WorldWideScience

Sample records for exceptionally selective agents

  1. An Exception Handling Service for Software Agent Ensembles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ... (I) the creation of better contingent contracts between agents (both human and software- based) as well as (2) exception-handling agents that monitor MAS for problem symptoms, diagnose the underlying problems, and intervene as appropriate to avoid or resolve these problems.

  2. Apoptins: selective anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollano Peñaloza, Oscar M; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Stetefeld, Joerg; Ossysek, Karolina; Madej, Mariusz; Bereta, Joanna; Sobczak, Mateusz; Shojaei, Shahla; Ghavami, Saeid; Łos, Marek J

    2014-09-01

    Therapies that selectively target cancer cells for death have been the center of intense research recently. One potential therapy may involve apoptin proteins, which are able to induce apoptosis in cancer cells leaving normal cells unharmed. Apoptin was originally discovered in the Chicken anemia virus (CAV); however, human gyroviruses (HGyV) have recently been found that also harbor apoptin-like proteins. Although the cancer cell specific activity of these apoptins appears to be well conserved, the precise functions and mechanisms of action are yet to be fully elucidated. Strategies for both delivering apoptin to treat tumors and disseminating the protein inside the tumor body are now being developed, and have shown promise in preclinical animal studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  4. Selective anti-herpesvirus agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2013-01-23

    This review article focuses on the anti-herpesvirus agents effective against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus, which have either been licensed for clinical use (idoxuridine, trifluridine, brivudin, acyclovir, valaciclovir, valganciclovir, famciclovir and foscarnet) or are under clinical development (CMX001 [the hexadecyloxypropyl prodrug of cidofovir], the helicase-primase inhibitor BAY 57-1293 [now referred to as AIC316], FV-100 [the valine ester of Cf 1743] and the terminase inhibitor letermovir [AIC246]).

  5. BSL-3 laboratory practices in the United States: comparison of select agent and non-select agent facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Pompei, Victoria C; Anderson, Alice

    2014-01-01

    New construction of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories in the United States has increased in the past decade to facilitate research on potential bioterrorism agents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inspect BSL-3 facilities and review commissioning documentation, but no single agency has oversight over all BSL-3 facilities. This article explores the extent to which standard operating procedures in US BSL-3 facilities vary between laboratories with select agent or non-select agent status. Comparisons are made for the following variables: personnel training, decontamination, personal protective equipment (PPE), medical surveillance, security access, laboratory structure and maintenance, funding, and pest management. Facilities working with select agents had more complex training programs and decontamination procedures than non-select agent facilities. Personnel working in select agent laboratories were likely to use powered air purifying respirators, while non-select agent laboratories primarily used N95 respirators. More rigorous medical surveillance was carried out in select agent workers (although not required by the select agent program) and a higher level of restrictive access to laboratories was found. Most select agent and non-select agent laboratories reported adequate structural integrity in facilities; however, differences were observed in personnel perception of funding for repairs. Pest management was carried out by select agent personnel more frequently than non-select agent personnel. Our findings support the need to promote high quality biosafety training and standard operating procedures in both select agent and non-select agent laboratories to improve occupational health and safety.

  6. 42 CFR 73.3 - HHS select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and Recombinant Organisms: (1) Nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of any of the select... naturally occurring environment provided the select agent or toxin has not been intentionally introduced... against theft, loss, or release, and reports any theft, loss, or release of such agent or toxin, and (3...

  7. SweetDeal: Representing Agent Contracts With Exceptions using XML Rules, Ontologies, and Process Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    GROSOF, BENJAMIN; POON, TERRENCE C.

    2003-01-01

    SweetDeal is a rule-based approach to representation of business contracts that enables software agents to create, evaluate, negotiate, and execute contracts with substantial automation and modularity. It builds upon the situated courteous logic programs knowledge representation in RuleML, the emerging standard for Semantic Web XML rules. Here, we newly extend the SweetDeal approach by also incorporating process knowledge descriptions whose ontologies are represented in DAML+OIL (the close pr...

  8. Hydrothermally derived water-dispersible mixed valence copper-chitosan nanocomposite as exceptionally potent antimicrobial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basumallick, Srijita; Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Tetard, Laurene; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2014-10-01

    We report, for the first time, a one-step hydrothermal (HT) process to design and synthesize water-dispersible chitosan nanoparticles loaded with mixed valence copper. Interestingly, this HT copper-chitosan biocompatible composite exhibits exceptionally high antimicrobial properties. A comprehensive characterization of the composite indicates that the hydrothermal process results in the formation of monodispersed nanoparticles with average size of 40 ± 10 nm. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic studies unveiled that the hydrolysis of the glycoside bonds as the origin of the depolymerization of chitosan. Furthermore, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements confirmed the presence of mixed valence copper states in the composite, while UV-Vis and FT-IR studies revealed the chemical interaction of copper with the chitosan matrix. Hence, the extensive spectroscopic data provide strong evidence that the chitosan structure was rearranged to capture copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally, HT copper-chitosan composite showed a complete killing effect when tested against both Gram negative ( E. coli) and Gram positive ( S. aureus) bacteria at metallic copper concentration of 100 μg/ml (1.57 mM). At the same concentration, neither pure chitosan nor copper elicited such antimicrobial efficacy. Thus, we show that HT process significantly enhances the synergistic antimicrobial effect of chitosan and copper in addition to increasing the water dispersibility.

  9. 7 CFR 331.3 - PPQ select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... variegated chlorosis strain). (c) Genetic elements, recombinant nucleic acids, and recombinant organisms: (1... this part: (1) Any select agent or toxin that is in its naturally occurring environment, provided that... secures the seized agent or toxin against theft, loss, or release, and reports any theft, loss, or release...

  10. 42 CFR 73.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Equine Encephalitis virus (c) Genetic Elements, Recombinant Nucleic Acids, and Recombinant Organisms: (1... occurring environment provided that the select agent or toxin has not been intentionally introduced... toxin against theft, loss, or release, and reports any theft, loss, or release of such agent or toxin...

  11. An Action Selection Architecture for an Emotional Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Russell, I.; Haller, S.

    2003-01-01

    An architecture for action selection is presented linking emotion, cognition and behavior. It defines the information and emotion processes of an agent. The architecture has been implemented and used in a prototype environment.

  12. Non-adaptive territory selection by a bird with exceptionally long parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Radosław; Minias, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    High-quality territories are expected to provide greater fitness return for breeding individuals and, thus, are likely to have higher long-term occupation rate in comparison to low-quality territories. However, if environmental and ecological cues used for territory selection cannot reliably predict true territory quality, a mismatch between preferences and fitness may occur. We suggest that this kind of non-adaptive territory selection is more likely in species with long reproductive cycles, as a long time interval between territory establishment and young fledgling should reduce predictability of conditions during the critical stages of brood care. In this study, we investigated adaptiveness of territory selection in a migratory bird with exceptionally long parental care, the mute swan Cygnus olor, which requires over four months to complete the entire reproductive cycle from egg laying to young fledging. For this purpose, we collected information on the long-term (10-19 years) occupancy of 222 swan breeding territories and correlated it with reproductive performance (n = 1,345 breeding attempts) and body condition of breeding adults. We found that long-term occupancy positively correlated with the timing of breeding, suggesting that individuals settled earlier in the attractive, frequently occupied territories. By contrast, we found no relationship between territory occupancy and reproductive output (hatching and fledging success) or adult body condition. The results indicate that at the time of territory selection swans might not be able to reliably assess territory quality, likely due to: (1) exceptionally long period of parental care, which reduces temporal correlation between the conditions at the time of territory selection and conditions during chick rearing; and (2) unpredictability of human-related activities that had a major impact on reproductive output of swan pairs in our population.

  13. Non-adaptive territory selection by a bird with exceptionally long parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Włodarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-quality territories are expected to provide greater fitness return for breeding individuals and, thus, are likely to have higher long-term occupation rate in comparison to low-quality territories. However, if environmental and ecological cues used for territory selection cannot reliably predict true territory quality, a mismatch between preferences and fitness may occur. We suggest that this kind of non-adaptive territory selection is more likely in species with long reproductive cycles, as a long time interval between territory establishment and young fledgling should reduce predictability of conditions during the critical stages of brood care. In this study, we investigated adaptiveness of territory selection in a migratory bird with exceptionally long parental care, the mute swan Cygnus olor, which requires over four months to complete the entire reproductive cycle from egg laying to young fledging. For this purpose, we collected information on the long-term (10–19 years occupancy of 222 swan breeding territories and correlated it with reproductive performance (n = 1,345 breeding attempts and body condition of breeding adults. We found that long-term occupancy positively correlated with the timing of breeding, suggesting that individuals settled earlier in the attractive, frequently occupied territories. By contrast, we found no relationship between territory occupancy and reproductive output (hatching and fledging success or adult body condition. The results indicate that at the time of territory selection swans might not be able to reliably assess territory quality, likely due to: (1 exceptionally long period of parental care, which reduces temporal correlation between the conditions at the time of territory selection and conditions during chick rearing; and (2 unpredictability of human-related activities that had a major impact on reproductive output of swan pairs in our population.

  14. Information Security for Compliance with Select Agent Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Nick; Campbell, Mark J.; Baskin, Carole R.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a significant rise in research on high-consequence human and animal pathogens, many now known as “select agents.” While physical security around these agents is tightly regulated, information security standards are still lagging. The understanding of the threats unique to the academic and research environment is still evolving, in part due to poor communication between the various stakeholders. Perhaps as a result, information security guidelines published by select a...

  15. Optimal concentration of selective agents for inhibiting in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to distinguish transgenic cells of untransformed cell mass is a key step for the production of transgenic plants. Thus, the use of selection marker genes for identification of genetically modified plants is necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of four selective agents (kanamycin, ...

  16. Susceptibility of Select Agents to Predation by Predatory Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Russo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Select Agents are microorganisms and toxins considered to be exploitable as biological weapons. Although infections by many Select Agents can be treated by conventional antibiotics, the risk of an emerging or engineered drug resistant strain is of great concern. One group of microorganisms that is showing potential to control drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria are the predatory bacteria from the genera Bdellovibrio spp. and Micavibrio spp. In this study, we have examined the ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (B. bacteriovorus strain 109J, HD100 and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus (M. aeruginosavorus ARL-13 to prey on a variety of Select Agents. Our findings demonstrate that B. bacteriovorus and M. aeruginosavorus are able to prey efficiently on Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia mallei. Modest predation was also measured in co-cultures of B. bacteriovorus and Francisella tularensis. However, neither of the predators showed predation when Burkholderia pseudomallei and Brucella melitensis were used as prey.

  17. Information security for compliance with select agent regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nick; Campbell, Mark J; Baskin, Carole R

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a significant rise in research on high-consequence human and animal pathogens, many now known as "select agents." While physical security around these agents is tightly regulated, information security standards are still lagging. The understanding of the threats unique to the academic and research environment is still evolving, in part due to poor communication between the various stakeholders. Perhaps as a result, information security guidelines published by select agent regulators lack the critical details and directives needed to achieve even the lowest security level of the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA). While only government agencies are currently required to abide by the provisions of FISMA (unless specified as preconditions for obtaining government grants or contracts--still a relatively rare or narrowly scoped occurrence), the same strategies were recently recommended by executive order for others. We propose that information security guidelines for select agent research be updated to promulgate and detail FISMA standards and processes and that the latter be ultimately incorporated into select agent regulations. We also suggest that information security in academic and research institutions would greatly benefit from active efforts to improve communication among the biosecurity, security, and information technology communities, and from a secure venue for exchange of timely information on emerging threats and solutions in the research environment.

  18. Selective Catalytic Reduction Study with Alternative Reducing Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenco, AAD; Martins, CA; Lacava, PT; Ferreira, MA

    2013-01-01

    Diesel engine technology has been driven by increasingly stringent environmental legislation. To comply with these laws, emissions-control systems are being rapidly improved. Within this context, development of exhaust gas after-treatment systems undertakes a significant role. Among the techniques used is selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which converts nitrogen oxides (NOx) into diatomic nitrogen (N-2) and water (H2O). A reducing agent containing ammonia (NH3) is added to the flow and abs...

  19. Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies. A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 602.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies contains approximately 65 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents or journal articles published from 1968 to 1975 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources…

  20. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  1. 75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Services and Agriculture shall, through their ongoing review of the biological Select Agents and Toxins... Executive Order 13546--Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States... July 2, 2010 Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States By the...

  2. Exceptional high selectivity of hydrogen/methane separation on a phosphonate-based MOF membrane with exclusion of methane molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qipeng; Li, Liangjun; Tan, Weiqiang; Sun, Yingjie; Wang, Huanli; Ma, Jiping; Zhao, Xuebo

    2017-08-29

    A phosphonate-based metal-organic framework membrane was constructed on a porous anodic alumina membrane (PAAM) substrate for H2/CH4 separation for the first time. Owing to the ultra-micro pore windows, this membrane exhibited effective size exclusion for CH4 molecules but suitable permeance for H2 molecules, giving rise to an exceptional high H2/CH4 separation selectivity.

  3. Creative thought as blind-variation and selective-retention: Combinatorial models of exceptional creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2010-06-01

    Campbell (1960) proposed that creative thought should be conceived as a blind-variation and selective-retention process (BVSR). This article reviews the developments that have taken place in the half century that has elapsed since his proposal, with special focus on the use of combinatorial models as formal representations of the general theory. After defining the key concepts of blind variants, creative thought, and disciplinary context, the combinatorial models are specified in terms of individual domain samples, variable field size, ideational combination, and disciplinary communication. Empirical implications are then derived with respect to individual, domain, and field systems. These abstract combinatorial models are next provided substantive reinforcement with respect to findings concerning the cognitive processes, personality traits, developmental factors, and social contexts that contribute to creativity. The review concludes with some suggestions regarding future efforts to explicate creativity according to BVSR theory.

  4. Customized acrylic implants for reconstruction of extensive skull defects: an exception approach for selected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael Denadai Pigozzi DA; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto; Guidi, Marcelo Campos; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Buzzo, Celso Luiz

    2017-01-01

    to present our experience in the surgical treatment of extensive skullcap defects with customized acrylic implants. we conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with extensive skull defects undergoing acrylic cranioplasties between 2004 and 2013. We carefully selected all patients and classified surgical results based on three scales (craniofacial esthetics, improvement of facial symmetry and need for additional surgery). fifteen patients underwent cranioplasty with intraoperative acrylic implants, whether manually customized (46.67%) or made with prototyped three-dimensional biomodels (53.33%). There were two (13.33%) complications (one infection with implant withdrawal and one seroma). We considered the craniofacial aesthetics excellent (50%), the degree of improvement of craniofacial symmetry satisfactory (57.14%), and the overall mean of surgical results according to the need for new surgeries was 1.5±0.52. cranioplasties of patients with extensive skullcap defects should obey careful and predetermined criteria, both for selection and for the acrylic implant customization method. apresentar nossa experiência no tratamento cirúrgico dos defeitos extensos da calota craniana com implantes de acrílico customizados. análise retrospectiva de pacientes com defeitos extensos da calota craniana submetidos à cranioplastias com acrílico entre 2004 e 2013. Todos os pacientes foram criteriosamente selecionados e os resultados cirúrgicos foram classificados com base em três escalas (estética craniofacial, melhora da simetria facial e necessidade de cirurgia adicional). Quinze pacientes foram submetidos à cranioplastia com implantes de acrílico customizados manualmente no intraoperatório (46,67%) e confeccionados com base em biomodelos tridimensionais prototipados (53,33%). Mesmo respeitando critérios de seleção, houve duas (13,33%) complicações (infecção com retirada do implante e seroma). A estética craniofacial foi considerada excelente (50%), o

  5. Exploring Heuristic Action Selection in Agent Programming (extended abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.; Pasman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Rational agents programmed in agent programming languages derive their choice of action from their beliefs and goals. One of the main benefits of such programming languages is that they facilitate a highlevel and conceptually elegant specification of agent behaviour. Qualitative concepts alone,

  6. Selective anti-cancer agents as anti-aging drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-12-01

    Recent groundbreaking discoveries have revealed that IGF-1, Ras, MEK, AMPK, TSC1/2, FOXO, PI3K, mTOR, S6K, and NFκB are involved in the aging process. This is remarkable because the same signaling molecules, oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, are well-known targets for cancer therapy. Furthermore, anti-cancer drugs aimed at some of these targets have been already developed. This arsenal could be potentially employed for anti-aging interventions (given that similar signaling molecules are involved in both cancer and aging). In cancer, intrinsic and acquired resistance, tumor heterogeneity, adaptation, and genetic instability of cancer cells all hinder cancer-directed therapy. But for anti-aging applications, these hurdles are irrelevant. For example, since anti-aging interventions should be aimed at normal postmitotic cells, no selection for resistance is expected. At low doses, certain agents may decelerate aging and age-related diseases. Importantly, deceleration of aging can in turn postpone cancer, which is an age-related disease.

  7. Research Recommendations for Selected IARC-Classified Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Elizabeth M; Schulte, Paul A; Straif, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    ; these included the importance of recognizing that carcinogenic agents can act through multiple toxicity pathways and mechanisms, including epigenetic mechanisms, oxidative stress and immuno- and hormonal modulation. CONCLUSIONS: Studies in occupational populations provide important opportunities to understand...... the mechanisms through which exogenous agents cause cancer and intervene to prevent human exposure and/or prevent or detect cancer among those already exposed. Scientific developments are likely to increase the challenges and complexities of carcinogen testing and evaluation in the future, and epidemiologic...

  8. 9 CFR 121.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as defined in 50 U.S.C. 1801; or (3) It is determined that such action is necessary to protect animal health or animal products. (g) For overlap select agents or toxins, an individual's access approval will... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricting access to select agents...

  9. 77 FR 56845 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Webcast AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... (HHS) announces the notice of a public webcast concerning compliance with the Federal Select Agent...

  10. Activity of endodontic antibacterial agents against selected anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Cláudio Maniglia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of substances used as antibacterial agents (solutions of 10% calcium hydroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol - PMCC, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% castor oil plant detergent on anaerobic bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586, Prevotella nigrescens ATCC 33563, Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 and Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, using a broth dilution technique, was evaluated in vitro. For determination of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericide concentrations (MIC and MBC, two culture broths, Reinforced Clostridial Medium (RCM and supplemented Brucella, standardized inoculum and serially diluted solutions were used. All antibacterial agents presented antimicrobial activity that varied for different bacteria. There were no differences in the performance of the two broths. Chlorhexidine digluconate was the most effective, with the lowest MICs, followed by castor oil detergent, PMCC and calcium hydroxide. C. perfringens and B. fragilis were the most resistant bacteria to all agents.

  11. Efficacy of household cleaning agents against some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The eventual clinical implications of this decreased susceptibility need continue surveillance. Key words: Antibacteria, Commensal flora, Disease, Disinfectant, Hygiene, Public health. French Abstract. L'émergence et la propagation des micro-organismes d'une sensibilité réduite aux agents antimicrobiens est un problème ...

  12. A New HIV Prevention Network Approach: Sociometric Peer Change Agent Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, John A; Zhou, A. Ning; Laumann, Edward O.

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, the Peer Change Agent (PCA) model is the most frequently used conceptual framework for HIV prevention. Change agents themselves can be more important than the messages they convey. PCA selection is operationalized via heterogeneous methods based upon individual-level attributes. A sociometric position selection strategy, however, could increase peer influence potency and halt transmission at key network locations. In this study, we selected candidate PCAs based upon relative ...

  13. 42 CFR 73.10 - Restricting access to select agents and toxins; security risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) or with any other organization that engages in intentional crimes of violence, or being an agent of a... AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.10 Restricting... toxins is terminated by the entity and the reasons therefore. ...

  14. 75 FR 23223 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... individuals and entities possessing, using, or transferring biological agents and toxins listed in 7 CFR 331.3...

  15. 78 FR 56234 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance with the Select Agent Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance with the Select Agent Regulations; Public Webcast AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... possessing, using, or transferring biological agents and toxins. The purpose of the webcast is to provide...

  16. 76 FR 14896 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Meeting AGENCIES: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... individuals and entities possessing, using, or transferring federally listed biological agents and toxins...

  17. 76 FR 17617 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... individuals and entities possessing, using, or transferring federally listed biological agents and toxins...

  18. 76 FR 62312 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 331 9 CFR Part 121 Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Meeting AGENCIES: Animal and... biological agents and toxins, that a meeting will be held to provide specific regulatory guidance related to...

  19. Buspirone is an effective augmenting agent of serotonin selective re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Buspirone has previously been reported to be effective in the augmentation of the antidepressant effect of serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRls) in depressed outpatients. We report on buspirone augmentation of SSRls in severe treatment-refractory depression in inpatients. Methods. A retrospective ...

  20. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  1. Chlorine dioxide is a size-selective antimicrobial agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Noszticzius

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND / AIMS: ClO2, the so-called "ideal biocide", could also be applied as an antiseptic if it was understood why the solution killing microbes rapidly does not cause any harm to humans or to animals. Our aim was to find the source of that selectivity by studying its reaction-diffusion mechanism both theoretically and experimentally. METHODS: ClO2 permeation measurements through protein membranes were performed and the time delay of ClO2 transport due to reaction and diffusion was determined. To calculate ClO2 penetration depths and estimate bacterial killing times, approximate solutions of the reaction-diffusion equation were derived. In these calculations evaporation rates of ClO2 were also measured and taken into account. RESULTS: The rate law of the reaction-diffusion model predicts that the killing time is proportional to the square of the characteristic size (e.g. diameter of a body, thus, small ones will be killed extremely fast. For example, the killing time for a bacterium is on the order of milliseconds in a 300 ppm ClO2 solution. Thus, a few minutes of contact time (limited by the volatility of ClO2 is quite enough to kill all bacteria, but short enough to keep ClO2 penetration into the living tissues of a greater organism safely below 0.1 mm, minimizing cytotoxic effects when applying it as an antiseptic. Additional properties of ClO2, advantageous for an antiseptic, are also discussed. Most importantly, that bacteria are not able to develop resistance against ClO2 as it reacts with biological thiols which play a vital role in all living organisms. CONCLUSION: Selectivity of ClO2 between humans and bacteria is based not on their different biochemistry, but on their different size. We hope initiating clinical applications of this promising local antiseptic.

  2. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport and including storage delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V. [IRSN, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Mennerdahl, D. [EMS, TABY (Sweden); Dean, C. [SERCO, Winfrith Technology Center, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Barton, N. [Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom); Jean, F. [APTUS, Versailles (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the DGTREN/participants decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL and SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, etc.). The parameters of interest (such as k-infinite, critical masses) were determined. This article presents the work achieved and the questions raised, e.g. related to the effect of the radioactive decay of the isotopes on the criticality risks. It also points out the need for an evolution of the regulation of the safe transport of radioactive materials and gives a proposition of modification for the IAEA requirements related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials.

  3. Non-antibiotic selection systems for soybean somatic embryos: the lysine analog aminoethyl-cysteine as a selection agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanyuen Prachuab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soybean somatic embryo transformation, the standard selection agent currently used is hygromycin. It may be preferable to avoid use of antibiotic resistance genes in foods. The objective of these experiments was to develop a selection system for producing transgenic soybean somatic embryos without the use of antibiotics such as hygromycin. Results When tested against different alternate selection agents our studies show that 0.16 μg/mL glufosinate, 40 mg/L isopropylamine-glyphosate, 0.5 mg/mL (S-(2 aminoethyl-L-cysteine (AEC and the acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors Exceed® and Synchrony® both at 150 μg/mL inhibited soybean somatic embryo growth. Even at the concentration of 2 mg/mL, lysine+threonine (LT were poor selection agents. The use of AEC may be preferable since it is a natural compound. Unlike the plant enzyme, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS from E. coli is not feed-back inhibited by physiological concentrations of lysine. The dapA gene which codes for E. coli DHPS was expressed in soybean somatic embryos under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Following introduction of the construct into embryogenic tissue of soybean, transgenic events were recovered by incubating the tissue in liquid medium containing AEC at a concentration of 5 mM. Only transgenic soybeans were able to grow at this concentration of AEC; no escapes were observed. Conclusion Genetically engineered soybeans expressing a lysine insensitive DHPS gene can be selected with the non-antibiotic selection agent AEC. We also report here the inhibitory effects of glufosinate, (isopropylamine-glyphosate (Roundup®, AEC and the ALS inhibitors Exceed® and Synchrony® against different tissues of soybean

  4. Exceptional phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Kenneth; Moltke Martiny, Kristian

    . Through exceptional cases we can gain a deeper understanding of the ordinary. This was already a guiding thread in Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological investigations, but this paper will take the idea further by grounding the methodology in ‘hands on’ research in elite sport (football) and pathological cases...

  5. Epizootiologic investigations of selected infectious disease agents in free-ranging Eurasian lynx from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Leutenegger, Christian M; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Mattsson, Roland; Lutz, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 106 Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from across Sweden, found dead or shot by hunters in 1993-99, were investigated for presence of antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophila, and for feline leukemia virus antigen. In addition, tissue samples from 22 lynx submitted in 1999 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect nucleic acids specific for viral agents and A. phagocytophila. Except for FPV antibodies in one lynx and A. phagocytophila in four lynx, all serology was negative. All PCR results also were negative. It was concluded that free-ranging Swedish lynx do not have frequent contact with the infectious agents considered in this study.

  6. Two luminescent Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks for exceptionally selective detection of picric acid explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Zi-Jian; Zheng, He-Gen

    2015-05-14

    Two luminescent Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks were prepared from a π-conjugated thiophene-containing carboxylic acid ligand. These two MOFs show strong luminescene and their luminescence could be quenched by a series of nitroaromatic explosives. Importantly, they exhibit very highly sensitive and selective detection of picric acid compared to other nitroaromatic explosives.

  7. Exceptional Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Starting from basic identities of the group E8, we perform progressive reductions, namely decompositions with respect to the maximal and symmetric embeddings of E7xSU(2) and then of E6xU(1). This procedure provides a systematic approach to the basic identities involving invariant primitive tensor structures of various irreprs. of finite-dimensional exceptional Lie groups. We derive novel identities for E7 and E6, highlighting the E8 origin of some well known ones. In order to elucidate the connections of this formalism to four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories based on symmetric scalar manifolds (and related to irreducible Euclidean Jordan algebras, the unique exception being the triality-symmetric N = 2 stu model), we then derive a fundamental identity involving the unique rank-4 symmetric invariant tensor of the 0-brane charge symplectic irrepr. of U-duality groups, with potential applications in the quantization of the charge orbits of supergravity theories, as well as in the study of mult...

  8. Lyme disease: a selective medium for isolation of the suspected etiological agent, a spirochete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S E; Klein, G C; Schmid, G P; Bowen, G S; Feeley, J C; Schulze, T

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure with a new selective culture medium for the isolation of the suspected etiological agent of Lyme disease from ticks is described. Live ticks (Ixodes dammini) were ground with a mortar and pestle, and the suspensions were inoculated into a selective and nonselective medium. The selective medium, which contained kanamycin and 5-fluorouracil, yielded positive spirochete cultures from 100% of the pooled ticks and from 79% of the single tick specimens. The isolation rate for the nonselective medium was 0% from the tick pools and 58% from the single tick specimens. PMID:6361065

  9. Selective Extraction of Zinc from Refractory Hemimorphite Using Iminodiacetic Acid as a Complexing Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuai; Zhang, Duchao; Yang, Tianzu; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Lin; Ling, Hongbin; Zhang, Xinwang

    2017-10-01

    An environmentally friendly process for the selective extraction of zinc from refractory hemimorphite using iminodiacetic acid (H2Ida) as a complexing agent was investigated. Thermodynamic simulations demonstrated that the partially dissociated protons and amino carboxylate anions synergistically affect the dissolution of hemimorphite. The experimental results were consistent with the theoretical analyses. Under optimal conditions, the leaching extraction of zinc was above 88% and that of iron was below 4%. Furthermore, the complexing agent could be recovered from the leaching solution at the isoelectric point by adding dilute sulfuric acid.

  10. Exceptional release kinetics and cytotoxic selectivity of oxidised MWCNTs double-functionalised with doxorubicin and prostate-homing peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Vedran; Krejcova, Ludmila; Guran, Roman; Buchtelova, Hana; Wawrzak, Dorota; Richtera, Lukas; Heger, Zbynek; Kopel, Pavel; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-08-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are among the frequently studied carbon materials, particularly because of their physical and chemical properties and high potential for application in materials chemistry, industry, and medicine. MWCNTs are very promising as transporters of bioactive molecules because of their π electrons and large surface area, which can be easily modified, mostly by the application of inorganic acids for the introduction of carboxylic moieties on the surface. In the present study, we designed an oxidised MWCNTs (oMWCNTs) transporter for the targeted delivery of doxorubicin (Dox). The modification of oMWCNTs with prostate-homing peptide (SMSIARL) promotes increased cytotoxicity for prostate cancer cells. Using advanced analytical techniques, we studied the loading efficiency, stability, and release kinetics of Dox from a oMWCNTs-Dox-Pep nanoconstruct. We show that pH strictly drives Dox release, and imitating the pH of intracellular acidic compartments, 60% of Dox is released from oMWCNTs-Dox-Pep, while in plasma conditions, only a 14% release of Dox was found during 24h. The nanoconstruct displayed no cytotoxicity in non-malignant prostate cells (PNT1A), while in metastatic prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), the cytotoxic effects were close to the cytotoxicity of free Dox. This indicates that peptide modification promotes interactions with malignant cells, resulting in efficient internalisation into the intracellular region. Overall, we show that oMWCNTs are exceptional platforms for simple and stable non-covalent modification with bioactive molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A new HIV prevention network approach: sociometric peer change agent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John A; Zhou, A Ning; Laumann, Edward O

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, the Peer Change Agent (PCA) model is the most frequently used conceptual framework for HIV prevention. Change agents themselves can be more important than the messages they convey. PCA selection is operationalized via heterogeneous methods based upon individual-level attributes. A sociometric position selection strategy, however, could increase peer influence potency and halt transmission at key network locations. In this study, we selected candidate PCAs based upon relative sociometric bridging and centrality scores and assessed their attributes in comparison to one another and to existing peer educators. We focused upon an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Southern India in 2011. PCAs selected based on their bridging score were more likely to be innovators when compared to other centrally-located PCAs, to PCAs located on the periphery, and to existing peer educators. We also found that sociodemographic attributes and risk behaviors were similar across all candidate PCAs, but risk behaviors of existing peer educators differed. Existing peer educators were more likely to engage in higher risk behavior such as receiving money for sex when compared to sociometrically selected peer changes agents. These existing peer educators were also more likely to exhibit leadership qualities within the overall network; they were, however, just as likely as other non-trained candidate peer change agents to report important HIV intravention behavior (encouraging condoms within their network). The importance of identifying bridges who may be able to diffuse innovation more effectively within high risk HIV networks is especially critical given recent efficacy data from novel HIV prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. Moreover, while existing peer educators were more likely to be leaders in our analysis, using peer educators with high risk behavior may have limited utility in enacting behavior change among sex worker peers or

  12. A New HIV Prevention Network Approach: Sociometric Peer Change Agent Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John A.; Zhou, A. Ning; Laumann, Edward O.

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, the Peer Change Agent (PCA) model is the most frequently used conceptual framework for HIV prevention. Change agents themselves can be more important than the messages they convey. PCA selection is operationalized via heterogeneous methods based upon individual-level attributes. A sociometric position selection strategy, however, could increase peer influence potency and halt transmission at key network locations. In this study, we selected candidate PCAs based upon relative sociometric bridging and centrality scores and assessed their attributes in comparison to one another and to existing peer educators. We focused upon an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Southern India in 2011. PCAs selected based on their bridging score were more likely to be innovators when compared to other centrally-located PCAs, to PCAs located on the periphery, and to existing peer educators. We also found that sociodemographic attributes and risk behaviors were similar across all candidate PCAs, but risk behaviors of existing peer educators differed. Existing peer educators were more likely to engage in higher risk behavior such as receiving money for sex when compared to sociometrically selected peer changes agents. These existing peer educators were also more likely to exhibit leadership qualities within the overall network; they were, however, just as likely as other non-trained candidate peer change agents to report important HIV intravention behavior (encouraging condoms within their network). The importance of identifying bridges who may be able to diffuse innovation more effectively within high risk HIV networks is especially critical given recent efficacy data from novel HIV prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. Moreover, while existing peer educators were more likely to be leaders in our analysis, using peer educators with high risk behavior may have limited utility in enacting behavior change among sex worker peers or

  13. Detection of decontamination solution chelating agents using ion selective coated-wire electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Mark Lavior [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This thesis explores feasibility of using coated-wire electrodes to measure chelating agent concentration. Chelating agents are often found in radioactive decontamination solutions because they aid in the removal of radionuclides from contaminated surfaces by increasing their solubility. However, this characteristic will also enhance the mobility of the radionuclide and thus its transport out of a waste disposal site. Coated-wire ion selective electrodes, based on a polyvinylchloride membrane using dioctylphthalate as a plasticizer and dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid as a counterion, were constructed for five commonly utilized chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric add). The EDTA and NTA electrodes` calibration characteristics exhibited acceptable behavior in pure standard solutions. From data obtained while using the EDTA and NTA electrodes in a cement environment, further research needs to be done in the area of ion interference.

  14. Structurally Analogous Degradable Version of Fluorene-Bipyridine Copolymer with Exceptional Selectivity for Large-Diameter Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanimozhi, Catherine; Brady, Gerald J; Shea, Matthew J; Huang, Peishen; Joo, Yongho; Arnold, Michael S; Gopalan, Padma

    2017-11-22

    Separation of electronically pure, narrowly dispersed, pristine, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from a heterogeneous as-synthesized mixture is essential for various semiconducting technologies and biomedical applications. Although conjugated polymer wrappers are often utilized to facilitate electronic-type sorting, it is highly desirable to remove organic residues from the resulting devices. We report here the design and synthesis of a mild acid-degradable π-conjugated polyimine polymer, poly[(9,9-di-n-octyl-2,7-fluoren-dinitrilomethine)-alt-co-(6,6'-{2,2'-bipyridyl-dimethine})] (PFO-N-BPy), that is structurally analogous to the commonly used and commercially available poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(6,6'-(2,2'-bipyridine))] (PFO-BPy). An acid cleavable imine link (-HC═N-) was introduced in the PFO-N-BPy backbone to impart degradability, which is absent in PFO-BPy. PFO-N-BPy was synthesized via a metal catalyst-free aza-Wittig reaction in high yields. PFO-N-BPy with a degree of polymerization of just ∼10 showed excellent (>99% electronic purity) selectivity for both large-diameter (1.3-1.7 nm) arc-discharge semiconducting CNTs (S-CNTs) and smaller diameter (0.8-1.2 nm) high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionation reaction S-CNTs. Overall, the selectivity for the semiconducting species is similar to that of PFO-BPy but with an advantage of complete depolymerization under mild acidic conditions into recyclable monomers. We further show by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy that the PFO-N-BPy-wrapped S-CNTs can be aligned into a monolayer array on gate dielectrics using a floating evaporative self-assembly process from which the polymer can be completely removed. Short channel field effect transistors were fabricated from the polymer-stripped aligned S-CNT arrays, which further confirmed the semiconducting purity on the order of 99.9% or higher.

  15. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  16. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lee, Po-Heng, E-mail: poheng76@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic approach to select a functional agent for adsorbent is proposed. • ITC and QCS were used to interpret the interaction between adsorbate and agent. • The interaction identifies the adsorption mechanism and performance. • This approach enables the manipulation of adsorption capacity optimization. - Abstract: This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C{sub 14}TAB and C{sub 14}HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  17. Enhancement of selective separation on molecularly imprinted monolith by molecular crowding agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Hua; Dong, Qian; Ying, Ling-Ling; Chi, Shuai-Shuai; Lan, Yao-Han; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new molecularly imprinted polymer chiral stationary phase (MIP-CSP) was prepared utilizing molecular crowding agent for improvement the selective separation ability. S-amlodipine (S-AML), methacrylic acid (MAA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were selected as template, functional monomer, cross-linker, and molecular crowding agent, respectively. The composition of formulas for MIP-CSP was optimized, and the permeability and structural feature of resultant MIP-CSP were characterized. The effect of mobile-phase composition, including ionic strength, pH, and organic modifier content, was investigated for achieving the selective separation of rac-amlodipine (rac-AML) on MIP-CSP. The baseline separation of rac-AML was achieved with resolution of 1.58, whereas no selective separation was observed on the imprinted monolith without molecular crowding agent. The perturbation chromatography method was successfully applied to evaluate the recognition mechanism of templates on MIP-CSP. The retention time of S-AML detected in typical analytical conditions was obviously greater than the time of negative peak derived from perturbation, which indicated the retention of template may be due to the imprinted cavities on MIP-CSP. Additionally, the result of Van't Hoff analysis indicated that the chiral separation of rac-AML on MIP-CSP was an entropy-driven process, which supported the molecular imprinting theory. These results reveal that molecular crowding is a potential strategy for preparation of MIP-CSP with excellent selective separation ability. Graphical Abstract Improvement of chiral separation on molecularly imprinted monolith by molecular crowding condition.

  18. A hybrid agent-based computational economics and optimization approach for supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pourabdollahi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplier evaluation and selection problem is among the most important of logistics decisions that have been addressed extensively in supply chain management. The same logistics decision is also important in freight transportation since it identifies trade relationships between business establishments and determines commodity flows between production and consumption points. The commodity flows are then used as input to freight transportation models to determine cargo movements and their characteristics including mode choice and shipment size. Various approaches have been proposed to explore this latter problem in previous studies. Traditionally, potential suppliers are evaluated and selected using only price/cost as the influential criteria and the state-of-practice methods. This paper introduces a hybrid agent-based computational economics and optimization approach for supplier selection. The proposed model combines an agent-based multi-criteria supplier evaluation approach with a multi-objective optimization model to capture both behavioral and economical aspects of the supplier selection process. The model uses a system of ordered response models to determine importance weights of the different criteria in supplier evaluation from a buyers’ point of view. The estimated weights are then used to calculate a utility for each potential supplier in the market and rank them. The calculated utilities are then entered into a mathematical programming model in which best suppliers are selected by maximizing the total accrued utility for all buyers and minimizing total shipping costs while balancing the capacity of potential suppliers to ensure market clearing mechanisms. The proposed model, herein, was implemented under an operational agent-based supply chain and freight transportation framework for the Chicago Metropolitan Area.

  19. Insonation frequency selection may assist detection and therapeutic delivery of targeted ultrasound contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Edward; Ooi, Andrew; Manasseh, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Ultrasound-targeted drug delivery relies on the unique nature of ultrasound contrast agents--they are microbubbles that respond strongly to ultrasound. Intravenously injected microbubbles are smaller than a blood cell. By increasing the ultrasound power, the bubbles can be ruptured at the targeted endothelial wall, locally releasing any molecules in the bubble shell. Furthermore, ultrasound-activated microbubbles are known to cause sonoporation--the process by which ultrasound drives molecules through cellular membranes. However, techniques are required to selectively detect and rupture only those microbubbles on target walls. Experiments are presented on the behaviour of microbubbles on walls. For accuracy, imaging measurements are made on model microbubbles larger than contrast agents. Bubble size was varied and the resonant frequency peak determined. Microbubbles on walls have a shifted frequency in good agreement with theory: a 20-25% downshift from the frequency when far from walls. Effects other than the presence of the wall account for less than 5% of the shift. Theory predicts the frequency downshift should be sustained for actual contrast-agent sized bubbles. The effect of real, compliant cell walls requires investigation. An appropriate downshift in the applied ultrasound frequency could selectively tune gene or drug delivery. To make this feasible, it may be necessary to manufacture monodispersed microbubbles.

  20. Targeting ferritin receptors for the selective delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents to breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geninatti Crich, S.; Cadenazzi, M.; Lanzardo, S.; Conti, L.; Ruiu, R.; Alberti, D.; Cavallo, F.; Cutrin, J. C.; Aime, S.

    2015-04-01

    In this work the selective uptake of native horse spleen ferritin and apoferritin loaded with MRI contrast agents has been assessed in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The higher expression of L-ferritin receptors (SCARA5) led to an enhanced uptake in MCF-7 as shown in T2 and T1 weighted MR images, respectively. The high efficiency of ferritin internalization in MCF-7 has been exploited for the simultaneous delivery of curcumin, a natural therapeutic molecule endowed with antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory action, and the MRI contrast agent Gd-HPDO3A. This theranostic system is able to treat selectively breast cancer cells over-expressing ferritin receptors. By entrapping in apoferritin both Gd-HPDO3A and curcumin, it was possible to deliver a therapeutic dose of 167 μg ml-1 (as calculated by MRI) of this natural drug to MCF-7 cells, thus obtaining a significant reduction of cell proliferation.In this work the selective uptake of native horse spleen ferritin and apoferritin loaded with MRI contrast agents has been assessed in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The higher expression of L-ferritin receptors (SCARA5) led to an enhanced uptake in MCF-7 as shown in T2 and T1 weighted MR images, respectively. The high efficiency of ferritin internalization in MCF-7 has been exploited for the simultaneous delivery of curcumin, a natural therapeutic molecule endowed with antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory action, and the MRI contrast agent Gd-HPDO3A. This theranostic system is able to treat selectively breast cancer cells over-expressing ferritin receptors. By entrapping in apoferritin both Gd-HPDO3A and curcumin, it was possible to deliver a therapeutic dose of 167 μg ml-1 (as calculated by MRI) of this natural drug to MCF-7 cells, thus obtaining a significant reduction of cell proliferation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Competition studies with free apoferritin, Fig. S1; APO-FITC intracellular distribution by

  1. Non-degradable contrast agent with selective phagocytosis for cellular and hepatic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei-Yan [Nanchang University, College of Chemistry (China); Gu, Zhe-Jia [Nanchang University, Institute for Advanced Study (China); Zhao, Dawen [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Tang, Qun, E-mail: tangqun@ncu.edu.cn [Nanchang University, Institute for Advanced Study (China)

    2015-09-15

    Degradation is the long-existing toxic issue of metal-containing inorganic medicine. In this paper, we fully investigated the degradation of dextran-coated KMnF{sub 3} nanocube in the in vitro and in vivo surroundings. Different from the general decomposing and ion releasing events, this special agent is resistant to acidic environment, as well as ion exchange. Non-degradability was proved by simulated and real cellular experiments. Moreover, it can be engulfed in the macrophage cells and kept stable in the lysosome. Due to its stability and highly selective phagocytosis, implanted liver cancer can be clearly visualized after administration.

  2. Non-degradable contrast agent with selective phagocytosis for cellular and hepatic magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Yan; Gu, Zhe-Jia; Zhao, Dawen; Tang, Qun

    2015-09-01

    Degradation is the long-existing toxic issue of metal-containing inorganic medicine. In this paper, we fully investigated the degradation of dextran-coated KMnF3 nanocube in the in vitro and in vivo surroundings. Different from the general decomposing and ion releasing events, this special agent is resistant to acidic environment, as well as ion exchange. Non-degradability was proved by simulated and real cellular experiments. Moreover, it can be engulfed in the macrophage cells and kept stable in the lysosome. Due to its stability and highly selective phagocytosis, implanted liver cancer can be clearly visualized after administration.

  3. Bisindeno-annulated pentacenes with exceptionally high photo-stability and ordered molecular packing: Simple synthesis by a regio-selective Scholl reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Naibi Lakshminarayana, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Bisindeno-annulated pentacenes 3a and 3b were synthesized by a simple regio-selective, FeCl3-mediated Scholl reaction from the corresponding 6,13-diaryl pentacene precursors. The fusion of two indeno-units dramatically changes the electronic properties and chemical reactivity of pentacene and the obtained compounds exhibited exceptionally high photo-stability in the solution, with a half-life time of 11.2 (3a) and 32.0 (3b) days under ambient light and air conditions. Ordered molecular packing with a small π-π stacking distance was observed in the single crystals of 3a and 3b. Our research provides a promising strategy to access stable higher order acenes with controlled molecular order. This journal is

  4. Small molecules as therapy for uveitis: a selected perspective of new and developing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Uwe; Algharably, Engi Abdel-Hady; Feist, Eugen; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2017-09-01

    Intraocular inflammation (uveitis) remains a significant burden of legal blindness. Because of its immune mediated and chronic recurrent nature, common therapy includes corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and more recently biologics as immune modulatory agents. The purpose of this article is to identify the role of new treatment approaches focusing on small molecules as therapeutic option in uveitis. Areas covered: A MEDLINE database search was conducted through February 2017 using the terms 'uveitis' and 'small molecule'. To provide ongoing and future perspectives in treatment options, also clinical trials as registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were included. Both, results from experimental as well as clinical research in this field were included. Since this field is rapidly evolving, a selection of promising agents had to be made. Expert opinion: Small molecules may interfere at different steps of the inflammatory cascade and appear as an interesting option in the treatment algorithm of uveitis. Because of their highly targeted molecular effects and their favorable bioavailability with the potential of topical application small molecules hold great promise. Nevertheless, a careful evaluation of these agents has to be made, since current experience is almost exclusively based on experimental uveitis models and few registered trials.

  5. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium dithionite as a selective demasking agent for the complexometric determination of thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAKASH SHETTY

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium dithionite is proposed as a new demasking agent for the rapid and selective complexometric determination of thallium(III. In the presence of diverse metal ions, thallium (III was first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTAwas then titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer using Xylenol Orange as the indicator. The EDTAequivalent to thallium was then released selectively with sodium dithionite and back titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results were obtained in the range 4–100 mg of thallium with a relative error of ±27 % and a coefficient of variation (n = 6 of not more than 0.30 %. The effects of various diverse ions were studied. The method was applied to the determination of thallium in its complexes and in alloys.

  7. Review of Restricted Experiment Requests, Division of Select Agents and Toxins, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacinta; Gangadharan, Denise; Weyant, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division of Select Agents and Toxins (DSAT) regulates laboratories that possess, use, or transfer select agents and toxins in the United States. DSAT also mitigates biosafety risks through the review of "restricted experiments," which under the select agent regulations are experiments that pose heightened biosafety risks. From January 2006 through December 2013, DSAT received 618 requests from 109 entities to perform potentially restricted experiments. Of these requests, 85% were determined not to meet the regulatory definition of a restricted experiment, while 15% of the requests met the definition of a restricted experiment. Of the 91 restricted experiments proposed, DSAT approved 31 (34%) requests because the biosafety conditions proposed were commensurate with the experiments' biosafety risk. All 31 approved restricted experiments were for work with select toxins. DSAT did not approve 60 restricted experiment requests due to potentially serious biosafety risks to public health and safety. All 60 denied restricted experiments proposed inserting drug resistance traits into select agents that could compromise the control of disease. The select agents and toxins associated most frequently with requests that met the regulatory definition of a restricted experiment are Shiga toxin (n = 16), Burkholderia mallei (n = 15), Botulinum neurotoxin (n = 14), and Brucella abortus (n = 14). In general, all restricted experiment decisions are determined on a case-by-case basis. This article describes the trends and characteristics of the data associated with restricted experiment requests among select agents that have an impact on public health and safety (HHS only agents) or both public health and safety and animal health or products (overlap agents). The information presented here, coupled with the information published in the restricted experiment guidance document ( www.selectagents.gov ), is intended to promote awareness

  8. Unique presynaptic alpha 2-receptor selectivity and specificity of the antihypertensive agent moxonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, B I

    1988-10-01

    The characteristics of the alpha-receptor activating property of the new antihypertensive agent moxonidine (4-chloro-N-(4, 5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinamine, BDF 5895) was studied using peripheral vasculature and brain membranes of various animals. Moxonidine exerted a full agonist effect in elevating diastolic blood pressure in the pithed rat. Activation of postsynaptic alpha 1- and alpha 2-receptors contribute to the vasoconstrictory effect in rats. In the vasculature of the rabbit, moxonidine was a full agonist at presynaptic alpha 2-receptors in inhibiting transmitter release induced by electrical stimulation of pulmonary artery strips. At postsynaptic sites, exogenously applied moxonidine was a full agonist at alpha 1-receptors in the isolated aorta, pulmonary artery and vena cava of the rabbit. Selectivity for alpha 2-receptors in the pulmonary artery was 106-fold. In rat brain membranes, moxonidine showed 288-fold greater selectivity for alpha 2-receptors, when the displacement of [3H]-rauwolscine was compared with the displacement of [3H]-prazosin. On the whole, clonidine exhibited greater potency than moxonidine on both alpha-receptor subtypes, but moxonidine consistently showed greater alpha 2-receptor selectivity than clonidine. In the guinea pig myocardium, moxonidine caused neither bradycardia nor tachycardia in the isolated right atrium and produced a negligible positive inotropic effect at 100 mumol/l in the isolated papillary muscle.

  9. Selection of nutrient used in biogenic healing agent for cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziviloglou, Eirini; Wiktor, Virginie; Jonkers, Henk M.; Schlangen, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Biogenic self-healing cementitious materials target on the closure of micro-cracks with precipitated inorganic minerals originating from bacterial metabolic activity. Dormant bacterial spores and organic mineral compounds often constitute a biogenic healing agent. The current paper focuses on the investigation of the most appropriate organic carbon source to be used as component of a biogenic healing agent. It is of great importance to use an appropriate organic source, since it will firstly ensure an optimal bacterial performance in terms of metabolic activity, while it should secondly affect the least the properties of the cementitious matrix. The selection is made among three different organic compounds, namely calcium lactate, calcium acetate and sodium gluconate. The methodology that was used for the research was based on continuous and non-continuous oxygen consumption measurements of washed bacterial cultures and on compressive strength tests on mortar cubes. The oxygen consumption investigation revealed a preference for calcium lactate and acetate, but an indifferent behaviour for sodium gluconate. The compressive strength on mortar cubes with different amounts of either calcium lactate or acetate (up to 2.24% per cement weight) was not or it was positively affected when the compounds were dissolved in the mixing water. In fact, for calcium lactate the increase in compressive strength reached 8%, while for calcium acetate the maximum strength increase was 13.4%.

  10. Metabolic Discrimination of Select List Agents by Monitoring Cellular Responses in a Multianalyte Microphysiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wikswo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP that is capable of simultaneously measuring flux changes in four extracellular analytes (acidification rate, glucose uptake, oxygen uptake, and lactate production in real-time. Differential short-term cellular responses were observed between botulinum neurotoxin A and ricin toxin with neuroblastoma cells, alamethicin and anthrax protective antigen with RAW macrophages, and cholera toxin, muscarine, 2,4-dinitro-phenol, and NaF with CHO cells. These results and the post exposure dynamics and metabolic recovery observed in each case suggest the usefulness of cell-based detectors to discriminate between specific analytes and classes of compounds in a complex matrix, and furthermore to make metabolic inferences on the cellular effects of the agents. This may be particularly valuable for classifying unknown toxins.

  11. Selection of Nutrient Used in Biogenic Healing Agent for Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Tziviloglou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic self-healing cementitious materials target on the closure of micro-cracks with precipitated inorganic minerals originating from bacterial metabolic activity. Dormant bacterial spores and organic mineral compounds often constitute a biogenic healing agent. The current paper focuses on the investigation of the most appropriate organic carbon source to be used as component of a biogenic healing agent. It is of great importance to use an appropriate organic source, since it will first ensure an optimal bacterial performance in terms of metabolic activity, while it should, second, affect the least the properties of the cementitious matrix. The selection is made among three different organic compounds, namely calcium lactate (CaL, calcium acetate (CaA, and sodium gluconate (NaG. The methodology that was used for the research was based on continuous and non-continuous oxygen consumption measurements of washed bacterial cultures and on compressive strength tests on mortar cubes. The oxygen consumption investigation revealed a preference for CaL and CaA, but an indifferent behavior for NaG. The compressive strength on mortar cubes with different amounts of either CaL or CaA (up to 2.24% per cement weight was not or it was positively affected when the compounds were dissolved in the mixing water. In fact, for CaL, the increase in compressive strength reached 8%, while for CaA, the maximum strength increase was 13.4%.

  12. Preclinical evaluation of illudins as anticancer agents: basis for selective cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, M J; McMorris, T C; Taetle, R

    1990-10-03

    Illudins are potent natural products derived from Omphalotus illudens and related fungi. The chemical structure of illudins differs from that of other conventional chemotherapeutic agents. While illudins are toxic to most tumor cells after prolonged exposure (greater than or equal to 48 hr), with shorter exposure times (less than or equal to 2 hr), they show selective toxicity for human myelocytic leukemia and epidermoid, lung, ovarian, and breast carcinoma cells of various species of origin. The apparent histologic specificity of illudin S toxicity is based on an energy-dependent transport mechanism present in sensitive cells, but absent in cells relatively resistant to illudin S. For human myeloid leukemia HL60 cells, the Michaelis constant was 4.2 microM and the maximum velocity was 12.2 pmol/minute per 10 million cells or 730 pmol/hour per 10 million cells. The energy-dependent transport mechanism was detected in other mammalian tumor cells.

  13. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram.

  14. Testing of selected pharmacological agents for capturing waterfowl [Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, D.R.

    1970-01-01

    The response of game-farm mallards (Frost strain) to seven pharmacological immobilizing agents was evaluated in Phase I of a planned four-phase study. A limited amount of testing was also done with wild mallards. Single dosages were administered to determine the mean effective dose (ED50) and mean lethal dose (LD50), The therapeutic index, or safety factor (LD50/ED50), and palatability were also established. Optimum dosage rates of compounds administered orally on baits were not considered in this phase of the study. Compounds were-administered by intubation and calculated in terms of mg/kg. All except one compound produced narcosis within 5 minutes at the effective dose rate.Immobilization periods for the seven compounds ranged from 7-24 minutes, and recovery periods from 1.0-6.5 hours. Such wide variations in actions of the compounds can be attributed to a compound's rate of absorption, the ease with which it passes the blood-brain barrier, its solubility in tissues, and its rate of metabolism in the liver and kidneys. Length of both the immobilization and recovery periods were extended when dosages were increased. There was no delayed mortality among survivors with any of the seven compounds at either the ED50 or LD50. Females were generally more sensitive to the anesthetizing agents than males. The ED50 for wild mallards was substantially higher than that for the experimental game-farm birds for the two compounds on which this was tested.Tribromoethanol (Avertin of Winthrop Laboratories) satisfied all test criteria an Phase I and will be subjected to more intensive investigation in ensuing tests. Thiopental sodium (Pentothal of Amdal Company) and pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal of Abbott Laboratories) were judged to be marginal. Although their therapeutic indexes were good (5.00), recovery periods were prolonged and toxic convulsions occurred at medium to high dose rates as the LD50 was approached.Alpha-chloralose (Fisher Scientific) proved least promising of

  15. A Multi-Mitochondrial Anticancer Agent that Selectively Kills Cancer Cells and Overcomes Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yong Bo; Zhao, Zi Long; Liu, Teng; Xie, Guo Jian; Jin, Cheng; Deng, Tang Gang; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiong; Hu, Xiao Xiao; Zhang, Xiao Bing; Ye, Mao; Tan, Wei Hong

    2017-02-03

    Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles involved mainly in supplying cellular energy, but also play roles in signaling, cell differentiation, and cell death. Mitochondria are implicated in carcinogenesis, and therefore dozens of lethal signal transduction pathways converge on these organelles. Accordingly, mitochondria provide an alternative target for cancer management. In this study, F16, a drug that targets mitochondria, and chlorambucil (CBL), which is indicated for the treatment of selected human neoplastic diseases, were covalently linked, resulting in the synthesis of a multi-mitochondrial anticancer agent, FCBL. FCBL can associate with human serum albumin (HSA) to form an HSA-FCBL nanodrug, which selectively recognizes cancer cells, but not normal cells. Systematic investigations show that FCBL partially accumulates in cancer cell mitochondria to depolarize mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), and attack mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). With this synergistic effect on multiple mitochondrial components, the nanodrug can effectively kill cancer cells and overcome multiple drug resistance. Furthermore, based on its therapeutic window, HSA-FCBL exhibits clinically significant differential cytotoxicity between normal and malignant cells. Finally, while drug dosage and drug resistance typically limit first-line mono-chemotherapy, HSA-FCBL, with its ability to compromise mitochondrial membrane integrity and damage mtDNA, is expected to overcome those limitations to become an ideal candidate for the treatment of neoplastic disease. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Selection and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based on antagonistic effect on R. solanacearum or ability to suppress R. solanacearum population in dual culture assays obtained BC4 and BL10 isolates as promising biocontrol agents. At six weeks after transplanting, plants treated with BC4 isolate showed significantly lower disease incidence (33% than that of control (83%. Plants height was not significantly affected by endophytic bacterial treatments. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, BC4 isolate had 97% similarity with Staphylococcus epidermidis (accession number EU834240.1, while isolate BL10 had 98% similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain JK-SD002 (accession number AB547229.1.

  17. Trust Level and Routing Selection for Mobile Agents in a Smart Home (Extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasution, S.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana, N.; Azman, N.; Shahib, S.

    The central security concern for systems where agents roam is how to establish trust in the agent. We present a Fuzzy Logic mechanism to calculate a level of trust and an optimal route for a mobile agent system in a smart home. The mechanism consists of two parts. The first part calculates a trust

  18. Trust Level and Routing Selection for Mobile Agents in a Smart Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasution, Sandy; Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana, Nanna; Azman, Nur; Shahib, Shahrin

    The central security concern for systems where agents roam is how to establish trust in the agent. We present a Fuzzy Logic mechanism to calculate a level of trust and an optimal route for a mobile agent system in a smart home. The mechanism consists of two parts. The first part calculates a trust

  19. An allelic exchange system for compliant genetic manipulation of the select agents Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mohamad A; Zajdowicz, Sheryl L; Holmes, Randall K; Voskuil, Martin I

    2009-02-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that cause melioidosis in humans and glanders in horses, respectively. Both bacteria are classified as category B select agents in the United States. Due to strict select-agent regulations, the number of antibiotic selection markers approved for use in these bacteria is greatly limited. Approved markers for B. pseudomallei include genes encoding resistance to kanamycin (Km), gentamicin (Gm), and zeocin (Zeo); however, wild type B. pseudomallei is intrinsically resistant to these antibiotics. Selection markers for B. mallei are limited to Km and Zeo resistance genes. Additionally, there are few well developed counter-selection markers for use in Burkholderia. The use of SacB as a counter-selection method has been of limited success due to the presence of endogenous sacBC genes in the genomes of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. These impediments have greatly hampered the genetic manipulation of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and currently few reliable tools for the genetic manipulation of Burkholderia exist. To expand the repertoire of genetic tools for use in Burkholderia, we developed the suicide plasmid pMo130, which allows for the compliant genetic manipulation of the select agents B. pseudomallei and B. mallei using allelic exchange. pMo130 harbors an aphA gene which allows for Km selection, the reporter gene xylE, which allows for reliable visual detection of Burkholderia transformants, and carries a modified sacB gene that allows for the resolution of co-integrants. We employed this system to generate multiple unmarked and in-frame mutants in B. pseudomallei, and one mutant in B. mallei. This vector significantly expands the number of available tools that are select-agent compliant for the genetic manipulation of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei.

  20. Tuning Mobility Separation Factors of Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation Products via Selective Ion-Neutral Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwantwi-Barima, Pearl; Ouyang, Hui; Hogan, Christopher J; Clowers, Brian H

    2017-11-21

    Combining experimental data with computational modeling, we illustrate the capacity of selective gas-phase interactions using neutral gas vapors to yield an additional dimension of gas-phase ion mobility separation. Not only are the mobility shifts as a function of neutral gas vapor concentration reproducible, but also the selective alteration of mobility separation factors is closely linked to existing chemical functional groups. Such information may prove advantageous in elucidating chemical class and resolving interferences. Using a set of chemical warfare agent simulants with nominally the same reduced mobility values as a test case, we illustrate the ability of the drift-gas doping approach to achieve separation of these analytes. In nitrogen, protonated forms of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) and methyl phosphonic acid (MPA) exhibit the reduced mobility values of 1.99 ± 0.01 cm2 V-1s-1 at 175 °C. However, when the counter current drift gas of the system is doped with 2-propanol at 20 μL/h, full baseline resolution of the two species is possible. By varying the concentration of the neutral modifier, the separation factor of the respective clusters can be adjusted. For the two species examined and at a 2-propanol flow rate of 160 μL/h, MPA demonstrated the greatest shift in mobility (1.58 cm2V-1s-1) compared the DMMP monomer (1.63 cm2V-1s-1). Meanwhile, the DMMP dimer experienced no change in mobility (1.45 cm2V-1s-1). The enhancement of separation factors appears to be brought about by the differential clustering of neutral modifiers onto different ions and can be explained by a model which considers the transient binding of a single 2-propanol molecule during mobility measurements. Furthermore, the application of the binding models not only provides a thermodynamic foundation for the results obtained but also creates a predictive tool toward a quantitative approach.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies against selected zoonotic agents in forestry workers from eastern and southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Prevalence of antibodies against selected zoonotic agents in forestry workers from eastern and southern Poland. introduction and objective. Due to the nature of their work, foresters are exposed to many infectious pathogens from the wildlife reservoir. The primary aim of this study was to assess their contact with these pathogens. [b]material and methods.[/b] Sera and antibodies, mainly of IgG class against selected infectious factors, collected from a group of 216 employees of National Forests from eastern and southern Poland, were investigated. [b]results[/b]. Antibodies to [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] were detected in 64 sera (29.6%, to [i]Bartonella spp[/i]. in 133 sera (61.6%, to [i]Babesia microti[/i] in 50 sera (23.1%, and to[i] Coxiella burnetii[/i] in 14 sera (6.4%; 7 sera (3.2% were positive to [i]Francisella tularensis[/i]. In studies of diseases not carried by ticks positive results were found in 28 sera (12.9% to [i]Toxocara canis[/i], 13 sera (6.0 % to [i]Trichinella spiralis[/i], and in 7 sera (3.2% to [i]Echinococcus granulosus[/i]. Antibodies to Hanta viruses were detected with antigens from Puumala and Dobrava/Hantaan strains in both IgM and IgG class. In 9 foresters, positive results were found, including one positive result to 2 antigens, 5 to Dobrava/Hantaan antigen and 3 to Puumala antigen. [b]conclusion[/b]. Frequently higher percentages of positive results were found in people working utdoors, and in men when compared with women.

  2. Characterization of Novel Trichoderma asperellum Isolates to Select Effective Biocontrol Agents Against Tomato Fusarium Wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud H. El_Komy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of novel isolates of Trichoderma with efficient antagonistic capacity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL is a promising alternative strategy to pesticides for tomato wilt management. We evaluated the antagonistic activity of 30 isolates of T. asperellum against 4 different isolates of FOL. The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of the antagonistic isolates was also measured. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD method was applied to assess the genetic variability among the T. asperellum isolates. All of the T. asperellum isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of FOL isolates but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a correlation between the antagonistic capacity of T. asperellum isolates towards FOL and their lytic enzyme production. Isolates showing high levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities strongly inhibited the growth of FOL isolates. RAPD analysis showed a high level of genetic variation among T. asperellum isolates. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that T. asperellum isolates could not be grouped by their anta- gonistic behavior or lytic enzymes production. Six isolates of T. asperellum were highly antagonistic towards FOL and potentially could be used in commercial agriculture to control tomato wilt. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that understanding the genetic variation within Trichoderma isolates and their biochemical capabilities are required for the selection of effective indigenous fungal strains for the use as biocontrol agents.

  3. Utilization of antimicrobial agents with and without prescription by out-patients in selected pharmacies in South-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esimone, Charles Okey; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Udeogaranya, Obinna Patrick

    2007-12-01

    We conducted a study in out-patient pharmacies in South-eastern Nigeria in order to determine the extent of self-medication of antimicrobial agents in this area, assess the dosing error associated with this practice and to ascertain the extent of involvement of community pharmacies. A survey was carried out daily in selected community pharmacies for a period of 90 days. Data were collected on the number of patients visiting these shops for antimicrobial agents, the number getting their medication with a prescription, the number getting their order without prescription and on the type and dose of antimicrobial agents received. MAIN OUT-COME MEASURE: The percentage of patients with prescription and without prescription was compared. The percentage under-dosages or over-dosages associated with how each antimicrobial agent was obtained were compared. The total DDDs of antimicrobial agents dispensed within this period with and without prescription were compared. A total of 4,128 outpatients visited the shops for antimicrobial agents within the period and were involved in the study. Of this number, 1,742 (42.2%) came with a prescription from qualified medical personnel and 2,386 (57.8%) came without a prescription. A total of 13,693.13 DDDs of antimicrobial agents was dispensed, of which 56.38% was dispensed with prescription and 43.62% was dispensed without prescription. The degrees of under-dosing were significantly (P prescription when compared to those filled with prescription. Majority of the patients in this region still obtains their antimicrobial agents without a proper prescription, which is associated with sub-therapeutic dosing of these agents. There is a need for better regulation of antimicrobial agents dispensing and utilization in the region.

  4. Exceptionality in vowel harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeredi, Daniel

    Vowel harmony has been of great interest in phonological research. It has been widely accepted that vowel harmony is a phonetically natural phenomenon, which means that it is a common pattern because it provides advantages to the speaker in articulation and to the listener in perception. Exceptional patterns proved to be a challenge to the phonetically grounded analysis as they, by their nature, introduce phonetically disadvantageous sequences to the surface form, that consist of harmonically different vowels. Such forms are found, for example in the Finnish stem tuoli 'chair' or in the Hungarian suffixed form hi:d-hoz 'to the bridge', both word forms containing a mix of front and back vowels. There has recently been evidence shown that there might be a phonetic level explanation for some exceptional patterns, as the possibility that some vowels participating in irregular stems (like the vowel [i] in the Hungarian stem hi:d 'bridge' above) differ in some small phonetic detail from vowels in regular stems. The main question has not been raised, though: does this phonetic detail matter for speakers? Would they use these minor differences when they have to categorize a new word as regular or irregular? A different recent trend in explaining morphophonological exceptionality by looking at the phonotactic regularities characteristic of classes of stems based on their morphological behavior. Studies have shown that speakers are aware of these regularities, and use them as cues when they have to decide what class a novel stem belongs to. These sublexical phonotactic regularities have already been shown to be present in some exceptional patterns vowel harmony, but many questions remain open: how is learning the static generalization linked to learning the allomorph selection facet of vowel harmony? How much does the effect of consonants on vowel harmony matter, when compared to the effect of vowel-to-vowel correspondences? This dissertation aims to test these two ideas

  5. Influence of Polylactide Modification with Blowing Agents on Selected Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Tor-Świątek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents research of modification of PLA with four types of chemical blowing agents with a different decomposition characteristic. The modification was done both cellular extrusion and injection molding processes. Obtained results shows that dosing blowing agents have the influence on mechanical properties and structure morphology of PLA. The differences in obtained results are also visible and significant between cellular processes.

  6. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these…

  7. Selected anionic and cationic surface active agents: case study on the Kłodnica sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkowska Ewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface active agents (surfactants are a group of chemical compounds, which are used as ingredients of detergents, cleaning products, cosmetics and functional products. After use, wastes containing surfactants or their degradation products are discharged to wastewater treatment plants or directly into surface waters. Due to their specific properties of SAAs, compounds are able to migrate between different environmental compartments such as soil, sediment, water or even living organisms and accumulate there. Surfactants can have a harmful effect on living organisms. They can connect with bioactive molecules and modify their function. Additionally, they have the ability to migrate into cells and cause their damage or death. For these reasons investigation of individual surfactants should be conducted. The presented research has been undertaken to obtain information about SAA contamination of sediment from the River Kłodnica catchment caused by selected anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS C10-C13 and cationic (alkylbenzyldimethylammonium (BDMA-C12-16, alkyl trimethyl ammonium (DTMA, hexadecyl piridinium chloride (HP chlorides surfactants. This river flows through an area of the Upper Silesia Industrial Region where various companies and other institutions (e.g. coal mining, power plants, metallurgy, hospitals are located. To determine their concentration the following analytical tools have been applied: accelerated solvent extraction– solid phase extraction – high performance liquid chromatography – UV-Vis (anionic SAAs and conductivity (cationic SAAs detectors. In all sediments anionic SAAs have been detected. The concentrations of HTMA and BDMA-C16 in tested samples were higher than other cationic analytes. Generally, levels of surfactants with longer alkyl chains were higher and this observation can confirm their higher susceptibility to sorption on solid surfaces.

  8. 9 CFR 121.5 - Exemptions for VS select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... virus, avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic), bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent, classical... grant a specific exemption upon a showing of good cause and upon his or her determination that such...

  9. Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using selective precipitation by compaction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez-Lingerfelt, Mariaclara; Fox, George E; Willson, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    An important problem in measurement of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is DNA contamination, which can produce artifactually increased mRNA concentration. Current methods to eliminate contaminating DNA can compromise the integrity of the RNA, are time-consuming, and/or are hazardous. We present a rapid, nuclease-free, and cost-effective method of eliminating contaminating DNA in RNA samples using selective precipitation by compaction agents. Compaction agents are cationic molecules that bind to double-stranded nucleic acids, driven by electrostatic interactions and steric complementarity. The effectiveness and DNA selectivity of six compaction agents were investigated: trivalent spermidine, Triquat A, and Triquat 7; tetravalent spermine and Quatro-quat; and hexavalent Quatro-diquat. Effectiveness was measured initially by supernatant UV absorbance after precipitation of salmon sperm DNA. Effectiveness and selectivity were then investigated using differences in RT-PCR C(t) values with synthetic mixtures of human genomic DNA and total RNA and with total RNA isolated from cells. With 500 microM spermidine or Triquat A, the supernatant DNA could not be detected up to 40 cycles of PCR (C(t)12.6), whereas the C(t) for the mRNA was increased by only five cycles. Therefore, spermidine and Triquat A each show strong DNA selectivity and could be used to eliminate contaminating DNA in measurements of mRNA.

  10. Reduction of DNA Contamination in RNA Samples for RT-PCR using Selective Precipitation by Compaction Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez-Lingerfelt, Mariaclara; Fox, George E.; Willson, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    An important problem in measurement of mRNA levels by RT-PCR is DNA contamination, which can produce artifactually increased mRNA concentration. Current methods to eliminate contaminating DNA can compromise the integrity of the RNA, are time-consuming, or are hazardous. We present a rapid, nuclease-free, and cost-effective method of eliminating contaminating DNA in RNA samples using selective precipitation by compaction agents. Compaction agents are cationic molecules which bind to double-stranded nucleic acids, driven by electrostatic interactions and steric complimentarity. The effectiveness and DNA-selectivity of six compaction agents were investigated: trivalent spermidine, Triquat A, and Triquat 7; tetravalent spermine and Quatro-quat; and hexavalent Quatro-diquat. Effectiveness was measured initially by supernatant UV absorbance after precipitation of salmon sperm DNA. Effectiveness and selectivity were then investigated using differences in RT-PCR Ct values with synthetic mixtures of human genomic DNA and total RNA, and with total RNA isolated from cells. With 500 μM of spermidine or Triquat A, the supernatant DNA could not be detected up to 40 cycles of PCR (Ct ≥12.6) while the Ct for the mRNA was increased by only 5 cycles. Therefore, spermidine and Triquat A each show strong DNA-selectivity and could be used to eliminate contaminating DNA in measurements of mRNA. PMID:18831957

  11. Effects of selected pharmacological agents on avian auditory and vestibular compound action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons-Brown, Shunda R; Jones, Timothy A

    2004-09-01

    Glutamate is currently the consensus candidate for the hair cell transmitter in the inner ear of vertebrates. However, other candidate transmitter systems have been proposed and there may be differences in this regard for auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia. In the present study, perilymphatic perfusion was used to deliver prescribed concentrations of ten drugs to the interstitial fluids of the inner ear of hatchling chickens (n = 124). Dose-response curves were obtained for four of these pharmacological agents. The work was carried out in part to distinguish further the neuroepithelial chemical receptors mediating auditory and vestibular compound action potentials (CAPs). Kainic acid (KA) eliminated both auditory and vestibular responses. D-alpha-Aminoadipic acid (DAA) and dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), both NMDA-specific antagonists, failed to alter vestibular CAPs at any concentration. MK-801 significantly and selectively reduced auditory CAPs at concentrations equal to or greater than 1 mM. Similarly, kynurenic acid (4-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, 1 mM), a glutamate antagonist, significantly reduced auditory but not vestibular CAPs. A non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), reduced vestibular CAPs significantly but only at the highest concentration tested (1 mM). In contrast, CNQX reduced auditory responses at concentration as low as 1 microM. The CNQX concentration effective in reducing auditory CAPs by 50% (EC(50)) was approximately 20 microM. Glutamate (1 mM) as well as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), a glutamate agonist, significantly reduced auditory CAPs (AMPA EC(50)=100 microM). Bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, failed to alter responses from either modality. These findings support the hypothesis that glutamate receptors mediate auditory CAPs in birds. However, the results underscore a remarkable difference in

  12. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of select chemotherapeutic agents following intranasal delivery in a non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League-Pascual, James C; Lester-McCully, Cynthia M; Shandilya, Shaefali; Ronner, Lukas; Rodgers, Louis; Cruz, Rafael; Peer, Cody J; Figg, William D; Warren, Katherine E

    2017-05-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of most chemotherapeutic agents into the CNS, resulting in inadequate exposure within CNS tumor tissue. Intranasal administration is a proposed means of delivery that can bypass the BBB, potentially resulting in more effective chemotherapeutic exposure at the tumor site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics (plasma and CSF) of intranasal delivery using select chemotherapeutic agents in a non-human primate (NHP) model. Three chemotherapeutic agents with known differences in CNS penetration were selected for intranasal administration in a NHP model to determine proof of principle of CNS delivery, assess tolerability and feasibility, and to evaluate whether certain drug characteristics were associated with increased CNS exposure. Intravenous (IV) temozolomide (TMZ), oral (PO) valproic acid, and PO perifosine were administered to adult male rhesus macaques. The animals received a single dose of each agent systemically and intranasally in separate experiments, with each animal acting as his own control. The dose of the agents administered systemically was the human equivalent of a clinically appropriate dose, while the intranasal dose was the maximum achievable dose based on the volume limitation of 1 mL. Multiple serial paired plasma and CSF samples were collected and quantified using a validated uHPLC/tandem mass spectrometry assay after each drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental analysis. CSF penetration was calculated from the ratio of areas under the concentration-time curves for CSF and plasma (AUCCSF:plasma). Intranasal administration was feasible and tolerable for all agents with no significant toxicities observed. For TMZ, the degrees of CSF drug penetration after intranasal and IV administration were 36 (32-57) and 22 (20-41)%, respectively. Although maximum TMZ drug concentration in the CSF (Cmax) was lower after intranasal

  13. Selection rhizosphere-competent microbes for development of microbial products as biocontrol agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinistova, A. V.; Elchin, A. A.; Gorbunova, N. V.; Muratov, V. S.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Khudaibergenova, B. M.; Shabaev, V. P.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    Rhizosphere-borne microorganisms reintroduced to the soil-root interface can establish without inducing permanent disturbance in the microbial balance and effectively colonise the rhizosphere due to carbon sources of plant root exudates. A challenge for future development of microbial products for use in agriculture will be selection of rhizosphere-competent microbes that both protect the plant from pathogens and improve crop establishment and persistence. In this study screening, collection, identification and expression of stable and technological microbial strains living in soils and in the rhizosphere of abundant weed - couch-grass Elytrigia repens L. Nevski were conducted. A total of 98 bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere were assessed for biocontrol activity in vitro against phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium heterosporum, Fusarium oxysporum, Drechslera teres, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Piricularia oryzae, Botrytis cinerea, Colletothrichum atramentarium and Cladosporium sp., Stagonospora nodorum. Biocontrol activity were performed by the following methods: radial and parallel streaks, "host - pathogen" on the cuts of wheat leaves. A culture collection comprising 64 potential biocontrol agents (BCA) against wheat and barley root diseases has been established. Of these, the most effective were 8 isolates inhibitory to at least 4 out of 5 phytopathogenic fungi tested. The remaining isolates inhibited at least 1 of 5 fungi tested. Growth stimulating activity of proposed rhizobacteria-based preparations was estimated using seedling and vegetative pot techniques. Seeds-inoculation and the tests in laboratory and field conditions were conducted for different agricultural crops - wheat and barley. Intact cells, liquid culture filtrates and crude extracts of the four beneficial bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of weed were studied to stimulate plant growth. As a result, four bacterial strains selected from rhizosphere of weed

  14. A computer program for fast and easy typing of partial endoglucanase gene sequence into phylotypes and sequevars 1&2 (select agents) of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains a subset of strains that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven otherwise, which can be done by phylogenetic analysis of a partia...

  15. Selected Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Candida spp.: In Vitro Study on Clinical and Food-Borne Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Maroszyńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Candida spp. cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. As a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogenic yeasts, the interest in alternative agents of antifungal activity is growing. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils (EOs) against Candida clinical and food-borne strains, including antibiotic-resistant isolates, in relation to yeast cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Candida strains showed different range of susceptibility to tea tree, thyme, peppermint, and clove oils, and peppermint oil demonstrated the lowest anticandidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.03-8.0% v/v. MIC values for thyme and clove oils ranged from 0.03% to 0.25% v/v, and for tea tree oil-from 0.12% to 2.0% v/v. The exception was Candida tropicalis food-borne strain, the growth of which was inhibited after application of EOs at concentration of 8% v/v. Due to diverse yeast susceptibility to EOs, isolates were divided into five clusters in a principal component analysis model, each containing both clinical and food-borne strains. Hydrophobic properties of yeast were also diversified, and 37% of clinical and 50% of food-borne strains exhibited high hydrophobicity. The study indicates high homology of clinical and food-borne Candida isolates in relation to their susceptibility to anticandidal agents and hydrophobic properties. The susceptibility of yeasts to EOs could be partially related to their CSH. High antifungal activity of examined EOs, also against antibiotic-resistant isolates, indicates their usefulness as agents preventing the development of Candida strains of different origin.

  16. The anticancer agent PB-100, selectively active on malignant cells, inhibits multiplication of sixteen malignant cell lines, even multidrug resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljanski Mirko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant-derived anticancer agent PB-100 selectively destroys cancer cells, even when multidrug resistant; yet, it does not inhibit normal (non-malignant cell multiplication. Testing of PB-100 on sixteen malignant cell lines, several multidrug resistant, as well as on five normal cell lines, confirmed our previous results. Flavopereirine and dihydroflavopereirine, the active principles of PB-100, were chemically synthesized and displayed the same selectivity for tumor cells as the purified plant extract, being active at even lower concentrations.

  17. Selection of Nutrient Used in Biogenic Healing Agent for Cementitious Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tziviloglou, E.; Wiktor, V.A.C.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic self-healing cementitious materials target on the closure of micro-cracks with precipitated inorganic minerals originating from bacterial metabolic activity. Dormant bacterial spores and organic mineral compounds often constitute a biogenic healing agent. The current paper focuses on the

  18. RGD-based strategies for selective delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents to the tumour vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temming, K; Molema, G; Kok, RJ

    2005-01-01

    During the past decade, RGD-peptides have become a popular tool for the targeting of drugs and imaging agents to a(v)beta(3)-integrin expressing tumour vasculature. RGD-peptides have been introduced by recombinant means into therapeutic proteins and viruses. Chemical means have been applied to

  19. Agent-based modeling 2.0 : Data-driven selection of model structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, T.; Chappin, E.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Agent-based modeling is useful to simulate the human role in socio-technical systems. Thereby, the complexity of such systems can be captured. For instance, it has shown to be useful at simulating innovation in socio-technical systems. We develop a next step in which laborious model building is

  20. FEASIBILITY OF HYGROMYCIN AS A SELECTION AGENT IN AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the feasibility of the antibiotic hygromycin as a selection agent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was evaluated. For this, two economically important commercial varieties Haydn and Hunter and tobacco as a model plant were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The 5-6 days-old oilseed rape hypocotyls and 4-6 weeks-old tobacco leaf segments were transformed with the binary vector pCambia1304. The T-DNA contained the reporter gfp:gus and the selectable marker htp genes. Regeneration of transformed cells was conducted under selection of 10 mg.l-1 (oilseed rape and 30 mg.l-1 (tobacco hygromycin. Putative transgenic plantlets were analysed by the mean of the histochemical GUS and PCR analyses. Transformation efficiency ranged from 1.0% (cv. Haydn to 40.4% (tobacco. No transgenic shoots were detected for the cv. Hunter. It points out the oilseed rape cultivar specificity plays significant role in choice of suitable selection agent.

  1. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ravicini; Josep Pastor; Jennifer Hawley; Melissa Brewer; Jorge Castro-López; Melissa Beall; Michael R Lappin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antib...

  2. In vitro selection of oligonucleotides that bind double-stranded DNA in the presence of triplex-stabilizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayel, Elodie; Escudé, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    A SELEX approach has been developed in order to select oligonucleotides that bind double-stranded DNA in the presence of a triplex-stabilizing agent, and was applied to a target sequence containing an oligopurine-oligopyrimidine stretch. After only seven rounds of selection, the process led to the identification of oligonucleotides that were able to form triple helices within the antiparallel motif. Inspection of the selected sequences revealed that, contrary to GC base pair which were always recognized by guanines, recognition of AT base pair could be achieved by either adenine or thymine, depending on the sequence context. While thymines are strongly preferred for several positions, some others can accommodate the presence of adenines. These results contribute to set the rules for designing oligonucleotides that form stable triple helices in the presence of triplex-stabilizing agents at physiological pH. They set the basis for further experiments regarding extension of potential target sequences for triple-helix formation or recognition of ligand-DNA complexes.

  3. Isolation and selection of Bacillus spp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, R; Ramchuran, S; Ramduth, D; Görgens, J; Gardiner, N

    2007-11-01

    To isolate, select and evaluate Bacillus spp. as potential biological agents for enhancement of water quality in culture of ornamental fish. Natural isolates obtained from mud sediment and Cyprinus carpio were purified and assessed in vitro for efficacy based on the inhibition of growth of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila and the decrease in concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate ions. Based on suitability to predefined characteristics, the isolates B001, B002 and B003 were selected and evaluated in vitro in the presence of Aer. hydrophila and in a preliminary in vivo trial with C. carpio. The inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and the decrease in concentrations of waste ions was demonstrated. Based on 16S RNA sequence homology, the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively. Isolate B002 did not contain the anthrax virulence plasmids pOX1, pOX2 or the B. cereus enterotoxin. Selected isolates effected synergistic reduction in pathogen load and the concentrations of waste ions in vitro and in vivo and are safe for use in ornamental aquaculture. A new approach for assessment of biological agents was demonstrated and has yielded putative isolates for development into aquaculture products.

  4. Synthesis of microcapsules containing extractant agents for the selective removal of heavy metals from wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Alcázar Román, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación estudia la síntesis y caracterización de las denominadas microcápsulas complejantes, que consisten en la encapsulación de un agente de extracción dentro de una carcasa polimérica. Este material combinaría la ventajas de los métodos tradicionales, extracción con disolventes e intercambio iónico, empleados en la recuperación o eliminación de metales pesados de aguas contaminadas, solventando las desventajas que presentas ambas técnicas por separado. Para ello, se si...

  5. Reclamation of DPK hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil using a selected bulking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwegu, Amechi S; Onwosi, Chukwudi O; Orji, Michael U; Anaukwu, Chika G; Okafor, Uchenna C; Azi, Fidelis; Martins, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, laboratory scale bioremediation of dual purpose kerosene (DPK) hydrocarbon polluted soil using bulking agent (saw dust) was carried out. The effect of different parameters such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), dehydrogenase activity (DHase) and pH on bioremediation performance were evaluated. Studied parameters such as microbial dynamics, percentage degradation (95.20%), DHase (8.20 ± 0.43) were found to be higher in saw dust amended system and significantly differed with control at p biostimulant towards improved bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of Selectivity of an Organometallic Anticancer Agent by Redox Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combination with redox modulators can potentiate the anticancer activity and maximize the selectivity of organometallic complexes with redox-based mechanisms of action. We show that nontoxic doses of l-buthionine sulfoximine increase the selectivity of organo-Os complex FY26 for human ovarian cancer cells versus normal lung fibroblasts to 63-fold. This increase is not due to changes in the mechanism of action of FY26 but to the decreased response of cancer cells to oxidative stress. PMID:26397305

  7. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  8. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicini, Sara; Pastor, Josep; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Castro-López, Jorge; Beall, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3%) had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5%) were positive for FCV RNA (six cats), Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats), FHV-1 DNA (three cats) or C felis DNA (three cats). This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  9. MUCOLYTIC AGENTS IN PEDIATRICS: RATIONAL SELECTION, THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS AND SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cough treatment options with mucolytic agents administration at the first several days of acute respiratory tract infections in children. Efficacy of treatment with secretolytic and secretomotoric drugs significantly depends on certain factors. The article contains the criteria of therapeutic efficacy of expectorants. A special attention is given to N-acetylcysteine — a direct acting mucolytic agent, which effect is caused by presence of free sulfhydryl groups, disrupting disulfide bonds between molecules of acid mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins therefore changing the structure of sputum. Acetylcysteine is active against every type of sputum (mucous, muco-purulent, purulent, that is especially important in treatment of bacterial infections, when it is necessary to quickly decrease sputum thickness, eliminate it from the respiratory tract and prevent dissemination of the infection. High efficacy of acetylcysteine is caused by its unique triple action: mucolytic, antioxidant and antitoxic. Mechanism of action of acetylcysteine is discussed in detail. Timely administered treatment will improve sputum discharge and therefore eliminate one of the main factors of bronchial obstruction and decrease the risk of microbial colonization of the respiratory tract. The article also includes indications, contraindications and dosage regimens of acetylcysteine in children. The most common mistakes and specific aspects of mucolytic drugs in pediatrics are listed in the conclusion. 

  10. AN AUTOMATED END-TO-END MULTI-AGENT QOS BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR SELECTION OF GEOSPATIAL WEB SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shah

    2012-07-01

    With the proliferation of web services published over the internet, multiple web services may provide similar functionality, but with different non-functional properties. Thus, Quality of Service (QoS offers a metric to differentiate the services and their service providers. In a quality-driven selection of web services, it is important to consider non-functional properties of the web service so as to satisfy the constraints or requirements of the end users. The main intent of this paper is to build an automated end-to-end multi-agent based solution to provide the best-fit web service to service requester based on QoS.

  11. MMNTP-a new tailor-made modular derivatization agent for the selective determination of isocyanates and diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlich, Sabine; Stockhorst, Heidi; Witting, Ute; Binding, Norbert

    2004-04-01

    The synthesis of a new tailor-made derivatization agent for the selective determination of (di)isocyanates is presented. Starting from cyanuric chloride, the reagent 4-methoxy-6-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2-(1-piperazine)(MMNTP) is synthesized by subsequent substitution of the three chlorine atoms. This new derivatization agent and the five urea derivatives of phenylisocyanate (PI), hexamethylene-diisocyanate (HDI), toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (2,4-TDI), toluene-2,6-diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) and methylenebisphenyl-4,4-diisocyanate (MDI) show good spectroscopic properties with small compound-to-compound variabilities (RSD([epsilon])= 5.3 %, RSD(relative fluorescence)= 9.4 %). Therefore, using UV detection, a single calibration is needed for the quantification of all diisocyanates and isocyanates respectively. For separation and analysis a HPLC method with a RP column and a binary gradient is presented. All derivatives are separated and show low limits of detection. In addition to the good spectroscopic properties and low limits of detection, good reactivity for the derivatizations at room temperature is observed. The aromatic diisocyanates can be measured immediately whereas aliphatic diisocyanates need 2 h incubation. These advantages make MMNTP a powerful and versatile derivatization agent for (di)isocyanates which is demonstrated by a real sample with solid phase sampling, where the reagent is coated on a sorbent.

  12. Automatic spectral imaging protocol selection and iterative reconstruction in abdominal CT with reduced contrast agent dose: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peijie; Liu, Jie; Chai, Yaru; Yan, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jianbo; Dong, Junqiang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Radiology, Zhengzhou, Henan Province (China)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, image quality, and radiation dose of automatic spectral imaging protocol selection (ASIS) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) with reduced contrast agent dose in abdominal multiphase CT. One hundred and sixty patients were randomly divided into two scan protocols (n = 80) each; protocol A, 120 kVp/450 mgI/kg, filtered back projection algorithm (FBP); protocol B, spectral CT imaging with ASIS and 40 to 70 keV monochromatic images generated per 300 mgI/kg, ASIR algorithm. Quantitative parameters (image noise and contrast-to-noise ratios [CNRs]) and qualitative visual parameters (image noise, small structures, organ enhancement, and overall image quality) were compared. Monochromatic images at 50 keV and 60 keV provided similar or lower image noise, but higher contrast and overall image quality as compared with 120-kVp images. Despite the higher image noise, 40-keV images showed similar overall image quality compared to 120-kVp images. Radiation dose did not differ between the two protocols, while contrast agent dose in protocol B was reduced by 33 %. Application of ASIR and ASIS to monochromatic imaging from 40 to 60 keV allowed contrast agent dose reduction with adequate image quality and without increasing radiation dose compared to 120 kVp with FBP. (orig.)

  13. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...... covering seven different products in greenhouse workers with emphasis on sensitization and respiratory effects. Methods: 579 persons aged 17-67 years culturing ornamental flowers were included. They were followed for three years with annual examinations including interview about exposure and symptoms, lung......%:1.09-1.87) over the 3-year period. There was no relation between exposure to any MBCA and neither prevalence nor incidence of respiratory symptoms and there was no effect on lung function or bronchial responsiveness. Conclusions: Use of B. thuringiensis in greenhouses may give rise to sensitization while...

  14. Comparison of metals and tetracycline as selective agents for development of tetracycline resistant bacterial communities in agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Jianxiao; Rensing, Christopher; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2017-01-01

    Environmental selection of antibiotic resistance may be caused by either antibiotic residues or coselecting agents. Using a strictly controlled experimental design, we compared the ability of metals (Cu or Zn) and tetracycline to (co)select for tetracycline resistance in bacterial communities. Soil...... microcosms were established by amending agricultural soil with known levels of Cu, Zn, or tetracycline known to represent commonly used metals and antibiotics for pig farming. Soil bacterial growth dynamics and bacterial community-level tetracycline resistance were determined using the [(3)H......]leucine incorporation technique, whereas soil Cu, Zn, and tetracycline exposure were quantified by a panel of whole-cell bacterial bioreporters. Tetracycline resistance increased significantly in soils containing environmentally relevant levels of Cu (≥365 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (≥264 mg kg(-1)) but not in soil spiked...

  15. Guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones, a source to discover agents that selectively inhibit acute myelogenous leukemia stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Lu, Yaxin; Ding, Yahui; Zhai, Jiadai; Ji, Qing; Ma, Weiwei; Yang, Ming; Fan, Hongxia; Long, Jing; Tong, Zhongsheng; Shi, Yehui; Jia, Yongsheng; Han, Bin; Zhang, Wenpeng; Qiu, Chuanjiang; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Qiuying; Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Haoliang; Li, Dongmei; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Jianping; Li, Lu-Yuan; Gao, Yingdai; Chen, Yue

    2012-10-25

    Small molecules that can selectively target cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain rare currently and exhibit no common structural features. Here we report a series of guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones (GSLs) and their derivatives that can selectively eradicate acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) stem or progenitor cells. Natural GSL compounds arglabin, an anticancer clinical drug, and micheliolide (MCL), are able to reduce the proportion of AML stem cells (CD34⁺CD38⁻) in primary AML cells. Targeting of AML stem cells is further confirmed by a sharp reduction of colony-forming units of primary AML cells upon MCL treatment. Moreover, DMAMCL, the dimethylamino Michael adduct of MCL, slowly releases MCL in plasma and in vivo and demonstrates remarkable therapeutic efficacy in the nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency AML models. These findings indicate that GSL is an ample source for chemical agents against AML stem or progenitor cells and that GSL is potentially highly useful to explore anti-CSC approaches.

  16. Molecular basis for selective serotonin reuptake inhibition by the antidepressant agent fluoxetine (Prozac)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Zachariassen, Linda Grønborg

    2014-01-01

    , and computational methods to decipher the molecular basis for high-affinity recognition in SERT and selectivity over NET for the prototypical antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac; Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN). We show that fluoxetine binds within the central substrate site of human SERT, in agreement with recent...

  17. A Copper(II)-Paddlewheel Metal-Organic Framework with Exceptional Hydrolytic Stability and Selective Adsorption and Detection Ability of Aniline in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Xie, Lin-Hua; Li, Jinping; Xie, Yabo; Li, Jian-Rong

    2017-08-16

    Copper(II)-paddlewheel-based metal-organic frameworks (CP-MOFs) represent a unique subclass of MOFs with highly predictable porous structures, facile syntheses, and functional open metal sites. However, the lack of high hydrolytic stability is an obstacle for CP-MOFs in many practical applications. In this work, we report a new CP-MOF, [Cu4(tdhb)] (BUT-155), which is constructed from a judiciously designed carboxylate ligand with high coordination connectivity (octatopic), abundant hydrophobic substituents (six methyl groups), and substituent constrained geometry (tetrahedral backbone), tdhb(8-) [H8tdhb = 3,3',5,5'-tetrakis(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)-2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexamethylbiphenyl)]. BUT-155 shows high porosity with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 2070 m(2)/g. Quite interestingly, this CP-MOF retains its structural integrity after being treated in water for 10 days at room temperature or in boiling water for 24 h. To the best of our knowledge, BUT-155 represents the first CP-MOF that is demonstrated to retain its structural integrity in boiling water. The high hydrolytic stability of BUT-155 allowed us to carry out adsorption studies of water vapor and aqueous organic pollutants on it. Water-vapor adsorption reveals a sigmoidal isotherm and a high uptake (46.7 wt %), which is highly reversible and regenerable. In addition, because of the availability of soft-acid-type open Cu(II) sites, BUT-155 shows a high performance for selective adsorption of soft-base-type aniline over water or phenol, and a naked-eye detectable color change for the MOF sample accompanies this. The adsorption selectivity and high adsorption capacity of aniline in BUT-155 are also well-interpreted by single-crystal structures of the water- and aniline-included phases of BUT-155.

  18. Characterization of clinically-attenuated Burkholderia mallei by whole genome sequencing: candidate strain for exclusion from Select Agent lists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkholderia mallei is an understudied biothreat agent responsible for glanders which can be lethal in humans and animals. Research with this pathogen has been hampered in part by constraints of Select Agent regulations for safety reasons. Whole genomic sequencing (WGS is an apt approach to characterize newly discovered or poorly understood microbial pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed WGS on a strain of B. mallei, SAVP1, previously pathogenic, that was experimentally infected in 6 equids (4 ponies, 1 mule, 1 donkey, natural hosts, for purposes of producing antibodies. Multiple high inocula were used in some cases. Unexpectedly SAVP1 appeared to be avirulent in the ponies and mule, and attenuated in the donkey, but induced antibodies. We determined the genome sequence of SAVP1 and compared it to a strain that was virulent in horses and a human. In comparison, this phenotypic avirulent SAVP1 strain was missing multiple genes including all the animal type III secretory system (T3SS complex of genes demonstrated to be essential for virulence in mice and hamster models. The loss of these genes in the SAVP1 strain appears to be the consequence of a multiple gene deletion across insertion sequence (IS elements in the B. mallei genome. Therefore, the strain by itself is unlikely to revert naturally to its virulent phenotype. There were other genes present in one strain and not the other and vice-versa. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery that this strain of B. mallei was both avirulent in the natural host ponies, and did not possess T3SS associated genes may be fortuitous to advance biodefense research. The deleted virulence-essential T3SS is not likely to be re-acquired naturally. These findings may provide a basis for exclusion of SAVP1 from the Select Agent regulation or at least discussion of what else would be required for exclusion. This exclusion could accelerate research by investigators not possessing BSL-3

  19. Largazole as a Novel and Selective Anti-Breast Cancer Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    have recently attracted substantial attention as potential anti-cancer drugs. The selective degradation of many regulatory proteins in eukaryotic...did not affect p27 ubiquitination, indicating the importance of the topology of the inhibitory compound. Furthermore, the result also suggests that...EGF, suggesting that ligand stimulation of these 387 cells causes neighboring cells to exhibit slight repulsion , and migrate more in opposing 388

  20. The predictability and magnitude of life-history divergence to ecological agents of selection: a meta-analysis in livebearing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael P; Riesch, Rüdiger; Martin, Ryan A

    2016-04-01

    Environments causing variation in age-specific mortality - ecological agents of selection - mediate the evolution of reproductive life-history traits. However, the relative magnitude of life-history divergence across selective agents, whether divergence in response to specific selective agents is consistent across taxa and whether it occurs as predicted by theory, remains largely unexplored. We evaluated divergence in offspring size, offspring number, and the trade-off between these traits using a meta-analysis in livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae). Life-history divergence was consistent and predictable to some (predation, hydrogen sulphide) but not all (density, food limitation, salinity) selective agents. In contrast, magnitudes of divergence among selective agents were similar. Finally, there was a negative, asymmetric relationship between offspring-number and offspring-size divergence, suggesting greater costs of increasing offspring size than number. Ultimately, these results provide strong evidence for predictable and consistent patterns of reproductive life-history divergence and highlight the importance of comparing phenotypic divergence across species and ecological selective agents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Quinone methides tethered to naphthalene diimides as selective G-quadruplex alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Antonio, Marco; Doria, Filippo; Richter, Sara N; Bertipaglia, Carolina; Mella, Mariella; Sissi, Claudia; Palumbo, Manlio; Freccero, Mauro

    2009-09-16

    We have developed novel G-quadruplex (G-4) ligand/alkylating hybrid structures, tethering the naphthalene diimide moiety to quaternary ammonium salts of Mannich bases, as quinone-methide precursors, activatable by mild thermal digestion (40 degrees C). The bis-substituted naphthalene diimides were efficiently synthesized, and their reactivity as activatable bis-alkylating agents was investigated in the presence of thiols and amines in aqueous buffered solutions. The electrophilic intermediate, quinone-methide, involved in the alkylation process was trapped, in the presence of ethyl vinyl ether, in a hetero Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, yielding a substituted 2-ethoxychroman. The DNA recognition and alkylation properties of these new derivatives were investigated by gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and enzymatic assays. The alkylation process occurred preferentially on the G-4 structure in comparison to other DNA conformations. By dissecting reversible recognition and alkylation events, we found that the reversible process is a prerequisite to DNA alkylation, which in turn reinforces the G-quadruplex structural rearrangement.

  2. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dendritic polyglycerols as selective MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Daniel; Stumpf, Patrick; Gröger, Dominic; Hofmann, Andreas; Enders, Sven; Riese, Sebastian B.; Dernedde, Jens; Taupitz, Matthias; Rauch, Ursula; Haag, Rainer; Rühl, Eckart; Graf, Christina

    2014-07-01

    Monodisperse small iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) or dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) are prepared. They are highly stable in aqueous solutions as well as physiological media. In particular, oleic acid capped iron oxide particles (core diameter = 11 +/- 1 nm) were modified by a ligand exchange process in a one pot synthesis with dPG and dPGS bearing phosphonate as anchor groups. Dynamic light scattering measurements performed in water and different biological media demonstrate that the hydrodynamic diameter of the particles is only slightly increased by the ligand exchange process resulting in a final diameter of less than 30 nm and that the particles are stable in these media. It is also revealed by magnetic resonance studies that their magnetic relaxivity is reduced by the surface modification but it is still sufficient for high contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Additionally, incubation of dPGS functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles with human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed a 50% survival at 85 nM (concentration of nanoparticles). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies demonstrate that the dPGS functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles inhibit L-selectin ligand binding whereas the particles containing only dPG do not show this effect. Experiments in a flow chamber with human myelogenous leukemia cells confirmed L-selectin inhibition of the dPGS functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and with that the L-selectin mediated leukocyte adhesion. These results indicate that dPGS functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are a promising contrast agent for inflamed tissue probed by MRI.Monodisperse small iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) or dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) are prepared. They are highly stable in aqueous solutions as well as physiological media. In particular, oleic acid capped iron oxide particles (core diameter = 11 +/- 1 nm) were modified by a

  3. Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Metformin Hydrochloride in Pharmaceuticals and Urine Using Two Nitrophenols as Chromogenic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride (MFH is an oral anti-diabetic drug of biguanide class. Two selective spectrophotometric methods were presented for the determination of MFH in pharmaceuticals. The methods were based on the measurement of yellow-coloured charge-transfer complexes formed between MFH and two poly-nitrophenols, namely, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP method, at 405 nm and picric acid (PA method; at 410 nm in dichloromethane medium. The variables which affect the complex formation were studied and optimized. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration ranges: 2.4-48.0 and 3.2-64.0 µg ml-1 with molar absorptivity values of 3.24 × 103 and 2.30 × 103 l mol-1 cm-1, with DNP method and PA method, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were calculated to be 0.13 and 0.40 µg ml-1 for DNP method and 0.19 and 0.59 µg ml-1 for PA method. Methods were validated for accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness and selectivity. The proposed methods were applied to the determination of MFH in tablets. The accuracy and precision of the methods were found excellent. Accuracy of the methods was ascertained by recovery test via standard-addition procedure. The methods were applied to spiked human urine sample without detectable interference from endogenous substances.

  4. Complexometric determination of thallium(III using ethanethiol as a selective masking agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and selective complexometric method for the determination of thallium in presence of other metal ions is proposed based on the selective masking ability of ethanethiol towards thallium(III. Thallium present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5-6(hexamine using xylenol orange as the indicator. A 0.3% aqueous solution of ethanethiol is then added to displace EDTA from the Tl(III-EDTA complex. The released EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 3.70 mg to 74.07 mg of Tl (III with relative error less than ? 0.44% and coefficient of variation not more than 0.27%. The interference of various ions was studied and the method was used for the analysis of thallium in its synthetic alloy mixtures and also in complexes.

  5. Identification and characteristics of biological agents in work environment of medical emergency services in selected ambulances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bielawska-Drózd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of microbial air quality and surface contamination in ambulances and administration offices as a control place without occupational exposure to biological agents; based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi found in collected samples. Material and Methods: The sampling was done by wet cyclone technology using the Coriolis recon apparatus, imprint and swab methods, respectively. In total, 280 samples from 28 ambulances and 10 offices in Warszawa were tested. Data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test with α = 0.05. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The levels of air contamination were from 0 to 2.3×101 colony-forming unit (CFU/m3 for bacteria and for yeast and filamentous fungi were from 0 to 1.8×101 CFU/m3. The assessment of office space air samples has shown the following numbers of microorganisms: bacteria from 3.0×101 to 4.2×101 CFU/m3 and yeast and filamentous fungi from 0 to 1.9×101 CFU/m3. For surface contamination the mean bacterial count in ambulances has been between 1.0×101 and 1.3×102 CFU/25 cm2 and in offices – between 1.1×101 and 8.5×101 CFU/25 cm2. Mean fungal count has reached the level from 2.8×100 to 4.2×101 CFU/25 cm2 in ambulances and 1.3×101 to 5.8×101 CFU/25 cm2 in offices. The qualitative analysis has revealed the presence of Acinetobacter spp. (surfaces, coagulase – negative Staphylococci (air and surfaces, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera (air and surfaces. Conclusions: The study has revealed a satisfactory microbiological quantity of analyzed air and surface samples in both study and control environments. However, the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in ambulances may endanger the medical emergency staff and patients with infection. Disinfection and cleaning techniques therefore should be constantly developed and implemented. Int J Occup

  6. Photostability and phytotoxicity of selected sunscreen agents and their degradation mixtures in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Rosario; Moeder, Monika; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2009-11-01

    confirmed that sunlight can account noticeably for decontamination and detoxification of contaminated water. However, due to its potential accumulation in combination with a specific mode of action, BP-3 may imply probable environmental risks at least to algae. This study emphasizes the need of a combined chemical and toxicological evaluation for a reliable risk assessment concerning degradation processes exemplified here for UV-protecting agents.

  7. Selected topical agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of minor injuries- a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chung eLEUNG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches.In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries.In this era of evidence-based clinical treatment, there is an urgent need to look into this traditional practice. The purpose should include a scientific verification of the efficacy of the practice, and once proven, further explorations would be indicated to bring the practice to a higher level.A system of comprehensive exploration was proposed and practiced in the past years to fulfill the aspiration. The research consisted of four areas:(1Identification of the suitable medicinal herbs for the topical study;(2Study of the biological activities of the selected herbs, concentrating on the areas of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, angiogenesis and cellular proliferation;(3Study on the transcutaneous transport of the chemicals of the selected herbs to deeper tissues; and(4Pilot clinical studies on common superficial inflammatory musculo-skeletal conditions to give objective clinical evidences to the topical applications.Five herbs were identified as suitable candidates of study. They were put into relevant laboratory platforms and were proven to be anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Three of the herbs were prepared as topical patches with an enhancer and used to treat three common ailments in pilot clinical trials, viz., plantar fasciitis, undisplaced metatarsal fracture and tendonitis of the wrist (de-Quervain’s disease and the elbow (Tennis elbow. The clinical results of the pilot studies were very positive.It is therefore concluded that further explorations are

  8. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-12-10

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent.

  9. Adsorption and transformation of selected human-used macrolide antibacterial agents with iron(III) and manganese(IV) oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa-Felizzola, Juliana [Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Aix-Marseille Universites-CNRS (UMR 6264), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Hanna, Khalil [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare-Nancy 1 (UMR 7564), 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Chiron, Serge [Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Aix-Marseille Universites-CNRS (UMR 6264), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: serge.chiron@univ-provence.fr

    2009-04-15

    The adsorption/transformation of two members (clarithromycin and roxithromycin) of the macrolide (ML) antibacterial agents on the surface of three environmental subsurface sorbents (clay, iron(III) and manganese(IV) oxy-hydroxides) was investigated. The adsorption fitted well to the Freundlich model with a high sorption capacity. Adsorption probably occurred through a surface complexation mechanism and was accompanied by slow degradation of the selected MLs. Transformation proceeded through two parallel pathways: a major pathway was the hydrolysis of the cladinose sugar, and to a lesser extent the hydrolysis of the lactone ring. A minor pathway was the N-dealkylation of the amino sugar. This study indicates that Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxy-hydroxides in aquatic sediments may play an important role in the natural attenuation of MLs. Such an attenuation route yields a range of intermediates that might retain some of their biological activity. - Iron(III) and manganese(IV) oxy-hydroxides in aquatic sediments may play an important role in the natural attenuation of macrolide antibacterial agents.

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of Selected Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah A. S. Alasmary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A library of 53 benzimidazole derivatives, with substituents at positions 1, 2 and 5, were synthesized and screened against a series of reference strains of bacteria and fungi of medical relevance. The SAR analyses of the most promising results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the compounds depended on the substituents attached to the bicyclic heterocycle. In particular, some compounds displayed antibacterial activity against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs comparable to the widely-used drug ciprofloxacin. The compounds have some common features; three possess 5-halo substituents; two are derivatives of (S-2-ethanaminebenzimidazole; and the others are derivatives of one 2-(chloromethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole and (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylmethanethiol. The results from the antifungal screening were also very interesting: 23 compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity against the selected fungal strains. They displayed equivalent or greater potency in their MIC values than amphotericin B. The 5-halobenzimidazole derivatives could be considered promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial candidates that deserve further study for potential therapeutic applications.

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Selected Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasmary, Fatmah A S; Snelling, Anna M; Zain, Mohammed E; Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Awaad, Amani S; Karodia, Nazira

    2015-08-20

    A library of 53 benzimidazole derivatives, with substituents at positions 1, 2 and 5, were synthesized and screened against a series of reference strains of bacteria and fungi of medical relevance. The SAR analyses of the most promising results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the compounds depended on the substituents attached to the bicyclic heterocycle. In particular, some compounds displayed antibacterial activity against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) comparable to the widely-used drug ciprofloxacin. The compounds have some common features; three possess 5-halo substituents; two are derivatives of (S)-2-ethanaminebenzimidazole; and the others are derivatives of one 2-(chloromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole and (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methanethiol. The results from the antifungal screening were also very interesting: 23 compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity against the selected fungal strains. They displayed equivalent or greater potency in their MIC values than amphotericin B. The 5-halobenzimidazole derivatives could be considered promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial candidates that deserve further study for potential therapeutic applications.

  12. Sensitive and Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Gabapentin in Capsules Using Two Nitrophenols as Chromogenic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A. M. Abdulrahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and selective spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of gabapentin (GBP in pure form and in capsules. Both methods are based on the proton transfer from the Lewis acid such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid; PA or 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP to the primary amino group of GBP which works as Lewis base and formation of yellow ion-pair complexes. The ion-pair complexes formed show absorption maximum at 415 and 420 nm for PA and 2,4-DNP, respectively. Under the optimized experimental conditions, Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 1.25–15.0 and 2.0–18.0 μg mL−1 GBP for PA and 2,4-DNP methods, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity, detection and, quantification limits for both methods are also reported. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of GBP in pure form and commercial capsules. Statistical comparison of the results was performed using Student's t-test and F-ratio at 95% confidence level, and there was no significant difference between the reference and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision. Further, the validity of the proposed methods was confirmed by recovery studies via standard addition technique.

  13. High resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to paromomycin, an agent used for selective bowel decontamination (SBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxboeck, Florian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Paromomycin is used for selective bowel decontamination (SBD in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation in many hospitals, but there are no published resistance data for this compound in the recent medical literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of paromomycin against the common intestinal bacteria and .Methods: 94 isolates and 77 isolates derived from clinical specimens were tested by broth microdilution against paromomycin and amikacin, respectively, following the CLSI recommendations for testing amikacin.Results: 86 of 94 isolates (91% and 71 of 77 isolates (92% showed in vitro susceptibility to amikacin (MIC90 for both compounds: 16 µg/ml, range: 1–32 µg/ml for and for. Paromomycin was active against 83/94 isolates (88%; MIC90: 32 µg/ml, range: 2–>128 µg/ml, but showed poor in vitro activity against (3/77 isolates susceptible [4%]; MIC90: >128 µg/ml, range: 2–>128 µg/ml.Conclusion: If SBD with inclusion of an aminoglycoside antibiotic is applied, paromomycin should not be used unless local resistance data provide evidence of a sufficient in vitro activity of this compound against .

  14. Imidazopyranotacrines as Non-Hepatotoxic, Selective Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors, and Antioxidant Agents for Alzheimer′s Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssem Boulebd

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of thirteen new, racemic, diversely functionalized imidazo pyranotacrines as non-hepatotoxic, multipotent tacrine analogues. Among these compounds, 1-(5-amino-2-methyl-4-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrano[2,3-b]quinolin-3-ylethan-1-one (4 is non-hepatotoxic (cell viability assay on HepG2 cells, a selective but moderately potent EeAChE inhibitor (IC50 = 38.7 ± 1.7 μM, and a very potent antioxidant agent on the basis of the ORAC test (2.31 ± 0.29 μmol·Trolox/μmol compound.

  15. Gold(I complexes of 9-deazahypoxanthine as selective antitumor and anti-inflammatory agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Vančo

    Full Text Available The gold(I mixed-ligand complexes involving O-substituted derivatives of 9-deazahypoxanthine (HLn and triphenylphosphine (PPh3 with the general formula [Au(Ln(PPh3] (1-5 were prepared and thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI+ mass spectrometry, single crystal X-ray (HL5 and complex 2 and TG/DTA analyses. Complexes 1-5 were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against nine human cancer lines, i.e. MCF7 (breast carcinoma, HOS (osteosarcoma, A549 (adenocarcinoma, G361 (melanoma, HeLa (cervical cancer, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, A2780R (ovarian carcinoma resistant to cisplatin, 22Rv1 (prostate cancer and THP-1 (monocytic leukaemia, for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using a model of LPS-activated macrophages, and for their in vivo antiedematous activity by λ-carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model on rats. The results showed that the complexes 1-5 exhibit selective in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF7, HOS, 22Rv1, A2780 and A2780R, with submicromolar IC50 values for 2 against the MCF7 (0.6 µM and HOS (0.9 µM. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity screening on primary culture of human hepatocytes (HEP220 revealed up to 30-times lower toxicity of compounds against healthy cells as compared with cancer cells. Additionally, the complexes 1-5 significantly influence the secretion and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β by a similar manner as a commercially used anti-arthritic drug Auranofin. The tested complexes also significantly influence the rate and overall volume of the edema, caused by the intraplantar application of λ-carrageenan polysaccharide to rats. Based on these promising results, the presented compounds could qualify to become feasible candidates for advanced testing as potential antitumor and anti-inflammatory drug-like compounds.

  16. Exceptional Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Edmund B.; Reid, John E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ways in which the resources of a university's special education, communication arts, and library services can be combined with those of special education consortiums or parent organizations to provide exceptional children and their parents and teachers with high-quality cable educational television programs that meet their varied needs are…

  17. On exceptional instanton strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Zotto, M.; Lockhart, G.

    According to a recent classification of 6d (1, 0) theories within F-theory there are only six “pure” 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3), SO(8), F4, E6, E7, and E8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons

  18. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  19. Exceptionalism and globalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Achieving sustainable use of the planet will require ethical judgments in both sciences and environmental politics. The purpose of this editorial is to discuss two paradigms, exceptionalism and globalism, that are important in this regard. Exceptionalism is the insistence that one set of rules or behaviors is acceptable for an individual or country but that a different set should be used for the rest of the world. For example, the disparity in per capita consumption of resources and economic status has increased dramatically in the last century, but the consumers of great amounts of resources do not feel a proportionate responsibility for addressing this issue. Globalism is defined as individual and societal willingness to diminish, postpone or forgo individual natural resource use to protect and enhance the integrity of the global ecological life support system. Increasing affluence and the still increasing human population, coupled with wide dissemination of information and an increasing awareness that humans occupy a finite planet, exacerbate this already difficult situation. Increased interest in sustainable use of the planet makes open discussion of these issues mandatory because individuals cannot function in isolation from the larger society of which they are a part. Similarly, no country can function in isolation from other countries, which collectively form an interactive mosaic. This discussion identifies some of the crucial issues related to exceptionalism and globalism, which must be addressed before sustainable use of the planet can be achieved.

  20. Selected gelling agents in canned dog food affect nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of ileal cannulated dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karr-Lilienthal, L.K.; Merchen, N.R.; Grieshop, C.M.; Smeets-Petersen, M.J.E.; Fahey, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal

  1. Learning Disabilities - Programs: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings relating to handicapped and gifted children, the bibliography contains 96 references selected from Exceptional Child Education Abstracts concerning programing for children with learning disabilities. References include conference papers, journal articles, texts for parents and teachers, and…

  2. Toward optimization of in vivo super-resolution ultrasound imaging using size-selected microbubble contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Xiong, Fangyuan; Sirsi, Shashank R; Shaul, Philip W; Mattrey, Robert F; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2017-10-04

    Microvascular processes play key roles in many diseases including diabetes. Improved understanding of the microvascular changes involved in disease development could offer crucial insight into the relationship of these changes to disease pathogenesis. Super-resolution ultrasound (SR-US) imaging has showed the potential to visualize microvascular detail down to the capillary level (i.e., subwavelength resolution), but optimization is still necessary. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo SR-US imaging of skeletal muscle microvascularity using microbubble (MB) contrast agents of various size and concentration while evaluating different ultrasound (US) system level parameters such as imaging frame rate and image acquisition length. An US system equipped with a linear array transducer was used in a harmonic imaging mode at low transmit power. C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet were used in this study. An assortment of size-selected MB contrast agents (1-2 μm, 3-4 μm, and 5-8 μm in diameter) were slowly infused in the tail vein at various doses (1.25 × 10(7) , 2.5 × 10(7) , or 5 × 10(7)  MBs). US image data were collected before MB injection and thereafter for 10 min at 30 frames per s (fps). The US transducer was fixed throughout and between each imaging period to help capture microvascular patterns along the same image plane. An adaptive SR-US image processing technique was implemented using custom Matlab software. Experimental findings illustrate the use of larger MB results in better SR-US images in terms of skeletal muscle microvascular detail. A dose of 2.5 × 10(7)  MBs resulted in SR-US images with optimal spatial resolution. An US imaging rate of at least 20 fps and image acquisition length of at least 8 min also resulted in SR-US images with pronounced microvascular detail. This study indicates that MB size and dose and US system imaging rate and data acquisition length have significant impact on the quality of in vivo SR

  3. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements....../deterioration of elite sport results (with a time lag)’. However, this has not previously been tested, and the contingencies explaining the seemingly widely different developments in countries such as China and India have not been explored. This paper tests the above hypothesis by means of a study of the correlation...

  4. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  5. Giftedness: an exceptionality examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A; Clinkenbeard, P R

    1998-01-01

    The study of giftedness has practical origins. High-level performance intrigues people. Theoretically, the study of giftedness is related to the psychology of individual differences and has focused on the constructs of intelligence, creativity, and motivation. At a practical level, the research is largely related to school and family contexts, which develop gifts and talents in children and youth. Although broadened definitions of giftedness have emerged, the most extensive body of research available for review concentrates on intellectual giftedness. The varying definitions of giftedness and the impact of social context and diversity on the development of talent pose significant challenges for the field. Finally, the study of exceptionally advanced performance provides insight into basic psychological processes and the school contexts that develop talents in children and youth.

  6. Antibiosis and bmyB Gene Presence As Prevalent Traits for the Selection of Efficient Bacillus Biocontrol Agents against Crown Gall Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha-Gargouri, Olfa; Ben Abdallah, Dorra; Bhar, Ilhem; Tounsi, Slim

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the screening method for the selection of Bacillus biocontrol agents against crown gall disease. The relationship between the strain biocontrol ability and their in vitro studied traits was investigated to identify the most important factors to be considered for the selection of effective biocontrol agents. In fact, previous selection procedure relying only on in vitro antibacterial activity was shown to be not suitable in some cases. A direct plant-protection strategy was performed to screen the 32 Bacillus biocontrol agent candidates. Moreover, potential in vitro biocontrol traits were investigated including biofilm formation, motility, hemolytic activity, detection of lipopeptide biosynthetic genes (sfp, ituC and bmyB) and production of antibacterial compounds. The obtained results indicated high correlations of the efficiency of the biocontrol with the reduction of gall weight (p = 0.000) and the antibacterial activity in vitro (p = 0.000). Moreover, there was strong correlations of the efficiency of the biocontrol (p = 0.004) and the reduction in gall weight (p = 0.000) with the presence of the bmyB gene. This gene directs the synthesis of the lipopeptide bacillomycin belonging to the iturinic family of lipopeptides. These results were also confirmed by the two-way hierarchical cluster analysis and the correspondence analysis showing the relatedness of these four variables. According to the obtained results a new screening procedure of Bacillus biocontrol agents against crown gall disease could be advanced consisting on two step selection procedure. The first consists on selecting strains with high antibacterial activity in vitro or those harbouring the bmyB gene. Further selection has to be performed on tomato plants in vivo. Moreover, based on the results of the biocontrol assay, five potent strains exhibiting high biocontrol abilities were selected. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These

  7. Antibiosis and bmyB Gene Presence As Prevalent Traits for the Selection of Efficient Bacillus Biocontrol Agents against Crown Gall Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Frikha-Gargouri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to improve the screening method for the selection of Bacillus biocontrol agents against crown gall disease. The relationship between the strain biocontrol ability and their in vitro studied traits was investigated to identify the most important factors to be considered for the selection of effective biocontrol agents. In fact, previous selection procedure relying only on in vitro antibacterial activity was shown to be not suitable in some cases. A direct plant-protection strategy was performed to screen the 32 Bacillus biocontrol agent candidates. Moreover, potential in vitro biocontrol traits were investigated including biofilm formation, motility, hemolytic activity, detection of lipopeptide biosynthetic genes (sfp, ituC and bmyB and production of antibacterial compounds. The obtained results indicated high correlations of the efficiency of the biocontrol with the reduction of gall weight (p = 0.000 and the antibacterial activity in vitro (p = 0.000. Moreover, there was strong correlations of the efficiency of the biocontrol (p = 0.004 and the reduction in gall weight (p = 0.000 with the presence of the bmyB gene. This gene directs the synthesis of the lipopeptide bacillomycin belonging to the iturinic family of lipopeptides. These results were also confirmed by the two-way hierarchical cluster analysis and the correspondence analysis showing the relatedness of these four variables. According to the obtained results a new screening procedure of Bacillus biocontrol agents against crown gall disease could be advanced consisting on two step selection procedure. The first consists on selecting strains with high antibacterial activity in vitro or those harbouring the bmyB gene. Further selection has to be performed on tomato plants in vivo. Moreover, based on the results of the biocontrol assay, five potent strains exhibiting high biocontrol abilities were selected. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus

  8. Measurement of Rat Brain Tumor Kinetics Using an Intravascular MR Contrast Agent and DCE-MRI Nested Model Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwang, Wilson B.; Jain, Rajan; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Nejad-Davarani, Siamak P.; Iskander, A.S.M.; VanSlooten, Ashley; Schultz, Lonni; Arbab, Ali S.; Ewing, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in a rat glioma model, and nested model selection (NMS), to compare estimates of the pharmacokinetic parameters vp, Ktrans, and ve for two different contrast agents (CAs)—gadofosveset, which reversibly binds to human serum albumin, and gadopentetate dimeglumine, which does not. Materials and Methods DCE-MRI studies were performed on nine Fisher 344 rats inoculated intracerebrally with 9L gliosarcoma cells using both gadofosveset and gadopentetate. The parameters vp, Ktrans, and ve were estimated using NMS. Results Ktrans estimates using gadofosveset, compared to gadopentetate, differed in their means (gadofosveset 0.025 ± 0.008 min−1 vs. gadopentetate 0.046 ± 0.011 min−1; P = 0.0039). This difference notwithstanding, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the two estimates of Ktrans showed nearly perfect linear dependence (ICC = 0.8479 by Pearson’s r). Other estimates, ve (gadofosveset 22.7 ± 4.7% vs. gadopentetate 23.6 ± 5.6%; P = 0.4258) and vp (gadofosveset 1.5 ± 0.5% vs. gadopentetate 1.6 ± 0.4%; P = 0.25), were not different in their means between the two CAs, and there was almost perfect agreement for ve (ICC = 0.8798) and substantial agreement for vp (ICC = 0.7981) between the two CAs. Conclusion Estimates of Ktrans were statistically different using gadofosveset and gadopentetate, whereas ve and vp were similar with two CAs. NMS produced robust estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters using DCE-MRI that show promise as important measures of tumor physiology and microenvironment. PMID:24421265

  9. An Automated End-To Multi-Agent Qos Based Architecture for Selection of Geospatial Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M.; Verma, Y.; Nandakumar, R.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web services have gained wide popularity and acceptance from researchers and industries all over the world. SOA makes it easy to build business applications with common services, and it provides like: reduced integration expense, better asset reuse, higher business agility, and reduction of business risk. Building of framework for acquiring useful geospatial information for potential users is a crucial problem faced by the GIS domain. Geospatial Web services solve this problem. With the help of web service technology, geospatial web services can provide useful geospatial information to potential users in a better way than traditional geographic information system (GIS). A geospatial Web service is a modular application designed to enable the discovery, access, and chaining of geospatial information and services across the web that are often both computation and data-intensive that involve diverse sources of data and complex processing functions. With the proliferation of web services published over the internet, multiple web services may provide similar functionality, but with different non-functional properties. Thus, Quality of Service (QoS) offers a metric to differentiate the services and their service providers. In a quality-driven selection of web services, it is important to consider non-functional properties of the web service so as to satisfy the constraints or requirements of the end users. The main intent of this paper is to build an automated end-to-end multi-agent based solution to provide the best-fit web service to service requester based on QoS.

  10. On exceptional instanton strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Lockhart, Guglielmo

    2017-09-01

    According to a recent classification of 6d (1 , 0) theories within F-theory there are only six "pure" 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3) , SO(8) , F 4 , E 6 , E 7, and E 8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons for the corresponding gauge groups. For G simply-laced, we determine the 2d N=(0,4) worldsheet theories of such BPS instanton strings by a simple geometric engineering argument. These are given by a twisted S 2 compactification of the 4d N=2 theories of type H 2 , D 4 , E 6 , E 7 and E 8 (and their higher rank generalizations), where the 6d instanton number is mapped to the rank of the corresponding 4d SCFT. This determines their anomaly polynomials and, via topological strings, establishes an interesting relation among the corresponding T 2 × S 2 partition functions and the Hilbert series for moduli spaces of G instantons. Such relations allow to bootstrap the corresponding elliptic genera by modularity. As an example of such procedure, the elliptic genera for a single instanton string are determined. The same method also fixes the elliptic genus for case of one F 4 instanton. These results unveil a rather surprising relation with the Schur index of the corresponding 4d N=2 models.

  11. New Nordic Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbolt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    . This article takes Kim and Einhorn’s intervention as a starting point for a critical discussion of the history and politics of Nordic image-building. The article suggests that the reason Kim and Einhorn’s speech passed as a serious proposal was due to its meticulous mimicking of two discursive formations...... that have been central to the debates on the branding of Nordicity over the last decades: on the one hand, the discourse of “Nordic exceptionalism,” that since the 1960s has been central to the promotion of a Nordic political, socio-economic, and internationalist “third way” model, and, on the other hand......, the discourse on the “New Nordic,” that emerged out of the New Nordic Food-movement in the early 2000s, and which has given art and culture a privileged role in the international re-fashioning of the Nordic brand. Through an analysis of Kim and Einhorn’s United Nations of Norden (UNN)-performance, the article...

  12. Exceptional composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carmona, Adrian [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Chala, Mikael [Universitat de Valencia y IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    We study the dark matter phenomenology of non-minimal composite Higgs models with SO(7) broken to the exceptional group G{sub 2}. In addition to the Higgs, three pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons arise, one of which is electrically neutral. A parity symmetry is enough to ensure this resonance is stable. In fact, if the breaking of the Goldstone symmetry is driven by the fermion sector, this Z{sub 2} symmetry is automatically unbroken in the electroweak phase. In this case, the relic density, as well as the expected indirect, direct and collider signals are then uniquely determined by the value of the compositeness scale, f. Current experimental bounds allow one to account for a large fraction of the dark matter of the Universe if the dark matter particle is part of an electroweak triplet. The totality of the relic abundance can be accommodated if instead this particle is a composite singlet. In both cases, the scale f and the dark matter mass are of the order of a few TeV. (orig.)

  13. INTEROCC case-control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Cardis, Elisabeth; Pintos, Javier; Richardson, Lesley; Kincl, Laurel; Benke, Geza; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Lavoue, Jerome; van Tongeren, Martie; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2013-04-12

    The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000-2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose-response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods for Large-Scale Agent-Based Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tučník, Petr; Bureš, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) can be formally implemented by various methods. This study compares suitability of four selected MCDM methods, namely WPM, TOPSIS, VIKOR, and PROMETHEE, for future applications in agent-based computational economic (ACE) models of larger scale (i.e., over 10 000 agents in one geographical region). These four MCDM methods were selected according to their appropriateness for computational processing in ACE applications. Tests of the selected methods were conducted on four hardware configurations. For each method, 100 tests were performed, which represented one testing iteration. With four testing iterations conducted on each hardware setting and separated testing of all configurations with the-server parameter de/activated, altogether, 12800 data points were collected and consequently analyzed. An illustrational decision-making scenario was used which allows the mutual comparison of all of the selected decision making methods. Our test results suggest that although all methods are convenient and can be used in practice, the VIKOR method accomplished the tests with the best results and thus can be recommended as the most suitable for simulations of large-scale agent-based models.

  15. Selecting the Best Traffic Scheme for the Bicutan Roundabout: A Microsimulation Approach with Multiple Driver-Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merly F. Tataro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of vehicular traffic is important to planning and improving shared public roadways, not only to effectively and efficiently facilitate the controlled movement of vehicles, but also to guarantee the safety of individuals in the vehicles. Because data from real-world traffic is difficult to measure, and conducting replicated experiments on humans has ethical and economical questions, selecting the best scheme out of the proposed vehicular traffic controls has been confined only through simulation. We present the result of our microsimulation study on the effects of six traffic schemes T={t0, t1, ..., t5} on the mean total delay time (Δ and mean speed (Σ of vehicles at the non-signalized Bicutan Roundabout (BR in Upper Bicutan, Taguig City, Metro Manila, with t0 as the current traffic scheme being enforced and ti>0 as the proposed ones. We present first that our simulation approach, a hybridized multi-agent system (MAS with the car-following and lane-changing models (CLM, can mimic the current observed traffic scenario C at a statistical significance of α=0.05. That is, the respective absolute differences of the Δ and Σ between C and t0 are not statistically different from zero. Next, using our MAS-CLM, we simulated all proposed ti>0 and compared their respective Δ and Σ. We found out using DMRT that the best traffic scheme is t3 (i.e., when we converted the bi-directional 4-lane PNR-PNCC road into a bi-directional 1-lane PNR-to-PNCC and 3-lane PNCC-to-PNR routes during rush hours. Then, we experimented on converting BR into a signalized junction and re-implemented all t3 with controlled stops of S={15s, 45s}. We found out that t3 with a 15-s stop has the best performance. Finally, we simulated the effect of increased in vehicular volume V due to traffic improvement and we found out that t3 with 15-s stop still outperforms the others for all increased in V={10%, 50%, 100%}.

  16. Seriniquinone, a selective anticancer agent, induces cell death by autophagocytosis, targeting the cancer-protective protein dermcidin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynnie Trzoss; Takashi Fukuda; Letícia V. Costa-Lotufo; Paula Jimenez; James J. La Clair; William Fenical

    2014-01-01

    .... A new natural product, seriniquinone, isolated from a marine bacterium of the genus Serinicoccus, demonstrated potent activity over a select set of tumor cell lines with particular selectivity toward...

  17. 22 CFR 1423.28 - Briefs in support of exceptions; oppositions to exceptions; cross-exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Briefs in support of exceptions; oppositions to exceptions; cross-exceptions. 1423.28 Section 1423.28 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD... FOREIGN SERVICE IMPASSE DISPUTES PANEL FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE...

  18. HIGHLY SELECTIVE SENSORS FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS, INSECTICIDES AND VOCS BASED ON A MOLECULAR SURFACE IMPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract was given as an oral platform presentation at the Pittsburgh Conference, Orlando FL (March 5-9, 2006). Research described is the development of sensors based on molecular surface imprinting. Applications include the monitoring of chemical and biological agents and inse...

  19. Comparison of three development approaches for Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography based screening methods Part I: A heterogeneous group of molecules (slimming agents in food supplements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Ghijs, L; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2016-02-01

    Three approaches for the development of a screening method to detect adulterated dietary supplement, based on Stationary Phase Optimised Selectivity Liquid Chromatography were compared for their easiness/speed of development and the performance of the optimal method obtained. This comparison was performed for a heterogeneous group of molecules, i.e. slimming agents (Part I) and a group of structural analogues, i.e. PDE-5 inhibitors (Part II). The first approach makes use of primary runs at one isocratic level, the second of primary runs in gradient mode and the third of primary runs at three isocratic levels to calculate the optimal combination of segments of stationary phases. In each approach the selection of the stationary phase was followed by a gradient optimisation. For the slimming agents, the heterogeneous group of molecules, the method obtained with the first approach was selected as optimal, based on the speed of development and the performance of the method. The method shows a good separation of the compounds, allowing the screening to be performed with diode array detection, and is fully compatible with mass spectrometry. The method was validated for its selectivity following the guidelines as described for the screening of pesticide residues and residues of veterinary medicines in food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tuning of the selectivity of fluorescent peptidyl bioprobe using aggregation induced emission for heavy metal ions by buffering agents in 100% aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Hwang, Gi Won; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2017-06-15

    Smart fluorescent probes of which the detection of specific target molecules can be controlled are attracting remarkable interest. A fluorescent peptidyl bioprobe (1) was rationally synthesized by conjugating tetraphenylethylene, an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorophore with a peptide receptor (AspHis) that acted as hard and intermediate bases. The selective detection of 1 for specific metal ion in 100% aqueous solutions was controlled by the buffering agents with the chelate effect without the change of pH. In distilled water and phosphate buffered aqueous solution at neutral pH, 1 exhibited a selective Off-On response to a soft metal ion, Hg 2+ among test metal ions by 100-fold enhancement of the emission at 470nm. 1 showed a selective Off-On response (180-fold enhancement) to a hard metal ion, Al 3+ ions among test metal ions in Tris buffered aqueous solution at neutral pH and Hexamine (hexamethylenetetramine) buffered aqueous solution at acidic pH. The detection limit of 0.46 ppb for Hg 2+ and 2.26 ppb for Al 3+ in each condition was lower than the maximum allowable level of the metal ions in drinking water by EPA. This research helps to understand how buffering agents participate in the complex formation and aggregation of fluorescent probes using an AIE process for the selective detection of specific metal ions in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Sustainability and Effects on Urban Micro Region using Agent-Based Modeling of Urbanisation in Select Major Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and

  2. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  3. 4-Alkylated homoibotenic acid (HIBO) analogues: versatile pharmacological agents with diverse selectivity profiles towards metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulf; Pickering, Darryl S; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    4-Alkylated analogues of homoibotenic acid (HIBO) have previously shown high potency and selectivity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamic acid receptor (iGluR and mGluR) subtypes. Compounds with different selectivity profiles are valuable pharmacological tools for neuropharmacological studies...

  4. N-O-isopropyl sulfonamido-based hydroxamates: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of selective matrix metalloproteinase-13 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Elisa; Casalini, Francesca; Avramova, Stanislava I; Santamaria, Salvatore; Cercignani, Giovanni; Marinelli, Luciana; La Pietra, Valeria; Novellino, Ettore; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Nencetti, Susanna; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Martinelli, Adriano; Lim, Ngee-Han; Visse, Robert; Nagase, Hideaki; Rossello, Armando

    2009-08-13

    Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) is a key enzyme implicated in the degradation of the extracellular matrix in osteoarthritis (OA). For this reason, MMP-13 synthetic inhibitors are being sought as potential therapeutic agents to prevent cartilage degradation and to halt the progression of OA. Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a new series of selective MMP-13 inhibitors possessing an arylsulfonamidic scaffold. Among these potential inhibitors, a very promising compound was discovered exhibiting nanomolar activity for MMP-13 and was highly selective for this enzyme compared to MMP-1, -14, and TACE. This compound acted as a slow-binding inhibitor of MMP-13 and was demonstrated to be effective in an in vitro collagen assay and in a model of cartilage degradation. Furthermore, a docking study was conducted for this compound in order to investigate its binding interactions with MMP-13 and the reasons for its selectivity toward MMP-13 versus other MMPs.

  5. 75 FR 28306 - Excepted Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... excepted service as required by 5 CFR 213.103. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Roland Edwards, Senior Executive Resource Services, Employee Services, 202-606-2246. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Appearing in the...

  6. 75 FR 3947 - Excepted Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... excepted service as required by 5 CFR 213.103. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Roland Edwards, Senior Executive Resource Services, Employee Services, 202-606-2246. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Appearing in the...

  7. Love, Truth, Peace and Death as Extolled by Selected Literary Philosophers: Inputs in Understanding Spirituality as a Transformative Agent of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study analyzed the selected works of the Christian mystics St. Augustine, St. Anselm, and William Blake as well as those of the Oriental mystics Confucius, and Rabindranath Tagore pointing out events and situations on how mysticism is reflected in their works. Likewise, this study tried to present how these identified literary philosophers extolled the meaning of love, truth, peace and death which serve as inputs in understanding spirituality as a transformative agent of the society. The selected writings consider the direct union of the human soul with the Divine through contemplation, meditation, prayer and love as the end of these mystics’ philosophy. For in these selected prose and poetry manifest their mystical attitude and the spiritual truth that the meaning of human existence is the mindful and enlightened manifestation of love as the core of human life and the divine supreme law that guides humanity. The spiritual manifestations of human existence find their noblest expressions and exemplifications on their lives and works. There surfaces a unifying thread interwoven in all their works which centers on the constant and balanced yearning of men to be united with the Divine. These inputs serve as a new paradigm in understanding spirituality as a transformative agent of society.

  8. Co-prescription of gastroprotective agents in patients taking non-selective NSAIDs or COX-2 selective inhibitors: analysis of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasina, L; Nobili, A; Tettamanti, M; Riva, E; Lucca, U; Piccinelli, R; Defendi, L; Perego, L; Lucifora, S; Bulla, C

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of co-prescription of GPAs (proton pump inhibitors - PPIs and H2-receptor antagonists) and non-selective NSAIDs or COXIBs in patients registered under the local health authority (LHA) of Bergamo, a city in the north of Italy. A drug utilization analysis was done using the Bergamo prescription Health Services Electronic Database. All patients aged 35 years or older who had received at least one prescription during 2004 for non-selective NSAIDs and/or COXIBs were divided into three groups: occasional, chronic and new users. Among chronic users, 44.8% were treated with non-selective NSAIDs, 11.6% with COXIBs, and 43.6% with both (mixed NSAIDs). For new users, non-selective NSAIDs were prescribed to 82.7%, COXIBs and mixed NSAIDs to 10.8% and 6.5%. PPIs were co-prescribed to 7.1% of COXIB users and 5.8% of non-selective NSAID occasional users. Among chronic users, the figures were 15.6% and 14%. For new users, prescriptions for COXIBs were associated with less use of GPA for patients who received the first and last prescription for NSAIDs and GPAs on the same day, while for patients who became chronic users COXIBs did not reduce the probability of co-prescription of a GPA: the number of co-prescribed medications and antithrombotics or corticosteroids were independent predictors of GPA use. COXIBs seem to be used in patients at high risk of GI toxicity. However, the fear of GI adverse reactions and the uncertain safety profile of COXIBs leads many physicians to boost the gastroprotection by prescribing a PPI.

  9. A whole-cell phenotypic screening platform for identifying methylerythritol phosphate pathway-selective inhibitors as novel antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Charles A; Johnson, L Jeffrey

    2012-09-01

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential for survival of all living organisms. More than 50,000 unique isoprenoids occur naturally, with each constructed from two simple five-carbon precursors: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Two pathways for the biosynthesis of IPP and DMAPP are found in nature. Humans exclusively use the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, while most bacteria, including all Gram-negative and many Gram-positive species, use the unrelated methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here we report the development of a novel, whole-cell phenotypic screening platform to identify compounds that selectively inhibit the MEP pathway. Strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were engineered to have separately inducible MEP (native) and MVA (nonnative) pathways. These strains, RMC26 and CT31-7d, were then used to differentiate MVA pathway- and MEP pathway-specific perturbation. Compounds that inhibit MEP pathway-dependent bacterial growth but leave MVA-dependent growth unaffected represent MEP pathway-selective antibacterials. This screening platform offers three significant results. First, the compound is antibacterial and is therefore cell permeant, enabling access to the intracellular target. Second, the compound inhibits one or more MEP pathway enzymes. Third, the MVA pathway is unaffected, suggesting selectivity for targeting the bacterial versus host pathway. The cell lines also display increased sensitivity to two reported MEP pathway-specific inhibitors, further biasing the platform toward inhibitors selective for the MEP pathway. We demonstrate development of a robust, high-throughput screening platform that combines phenotypic and target-based screening that can identify MEP pathway-selective antibacterials simply by monitoring optical density as the readout for cell growth/inhibition.

  10. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Literacy Text Selections in Secondary School Classrooms: Exploring the Practices of English Teachers as Agents of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Holloway

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how Ontario secondary school English teachers make choices about which literature to teach in their courses. This will be done in order to more deeply understand why many secondary school teachers may or may not encourage students to read contemporary, social issue texts. This paper uses a critical sociology of schooling theoretical perspective to critique the study's findings. We examine the relation between policies and practice, the issue of resources and structural barriers, and how decisions are made around literary text choices. Some themes that emerged out of the interviews focus on a range of views expressed about personal agency, literary canons, gender, sexual orientation, and racism as central issues that shape text selection. We conclude by arguing for the need for policy to support individual teachers to take risks in their professional ability to select and teach contemporary social issues texts to high school students in all disciplines.

  12. Salinity Is an Agent of Divergent Selection Driving Local Adaptation of Arabidopsis to Coastal Habitats1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teres, Joana; Bomblies, Kirsten; Douglas, Alex; Salt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution in plants provides insights into the selective forces driving adaptation and the genetic basis of adaptive traits with agricultural value. The genomic resources available for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) make it well suited to the rapid molecular dissection of adaptive processes. Although numerous potentially adaptive loci have been identified in Arabidopsis, the consequences of divergent selection and migration (both important aspects of the process of local adaptation) for Arabidopsis are not well understood. Here, we use a multiyear field-based reciprocal transplant experiment to detect local populations of Arabidopsis composed of multiple small stands of plants (demes) that are locally adapted to the coast and adjacent inland habitats in northeastern Spain. We identify fitness tradeoffs between plants from these different habitats when grown together in inland and coastal common gardens and also, under controlled conditions in soil excavated from coastal and inland sites. Plants from the coastal habitat also outperform those from inland when grown under high salinity, indicating local adaptation to soil salinity. Sodium can be toxic to plants, and we find its concentration to be elevated in soil and plants sampled at the coast. We conclude that the local adaptation that we observe between adjacent coastal and inland populations is caused by ongoing divergent selection driven by the differential salinity between coastal and inland soils. PMID:26034264

  13. Identification of human-selective analogues of the vascular-disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijono, S M; Guo, K; Henare, K; Palmer, B D; Wang, L-C S; Albelda, S M; Ching, L-M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Species selectivity of DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, Vadimezan) for murine cells over human cells could explain in part the recent disappointing phase III trials clinical results when preclinical studies were so promising. To identify analogues with greater human clinical potential, we compared the activity of xanthenone-4-acetic acid (XAA) analogues in murine or human cellular models. Methods: Analogues with a methyl group systematically substituted at different positions of the XAA backbone were evaluated for cytokine induction in cultured murine or human leukocytes; and for anti-vascular effects on endothelial cells on matrigel. In vivo antitumour activity and cytokine production by stromal or cancer cells was measured in human A375 and HCT116 xenografts. Results: Mono-methyl XAA analogues with substitutions at the seventh and eighth positions were the most active in stimulating human leukocytes to produce IL-6 and IL-8; and for inhibition of tube formation by ECV304 human endothelial-like cells, while 5- and 6-substituted analogues were the most active in murine cell systems. Conclusion: Xanthenone-4-acetic acid analogues exhibit extreme species selectivity. Analogues that are the most active in human systems are inactive in murine models, highlighting the need for the use of appropriate in vivo animal models in selecting clinical candidates for this class of compounds. PMID:23481185

  14. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain.

  15. Ecosystem engineers as selective agents: the effects of leaf litter on emergence time and early growth in Impatiens capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Schmitt, Johanna

    2006-03-01

    By physically modifying the abiotic environment, ecosystem engineers can have dramatic effects on the distribution and abundance of species in a community. However, ecosystem engineering can also change the selective environment and evolutionary dynamics of affected species, although this remains relatively understudied. Here, we examine the potential for an ecosystem engineer - oak trees - to affect the evolutionary dynamics of the herbaceous, understory annual, Impatiens capensis, through leaf litter deposition. Using a quantitative genetic experimental approach, we found that: (i) the presence of leaf litter significantly affected a suite of germination, growth and phenological traits in I. capensis; (ii) I. capensis does not exhibit performance trade-offs across litter and bare soil environments in the form of negative across-environment genetic correlations; (iii) the presence or absence of leaf litter significantly alters the pattern of natural selection germination timing and hypocotyl length; and (iv) the frequency of leaf litter environments can dramatically change which combinations of hypocotyl length lead to highest mean fitness across both bare soil and leaf litter environments. More generally, our results demonstrate the potential for ecosystem engineers to alter both the ecological and the evolutionary dynamics of the species they affect.

  16. SINE (selective inhibitor of nuclear export)--translational science in a new class of anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecitano, John

    2014-10-04

    Regulation of protein trafficking between the nucleus and cytoplasm represents a novel control point for antineoplastic intervention. Several proteins involved with cellular growth and survival depend on precise and timely positioning within the cell to fulfill their functions, and the nuclear membrane defines one of the most important compartmental barriers. Chromosome Region Maintenance 1, or exportin-1 (CRM1/XPO1), is involved with the export of more than 200 nuclear proteins, and has intriguingly been shown to have an increased expression in several tumor cell types. Selinexor (KPT-330) is a first-in-class selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) to be developed for clinical use. Preclinical data has demonstrated antineoplastic activity of SINE compounds in many human solid and hematologic malignancies. The clinical development of Selinexor provides an excellent model for translational research.

  17. Consideration of the Role of Plasma in a Plasma-Coupled Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides with a Hydrocarbon Reducing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong Ju Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain how plasma improves the performance of selective catalytic reduction (SCR of nitrogen oxides (NOx with a hydrocarbon reducing agent. In the plasma-coupled SCR process, NOx reduction was performed with n-heptane as a reducing agent over Ag/γ-Al2O3 as a catalyst. We found that the plasma decomposes n-heptane into several oxygen-containing products such as acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde, which are more reactive than the parent molecule n-heptane in the SCR process. Separate sets of experiments using acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde, one by one, as a reductant in the absence of plasma, have clearly shown that the presence of these partially oxidized compounds greatly enhanced the NOx conversion. The higher the discharge voltage, the more the amounts of such partially oxidized products. The oxidative species produced by the plasma easily converted NO into NO2, but the increase of the NO2 fraction was found to decrease the NOx conversion. Consequently, it can be concluded that the main role of plasma in the SCR process is to produce partially oxidized compounds (aldehydes, having better reducing power. The catalyst-alone NOx removal efficiency with n-heptane at 250 °C was measured to be less than 8%, but it increased to 99% in the presence of acetaldehyde at the same temperature. The NOx removal efficiency with the aldehyde reducing agent was higher as the number of carbons in the aldehyde was more; for example, the NOx removal efficiencies at 200 °C with butyraldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured to be 83.5%, 58.0% and 61.5%, respectively, which were far above the value (3% obtained with n-heptane.

  18. Exception handling for sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, G. T.; Murphy, Robin R.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a control scheme for handling sensing failures (sensor malfunctions, significant degradations in performance due to changes in the environment, and errant expectations) in sensor fusion for autonomous mobile robots. The advantages of the exception handling mechanism are that it emphasizes a fast response to sensing failures, is able to use only a partial causal model of sensing failure, and leads to a graceful degradation of sensing if the sensing failure cannot be compensated for. The exception handling mechanism consists of two modules: error classification and error recovery. The error classification module in the exception handler attempts to classify the type and source(s) of the error using a modified generate-and-test procedure. If the source of the error is isolated, the error recovery module examines its cache of recovery schemes, which either repair or replace the current sensing configuration. If the failure is due to an error in expectation or cannot be identified, the planner is alerted. Experiments using actual sensor data collected by the CSM Mobile Robotics/Machine Perception Laboratory's Denning mobile robot demonstrate the operation of the exception handling mechanism.

  19. Exceptional cognitive ability: the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, David

    2009-07-01

    Characterizing the outcomes related to the phenotype of exceptional cognitive abilities has been feasible in recent years due to the availability of large samples of intellectually precocious adolescents identified by modern talent searches that have been followed-up longitudinally over multiple decades. The level and pattern of cognitive abilities, even among participants within the top 1% of general intellectual ability, are related to differential developmental trajectories and important life accomplishments: The likelihood of earning a doctorate, earning exceptional compensation, publishing novels, securing patents, and earning tenure at a top university (and the academic disciplines within which tenure is most likely to occur) all vary as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities assessed decades earlier. Individual differences that distinguish the able (top 1 in 100) from the exceptionally able (top 1 in 10,000) during early adolescence matter in life, and, given the heritability of general intelligence, they suggest that understanding the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional abilities should be a high priority for behavior genetic research, especially because the results for extreme groups could differ from the rest of the population. In addition to enhancing our understanding of the etiology of general intelligence at the extreme, such inquiry may also reveal fundamental determinants of specific abilities, like mathematical versus verbal reasoning, and the distinctive phenotypes that contrasting ability patterns are most likely to eventuate in at extraordinary levels.

  20. 78 FR 4881 - Excepted Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... Executive Resources Services, Executive Resources and Employee Development, Employee Services, 202- 606-2246.../2012 Headquarters Services. Office of Assistant Speechwriter......... DD130012 11/9/2012 Secretary of...

  1. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  2. Learned Helplessness in Exceptional Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Herman B.; Kowitz, Gerald T.

    The research literature on learned helplessness in exceptional children is reviewed and the authors' efforts to identify and retrain learning disabled (LD) children who have characteristics typical of learned helplessness are reported. Twenty-eight elementary aged LD children viewed as "learned helpless" were randomly assigned to one of four…

  3. Serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Kai; Hamblin, Christopher; Jung, Sandra; Ostrowski, Stéphane; Mwanzia, Jacob; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Anderson, John; Armstrong, Robert M; Anajariyah, Saud

    2005-01-01

    A total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) distributed in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. Arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, equine herpesvirus 9, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The high seroprevalence to BTV and EHDV in the UAE and SA indicates that Arabian oryx are likely to be susceptible to infection by these viruses and therefore could act as a source of virus to vectors during the infective stage of infection. Moreover, antibodies were detected against RPV and BRSV in sera from SA and against BAV-3 in sera from the UAE. No antibodies were found against bovine herpesvirus-1, caprine herpesvirus-1, enzootic bovine leucosis virus, and peste des petits ruminants virus. On the basis of these results, caution should be applied when considering translocation of Arabian oryx, and only those proven to be free of infectious agents that might present a risk to other species should be moved.

  4. Characterisation of selected active agents regarding pKa values, solubility concentrations and pH profiles by SiriusT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr, D; Wollatz, U; Haznar-Garbacz, D; Hanke, U; Box, K J; Taylor, R; Ruiz, R; Beato, S; Becker, D; Weitschies, W

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine pKa values and solubility properties of 34active agents using the SiriusT3 apparatus. The selected drug substances belong to the groups of ACE-inhibitors, β-blockers, antidiabetics and lipid lowering substances. Experimentally obtained pKa and intrinsic solubility values were compared to calculated values (program ACD/ChemSketch) and pKa values to published data as well. Solubility-pH profiles were generated to visualise the substance solubility over the gastrointestinal pH range. The relationship between the solubility characteristic of a substance, its bioavailability and categorisation according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was examined as well. The results showed a good agreement between experimentally obtained, calculated and published pKa values. The measured and calculated intrinsic solubility values indicated several major deviations. All solubility-pH profiles showed the expected shape and appearance for acids, bases or zwitterionic substances. The obtained results for the pKa and solubility measurements of the examined active agents may help to predict their physicochemical behaviour in vivo, and to understand the bioavailability of the substances according to their BCS categorisation. The easy and reproducible determination of pKa and solubility values makes the SiriusT3 apparatus a useful tool in early stages of drug and formulation development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori to selected agents by agar dilution method in Shiraz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohanteb J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Helicobacter pylori isolates from patients with gastritis, duodenal ulcer (DU and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD residing in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: One hundred and six H. pylori isolates from patients with gastritis, DU and GERD undergoing endoscopy at our university hospitals and clinics were analysed for their antimicrobial susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and furazolidone. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by agar dilution method. Results: Overall H. pylori resistance rate was 72.6% to metronidazole, 9.4% to clarithromycin and furazolidone, 20.8% to amoxicillin and 4.7% to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. No resistance to co-amoxiclav was detected among H. pylori isolates. No significant differences between antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcome were detected. Conclusions: With regard to the increasing resistance of H. pylori isolates to various antibiotics, susceptibility testing of H. pylori isolates prior to the treatment of infection must be performed to achieve better eradication and to reduce the risk of selection of H. pylori resistant strains.

  6. Indirect complexometric determination of mercury(II in synthetic alloys and complexes using ethanethiol as a selective masking agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. KARTHIKEYAN

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Acomplexometric method for the determination of mercury(II in presence of other metal ions, based on the selective masking action of ethanethiol towards mercury(II is described. Mercury(II present in a given sample solution is first complexed with an excess of EDTAand the unreacted EDTAis titrated against zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer using xylenol orange as the indicator. An excess of a 0.3 % solution of ethanethiol is then added to displace EDTA from the Hg(II–EDTA complex. The released EDTAis titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 4–85 mg of mercury(II with a relative error of less than ± 0.46 % and coefficient of variation of not more than 0.47 %. The effects of the presence of various ions were studied. The method can be used for the analysis of mercury in its synthetic alloy mixtures and also in complexes.

  7. Heart rate in the pathophysiology of coronary blood flow and myocardial ischaemia: benefit from selective bradycardic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, G

    2008-01-01

    Starting out from a brief description of the determinants of coronary blood flow (perfusion, pressure, extravascular compression, autoregulation, metabolic regulation, endothelium-mediated regulation and neurohumoral regulation) the present review highlights the overwhelming importance of metabolic regulation such that coronary blood flow is increased at increased heart rate under physiological circumstances and the overwhelming importance of extravascular compression such that coronary blood flow is decreased at increased heart rate through reduction of diastolic duration in the presence of severe coronary stenoses. The review goes on to characterize the role of heart rate in the redistribution of regional myocardial blood flow between a normal coronary vascular tree with preserved autoregulation and a poststenotic vasculature with exhausted coronary reserve. When flow is normalized by heart rate, there is a consistent close relationship of regional myocardial blood flow and contractile function for each single cardiac cycle no matter whether or not there is a coronary stenosis and what the actual blood flow is. β-Blockade improves both flow and function along this relationship. When the heart rate reduction associated with β-blockade is prevented by pacing, α-adrenergic coronary vasoconstriction is unmasked and both flow and function are deteriorated. Selective heart rate reduction, however, improves both flow and function without any residual negative effect such as unmasked α-adrenergic coronary vasoconstriction or negative inotropic action. PMID:18223669

  8. Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-05-01

    Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements.Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children protein density.Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection and intestinal dysfunction on the children's protein requirements could modify this conclusion.

  9. Selective inhibition of MBNL1-CCUG interaction by small molecules toward potential therapeutic agents for myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Ho; Fu, Yuan; Ramisetty, Sreenivasa Rao; Baranger, Anne M; Zimmerman, Steven C

    2011-11-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is an incurable neuromuscular disease caused by expanded CCUG repeats that may exhibit toxicity by sequestering the splicing regulator MBNL1. A series of triaminotriazine- and triaminopyrimidine-based small molecules (ligands 1-3) were designed, synthesized and tested as inhibitors of the MBNL1-CCUG interaction. Despite the structural similarities of the triaminotriazine and triaminopyrimidine units, the triaminopyrimidine-based ligands bind with low micromolar affinity to CCUG repeats (K(d) ∼ 0.1-3.6 µM) whereas the triaminotriazine ligands do not bind CCUG repeats. Importantly, these simple and small triaminopyrimidine ligands exhibit both strong inhibition (K(i) ∼ 2 µM) of the MBNL1-CCUG interaction and high selectivity for CCUG repeats over other RNA targets. These experiments suggest these compounds are potential lead agents for the treatment of DM2.

  10. Isolation and selection of coliphages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (EHEC and STEC) in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, C; De Urraza, P J

    2010-09-01

    To isolate, characterize and select phages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (EHEC and STEC) in cattle. Sixteen STEC and EHEC coliphages were isolated from bovine minced meat and stool samples and characterized with respect to their host range against STEC, EHEC and other Gram-negative pathogens; their morphology by electron microscopy; the presence of the stx1, stx2 and cI genes by means of PCR; RAPD and rep-PCR profiles; plaque formation; and acid resistance. Six isolates belonged to the Myoviridae and 10 to the Podoviridae families. The phages negative for stx and cI that formed large, well-defined plaques were all isolated using EHEC O157:H7 as host. Among them, only CA911 was a myophage and, together with CA933P, had the broadest host range for STEC and EHEC; the latter phage also infected Shigella and Pseudomonas. Isolates CA911, MFA933P and MFA45D differed in particle morphology and amplification patterns by RAPD and rep-PCR and showed the highest acidity tolerance. Myophage CA911 and podophages CA933P, MFA933P and MFA45D were chosen as the best candidates for biocontrol of STEC and EHEC in cattle. This work employs steps for a rational selection and characterization of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents. This report constitutes the first documentation of STEC and EHEC phages isolated in Argentina and proposes for the first time the use of rep-PCR as a complement of RAPD on DNA fingerprinting of phages. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Tumour tissue selectivity in the uptake and retention of SN 28049, a new topoisomerase II-directed anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukka, Pradeep B; Chen, Ying Yi; Finlay, Graeme J; Joseph, Wayne R; Richardson, Emma; Paxton, James W; Baguley, Bruce C

    2013-11-01

    A variety of anticancer drugs, including doxorubicin and mitoxantrone, have structures in which a DNA-intercalating chromophore is linked to a positively charged side chain. These drugs generally inhibit tumour growth and survival by poisoning the enzyme DNA topoisomerase II. SN 28049, a benzonaphthyridine derivative with these properties, has curative activity against the Colon 38 tumour in mice. Previous pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated tumour-selective retention with approximately 20-fold higher area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for tumour tissue as compared to normal tissues. We have investigated here whether such retention is tumour specific. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics were assessed in the murine Lewis lung (LL3) tumour in C57 BL/6 mice and in xenografts of the NZM4, NZM10 and NZM52 human melanoma lines in Balb/c Rag-1 immunodeficient mice. The in vitro cellular localisation of SN 28049 in murine and human cell lines was studied by confocal fluorescence microscopy. A 260-fold variation, from 8.9 μM h (NZM4) to 2,334 μM h (Colon 38), was found among the different tumours. Only small variations were observed in the corresponding plasma AUC (2.9-5 μM h). Moreover, in vivo activity, as measured by tumour growth delay, varied from 1 day (NZM4) to curative (Colon 38), consistent with the tumour pharmacokinetic data. In cultured cell lines, SN 28049 was found in cytoplasmic bodies, suggesting that drug sequestration could contribute to tumour pharmacokinetics. SN 28049 shows dramatic differences in both tumour AUC and antitumour activity against different tumours. These differences point to the presence of a tumour-specific uptake and retention mechanism.

  12. Rev1 and Polzeta influence toxicity and mutagenicity of Me-lex, a sequence selective N3-adenine methylating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Paola; Ciribilli, Yari; Russo, Debora; Bisio, Alessandra; Perfumo, Chiara; Andreotti, Virginia; Menichini, Paola; Inga, Alberto; Huang, Xiaofen; Gold, Barry; Fronza, Gilberto

    2008-03-01

    The relative toxicity and mutagenicity of Me-lex, which selectively generates 3-methyladenine (3-MeA), is dependent on the nature of the DNA repair background. Base excision repair (BER)-defective S. cerevisiae strains mag1 and apn1apn2 were both significantly more sensitive to Me-lex toxicity, but only the latter is significantly more prone to Me-lex-induced mutagenesis. To examine the contribution of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in the bypass of Me-lex-induced lesions, the REV3 and REV1 genes were independently deleted in the parental yeast strain and in different DNA repair-deficient derivatives: the nucleotide excision repair (NER)-deficient rad14, and the BER-deficient mag1 or apn1apn2 strains. The strains contained an integrated ADE2 reporter gene under control of the transcription factor p53. A centromeric yeast expression vector containing the wild-type p53 cDNA was treated in vitro with increasing concentrations of Me-lex and transformed into the different yeast strains. The toxicity of Me-lex-induced lesions was evaluated based on the plasmid transformation efficiency compared to the untreated vector, while Me-lex mutagenicity was assessed using the p53 reporter assay. In the present study, we demonstrate that disruption of Polzeta (through deletion of its catalytic subunit coded by REV3) or Rev1 (by REV1 deletion) increased Me-lex lethality and decreased Me-lex mutagenicity in both the NER-defective (rad14) and BER-defective (mag1; apn1apn2) strains. Therefore, Polzeta and Rev1 contribute to resistance of the lethal effects of Me-lex-induced lesions (3-MeA and derived AP sites) by bypassing lesions and fixing some mutations.

  13. A Collective Case Study of Secondary Students' Model-Based Inquiry on Natural Selection through Programming in an Agent-Based Modeling Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lin

    This is a collective case study seeking to develop detailed descriptions of how programming an agent-based simulation influences a group of 8 th grade students' model-based inquiry (MBI) by examining students' agent-based programmable modeling (ABPM) processes and the learning outcomes. The context of the present study was a biology unit on natural selection implemented in a charter school of a major California city during spring semester of 2009. Eight 8th grade students, two boys and six girls, participated in this study. All of them were low socioeconomic status (SES). English was a second language for all of them, but they had been identified as fluent English speakers at least a year before the study. None of them had learned either natural selection or programming before the study. The study spanned over 7 weeks and was comprised of two study phases. In phase one the subject students learned natural selection in science classroom and how to do programming in NetLogo, an ABPM tool, in a computer lab; in phase two, the subject students were asked to program a simulation of adaptation based on the natural selection model in NetLogo. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected in this study. The data resources included (1) pre and post test questionnaire, (2) student in-class worksheet, (3) programming planning sheet, (4) code-conception matching sheet, (5) student NetLogo projects, (6) videotaped programming processes, (7) final interview, and (8) investigator's field notes. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied to analyze the gathered data. The findings suggested that students made progress on understanding adaptation phenomena and natural selection at the end of ABPM-supported MBI learning but the progress was limited. These students still held some misconceptions in their conceptual models, such as the idea that animals need to "learn" to adapt into the environment. Besides, their models of natural selection appeared to be

  14. Transfection Agent Induced Nanoparticle Cell Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Montet-Abou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Loading cells with magnetic nanoparticles, and tracking their fate in vivo by high resolution MRI, is an attractive approach for enhancing the efficacy of cell-based therapies including those utilizing hematopoietic stem cells, neuroprogenitor cells, and T cells. The transfection agent (internalization agent assisted loading with the Feridex IV® nanoparticle is an attractive method of loading because of the low cost of materials, and possible low regulatory barriers for eventual clinical use. We therefore explored the interaction between Feridex IV® and three internalization agents protamine (PRO, polylysine (PLL, and lipofectamine (LFA. Feridex reacted with internalization agents to form aggregates, except when either the internalization agent or Feridex was present in large excess. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with Feridex/LFA or Feridex/PRO mixtures, and washed by centrifugation, nanoparticle aggregates co-purified with cells. With C17.2 cells large iron oxide particles adhered to the cell surface. At 30 μg/mL Feridex and 3 μg/mL LFA, internalization was largely mediated by LFA and was largely cytoplasmic. However, we found that the conditions used to label cells with Feridex and transfection agents need to be carefully selected to avoid the problems of surface adsorption and nanoparticle precipitation.

  15. Antimicrobial and anti-Quorum Sensing activities of selected medicinal plants of Ethiopia: Implication for development of potent antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Ketema; Tariku, Yinebeb; Gebreyesus, Fisseha; Zerihun, Shibru; Mohammed, Ali; Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Schmitz, Ruth A; Mulat, Mulugeta

    2016-07-11

    Traditional medicinal plants have been used as an alternative medicine in many parts of the world, including Ethiopia. There are many documented scientific reports on antimicrobial activities of the same. To our knowledge, however, there is no report on the anti-Quorum Sensing (Quorum Quenching, QQ) potential of traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants. As many of the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria depend on Quorum Sensing (QS) systems to coordinate their virulence expression, interference with QS could be a novel approach to control bacterial infections. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate selected medicinal plants from Ethiopia for their antimicrobial activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens; and to assess the interference of these plant extracts with QS of bacteria. Antimicrobial activities of plant extracts (oil, resins and crude extracts) were evaluated following standard agar diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of potent extracts were determined using 96 well micro-titer plates and optical densities were measured using an ELISA Microplate reader. Interference with Quorum Sensing activities of extracts was determined using the recently established E. coli based reporter strain AI1-QQ.1 and signaling molecule N-(ß-ketocaproyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). Petroleum ether extract of seed of Nigella sativa exhibited the highest activity against both the laboratory isolated Bacillus cereus [inhibition zone (IZ), 44 ± 0.31 mm] and B. cereus ATCC 10987 (IZ, 40 ± 2.33 mm). Similarly, oil extract from mature ripe fruit husk of Aframomum corrorima and mature unripe fruit of A. corrorima revealed promising activities against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 (IZ, 35 ± 1.52 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus DSM 346 (IZ, 25 ± 1.32 mm), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of oil extract from husk of A. corrorima and petroleum ether extract of seed of N. sativa were significantly higher than that of

  16. The Exceptional State in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    China's relations with African states have undergone significant changes in recent years. China has projected its relationship with Africa as one of equality and ‘mutual help’. Such perceptions of foreign policy stem from the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the shared experience...... of imperialist domination and economic underdevelopment. Moreover, various public statements by China's elites suggest that China is expected to play a much more prominent, even exceptional role in Africa. This purportedly entails moving beyond the hegemonic West's interventionist aid or security policies......, and is also implicitly designed to highlight the West's shortcomings in promoting African economic growth or peace. Yet where does this perception of exceptionalism come from? Why does Beijing feel that it has to play a leading role in Africa's development? How can Beijing distinguish itself from the nations...

  17. Geometric phase around exceptional points

    OpenAIRE

    Mailybaev, Alexei; Kirillov, Oleg; Seyranian, Alexander,

    2005-01-01

    A wave function picks up, in addition to the dynamic phase, the geometric (Berry) phase when traversing adiabatically a closed cycle in parameter space. We develop a general multidimensional theory of the geometric phase for (double) cycles around exceptional degeneracies in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We show that the geometric phase is exactly $\\pi$ for symmetric complex Hamiltonians of arbitrary dimension and for nonsymmetric non-Hermitian Hamiltonians of dimension 2. For nonsymmetric non-...

  18. [Influence of combined lacto-vegetarian diet and selective beta-blocking agents on clinical and metabolic indices in patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieromuzo, A A; Medkova, I L; Nemytin, Iu V; Ivanov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Clinical, hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were investigated for 42 patients with coronary heart disease, after myocardial infarct, recieved selective beta-adrenoblockers. Patients were divided in two groups. The first group (24 patients) were given methoprolol (50 mg/daily) and antiatherogenic lacto vegetarian diet, the second (18 patients)--methoprolol (50 mg/daily) and standard mixed antiatherogenic diet. After the treatment, positive changes clinical and gemodynamic parameters were observed in both groups of patients. Among the clinical symptoms, a more pronounced decrease in blood pressure in the patients on vegetarian diet and a more significant increase in their exercise tolerance. The level of total cholesterol on the serum of blood decreased by 16%, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol decreased by 18%, the atherogenic coefficient (KA) decreased by 31%, only in vegetarian group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in vegetarian group, by 14% and decreased in control group. Balanced antiatherogenic lacto vegetarian diet in patients with coronary heart disease prevents the hyperlipedemic effect caused by the selective beta-adrenoblockers and it is an agent for preventing its negative effect on lipid metabolism.

  19. Synthesis of ent-BE-43547A1 reveals a potent hypoxia-selective anticancer agent and uncovers the biosynthetic origin of the APD-CLD natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Nikolaj L.; Jacobsen, Kristian M.; Keiding, Ulrik B.; Weibel, Esben T.; Christiansen, Bjørn; Vosegaard, Thomas; Bjerring, Morten; Jensen, Frank; Johannsen, Mogens; Tørring, Thomas; Poulsen, Thomas B.

    2017-03-01

    Tumour hypoxia is speculated to be a key driver of therapeutic resistance and metastatic dissemination. Consequently, the discovery of new potent agents that selectively target the hypoxic cell population may reveal new and untapped antitumour mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the BE-43547 subclass of the APD-CLD (amidopentadienoate-containing cyclolipodepsipeptides) natural products possesses highly hypoxia-selective growth-inhibitory activity against pancreatic cancer cells. To enable this discovery, we have developed the first synthesis of the BE-43547-macrocyclic scaffold in 16 steps (longest linear sequence), which also allowed access to the full panel of relative stereoisomers and ultimately to the assignment of stereochemical configuration. Discrepancies between the spectroscopic signatures of the synthetic compounds with that originally reported for the BE-43547 members stimulated us to re-isolate the natural product from a BE-43547-producing microorganism during which we elucidated the biosynthetic gene clusters for the BE-43547 family as well as for all other known APD-CLDs. Our studies underline the exciting possibilities for the further development of the anticancer activities of these natural products.

  20. CMS : An exceptional load for an exceptional work site

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Components of the CMS vacuum tank have been delivered to the detector assembly site at Cessy. The complete inner shell was delivered to CERN by special convoy while the outer shell is being assembled in situ. The convoy transporting the inner shell of the CMS vacuum tank took a week to cover the distance between Lons-le-Saunier and Point 5 at Cessy. Left: the convoy making its way down from the Col de la Faucille. With lights flashing, flanked by police outriders and with roads temporarily closed, the exceptional load that passed through the Pays de Gex on Monday 20 May was accorded the same VIP treatment as a leading state dignitary. But this time it was not the identity of the passenger but the exceptional size of the object being transported that made such arrangements necessary. A convoy of two lorries was needed to transport the load, an enormous 13-metre long, 6 metre diameter cylinder weighing 120 tonnes. It took a week to cover the 120 kilometres between Lons-le-Saunier and the assembly site for...

  1. Exceptional groups from open strings

    OpenAIRE

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Zwiebach, Barton

    1997-01-01

    We consider type IIB theory compactified on a two-sphere in the presence of mutually nonlocal 7-branes. The BPS states associated with the gauge vectors of exceptional groups are seen to arise from open strings connecting the 7-branes, and multi-pronged open strings capable of ending on more than two 7-branes. These multi-pronged strings are built from open string junctions that arise naturally when strings cross 7-branes. The different string configurations can be multiplied as traditional o...

  2. Exceptional Family Member Program EFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    patient facilities. e6 Points of Contact for the Exceptional Family Member Program ’ American Cleft Palate National Association for Foundation Alzheimer’s 1...area, D 0 Contact the Easter Seal Society regarding the Early Intervention Program for infants with special needs. 3 0 "!i I . . Other’Resources...800-24- CLEFT - (412) 481-1370 1-800-272-3900 -- (312) 335-8700 American Liver Foundation National Cancer Institute 1-800-223-0171) - (201) 256-2550 1

  3. Exceptional geometry and Borcherds superalgebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmkvist, Jakob [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    We study generalized diffeomorphisms in exceptional geometry with U-duality group E{sub n(n)} from an algebraic point of view. By extending the Lie algebra e{sub n} to an infinite-dimensional Borcherds superalgebra, involving also the extension to e{sub n+1}, the generalized Lie derivatives can be expressed in a simple way, and the expressions take the same form for any n≤7. The closure of the transformations then follows from the Jacobi identity and the grading of e{sub n+1} with respect to e{sub n}.

  4. Exceptional geometry and Borcherds superalgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmkvist, Jakob

    2015-11-01

    We study generalized diffeomorphisms in exceptional geometry with U-duality group E n( n) from an algebraic point of view. By extending the Lie algebra {e}_n to an infinite-dimensional Borcherds superalgebra, involving also the extension to {e}_{n+1} , the generalized Lie derivatives can be expressed in a simple way, and the expressions take the same form for any n ≤ 7. The closure of the transformations then follows from the Jacobi identity and the grading of {e}_{n+1} with respect to {e}_n.

  5. Loops in exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossard, Guillaume [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,91128 Palaiseau cedex (France); Kleinschmidt, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Am Mühlenberg 1, DE-14476 Potsdam (Germany); International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, BE-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-01-27

    We study certain four-graviton amplitudes in exceptional field theory in dimensions D≥4 up to two loops. As the formulation is manifestly invariant under the U-duality group E{sub 11−D}(ℤ), our resulting expressions can be expressed in terms of automorphic forms. In the low energy expansion, we find terms in the M-theory effective action of type R{sup 4}, ∇{sup 4}R{sup 4} and ∇{sup 6}R{sup 4} with automorphic coefficient functions in agreement with independent derivations from string theory. This provides in particular an explicit integral formula for the exact string theory ∇{sup 6}R{sup 4} threshold function. We exhibit moreover that the usual supergravity logarithmic divergences cancel out in the full exceptional field theory amplitude, within an appropriately defined dimensional regularisation scheme. We also comment on terms of higher derivative order and the role of the section constraint for possible counterterms.

  6. Cancer Treatment with Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Agents: Is PD-L1 Expression a Biomarker for Patient Selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festino, Lucia; Botti, Gerardo; Lorigan, Paul; Masucci, Giuseppe V; Hipp, Jason D; Horak, Christine E; Melero, Ignacio; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to help improve the efficacy of the immune system against cancer represent an important innovation, with recent attention having focused on anti-programmed death (PD)-1/PD-ligand 1 (L1) monoclonal antibodies. Clinical trials have shown objective clinical activity of these agents (e.g., nivolumab, pembrolizumab) in several malignancies, including melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, squamous head and neck cancer, renal cell cancer, ovarian cancer, microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Expression of PD-L1 in the tumor microenvironment appears to be crucial for therapeutic activity, and initial trials suggested positive PD-L1 tumor expression was associated with higher response rates. However, subsequent observations have questioned the prospect of using PD-L1 expression as a biomarker for selecting patients for therapy, especially since many patients considered PD-L1-negative experience a benefit from treatment. Importantly, there is not yet a definitive test for determination of PD-L1 and a cut-off reference for PD-L1-positive status has not been established. Immunohistochemistry with different antibodies and different thresholds has been used to define PD-L1 positivity (1-50 %), with no clear superiority of one threshold over another for identifying which patients respond. Moreover, the type of cells on which PD-L1 expression is most relevant is not yet clear, with immune infiltrate cells and tumor cells both being used. In conclusion, while PD-L1 expression is often a predictive factor for treatment response, it must be complemented by other biomarkers or histopathologic features, such as the composition and amount of inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment and their functional status. Multi-parameter quantitative or semi-quantitative algorithms may become useful and reliable tools to guide patient selection.

  7. 42 CFR 423.578 - Exceptions process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions process. 423.578 Section 423.578 Public..., Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.578 Exceptions process. (a) Requests for exceptions to a plan's tiered... sponsor may design its exception process so that very high cost or unique drugs are not eligible for a...

  8. Sequence-selective interaction of the minor-groove interstrand cross-linking agent SJG-136 with naked and cellular DNA: footprinting and enzyme inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris; Ellis, Tom; McGurk, Claire J; Jenkins, Terence C; Hartley, John A; Waring, Michael J; Thurston, David E

    2005-03-22

    from drug-treated K562 cells, confirming that the agent reaches the cellular genome and interacts with the DNA in a sequence-selective fashion. Finally, SJG-136 efficiently inhibits the action of restriction endonuclease BglII, which has a 5'-A-GATC-T-3' motif at its cleavage site.

  9. Light Stops at Exceptional Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzak, Tamar; Mailybaev, Alexei A.; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2018-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago, light was slowed down to less than 10-7 of its vacuum speed in a cloud of ultracold atoms of sodium. Upon a sudden turn-off of the coupling laser, a slow light pulse can be imprinted on cold atoms such that it can be read out and converted into a photon again. In this process, the light is stopped by absorbing it and storing its shape within the atomic ensemble. Alternatively, the light can be stopped at the band edge in photonic-crystal waveguides, where the group speed vanishes. Here, we extend the phenomenon of stopped light to the new field of parity-time (P T ) symmetric systems. We show that zero group speed in P T symmetric optical waveguides can be achieved if the system is prepared at an exceptional point, where two optical modes coalesce. This effect can be tuned for optical pulses in a wide range of frequencies and bandwidths, as we demonstrate in a system of coupled waveguides with gain and loss.

  10. A Collective Case Study of Secondary Students' Model-Based Inquiry on Natural Selection through Programming in an Agent-Based Modeling Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This is a collective case study seeking to develop detailed descriptions of how programming an agent-based simulation influences a group of 8th grade students' model-based inquiry (MBI) by examining students' agent-based programmable modeling (ABPM) processes and the learning outcomes. The context of the present study was a biology unit on…

  11. Reexamining the "Serbian exceptionalism" thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Veljko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although former Yugoslavia constituted what was widely held to be the most "promising" communist country in terms of potentials for economic reform and political democratization, Serbia remained the only East European country in which the former communist elite managed to defeat its opponents in a series of elections and preserve important elements of institutional and ideological continuity with the old system. Moreover, its regime played a conspicuous role in Yugoslavia's violent collapse. In the specialist literature, the "Serbian exceptionalism" thesis has been elaborated in a number of forms. These are critically reviewed in the first part of the paper, classifying the paradigms according to whether they emphasize: 1 Serbian traditionalist, authoritarian, and collectivist political culture, 2 the affinity between traditional Serbian national populism, Russophile anti-Westernism, and communism, 3 the exclusivist and assimilating character of Serbian nationalism, or 4 the appeals of the contemporary Serbian political elite led by S. Milošević. In the second part of the paper an alternative explanation is presented that seeks to be both interpretively adequate and causally plausible. It rests on five basic factors: 1 historical legacy (the distinctive character of the Serbian collective historical experience and the relationship between Serbian and Yugoslav identities; 2 institutional analysis (the unintended consequences of communist federalism; 3 ideology (the revival of narratives of "Serbian victimization" by Serbian intellectuals; 4 leadership and social base (the peculiar nature of Milošević's appeals in the period of the terminal crisis of communism; and 5 the role of the Diaspora (the perceived ethnic threat among Serbs in Croatia and Bosnia. .

  12. Social Factors Contributing to Exceptional Navajo Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ernest

    1977-01-01

    Factors leading to exceptionality in Navajo children are explored, reactions of Navajo families to exceptionality and mental retardation are considered, and problems in providing special education services to this population are pointed out. (SBH)

  13. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    permission of the author 14. ABSTRACT the thesis begins with the etymology of American exceptionalism and the way in which its connotation has changed...Author. ABSTRACT The thesis begins with the etymology of American exceptionalism and the way in which its connotation has changed throughout American...impact. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION I The Etymology and History of American Exceptionalism 3 CHAPTER 2: AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM, THE EARLY YEARS 7

  14. A transactional model for automatic exception handling

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Bruno Miguel Brás

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Informática apresentada à Fac. de Ciências e Tecnologia da Univ. de Coimbra Exception handling mechanisms have been around for more than 30 years. Although modern exceptions systems are not very different from the early models, the large majority of modern programming languages rely on exception handling constructs for dealing with errors and abnormal situations. Exceptions have several advantages over other error handling mechanisms, such as the return o...

  15. Modafinil as a catecholaminergic agent: empirical evidence and unanswered questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Wisor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil, in its two clinical formulations (Provigil® and Nuvigil®, is a widely prescribed wake-promoting therapeutic agent. It binds competitively to the cell membrane dopamine transporter and is dependent on catecholaminergic (dopaminergic and adrenergic signaling for its wake-promoting effects. The clinical spectrum of effects for modafinil is distinct from the effects seen with other catecholaminergic agents. Relative to other commonly used agents that act through catecholaminergic mechanisms, modafinil has a relatively low abuse potential, produces wakefulness with an attenuated compensatory sleep recovery thereafter, and does not ameliorate cataplexy in narcolepsy. These clinically relevant phenomenological differences between modafinil and agents such as amphetamines and cocaine do not eliminate catecholaminergic effects as a possible mediator of its wake-promoting action; they merely reflect its unique pharmacological profile. Modafinil is an exceptionally weak, but apparently very selective, dopamine transporter inhibitor. The pharmacodynamic response to modafinil, as measured by dopamine levels in brain microdialysate, is protracted relative to other agents that act via catecholaminergic mechanisms. The conformational constraints on the interaction of modafinil with the dopamine transporter—and probably, as a consequence, its effects on trace amine receptor signaling in the catecholaminergic cell—are unique among catecholaminergic agents. These unique pharmacological properties of modafinil should be considered both in seeking to thoroughly understand its putatively elusive mechanism of action and in the design of novel therapeutic agents.

  16. Exceptional giftedness in early adolescence and intrafamilial divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, M A; Albert, R S

    1986-08-01

    Two groups of boys and their parents (N=54) were given five divergent thinking tests as one part of a longitudinal investigation on exceptional giftedness in early adolescence. One groups of adolescents was selected because their IQs were above 150, and the other group, was selected because of their outstanding math-science abilities. Canonical and bivariate analyses indicated that there was a strong correlation between the adolescents' divergent thinking test scores and their parents' divergent thinking test scores (Rc=.55). Additionally, there was some indication that these correlations differed in the two exceptionally gifted groups, with the high-IQ group having divergent thinking test scores related to those of both parents, and the math-science group having divergent thinking test scores related only to those of their mothers. These findings are very consistent with earlier investigations on exceptionally gifted adolescents.

  17. Audio-Tutorial Programming with Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Alan

    1973-01-01

    The findings from the application of audio-tutorial programing in three curriculum areas with three groups of exceptional children are reported. The findings suggest that audio-tutorial programing has qualities capable of meeting some of the instructional needs of exceptional children. (Author)

  18. Functionalized Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Selectively Binds to Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on Activated Human Platelets under Flow Conditions and Is Detectable at Clinically Relevant Field Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin von zur Mühlen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides the opportunity to image cells and cellular receptors using microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs. However, imaging targets on vessel walls remains challenging owing to the quantity of contrast agents delivered to areas of interest under shear stress conditions. We evaluated ex vivo binding characteristics of a functional MRI contrast agent to ligand-induced binding sites (LIBSs on activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors of human platelets, which were lining rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques and could therefore facilitate detection of platelet-mediated pathology in atherothrombotic disease. MPIOs were conjugated to anti-LIBS single-chain antibodies (LIBS-MPIO or control antibodies (control MPIO. Ex vivo binding to human platelet-rich clots in a dose-dependent manner was confirmed on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner and by histology (p < .05 for LIBS-MPIO vs control MPIO. By using a flow chamber setup, significant binding of LIBS-MPIO to a platelet matrix was observed under venous and arterial flow conditions, but not for control MPIO (p < .001. A newly generated MRI contrast agent detects activated human platelets at clinically relevant magnetic field strengths and binds to platelets under venous and arterial flow conditions, conveying high payloads of contrast to specific molecular targets. This may provide the opportunity to identify vulnerable, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques via noninvasive MRI.

  19. Chrysin as an Anti-Cancer Agent Exerts Selective Toxicity by Directly Inhibiting Mitochondrial Complex II and V in CLL B-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Seydi, Enayatollah; Sadeghi, Leila; Mohseni, Alireza; Pirahmadi, Nahal; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-03-16

    We investigated the effect of chrysin on isolated normal and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-lymphocytes and their isolated mitochondria. We report that a selective and significant increase in cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, ADP/ATP ratio, caspase 3 activation and finally apoptosis in chrysin-treated CLL B- lymphocytes. Also we determined that chrysin selectively inhibits complex II and ATPases in cancerous mitochondria. In this study we proved that the ability of chrysin to promote apoptosis in CLL B-lymphocytes performed by selectively targeting of mitochondria. Our findings may provide a potential therapeutic approach for using chrysin to target mitochondria in CLL B-lymphocytes.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of three Porphyromonas spp and in vivo responses in the oral cavity of cats to selected antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J M; Love, D N

    2000-08-01

    To determine in vitro susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis, P salivosa and P circumdentaria to seven antimicrobial agents by agar dilution and Epsilometer test methods and to assess the effectiveness of these antimicrobial agents in reducing the numbers of each Porphyromonas spp in the oral cavity of 16 domestic cats. A two-part prospective study involving in vitro antimicro-bial studies using Porphyromonas spp obtained from naturally occurring feline infections and in vivo antimicrobial response studies using client-owned cats with naturally occurring periodontal disease. Isolates (n = 25) of three feline Porphyromonas spp from the oral cavity and oral-associated disease were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate, benzylpenicillin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin and metronidazole, using agar dilution and Epsilometer test methods. Digoxigenin-labelled whole chromosomal DNA probes directed against P gingivalis VPB 3492, P circumdentaria NCTC 12469T and P salivosa VPB 3313 were used to quantify organisms taken from two sample sites at the gingival margins of these cats prior to, and 5 days after, treatment with one of four commonly used antimicrobial products (amoxycillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, doxycycline or spiramycin-metronidazole). The response to treatment was assessed clinically for each cat. All isolates were susceptible in vitro to all seven antimicrobial agents using both methods. The numbers of P gingivalis were not reduced at the gingival sample sites by administration of amoxycillin-clavulanate for 5 days, although this treatment reduced the numbers of P salivosa and P circumdentaria to below detection levels in six of eight and two of three of sample sites, respectively; clinical improvement was not observed in cats treated with amoxycillin-clavulanate. Treatment with clindamycin, doxycycline or spiramycin-metronidazole resulted in clinical improvement and a marked reduction of all Porphyromonas

  1. Exceptional Cosmetic surgeries on $S^3$

    OpenAIRE

    Ravelomanana, Huygens C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the truly or purely cosmetic surgery conjecture. We give a survey on exceptional surgeries and cosmetic surgeries. We prove that the slope of an exceptional truly cosmetic surgery on a hyperbolic knot in $S^3$ must be $\\pm 1$ and the surgery must be toroidal but not Seifert fibred. As consequence we show that there are no exceptional truly cosmetic surgeries on certain types of hyperbolic knot in $S^3$. We also give some properties of Heegaard Floer correction terms and to...

  2. Frondoside A from sea cucumber and nymphaeols from Okinawa propolis: Natural anti-cancer agents that selectively inhibit PAK1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Tawata, Shinkichi; Maruta, Hiroshi

    2017-05-30

    A sulfated saponin called "Frondoside A" (FRA) from sea cucumber and ingredients from Okinawa propolis (OP) have been previously shown to suppress the PAK1-dependent growth of A549 lung cancer as well as pancreatic cancer cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying their anti-cancer action still remains to be clarified. In this study, for the first time, we found that both FRA and OP directly inhibit PAK1 in vitro in a selective manner (far more effectively than two other oncogenic kinases, LIMK and AKT). Furthermore, at least two major anti-cancer ingredients of OP, nymphaeols A and C, also directly inhibit PAK1 in vitro in a selective manner. To the best of our knowledge, FRA is the first marine compound that selectively inhibits PAK1. Likewise, these nymphaeols are the first propolis ingredients that selectively inhibit PAK1.

  3. Dancing partners at the ball: Rational selection of next generation anti-CD20 antibodies for combination therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the novel agents era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, L A; Tam, C S; Seymour, J F

    2017-09-01

    The anti-CD20 antibodies represent a major advancement in the therapeutic options available for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The addition of rituximab, ofatumumab and obinutuzumab to various chemotherapy regimens has led to considerable improvements in both response and survival. Ocaratuzumab, veltuzumab and ublituximab are currently being explored within the trial setting. We review the current status of these antibodies, and discuss how their mechanisms of action may impact on the choice of combinations with novel small molecule agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive function in families with exceptional survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann

    2012-01-01

    members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important...

  5. 48 CFR 8.605 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.605 Exceptions... determination that the FPI item of supply is not comparable to supplies available from the private sector that...

  6. 7 CFR 1944.75 - Exception authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Application Packaging Grants § 1944.75 Exception authority... supported with documentation to explain the adverse effect on the Government's interest and/or impact on the...

  7. Bioactive Natural Product and Superacid Chemistry for Lead Compound Identification: A Case Study of Selective hCA III and L-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibitors for Hypotensive Agent Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carreyre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dodoneine (Ddn is one of the active compounds identified from Agelanthus dodoneifolius, which is a medicinal plant used in African pharmacopeia and traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. In the context of a scientific program aiming at discovering new hypotensive agents through the original combination of natural product discovery and superacid chemistry diversification, and after evidencing dodoneine’s vasorelaxant effect on rat aorta, superacid modifications allowed us to generate original analogues which showed selective human carbonic anhydrase III (hCA III and L-type Ca2+ current inhibition. These derivatives can now be considered as new lead compounds for vasorelaxant therapeutics targeting these two proteins.

  8. Exceptional cosmetic surgeries on homology spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Ravelomanana, Huygens C.

    2016-01-01

    The cosmetic surgery conjecture is a longstanding conjecture in 3-manifold theory. We present a theorem about exceptional cosmetic surgery for homology spheres. Along the way we prove that if the surgery is not a small seifert $\\mathbb{Z}/2\\mathbb{Z}$-homology sphere or a toroidal irreducible non-Seifert surgery then there is at most one pair of exceptional truly cosmetic slope. We also prove that toroidal truly cosmetic surgeries on integer homology spheres must be integer homology spheres.

  9. In Vitro Evaluation Of Selected Plant Extracts As Biocontrol Agents Against Black Mold Aspergillus Niger Van Tieghem Of Onion Bulbs Allium Cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifeldin A. F. El-Nagerabi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Black mold disease caused by Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh. is the most devastating infection occurs in onions Allium cepa L. under field and store conditions. The use of biocontrol agents is ecofriendly approach for controlling seedborne and soilborne diseases compared to the use of toxic synthetic fungicides. This study has been designed to assess the contamination levels of onion seeds with A. niger and its effect on seed germination and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Prunus mahaleb seeds Commiphora myrrha resin 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 g100 ml Syzygium aromaticum dry buds clove and Panax ginseng roots extracts 0.5 1.0 2.0 2.5 g100 ml against black mold of onion bulbs. The fungus is seedborne pathogen which significantly contaminated onion seeds 89-100 and reduced seed germination 39-83. The extracts of clove caused 43-96 inhibition in spore germination followed by mahaleb 37-96 myrrha 33-88 and ginseng 34-87. The highest concentration of these extracts 3.0 did not affect seed germination but significantly reduced seed contamination by A. niger up to 84 80 71 and 65 for Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum Panax ginseng and Prunus mahaleb respectively. The extracts apparently inhibited the fungal growth and mold development on stored onion bulbs which indicates the antifungal property of these extracts against A. niger. Therefore they can be recommended as effective biocontrol agents to reduce seed contamination and enhance the storability of onion bulbs. Thus the use of healthy and certified seeds for onion production is a priority.

  10. A Comparison of Predictive Thermo and Water Solvation Property Prediction Tools and Experimental Data for Selected Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants II: COSMO RS and COSMOTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A COMPARISON OF PREDICTIVE THERMO AND WATER SOLVATION PROPERTY PREDICTION TOOLS AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA FOR...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Comparison of Predictive Thermo and Water Solvation Property Prediction Tools and Experimental Data for Selected...ambient temperature. We then directed these descriptions of each molecule to COSMOTherm to calculate boiling point, vapor pressure, water solubility

  11. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  12. Cheminformatics-based selection and synergism of herbal extracts with anticancer agents on drug resistance tumor cells-ACHN and A2780/cp cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghavami, Ghazaleh; Sardari, Soroush; Ali Shokrgozar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The treatment of cancer usually involves lethal effect on normal body cells as side effects. Cheminformatics methodology can play a significant role in biomed/clinical scientific research. Similarity searching is a standard cheminformatics tool in drug discovery area and database design. In this study, five novel herbal extracts in combination with doxorubicin and cisplatin have been used to sensitize ACHN and A2780/cp cells. These herbal extracts have been selected on...

  13. Post-exceptionalism in public policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Framing the special issue on the transformation of Food and Agricultural Policy, this article introduces the concept of post-exceptionalism in public policies. The analysis of change in agri-food policy serves as a generative example to conceptualize current transformations in sectoral policy......, institutions, interest constellations and policy instruments. It reflects the more complex, open, contested and fluid nature of contemporary policy fields that nevertheless still maintain their policy heritage. Discussing stability, the authors distinguish between complementary and tense post-exceptionalism....

  14. Session-based Choreography with Exceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Choreography has recently emerged as a pragmatic and concise way of describing communication-based systems such as web services and financial protocols. Recent studies have investigated the transition from the design stage of a system to its implementation providing an automatic way of mapping...... a choreograhy into executable code. In this work, we focus on an extension of choreography with a communication-based (interactional) exception mechanism by giving its formal semantics. In particular, we discuss through some examples how interactional exceptions at choreography level can be implemented into end...

  15. Application of an Hg2+ selective imprinted polymer as a new modifying agent for the preparation of a novel highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensor for the determination of ultratrace mercury ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Ganjali, Mohamad Reza; Zare, Mashaalah

    2011-03-09

    A simple and very selective electrode, based on a mercury ion imprinted polymer (IIP), and its application for the determination of Hg(2+) ions in the real samples is introduced. Mercury ion selective cavities were created in the vinyl pyridine based cross-linked polymer. In order to fabricate the sensor carbon particles and polymer powder were mixed with melted n-eicosane. An explicit difference was observed between the responses of the electrodes modified with IIP and non imprinted polymer (NIP), indicating proper performance of the recognition sites of the IIP. Various factors, known to affect the response behavior of selective electrode, were investigated and optimized. The interference of different ionic species with the response of the electrode was also studied. The results revealed that, compared to previously developed mercury selective sensors, the proposed sensor was more selective, regarding the common potential interferer. This sensor showed a linear response range of 2.5 × 10(-9)-5.0 × 10(-7) M and lower detection limit of 5.2 × 10(-10) M (S/N). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in real samples. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. What Is Nigeria? Unsettling the Myth of Exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghogho Akpome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions and representations of Nigeria and Nigerians in the popular global imaginary. It analyses selected popular media narratives in order to foreground contradictions and paradoxes in the ways in which the country and people of Nigeria are discursively constructed. By doing so, it interrogates stereotypes of corruption and criminality as well as myths of exceptionalism about Nigeria and Nigerians originating from both within and outside the country. The analysis reveals that the generalised portrayal of Nigeria and Nigerians as exceptional social subjects is characterised by contradictions and inaccuracies in dominant representational practices and cannot be justified by the verifiable empirical information available on the country and its people.

  17. Post-exceptionalism in public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Framing the special issue on the transformation of Food and Agricultural Policy, this article introduces the concept of post-exceptionalism in public policies. The analysis of change in agri-food policy serves as a generative example to conceptualize current transformations in sectoral policy

  18. 7 CFR 774.24 - Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exception. 774.24 Section 774.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... interest of the Government and not inconsistent with the authorizing statute or other applicable law. ...

  19. 7 CFR 773.23 - Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exception. 773.23 Section 773.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Government and not inconsistent with the authorizing statute or other applicable law. ...

  20. FAPE Model of Exceptional Student Education Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubberly, Russell G.

    2012-01-01

    The FAPE Model of Exceptional Education Leadership is defined as facilitative, affiliative, praising and rewarding, and experiential and empirical. The FAPE administrator uses a facilitative approach that guides and coaches to help employees find a pathway to success. This leader works to build emotional capacity between all members of the…

  1. Leiomyosarcoma of the Penis, an Exceptional Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Javier Romero Gonzalez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In tumors of the penis, mesenchymal tumors are extremely rare and within them, sarcomas are exceptional. We report a patient with a sarcomatous lesion treated with conservative surgery with good surgical outcome and the review of the literature, to present the latest advances in the treatment of this unusual entity.

  2. Seeing and Supporting Twice-Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Wen; Ritchotte, Jennifer A.

    2018-01-01

    Through a four-part discussion, this essay advocates for seeing the characteristics and special needs of gifted students with disabilities and using best practices to support their learning. Part 1 delineates the evolution of the legislative acts and professional initiatives regarding twice exceptionality. Part 2 discusses the educational rights…

  3. Transition and Students with Twice Exceptionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Susan

    2013-01-01

    "Twice exceptional" is one of the terms used to describe students who have giftedness and a disability. This is a small heterogeneous population of individual learners who are underserved in special, gifted, and mainstream education settings. Despite the availability of research on transition for students with disabilities, there is…

  4. 32 CFR 811.1 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.1 Exceptions. The regulations in this part do not apply to: (a) Visual information (VI) materials made for the Air Force Office of Special Investigations for use...

  5. 12 CFR 229.13 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Redeposited checks. Sections 229.10(c) and 229.12 do not apply to a check that has been returned unpaid and redeposited by the customer or the depositary bank. This exception does not apply— (1) To a check that has... doubt collectibility—(1) In general. Sections 229.10(c) and 229.12 do not apply to a check deposited in...

  6. 31 CFR 211.3 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions. 211.3 Section 211.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DELIVERY OF CHECKS AND WARRANTS TO ADDRESSES OUTSIDE THE...

  7. 31 CFR 101.7 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions. 101.7 Section 101.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF... smelting the gold coins exceeds the value of the gold bullion to be returned. ...

  8. Working with Navajo Parents of Exceptional Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doris; And Others

    Undergraduate students at Northern Arizona University interviewed and surveyed 20 staff members at Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) on the Navajo Reservation and 14 parents of exceptional Navajo children enrolled in KUSD. Both groups were asked to identify challenges affecting the working relationship between parents and school on a rural…

  9. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  10. Cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ions with covalently bonded CMPO groups as selective extraction agents for lanthanide and actinide cations from highly acidic nuclear waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, B.; Plesek, J.; Baca, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Prague (Czech Republic); Cisarova, I. [Charles University, Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets, DED/LCD, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vinas, C. [Institute of Material Sciences, CSIC, Bellaterra (Spain); Selucky, P.; Rais, J. [Nuclear Research Institute plc., Rez near Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-10-01

    A new series of boron substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide)(1-) ion (1) derivatives of the general formula [(8-CMPO-(CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}O){sub 2}-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 10})(1',2'-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11})-3,3'-Co]{sup -} (CMPO = Ph{sub 2}P(O)-CH{sub 2}C(O)NR, R = C{sub 4}H{sub 9} (3b), -C{sub 12}H{sub 25} (4b), -CH{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 5} (5b)) was prepared by ring cleavage of the 8-dioxane-cobalt bis(dicarbollide) (2) bi-polar compound by the respective primary amines and by subsequent reaction of the resulting amino derivatives (3a-5a) with the nitrophenyl ester of diphenyl-phosphoryl-acetic acid. The compounds were synthesized with the aim to develop a new class of more efficient extraction agents for liquid/liquid extraction of polyvalent cations, i.e. lanthanides and actinides, from high-level activity nuclear waste. All compounds were characterized by a combination of {sup 11}B NMR, {sup 1}H high field NMR, Mass Spectrometry with Electro-spray and MALDI TOF ionisation, HPLC and other techniques. The molecular structure of the supramolecular Ln{sup 3+} complex of the anion 5b was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystallographic results proved that the Ln(m) atom is bonded to three functionalized cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anions in a charge compensated complex. The cation is tightly coordinated by six oxygen atoms of the CMPO terminal groups (two of each ligand) and by three water molecules completing the metal coordination number to 9. Atoms occupying the primary coordination sphere form a tri-capped trigonal prismatic arrangement. Very high liquid-liquid extraction efficiency of all anionic species was observed. Moreover, less polar toluene can be applied as an auxiliary solvent replacing the less environmentally friendly nitro- and chlorinated solvents used in the current dicarbollide liquid-liquid extraction process. The extraction coefficients are sufficiently high for possible technological applications. (authors)

  11. Highly Selective Anti-Cancer Activity of Cholesterol-Interacting Agents Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Ostreolysin A/Pleurotolysin B Protein Complex on Urothelial Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Resnik

    Full Text Available Cholesterol content can vary distinctly between normal and cancer cells, with elevated levels in cancer cells. Here, we investigated cholesterol sequestration with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD, and pore-formation with the ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B (OlyA/PlyB protein complex that binds to cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains. We evaluated the effects on viability of T24 invasive and RT4 noninvasive human urothelial cancer cells and normal porcine urothelial (NPU cells. Cholesterol content strongly correlated with cancerous transformation, as highest in the T24 high-grade invasive urothelial cancer cells, and lowest in NPU cells. MCD treatment induced prominent cell death of T24 cells, whereas OlyA/PlyB treatment resulted in greatly decreased viability of the RT4 low-grade noninvasive carcinoma cells. Biochemical and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that MCD and OlyA/PlyB induce necrotic cell death in these cancer cells, while viability of NPU cells was not significantly affected by either treatment. We conclude that MCD is more toxic for T24 high-grade invasive urothelial cancer cells, and OlyA/PlyB for RT4 low-grade noninvasive urothelial cancer cells, and neither is toxic for NPU cells. The cholesterol and cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains in urothelial cancer cells thus constitute a selective therapeutic target for elimination of urothelial cancer cells.

  12. Highly Selective Anti-Cancer Activity of Cholesterol-Interacting Agents Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Ostreolysin A/Pleurotolysin B Protein Complex on Urothelial Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Nataša; Repnik, Urška; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sepčić, Kristina; Maček, Peter; Turk, Boris; Veranič, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol content can vary distinctly between normal and cancer cells, with elevated levels in cancer cells. Here, we investigated cholesterol sequestration with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD), and pore-formation with the ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B (OlyA/PlyB) protein complex that binds to cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains. We evaluated the effects on viability of T24 invasive and RT4 noninvasive human urothelial cancer cells and normal porcine urothelial (NPU) cells. Cholesterol content strongly correlated with cancerous transformation, as highest in the T24 high-grade invasive urothelial cancer cells, and lowest in NPU cells. MCD treatment induced prominent cell death of T24 cells, whereas OlyA/PlyB treatment resulted in greatly decreased viability of the RT4 low-grade noninvasive carcinoma cells. Biochemical and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that MCD and OlyA/PlyB induce necrotic cell death in these cancer cells, while viability of NPU cells was not significantly affected by either treatment. We conclude that MCD is more toxic for T24 high-grade invasive urothelial cancer cells, and OlyA/PlyB for RT4 low-grade noninvasive urothelial cancer cells, and neither is toxic for NPU cells. The cholesterol and cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains in urothelial cancer cells thus constitute a selective therapeutic target for elimination of urothelial cancer cells. PMID:26361392

  13. Highly Selective Anti-Cancer Activity of Cholesterol-Interacting Agents Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Ostreolysin A/Pleurotolysin B Protein Complex on Urothelial Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Nataša; Repnik, Urška; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sepčić, Kristina; Maček, Peter; Turk, Boris; Veranič, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol content can vary distinctly between normal and cancer cells, with elevated levels in cancer cells. Here, we investigated cholesterol sequestration with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD), and pore-formation with the ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B (OlyA/PlyB) protein complex that binds to cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains. We evaluated the effects on viability of T24 invasive and RT4 noninvasive human urothelial cancer cells and normal porcine urothelial (NPU) cells. Cholesterol content strongly correlated with cancerous transformation, as highest in the T24 high-grade invasive urothelial cancer cells, and lowest in NPU cells. MCD treatment induced prominent cell death of T24 cells, whereas OlyA/PlyB treatment resulted in greatly decreased viability of the RT4 low-grade noninvasive carcinoma cells. Biochemical and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that MCD and OlyA/PlyB induce necrotic cell death in these cancer cells, while viability of NPU cells was not significantly affected by either treatment. We conclude that MCD is more toxic for T24 high-grade invasive urothelial cancer cells, and OlyA/PlyB for RT4 low-grade noninvasive urothelial cancer cells, and neither is toxic for NPU cells. The cholesterol and cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains in urothelial cancer cells thus constitute a selective therapeutic target for elimination of urothelial cancer cells.

  14. Is There Muslim Exceptionalism in Democracy Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner

    , also, to alternative theories of the causes and correlates of democracy. This paper presents evidence against the notion of Muslim exceptionalism in democracy research. Thus, outside the European continent, territories that were governed earlier and more consistently by state organizations up......Casual observation suggests a negative association between Islam and democratic rule, as very few Muslim countries can be considered democracies. Recent research has conrmed this observation by documenting that the negative association is robust to dierent democracy indices, different samples, and...

  15. Discover Aggregates Exceptions over Hidden Web Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaim, Saad Bin; Liu, Weimo; Zhang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many web databases "hidden" behind their restrictive search interfaces (e.g., Amazon, eBay) contain rich and valuable information that is of significant interests to various third parties. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of estimating/tracking certain aggregate queries over dynamic hidden web databases. Nonetheless, tracking all possible aggregate query answers to report interesting findings (i.e., exceptions), while still adhering to the stringent query-count limit...

  16. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  17. The new PET imaging agent [{sup 11}C]AFE is a selective serotonin transporter ligand with fast brain uptake kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhihong [Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Guo Ningning [Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Narendran, Raj [Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032 (United States)] [and others

    2004-11-01

    A new positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for the serotonin transporter (SERT), [{sup 11}C]2-[2-[[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl]thio]-5-(2-fluoroethyl)phenylamine ([{sup 11}C]AFE, 12), was synthesized and evaluated in vivo in rats and baboons. [{sup 11}C]AFE (12) was prepared from its monomethylamino precursor 11 by reaction with high specific activity [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Radiochemical yield was 32{+-}17% based on [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate (n=6) and specific activity was 1670{+-}864 Ci/mmol at end of synthesis (EOS, n=6). Binding assays indicated that AFE displays high affinity for SERT (K{sub i}=1.80 nM for hSERT) and lower affinity for norepinephrine transporter (K{sub i}=946 nM for hNET) or dopamine transporter (K{sub i}>10,000 nM for hDAT). In addition, AFE displays negligible binding affinities for other serotonin and dopamine receptors, indicating an excellent binding selectivity in vitro. Biodistribution studies in rats indicated that [{sup 11}C]AFE enters the brain readily and localizes in regions known to contain high concentrations of SERT, such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, frontal cortex and striatum. Moreover, such binding in SERT-rich brain regions is reduced significantly by pretreatment with either citalopram or the cold compound itself, but not by nisoxetine or GBR 12935, thus demonstrating that [{sup 11}C]AFE binding in the rat brain is saturable, specific and selective for the SERT. Imaging experiments in baboons indicated that the uptake pattern of [{sup 11}C]AFE is consistent with the known distribution of SERT in the baboon brain, with high levels of radioactivity detected in the midbrain and thalamus, moderate levels in the hippocampus and striatum and low levels in the cortical regions. The uptake kinetics of [{sup 11}C]AFE in the baboon brain is rapid, with activity in the midbrain and thalamus peaking at 15-40 min postinjection. Pretreatment of the baboon with citalopram (4 mg/kg) 20 min before radioactivity injection

  18. Enhanced sensitivity at higher-order exceptional points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodaei, Hossein; Hassan, Absar U.; Wittek, Steffen; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh

    2017-08-01

    Non-Hermitian degeneracies, also known as exceptional points, have recently emerged as a new way to engineer the response of open physical systems, that is, those that interact with the environment. They correspond to points in parameter space at which the eigenvalues of the underlying system and the corresponding eigenvectors simultaneously coalesce. In optics, the abrupt nature of the phase transitions that are encountered around exceptional points has been shown to lead to many intriguing phenomena, such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional invisibility, band merging, topological chirality and laser mode selectivity. Recently, it has been shown that the bifurcation properties of second-order non-Hermitian degeneracies can provide a means of enhancing the sensitivity (frequency shifts) of resonant optical structures to external perturbations. Of particular interest is the use of even higher-order exceptional points (greater than second order), which in principle could further amplify the effect of perturbations, leading to even greater sensitivity. Although a growing number of theoretical studies have been devoted to such higher-order degeneracies, their experimental demonstration in the optical domain has so far remained elusive. Here we report the observation of higher-order exceptional points in a coupled cavity arrangement—specifically, a ternary, parity-time-symmetric photonic laser molecule—with a carefully tailored gain-loss distribution. We study the system in the spectral domain and find that the frequency response associated with this system follows a cube-root dependence on induced perturbations in the refractive index. Our work paves the way for utilizing non-Hermitian degeneracies in fields including photonics, optomechanics, microwaves and atomic physics.

  19. MRI contrast agents: Classification and application (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Dong; Paudel, Ramchandra; Liu, Jun; Ma, Cong; Zhang, Zi-Shu; Zhou, Shun-Ke

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are categorised according to the following specific features: chemical composition including the presence or absence of metal atoms, route of administration, magnetic properties, effect on the magnetic resonance image, biodistribution and imaging applications. The majority of these agents are either paramagnetic ion complexes or superparamagnetic magnetite particles and contain lanthanide elements such as gadolinium (Gd3+) or transition metal manganese (Mn2+). These elements shorten the T1 or T2 relaxation time, thereby causing increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images or reduced signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Most paramagnetic contrast agents are positive agents. These agents shorten the T1, so the enhanced parts appear bright on T1-weighted images. Dysprosium, superparamagnetic agents and ferromagnetic agents are negative contrast agents. The enhanced parts appear darker on T2-weighted images. MRI contrast agents incorporating chelating agents reduces storage in the human body, enhances excretion and reduces toxicity. MRI contrast agents may be administered orally or intravenously. According to biodistribution and applications, MRI contrast agents may be categorised into three types: extracellular fluid, blood pool and target/organ-specific agents. A number of contrast agents have been developed to selectively distinguish liver pathologies. Some agents are also capable of targeting other organs, inflammation as well as specific tumors.

  20. Exceptional Points in three-dimensional Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Kodigala, Ashok; Kanté, Boubacar

    2016-01-01

    Exceptional points (EPs) are degeneracies in open wave systems where at least two energy levels and their corresponding eigenstates coalesce. We report evidence of the existence of EPs in 3D plasmonic nanostructures. The systems are composed of coupled plasmonic nanoresonators and can be judiciously and systematically driven to EPs by controlling symmetry-compatible modes via their near-field and far-field interactions. The proposed platform opens the way to the investigation of EPs for enhanced light-matter interactions and applications in communication, sensing and imaging.

  1. Exceptional Family Transitional Training Program (EFTTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stilwell Drive Fort Monroe, VA 23651 O: 1-757-788-3535 F: 1-757-788-3713 FORT MYER, VA ACS-EFMP 201 Custer Road Fort Myer, VA 22211 O: 1-703-696-8467 F...1895-61-6323 US NSGA RAF MENWITH HILL Commanding Officer US NSGA RAF Menwith Hill PSC 45 Unit 8470 APO AE 09468 O: 011-44-1423-846717 DSN: 314-262-6717...Program 151 Bernard Road Fort Monroe, VA 23651 Telephone: 757-788-3878 Army Community Service Exceptional Family Member Program Building 201, Custer

  2. Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.

  3. Agent Building Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  4. On the Scalar Manifold of Exceptional Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciatori, Sergio L; Marrani, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    We construct two parametrizations of the non compact exceptional Lie group G=E7(-25), based on a fibration which has the maximal compact subgroup K=(E6 x U(1))/Z_3 as a fiber. It is well known that G plays an important role in the N=2 d=4 magic exceptional supergravity, where it describes the U-duality of the theory and where the symmetric space M=G/K gives the vector multiplets' scalar manifold. First, by making use of the exponential map, we compute a realization of G/K, that is based on the E6 invariant d-tensor, and hence exhibits the maximal possible manifest [(E6 x U(1))/Z_3]-covariance. This provides a basis for the corresponding supergravity theory, which is the analogue of the Calabi-Vesentini coordinates. Then we study the Iwasawa decomposition. Its main feature is that it is SO(8)-covariant and therefore it highlights the role of triality. Along the way we analyze the relevant chain of maximal embeddings which leads to SO(8). It is worth noticing that being based on the properties of a "mixed" Freu...

  5. Security Framework for Agent-Based Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venkateshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agent can play a key role in bringing suitable cloud services to the customer based on their requirements. In agent based cloud computing, agent does negotiation, coordination, cooperation and collaboration on behalf of the customer to make the decisions in efficient manner. However the agent based cloud computing have some security issues like (a. addition of malicious agent in the cloud environment which could demolish the process by attacking other agents, (b. denial of service by creating flooding attacks on other involved agents. (c. Some of the exceptions in the agent interaction protocol such as Not-Understood and Cancel_Meta protocol can be misused and may lead to terminating the connection of all the other agents participating in the negotiating services. Also, this paper proposes algorithms to solve these issues to ensure that there will be no intervention of any malicious activities during the agent interaction.

  6. Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Mayrhofer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are frequently used as probiotics, for which the absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance has become an important safety criterion. This clarifies the need for antibiotic susceptibility data for bifidobacteria. Based on a recently published standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bifidobacteria with broth microdilution method, the range of susceptibility to selected antibiotics in 117 animal bifidobacterial strains was examined. Narrow unimodal MIC distributions either situated at the low-end (chloramphenicol, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin or high-end (kanamycin, neomycin concentration range could be detected. In contrast, the MIC distribution of trimethoprim was multimodal. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing or verifying present microbiological breakpoints suggested by regulatory agencies to assess the safety of these micro-organisms intended for the use in probiotics.

  7. Luc Besson : entre exception culturelle et Hollywood

    OpenAIRE

    Warczinski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    « L’exception culturelle franco-française est morte » (cité dans L’Express 19.11.2009). C’est ce que Jean-Marie Messier, président et directeur général de Vivendi (Altman 2002), a déclaré lors de la fusion de son entreprise avec la société de production américaine Universal en 2001 à New York (Vidal/Ministère de la culture et de la communication 2002). Cette déclaration a provoqué l’outrage aussi bien dans le gouvernement français que parmi les professionnels du cinéma, d’autant plus que Mess...

  8. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  9. Exceptionally elevated triglyceride in severe lipemia retinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Han Y; Warman, Roberto; Suh, Edward H; Cheng, Anny Ms

    2016-01-01

    To report a case of successful treatment for severe lipemia retinalis with extreme severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG). Observational case report. A 6-week-old infant with severe lipemia retinalis manifested diffuse creamy retinal vessels complicated with vulvar xanthomas. Extreme sHTG with 185-folds of the normal level was reported. Chromosome microarray and lipid gene sequencing confirmed a homozygous lipoprotein lipase gene coding mutation. Under strict adherence to a high medium-chain triglycerides formula and discontinuation of breast milk, the lipemia retinalis and vulval lesions resolved along with a stable plasma lipid level throughout the follow-up period of 6 months. Strict adherence to a low-fat diet without breast milk appears to be effective in treating infants with severe lipemia retinalis associated with exceptionally high triglycerides.

  10. 24 CFR 401.411 - Guidelines for determining exception rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exception rents. 401.411 Section 401.411 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.411 Guidelines for determining exception rents. (a) When do exception rents apply? (1) The Restructuring Plan may provide for exception rents...

  11. 20 CFR 220.179 - Exceptions to medical improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disability decision was in error. The Board will apply the exception to medical improvement based on error if... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions to medical improvement. 220.179... Medical Improvement § 220.179 Exceptions to medical improvement. (a) First group of exceptions to medical...

  12. Heavy Stable Isotopes: From Exceptional to Expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A.

    2006-12-01

    Less than a decade ago, the stable isotope geochemistry of transition metals and other "heavy" elements was a highly specialized niche confined to a few seemingly exceptional elements. This situation was transformed by the development and refinement of MC-ICP-MS techniques, particularly in the last five years. Measurable stable isotope variations turn out to be ubiquitous across the periodic table, from Li to Hg. It is now safe to assume that the isotopic composition of any element with two or more stable isotopes is measurably variable. What was once exceptional is now expected. Among the first of these new systems to be explored were Fe and Mo isotopes. A number of lessons emerging from this work can be applied to the development of other isotope systems. Most important is that initial expectations are often wrong. For example, based on their environmental chemistries it was expected that redox reactions should produce some of the largest isotope effects for both elements. In the case of Fe, theoretical and experimental studies converge to convincingly indicate that a fractionation of ~ 1.5 ‰/amu occurs between Fe(III) and Fe(II) aquo complexes at equilibrium (e.g., Welch et al., 2003; Anbar et al., 2005). Consistent with these findings, most natural variations of are < 1.5 ‰/amu (e.g., Johnson et al., 2004). This redox-related fractionation is at the heart of emerging interpretations of variations in the isotopic composition of Fe and their application to understanding ancient ocean redox (e.g., Dauphas et al., 2004; Rouxel et al., 2005). In contrast, Mo isotope variations turn out to be controlled only indirectly by redox conditions. Instead, one of the most important Mo isotope effects in the environment appears to be a fractionation of ~ 1 ‰/amu during adsorption of Mo to Mn-oxides (Barling et al., 2001; Siebert et al., 2003). This fractionation has been reproduced in the laboratory (Barling and Anbar, 2004) and appears to be an equilibrium isotope

  13. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-aryliminopyrrolidines as selective ligands for I1 imidazoline receptors: discovery of new sympatho-inhibitory hypotensive agents with potential beneficial effects in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparik, Vincent; Greney, Hugues; Schann, Stephan; Feldman, Josiane; Fellmann, Lyne; Ehrhardt, Jean-Daniel; Bousquet, Pascal

    2015-01-22

    New 2-aryliminopyrrolidines (1-18) were synthesized and tested for their binding properties on I1 imidazoline receptors vs α2-adrenergic receptors and their blood pressure effects after both systemic and intracerebral administrations. The purposes of this study were: (i) to analyze structure-activity and affinity relationships on I1 imdazoline receptors and (ii) to propose some leader compounds for the development of new sympatho-inhibitory drugs with potential applications in hypertension and/or metabolic syndrome, i.e., a cluster of cardiovascular (hypertension) and metabolic disorders. Our study highlights decisive arguments of SAR concerning both the affinity for I1Rs and the hypotensive activity of 2-aryliminopyrrolidines. Binding assays showed high affinity and selectivity of some compounds for I1 imidazoline receptors over α2-adreergic receptors. Compound 13 (laboratory reference LNP599; Ki = 3.2 nM on I1imidazoline receptors) is the prototype for the development of new centrally acting agents targeting specifically I1imidazoline receptors to be used in the management of hypertension and/or metabolic syndrome.

  15. [Exceptional etiology of acute renal: Burkitt's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Cherif; Doh, Kwame; Thiam, Ibou; Faye, Mariam; Woto-Gaye, Gisèle

    2018-02-05

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an exceptional cause of acute renal failure (ARF). The origin of the tumor clone may be lymphoid follicles secondary to renal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. With the presentation of this clinical case, the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and evolution of this extremely rare affection will be discussed. A 4-year-old patient with a recent history of acute osteomyelitis of the right thigh presented an ARF without indications of post-infectious glomerulonephritis. Ultrasound showed enlarged kidneys without dilation of the excretory cavities. Diffuse interstitial infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells of medium size were noted upon renal biopsy. The tumor cells expressed antibodies against CD20, CD10, Bcl6, and Ki67 but not against Bcl2 or CD3. The search for an EBV infection was positive. A few days after diagnosis, the evolution was spontaneously fatal. BL of the kidney is a rare condition that accounts for less than 1 % of kidney tumors, associated almost invariably with EBV infection. The diagnosis is confirmed histologically by renal biopsy and the criteria of Malbrain affirms the primitive character of the lymphoma. BL of the kidney is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency and may be fatal. Copyright © 2018 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Exceptional groups, symmetric spaces and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Cacciatori, Sergio L.

    2009-03-31

    In this article we provide a detailed description of a technique to obtain a simple parameterization for different exceptional Lie groups, such as G{sub 2}, F{sub 4} and E{sub 6}, based on their fibration structure. For the compact case, we construct a realization which is a generalization of the Euler angles for SU(2), while for the non compact version of G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) we compute the Iwasawa decomposition. This allows us to obtain not only an explicit expression for the Haar measure on the group manifold, but also for the cosets G{sub 2}/SO(4), G{sub 2}/SU(3), F{sub 4}/Spin(9), E{sub 6}/F{sub 4} and G{sub 2(2)}/SO(4) that we used to find the concrete realization of the general element of the group. Moreover, as a by-product, in the simplest case of G{sub 2}/SO(4), we have been able to compute an Einstein metric and the vielbein. The relevance of these results in physics is discussed.

  17. Exceptionally elevated triglyceride in severe lipemia retinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin HY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Han Y Yin,1–3 Roberto Warman,2,4 Edward H Suh,2 Anny MS Cheng2,3 1Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Florida International University, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, 3Ocular Surface Center, Miami, 4Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: To report a case of successful treatment for severe lipemia retinalis with extreme severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG.Design: Observational case report.Observations: A 6-week-old infant with severe lipemia retinalis manifested diffuse creamy retinal vessels complicated with vulvar xanthomas. Extreme sHTG with 185-folds of the normal level was reported. Chromosome microarray and lipid gene sequencing confirmed a homozygous lipoprotein lipase gene coding mutation.Results: Under strict adherence to a high medium-chain triglycerides formula and discontinuation of breast milk, the lipemia retinalis and vulval lesions resolved along with a stable plasma lipid level throughout the follow-up period of 6 months.Conclusion: Strict adherence to a low-fat diet without breast milk appears to be effective in treating infants with severe lipemia retinalis associated with exceptionally high triglycerides. Keywords: hypertriglyceride, infant, lipemia retinalis, lipoprotein lipase gene

  18. Exceptional longevity is associated with decreased reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Vafa; Atzmon, Gil; Rajpathak, Swapnil N; Freeman, Ruth; Barzilai, Nir; Crandall, Jill

    2011-12-01

    A number of leading theories of aging, namely The Antagonistic Pleiotropy Theory (Williams, 1957), The Disposable Soma Theory (Kirkwood, 1977) and most recently The Reproductive-Cell Cycle Theory (Bowen and Atwood, 2004, 2010) suggest a tradeoff between longevity and reproduction. While there has been an abundance of data linking longevity with reduced fertility in lower life forms, human data have been conflicting. We assessed this tradeoff in a cohort of genetically and socially homogenous Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians (average age ~100 years). As compared with an Ashkenazi cohort without exceptional longevity, our centenarians had fewer children (2.01 vs 2.53, p<0.0001), were older at first childbirth (28.0 vs 25.6, p<0.0001), and at last childbirth (32.4 vs 30.3, p<0.0001). The smaller number of children was observed for male and female centenarians alike. The lower number of children in both genders together with the pattern of delayed reproductive maturity is suggestive of constitutional factors that might enhance human life span at the expense of reduced reproductive ability.

  19. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Craig

    2002-01-01

    ...., object and web technologies). The objective of the Agility project is to develop an open agent grid architecture populated with scalable, deployable, industrial strength agent grid components, targeting the theme 'agents for the masses...

  20. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  1. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  2. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  3. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million

  4. VIOLENCE AGAINST TEACHERS- RULE OR EXCEPTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Opić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Abstract- The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of violence against teachers by students. The study included 175 teachers, five primary and five secondary schools. The age of respondents (teachers ranges from 20 to 65, with average age being 44,33 years. The used  instrument has assessed violence against teachers and has consisted of  data about the characteristics of respondents, frequency and type of violence experienced from students.The results suggest that violence against teachers in primary and secondary schools in Zagreb taken into sample is very much present. Since 74,3% teachers has experienced violence from their students during the year, that kind of behavior is more of a rule than an exception. Students in primary and secondary schools show violent behavior against their teachers at an equal level. Male teachers, as opposed to female teachers, are more frequently victims of violent behavior (posting inappropriate content online from their students. Also, there is a statistically significant correlation (negative between age (years of service in school and frequency of experienced violence from students. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";}

  5. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Gearhart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations.

  6. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Patricia J; Castiblanco, Diana P; Russell Knode, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations.

  7. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  8. 5 CFR 582.201 - Agent to receive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agent to receive process. 582.201 Section 582.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.201 Agent to receive process. (a) Except...

  9. assessment of extension agents' communication methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. The need to improve aquaculture production through enhanced technology transfer necessitated this study to assess extension agents' use of communication methods and its impact on linkage. A structured questionnaire was administered to 44 extension agents who were randomly selected from Lagos State ...

  10. Enriching project organizations with formal change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskerod, Pernille; Justesen, Just Bendix; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    an internal change project that enhanced physical activity at the workplace and in leisure time. Change agents in the form of peer health ambassadors were selected by middle management and hereafter trained by the project representatives. Findings: The findings suggest that the selection of change agents...... and middle and top management support are major determinants of success within change projects. To select change agents that the employees respect and can identify with, combined with top management prioritization, is important in order for the project organization to benefit from the additional role....... Practical implications: Selecting the “wrong” change agents can jeopardize a change project, even when the project is supported by top management and the target group members at the starting point are highly motivated to change. Originality/value: The research contributes to the understanding of project...

  11. The effects of selected drugs, including chlorpromazine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, on polyclonal IgG synthesis and interleukin 1 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F; Coleman, J W

    1989-01-01

    We tested a range of drugs for their effects on in vitro polyclonal IgG synthesis by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with the lectin pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The test drugs were selected on the basis of reported disruptive effects on immune function in vivo. IgG production between day 4 and days 7 or 8 of culture was measured by biotin-streptavidin sandwich ELISA. The anti-psychotic agent chlorpromazine (0.55-1.7 microM) enhanced IgG synthesis to approximately double control levels. In contrast, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin, piroxicam, ibuprofen and aspirin inhibited IgG synthesis by up to 50%, with a rank order of potency that reflects their activity as inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase. Phenytoin, procainamide, propylthiouracil, methimazole, D-penicillamine and D-penicillamine-L-cysteine all failed to modulate IgG synthesis at non-toxic concentrations. The potentiation and inhibition of IgG synthesis by chlorpromazine and indomethacin, respectively, was observed only when the drug was present during the first 24 h of culture. Neither chlorpromazine nor indomethacin, at non-toxic concentrations, affected PHA- and PWM-stimulated proliferation of PBMC. In addition, chlorpromazine, indomethacin and piroxicam, at concentrations which produced maximal modulation of IgG synthesis, and D-penicillamine and D-penicillamine-L-cysteine at 10 microM failed to influence production of interleukin-1-like activity. We conclude that chlorpromazine and NSAIDs, although they exert opposite effects on IgG synthesis, act at an early stage of B cell differentiation that appears to be independent of interleukin 1 synthesis and early proliferative events. PMID:2788047

  12. On the geometry of thin exceptional sets in Manin's conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Brian; Tanimoto, Sho

    2017-01-01

    Manin’s Conjecture predicts the rate of growth of rational points of a bounded height after removing those lying on an exceptional set. We study whether the exceptional set in Manin’s Conjecture is a thin set....

  13. "No admittance except on business" 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bourrier

    2011-04-01

     sociologie embarquée », soit s’en dégager radicalement.“No admittance except on business”. Issues in negotiating entry into organisationsThis article has a history. The first reason for wanting to write it was linked to the development in 2007 of a master course in sociology on the conditions associated with being able to enter organisations. To my great surprise, and in spite of my efforts during the preparation of the course, I found few texts which discussed real entry conditions. This article reflects then this disappointment. The second reason concerns repeated observations of the hardening conditions in relation with studies undertaken within organisations, whether in France or the United States. Reports I have received confirm my observations that the field of high risk organisations has become particularly more and more difficult for young researchers or doctoral students to freely organize their work. Paradoxically, whilst more efforts are undertaken so that sociologists (amongst others have access to risk industries, researchers are confronted with conditions that are often rigid and hardly generous. As for the issues themselves that are studied, they are very aligned with the industrials’ own managerial questions. Ethnographic studies by immersion are abandoned in favour of action-research, in form de theses obliged, at the end of the day, to make propositions for improvements and recommendations about management tools. I have a feeling that what is happening in high-risk organisations is also the case for the sociology of organisations in general. In the first part of this article, I propose a partial revue of the way that the sociology of organisations has treated the question of entering into organisations. I will reflect on why there are so few works devoted to this question and on what the consequences may well be for the field itself. Secondly, I will examine the possibilities offered today as well as the efforts to make in order to, either, resolutely

  14. 40 CFR 51.930 - Mitigation of Exceptional Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of Exceptional Events. 51... Mitigation of Exceptional Events. (a) A State requesting to exclude air quality data due to exceptional events must take appropriate and reasonable actions to protect public health from exceedances or...

  15. 50 CFR 14.62 - Exceptions to import declaration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to import declaration requirements. 14.62 Section 14.62 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 14.62 Exceptions to import declaration requirements. (a) Except for wildlife requiring a permit...

  16. 21 CFR 1307.03 - Exceptions to regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions to regulations. 1307.03 Section 1307.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS General Information § 1307.03 Exceptions to regulations. Any person may apply for an exception to the application of any...

  17. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., the document must include the statement “Dangerous Goods in Excepted Quantities” and indicate the... statement “Dangerous Goods in Excepted Quantities” and indicate the number of packages. (i) Training. Each... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted quantities. 173.4a Section 173.4a...

  18. Detecting and explaining business exceptions for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Daniëls, H.A.M.; Hofman, W.; Hammoudi, S.; Maciaszek, L.; Cordeiro, J.; Dietz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic risk analysis can be based on causal analysis of business exceptions. In this paper we describe the concepts of automatic analysis for the exceptional patterns which are hidden in a large set of business data. These exceptions are interesting to be investigated further for their causes

  19. Assessing the Exceptionality of Coloured Motifs in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various methods have been recently employed to characterise the structure of biological networks. In particular, the concept of network motif and the related one of coloured motif have proven useful to model the notion of a functional/evolutionary building block. However, algorithms that enumerate all the motifs of a network may produce a very large output, and methods to decide which motifs should be selected for downstream analysis are needed. A widely used method is to assess if the motif is exceptional, that is, over- or under-represented with respect to a null hypothesis. Much effort has been put in the last thirty years to derive -values for the frequencies of topological motifs, that is, fixed subgraphs. They rely either on (compound Poisson and Gaussian approximations for the motif count distribution in Erdös-Rényi random graphs or on simulations in other models. We focus on a different definition of graph motifs that corresponds to coloured motifs. A coloured motif is a connected subgraph with fixed vertex colours but unspecified topology. Our work is the first analytical attempt to assess the exceptionality of coloured motifs in networks without any simulation. We first establish analytical formulae for the mean and the variance of the count of a coloured motif in an Erdös-Rényi random graph model. Using simulations under this model, we further show that a Pólya-Aeppli distribution better approximates the distribution of the motif count compared to Gaussian or Poisson distributions. The Pólya-Aeppli distribution, and more generally the compound Poisson distributions, are indeed well designed to model counts of clumping events. Altogether, these results enable to derive a -value for a coloured motif, without spending time on simulations.

  20. Exceptionally prolonged tooth formation in elasmosaurid plesiosaurians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Benjamin P; Larsson, Dennis; Lindgren, Johan; Kundrát, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians were globally prolific marine reptiles that dominated the Mesozoic seas for over 70 million years. Their iconic body-plan incorporated an exceedingly long neck and small skull equipped with prominent intermeshing 'fangs'. How this bizarre dental apparatus was employed in feeding is uncertain, but fossilized gut contents indicate a diverse diet of small pelagic vertebrates, cephalopods and epifaunal benthos. Here we report the first plesiosaurian tooth formation rates as a mechanism for servicing the functional dentition. Multiple dentine thin sections were taken through isolated elasmosaurid teeth from the Upper Cretaceous of Sweden. These specimens revealed an average of 950 daily incremental lines of von Ebner, and infer a remarkably protracted tooth formation cycle of about 2-3 years-other polyphyodont amniotes normally take ~1-2 years to form their teeth. Such delayed odontogenesis might reflect differences in crown length and function within an originally uneven tooth array. Indeed, slower replacement periodicity has been found to distinguish larger caniniform teeth in macrophagous pliosaurid plesiosaurians. However, the archetypal sauropterygian dental replacement system likely also imposed constraints via segregation of the developing tooth germs within discrete bony crypts; these partly resorbed to allow maturation of the replacement teeth within the primary alveoli after displacement of the functional crowns. Prolonged dental formation has otherwise been linked to tooth robustness and adaption for vigorous food processing. Conversely, elasmosaurids possessed narrow crowns with an elongate profile that denotes structural fragility. Their apparent predilection for easily subdued prey could thus have minimized this potential for damage, and was perhaps coupled with selective feeding strategies that ecologically optimized elasmosaurids towards more delicate middle trophic level aquatic predation.

  1. Pain-relieving agents for infantile colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioli, Elena; Tarasco, Valentina; Lingua, Carla; Moja, Lorenzo; Savino, Francesco

    2016-09-16

    Infantile colic is a common disorder in the first months of life, affecting somewhere between 4% and 28% of infants worldwide, depending on geography and definitions used. Although it is self limiting and resolves by four months of age, colic is perceived by parents as a problem that requires action. Pain-relieving agents, such as drugs, sugars and herbal remedies, have been suggested as interventions to reduce crying episodes and severity of symptoms. To assess the effectiveness and safety of pain-relieving agents for reducing colic in infants younger than four months of age. We searched the following databases in March 2015 and again in May 2016: CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO, along with 11 other databases. We also searched two trial registers, four thesis repositories and the reference lists of relevant studies to identify unpublished and ongoing studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the effects of pain-relieving agents given to infants with colic. We used the standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 18 RCTs involving 1014 infants. All studies were small and at high risk of bias, often presenting major shortcomings across multiple design factors (e.g. selection, performance, attrition, lack of washout period).Three studies compared simethicone with placebo, and one with Mentha piperita; four studies compared herbal agents with placebo; two compared sucrose or glucose with placebo; five compared dicyclomine with placebo; and two compared cimetropium - one against placebo and the other at two different dosages. One multiple-arm study compared sucrose and herbal tea versus no treatment. Simethicone. Comparison with placebo revealed no difference in daily hours of crying reported for simethicone at the end of treatment in one small, low-quality study involving 27 infants. A meta-analysis of data from two cross-over studies comparing simethicone with placebo showed no

  2. Predicting the Resiliency in Parents with Exceptional Children Based on Their Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Sosan; Firoozabadi, Somayeh Sadati; Rostami, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to predict the resiliency in parents with exceptional children based on their mindfulness. This descriptive correlational study was performed on 260 parents of student (105 male and 159 female) that were selected by cluster sampling method. Family resiliency questionnaire (Sickby, 2005) and five aspect…

  3. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-governance financial and administrative functions with non-self-determination or non-self-governance... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian...

  4. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  5. Mobile Agents Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  6. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  7. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  8. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  9. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  10. Making operations on standard-library containers strongly exception safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    An operation on an element container is said to provide a strong guarantee of exception safety if, in case an exception is thrown, the operation leaves the container in the state in which it was before the operation. In this paper, we explore how to adjust operations on C++ standard......-library containers to provide the strong guarantee of exception safety, instead of the default guarantee, without violating the stringent performance requirements specified in the C++ standard. In particular, we show that every strongly exception-safe operation on dynamic arrays and ordered dictionaries is only...

  11. American Exceptionalism: Essential Context for National Security Strategy Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNevin, David T

    2006-01-01

    ...." However, there are key components of American national character that give rise to the notion of "American exceptionalism" that are evident when one examines American historical political thought...

  12. What Influences Agents to Pursue a Career in Extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Shannon; Place, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here explored why agricultural agents pursue an Extension career. A purposive sample was used to select twelve Florida agricultural agents. Interviews investigated positive and negative influences that affected agents' employment decisions. Grounded theory was used as the primary data analysis method (Strauss &…

  13. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  14. 45 CFR 670.6 - Prior possession exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Prohibited Acts, Exceptions § 670.6 Prior possession exception. (a... captivity on or before October 28, 1978; or (2) Any offspring of such mammal, bird, or plant. (b... such act was not held in captivity on or before October 28, 1978, or was not an offspring referred to...

  15. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (G-MSO... 1, the Compatibility Chart. ...

  16. 34 CFR 300.220 - Exception for prior local plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.220 Exception for prior local plans... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception for prior local plans. 300.220 Section 300... effective date of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, the applicable...

  17. 75 FR 82410 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Education... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Albuquerque, New... Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on...

  18. 77 FR 28897 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Albuquerque, New... Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on...

  19. 77 FR 47873 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Washington, DC The... (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on Thursday, September...

  20. 75 FR 50780 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Washington, DC. The... (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on Thursday, September...

  1. 76 FR 40929 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Tampa, Florida. The... (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on Sunday, September...

  2. 77 FR 16062 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Albuquerque, New... Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on...

  3. 78 FR 42105 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Albuquerque, New... Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on...

  4. 76 FR 17965 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Riverside... Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on...

  5. 75 FR 23288 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory... of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with...

  6. 77 FR 70807 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Washington, DC. The... (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on Thursday, January...

  7. 29 CFR 1606.3 - The national security exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The national security exception. 1606.3 Section 1606.3... DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.3 The national security exception. It is not an unlawful employment practice to deny employment opportunities to any individual who does not fulfill the national...

  8. Designing Inclusive Learning for Twice Exceptional Students in Minecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Muireann; Robb, Nigel; Howell, Stephen; Marshall, Kevin; Goodman, Lizbeth

    2017-01-01

    Twice exceptional learners are intellectually or creatively gifted yet also experience one or more learning difficulties. These students face a unique set of challenges in educational settings. Recommended strategies for accommodating twice exceptional learners focus on--among other things--(1) providing freedom and variety, so that students can…

  9. 49 CFR 173.156 - Exceptions for ORM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions for ORM materials. 173.156 Section 173... for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.156 Exceptions for ORM materials. (a... this part. (b) ORM-D. Packagings for ORM-D materials are specified according to hazard class in §§ 173...

  10. 18 CFR 1312.5 - Permit requirements and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permit requirements and exceptions. 1312.5 Section 1312.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.5 Permit requirements and exceptions. (a...

  11. Analysis for detecting and explaining exceptions in business data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Daniëls, H.A.M.; Lux Wigand, Dianne; et al,

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the concepts of automatic analysis for the exceptional patterns which are hidden in a large set of business data. These exceptions are interesting to be investigated further for their causes and explanations, as they provide important decision support. The analysis process

  12. 42 CFR 413.184 - Payment exception: Pediatric patient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment exception: Pediatric patient mix. 413.184 Section 413.184 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.184 Payment exception: Pediatric...

  13. An Approach for Search Based Testing of Null Pointer Exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Di Penta, M.; Antoniol, G.

    2011-01-01

    Uncaught exceptions, and in particular null pointer exceptions (NPEs), constitute a major cause of crashes for software systems. Although tools for the static identification of potential NPEs exist, there is need for proper approaches able to identify system execution scenarios causing NPEs. This

  14. 49 CFR 173.310 - Exceptions for radiation detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.310 Exceptions... from the specification packaging in this subchapter and, except when transported by air, from labeling... fragment upon impact. (b) Radiation detectors must not have a design pressure exceeding 4.83 MPa (700 psig...

  15. Adversity and Pitfalls of Twice-Exceptional Urban Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Renae D.; Moore, James L., III.

    2016-01-01

    Current research provides unique insights into the experiences and context of twice-exceptional students in K-12 schools. However, within this literature, a critical gap exists concerning the voices of twice-exceptional African American students and their families. The current qualitative study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and experiences…

  16. Cultural Considerations for Twice-Exceptional Children from Asian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soeun

    2015-01-01

    Since the term twice-exceptional has been entered to the field of gifted education, many studies have investigated the population of students who possess both giftedness and disabilities. It has been shown that there are some challenges to recognizing twice-exceptional children due to current screening and identification process. For this reason,…

  17. 14 CFR 399.21 - Charter exemptions (except military).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charter exemptions (except military). 399.21 Section 399.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Authority § 399.21 Charter exemptions (except military). In deciding applications for exemptions from...

  18. 19 CFR 134.32 - General exceptions to marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.32 General exceptions to marking requirements. The articles described or meeting the specified conditions set forth...): (a) Articles that are incapable of being marked; (b) Articles that cannot be marked prior to shipment...

  19. 12 CFR 313.54 - Exception to due process procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exception to due process procedures. 313.54 Section 313.54 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.54 Exception to due process procedures. (a) The...

  20. Students' Understanding of Advanced Properties of Java Exceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how Information Systems Engineering School students on the verge of their graduation understand the mechanism of exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we construct a questionnaire aimed at examining students' level of understanding concerning exceptions; we classify and analyse the students'…

  1. The Efficacy of Single-Agent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Biologically Selected Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guifang; Gao, Shunji; Sheng, Zhixin; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of first-generation single-agent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with known EGFR mutation status, we undertook this pooled analysis. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Science Citation Index, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings. Out of 2,129 retrieved articles, 19 RCTs enrolling 2,016 patients with wild-type EGFR tumors and 1,034 patients with mutant EGFR tumors were identified. For these EGFR mutant patients, single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy improved progression-free survival (PFS) over chemotherapy: the summary hazard ratios (HRs) were 0.41 (p chemotherapy in the first-line setting (HR = 1.65, p = 0.03) and in the second-/third-line setting (HR = 1.27, p = 0.006). No statistically significant difference was observed in terms of overall survival (OS). Using platinum-based doublet chemotherapy as a common comparator, indirect comparison showed the superior efficacy of single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy over EGFR-TKIs added to chemotherapy in PFS [HR = 1.35 (1.03, 1.77), p = 0.03]. Additionally, a marginal trend towards the same direction was found in the OS analysis [HR = 1.16 (0.99, 1.35), p = 0.06]. Interestingly, for those EGFR wild-type tumors, single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy was inferior to EGFR-TKIs added to chemotherapy in PFS [HR = 0.38 (0.33, 0.44), p chemotherapy. However, single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy was inferior to chemotherapy in PFS for those EGFR wild-type patients. Single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy could improve PFS over the combination of EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy in these EGFR mutant patients. However, EGFR-TKIs combined with chemotherapy could provide additive PFS and OS benefit over single-agent EGFR-TKI therapy in those EGFR wild-type patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  3. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Osselaere

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  4. Space Science IS Accessible to Students with Exceptional Needs: Results from Exceptional Needs Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. J.; Merritt, M.; Guimond, K.

    2003-12-01

    The majority of students with disabilities in the US are required to achieve the same academic levels as their non-impaired peers. Unfortunately, there are few specialized materials to help these exceptional students. To assist students in meeting their goals, SERCH, a NASA Office of Space Science Broker/Facilitator, has been working with NASA education product developers and educators from informal and formal settings to identify what kinds of materials they need and what mediums will work best. As a result of both direct classrooms observations and hands-on workshops we have begun generating adaptive lessons plans that meet the national standards for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. During the workshops, participants simulate various disabilities (e.g., hearing, vision, orthopedic impairments, learning difficulties) while working through Space Science activities and discuss necessary adaptations/modifications in real-time. For example, we modified the Solar System Distance activity first designed by ASU to include the use of larger beads or pom-poms instead of the suggested small plastic beads. This simple adaptation permits students with orthopedic impairments to more readily take part in the lesson and to actively "observe" the distance between the planets. Examples of this activity and more will be illustrated. In addition to making modifications and suggestions for adaptations, workshop participants shared many simple recommendations that can help ALL learners participate more readily in classroom activities and discussions. Among these are: (1) Use simple, sans-serif fonts and high contrast presentation media (e.g., white text on black is most effective); (2) Repetition and use of multiple presentation modes is very helpful. (3) Actively involve the learner, and (4) Keep things simple to begin with, then work toward the more complex - think of the audience, the ultimate user.

  5. Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Muchnik, I. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

  6. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  7. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  8. Internet resources for agent-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, J; Devillers, H; Decourtye, A; Aupinel, P

    2010-04-01

    The use of agent-based models (ABMs) is steadily increasing in all the disciplines including environmental chemistry and toxicology. This growth is mainly driven by their ability to address problems that conventional modelling techniques cannot, such as the change of scale or the emergence of unanticipated phenomena resulting from interactions between their constitutive goal-directed agents. After a brief introduction on the basic principles of agent-based modelling and the presentation of selected case studies, the main software resources available on the Internet are presented. An attempt is made to estimate the complexity of these tools versus their potentialities and flexibility.

  9. Formalizing Properties of Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    of any possible agent. For example, consider the task of getting a particular star to go supernova at a particular time. The star either will go... supernova or not, independent of what the agent does. 45 We define an independent task to be a task where if one agent succeeds in a given set of initial...Scott Reilly, Lonnie Chrisman. Siegfried Bocionek and David Zabowski for their comments. 48 A Z primer This appendix contains a short introduction to the

  10. Frequency of inappropriate medical exceptions to quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persell, Stephen D; Dolan, Nancy C; Friesema, Elisha M; Thompson, Jason A; Kaiser, Darren; Baker, David W

    2010-02-16

    Quality improvement programs that allow physicians to document medical reasons for deviating from guidelines preserve clinicians' judgment while enabling them to strive for high performance. However, physician misconceptions or gaming potentially limit programs. To implement computerized decision support with mechanisms to document medical exceptions to quality measures and to perform peer review of exceptions and provide feedback when appropriate. Observational study. Large internal medicine practice. Patients eligible for 1 or more quality measures. A peer-review panel judged medical exceptions to 16 chronic disease and prevention quality measures as appropriate, inappropriate, or of uncertain appropriateness. Medical records were reviewed after feedback was given to determine whether care changed. Physicians recorded 650 standardized medical exceptions during 7 months. The reporting tool was used without any medical reason 36 times (5.5%). Of the remaining 614 exceptions, 93.6% were medically appropriate, 3.1% were inappropriate, and 3.3% were of uncertain appropriateness. Frequencies of inappropriate exceptions were 7 (6.9%) for coronary heart disease, 0 (0%) for heart failure, 10 (10.8%) for diabetes, and 2 (0.6%) for preventive services. After physicians received direct feedback about inappropriate exceptions, 8 of 19 (42%) changed management. The peer-review process took less than 5 minutes per case, but for each change in clinical care, 65 reviews were required. The findings could differ at other sites or if financial incentives were in place. Physician-recorded medical exceptions were correct most of the time. Peer review of medical exceptions can identify myths and misconceptions, but the process needs to be more efficient to be sustainable. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  11. Representation in dynamical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ronnie; Ward, Robert

    2009-04-01

    This paper extends experiments by Beer [Beer, R. D. (1996). Toward the evolution of dynamical neural networks for minimally cognitive behavior. In P. Maes, M. Mataric, J. Meyer, J. Pollack, & S. Wilson (Eds.), From animals to animats 4: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on simulation of adaptive behavior (pp. 421-429). MIT Press; Beer, R. D. (2003). The dynamics of active categorical perception in an evolved model agent (with commentary and response). Adaptive Behavior, 11 (4), 209-243] with an evolved, dynamical agent to further explore the question of representation in cognitive systems. Beer's environmentally-situated visual agent was controlled by a continuous-time recurrent neural network, and evolved to perform a categorical perception task, discriminating circles from diamonds. Despite the agent's high levels of discrimination performance, Beer found no evidence of internal representation in the best-evolved agent's nervous system. Here we examine the generality of this result. We evolved an agent for shape discrimination, and performed extensive behavioral analyses to test for representation. In this case we find that agents developed to discriminate equal-width shapes exhibit what Clark [Clark, A. (1997). The dynamical challenge. Cognitive Science, 21 (4), 461-481] calls "weak-substantive representation". The agent had internal configurations that (1) were understandably related to the object in the environment, and (2) were functionally used in a task relevant way when the target was not visible to the agent.

  12. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  13. Managing the financial cost of exception to contracting standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    In managing financial cost of exception to contracting standards, the first step is to put up an intelligent contract standards exception monitoring system The next step is to maintain tailor-made, fair and transparent contracting standards The third step is to eliminate unnecessary information...... and repetitiveness in contracting standards The fourth step is to enable your organization and the customers or suppliers to handle the necessary exceptions themselves Finally you should consider the use of independent contracting standards and elimination of your own standards as a tool in managing the cost...

  14. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Hicham Baba, Mohamed Elfahssi, Mohamed Said Belhamidi, Abderrahman Elhjouji, Ahmed Bounaim, Abdelmounaim Ait Ali, Khalid Sair, Aziz Zentar ...

  15. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging. PMID:27025443

  16. 50 CFR 14.64 - Exceptions to export declaration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., preserved, dried, or embedded scientific specimens or parts thereof, exported by accredited scientists or... any specimens or parts thereof taken as a result of sport hunting. (c) Except for wildlife requiring a...

  17. 19 CFR 134.33 - J-List exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sheets; shafting; slabs; and metal in similar forms. Mica not further manufactured than cut or stamped to.... Scrap and waste. Screws. Shims, track. Shingles (wood), bundles of (except bundles of red-cedar shingles...

  18. 49 CFR 173.151 - Exceptions for Class 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... not exceeding 30 kg (66 pounds) gross weight, may be renamed “Consumer commodity” and reclassed as ORM... addition to the exceptions provided by paragraph (b) of this section, shipments of ORM-D materials are not...

  19. Properties of the Exceptional (Xl) Laguerre and Jacobi Polynomials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choon-Lin Ho; Satoru Odake; Ryu Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    We present various results on the properties of the four infinite sets of the exceptional Xl polynomials discovered recently by Odake and Sasaki [Phys. Lett. B 679 (2009), 414-417; Phys. Lett. B 684 (2010), 173-176...

  20. Exceptional epidemics: AIDS still deserves a global response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been a renewed debate over whether AIDS deserves an exceptional response. We argue that as AIDS is having differentiated impacts depending on the scale of the epidemic, and population groups impacted, and so responses must be tailored accordingly. AIDS is exceptional, but not everywhere. Exceptionalism developed as a Western reaction to a once poorly understood epidemic, but remains relevant in the current multi-dimensional global response. The attack on AIDS exceptionalism has arisen because of the amount of funding targeted to the disease and the belief that AIDS activists prioritize it above other health issues. The strongest detractors of exceptionalism claim that the AIDS response has undermined health systems in developing countries. We agree that in countries with low prevalence, AIDS should be normalised and treated as a public health issue--but responses must forcefully address human rights and tackle the stigma and discrimination faced by marginalized groups. Similarly, AIDS should be normalized in countries with mid-level prevalence, except when life-long treatment is dependent on outside resources--as is the case with most African countries--because treatment dependency creates unique sustainability challenges. AIDS always requires an exceptional response in countries with high prevalence (over 10 percent. In these settings there is substantial morbidity, filling hospitals and increasing care burdens; and increased mortality, which most visibly reduces life expectancy. The idea that exceptionalism is somehow wrong is an oversimplification. The AIDS response can not be mounted in isolation; it is part of the development agenda. It must be based on human rights principles, and it must aim to improve health and well-being of societies as a whole.

  1. Half-maximal consistent truncations using exceptional field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, E.

    We show how to construct half-maximal consistent truncations of 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity to seven dimensions using exceptional field theory. This procedure gives rise to a seven-dimensional half-maximal gauged supergravity coupled to n vector multiplets, with n ≠ 3 in general. We also show how these techniques can be used to reduce exceptional field theory to heterotic double field theory.

  2. Gifted students with a coexisting disability: The twice exceptional

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2015-01-01

    The twice exceptional are students who have both high ability and a disability or disorder. The ability can be in any culturally-valued domain, including high intelligence, academics, the visual or performing arts, and athletics. The co-existing disability can be physical, medical, or psychological. There is a growing literature of scholarly opinion about twice exceptionality; however, there are few well-designed empirical investigations of gifted students with anxiety, depression, bipolar di...

  3. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  4. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glenn Meerstra; Wouter Langerak; Leo van Moergestel; Niels van Nieuwenburg; John-Jules Meyer; Ing. Erik Puik; Franc Pape; Daniël Telgen

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to

  5. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  6. New agents in HSC mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Nilsson, Susan K; Cao, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is the most common source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous transplantation. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most commonly used mobilization agent, yet despite its widespread use, a considerable number of patients still fail to mobilize. Recently, a greater understanding of the interactions that regulate HSC homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has enabled the development of new molecules that mobilize HSC through specific inhibition, modulation or perturbation of these interactions. AMD3100 (plerixafor), a small molecule that selectively inhibits the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is approved for mobilization in combination with G-CSF in patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, identifying mobilization strategies that not only enhance HSC number, but are rapid and generate an optimal "mobilized product" for improved transplant outcomes remains an area of clinical importance. In recent times, new agents based on recombinant proteins, peptides and small molecules have been identified as potential candidates for therapeutic HSC mobilization. In this review, we describe the most recent developments in HSC mobilization agents and their potential impact in HSC transplantation.

  7. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  8. Evaluation of copper speciation in model solutions of humic acid by mini-columns packed with Chelex-100 and new chelating agents: Application to speciation of selected heavy metals in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiptoo, Jackson K., E-mail: kiptoojac@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi (Kenya); Ngila, J. Catherine [School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Westville, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Silavwe, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Swaziland, P/Bag 4, Kwaluseni (Swaziland)

    2009-12-30

    A solid-phase extraction procedure using mini-columns packed with Chelex-100 and two new chelating agents based on poly(vinyl chloride) functionalized with 3-ferrocenyl-3-hydroxydithioacrylic acid and N,N'-[1,1'-dithiobis(ethylene)]-bis(salicylideneimine) (H{sub 2}sales) loaded on microcrystalline naphthalene, is reported. The columns were used to separate labile copper fractions in model solutions and in real samples with subsequent determination using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Various model solutions containing 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} of Cu{sup 2+} and 0.0, 0.2, 2.0 and 20.0 mg L{sup -1} of humic acid, respectively, and buffered to pH 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 were considered. Results showed a decrease in labile copper fraction with increase in humic acid concentration. Application of the procedure to speciation of Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb in various environmental water samples yielded labile fractions in the range of 1.67-55.75% against a total dissolved fraction of 44.08-69.77%. Comparison of the three chelating agents showed that H{sub 2}sales had a weaker metal chelating strength than Chelex-100, but PVC-FSSH had comparable chelating strength to Chelex-100.

  9. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  10. A local flocking algorithm of multi-agent dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Huiqin; Chen, Shiming; Lai, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the local flocking of multi-agent systems is investigated, which means all agents form some groups of surrounding multiple targets with the partial information exchange. For the purpose of realising local multi-flocking, a control algorithm of local flocking is proposed, which is a biologically inspired approach that assimilates key characteristics of flocking and anti-flocking. In the process of surrounding mobile targets through the control algorithm, all agents can adaptively choose between two work modes to depend on the variation of visual field and the number of pursuing agents with the mobile target. One is a flocking pursuing mode which is that some agents pursue each mobile target, the other is an anti-flocking searching mode that means with the exception of the pursing agents of mobile targets, other agents respectively hunt for optimal the mobile target with a closest principle between the agent and the target. In two work modes, the agents are controlled severally via the different control protocol. By the Lyapunov theorem, the stability of the second-order multi-agent system is proven in detail. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of anti-cancer agents that selectively inhibit Her2 over-expressed breast cancer cell growth via down-regulation of Her2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Anran; Zheng, Qiaoyun; Orahoske, Cody M; Idippily, Nethrie D; Ashcraft, Morgan M; Quamine, Aicha; Su, Bin

    2018-02-15

    Compound JCC76 selectively inhibited the proliferation of human epidermal growth factor 2 (Her2) over-expressed breast cancer cells. In the current study, a ligand based structural optimization was performed to generate new analogs, and we identified derivatives 16 and 17 that showed improved activity and selectivity against Her2 positive breast cancer cells. A structure activity relationship (SAR) was summarized. Compounds 16 and 17 were also examined by western blot assay to check their effect on Her2 protein. The results reveal that the compounds could decrease the Her2 protein, which explains their selectivity to Her2 over-expressed breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the compounds inhibited the chaperone activity of small chaperone protein that could stabilize Her2 protein. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Agent-based modeling of sustainable behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Maroño, Noelia; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Polhill, J; Craig, Tony; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Using the O.D.D. (Overview, Design concepts, Detail) protocol, this title explores the role of agent-based modeling in predicting the feasibility of various approaches to sustainability. The chapters incorporated in this volume consist of real case studies to illustrate the utility of agent-based modeling and complexity theory in discovering a path to more efficient and sustainable lifestyles. The topics covered within include: households' attitudes toward recycling, designing decision trees for representing sustainable behaviors, negotiation-based parking allocation, auction-based traffic signal control, and others. This selection of papers will be of interest to social scientists who wish to learn more about agent-based modeling as well as experts in the field of agent-based modeling.

  14. Obama’s Dual Discourse on American Exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaz Miloš

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the highly contested concept of American exceptionalism, as described in the speeches of Barak Obama. The authors of the paper use discourse analysis to show that Obama is using the idea of American exceptionalism on two levels: US foreign policy and the US stance towards international law. Our conclusion is that Obama uses an implicit dual discourse in both these fields. Obama favours active US foreign policy, based on soft power instruments and multilateralism. He insists that American exceptionalism does not mean that the US can exempt itself from the norms of international law, however, he does not think the US should always have a very active foreign policy. He makes room for unilateral acting and the use of hard power instruments in foreign policy. He allows for the use of force even if is not in accordance with the norms of international law, when US national interests are threatened.

  15. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  16. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  17. Chinese Education Agent Views of American Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Serra Hagedorn, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In an era of increasing global competition in education related markets, many higher education institutions in the United States have come to realize the need to market better for international students. Community colleges are no exception and have become increasingly active in recruiting international students using education agents. Using…

  18. Exceptional points enhance sensing in an optical microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijian; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Zhao, Guangming; Wiersig, Jan; Yang, Lan

    2017-08-01

    Sensors play an important part in many aspects of daily life such as infrared sensors in home security systems, particle sensors for environmental monitoring and motion sensors in mobile phones. High-quality optical microcavities are prime candidates for sensing applications because of their ability to enhance light-matter interactions in a very confined volume. Examples of such devices include mechanical transducers, magnetometers, single-particle absorption spectrometers, and microcavity sensors for sizing single particles and detecting nanometre-scale objects such as single nanoparticles and atomic ions. Traditionally, a very small perturbation near an optical microcavity introduces either a change in the linewidth or a frequency shift or splitting of a resonance that is proportional to the strength of the perturbation. Here we demonstrate an alternative sensing scheme, by which the sensitivity of microcavities can be enhanced when operated at non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies known as exceptional points. In our experiments, we use two nanoscale scatterers to tune a whispering-gallery-mode micro-toroid cavity, in which light propagates along a concave surface by continuous total internal reflection, in a precise and controlled manner to exceptional points. A target nanoscale object that subsequently enters the evanescent field of the cavity perturbs the system from its exceptional point, leading to frequency splitting. Owing to the complex-square-root topology near an exceptional point, this frequency splitting scales as the square root of the perturbation strength and is therefore larger (for sufficiently small perturbations) than the splitting observed in traditional non-exceptional-point sensing schemes. Our demonstration of exceptional-point-enhanced sensitivity paves the way for sensors with unprecedented sensitivity.

  19. Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Bo; Hsu, Chia Wei; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-09-17

    The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformation of the Dirac cone often reveals intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. Dirac cones and exceptional points are connected: it was theoretically suggested that certain non-Hermitian perturbations can deform a Dirac cone and spawn a ring of exceptional points. Here we experimentally demonstrate such an 'exceptional ring' in a photonic crystal slab. Angle-resolved reflection measurements of the photonic crystal slab reveal that the peaks of reflectivity follow the conical band structure of a Dirac cone resulting from accidental degeneracy, whereas the complex eigenvalues of the system are deformed into a two-dimensional flat band enclosed by an exceptional ring. This deformation arises from the dissimilar radiation rates of dipole and quadrupole resonances, which play a role analogous to the loss and gain in parity-time symmetric systems. Our results indicate that the radiation existing in any open system can fundamentally alter its physical properties in ways previously expected only in the presence of material loss and gain.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sahraei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI contrast agents most commonly agents used in diagnosing different diseases. Several agents have been ever introduced with different peculiar characteristics. They vary in potency, adverse reaction and other specification, so it is important to select the proper agent in different situations. We conducted a systematic literature search in MEDLINE/PUBMED, Web of Science (ISI, Scopus,Google Scholar by using keywords "gadolinium" and "MRI contrast Medias", "Gadofosvest", "Gadobenate" and "Gadoxetate". The most frequent contrast media agents made based on gadolinium (Gd. These are divided into two categories based on the structure of their chelating parts, linear agents and macrocyclic agents. All characteristics of contrast media factors, including efficiency, kinetic properties, stability, side effects and the rate of resolution are directly related to the structure of chelating part of that formulation.In vitro data has shown that the macrocyclic compounds are the most stable Gd-CA as they do not bind to serum proteins, they all possess similar and relatively low relaxivity and the prevalence of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF has decreased by increasing the use of macrocyclic agents in recent years. No cases of NSF have been recorded after the administration of any of the high-relaxivity protein interacting agents, the vascular imaging agent gadofosveset trisodium (Ablavar, the hepatic imaging agent gadoxetate meglumine (Eovist, and the multipurpose agent gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance. In pregnancy and lactating women, stable macrocyclic agent is recommended.

  1. Developing effective change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, L A

    1986-01-01

    With small/rural hospitals employing a multitude of professionals it becomes imperative that trainers explore ways to develop "self-help" or "change agent" groups if training departments are to persist ... indeed exist. The approach described here concentrates not only on developing the training director's skills but also on developing the skills of department managers and supervisors in facilitating change and becoming change agents. It also illustrates the importance of cooperation between department heads and the education and training staff.

  2. Spectral analysis for the exceptional Xm-Jacobi equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Liaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide the mathematical foundation for the $X_m$-Jacobi spectral theory. Namely, we present a self-adjoint operator associated to the differential expression with the exceptional $X_m$-Jacobi orthogonal polynomials as eigenfunctions. This proves that those polynomials are indeed eigenfunctions of the self-adjoint operator (rather than just formal eigenfunctions. Further, we prove the completeness of the exceptional $X_m$-Jacobi orthogonal polynomials (of degrees $m, m+1, m+2, \\dots$ in the Lebesgue-Hilbert space with the appropriate weight. In particular, the self-adjoint operator has no other spectrum.

  3. Harmonic inversion analysis of exceptional points in resonance spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Jacob; Main, Jörg; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The spectra of, e.g. open quantum systems are typically given as the superposition of resonances with a Lorentzian line shape, where each resonance is related to a simple pole in the complex energy domain. However, at exceptional points two or more resonances are degenerate and the resulting non-Lorentzian line shapes are related to higher order poles in the complex energy domain. In the Fourier-transform time domain an $n$-th order exceptional point is characterised by a non-exponentially de...

  4. 10th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen-Burger, Yun-Heh; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    The modern economy is driven by technologies and knowledge. Digital technologies can free, shift and multiply choices, often intruding on the space of other industries, by providing new ways of conducting business operations and creating values for customers and companies. The topics covered in this volume include software agents, multi-agent systems, agent modelling, mobile and cloud computing, big data analysis, business intelligence, artificial intelligence, social systems, computer embedded systems and nature inspired manufacturing, etc. that contribute to the modern Digital Economy. This volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent, new digital and knowledge economy research and includes 28 papers classified in the following specific topics: business process management, agent-based modeling and simulation, anthropic-oriented computing, learning paradigms, business informatics and gaming, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published papers were selected for presentatio...

  5. Job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation dissemination to fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 44 extension officers from which data were collected. A structured questionnaire consisting of 6 personal characteristics, 23 management ...

  6. Agent amplified communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  7. The role of the agent's outside options in principal-agent relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Rasul, I.; Sonderegger, S.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a principal-agent model of adverse selection where, in order to trade with the principal, the agent must undertake a relationship-specific investment which affects his outside option to trade, i.e. the payoff that he can obtain by trading with an alternative principal. This creates a distinction between the agent’s ex ante (before investment) and ex post (after investment) outside options to trade. We investigate the consequences of this distinction, and show that when...

  8. Microtubule-targeting Anticancer Agents from Marine Natural Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Xu, Pengfei; Yu, Lun; Zeng, Wenbin

    2013-02-07

    The effective novel therapeutics is urgently needed due to the increasing incidence of malignant cancers and drug multi-resistance. It is particularly imperative to find efficacious and specific anticancer agents. Microtubule-targeting drugs are among the most commonly prescribed agents in the combat against cancer. Natural products and their derivatives have historically been invaluable as a source of pharmaceutical leads and therapeutic agents. In particular, marine natural products (MNPs) have demonstrated exceptional potency and potential as anticancer agents. Drug discovery from MNPs provides new pathway and ideas to find original anticancer agents, and enjoys a renaissance in the past few years. In this review, nine classes of typical MNPs are summarized, including novel compounds with diverse structures. Most bioactive marine compounds from different organism include invertebrate animals, algae, fungi and bacteria are concluded.

  9. Scopolamine provocation-based pharmacological MRI model for testing procognitive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Nikolett; Laszy, Judit; Gyertyán, István; Kocsis, Pál; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Deli, Levente; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Tihanyi, Károly

    2015-04-01

    There is a huge unmet need to understand and treat pathological cognitive impairment. The development of disease modifying cognitive enhancers is hindered by the lack of correct pathomechanism and suitable animal models. Most animal models to study cognition and pathology do not fulfil either the predictive validity, face validity or construct validity criteria, and also outcome measures greatly differ from those of human trials. Fortunately, some pharmacological agents such as scopolamine evoke similar effects on cognition and cerebral circulation in rodents and humans and functional MRI enables us to compare cognitive agents directly in different species. In this paper we report the validation of a scopolamine based rodent pharmacological MRI provocation model. The effects of deemed procognitive agents (donepezil, vinpocetine, piracetam, alpha 7 selective cholinergic compounds EVP-6124, PNU-120596) were compared on the blood-oxygen-level dependent responses and also linked to rodent cognitive models. These drugs revealed significant effect on scopolamine induced blood-oxygen-level dependent change except for piracetam. In the water labyrinth test only PNU-120596 did not show a significant effect. This provocational model is suitable for testing procognitive compounds. These functional MR imaging experiments can be paralleled with human studies, which may help reduce the number of false cognitive clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Marital Satisfaction and Quality of life in Mothers with Exceptional Children and Mothers with Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Abbas Lohranpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze comparatively marital satisfaction and quality of life in mothers with exceptional children and mothers with normal children. Methodology in present study is comparative. For sample, it selects 40 mothers with normal children in nursery school and preschool located in Ahvaz, 40 mothers with exceptional children under education and care in daily sanatorium, and 30 mothers with exceptional children hospitalized (nightly in Ahvaz. They are tested by a enrich questionnaire of short form with 47 questions and 36 questions of quality of life. Statistical model of one-way variance analysis is used for data analysis. Findings indicate that there is no significant difference in marital satisfaction between mothers with exceptional children in caring centers and mothers with normal children, yet there is a significant difference in quality of life (mental-physical between mothers with exceptional children and mothers with normal children. Results of study indicate that mental quality of life as dependent variable is influenced by factors such as children with mental or physical disability as independent variables. Birth of an exceptional child reduces mental quality of life. Results show that not presence of exceptional child for full-time is highly effective on physical quality of life.

  11. Exceptional Child Education in Alabama: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Greg

    The monograph describes the progress that has been made in exceptional child education in Alabama during the last decade and addresses needed areas of improvement. Brief sections focus on the following items: financing special education programs, instructional programing in local education agencies, individualized education plans, diagnosis of…

  12. Leading Change: How Boards and Presidents Build Exceptional Academic Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTaggart, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    In a time of transformation in higher education, "Leading Change: How Boards and Presidents Build Exceptional Institutions" fills a significant void in leadership literature and focuses on the changing level of board engagement. This book examines 18 institutions, across the spectrum of higher education, at which the board played a…

  13. 28 CFR 42.711 - Exception; authorized by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception; authorized by law. 42.711 Section 42.711 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age...

  14. Understanding the Code: exceptions to the duty of patient confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Last month's article considered the scope of a district nurse's duty to maintain the confidentiality of patient information under the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code, their contract of employment, and the law. This month, Richard Griffith considers the exceptions to these duties and sets out when a district nurse would be justified in disclosing patient information.

  15. 50 CFR 300.161 - Alternatives and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... container or package containing fish or wildlife if the shipper has a valid wildlife import/export license... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Transportation and Labeling of Fish or Wildlife § 300.161 Alternatives and exceptions... containing fish or wildlife with the word “fish” or “wildlife” as appropriate for its contents, or with the...

  16. 75 FR 53334 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Washington, DC. The notice included an incorrect...

  17. Exceptional laceration of flexor digitorum tendons proximal to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classically, tendon's injuries occur near the injured area and their repair depend on traumatized zone, sutures techniques, associated lesions and surgeon's abilities. We report a case of a farmer who has sustained of a severe hand wound due to blades of a combine harvester. Clinical examination showed exceptional ...

  18. Heirpower! Eight Basic Habits of Exceptionally Powerful Lieutenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    remember him for how he treated them. He was care-full. I would have gone to war with him any time, any place. God bless you , Mr. President! Starting...bobvasquez@heirpower.com. May you become an Exceptionally Powerful Lieutenant! May God bless you ! And may God bless America! ¡Adelante! finalthoughts.indd

  19. [Alfred Velpeau (1795-1867): an exceptional career].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, E

    1994-01-01

    Alfred Velpeau (1795-1867) was the most famous and the most popular French surgeon of his time. His exceptional career was due to the conjunction of a rare quality of mind and providential circumstances. His life, a true fairy tale, is an example to be honored. Nothing is more original, wrote Paul Valery, than to feed from others.

  20. 15 CFR 740.2 - Restrictions on all License Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Being made to Australia, Japan, New Zealand, or a NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) member state... license requirements of § 742.11 of the EAR. (11) The item is a “military commodity” subject to ECCN 0A919, except that such military commodities may be reexported in accordance with § 740.11(b)(2)(ii) (official...

  1. Supporting Teachers to Work with Children with Exceptionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, Isabel; Zaretsky, Hayley; Jordan, Anne; Smith, Deidre; Allard, Carson; Moloney, James

    2013-01-01

    The current study had two purposes: to explore further revisions to the Three-Part Schedule D Additional Qualification (AQ) courses in special education and to determine if a virtual knowledge network would be a viable and welcome tool in building teacher capacity for classroom inclusion of students with exceptionalities. Educational stakeholders…

  2. Computer Use and Behavior Problems in Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela; Miley, Neal; Seckinger, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated how engagement with computer games and TV exposure may affect behaviors of gifted students. We also compared behavioral and cognitive profiles of twice-exceptional students and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gifted students were divided into those with behavioral problems and those…

  3. Twice-Exceptional Learners: The Journey toward a Shared Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Lois; Baum, Susan; Pereles, Daphne; Hughes, Claire

    2015-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the unique needs of twice-exceptional (2e) learners have challenged educators. Because of this challenge, much work has been done in different areas across the country in creating appropriate learning environments for serving this population. However, no unified way has been developed to bring together the best research and…

  4. 26 CFR 31.3221-4 - Exception from supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception from supplemental tax. 31.3221-4...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3221...

  5. Non-Trade Concerns in Interpreting General Exception Clauses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    This particular sub-clause allows members to take trade-restriction measures so as to protect public morals and this clause has been applied in the US-Gambling case. Here the US imposed a ban on internet gambling justifying its measure by raising the public moral exception and the panel was burdened with a huge task.

  6. The Rule and its Exceptions: Spirit Possession in Two African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rule and its Exceptions: Spirit Possession in Two African Societies. JG Platvoet. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  7. 38 CFR 4.86 - Exceptional patterns of hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing impairment. 4.86 Section 4.86 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Impairment of Auditory Acuity § 4.86 Exceptional patterns of hearing impairment. (a) When the puretone threshold at each of the four specified...

  8. 77 FR 59932 - Single Source Award; Exception to Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Competition AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Exception to Competition--Single Source Award to Texas Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) East--University of Texas...) also has benefits for program evaluation purposes, since AHEC grantees have existing evaluation...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-7 - Territorial applicability and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables... importations of fruits and vegetables into any area of the United States, except as provided in this section. (b) Importations of fruits and vegetables into Guam. (1) The following fruits and vegetables may be...

  10. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than certification...

  11. Brazil's Exception to the World-Class University Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The continued importance of university rankings has only served to fuel the growth of the "world-class" university movement. There is a growing impression that, in a globalised and interconnected world, no country can do without a world-class university. No country, that is, except Brazil. While Brazil has the resources necessary to…

  12. 15 CFR 700.80 - Adjustments or exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exceptions. (a) A person may submit a request to the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, U... provision of this regulation or an official action is contrary to the intent of the Defense Production Act... interim relief is granted in writing by the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security. (d) A...

  13. Resources for Exceptional Adult Education: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alejandro C.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography describes materials that can be helpful to adult educators working with exceptional adults. The bibliography includes 186 citations of resource materials, assessment materials, training guides, curriculum guides, research findings, films, and general information. The opening section consists of citations of general…

  14. Additional safety risk to exceptionally approved drugs in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnardottir, Arna H.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Straus, Sabine M. J.; Eichler, Hans-Georg; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    AIMS Regulatory requirements for new drugs have increased. Special approval procedures with priority assessment are possible for drugs with clear 'unmet medical need'. We question whether these Exceptional Circumstances (EC) or Conditional Approval (CA) procedures have led to a higher probability of

  15. 31 CFR 206.5 - Collection and deposit procedure exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection and deposit procedure exceptions. 206.5 Section 206.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL...

  16. 36 CFR 71.13 - Exceptions, exclusions, and exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.13 Exceptions, exclusions, and exemptions. In the application of the... Area. (d) No Federal recreation fee shall be charged for commercial or other activities not related to... any recreation facilities for which a fee waiver is requested must relate directly to scientific or...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.522 - Exceptions to arbitration awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....522 Section 9701.522 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.522 Exceptions to arbitration...

  18. Intestinal obstruction in a child with an exceptional ascaris burden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal obstruction in a child with an exceptional ascaris burden - a case report. E A Agbakwuru, O Akinola, O Adejuyigbe, E O Komolafe. Abstract. No Abstract. NQJHM Vol. 8 (4) 1998: pp. 270-271. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. 9 CFR 93.910 - General restrictions; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs... World Health Organization for Animal Health by the country's competent authority for aquatic animal... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions; exceptions. 93...

  20. Novel Methylselenoesters as Antiproliferative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Díaz-Argelich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se compounds are potential therapeutic agents in cancer. Importantly, the biological effects of Se compounds are exerted by their metabolites, with methylselenol (CH3SeH being one of the key executors. In this study, we developed a new series of methylselenoesters with different scaffolds aiming to modulate the release of CH3SeH. The fifteen compounds follow Lipinski’s Rule of Five and with exception of compounds 1 and 14, present better drug-likeness values than the positive control methylseleninic acid. The compounds were evaluated to determine their radical scavenging activity. Compound 11 reduced both DPPH and ABTS radicals. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in a panel of five cancer cell lines (prostate, colon and lung carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia and two non-malignant (lung and mammary epithelial cell lines. Ten compounds had GI50 values below 10 μM at 72 h in four cancer cell lines. Compounds 5 and 15 were chosen for further characterization of their mechanism of action in the mammary adenocarcinoma cell line due to their similarity with methylseleninic acid. Both compounds induced G2/M arrest whereas cell death was partially executed by caspases. The reduction and metabolism were also investigated, and both compounds were shown to be substrates for redox active enzyme thioredoxin reductase.

  1. Responding to Variability among Exceptional Children. Volume I: Management and Programming. A Manual for Teacher Corps' Exceptional Child Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Philip H.; And Others

    The first of a two part series designed for Teacher Corps staff working with exceptional students addresses topics related to management and programing. Six chapters deal with the following aspects (sample subtopics in parentheses): diagnostic-prescriptive education (individual education program, behavior observation); role of the exceptional…

  2. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus ...

  3. Assessment of extension agents' use of communication methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to improve aquaculture production through enhanced technology transfer necessitated this study to assess extension agents' use of communication methods and its impact on linkage. A structured questionnaire was administered to 44 extension agents who were randomly selected from Lagos State Agricultural ...

  4. Determinants and Levels of Agricultural Development Agents Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted with an objective of assessing the level of job satisfaction and its determinants among agricultural development agents working in different kebeles of Kalu Woreda, South Wollo Zone of the Amhara National Regional State. A total of 100 development agents were selected and interviewed using ...

  5. Evaluation of Extension Agents Commitment to the Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the activities of Extension agents on Agricultural Loans and Inputs Supply Programme participant farmers' rice output/income. Data were collected with the aid of questionnaire from 60 Extension agents (participating in the ALIS programme) randomly selected from 6 LGAs (where the programme is ...

  6. Analysis of Training Needs of Extension Agents on Climate Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study specifically examined tasks performed by extension agents in the EKSADP as related to climate change and the task areas in which they needed further training. Using structured questionnaire, data were collected from thirty three (33) randomly selected extension agents in the two agricultural zones of Ekiti State.

  7. Motivational needs assessment of extension agents of Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the motivational needs of extension agents of Abia Agricultural Development Project. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select a total of 128 extension agents (EAs) from the State. Data on the effects of various needs/motivational theories (as Maslows' needs hierarchy theory, ...

  8. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  9. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...... befinder sig i, forårsager behovet for disse ISAs. Der gives eksempler på ISAs, samt de områder, hvor man har særlige behov for disse agenter, og hvordan nogle af disse ISAs allerede er blevet taget i brug for at løse problemerne i disse områder....

  10. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which...... agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is called attention-based announcement logic. We give an axiomatization of the logic and prove that complexity of satisfiability is the same as that of public announcement logic, and therefore lower than that of action model logic. An attention...

  11. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF CATEGORY "A" BIO-TERRORISM AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presents information on the inactivation of select bioterrorist agents. Information will be presented on chlorine disinfection of vegetative cells of Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and endos...

  12. ADHD and giftedness: a neurocognitive consideration of twice exceptionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Deborah; Chidekel, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Current models of cognition and behavioral diagnosis emphasize categorical classification over continuous considerations of function and promote the "differential diagnosis" of various conditions according to observational criteria. However, an overemphasis on a purely behavioral, categorical approach to understanding human function fails to address the comorbidity of different disorders and does not include a consideration of overlapping levels of function, from "pathological" through "normal," to "gifted" or exceptional. The frequent co-occurrence of "gifted" and "pathological" function is thus difficult to understand from a corticocentric and purely behavioral and observational point of view. This article reviews "giftedness" in relation to the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, coexistence of which is termed "twice exceptional." It additionally considers problems in assessing these functions using current neuropsychological tests and methodologies that are presumably based upon a corticocentric model of cognition.

  13. The Dilemma of Democracy: Collusion and the State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McGovern

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In what sense might the authoritarian practices and suspension of legal norms as means to combat the supposed threat of “terrorism,” within and by contemporary western democratic states, be understood as a problem of and not for democracy? That question lies at the heart of this article. It will be explored through the theoretical frame offered in the work of Giorgio Agamben on the state of exception and the example of British state collusion in non-state violence in the North of Ireland. The North of Ireland provides a particularly illuminating case study to explore how the state of exception—the suspension of law and of legal norms and the exercise of arbitrary decision—has increasingly become a paradigm of contemporary governance. In so doing it brings into question not only the traditional conceptualization of the “democratic dilemma” of liberal democratic states “confronting terrorism” but also challenge dominant paradigms of transitional justice that generally fail to problematize the liberal democratic order. After outlining Agamben’s understanding of the state of exception the article will chart the development of “exceptional measures” and the creation of a permanent state of emergency in the North, before critically exploring the role of collusion as an aspect of counter-insurgency during the recent conflict. The paper will argue that the normalization of exceptional measures, combined with the need to delimit the explicitness of constitutional provision for the same, provided a context for the emergence of collusion as a paradigm case for the increasing replication of colonial practices into the core activity of the contemporary democratic state.

  14. Exceptional preservation of fossils in an Upper Proterozoic shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Swett, K.

    1988-01-01

    An exceptionally well-preserved and distinctive assemblage of Late Proterozoic fossils from subtidal marine shales is reported. In addition to the spheromorphic acritarchs and cyanobacteria sheaths routinely preserved in Proterozoic rocks, this assemblage includes multicellular algae, a diverse assortment of morphologically complex protistan vesicles, and probable heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, it provides one of the clearest and most taxonomically varied views of Proterozoic life yet reported.

  15. Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, John

    2016-01-01

    Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be ?exceptional?, e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; ?extreme?, marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g.,...

  16. The exceptional genomic word symmetry along DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Afreixo, Vera; Rodrigues, Jo?o M. O. S.; Carlos A. C. Bastos; Silva, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The second Chargaff?s parity rule and its extensions are recognized as universal phenomena in DNA sequences. However, parity of the frequencies of reverse complementary oligonucleotides could be a mere consequence of the single nucleotide parity rule, if nucleotide independence is assumed. Exceptional symmetry (symmetry beyond that expected under an independent nucleotide assumption) was proposed previously as a meaningful measure of the extension of the second parity rule to oligo...

  17. W/Z properties (except mass) form ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Santaolalla, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The results on W and Z boson properties by both ATLAS and CMS (except mass) are presented in this document. The inclusive W and Z boson cross section production, the W charge asymmetry, the differential production as a function of the boson rapidity and transverse momentum, the W polarization and the sinus of the weak angle are shown in this document. The studies included are based on LHC collisions at ps = 7 TeV, recorded during 2010 and 2011.

  18. W/Z properties (except mass) from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Santaolalla Camino, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The results on W and Z boson properties by both ATLAS and CMS (except mass) are presented in this document. The inclusive W and Z boson cross section production, the W charge asymmetry, the differential production as a function of the boson rapidity and transverse momentum, the W polarization and the sinus of the weak angle are shown in this document. The studies included are based on LHC collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV, recorded during 2010 and 2011.

  19. Exceptional longevity does not result in excessive levels of disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt; Petersen, Inge

    2008-01-01

    of the entire Danish 1905 cohort from 1998 to 2005 to assess the loss of physical and cognitive independence in the age range of 92 to 100 years. Multiple functional outcomes were studied, including independence, which was defined as being able to perform basic activities of daily living without assistance from...... of independence. For society, mortality reductions are not expected to result in exceptional levels of disability in cohorts of the very old....

  20. Particle actions and brane tensions from double and exceptional geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Chris D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Massless particles in n + 1 dimensions lead to massive particles in n dimensions on Kaluza-Klein reduction. In string theory, wrapped branes lead to multiplets of massive particles in n dimensions, in representations of a duality group G. By encoding the masses of these particles in auxiliary worldline scalars, also transforming under G, we write an action which resembles that for a massless particle on an extended spacetime. We associate this extended spacetime with that appearing in double field theory and exceptional field theory, and formulate a version of the action which is invariant under the generalised diffeomorphism symmetry of these theories. This provides a higher-dimensional perspective on the origin of mass and tension in string theory and M-theory. Finally, we consider the reduction of exceptional field theory on a twisted torus, which is known to give the massive IIA theory of Romans. In this case, our particle action leads naturally to the action for a D0 brane in massive IIA. Here an extra vector field is present on the worldline, whose origin in exceptional field theory is a vector field introduced to ensure invariance under generalised diffeomorphisms.

  1. From autistic to social agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.; Prada, R.

    2014-01-01

    The theory, models and architectures of intelligent agents are based loosely on the theory of intentions from Bratman resulting in the so-called BDI agents. Although this func- tions well for single agents it has been long recognized that this approach falls short for multi-agent systems. It lacks

  2. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  3. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  4. Forest Service special agents, assistant special agents in charge, senior special agents, and supervisory special agents report: nationwide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2007-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of studies to evaluate perceptions of U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service law enforcement personnel of the roles, responsibilities, and issues related to their jobs. An e-mail survey was administered to the 89 Forest Service special agents, assistant special agents in charge, senior special agents, and supervisory special agents...

  5. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks,

  6. A framework for agent-based modeling of community assembly and succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological communities are self-adaptive systems. Community assembly and succession is a self-organizing process. It is generated from multiple species invasions, selection, adaptation and optimization. A framework for agent-based modeling of community assembly and succession was presented in this paper. Species agents, space agents, functional agents and their behaviors were defined. Major procedures for agent-based modeling of community assembly and succession were proposed.

  7. Synthesis and characterisation of nitrogen poly-heterocyclic molecules using as selective complexing agents of metallic cations; Synthese et caracterisation de molecules polyheterocycliques azotees utilisables en tant que complexants selectifs de cations metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphonse, F.A

    2003-12-15

    Separation of actinides (III) from lanthanides (III) is a crucial problem in the reprocessing of used nuclear fuels. Experimental results shown that soft donor extractants such as nitrogen polydentate heterocycles containing a NCCNCCN coordination site are potentials ligands for selective extraction of actinides (III). In those cases, two types of liquid-liquid extractions are employed: synergistic combination with lipophilic acid extractants and direct extraction. On the basis of the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases theory and basicity evaluation, new extractants were defined. We have first studied the synthesis of potential 1,3,5-triazine ligands designed for extraction in synergy with {alpha}-bromodecanoic acid. Secondly, we have examined the synthesis of bis-triazinyl-pyridine ligands for direct extraction studies. Extraction tests were carried out and perspectives of synthesis were deducted from those extraction results. (author)

  8. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  9. Infectious Agents and Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma. Cervical cancer, other anogenital ... The expression of the E6 and E7 open reading frames (ORFs) from high .... protein CagA [3 5]. They also elaborate urease, alcohol dehydrogenase and mucolytic factors. All these agents contribute to the development of cancer following H. pylori infection.

  10. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise...

  11. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.

    2003-01-01

    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  12. Biomimetic Emotional Learning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    This extended abstract proposes a type of AI agent comprised of: an autonomous real-time control system, low-level emotional learning (including a simple knowledge base that links homeostatic/innate drives to sensory perception states), and a novel sliding-priority drive motivation mechanism. Learning occurs in both phylogenetic and ontogenetic training.

  13. Personalized Medicine Approach for an Exceptional Response to Multiple-recurrent and Metastatic HER2-positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Nolan B; Kang, Stephen Y; Bhandari, Milan; Jones, Riley G; Teknos, Theodoros N

    2017-04-01

    Advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck carries an overall poor prognosis, and survivorship gains have remained relatively stagnant compared to other malignancies due to its complex tumor biology and lack of proven effective targeting agents. We present a case of an exceptional responder to molecular-targeted therapy for metastatic oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using a chemotherapeutic agent FDA approved for breast cancer and targeting the HER2/Neu receptor in order to discuss the larger clinical implications. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recently instituted the Exceptional Responders Initiative in order to identify such patients with unexpected outcomes in order to expedite the development of additional targeted therapies. This case illustrates the opportunity for cure using targeted oncogene identification in a scenario of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma with lung metastasis typically considered fatal. Molecular tumor analysis is an infrequently utilized tool in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; however, as understanding of biologic mechanisms improves, additional molecular targets will become available and expand treatment opportunities such as HER2/Neu targeting. The Exceptional Responders Initiative is a unique strategy with potential to expedite progress.

  14. Anti-TNF agents for paediatric psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclemente, Gloria; Murphy, Ruth; Contreras, Javier; García, Hermenegildo; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier

    2015-11-24

    review found only one RCT evaluating the use of this type of biological therapy. Although the risk of publication bias was high, as we included only one industry-sponsored RCT, the risk of allocation, selection, performance, attrition, and selective reporting biases for all outcomes (except for CDLQI) was low, and no short-term serious adverse events were found.We can conclude, based on this single included study, that etanercept seems to be efficacious and safe (at least in the short term) for the treatment of paediatric psoriasis. However, as the GRADE approach refers not to individual studies but to a body of evidence, we shall wait for the results of the ongoing studies in a future update of this review. In addition, future studies should evaluate quality-of-life endpoints established a priori and standardise primary outcome measures such as PASI 75, and should include the PGA as a secondary endpoint. Also, collating and reporting adverse events uniformly is required to better evaluate safety.

  15. Planning of Autonomous Multi-agent Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viksnin Ilya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a traffic management system with agents acting on behalf autonomous vehicle at the crossroads. Alternatively to existing solutions based on usage of semiautonomous control systems with the control unit, proposed in this paper algorithm apply the principles of decentralized multi-agent control. Agents during their collaboration generate intersection plan and determinate the optimal order of road intersection for a given criterion based on the exchange of information about them and their environment. The paper contains optimization criteria for possible routes selection and experiments that perform in order to estimate the proposed model. Experiment results show that this model can significantly reduce traffic density compared to the traditional traffic management systems. Moreover, the proposed algorithm efficiency increases with road traffic density. Furthermore, the availability of control unit in the system significantly reduces the negative impact of possible failures and hacker attacks.

  16. Pharmacologic potency and selectivity of a new bronchodilator agent, 2,3-dihydro-7-methyl-9-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo [1,2-a] indazolium bromide (FKK) on canine tracheal preparations "in vivo" and "in vitro".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Y; Sakai, K

    1983-03-01

    In tracheal preparations of dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital, the bronchodilating activity and selectivity of FKK were compared with those of aminophylline and isoproterenol. When administered by either the i.a., i.v. or i.d. route in blood-perfused or nonperfused tracheal preparations, FKK produced a dose-dependent and long-lasting tracheal dilatation through all the administration routes, but unlike aminophylline and isoproterenol it hardly affected systemic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and tracheal blood flow (TBF). The ability of i.a. and i.v. FKK to reduce the tracheal intraluminal pressure (ILP) (bronchodilation) by 50% (ED50), was approximately 5.4-6.2 times more potent than aminophylline and 1/3000-1/4500 as potent as isoproterenol. In the isolated canine tracheal preparations contracted with carbachol, the relaxing action produced by FKK was 1/60 and 10 times as potent as those caused by isoproternol and aminophylline, respectively. FKK has neither anti-cholinergic, ganglion blocking, alpha-adrenergic blocking nor beta-adrenergic stimulating properties. Acute lethal toxicity of FKK determined in rats by the oral route was considerably less than that of aminophylline.

  17. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Genomic characterization of key bacteriophages to formulate the potential biocontrol agent to combat enteric pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Krupa M; Dafale, Nishant A; Tikariha, Hitesh; Purohit, Hemant J

    2018-01-12

    Combating bacterial pathogens has become a global concern especially when the antibiotics and chemical agents are failing to control the spread due to its resistance. Bacteriophages act as a safe biocontrol agent by selectively lysing the bacterial pathogens without affecting the natural beneficial microflora. The present study describes the screening of prominent enteric pathogens NDK1, NDK2, NDK3, and NDK4 (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia) mostly observed in domestic wastewater; against which KNP1, KNP2, KNP3, and KNP4 phages were isolated. To analyze their potential role in eradicating enteric pathogens and toxicity issue, these bacteriophages were sequenced using next-generation sequencing and characterized based on its genomic content. The isolated bacteriophages were homologous to Escherichia phage (KNP1), Klebsiella phage (KNP2), Enterobacter phage (KNP3), Serratia phage (KNP4), and belonged to Myoviridae family of Caudovirales except for the unclassified KNP4 phage. Draft genome analysis revealed the presence of lytic enzymes such as holing and lysozyme in KNP1 phage, endolysin in KNP2 phage, and endopeptidase with holin in KNP3 phage. The absence of any lysogenic and virulent genes makes this bacteriophage suitable candidate for preparation of phage cocktail to combat the pathogens present in wastewater. However, KNP4 contained a virulent gene rendering it unsuitable to be used as a biocontrol agent. These findings make the phages (KNP1-KNP3) as a promising alternative for the biocontrol of pathogens in wastewater which is the main culprit to spread these dominated pathogens in different natural water bodies. This study also necessitates for genomic screening of bacteriophages for lysogenic and virulence genes prior to its use as a biocontrol agent.

  19. Splenogonadal fusion: exceptional association with Moebius syndrome and intestinal intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Messineo, Antonio; Castiglione, Francesca; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, Duccio; Santi, Raffaella; Martin, Alessandra; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2011-01-01

    We present an exceptional association of splenogonadal fusion, Moebius syndrome, and intestinal intussusception. At the age of 1 year, the patient presented with vomiting, bloody stools, and abdominal distension. He underwent a laparotomy that revealed an ileo-ileal intussusception. Three days later, he underwent a new surgery for the reduction of a suspected inguinal hernia. A dark-red tubular structure consisting of splenic tissue was seen passing down through the processus vaginalis and attaching onto the left testicle. Owing to the rarity of the splenogonadal fusion, each case should be reported for a better knowledge of its etiopathogenesis, clinical characteristic and associations.

  20. Finding Exception For Association Rules Via SQL Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUMITRIU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding association rules is mainly based on generating larger and larger frequent set candidates, starting from frequent attributes in the database. The frequent sets can be organised as a part of a lattice of concepts according to the Formal Concept Analysis approach. Since the lattice construction is database contents-dependent, the pseudo-intents (see Formal Concept Analysis are avoided. Association rules between concept intents (closed sets A=>B are partial implication rules, meaning that there is some data supporting A and (not B; fully explaining the data requires finding exceptions for the association rules. The approach applies to Oracle databases, via SQL queries.

  1. Scandinavian exceptionalism in anti-doping within sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangen, Jan Ove; Møller, Verner

    2017-01-01

    Why are Scandinavian countries so committed to the cause of antidoping? In this paper, we propose that the Scandinavian mentality, formed by paternalistic welfare models, is a useful framework for understanding anti-doping. We focus on anti-doping policy and work in Norway and Denmark. We start......: the Norwegian self-image and its impact on politics, and Danish amateurism and corrupt idealism. We conclude that Nordic antidoping is pursued with rigour and determination, and suggest this is rooted in the Nordic countries’ exceptional social-welfare ideology and strong paternalism....

  2. W/Z properties (except mass form ATLAS and CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaolalla J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results on W and Z boson properties by both ATLAS and CMS (except mass are presented in this document. The inclusive W and Z boson cross section production, the W charge asymmetry, the differential production as a function of the boson rapidity and transverse momentum, the W polarization and the sinus of the weak angle are shown in this document. The studies included are based on LHC collisions at √s = 7 TeV, recorded during 2010 and 2011.

  3. Control of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Piotr Marek; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Various ways of controlling the extent of the ring of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs are investigated. The extent of the ring in photonic crystal slabs is found to vary with the thickness of the slab. This enables recovery of Dirac cones in open, non-Hermitian systems......, such as a photonic crystal slab. In this case, all three bands exhibit a bound state in the continuum in close proximity of the Γ point. These results may lead to new designs of small photonic-crystal-based lasers exhibiting high-quality factors....

  4. Break-glass handling exceptional situations in access control

    CERN Document Server

    Petritsch, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Helmut Petritsch describes the first holistic approach to Break-Glass which covers the whole life-cycle: from access control modeling (pre-access), to logging the security-relevant system state during Break-Glass accesses (at-access), and the automated analysis of Break-Glass accesses (post-access). Break-Glass allows users to override security restrictions in exceptional situations. While several Break-Glass models specific to given access control models have already been discussed in research (e.g., extending RBAC with Break-Glass), the author introduces a generic Break-Glass model. The pres

  5. Exceptional points in three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodigala, Ashok; Lepetit, Thomas; Kanté, Boubacar

    2016-11-01

    Exceptional points (EPs) are degeneracies in open wave systems where at least two energy levels and their corresponding eigenstates coalesce. We report evidence of the existence of EPs in three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures. The systems are composed of coupled plasmonic nanoresonators and can be judiciously and systematically driven to EPs by controlling symmetry-compatible modes via their near-field and far-field interactions. The proposed platform opens the way to the investigation of EPs for enhanced light-matter interactions and applications in communication, sensing, and imaging.

  6. Nothing in biology makes sense except in light of theology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This essay analyzes Theodosius Dobzhansky's famous article, "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution," in which he presents some of his best arguments for evolution. I contend that all of Dobzhansky's arguments hinge upon sectarian claims about God's nature, actions, purposes, or duties. Moreover, Dobzhansky's theology manifests several tensions, both in the epistemic justification of his theological claims and in their collective coherence. I note that other prominent biologists--such as Mayr, Dawkins, Eldredge, Ayala, de Beer, Futuyma, and Gould--also use theology-laden arguments. I recommend increased analysis of the justification, complexity, and coherence of this theology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bringing Anomie Back In: Exceptional Events and Excess Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony Hoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show that imitation is not the mechanism behind the observed increase in suicides subsequent to highly publicized celebrity suicides. Instead, we show that most celebrity suicides are exceptional events and because of that have similar effects on the daily suicide rate as other exciting events. This finding suggests that Durkheim was right in rejecting the Tardean hypothesis that imitation is an operative mechanism and provides substantial support for the competing hypothesis that disruptive and/or exciting events (whether favorable or unfavorable induce anomie and with it suicide.

  8. Soundless Chemical Demolition Agents

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The traditional approach to demolishing concrete structures or reducing the size of large rocks or boulders has typically included the use of explosives. The resulting explosions are associated with the obvious risks posed by shock waves and fly rock. Soundless chemical demolition agents (SCDAs) have proven to be viable substitutes for the use of explosives. SCDAs are powdery materials that will expand considerably when mixed with water.

  9. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  10. Liposome imaging agents in personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa; Hansen, Anders Elias; Gabizon, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    that selectively localize in tumor tissue can transport both drugs and imaging agents, which allows for a theranostic approach with great potential in personalized medicine. Radiolabeling of liposomes have for many years been used in preclinical studies for evaluating liposome in vivo performance and has been...... an important tool in the development of liposomal drugs. However, advanced imaging systems now provide new possibilities for non-invasive monitoring of liposome biodistribution in humans. Thus, advances in imaging and developments in liposome radiolabeling techniques allow us to enter a new arena where we...... start to consider how to use imaging for patient selection and treatment monitoring in connection to nanocarrier based medicines. Nanocarrier imaging agents could furthermore have interesting properties for disease diagnostics and staging. Here, we review the major advances in the development...

  11. NiTi-Enabled Composite Design for Exceptional Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Guo, Fangmin; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Junsong; Yang, Hong; Jiang, Daqiang; Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to further develop shape memory alloys (SMAs) for functional applications, much focus has been given in recent years to design and create innovative forms of SMAs, such as functionally graded SMAs, architecture SMAs, and SMA-based metallic composites. This paper reports on the progress in creating NiTi-based composites of exceptional properties stimulated by the recent discovery of the principle of lattice strain matching between the SMA matrix and superelastic nanoinclusions embedded in the matrix. Based on this principle, different SMA-metal composites have been designed to achieve extraordinary shape memory performances, such as complete pseudoelastic behavior at as low as 77 K and stress plateau as high as 1600 MPa, and exceptional mechanical properties, such as tensile strength as high as 2000 MPa and Young's modulus as low as 28 GPa. Details are given for a NiTi-W micro-fiber composite prepared by melt infiltration, hot pressing, forging, and cold rolling. The composite contained 63% in volume of W micro-fibers of 0.6 μm thickness. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction revealed that the NiTi matrix underwent martensite transformation during tensile deformation while the W micro-fiber deformed elastically with a maximum strain of 0.83% in the loading direction, implying a W fiber stress of 3280 MPa. The composite showed a maximum high tensile strength of 2300 MPa.

  12. Exceptional Mirizzi syndrome in a young child: A laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Prada-Arias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mirizzi syndrome is defined as an obstruction of the hepatic duct by an impacted biliary stone in the Hartmann's pouch of the gallbladder or in the cystic duct (Mirizzi type I. The gallstone may erode the bile duct causing a cholecystobiliary fistula (Mirizzi type II. This very rare complication of long standing cholelithiasis is mainly reported in adults. We report an exceptional case of a type I Mirizzi syndrome in a 3-year-old boy, incidentally discovered during a computed tomography study. Ultrasonography and cholangioresonance confirmed the diagnosis. At laparoscopy, partial fusion between the Hartmann's pouch and the hepatic duct was found. Despite difficult dissection, a total laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Preoperative diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult owing to unspecific clinical presentation and low sensitivity of the standard radiological studies. To detect and correctly identify the type of Mirizzi syndrome during surgery is very important in order to avoid serious complications and to perform the most adequate surgical treatment. Open subtotal cholecystectomy is the recommended procedure in Mirizzi type I, laparoscopic total cholecystectomy being possible in some cases. Although this entity is exceptional in children, it must be known and considered by the Pediatric Surgeon because its development is possible.

  13. 2000 GUIDELINES FOR ADVANCEMENT AND EXCEPTIONAL PERFORMANCE AWARDS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    1. GeneralAs indicated in last year's guidelines, studies on CERN's career structures are continuing in the context of the work of the Tripartite Forum on Employment Conditions (TREF) and should be completed during this year's 5-Yearly Remuneration Review for the application of any changes in 2001. In the meantime, the 2000 annual advancement exercise will be conducted on similar basic lines to those of previous years, i.e. within the procedures of the Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 2), thus promoting the aspect of individual merit in advancement.The present guidelines continue to aim at the best possible degree of flexibility of application for each division within the present Staff Rules and Regulations in order to take full account of both the different levels of individual performance and also the different staff profiles.All advancement must be justified on the grounds of correctly judged merit: exceptional advancement (i.e. second step or entering the exceptional advancement grade) for par...

  14. Exceptionally Long MTBE Plumes of the Past Have Greatly Diminished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, James M; Connor, John A; Paquette, Shawn M; Small, Julia M

    2015-01-01

    Studies published in the late 1990s and early 2000s identified the presence of exceptionally long methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plumes (more than 600 m or 2000 feet) in groundwater and have been cited in technical literature as characteristic of MTBE plumes. However, the scientific literature is incomplete in regard to the subsequent behavior and fate of these MTBE plumes over the past decade. To address this gap, this issue paper compiles recent groundwater monitoring records for nine exceptional plumes that were identified in prior studies. These nine sites exhibited maximum historical MTBE groundwater plume lengths ranging from 820 m (2700 feet) to 3200 m (10,500 feet) in length, exceeding the lengths of 99% of MTBE plumes, as characterized in multiple surveys at underground storage tank sites across the United States. Groundwater monitoring data compiled in our review demonstrate that these MTBE plumes have decreased in length over the past decade, with five of the nine plumes exhibiting decreases of 75% or more compared to their historical maximum lengths. MTBE concentrations within these plumes have decreased by 93% to 100%, with two of the nine sites showing significant decreases (98% and 99%) such that the regulatory authority has subsequently designated the site as requiring no further action. © 2015 The Authors. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals,Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  15. Confrontation Between Judicial Activism and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pedro Moura D’Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The judiciary has excelled in the international and national scene, reaching role of great importance, thus creating opposition to the legislative and executive powers. The center of gravity of the sovereign power of the state moves toward the judiciary, that happens to have a more active role and controlling of the others powers, but also appears as a great defender of social and fundamental rights causes, seeking to make an effective constitution. Its great public notoriety has attracted great distrust of various sectors of society, especially by the two powers that have an increasing interference. Arises, therefore, a speech that the judiciary would be reversing into a big and uncontrollable power, increasing the suspicion that now it would be living in a real dictatorship of the judiciary through judicial activism. There is a growing concern with the expansion of activism and the role of the judiciary. The purpose of this work is to conceptualize and approach the judicial activism and the state of exception to search and reveal if there is any similarity, to then draw up a possible answer to the concern of forming a dictatorship of the judiciary. The state of exception is one of the rule of law paradoxes, while activism is a political manifestation of the judiciary. The similarity between the institutes appears as appalling in a dynamic expansion of political power of a state institution exercising judicial function, putting in check who would be the sovereign in a rule of law and democratic state.

  16. Exceptional Ground Accelerations and Velocities Caused by Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, John

    2008-01-17

    This project aims to understand the characteristics of the free-field strong-motion records that have yielded the 100 largest peak accelerations and the 100 largest peak velocities recorded to date. The peak is defined as the maximum magnitude of the acceleration or velocity vector during the strong shaking. This compilation includes 35 records with peak acceleration greater than gravity, and 41 records with peak velocities greater than 100 cm/s. The results represent an estimated 150,000 instrument-years of strong-motion recordings. The mean horizontal acceleration or velocity, as used for the NGA ground motion models, is typically 0.76 times the magnitude of this vector peak. Accelerations in the top 100 come from earthquakes as small as magnitude 5, while velocities in the top 100 all come from earthquakes with magnitude 6 or larger. Records are dominated by crustal earthquakes with thrust, oblique-thrust, or strike-slip mechanisms. Normal faulting mechanisms in crustal earthquakes constitute under 5% of the records in the databases searched, and an even smaller percentage of the exceptional records. All NEHRP site categories have contributed exceptional records, in proportions similar to the extent that they are represented in the larger database.

  17. A cochlear implant user with exceptional musical hearing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarefvand, Mohammad; Marozeau, Jeremy; Blamey, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    Although the perception of music is generally poor in cochlear implant users, there are a few excellent performers. The aim of this study was the assessment of different aspects of music perception in one exceptional cochlear implant user. The assessments included pitch direction discrimination, melody and timbre recognition, relative and absolute pitch judgment, and consonance rating of musical notes presented through the sound processor(s). An adult cochlear implant user with musical background who lost her hearing postlingually, and five normally-hearing listeners with musical training participated in the study. The CI user discriminated pitch direction for sounds differing by one semitone and recognized melody with nearly 100% accuracy. Her results in timbre recognition were better than average published data for cochlear implant users. Her consonance rating, and relative and absolute pitch perception were comparable to normally-hearing listeners with musical training. The results in this study showed that excellent performance is possible on musical perception tasks including pitch perception using present day cochlear implant technologies. Factors that may explain this user's exceptional performance are short duration of deafness, pre- and post-deafness musical training, and perfect pitch abilities before the onset of deafness.

  18. Characterizing interactions in online social networks during exceptional events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodei, Elisa; De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, millions of people interact on a daily basis on online social media like Facebook and Twitter, where they share and discuss information about a wide variety of topics. In this paper, we focus on a specific online social network, Twitter, and we analyze multiple datasets each one consisting of individuals' online activity before, during and after an exceptional event in terms of volume of the communications registered. We consider important events that occurred in different arenas that range from policy to culture or science. For each dataset, the users' online activities are modeled by a multilayer network in which each layer conveys a different kind of interaction, specifically: retweeting, mentioning and replying. This representation allows us to unveil that these distinct types of interaction produce networks with different statistical properties, in particular concerning the degree distribution and the clustering structure. These results suggests that models of online activity cannot discard the information carried by this multilayer representation of the system, and should account for the different processes generated by the different kinds of interactions. Secondly, our analysis unveils the presence of statistical regularities among the different events, suggesting that the non-trivial topological patterns that we observe may represent universal features of the social dynamics on online social networks during exceptional events.

  19. Synthesis of Monodispersed Gold Nanoparticles with Exceptional Colloidal Stability with Grafted Polyethylene Glycol-g-polyvinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaaldin M. Alkilany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles with tunable core size (23–79 nm in the presence of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-g-PVA grafted copolymer as a reducing, capping, and stabilizing agent in a one-step protocol. The resulted PEG-g-PVA-capped gold nanoparticles are monodispersed with an exceptional colloidal stability against salt addition, repeated centrifugation, and extensive dialysis. The effect of various synthesis parameters and the kinetic/mechanism of the nanoparticle formation are discussed.

  20. Alleviating Media Bias Through Intelligent Agent Blogging

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Aviles, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Consumers of mass media must have a comprehensive, balanced and plural selection of news to get an unbiased perspective; but achieving this goal can be very challenging, laborious and time consuming. News stories development over time, its (in)consistency, and different level of coverage across the media outlets are challenges that a conscientious reader has to overcome in order to alleviate bias. In this paper we present an intelligent agent framework currently facilitating analysis of the m...

  1. Microtubule-targeting anticancer agents from marine natural substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Xu, Pengfei; Wu, Tao; Zeng, Wenbin

    2014-03-01

    Effective novel therapeutics is urgently needed due to increasing incidence of malignant cancer and drug multi-resistance. Natural products and their derivatives have historically been a source of pharmaceutical leads and therapeutic drugs. Microtubule-targeting compounds are among the most promising candidates in the combat against cancer. In particular, marine natural products (MNPs) have demonstrated exceptional potency and potential as anticancer agents. Drug discovery from MNPs provides a new pathway to develop original anticancer agents. In this review, seven classes of typical MNPs with diverse structures are summarized. Bioactive marine compounds isolated from different organisms including invertebrate animals, algae, fungi and bacteria are also discussed.

  2. Behavior of platelets stained by 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes after laser irradiation of vessel wall: an in-vivo model for studying site-selective delivery of diagnostic or therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Buys, Bruno; Tourne-Peteilh, Corine; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie

    2001-05-01

    Vascular endothelium serves as an extensive interface between circulating blood and various tissues and organs of the body. As such, it offers an accessible target for blood-borne pharmacological and genetic manipulations that can mediate both local and systemic effects. Thus, targeting of liposomes to activated vascular endothelial cells may provide a strategy for site-selective delivery in the vascular system with broad therapeutic applicability. This study aimed to evaluate an intravital fluorescence imaging technique to visualize in-situ and in real-time the activation of platelets after staining by 5,6-CF- encapsulated PEGylated liposomes injected intravenously. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. The skin micro circulation was observed with an intravital microscope (using x25 and x40 magnification) fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for play-back analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An inflammatory response was induced by an Argon laser emitting at 514.5nm. The 80micrometers laser beam was focused on a vessel and its position was controlled with the microscope imaging system, it was possible to see individual platelets flowing in blood vessels. As liposomes were labeled with a fluorescent probe which was hydrophilic (located in the aqueous phase), the fluorescence of platelets was due only to the uptake of liposomes. After laser irradiation, platelets activation at sites of vascular injury was obtained. Tethering, translocation of some platelets inside the irradiated zone were clearly seen. At last, detachment and extravasation of platelets were observed. A perivascular fluorescence confirmed that platelets migrated across the basal lamina into the dermal connective tissue. In conclusion, staining of

  3. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  4. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  5. Nordic Modernities. From Historical Region to Five Exceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Marjanen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several recent books discuss issues of Nordic modernity. While Nordic history often tends to emphasize the similarities between the five countries, these recent books present the Nordic countries as less of a unitary region that nonetheless lends itself to broader international comparisons. Economic, cultural and political modernity come across as processes that have not been predetermined, but rather are the result of many competing visions and trajectories of the future. These processes have been different in the five Nordic countries. At the same time, the developments in different spheres of society were interwoven due to the practice of comparison and exchange between key agents in politics, culture and economy.

  6. Novel targeted agents for gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Contemporary advancements have had little impact on the treatment of gastric cancer (GC, the world’s second highest cause of cancer death. Agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor mediated pathways have been a common topic of contemporary cancer research, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Trastuzumab is the first target agent evidencing improvements in overall survival in HER2-positive (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gastric cancer patients. Agents targeting vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, and other biological pathways are also undergoing clinical trials, with some marginally positive results. Effective targeted therapy requires patient selection based on predictive molecular biomarkers. Most phase III clinical trials are carried out without patient selection; therefore, it is hard to achieve personalized treatment and to monitor patient outcome individually. The trend for future clinical trials requires patient selection methods based on current understanding of GC biology with the application of biomarkers.

  7. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do arroz irrigado ao fungo Metarhizium anisopliae, agente de controle microbiano de Tibraca limbativentris Selectivity of chemical pesticides used in rice irrigated crop at fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, microbial control agent of Tibraca limbativentris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Teresinha Rampelotti-Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    selectivity on the fungus. However, the results show that in vitro, the pesticides fenitrothion, carbofuran, glyfosate and azoxystrobin are harmful to isolated CG 891 of M. anisopliae.

  8. [Meek technique skin graft for treating exceptionally large area burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinglian; Cai, Chen; Yu, Youxin; Tang, Yizhong; Hu, Delin; Liu, Sheng; Qi, Weiwei; Shi, Jie

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of Meek technique skin graft in treating exceptionally large area burns. The clinical data were retrospectively analysed from 10 cases of exceptionally large area burns treated with Meek technique skin graft from April 2009 to February 2010 (Meek group), and were compared with those from 10 cases of exceptionally large area burns treated with the particle skin with large sheet of skin allograft transplantation from January 2002 to December 2006 (particle skin group). In Meek group, there were 8 males and 2 females with an average age of 34.5 years (range, 5-55 years), including 6 cases of flame burns, 2 cases of hot liquid burns, 1 case of electrical burn, and 1 case of high-temperature dust burn. The burn area was 82.6% +/- 3.1% of total body surface area (TBSA). The most were deep II degree to III degree burns. The time from burn to hospitalization was (3.5 +/- 1.3) hours. In particle skin group, there were 8 males and 2 females with an average age of 36.8 years (range, 18-62 years), including 5 cases of flame burns, 2 cases of hot liquid burns, and 3 cases of gunpowder explosion injury. The burn area was 84.1% +/- 7.4% of TBSA. The most were deep II degree to III degree burns. The time from burn to hospitalization was (4.9 +/- 2.2) hours. There was no significant difference in general data between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The skin graft survival rate, the time of skin fusion, the systemic wound healing time, and the treatment cost of 1% of burn area were 91.23% +/- 5.61%, (11.14 +/- 2.12) days, (38.89 +/- 10.36) days, and (5113.28 +/- 552.44) yuan in Meek group, respectively; and were 78.65% +/- 12.29%, (18.37 +/- 4.63) days, (48.73 +/- 16.92) days, and (7386.36 +/- 867.64) yuan in particle skin group; showing significant differences between 2 groups (P burns with the advantages of high survival rate of skin graft, short time of skin fusion, and low treatment cost of 1% of burn area.

  9. Mortality Trajectories at Exceptionally High Ages: A Study of Supercentenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A; Krut'ko, Vyacheslav N

    2017-01-01

    The growing number of persons surviving to age 100 years and beyond raises questions about the shape of mortality trajectories at exceptionally high ages, and this problem may become significant for actuaries in the near future. However, such studies are scarce because of the difficulties in obtaining reliable age estimates at exceptionally high ages. The current view about mortality beyond age 110 years suggests that death rates do not grow with age and are virtually flat. The same assumption is made in the new actuarial VBT tables. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the mortality of supercentenarians (persons living 110+ years) is constant and does not grow with age, and we analyze mortality trajectories at these exceptionally high ages. Death records of supercentenarians were taken from the International Database on Longevity (IDL). All ages of supercentenarians in the database were subjected to careful validation. We used IDL records for persons belonging to extinct birth cohorts (born before 1895) since the last deaths in IDL were observed in 2007. We also compared our results based on IDL data with a more contemporary database maintained by the Gerontology Research Group (GRG). First we attempted to replicate findings by Gampe (2010), who analyzed IDL data and came to the conclusion that "human mortality after age 110 is flat." We split IDL data into two groups: cohorts born before 1885 and cohorts born in 1885 and later. Hazard rate estimates were conducted using the standard procedure available in Stata software. We found that mortality in both groups grows with age, although in older cohorts, growth was slower compared with more recent cohorts and not statistically significant. Mortality analysis of more numerous 1884-1894 birth cohort with the Akaike goodness-of-fit criterion showed better fit for the Gompertz model than for the exponential model (flat mortality). Mortality analyses with GRG data produced similar results. The remaining life

  10. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  11. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  12. Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine: A Remarkable Exception to Tocopherol s Membrane Presence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Drew [Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada; Williams, Justin [Indiana University and Purdue University; Kinnun, Justin A. [Indiana University and Purdue University; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Atkinson, Jeffrey [Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada; Wassall, Stephen [Indiana University and Purdue University; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Harroun, Thad [Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada

    2014-01-01

    Using data obtained from different physical techniques (i.e., neutron diffraction, NMR and UV spectroscopy), we present evidence which explains some of the conflicting and inexplicable data found in the literature regarding -tocopherol s (aToc s) behavior in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (di-14:0PC) bilayers. Without exception, the data point to aToc s active chromanol moiety residing deep in the hydrophobic core of di-14:0PC bilayers, a location that is in stark contrast to aToc s location in other PC bilayers. Our result is a clear example of the importance of lipid species diversity in biological membranes and importantly, it suggests that measurements of aToc s oxidation kinetics, and its associated byproducts observed in di-14:0PC bilayers, should be reexamined, this time taking into account its noncanonical location in this bilayer.

  13. EXCEPTIONALLY RARE VARIANTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM ANOMALIES - ROENTGEN PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babić

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the radiological study of the urinary system anomalies are presented on the material consisting of 8,568 urographies done from 1990 to 2001 at the Institute for Radiology, Niš. The paper shows exceptionally rare anomalies of the urinary system: a horse-shoe shaped kidney with pyelocaliceal systems in its arms and isthmus, heterolateral ectopia of the kidney with fusion, abdominal-medial ectopia of the kidney with ventral malrotation and cup hyperplasia, hypoplastic cup, triple pyeolcaliceal system, M. Lenarduzzi and blind-ending of the Y-shaped urethra. The author concludes that, for the sake of performing every day professional work, it is necessary to possess detailed knowledge of the rarest urinary system anomalies.

  14. Characterizing interactions in online social networks during exceptional events

    CERN Document Server

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, millions of people interact on a daily basis on online social media like Facebook and Twitter, where they share and discuss information about a wide variety of topics. In this paper, we focus on a specific online social network, Twitter, and we analyze multiple datasets each one consisting of individuals' online activity before, during and after an exceptional event in terms of volume of the communications registered. We consider important events that occurred in different arenas that range from policy to culture or science. For each dataset, the users' online activities are modeled by a multilayer network in which each layer conveys a different kind of interaction, specifically: retweeting, mentioning and replying. This representation allows us to unveil that these distinct types of interaction produce networks with different statistical properties, in particular concerning the degree distribution and the clustering structure. These results suggests that models of online activity cannot discard the...

  15. Exceptionally diverse morphotypes and genomes of crenarchaeal hyperthermophilic viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D; Garrett, R A

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable diversity of the morphologies of viruses found in terrestrial hydrothermal environments with temperatures >80 degrees C is unprecedented for aquatic ecosystems. The best-studied viruses from these habitats have been assigned to novel viral families: Fuselloviridae, Lipothrixviridae...... no significant matches to sequences in public databases. This suggests that these hyperthermophilic viruses have exceptional biochemical solutions for biological functions. Specific features of genome organization, as well as strategies for DNA replication, suggest that phylogenetic relationships exist between...... crenarchaeal rudiviruses and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: poxviruses, the African swine fever virus and Chlorella viruses. Sequence patterns at the ends of the linear genome of the lipothrixvirus AFV1 are reminiscent of the telomeric ends of linear eukaryal chromosomes and suggest that a primitive telomeric...

  16. Exceptional Points and Asymmetric Mode Switching in Plasmonic Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Shaolin; Qin, Chengzhi; Long, Hua; Wang, Kai; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the exceptional points (EPs) in a non-Hermitian system composed of a pair of graphene sheets with different losses. There are two surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) modes in the graphene waveguide. By varying the distance between two graphene sheets and chemical potential of graphene, the EPs appear as the eigenvalues, that is, the wave vectors of the two modes coalesce. The cross conversion of eigenmodes and variation of geometric phase can be observed by encircling the EP in the parametric space formed by the geometric parameters and chemical potential of graphene. At the same time, a certain input SPP mode may lead to completely different output. The study paves a way to the development of nanoscale sensitive optical switches and sensors.

  17. Reduced prevalence of cognitive impairment in families with exceptional longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    with exceptional longevity are protected against cognitive impairment consistent with Alzheimer disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING Multisite study in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1870 individuals (1510 family members and 360 spouse controls) recruited...... through the Long Life Family Study. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Prevalence of cognitive impairment based on a diagnostic algorithm validated using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data set. RESULTS The cognitive algorithm classified 546 individuals (38.5%) as having cognitive impairment...... consistent with Alzheimer disease. Long Life Family Study probands had a slightly but not statistically significant reduced risk of cognitive impairment compared with spouse controls (121 of 232 for probands vs 45 of 103 for spouse controls; odds ratio = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.4), whereas Long Life Family Study...

  18. General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Adi; Zhen, Bo; Miller, Owen D; Hsu, Chia W; Hernandez, Felipe; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Soljačić, Marin; Johnson, Steven G

    2017-05-29

    We present a general theory of spontaneous emission at exceptional points (EPs)-exotic degeneracies in non-Hermitian systems. Our theory extends beyond spontaneous emission to any light-matter interaction described by the local density of states (e.g., absorption, thermal emission, and nonlinear frequency conversion). Whereas traditional spontaneous-emission theories imply infinite enhancement factors at EPs, we derive finite bounds on the enhancement, proving maximum enhancement of 4 in passive systems with second-order EPs and significantly larger enhancements (exceeding 400×) in gain-aided and higher-order EP systems. In contrast to non-degenerate resonances, which are typically associated with Lorentzian emission curves in systems with low losses, EPs are associated with non-Lorentzian lineshapes, leading to enhancements that scale nonlinearly with the resonance quality factor. Our theory can be applied to dispersive media, with proper normalization of the resonant modes.

  19. Exceptional memory performance in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann

    2013-01-01

    Research to understand variability at the highest end of the cognitive performance distribution has been scarce. Our aim was to define a cognitive endophenotype based on exceptional episodic memory (EM) performance and to investigate familial aggregation of EM in families from the Long Life Family...... Study (LLFS). Using a sample of 1911 nondemented offspring of long-lived probands, we created a quantitative phenotype, EM (memory z ≥ 1.5), and classified LLFS families as EM and non-EM families based on the number of EM offspring. We then assessed differences in memory performance between LLFS...... relatives in the parental generation of EM families and those in non-EM families using multivariate analysis adjusted for APOE Apolipoprotein E genotype. LLFS relatives in the proband generation from EM families showed better EM performance than those from non-EM families (β = 0.74, standard error = 0.19, p...

  20. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tingchao [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli [Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, Xiaodong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Sun, Handong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-03-16

    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.