated and the deployment of an excess uranium supply capacity by 1979. The demand and supply imbalance has led to a substantial build-up in excess inventories which will not be remedied until well into the 1990s. At the same time as domestic inventories were building, large low cost uranium deposits were being discovered and developed in Canada and Australia. Additionally, in the past year or so it has become apparent that low cost uranium from the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China will increasingly become a factor in the marketplace. The soft demand, large inventories, and competitive imports, stimulated by the recently ratified U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, have caused the U.S. uranium industry to contract to one-tenth of its size ten years ago, if employment is taken at the gage. In light of the foregoing, this paper examines the current U.S. uranium production cost outlook for the 1990s. It is based on a direct cost analysis of all identifiable uranium deposits, mines, and production centers

  3. Does the private sector receive an excessive return from investments in health care infrastructure projects? Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, Veronica; Hellowell, Mark; Gatti, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the cost-efficiency of Private Finance Initiatives (PFIs) in the delivery of hospital facilities in the UK. We outline a methodology for identifying the "fair" return on equity, based on the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) of each investor. We apply this method to assess the expected returns on a sample of 77 contracts signed between 1997 and 2011 by health care provider organisations in the UK. We show that expected returns are in general in excess of the WACC benchmarks. The findings highlight significant problems in current procurement practices and the methodologies by which bids are assessed. To minimise the financial impact of hospital investments on health care systems, a regulatory regime must ensure that expected returns are set at the "fair" rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical activity and exercise dependence during inpatient treatment of longstanding eating disorders: an exploratory study of excessive and non-excessive exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rø, Øyvind; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Hoffart, Asle; Martinsen, Egil W

    2010-04-01

    To describe changes in physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence score during treatment of eating disorders (ED), and to explore correlations among changes in PA, exercise motivation, exercise dependence score and ED psychopathology in excessive and non-excessive exercisers. Thirty-eight adult females receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or ED not otherwise specified participated in this prospective study. Assessments included accelerometer assessed PA, Exercise Dependence Scale, Reasons for Exercise Inventory, ED Examination, and ED Inventory. Amount of PA was significantly reduced in non-excessive exercisers during treatment, in excessive exercisers there was a trend towards reduced amount of PA from admission to discharge. In excessive exercisers, reduced ED psychopathology was correlated with reduction in exercise dependence score and perceived importance of exercise to regulate negative affects, but not with importance of exercise for weight/appearance. These associations were not found in non-excessive exercisers. Excessive exercise is an important issue in longstanding ED, and the excessive exercising patients need help to develop alternative strategies to regulate negative affects.

  5. 41 CFR 302-7.201 - Is temporary storage in excess of authorized limits and excess valuation of goods and services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is temporary storage in excess of authorized limits and excess valuation of goods and services payable at Government expense? 302-7.201 Section 302-7.201 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...

  6. User fee exemptions and excessive household spending for normal delivery in Burkina Faso: the need for careful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameur Amal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Parliament of Burkina Faso passed a policy to reduce the direct costs of obstetric services and neonatal care in the country’s health centres, aiming to lower the country’s high national maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Implementation was via a “partial exemption” covering 80% of the costs. In 2008 the German NGO HELP launched a pilot project in two health districts to eliminate the remaining 20% of user fees. Regardless of any exemptions, women giving birth in Burkina Faso’s health centres face additional expenses that often represent an additional barrier to accessing health services. We compared the total cost of giving birth in health centres offering partial exemption versus those with full exemption to assess the impact on additional out-of-pocket fees. Methods A case–control study was performed to compare medical expenses. Case subjects were women who gave birth in 12 health centres located in the Dori and Sebba districts, where HELP provided full fee exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Controls were from six health centres in the neighbouring Djibo district where a partial fee exemption was in place. A random sample of approximately 50 women per health centre was selected for a total of 870 women. Results There was an implementation gap regarding the full exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Only 1.1% of the sample from Sebba but 17.5% of the group from Dori had excessive spending on birth related costs, indicating that women who delivered in Sebba were much less exposed to excessive medical expenses than women from Dori. Additional out-of-pocket fees in the full exemption health districts took into account household ability to pay, with poorer women generally paying less. Conclusions We found that the elimination of fees for facility-based births benefits especially the poorest households. The existence of excessive spending related to direct costs of

  7. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  8. Conversion of excess wind energy into hydrogen for fuel cell applications. A system analysis within the context of the Dutch energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraaij, G.J.; Weeda, M.

    2008-09-01

    For reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, an increased use of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector is planned. The amount of excess wind power from an increase of offshore wind power capacity is calculated for an isolated Dutch society. The excess wind power is converted into hydrogen by electrolysis and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in residential applications as well as transport applications is investigated for economic, environmental and storage aspects. At an equivalent of 8 GW offshore wind power in 2020 the wind power contributes around 20% to the electricity demand, with an excess wind power amounting to approx. 4% of the Dutch electricity consumption. Excess wind occurs during 20% of the time. Conversion of this electricity to hydrogen requires 6 GW of electrolyser capacity with an average load factor of 10%, leading to high depreciation costs of the electrolysers and subsequent high hydrogen costs. For economic as well as environmental reasons the use of hydrogen in transport applications is more beneficial than in residential applications

  9. Excess of {sup 236}U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); López-Lora, M., E-mail: mlopezlora@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Bressac, M., E-mail: matthieu.bressac@utas.edu.au [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Levy, I., E-mail: I.N.Levy@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Pham, M.K., E-mail: M.Pham@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first {sup 236}U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. {sup 236}U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25′N, 07°52′E). The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2 × 10{sup −9} at 100 m depth to about 1.5 × 10{sup −9} at 2350 m depth, indicate that anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6 ng/m{sup 2} or 32.1 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5 ng/m{sup 2} or 13 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}), evidencing the influence of local or regional {sup 236}U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of {sup 236}U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional {sup 236}U annual deposition of about 0.2 pg/m{sup 2} based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that {sup 236}U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the {sup 236}U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. - Highlights: • First {sup 236}U results in the northwest Mediterranean Sea are reported. • Anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column at DYFAMED station. • {sup 236}U deep-water column inventory exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the global fallout one. • Saharan dust intrusions are responsible for an annual

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-48 - Research and development costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research and development... Organizations 31.205-48 Research and development costs. Research and development, as used in this subsection... grant for research and development effort, the excess is unallowable under any other Government contract...

  11. The Hurt of Judgment in Excessive Weight Women: A Hermeneutic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Neda; Hossein Abbasi, Nahid; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-04-23

    Excess weight is one of the increasing problems of the present society and one of the threatening health conditions around the world. Despite many efforts for prevention and treatment or even surgery, the process of excess weight is not decreased in the world. While most of the studies conducted on excess weight concentrated on the issues why people get excess weight or how the prevention and treatment of excess weight must be performed, there is lake of knowledge about what excessive weight people really experience in their daily life. Understanding the lived experience of excess weight in women is linked with their health and society's health while it indirectly develops the nursing knowledge to improve the quality and access to holistic health care in excessive weight women. The aim of study was to describe with a deeper understanding, the lived experience of excess weight in women. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach and a van-manen analysis methods, in depth semi- structured interviews were conducted with twelve women who had lived experience of excess weight. The hurt of Judgment was the main theme that emerged in the process of data analysis. This theme was derived from three sub-themes including social judgment, being different and being seen. These findings can prove helpful in promoting the nursing knowledge concerning a holistic approach in communicating to excessive weight people.

  12. Life cycle cost analysis rehabilitation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates data from CDOTs Cost Data books and Pavement Management Program. Cost : indices were used to normalize project data to year 2014. Data analyzed in the study was obtained from : the CDOTs Cost Data books and the Pavement Man...

  13. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  14. Destroying lignocellulosic matters for enhancing methane production from excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaodi; Hu, Yuansheng; Cao, Daqi

    2016-01-01

    A lot of lignocellulosic matters are usually present in excess sludge, which are hardly degraded in anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus remains mostly in digested sludge. This is a reason why the conversion rate of sludge organics into energy (CH4) is often low. Obviously, the hydrolysis of AD cannot destruct the structure of lignocellulosic matters. Structural destruction of lignocellulosic matters has to be performed in AD. In this study, pretreatments with the same principles as cell disintegration of sludge were applied to destruct lignocellulosic matters so that these materials could be converted to CH4 via AD. Acid, alkali, thermal treatment and ultrasonic were used in the experiments to observe the destructed/degraded efficiency of lignocellulosic matters. Thermal treatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment. Under optimized conditions (T = 150 °C and t = 30  min), pretreated sludge had a degraded rate of 52.6% in AD, due to easy destruction and/or degradation of hemicelluloses and celluloses in pretreatment. The sludge pretreated by thermal treatment could enhance the CH4 yield (mL CH4 g(-1) VSS) by 53.6% compared to raw sludge. Economically, the thermal treatment can balance the input energy with the produced energy (steam and electricity).

  15. Clinical Significance of Excess Lactose in the Diet (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Abaturov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the literature there has been considered the statistics of average consumption of lactose in the countries of the world community, reviewed the clinical significance of the excess lactose in the diet depending on the polymorphism of the lactase gene. Lactose is the main source of energy for the children of the first months of life, which provides about 40–45 % of the daily energy needs of a body of a child. Lactose malabsorption, deficiency of the enzyme lactase is accompanied by symptoms of lactose intolerance. Interest in the study of the influence of an immunomodulatory β-galactoside lactose was caused by the suppression of its galectin 9 ­(Gal-9, the regulatory T-cell immune response involving T-helper cells 1 and 17 (Th1, Th17 and regulatory T-lymphocytes (Treg, which are involved in many immune-mediated human disea­ses. Galectin 9 is the representative of the class of galectins such as «tandem repeat». The highest level of LGALS9 expression is observed in the tissues of colon, lung, bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, liver, kidney, endocrine glands, placenta, skin, smooth muscle, adipose tissue.

  16. The excess radio background and fast radio transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, John; Kephart, Thomas W.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years ARCADE 2, combined with older experiments, has detected an additional radio background, measured as a temperature and ranging in frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz, not accounted for by known radio sources and the cosmic microwave background. One type of source which has not been considered in the radio background is that of fast transients (those with event times much less than the observing time). We present a simple estimate, and a more detailed calculation, for the contribution of radio transients to the diffuse background. As a timely example, we estimate the contribution from the recently-discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Although their contribution is likely 6 or 7 orders of magnitude too small (though there are large uncertainties in FRB parameters) to account for the ARCADE 2 excess, our development is general and so can be applied to any fast transient sources, discovered or yet to be discovered. We estimate parameter values necessary for transient sources to noticeably contribute to the radio background

  17. Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids: An Excess of Slow Rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, cometary nuclei and jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We discuss the rotation properties of Jovian Trojan asteroids less than 30 km in diameter. Approximately half of the objects discussed here were studied using densely sampled lightcurves (French et al. 2015a, b); Stephens et al. 2015), and the other half were sparse lightcurves obtained by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Waszcazk et al. 2015). A significant fraction (~40%) of the objects in the ground-based sample rotate slowly (P > 24h), with measured periods as long as 375 h (Warner and Stephens 2011). The PTF data show a similar excess of slow rotators. Only 5 objects in the combined data set have rotation periods of less than six hours. Three of these fast rotators were contained in the data set of French et al. these three had a geometric mean rotation period of 5.29 hours. A prolate spheroid held together by gravity rotating with this period would have a critical density of 0.43 gm/cm3, a density similar to that of comets (Lamy et al. 2004). Harris et al. (2012) and Warner et al. (2011) have explored the possible effects on asteroid rotational statistics with the results from wide-field surveys. We will examine Trojan rotation statistics with and without the results from the PTF.

  18. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  19. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Is a Common Symptom in Fabry Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duning

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease (FD is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a deficient activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A, resulting in a vasculopathic involvement of various organ systems, e.g. cerebral structures. Marked cerebral vasculopathy with subsequent white matter lesions (WML are a frequent finding in FD patients. Recent studies discussed an association between cerebral white matter changes and sleep-related disturbances of breathing, which may lead to excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. A 56-year-old Caucasian female FD patient with EDS was admitted to our sleep laboratory. Overnight polysomnography showed a Cheyne-Stokes respiration pattern with significant O2 desaturation. MR imaging revealed confluent WML including the brain stem, but no renal or cardiac involvement. We then evaluated the clinical data of 49 genetically proven FD patients (27 males; mean age 43 years from our FD centre. With a frequency of 68%, EDS exceeds the prevalence of other common symptoms of FD (angiokeratomas 61%; acroparaesthesia 51%; renal involvement 29%; cardiac involvement 27%, and the prevalence of chronic fatigue (48%. EDS was independently associated with the physical component summary of the SF-36 data (corrected R2 =–0.323, p 2 = –0.253, p < 0.001. We conclude that EDS is a common and underdiagnosed symptom in FD patients, accompanied by a significant impact on quality of life. EDS might be caused by central breathing disorders due to an affection of brain regions associated with respiratory control in FD.

  20. Nitrogen-15 studies on identifying fertilizer excess in environmental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, H.D.; Aly, A.I.M.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of identifying fertilizer excesses in surface and ground waters on the basis of variations in the isotope ratio of nitrogen has been studied. The isotope ratio of the commonly used ammonium and nitrate fertilizers is similar to that of atmospheric nitrogen. These ratios are shifted when fertilizers are added to the soil. In the soil, fertilizer ammonium is oxidized and the nitrate formed is reduced in the heavy isotope. The fractionation factors are calculated. This artificially added nitrate becomes mixed with natural nitrate which, in general, is enriched in the heavy isotope. Only 50% (or even less) of the nitrate formed may stem from the added fertilizer. The mixing ratios are time-dependent, and different for various types and conditions of soil. In spite of this complexity, information on this isotopic process should be obtainable, if the isotope ratios of artificial and natural nitrate, respectively, are substantially different. Surface waters, in general, show no significant correlation between nitrate content and isotope ratio due to additions of sewage waters. Some data on ground waters from agricultural areas, however, where the nitrate content apparently resulted from fertilizers, gave a negative correlation of lower isotope ratios with higher nitrate contents. An inverse correlation was found in the isotope ratios of nitrate in untouched surface waters, and they even reflect the composition of the total soil nitrogen. (author)

  1. Utilization of excess wind power in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Wilfried; Mischinger, Stefan; Linssen, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of future wind power utilization for charging electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany. The potential wind power production in the model years 2020 and 2030 is derived by extrapolating onshore wind power generation and offshore wind speeds measured in 2007 and 2010 to the installed onshore and offshore wind turbine capacities assumed for 2020 and 2030. The energy consumption of an assumed fleet of 1 million EVs in 2020 and 6 million in 2030 is assessed using detailed models of electric vehicles, real world driving cycles and car usage. It is shown that a substantial part of the charging demand of EVs can be met by otherwise unused wind power, depending on the amount of conventional power required for stabilizing the grid. The utilization of wind power is limited by the charging demand of the cars and the bottlenecks in the transmission grid. -- Highlights: •Wind power available for charging depends on minimum required conventional power (must-run). •With 20 GW must-run power, 50% of charging can be met by excess wind power. •Grid bottlenecks decrease charging met by wind power from 50 % to 30 %. •With zero must-run power, only very little wind power is available for charging

  2. Excess electrons in simple fluids. IV. Real time behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L. III; Chandler, D.

    1987-01-01

    The polaron theory for an excess electron in liquids due to Chandler et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 1975 (1984)] is extended to the real time domain by the method of analytic continuation. For the case of an adiabatic solvent, the theory predicts that the electron momentum correlations relax nonexponentially in time, and that this long time tail contributes to a diminuation of the electron mobility. However, for short ranged forces, a mean-field approximation employed in this application of the polaron theory leads to a decay that is one power of t -1 higher than the generally accepted result for the quantum Lorenz gas. Along with this analytical analysis, we present numerical solutions of the analytically continued equations for the case of an adiabatic hard sphere solvent. We find that at low solvent densities, the electronic states are relatively diffuse, and the absorption spectra is maximum at the zero frequency diffusive mode. In this density regime, the electron mobility is a decreasing function of temperature. At higher densities, the electron mobility drops precipitously and the spectra has its maxima at a nonzero frequency. Here, the mobility is an increasing function of temperature. Corresponding behaviors of the electron mean-square displacement correlation function are discussed. The high density behaviors are the dynamical consequences of ground state dominance or self-trapping where diffusion requires excitation to high energy extended states. These results augment our earlier work on the equilibrium or thermodynamic consequences of this theory

  3. Molecular Bases and Phenotypic Determinants of Aromatase Excess Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Fukami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase excess syndrome (AEXS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by gynecomastia. This condition is caused by overexpression of CYP19A1 encoding aromatase, and three types of cryptic genomic rearrangement around CYP19A1, that is, duplications, deletions, and inversions, have been identified in AEXS. Duplications appear to have caused CYP19A1 overexpression because of an increased number of physiological promoters, whereas deletions and inversions would have induced wide CYP19A1 expression due to the formation of chimeric genes consisting of a noncoding exon(s of a neighboring gene and CYP19A1 coding exons. Genotype-phenotype analysis implies that phenotypic severity of AEXS is primarily determined by the expression pattern of CYP19A1 and the chimeric genes and by the structural property of the fused exons with a promoter function (i.e., the presence or the absence of a natural translation start codon. These results provide novel information about molecular mechanisms of human genetic disorders and biological function of estrogens.

  4. Neurofibromin Loss of Function Drives Excessive Grooming in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanikea B. King

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis I is a common genetic disorder that results in tumor formation, and predisposes individuals to a range of cognitive/behavioral symptoms, including deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, learning, language development, and sleep, and autism spectrum disorder-like traits. The nf1-encoded neurofibromin protein (Nf1 exhibits high conservation, from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Drosophila provides a powerful platform to investigate the signaling cascades upstream and downstream of Nf1, and the fly model exhibits similar behavioral phenotypes to mammalian models. In order to understand how loss of Nf1 affects motor behavior in flies, we combined traditional activity monitoring with video analysis of grooming behavior. In nf1 mutants, spontaneous grooming was increased up to 7x. This increase in activity was distinct from previously described dopamine-dependent hyperactivity, as dopamine transporter mutants exhibited slightly decreased grooming. Finally, we found that relative grooming frequencies can be compared in standard activity monitors that measure infrared beam breaks, enabling the use of activity monitors as an automated method to screen for grooming phenotypes. Overall, these data suggest that loss of nf1 produces excessive activity that is manifested as increased grooming, providing a platform to dissect the molecular genetics of neurofibromin signaling across neuronal circuits.

  5. Multiresolution persistent homology for excessively large biomolecular datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Kelin; Zhao, Zhixiong [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Wei, Guo-Wei, E-mail: wei@math.msu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Although persistent homology has emerged as a promising tool for the topological simplification of complex data, it is computationally intractable for large datasets. We introduce multiresolution persistent homology to handle excessively large datasets. We match the resolution with the scale of interest so as to represent large scale datasets with appropriate resolution. We utilize flexibility-rigidity index to access the topological connectivity of the data set and define a rigidity density for the filtration analysis. By appropriately tuning the resolution of the rigidity density, we are able to focus the topological lens on the scale of interest. The proposed multiresolution topological analysis is validated by a hexagonal fractal image which has three distinct scales. We further demonstrate the proposed method for extracting topological fingerprints from DNA molecules. In particular, the topological persistence of a virus capsid with 273 780 atoms is successfully analyzed which would otherwise be inaccessible to the normal point cloud method and unreliable by using coarse-grained multiscale persistent homology. The proposed method has also been successfully applied to the protein domain classification, which is the first time that persistent homology is used for practical protein domain analysis, to our knowledge. The proposed multiresolution topological method has potential applications in arbitrary data sets, such as social networks, biological networks, and graphs.

  6. Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2017-08-16

    The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.

  7. A socio-cognitive inquiry of excessive mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrazavi, Sara; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Matlabi, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    The study examined the predictive ability of selected demographic and socio-psychological characteristics in explaining excessive mobile phone use (EMPU) behavior and problematic use in a sample of university students on the basis of the social cognitive theory. The sample consisted of 476 randomly selected university students in Tabriz, Iran. The study was cross-sectional in nature. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used for the purpose of data collection. No causal inferences were drawn due to non-experimental nature of the study. It was found that having boyfriend/girlfriend increases the likelihood of EMPU while self-efficacy to avoid EMPU decreases it. Self-efficacy to avoid EMPU, self-regulation, observational learning, self-control, and attitude toward EMPU were predictors of mobile phone problematic use. The results provided a proper fit for a conceptual model of reciprocal determinism. Although social cognitive constructs may predict mobile phone problematic use, they are not useful in predicting the behavior of EMPU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Antić, I B; Bjekić-Macut, J

    2015-03-01

    Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7% of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events.

  9. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess: time of manifestation and complications despite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, Noël B B; Monnens, Leo A; Lenders, Jacques W; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2011-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a patient followed from birth because of a positive family history for apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) in an older brother. The patient, a girl, had normal serum electrolyte and blood pressure measurements in the first months after birth. Not until the age of 11 months did she develop anorexia and failure to thrive in combination with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis, which are consistent with the diagnosis of AME. This diagnosis was confirmed by mutation analysis of the HSD11B2 gene (C1228T). Treatment with amiloride and furosemide electrolyte disturbances normalized her blood pressure. At the age of 19 years she unexpectedly suffered a stroke. Additional investigations revealed no accepted risk factor for stroke. We discuss the possible underlying mechanisms for the delayed manifestation of hypertension and electrolyte disturbances in AME, propose an additional explanation for the stroke in this patient, and advise treatment with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist to reduce stroke risk in patients with AME.

  10. Neurofibromin Loss of Function Drives Excessive Grooming in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lanikea B; Koch, Marta; Murphy, Keith R; Velazquez, Yoheilly; Ja, William W; Tomchik, Seth M

    2016-04-07

    Neurofibromatosis I is a common genetic disorder that results in tumor formation, and predisposes individuals to a range of cognitive/behavioral symptoms, including deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, learning, language development, and sleep, and autism spectrum disorder-like traits. The nf1-encoded neurofibromin protein (Nf1) exhibits high conservation, from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Drosophila provides a powerful platform to investigate the signaling cascades upstream and downstream of Nf1, and the fly model exhibits similar behavioral phenotypes to mammalian models. In order to understand how loss of Nf1 affects motor behavior in flies, we combined traditional activity monitoring with video analysis of grooming behavior. In nf1 mutants, spontaneous grooming was increased up to 7x. This increase in activity was distinct from previously described dopamine-dependent hyperactivity, as dopamine transporter mutants exhibited slightly decreased grooming. Finally, we found that relative grooming frequencies can be compared in standard activity monitors that measure infrared beam breaks, enabling the use of activity monitors as an automated method to screen for grooming phenotypes. Overall, these data suggest that loss of nf1 produces excessive activity that is manifested as increased grooming, providing a platform to dissect the molecular genetics of neurofibromin signaling across neuronal circuits. Copyright © 2016 King et al.

  11. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-02-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.

  12. Excessive heat-associated gingival necrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, P L; Rossi-Fedele, G

    2017-09-01

    Heat-delivery devices have been associated with relatively high temperatures. Previous basic research studies suggest that the risk for periodontal tissues is negligible, as the presence of the root filling materials, amongst other factors, reduce the risk of overheating. This report describes the case of a 45 year old male, who was undergoing restorative treatment in a multi-specialty dental practice. As part of his overall treatment planning, orthograde root canal retreatment for his maxillary left incisor teeth was deemed necessary, due to chronic apical periodontitis. Following cold lateral compaction, the coronal portion of the core material was severed using a System B Heat Source (Kerr Dental, Orange, CA, USA), with the patient reporting pain as well as a burning sensation. The following day the patient was seen by a periodontist and gingival necrosis in relation to the central incisor was found. The most likely cause of the complication was considered to be excessive heat during the operative procedure. The patient was followed up for a 2-year period and the soft tissues returned to their original condition without the need for periodontal treatment. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Can turned inward patella predict an excess of femoral anteversion during gait in spastic diplegic children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anne-Laure; Presedo, Ana; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mallet, Cindy; Mazda, Keyvan; Penneçot, Georges-François

    2014-06-01

    Determining patellar orientation in the transverse plane during observational gait analysis is a fundamental aspect of physical examinations. Many physicians consider that an abnormal position of the patella in the transverse planes is only explained by a rotational abnormality of the proximal femur. A total of 188 spastic diplegic children with cerebral palsy were reviewed (376 lower limbs). The physical examination included observation of patellar orientation at midstride and measuring femoral anteversion (FA). All patients also underwent 3-dimensional (3D) computerized gait analysis of pelvic and hip rotation kinematics. Observational gait analysis and videotapes found 103 children (206 lower limbs) with inturned patella at midstance. Kinematic data from 3D gait analysis showed that the visual impression of turned inward patella was erroneous in 48 limbs. Of the remaining 158 lower limbs, 117 (74%) exhibited excessive FA and 41 (26%) did not. Of the 117 with excessive FA, kinematics showed only 66 (56%) with excessive internal hip rotation (with or without excessive internal pelvic rotation). Of the 41 lower limbs without excessive FA, 25 were explained by excessive internal pelvic rotation and 16 were explained by excessive internal hip rotation (isolated spasticity and/or contracture of internal rotator muscles). Turned inward patella was caused by isolated excessive internal pelvic rotation in 48%, excessive internal hip rotation in 35% (including 44 cases with excessive FA and 12 cases with isolated spasticity and/or contracture of internal hip rotators), and excessive internal hip rotation combined with excessive internal pelvic rotation in 17%. Excessive FA was not the only cause of turned inward patella gait and could not explain this gait anomaly by itself. Excessive internal pelvic rotation was the most frequent cause of turned inward patella gait. Level IV.

  14. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, Michael G.; Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m 3 ) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and international

  15. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and

  16. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  17. Excessive internet use in European adolescents: what determines differences in severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinka, Lukas; Škařupová, Kateřina; Ševčíková, Anna; Wölfling, Klaus; Müller, Kai W; Dreier, Michael

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the differences between non-excessive, moderately excessive, and highly excessive internet use among adolescents. These differences were explored in terms of personal characteristics, psychological difficulties, environmental factors, and manner of internet use. A representative sample was investigated, consisting of 18,709 adolescents aged 11-16 and their parents, from 25 European countries. Excessive internet use was measured using a five item scale covering following factors: salience, conflict, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and relapse and reinstatement. The main data analysis utilised multinomial and binary logistic regression models. The vast majority of respondents reported no signs of excessive internet use. Moderately excessive users (4.4%) reported higher emotional and behavioural difficulties, but also more sophisticated digital skills and a broader range of online activities. The highly excessive users (1.4%) differed from the non-excessive and moderately excessive users in their preference for online games and in having more difficulties with self-control. Adolescents who struggle with attention and self-control and who are inclined toward online gaming may be especially vulnerable to the otherwise uncommon phenomenon of excessive internet use.

  18. Circadian melatonin rhythm and excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videnovic, Aleksandar; Noble, Charleston; Reid, Kathryn J; Peng, Jie; Turek, Fred W; Marconi, Angelica; Rademaker, Alfred W; Simuni, Tanya; Zadikoff, Cindy; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-04-01

    Diurnal fluctuations of motor and nonmotor symptoms and a high prevalence of sleep-wake disturbances in Parkinson disease (PD) suggest a role of the circadian system in the modulation of these symptoms. However, surprisingly little is known regarding circadian function in PD and whether circadian dysfunction is involved in the development of sleep-wake disturbances in PD. To determine the relationship between the timing and amplitude of the 24-hour melatonin rhythm, a marker of endogenous circadian rhythmicity, with self-reported sleep quality, the severity of daytime sleepiness, and disease metrics. A cross-sectional study from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012, of 20 patients with PD receiving stable dopaminergic therapy and 15 age-matched control participants. Both groups underwent blood sampling for the measurement of serum melatonin levels at 30-minute intervals for 24 hours under modified constant routine conditions at the Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center of Northwestern University. Twenty-four hour monitoring of serum melatonin secretion. Clinical and demographic data, self-reported measures of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and circadian markers of the melatonin rhythm, including the amplitude, area under the curve (AUC), and phase of the 24-hour rhythm. Patients with PD had blunted circadian rhythms of melatonin secretion compared with controls; the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm and the 24-hour AUC for circulating melatonin levels were significantly lower in PD patients (P hour melatonin AUC (P = .001). Disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores, levodopa equivalent dose, and global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score in the PD group were not significantly related to measures of the melatonin circadian rhythm. Circadian dysfunction may underlie excessive sleepiness in PD. The nature of this association needs to be explored further

  19. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate non-linear, spatially varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observeddata. Using the risk surfaces and climate projections we estimate daily mortality attributable to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. (moderate level) and 75 p.p.b. (US ozone NAAQS) for each time period. The average increases in city-specific median April-October ozone and temperature between time periods are 1.02 p.p.b. and 1.94 °F; however, the results variedby region . Increases in ozone because of climate change result in an increase in ozone mortality burden. Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. increases by 7.7% (1 .6-14.2%). Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 75 p.p.b. increases by 14.2% (1.628.9%). The absolute increase in excess ozone mortality is larger for changes in moderate ozone levels, reflecting the larger number of days with moderate ozone levels. In this study we evaluate changes in ozone related mortality due to changes in biogenic f

  20. Mitochondrial and cellular mechanisms for managing lipid excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Aon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Current scientific debates center on the impact of lipids and mitochondrial function on diverse aspects of human health, nutrition and disease, among them the association of lipotoxicity with the onset of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and with heart dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Mitochondria play a fundamental role in aging and in prevalent acute or chronic diseases. Lipids are main mitochondrial fuels however these molecules can also behave as uncouplers and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Knowledge about the functional composition of these contradictory effects and their impact on mitochondrial-cellular energetics/redox status is incomplete.Cells store fatty acids (FAs as triacylglycerol and package them into cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs. New emerging data shows the LD as a highly dynamic storage pool of FAs that can be used for energy reserve. Lipid excess packaging into LDs can be seen as an adaptive response to fulfilling energy supply without hindering mitochondrial or cellular redox status and keeping low concentration of lipotoxic intermediates.Herein we review the mechanisms of action and utilization of lipids by mitochondria reported in liver, heart and skeletal muscle under relevant physiological situations, e.g. exercise. We report on perilipins, a family of proteins that associate with LDs in response to loading of cells with lipids. Evidence showing that in addition to physical contact, mitochondria and LDs exhibit metabolic interactions is presented and discussed. A hypothetical model of channeled lipid utilization by mitochondria is proposed. Direct delivery and channeled processing of lipids in mitochondria could represent a reliable and efficient way to maintain ROS within levels compatible with signaling while ensuring robust and reliable energy supply.

  1. Land application for disposal of excess water: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Water management is an important factor in the operation of uranium mines in the Alligator Rivers Region, located in the Wet-Dry tropics. For many project designs, especially open cut operations, sole reliance on evaporative disposal of waste water is ill-advised in years where the Wet season is above average. Instead, spray irrigation, or the application of excess water to suitable areas of land, has been practised at both Nabarlek and Ranger. The method depends on water losses by evaporation from spray droplets, from vegetation surfaces and from the ground surface; residual water is carried to the groundwater system by percolation. The solutes are largely transferred to the soils where heavy metals and metallic radionuclides attach to particles in the soil profile with varying efficiency depending on soil type. Major solutes that can occur in waste water from uranium mines are less successfully immobilised in soil. Sulphate is essentially conservative and not bound within the soil profile; ammonia is affected by soil reactions leading to its decomposition. The retrospective viewpoint of history indicates the application of a technology inadequately researched for local conditions. The consequences at Nabarlek have been the death of trees on one application area and the creation of contaminated groundwater which has moved into the biosphere down gradient and affected the ecology of a local stream. At Ranger, the outcome of land application has been less severe in the short term but the effective adsorption of radionuclides in surface soils has lead to dose estimates which will necessitate restrictions on future public access unless extensive rehabilitation is carried out. 2 refs., 1 tab

  2. Endless everyday images: links and excesses in digital image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia do Amaral Leão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzed the relationships and communication links between overproduced images on digital media and their carriers. I start from the hypothesis that the way we look, record, save and access images have been deeply modified with the advent of digital cameras and ‘phone cameras’ – encouraging an addictive behavior for pictures. The method was based on interviews with ten informers – the images’ carriers, who let us conclude that we are overproducing pictures as information. In this context arise the producers of endless everyday pictures, here named ‘photomaniacs’, who give birth two kinds of images: the circulatory infoimages and the everyday infoimages. Overproduced digital images transform devices in our magnifiers of memory and oblivion, undoing the way we compile, save or file – and operating in cumulative, disordered, small and private stock of images. Thus, we try to saturate our most superficial memory, that generates schizophrenic pictures when operates on excess. However, even if the way is only technological, we must remember that the body is the living organism suitable to pictures, the place where we hold deep bonding relations. Over this body surface, images survive impregnated of meanings, links, belonging and healing. The research was based on the theories of communication links of Boris Cyrulnik, Jose Ângelo Gaiarsa and Ashley Montagu, besides the works on images and schizophrenia of Nise da Silveira and Leo Navratil. The research also activated the central European stream of Cultural Semiotics, specially the theories of images proposed by Aby Warburg, Walter Benjamin, Dietmar Kamper, Norval Baitello Junior, Hans Belting and Vilém Flusser.

  3. Internet overuse and excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwisook; Son, Hyunsook; Park, Myunghee; Han, Jinkyu; Kim, Kitai; Lee, Byungkoo; Gwak, Hyesun

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of Internet overuse with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). A total of 2336 high school students in South Korea (boys, 57.5%; girls, 42.5%) completed the structured questionnaire. The severity of Internet addiction was evaluated using Young's Internet addiction test. The proportions of boys who were classified as Internet addicts and possible Internet addicts were 2.5% and 53.7%, respectively. For girls, the corresponding proportions were 1.9% and 38.9%, respectively. The prevalence of EDS was 11.2% (boys, 11.2%; girls, 11.1%). When Internet addicts were compared with non-addicts, they consisted of more boys, drank alcohol more, and considered their own health condition as poor. But smoking was not related with Internet addiction. The prevalence rate of EDS for Internet addicts was 37.7%, whereas that for possible Internet addicts and non-addicts was 13.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence of insomnia, witnessed snoring, apnea, teeth grinding, and nightmares was highest in Internet addicts, middle in possible addicts, and lowest in non-addicts. With adjustment for duration of Internet use, duration of sleep time, age, gender, smoking, taking painkillers due to headache, insomnia symptoms, witnessed apnea, and nightmares, the odds of EDS were 5.2-fold greater (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7-10.2) in Internet addicts and 1.9-fold greater (95%CI: 1.4-2.6) in possible Internet addicts compared to non-addicts. Internet addiction is strongly associated with EDS in adolescents. Clinicians should consider examining Internet addiction in adolescent cases of EDS.

  4. Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-02-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (Pgenders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women).

  5. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  6. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  7. Preventing excessive radon exposure in U.K. housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Green, B.M.R.; Dixon, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK) it has been recognized for some years that some members of the population received excessive radiation exposure in their homes from radon and its decay products. To prevent such exposures, an Action Level of 400 Bq m -3 was adopted in 1987. In January, 1990, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) advised that the Action Level should be reduced to 200 Bq m -3 , and this advice was accepted by the Government. It is estimated that exposures in up to 100,000 UK homes exceed this Action Level; this amounts to about 0.5% of the available housing. The UK authorities have developed a strategy for preventing such exposures: (1) Areas in which it is estimated that >1% of homes exceed the Action Level for radon are being designated as Affected Areas, and a program to map such areas is under way. Households in these areas are advised to have radon measurements made by NRPB under a open-quotes freeclose quotes (Government-funded) scheme. (2) Householders found to have whole-house, whole-year average radon concentrations >200 Bq m -3 are advised to take remedial action and are provided with information on how this can be done. Partial grants toward remedial work are available in cases of financial need. So far, around 3000 such households have been identified. (3) Within Affected Areas, localities are being defined where new homes must incorporate precautions against radon exposure. In addition to this strategy, a joint case-control study of the risks of radon in homes is being undertaken by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund and NRPB, supported by the UK Government and the Commission of the European Communities

  8. Review of the cost of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez MM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria M Fernandez,1 Susan Hogue,1 Ronald Preblick,2 Winghan Jacqueline Kwong2 1RTI-Health Solutions, Market Access and Outcomes Strategy, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Daiichi Sankyo, Inc., Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Parsippany, NJ, USA Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is the second most common medical complication and a cause of excess length of hospital stay. Its incidence and economic burden are expected to increase as the population ages. We reviewed the recent literature to provide updated cost estimates on VTE management. Methods: Literature search strategies were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration, Health Economic Evaluations Database, EconLit, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 2003–2014. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications. Results: Eighteen studies were identified and are summarized in this review; of these, 13 reported data from the USA, four from Europe, and one from Canada. Three main cost estimations were identified: cost per VTE hospitalization or per VTE readmission; cost for VTE management, usually reported annually or during a specific period; and annual all-cause costs in patients with VTE, which included the treatment of complications and comorbidities. Cost estimates per VTE hospitalization were generally similar across the US studies, with a trend toward an increase over time. Cost per pulmonary embolism hospitalization increased from $5,198–$6,928 in 2000 to $8,764 in 2010. Readmission for recurrent VTE was generally more costly than the initial index event admission. Annual health plan payments for services related to VTE also increased from $10,804–$16,644 during the 1998–2004 period to an estimated average of $15,123 for a VTE event from 2008 to 2011. Lower costs for VTE hospitalizations and annualized all-cause costs were estimated in European countries and Canada. Conclusion: Costs for VTE treatment are

  9. Ethno-Economic Areas: Development in the Context of the Dilemma of “Excess-Shortage” of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vladimirovich Gontar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of development of ethno-economic areas as the socio-economic systems, with a special type of economic practice and social interaction. In many ways, the peripheral status of the territory determines the increased value of the state here. Measures of state regulation in ethno-economic habitats acquire the character of the dichotomy of “excess-shortage (deficit of the state”. In sum both processes form the cumulative effect of fixing the peripheral status of ethno-economic areas. The mechanisms of this process are the purpose of the study. Through comparative studies of Russian and foreign experience the author analyzes scenarios of “excess state” against ethnoeconomic areas, such as a stepped intervention; bureaucratic rent (where there are two possible strategies – scientific rents, actually bureaucracy and competition rents by bureaucracy; expansion at the intersection of these vectors intervention. The analysis results can be used for the purposes of public resources management optimization within the public sector in ethno-economic habitats. In the context of the optimization problem of the state policy in relation to ethno-economic areas as measures like leveling excess state and compensating the deficit in the areas most important for such areas, the author proposes: the objectification of SMEs’ access to public contracts, creation of conditions for cooperation in the industrial, financial and credit field while eliminating subsidies and distribution practices (that generates a bureaucratic rents and leads to the formation of “excess state”. It is also relevant to examine the effectiveness of control measures on the basis of cost-benefit analysis of consumer demand for such measures. As part of the management of public funds (staff costs, efficiency the evaluation of management efficiency on the basis of comparative studies on a commercial asset management companies is possible. It is

  10. An investigation of excess noise in transition-edge sensors on a solid silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, S.G.; Lindeman, M.A.; Anderson, M.B.; Bandler, S.R.; Bilgri, N.; Bruijn, M.P.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Germeau, A.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelly, R.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Lai, T.; Man, J.; McCammon, D.; Nelms, K.L.; Porter, F.S.; Rocks, L.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; Vidugiris, G.

    2006-01-01

    Transition-edge sensors (TESs) exhibit two major types of excess noise above the expected and unavoidable thermodynamic fluctuation noise (TFN) to the heat sink and Johnson noise. High-resistance TESs such as those made by the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON) show excess noise consistent with internal TFN (ITFN) caused by random energy transport within the TES itself while low resistance TESs show an excess voltage noise of unknown origin seemingly unrelated to temperature fluctuations. Running a high-resistance TES on a high thermal conductivity substrate should suppress ITFN and allow detection of any excess voltage noise. We tested two TESs on a solid silicon substrate fabricated by SRON of a relatively high normal state resistance of ∼200 mΩ. After determining a linear model of the TES response to noise for the devices, we found little excess TFN and little excess voltage noise for bias currents of up to ∼20 μA

  11. Another look at trading costs and short-term reversal profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma); J.J. Huij (Joop); W. Zhou (Weili)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSeveral studies report that abnormal returns associated with short-term reversal investment strategies diminish once trading costs are taken into account. We show that the impact of trading costs on the strategies' profitability can largely be attributed to excessively trading in small

  12. Is Excessive Polypharmacy a Transient or Persistent Phenomenon? A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Target populations with persistent polypharmacy should be identified prior to implementing strategies against inappropriate medication use, yet limited information regarding such populations is available. The main objectives were to explore the trends of excessive polypharmacy, whether transient or persistent, at the individual level. The secondary objectives were to identify the factors associated with persistently excessive polypharmacy and to estimate the probabilities for repeatedly excessive polypharmacy.Methods: Retrospective cohort analyses of excessive polypharmacy, defined as prescription of ≥ 10 medicines at an ambulatory visit, from 2001 to 2013 were conducted using a nationally representative claims database in Taiwan. Survival analyses with log-rank test of adult patients with first-time excessive polypharmacy were conducted to predict the probabilities, stratified by age and sex, of having repeatedly excessive polypharmacy.Results: During the study period, excessive polypharmacy occurred in 5.4% of patients for the first time. Among them, 63.9% had repeatedly excessive polypharmacy and the probabilities were higher in men and old people. Men versus women, and old versus middle-aged and young people had shorter median excessive polypharmacy-free times (9.4 vs. 5.5 months, 5.3 vs. 10.1 and 35.0 months, both p < 0.001. Overall, the probabilities of having no repeatedly excessive polypharmacy within 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year were 59.9, 53.6, and 48.1%, respectively.Conclusion: Although male and old patients were more likely to have persistently excessive polypharmacy, most cases of excessive polypharmacy were transient or did not re-appear in the short run. Systemic deprescribing measures should be tailored to at-risk groups.

  13. 46 CFR 35.25-15 - Carrying of excess steam-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying of excess steam-TB/ALL. 35.25-15 Section 35.25... § 35.25-15 Carrying of excess steam—TB/ALL. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer of any tank vessel to see that a steam pressure is not carried in excess of that allowed by the certificate of...

  14. Is Excessive Polypharmacy a Transient or Persistent Phenomenon? A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Jen; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Pei-Chen; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chou, Li-Fang; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Chen, Tzeng-Ji

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Target populations with persistent polypharmacy should be identified prior to implementing strategies against inappropriate medication use, yet limited information regarding such populations is available. The main objectives were to explore the trends of excessive polypharmacy, whether transient or persistent, at the individual level. The secondary objectives were to identify the factors associated with persistently excessive polypharmacy and to estimate the probabilities for repeatedly excessive polypharmacy. Methods: Retrospective cohort analyses of excessive polypharmacy, defined as prescription of ≥ 10 medicines at an ambulatory visit, from 2001 to 2013 were conducted using a nationally representative claims database in Taiwan. Survival analyses with log-rank test of adult patients with first-time excessive polypharmacy were conducted to predict the probabilities, stratified by age and sex, of having repeatedly excessive polypharmacy. Results: During the study period, excessive polypharmacy occurred in 5.4% of patients for the first time. Among them, 63.9% had repeatedly excessive polypharmacy and the probabilities were higher in men and old people. Men versus women, and old versus middle-aged and young people had shorter median excessive polypharmacy-free times (9.4 vs. 5.5 months, 5.3 vs. 10.1 and 35.0 months, both p < 0.001). Overall, the probabilities of having no repeatedly excessive polypharmacy within 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year were 59.9, 53.6, and 48.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Although male and old patients were more likely to have persistently excessive polypharmacy, most cases of excessive polypharmacy were transient or did not re-appear in the short run. Systemic deprescribing measures should be tailored to at-risk groups. PMID:29515446

  15. Excess co-movement in asset prices: The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ocran, Mathew; Mlambo, Chipo

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates excess co-movement in asset prices in South Africa between 1995 and 2005 using the definition of excess comovement as correlation between two asset prices beyond what could be explained by key economic fundamentals. The results of the study suggest that there is excess co-movement between returns on equities and bonds in South Africa. The findings suggest that there are considerable noise traders on the financial market in South Africa. The result of this behaviour woul...

  16. What Can Rational Investors Do About Excessive Volatility and Sentiment Fluctuations?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dumas; Alexander Kurshev; Raman Uppal

    2005-01-01

    Our objective is to understand the trading strategy that would allow an investor to take advantage of 'excessive' stock price volatility and 'sentiment' fluctuations. We construct a general equilibrium model of sentiment. In it, there are two classes of agents and stock prices are excessively volatile because one class is overconfident about a public signal. As a result, this class of irrational agents changes its expectations too often, sometimes being excessively optimistic, sometimes being...

  17. Theoretical study of the localization of excess electrons at the surface of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, A; Schwerdtfeger, P; Schmidt, W G

    2008-01-01

    The localization of excess electrons at the basal plane surface of hexagonal ice Ih is investigated theoretically, combining density functional theory (DFT) with a partial self-interaction correction (SIC) scheme, to account for spurious self-interaction effects that artificially delocalize the excess electrons. Starting from energetically favored surface geometries, we find strong localization of excess electrons at surface dangling bonds, in particular for surface adsorbed water monomers and dimers

  18. Excess 129Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of 129 Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these 129 Xe excesses have been thought to be related to 129 I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial 129 Xe excesses based on the production of 129 I from the spontaneous fission of 238 U

  19. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budischak, Cory; Sewell, DeAnna; Thomson, Heather

    2013-01-01

    intermittent power, we seek combinations of diverse renewables at diverse sites, with storage, that are not intermittent and satisfy need a given fraction of hours. And 2) we seek minimal cost, calculating true cost of electricity without subsidies and with inclusion of external costs. Our model evaluated over...... renewable generation and the excess capacity together meet electric load with less storage, lowering total system cost. At 2030 technology costs and with excess electricity displacing natural gas, we find that the electric system can be powered 90%–99.9% of hours entirely on renewable electricity, at costs...

  20. Nonresonant excess photon detachment of negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, M. S.; Zhao, Xin Miao; Bryant, H. C.; Strauss, Charlie E. M.; Funk, David J.; Stintz, A.; Rislove, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ingalls, W. B.; Miller, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    One-photon detachment and two-photon nonresonant excess photon detachment of electrons from the H - ion (outer-electron binding energy = 0.7542 eV) are observed with 1.165 eV laser pulses from a Nd:YAG laser (where YAG denotes yttrium aluminum garnet). A Penning ion source produces a pulsed 8 μA, 35 keV H - beam that intersects a laser beam cylindrically focused down to a 17 μm full width at half maximum waist in the ion beam direction, creating a high-intensity interaction region with peak intensities of up to 10 11 W/cm 2 . The interaction time is 7 ps. The detached electrons are detected by a time-of-flight apparatus enabling us to detect a very small two-photon signal in the presence of a very large signal from single photon detachments. By rotating the linear polarization angle, we study the angular distribution of the electrons for both one- and two-photon detachments. The spectra are modeled to determine the asymmetry parameters and one- and two-photon cross sections. We find β 2 to be 2.54+0.44/-0.60 and β 4 to be 2.29+0.07/-0.31, corresponding to a D state of 89+3/-12% of the S wave and D wave detachments for the two-photon results. The relative phase angle between the S and D amplitudes is measured to be less than 59 degree sign . The measured cross sections are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. The one-photon photodetachment cross section is measured to be (3.6±1.7)x10 -17 cm 2 . The two-photon photodetachment generalized cross section is (1.3±0.5)x10 -48 cm 4 sec, consistent with theoretical calculations of the cross section. The three-photon generalized cross section is less than 4.4x10 -79 cm 6 sec 2 . (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  1. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  2. A principle to correlate extreme values of excess thermodynamic functions with partial molar quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志武; 刘芸; 周蕊; 薛芳渝

    2001-01-01

    Excess thermodynamic properties are widely used quantitatively for fluids. It was found that at constant temperature and pressure a molar excess quantity of a mutually miscible binary mixture at the extreme points equals the excess partial molar quantities of the two components, i.e.F1E = F2E = FmE , forming a triple cross point. The relationship is hold for properties such as en-thalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, and volume, and is applicable for excess functions with multi extreme points. Solutions at extreme points can be referred to as special mixtures. Particularly fora special mixture of Gibbs free energy, activity coefficients of the two components are identical.

  3. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  4. A principle to correlate extreme values of excess thermody-namic functions with partial molar quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Excess thermodynamic properties are widely used quantitatively for fluids. It was found that at constant temperature and pressure a molar excess quantity of a mutually miscible binary mixture at the extreme points equals the excess partial molar quantities of the two components, i.e. , forming a triple cross point. The relationship is hold for properties such as enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, and volume, and is applicable for excess functions with multi extreme points. Solutions at extreme points can be referred to as special mixtures. Particularly for a special mixture of Gibbs free energy, activity coefficients of the two components are identical.

  5. Phase-in, abandonment, and cost disallowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    The major regulatory challenge to the electric utility industry appears to be coming from the financial side with its bookkeeping and financial reporting requirements. The author describes the accounting procedures and problems associated with straightforward phase-in rate treatment, abandonment, excess capacity, cost allowances, etc. She concludes that the available options to the Financial Accounting Standards Board are to adopt either the proposed exposure draft or a modification of the draft, to drop the proposed draft of amendments to Statement No. 71, or issue a whole new exposure draft

  6. Flow Management to Control Excessive Growth of Macrophytes - An Assessment Based on Habitat Suitability Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Konstantin; Rivaes, Rui P; Ferreira, Teresa; Egger, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers in intensive agricultural watersheds usually display outgrowths of macrophytes - notably alien species - due to a combination of high concentrations of nutrients in the water runoff and low flows resulting from water abstraction for irrigation. Standard mechanical and chemical control is used to mitigate the problems associated with excessive growth of plant biomass: mainly less drainage capacity and higher flood risk. However, such control measures are cost and labor-intensive and do not present long-term efficiency. Although the high sensitivity of aquatic vegetation to instream hydraulic conditions is well known, management approaches based on flow management remain relatively unexplored. The aim of our study was therefore to apply physical habitat simulation techniques promoted by the Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) to aquatic macrophytes - the first time it has been applied in this context - in order to model shifts in habitat suitability under different flow scenarios in the Sorraia river in central Portugal. We used this approach to test whether the risk of invasion and channel encroachment by nuisance species can be controlled by setting minimum annual flows. We used 960 randomly distributed survey points to analyze the habitat suitability for the most important aquatic species (including the invasive Brazilian milfoil Myriophyllum aquaticum , Sparganium erectum , and Potamogeton crispus ) in regard to the physical parameters 'flow velocity,' 'water depth,' and 'substrate size'. We chose the lowest discharge period of the year in order to assess the hydraulic conditions while disturbances were at a low-point, thus allowing aquatic vegetation establishment and subsistence. We then used the two-dimensional hydraulic River2D software to model the potential habitat availability for different flow conditions based on the site-specific habitat suitability index for each physical parameter and species. Our results show that the growth

  7. Flow Management to Control Excessive Growth of Macrophytes – An Assessment Based on Habitat Suitability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Konstantin; Rivaes, Rui P.; Ferreira, Teresa; Egger, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers in intensive agricultural watersheds usually display outgrowths of macrophytes – notably alien species – due to a combination of high concentrations of nutrients in the water runoff and low flows resulting from water abstraction for irrigation. Standard mechanical and chemical control is used to mitigate the problems associated with excessive growth of plant biomass: mainly less drainage capacity and higher flood risk. However, such control measures are cost and labor-intensive and do not present long-term efficiency. Although the high sensitivity of aquatic vegetation to instream hydraulic conditions is well known, management approaches based on flow management remain relatively unexplored. The aim of our study was therefore to apply physical habitat simulation techniques promoted by the Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) to aquatic macrophytes – the first time it has been applied in this context – in order to model shifts in habitat suitability under different flow scenarios in the Sorraia river in central Portugal. We used this approach to test whether the risk of invasion and channel encroachment by nuisance species can be controlled by setting minimum annual flows. We used 960 randomly distributed survey points to analyze the habitat suitability for the most important aquatic species (including the invasive Brazilian milfoil Myriophyllum aquaticum, Sparganium erectum, and Potamogeton crispus) in regard to the physical parameters ‘flow velocity,’ ‘water depth,’ and ‘substrate size’. We chose the lowest discharge period of the year in order to assess the hydraulic conditions while disturbances were at a low-point, thus allowing aquatic vegetation establishment and subsistence. We then used the two-dimensional hydraulic River2D software to model the potential habitat availability for different flow conditions based on the site-specific habitat suitability index for each physical parameter and species. Our results show

  8. Controlling Healthcare Costs: Just Cost Effectiveness or "Just" Cost Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Leonard M

    2018-04-01

    Meeting healthcare needs is a matter of social justice. Healthcare needs are virtually limitless; however, resources, such as money, for meeting those needs, are limited. How then should we (just and caring citizens and policymakers in such a society) decide which needs must be met as a matter of justice with those limited resources? One reasonable response would be that we should use cost effectiveness as our primary criterion for making those choices. This article argues instead that cost-effectiveness considerations must be constrained by considerations of healthcare justice. The goal of this article will be to provide a preliminary account of how we might distinguish just from unjust or insufficiently just applications of cost-effectiveness analysis to some healthcare rationing problems; specifically, problems related to extraordinarily expensive targeted cancer therapies. Unconstrained compassionate appeals for resources for the medically least well-off cancer patients will be neither just nor cost effective.

  9. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle cost and cost calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, P.; Schricker, W.

    1975-01-01

    Four different methods of calculating the cost of the fuel cycle are explained, starting from the individual cost components with their specific input data. The results (for LWRs) are presented in tabular form and in the form of diagrams. (RB) [de

  11. Controlling costs without compromising quality: paying hospitals for total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Michael; Fry, Donald E; Jones, Barbara L; Meimban, Roger J; Pine, Gregory J

    2010-10-01

    Unit costs of health services are substantially higher in the United States than in any other developed country in the world, without a correspondingly healthier population. An alternative payment structure, especially for high volume, high cost episodes of care (eg, total knee replacement), is needed to reward high quality care and reduce costs. The National Inpatient Sample of administrative claims data was used to measure risk-adjusted mortality, postoperative length-of-stay, costs of routine care, adverse outcome rates, and excess costs of adverse outcomes for total knee replacements performed between 2002 and 2005. Empirically identified inefficient and ineffective hospitals were then removed to create a reference group of high-performance hospitals. Predictive models for outcomes and costs were recalibrated to the reference hospitals and used to compute risk-adjusted outcomes and costs for all hospitals. Per case predicted costs were computed and compared with observed costs. Of the 688 hospitals with acceptable data, 62 failed to meet effectiveness criteria and 210 were identified as inefficient. The remaining 416 high-performance hospitals had 13.4% fewer risk-adjusted adverse outcomes (4.56%-3.95%; P costs ($12,773-$11,512; P costs. A payment system based on the demonstrated performance of effective, efficient hospitals can produce sizable cost savings without jeopardizing quality. In this study, 96% of total excess hospital costs resulted from higher routine costs at inefficient hospitals, whereas only 4% was associated with ineffective care.

  12. Is there excess argon in the Fish Canyon magmatic system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. M.; Sherlock, S.; Kelley, S. P.; Charlier, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Some phenocrysts from the Fish Canyon Tuff (San Juan volcanic field, south-western Colorado, USA) have yielded anomalously old 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages and yet the sanidine ages are sufficiently reproducible to allow its use as an international standard. The eruption age of the Fish Canyon tuff has recently been determined by high precision analysis and recalibration of the decay constants based on the sanidine standard at 28.305 ± 0.036 Ma [1], slightly younger than the generally accepted U-Pb age. Previously, minerals from the tuff have been used in various geochronological studies e.g., fission-track; U-Pb; Rb-Sr; K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar, but U-Pb zircon ages which range 28.37 - 28.61 Ma appear to be older than the sanidine and other minerals, including biotite, yield older ages (27.41 - 28.25 Ma for biotite) [2]. In the Fish Canyon volcanic system, the erupted products are thought to exist in the magma chamber for significant periods prior to eruption [3] and then pass rapidly from a high temperature magmatic environment (where Ar is free to re-equilibrate among the minerals), to effectively being quenched upon eruption (where Ar becomes immobile). Artificially elevated ages, older than eruption age, have been identified in some 40Ar/39Ar geochronological studies (e.g. [4]). These older ages may either reflect; 1) argon accumulation in pheno- or xenocrysts (by radioactive decay of parent 40K), 2) excess argon (40ArE) incorporated into a mineral during crystallisation (via diffusion into the mineral lattice or hosted within fluid or melt inclusions) or 3) inherited radiogenic argon (the dated material contains a component older than the age of eruption) [5]. To better understand the effects of 40ArE on 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages we have conducted a detailed study of intra-grain grain age variations by UV-LAMP Ar-analysis. Analysis of polished thick sections has been performed in-situ using a 213nm laser and Nu Instruments Noblesse which is able to discriminate against

  13. Environmental dispatch: Minimum cost generation planning for acid rain compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadri, S.S.; Weinstein, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Passage of Public Law 101-549, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, requires reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions from many power generation stations by 1995, and by an electric utility company's entire generation system by year 2000. Another option to reduce the total environmental emissions is to dispatch generating units with lower emission rates prior to dispatching units with high emission rates. This option may not lower the emission levels to the desired limits, but can reduce emissions. This is practical as long as the added operating cost is modest compared to the cost of alternatives to meet the same levels of emission reduction. This cost can be optimized to provide the best compromise between reduced emissions and operating cost increase. An environmental dispatch algorithm developed by Gilbert/Commonwealth for its eVOLVE-p trademark production costing program makes this optimization possible. The algorithm modifies the traditional economic dispatch order of utility generation to include the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The dispatch order is based on emissions in excess of Clean Air Act compliance limits. A cost is assigned to the excess emissions, and these costs are distributed to the individual generating units in proportion to their emission rates. This paper discusses how this environmental dispatch algorithm is applied for utility generation compliance planning

  14. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  15. Plateletpheresis before redo CABG diminishes excessive blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, J T; Reuse, J; Badel, P; Simonet, F; Schmuziger, M

    1996-11-01

    Blood conservation remains an important element for patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. Preoperative platelet-rich plasma (PRP) harvest is an autologous blood conservation method. The efficacy of preoperative PRP harvest and post-cardiopulmonary bypass reinfusion on postoperative bleeding and need for postoperative blood transfusion was evaluated in patients undergoing redo coronary artery bypass grafting in a prospective, randomized manner. All adult patients admitted for redo coronary artery bypass grafting entered into the study. The PRP harvest aim was 20% or more of the total estimated circulating platelets. Immediately preoperatively three sequestration cycles were performed. The PRP was reinfused after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. One hundred seven parameters/patient were recorded. There were 20 patients in the RPR group and 20 controls (without PRP harvest). Patient characteristics, operative data, and preoperative hematologic parameters did not differ between the groups. In the PRP group, the mean platelet count in the PRP was 864 +/- 139 x 10(3)/microL, and the platelet yield was 27% +/- 5% (range, 20% to 37%). The average total chest tube blood loss was 423 mL (PRP) compared with 1,462 mL (controls; p platelets and reinfusion of the PRP after cardiopulmonary bypass resulted in significantly less postoperative blood loss and decreased fluid and blood transfusion requirements compared with controls. Postextubation gas exchange, ventilation time, and time required in the intensive care unit were also better, and the method was found cost-effective.

  16. Evaluation of excess nuclear materials suitability for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.W.; White, W.C.; Davis, R.M.; Cherry, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    President Clinton announced in March 1995 the permanent withdrawal of 200 tons of fissile material from the US nuclear stockpile. This action was made possible by the dramatic reduction in nuclear weapons stockpile size and a desire to demonstrate the US'' commitment to nonproliferation goals. To provide further assurance of that commitment, the US is addressing placement of these materials under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. An initial step of this overall assessment was evaluation of the nuclear materials'' suitability for international safeguards. US Department of Energy (DOE) field organizations reviewed a detailed listing of all candidate materials with respect to characterization status, security classification, and acceptability for international safeguards compared to specified criteria. These criteria included form, location, environment and safety considerations, measurability, and stability. The evaluation resulted in broad categorizations of all materials with respect to preparing and placing materials under IAEA safeguards and provided essential information for decisions on the timing for offering materials as a function of materials attributes. A plan is being prepared to determine the availability of these materials for IAEA safeguards considering important factors such as costs, processes and facilities required to prepare materials, and impacts on other programs

  17. Electrostrain in excess of 1% in polycrystalline piezoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Bastola; Malhotra, Jaskaran Singh; Pandey, Rishikesh; Yaddanapudi, Krishna; Nukala, Pavan; Dkhil, Brahim; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2018-05-01

    Piezoelectric actuators transform electrical energy into mechanical energy, and because of their compactness, quick response time and accurate displacement, they are sought after in many applications. Polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics are technologically more appealing than single crystals due to their simpler and less expensive processing, but have yet to display electrostrain values that exceed 1%. Here we report a material design strategy wherein the efficient switching of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains by an electric field is exploited to achieve a high electrostrain value of 1.3% in a pseudo-ternary ferroelectric alloy system, BiFeO3-PbTiO3-LaFeO3. Detailed structural investigations reveal that this electrostrain is associated with a combination of several factors: a large spontaneous lattice strain of the piezoelectric phase, domain miniaturization, a low-symmetry ferroelectric phase and a very large reverse switching of the non-180° domains. This insight for the design of a new class of polycrystalline piezoceramics with high electrostrains may be useful to develop alternatives to costly single-crystal actuators.

  18. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  19. Costing Practices in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza

    2014-01-01

    .e., Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) systems, and costing practices. DRG-based payment systems strongly influence costing practices in multiple ways. In particular, setting DRG tariffs requires highly standardized costing practices linked with specific skill sets from management accountants and brings other...... jurisdictions (e.g., clinical coding) to bear on costing practice. These factors contribute to the fragmentation of the jurisdiction of management accounting.......The rising cost of healthcare is a globally pressing concern. This makes detailed attention to the way in which costing is carried out of central importance. This article offers a framework for considering the interdependencies between a dominant element of the contemporary healthcare context, i...

  20. 26 CFR 513.7 - Release of excess tax withheld at source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... source from life annuities and pensions, other than pensions paid by the Government of the United States... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of excess tax withheld at source. 513.7...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.7 Release of excess tax withheld at source...

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-2 - Excess deductions on termination of an estate or trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trust. 1.642(h)-2 Section 1.642(h)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-2...)) in excess of gross income, the excess is allowed under section 642(h)(2) as a deduction to the...

  2. VALIDITY OF EXCESS ENTROPY PRODUCTION CRITERION OF THERMODYNAMIC STABILITY FOR NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金平

    1991-01-01

    The relation between the excess entropy production criterion of thermodynamic stabilityfor nonequilibrium states and kinetic linear stability principle is discussed. It is shown thatthe condition required by the excess entropy production criterion generally is sufficient, butnot necessary to judge the system stability. The condition required by the excess entropyproduction criterion is stronger than that of the linear stability principle. Only when theproduct matrix between the linearized matrix of kinetic equations and matrix of quadraticform of second-order excess entropy is symmetric, is the condition required by the excessentropy production criterion that the steady steate is asymptotically stable (δ_xP>0) necessaryand sufficient. The counterexample given by Fox to prove that the excess entropy, (δ~2S)ss,is not a Liapunov function is incorrect. Contradictory to his conclusion, the counterexampleis just a positive one that proves that the excess entropy is a Liapunov function. Moreover,the excess entropy production criterion is not limited by symmetric conditions of the linear-ized matrix of kinetic equations. The excess entropy around nonequilibrium steady states,(δ~2S)ss, is a Liapunov function of thermodynamic system.

  3. An explanation of the 25% male excess mortality for all children under 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mage David T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To demonstrate that an epidemiologic probability model of a hypothesized X-linkage for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS that predicted its 50% male excess, also predicts the 25% male excess of all child mortality for ages under 5 years.

  4. Nitrogen Excess in North American Ecosystems: Predisposing Factors, Ecosystem Responses, and Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Mark A. Poth; John D. Aber; Jill S. Baron; Bernard T. Bormann; Dale W. Johnson; A. Dennis Lemly; Steven G. McNulty; Douglas F. Ryan; Robert Stottlemyer

    1998-01-01

    Most forests in North America remain nitrogen limited, although recent studies have identified forested areas that exhibit symptoms of N excess, analogous to overfertilization of arable land. Nitrogen excess in watersheds is detrimental because of disruptions in plant/soil nutrient relations, increased soil acidification and aluminum mobility, increased emissions of...

  5. Excessive Alcohol Use Can Be a Problem (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-30

    Excessive alcohol consumption can result in severe health, social, and financial problems. It causes more than 88,000 deaths each year. This podcast discusses the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption.  Created: 3/30/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/30/2017.

  6. Excessive Alcohol Use Can Be a Problem (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-30

    Excessive alcohol consumption can result in severe health, social, and financial problems. In this podcast Dr. Lela McKnight-Eily discusses the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption.  Created: 3/30/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/30/2017.

  7. 41 CFR 102-36.450 - Do we report excess shelf-life items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shelf-life items? 102-36.450 Section 102-36.450 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.450 Do we report excess shelf-life items? (a) When there are quantities on hand, that...

  8. 41 CFR 102-36.455 - How do we report excess shelf-life items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shelf-life items? 102-36.455 Section 102-36.455 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.455 How do we report excess shelf-life items? You must identify the property as shelf...

  9. Atmospheric influence on the deuterium excess signal in polar firn - implications for ice core interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth; Oerter, H.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Reijmer, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal deuterium excess signal of fresh snow samples from Neumayer station, coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, was studied to investigate the relationship between deuterium excess and precipitation origin. An isotope model was combined with a trajectory model to determine the relative

  10. 40 CFR 60.4385 - How are excess emissions and monitoring downtime defined for SO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are excess emissions and monitoring downtime defined for SO2? 60.4385 Section 60.4385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... downtime defined for SO2? If you choose the option to monitor the sulfur content of the fuel, excess...

  11. The Origin and Consequences of Excess Competition in Education: A Mainland Chinese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    At present in mainland China, competition in education has become excessive; competition has been increasing, and a competitive mentality is on the rise. The formative causes of excess competition in education are complex; with both practical and conceptual causes. Its roots can be traced to intensifying social competition, a one-sided…

  12. Study of Using Excess Stock to Reduce Naval Aviation Depot-Level Repairable Piece Part Backorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    used to develop and run the comparison of the backorders and excess stock records. Python is chosen because of its ease of learning and use...sustainable source of bit-piece parts for future requisitions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS naval aviation AVDLRs, backorder, excess, DLA, WSS, FRC, Python ...SCHOOL December 2016 Approved by: Geraldo Ferrer Eddine Dahel Peter Ward Bryan Hudgens Academic Associate

  13. 26 CFR 1.1238-1 - Amortization in excess of depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Amortization in excess of depreciation. 1.1238-1... Amortization in excess of depreciation. (a) In general. Section 1238 provides that if a taxpayer is entitled to... amortization deduction exceeds normal depreciation. Thus, under section 1238 gain from a sale or exchange of...

  14. Utilising excess minibus-taxi capacity for South African townships tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.H.; Makoriwa, Collins; de Boer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an option for the utilisation of excess off-peak capacity of minibus-taxis in South Africa for township tours. The minibus-taxi system typically faces steep peak loads during rush hours with excess vehicle and person capacity available during off-hours. The advantages of the

  15. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and...

  16. Effects of previous growth hormone excess and current medical treatment for acromegaly on cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, Pauline; Koerts, Janneke; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Tucha, Oliver; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van Beek, Andre P.

    2012-01-01

    Background In untreated acromegaly patients, decreased cognitive functioning is reported to be associated with the degree of growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 excess. Whether previous GH excess or current medical treatment for acromegaly specifically affects cognition remains unclear. The aim of this

  17. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  18. Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The comparison of various protection options in order to determine which is the best compromise between cost of protection and residual risk is the purpose of the ALARA procedure. The use of decision-aiding techniques is valuable as an aid to selection procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce two rather simple and well known decision aiding techniques: the cost-effectiveness analysis and the cost-benefit analysis. These two techniques are relevant for the great part of ALARA decisions which need the use of a quantitative technique. The study is based on an hypothetical case of 10 protection options. Four methods are applied to the data

  19. The costs of obesity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Burgess, Somali M; Hale, Brent C

    2010-10-01

    To quantify per capita and aggregate medical expenditures and the value of lost productivity, including absenteeism and presenteeism, because of overweight, and grade I, II, and III obesity among U.S. employees. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2008 National Health and Wellness Survey. Among men, estimates range from -$322 for overweight to $6087 for grade III obese men. For women, estimates range from $797 for overweight to $6694 for grade III. In aggregate, the annual cost attributable to obesity among full-time employees is $73.1 billion. Individuals with a body mass index >35 represent 37% of the obese population but are responsible for 61% of excess costs. Successful efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity, especially among those with a body mass index >35, could result in significant savings to employers.

  20. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jianling; Hu Zhengyi; Ziadi, Noura; Xia Xu; Wu Congyanghui

    2010-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg -1 ) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg -1 ). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. - Excessive sulfur reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice.