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Sample records for exceptionally preserved jellyfishes

  1. Exceptional preservation of Miocene pollen: plasmolysis captured in salt?

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    Durska, W.

    2016-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved Miocene pollen from the Bochnia salt mine of southern Poland is reported herein. The halite deposits within the salt mine belonging to Late Badenian (Miocene) marine evaporites originated in the Paratethys. Rounded and angular structures are present inside pollen grains. On the basis of the similarity with plasmolyzed pollen grains of modern plants, these structures are considered to represent cytoplasms plasmolyzed in the condensed brine prior to fossilization. Two forms of plasmolyzed cytoplasms (concave and convex) can be observed in modern pollen. Both are distinguished in the investigated fossil material. In porate and colporate grains the shape of the plasmolyzed cellular content is concave while in inaperturate it is convex. The plasmolysis form depends on the type of apertures and pollen shape. The percentage of pollen with fossilized cytoplasms within individual taxa is a valuable environmental indicator, as it depends on the proximity of the pollen-producing plant assemblages to the depositional setting. (Author)

  2. Jellyfish stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atlantic and Physalia utriculus in the Pacific). Sea nettle ( Chrysaora quinquecirrha ), one of the most common jellyfish ... nose and watery eyes Swallowing difficulty Sweating SEA NETTLE Mild skin rash (with mild stings) Muscle cramps ...

  3. Exceptional soft tissues preservation in a mummified frog-eating Eocene salamander

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    Jérémy Tissier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was ‘mummified’ (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei, whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands. These are among the oldest known cases of three-dimensional preservation of these organs in vertebrates and shed light on the ecology of this salamander. Indeed, the digestive tract contains remains of a frog, which represents the only known case of an extinct salamander that fed on a frog, an extremely rare type of predation in extant salamanders. These new data improve our scarce knowledge on soft tissue anatomy of early urodeles and should prove useful for future biologists and palaeontologists working on urodele evolutionary biology. We also suggest that the presence of bat guano and carcasses represented a close source of phosphorus, favouring preservation of soft tissues. Bone microanatomy indicates that P. sigei was likely amphibious or terrestrial, and was probably not neotenic.

  4. Exceptional soft tissues preservation in a mummified frog-eating Eocene salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Jérémy; Rage, Jean-Claude; Laurin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was 'mummified' (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago) in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei , whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands. These are among the oldest known cases of three-dimensional preservation of these organs in vertebrates and shed light on the ecology of this salamander. Indeed, the digestive tract contains remains of a frog, which represents the only known case of an extinct salamander that fed on a frog, an extremely rare type of predation in extant salamanders. These new data improve our scarce knowledge on soft tissue anatomy of early urodeles and should prove useful for future biologists and palaeontologists working on urodele evolutionary biology. We also suggest that the presence of bat guano and carcasses represented a close source of phosphorus, favouring preservation of soft tissues. Bone microanatomy indicates that P. sigei was likely amphibious or terrestrial, and was probably not neotenic.

  5. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia

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    Lee, Michael S. Y.; Jago, James B.; García-Bellido, Diego C.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Gehling, James G.; Paterson, John R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the status of the eye as an ``organ of extreme perfection'', theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the Early Cambrian (~515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized `bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event.

  6. Soft-Bodied Fossils Are Not Simply Rotten Carcasses - Toward a Holistic Understanding of Exceptional Fossil Preservation: Exceptional Fossil Preservation Is Complex and Involves the Interplay of Numerous Biological and Geological Processes.

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    Parry, Luke A; Smithwick, Fiann; Nordén, Klara K; Saitta, Evan T; Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Tanner, Alastair R; Caron, Jean-Bernard; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Briggs, Derek E G; Vinther, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils are the product of complex interplays of biological and geological processes including burial, autolysis and microbial decay, authigenic mineralization, diagenesis, metamorphism, and finally weathering and exhumation. Determining which tissues are preserved and how biases affect their preservation pathways is important for interpreting fossils in phylogenetic, ecological, and evolutionary frameworks. Although laboratory decay experiments reveal important aspects of fossilization, applying the results directly to the interpretation of exceptionally preserved fossils may overlook the impact of other key processes that remove or preserve morphological information. Investigations of fossils preserving non-biomineralized tissues suggest that certain structures that are decay resistant (e.g., the notochord) are rarely preserved (even where carbonaceous components survive), and decay-prone structures (e.g., nervous systems) can fossilize, albeit rarely. As we review here, decay resistance is an imperfect indicator of fossilization potential, and a suite of biological and geological processes account for the features preserved in exceptional fossils. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hummingbird with modern feathering: an exceptionally well-preserved Oligocene fossil from southern France

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    Louchart, Antoine; Tourment, Nicolas; Carrier, Julie; Roux, Thierry; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    2008-02-01

    Hummingbirds (Trochilidae) today have an exclusively New World distribution, but their pre-Pleistocene fossil record comes from Europe only. In this study, we describe an exceptionally preserved fossil hummingbird from the early Oligocene of southeastern France. The specimen is articulated, with a completely preserved beak and feathering. Osteological characters allow to identify it as Eurotrochilus sp. This genus is a stem group representative of Trochilidae and was recently described from the early Oligocene of southern Germany. The new fossil reveals that these European Trochilidae were remarkably modern in size, skeletal proportions and the shape of the wing, tail and beak and hyoid bones. These features confirm the early acquisition of the abilities of hovering and nectarivory in hummingbirds, probably before the Oligocene. In several morphological characteristics, they resemble members of the ‘true hummingbirds’ (subfamily Trochilinae) and differ from hermits (Phaethornithinae). These features, which include a short and square tail and a moderately long, almost straight beak, appear to be primitive within the family Trochilidae.

  8. Exceptional preservation of children's footprints from a Holocene footprint site in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Morse, Sarita A.; Liutkus-Pierce, Cynthia; McClymont, Juliet; Evans, Mary; Crompton, Robin H.; Francis Thackeray, J.

    2014-09-01

    Here we report on a Holocene inter-dune site close to Walvis Bay (Namibia) which contains exceptionally well-preserved children's footprints. The footprint surface is dated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methods to approximately 1.5 ka. These dates are compared to those obtained at nearby footprint sites and used to verify a model of diachronous footprint surfaces and also add to the archaeological data available for the communities that occupied these near-coastal areas during the Holocene. This model of diachronous footprint surfaces has implications for other soft-sediment footprint sites such as the 1.5 Ma old footprints at Ileret (Kenya). The distribution of both human and animal tracks, is consistent with the passage of small flock of small ungulates (probably sheep/goats) followed by a group of approximately 9 ± 2 individuals (children or young adults). Age estimates from the tracks suggest that some of the individuals may have been as young as five years old. Variation in track topology across this sedimentologically uniform surface is explained in terms of variations in gait and weight/stature of the individual print makers and is used to corroborate a model of footprint morphology developed at a nearby site. The significance of the site within the literature on human footprints lies in the quality of the track preservation, their topological variability despite a potentially uniform substrate, and the small size of the tracks, and therefore the inferred young age of the track-makers. The site provides an emotive insight into the life of the track-makers.

  9. On the sighted ancestry of blindness - exceptionally preserved eyes of Mesozoic polychelidan lobsters.

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    Audo, Denis; Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Schweigert, Günter; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Modern representatives of Polychelida (Polychelidae) are considered to be entirely blind and have largely reduced eyes, possibly as an adaptation to deep-sea environments. Fossil species of Polychelida, however, appear to have well-developed compound eyes preserved as anterior bulges with distinct sculpturation. We documented the shapes and sizes of eyes and ommatidia based upon exceptionally preserved fossil polychelidans from Binton (Hettangian, United-Kingdom), Osteno (Sinemurian, Italy), Posidonia Shale (Toarcian, Germany), La Voulte-sur-Rhône (Callovian, France), and Solnhofen-type plattenkalks (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Germany). For purposes of comparison, sizes of the eyes of several other polychelidans without preserved ommatidia were documented. Sizes of ommatidia and eyes were statistically compared against carapace length, taxonomic group, and outcrop. Nine species possess eyes with square facets; Rosenfeldia oppeli (Woodward, 1866), however, displays hexagonal facets. The sizes of eyes and ommatidia are a function of carapace length. No significant differences were discerned between polychelidans from different outcrops; Eryonidae, however, have significantly smaller eyes than other groups. Fossil eyes bearing square facets are similar to the reflective superposition eyes found in many extant decapods. As such, they are the earliest example of superposition eyes. As reflective superposition is considered plesiomorphic for Reptantia, this optic type was probably retained in Polychelida. The two smallest specimens, a Palaeopentacheles roettenbacheri (Münster, 1839) and a Hellerocaris falloti (Van Straelen, 1923), are interpreted as juveniles. Both possess square-shaped facets, a typical post-larval feature. The eye morphology of these small specimens, which are far smaller than many extant eryoneicus larvae, suggests that Jurassic polychelidans did not develop via giant eryoneicus larvae. In contrast, another species we examined, Rosenfeldia oppeli

  10. The Late Devonian Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia: Exceptional Early Vertebrate Preservation and Diversity

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    Long, John A.; Trinajstic, Kate

    2010-05-01

    The Gogo Formation of Western Australia preserves a unique Late Devonian (Frasnian) reef fauna. The exceptional three-dimensional preservation of macrofossils combined with unprecedented soft-tissue preservation (including muscle bundles, nerve cells, and umbilical structures) has yielded a particularly rich assemblage with almost 50 species of fishes described. The most significant discoveries have contributed to resolving placoderm phylogeny and elucidating their reproductive physiology. Specifically, these discoveries have produced data on the oldest known vertebrate embryos; the anatomy of the primitive actinopterygian neurocranium and phylogeny of the earliest actinopterygians; the histology, radiation, and plasticity of dipnoan (lungfish) dental and cranial structures; the anatomy and functional morphology of the extinct onychodonts; and the anatomy of the primitive tetrapodomorph head and pectoral fin.

  11. Exceptional preservation of eye structure in arthropod visual predators from the Middle Jurassic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Schoenemann, Brigitte; Gillot, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clarkson, Euan

    2016-01-19

    Vision has revolutionized the way animals explore their environment and interact with each other and rapidly became a major driving force in animal evolution. However, direct evidence of how ancient animals could perceive their environment is extremely difficult to obtain because internal eye structures are almost never fossilized. Here, we reconstruct with unprecedented resolution the three-dimensional structure of the huge compound eye of a 160-million-year-old thylacocephalan arthropod from the La Voulte exceptional fossil biota in SE France. This arthropod had about 18,000 lenses on each eye, which is a record among extinct and extant arthropods and is surpassed only by modern dragonflies. Combined information about its eyes, internal organs and gut contents obtained by X-ray microtomography lead to the conclusion that this thylacocephalan arthropod was a visual hunter probably adapted to illuminated environments, thus contradicting the hypothesis that La Voulte was a deep-water environment.

  12. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  13. An exceptionally preserved Eocene shark and the rise of modern predator-prey interactions in the coral reef food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico; Minelli, Daniela; Conte, Gabriele Larocca; Miyashita, Tetsuto

    2016-01-01

    Following extreme climatic warming events, Eocene Lagerstätten document aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate faunas surprisingly similar to modern counterparts. This transition in marine systems is best documented in the earliest teleost-dominated coral reef assemblage of Pesciara di Bolca, northern Italy, from near the end of the Eocene Climatic Optimum. Its rich fauna shows similarities with that of the modern Great Barrier Reef in niche exploitation by and morphological disparity among teleost primary consumers. However, such paleoecological understanding has not transcended trophic levels above primary consumers, particularly in carcharhiniform sharks. We report an exceptionally preserved fossil school shark (Galeorhinus cuvieri) from Pesciara di Bolca. In addition to the spectacular preservation of soft tissues, including brain, muscles, and claspers, this male juvenile shark has stomach contents clearly identifiable as a sphyraenid acanthomorph (barracuda). This association provides evidence that a predator-prey relationship between Galeorhinus and Sphyraena in the modern coral reefs has roots in the Eocene. A growth curve of the living species of Galeorhinus fitted to G. cuvieri suggests that all specimens of G. cuvieri from the lagoonal deposits of Bolca represent sexually and somatically immature juveniles. The modern trophic association between higher-degree consumers (Galeorhinus and Sphyraena) has a counterpart in the Eocene Bolca, just as Bolca and the Great Barrier Reef show parallels among teleost primary consumers. Given the age of Bolca, trophic networks among consumers observed in modern coral reefs arose by the exit from the Climatic Optimum. The biased representation of juveniles suggests that the Bolca Lagerstätte served as a nursery habitat for G. cuvieri. Ultraviolet photography may be useful in probing for exceptional soft tissue preservation before common acid preparation methods.

  14. A new, exceptionally preserved juvenile specimen of Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi (Diapsida) and implications for Mesozoic marine diapsid phylogeny.

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    Scheyer, Torsten M; Neenan, James M; Bodogan, Timea; Furrer, Heinz; Obrist, Christian; Plamondon, Mathieu

    2017-06-30

    Recently it was suggested that the phylogenetic clustering of Mesozoic marine reptile lineages, such as thalattosaurs, the very successful fish-shaped ichthyosaurs and sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), among others, in a so-called 'superclade' is an artefact linked to convergent evolution of morphological characters associated with a shared marine lifestyle. Accordingly, partial 'un-scoring' of the problematic phylogenetic characters was proposed. Here we report a new, exceptionally preserved and mostly articulated juvenile skeleton of the diapsid reptile, Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi, a species previously recovered within the marine reptile 'superclade', for which we now provide a revised diagnosis. Using micro-computed tomography, we show that besides having a deep skull with a short and broad rostrum, the most outstanding feature of the new specimen is extensive, complex body armour, mostly preserved in situ, along its vertebrae, ribs, and forelimbs, as well as a row of flat, keeled ventrolateral osteoderms associated with the gastralia. As a whole, the anatomical features support an essentially terrestrial lifestyle of the animal. A review of the proposed partial character 'un-scoring' using three published data matrices indicate that this approach is flawed and should be avoided, and that within the marine reptile 'superclade' E. dalsassoi potentially is the sister taxon of Sauropterygia.

  15. Exceptionally preserved Cambrian trilobite digestive system revealed in 3D by synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy.

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    Mats E Eriksson

    Full Text Available The Cambrian 'Orsten' fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown. Here, we report the first non-biomineralised tissues from a juvenile polymerid trilobite, represented by digestive structures, glands, and connective strands harboured in a hypostome from the Swedish 'Orsten' fauna. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy enabled three-dimensional internal recordings at sub-micrometre resolution. The specimen provides the first unambiguous evidence for a J-shaped anterior gut and the presence of a crop with a constricted alimentary tract in the Trilobita. Moreover, the gut is Y-shaped in cross section, probably due to a collapsed lumen of that shape, another feature which has not previously been observed in trilobites. The combination of anatomical features suggests that the trilobite hypostome is functionally analogous to the labrum of euarthropods and that it was a sophisticated element closely integrated with the digestive system. This study also briefly addresses the preservational bias of the 'Orsten' fauna, particularly the near-absence of polymerid trilobites, and the taphonomy of the soft-tissue-harbouring hypostome.

  16. An exceptionally preserved transitional lungfish from the lower permian of Nebraska, USA, and the origin of modern lungfishes.

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    Jason D Pardo

    Full Text Available Complete, exceptionally-preserved skulls of the Permian lungfish Persephonichthys chthonica gen. et sp. nov. are described. Persephonichthys chthonica is unique among post-Devonian lungfishes in preserving portions of the neurocranium, permitting description of the braincase of a stem-ceratodontiform for the first time. The completeness of P. chthonica permits robust phylogenetic analysis of the relationships of the extant lungfish lineage within the Devonian lungfish diversification for the first time. New analyses of the relationships of this new species within two published matrices using both maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference robustly place P. chthonica and modern lungfishes within dipterid-grade dipnoans rather than within a clade containing Late Devonian 'phaneropleurids' and common Late Paleozoic lungfishes such as Sagenodus. Monophyly of post-Devonian lungfishes is not supported and the Carboniferous-Permian taxon Sagenodus is found to be incidental to the origins of modern lungfishes, suggesting widespread convergence in Late Paleozoic lungfishes. Morphology of the skull, hyoid arch, and pectoral girdle suggests a deviation in feeding mechanics from that of Devonian lungfishes towards the more dynamic gape cycle and more effective buccal pumping seen in modern lungfishes. Similar anatomy observed previously in 'Rhinodipterus' kimberyensis likely represents an intermediate state between the strict durophagy observed in most Devonian lungfishes and the more dynamic buccal pump seen in Persephonichthys and modern lungfishes, rather than adaptation to air-breathing exclusively.

  17. An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes

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    Giles, Sam; Darras, Laurent; Clément, Gaël; Blieck, Alain; Friedman, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) ‘Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France. This new genus is represented by a single, three-dimensionally preserved skull. CT scanning reveals the presence of an almost complete braincase along with near-fully articulated mandibular, hyoid and gill arches. The neurocranium differs from the coeval Mimipiscis in displaying a short aortic canal with a distinct posterior notch, long grooves for the lateral dorsal aortae, large vestibular fontanelles and a broad postorbital process. Identification of similar but previously unrecognized features in other Devonian actinopterygians suggests that aspects of braincase anatomy in Mimipiscis are apomorphic, questioning its ubiquity as stand-in for generalized actinopterygian conditions. However, the gill skeleton of the new form broadly corresponds to that of Mimipiscis, and adds to an emerging picture of primitive branchial architecture in crown gnathostomes. The new genus is recovered in a polytomy with Mimiidae and a subset of Devonian and stratigraphically younger actinopterygians, with no support found for a monophyletic grouping of Moythomasia with Mimiidae. PMID:26423841

  18. An Exceptionally Preserved Transitional Lungfish from the Lower Permian of Nebraska, USA, and the Origin of Modern Lungfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Jason D.; Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Small, Bryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Complete, exceptionally-preserved skulls of the Permian lungfish Persephonichthys chthonica gen. et sp. nov. are described. Persephonichthys chthonica is unique among post-Devonian lungfishes in preserving portions of the neurocranium, permitting description of the braincase of a stem-ceratodontiform for the first time. The completeness of P. chthonica permits robust phylogenetic analysis of the relationships of the extant lungfish lineage within the Devonian lungfish diversification for the first time. New analyses of the relationships of this new species within two published matrices using both maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference robustly place P. chthonica and modern lungfishes within dipterid-grade dipnoans rather than within a clade containing Late Devonian ‘phaneropleurids’ and common Late Paleozoic lungfishes such as Sagenodus. Monophyly of post-Devonian lungfishes is not supported and the Carboniferous-Permian taxon Sagenodus is found to be incidental to the origins of modern lungfishes, suggesting widespread convergence in Late Paleozoic lungfishes. Morphology of the skull, hyoid arch, and pectoral girdle suggests a deviation in feeding mechanics from that of Devonian lungfishes towards the more dynamic gape cycle and more effective buccal pumping seen in modern lungfishes. Similar anatomy observed previously in ‘Rhinodipterus’ kimberyensis likely represents an intermediate state between the strict durophagy observed in most Devonian lungfishes and the more dynamic buccal pump seen in Persephonichthys and modern lungfishes, rather than adaptation to air-breathing exclusively. PMID:25265394

  19. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-06-11

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  20. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Rø stad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  1. Decomposition of jellyfish carrion in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chelsky, Ariella; Pitt, Kylie A.; Ferguson, Angus J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish often form blooms that persist for weeks to months before they collapse en masse, resulting in the sudden release of large amounts of organic matter to the environment. This study investigated the biogeochemical and ecological effects of the decomposition of jellyfish in a shallow coast...

  2. Evaluating the role of large jellyfish and forage fishes as energy pathways, and their interplay with fisheries, in the Northern Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Robinson, Kelly L.; Tam, Jorge; Ruzicka, James J.; Quiñones, Javier; Aleksa, Katrina T.; Hernandez, Frank J.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Leaf, Robert; Uye, Shin-ichi; Decker, Mary Beth; Acha, Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes W.; Graham, William M.

    2018-05-01

    Large jellyfish are important consumers of plankton, fish eggs and fish larvae in heavily fished ecosystems worldwide; yet they are seldom included in fisheries production models. Here we developed a trophic network model with 41 functional groups using ECOPATH re-expressed in a donor-driven, end-to-end format to directly evaluate the efficiency of large jellyfish and forage fish at transferring energy to higher trophic levels, as well as the ecosystem-wide effects of varying jellyfish and forage fish consumption rates and fishing rates, in the Northern Humboldt Current system (NHCS) off of Peru. Large jellyfish were an energy-loss pathway for high trophic-level consumers, while forage fish channelized the production of lower trophic levels directly into production of top-level consumers. A simulated jellyfish bloom resulted in a decline in productivity of all functional groups, including forage fish (12%), with the exception of sea turtles. A modeled increase in forage fish consumption rate by 50% resulted in a decrease in large jellyfish productivity (29%). A simulated increase of 40% in forage fish harvest enhanced jellyfish productivity (24%), while closure of all fisheries caused a decline in large jellyfish productivity (26%) and productivity increases in upper level consumers. These outcomes not only suggest that jellyfish blooms and fisheries have important effects on the structure of the NHCS, but they also support the hypothesis that forage fishing provides a competitive release for large jellyfish. We recommend including jellyfish as a functional group in future ecosystem modeling efforts, including ecosystem-based approaches to fishery management of coastal ecosystems worldwide.

  3. Variation in osteocytes morphology vs bone type in turtle shell and their exceptional preservation from the Jurassic to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin A; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe variations in osteocytes derived from each of the three bone layers that comprise the turtle shell. We examine osteocytes in bone from four extant turtle species to form a morphological 'baseline', and then compare these with morphologies of osteocytes preserved in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossils. Two different morphotypes of osteocytes are recognized: flattened-oblate osteocytes (FO osteocytes), which are particularly abundant in the internal cortex and lamellae of secondary osteons in cancellous bone, and stellate osteocytes (SO osteocytes), principally present in the interstitial lamellae between secondary osteons and external cortex. We show that the morphology of osteocytes in each of the three bone layers is conserved through ontogeny. We also demonstrate that these morphological variations are phylogenetically independent, as well as independent of the bone origin (intramembranous or endochondral). Preservation of microstructures consistent with osteocytes in the morphology in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossil turtle bones appears to be common, and occurs in diverse diagenetic environments including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. These data have potential to illuminate aspects of turtle biology and evolution previously unapproachable, such as estimates of genome size of extinct species, differences in metabolic rates among different bones from a single individual, and potential function of osteocytes as capsules for preservation of ancient biomolecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A new ankylosaurine dinosaur from the Judith River Formation of Montana, USA, based on an exceptional skeleton with soft tissue preservation

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    Arbour, Victoria M.; Evans, David C.

    2017-05-01

    The terrestrial Judith River Formation of northern Montana was deposited over an approximately 4 Myr interval during the Campanian (Late Cretaceous). Despite having been prospected and collected continuously by palaeontologists for over a century, few relatively complete dinosaur skeletons have been recovered from this unit to date. Here we describe a new genus and species of ankylosaurine dinosaur, Zuul crurivastator, from the Coal Ridge Member of the Judith River Formation, based on an exceptionally complete and well-preserved skeleton (ROM 75860). This is the first ankylosaurin skeleton known with a complete skull and tail club, and it is the most complete ankylosaurid ever found in North America. The presence of abundant soft tissue preservation across the skeleton, including in situ osteoderms, skin impressions and dark films that probably represent preserved keratin, make this exceptional skeleton an important reference for understanding the evolution of dermal and epidermal structures in this clade. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Zuul as an ankylosaurin ankylosaurid within a clade of Dyoplosaurus and Scolosaurus, with Euoplocephalus being more distantly related within Ankylosaurini. The occurrence of Z. crurivastator from the upper Judith River Formation fills a gap in the ankylosaurine stratigraphic and geographical record in North America, and further highlights that Campanian ankylosaurines were undergoing rapid evolution and stratigraphic succession of taxa as observed for Laramidian ceratopsids, hadrosaurids, pachycephalosaurids and tyrannosaurids.

  5. The oldest known digestive system consisting of both paired digestive glands and a crop from exceptionally preserved trilobites of the Guanshan Biota (Early Cambrian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Hopkins

    Full Text Available The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop" under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten. In addition, at least one specimen of Palaeolenus lantenoisi shows the preservation of an unusual combination of digestive structures: a crop and paired digestive glands along the alimentary tract. This combination of digestive structures has also never been observed in trilobites this old, and is rare in general, with prior evidence of it from one juvenile trilobite specimen from the late Cambrian Orsten fauna of Sweden and possibly one adult trilobite specimen from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte. The variation in the fidelity of preservation of digestive structures within and across different Lagerstätten may be due to variation in the type, quality, and point of digestion of food among specimens in addition to differences in mode of preservation. The presence and combination of these digestive features in the Guanshan trilobites contradicts current models of how the trilobite digestive system was structured and evolved over time. Most notably, the crop is not a derived structure as previously proposed, although it is possible that the relative size of the crop increased over the evolutionary history of the clade.

  6. The oldest known digestive system consisting of both paired digestive glands and a crop from exceptionally preserved trilobites of the Guanshan Biota (Early Cambrian, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Melanie J; Chen, Feiyang; Hu, Shixue; Zhang, Zhifei

    2017-01-01

    The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop") under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten. In addition, at least one specimen of Palaeolenus lantenoisi shows the preservation of an unusual combination of digestive structures: a crop and paired digestive glands along the alimentary tract. This combination of digestive structures has also never been observed in trilobites this old, and is rare in general, with prior evidence of it from one juvenile trilobite specimen from the late Cambrian Orsten fauna of Sweden and possibly one adult trilobite specimen from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte. The variation in the fidelity of preservation of digestive structures within and across different Lagerstätten may be due to variation in the type, quality, and point of digestion of food among specimens in addition to differences in mode of preservation. The presence and combination of these digestive features in the Guanshan trilobites contradicts current models of how the trilobite digestive system was structured and evolved over time. Most notably, the crop is not a derived structure as previously proposed, although it is possible that the relative size of the crop increased over the evolutionary history of the clade.

  7. New data on internal morphology of exceptionally preserved Nannirhynchia pygmaea (Morris, 1847 from the Lusitanian Basin (Brachiopoda, Early Jurassic, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schemm-Gregory

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyritized internal moulds of articulated shells of the Early Jurassic brachiopod taxon Nannirhynchia pygmaea were found in beds closely below the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in the Polymorphum Zone in Portugal. The material allows a detailed study of the outline of the muscle fields, the length and direction of the crura, and the orientation of the cardinalia, which are hitherto undescribed. Three-dimensional reconstructions of articulated shells of N. pygmaea occurring in a single horizon were produced to show the orientation and length of arcuiform crura. The preservation of internal moulds together with the three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal shell morphology allow a more precise description of the internal morphology of this taxon than it is possible with articulated shells and serial sections. doi:10.1002/mmng.201200005

  8. Seasonality of the late Pleistocene Dawson tephra and exceptional preservation of a buried riparian surface in central Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Duane G.; Zazula, Grant D.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2006-07-01

    The late Pleistocene Dawson tephra was deposited by one of the largest Quaternary eruptions in northwestern North America. Its distribution is known sparsely from sites near the source area in southwestern Alaska and central Yukon Territory, where more than 20 occurrences are documented in the Klondike region. Dawson tephra erupted about 25,300C yr BP, near the onset of the last glaciation, and provides a stratigraphic marker across Eastern Beringia. We report radiocarbon ages, paleobotanical data, and cryostratigraphic observations from a new Dawson tephra locale at Goldbottom Creek, in the Klondike region of Yukon Territory, which collectively indicate that the eruption occurred in the late winter or early spring. Multiple, fining-upward tephra-rich ice beds are interpreted as remnants of surface icings, which presently are common in the region during spring. A buried in situ riparian meadow, preserved below the icing and tephra, consists of abundant tufted hair grass ( Deschampsia caespitosa), with interspersed horsetails ( Equisetum cf. palustre) and mosses. Detrital plant remains and preserved in situ grass inflorescences entombed in the icing had expelled their fruits, consistent with a late season surface when the icing was active. The extraordinary thickness of Dawson tephra in central Yukon likely reflects reworking of a winter-deposited tephra by snow melt in the spring following the eruption, indicating that the primary thickness may be overestimated at valley-bottom sites. Winter deposition of the tephra may have, in part, minimized the terrestrial ecological impacts of the eruption on zonal "steppe-tundra" vegetation through the retransportation of tephra from hillslopes to the riparian areas, where the tephra became incorporated into local fluvial systems.

  9. The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Llucmajor, Mallorca: a singular deposit bearing an exceptional well preserved Early Pleistocene vertebrate fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Bover

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera is the longest cave of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean and one of the 30 longest caves in the world. The exploration of one of the galleries allowed the discovery of a fossiliferous deposit of vertebrate remains in a remarkable preservation state. The fossil faunal complex found in this gallery is composed of up to 5 mammalian species (Myotragus aff. kopperi, Hypnomys onicensis, Nesiotites aff. ponsi, Rhinolophus aff. mehelyi and Pipistrellus sp., at least 14 bird species (among them two Mallorcan endemic taxa: Pica mourerae and Athene vallgornerensis, one reptile (Podarcis aff. lilfordi and one amphibian (Discoglossus sp.. This faunal composition is similar to the one recorded in the Pedrera de s’Ònix, a well known deposit from the Early Pleistocene of Mallorca, and shared morphological characteristics between taxa of both deposits suggest that the chronology of the Cova des Pas de Vallgornera should be considered Early Pleistocene as well. Both taxonomical analysis and chronology of this fauna furnished information on some speleological aspects of the cave.

  10. Life-history stages of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita - towards a demographic understanding of jellyfish blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms are conspicuous demographic events that have received increasing attention by the public and the scientific community over the last decades due to their negative impact on fisheries, tourism and other human industries. Several aspects of the complex life cycles of the jellyfish......, including frequent mass occurrence of A. aurita medusae in temperate Danish waters. The present novel data show for instance, that jellyfish blooms of A. aurita are strongly affected by food availability and corresponding shifts between asexually reproducing benthic polyps and sexually reproducing pelagic...... medusae, which might be highly representative for the majority of bloom-forming jellyfish species. Findings further indicate that seasonal shrinkage and subsequent disappearance of A. aurita medusae is rather driven by food limitation than by a trade-off between sexual reproduction and metabolic...

  11. Pediatric jellyfish envenomation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel; Adir, Dikla; Galil, Bella; Scolnik, Dennis; Rimon, Ayelet; Pivko-Levy, Dikla; Hoyte, Christopher

    2017-06-20

    Several species of jellyfish native to the western Indian Ocean have entered the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. Since the late 1980s, each summer Rhopilema nomadica forms swarms as long as 100 km in the southeastern Levant and since the millennium aggregations of additional nonnative jellyfish have been sighted. The aim of this study was to evaluate children seen in the emergency department after jellyfish envenomations and to establish patterns of toxicity associated with this organism. A retrospective chart review was performed of all children presenting after jellyfish envenomations to the pediatric emergency department during the jellyfish swarming seasons (June-August) between 2010 and 2015. Extracted data included age, location of envenomation, pain scores, local and systemic manifestations, treatment provided in the emergency department and hospital, and disposition. Forty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; their ages ranged from 1 to 16 years and the median age was 9.4 years. Clinical manifestations were evident in all patients. Pain, present in 100% of patients, and an erythematous, whip-like, linear rash present in 87.8%, were the most common manifestations. The majority of 'burns' associated with jellyfish stings were first and second degree. The upper limb was affected in 34% and the lower limb was affected in 61% of cases. One patient suffered a sting to the abdomen and three patients suffered a sting to the face. Treatment in the emergency department included pain control, with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, and antihistamines and topical corticosteroids in some cases. Nearly 49% of patients were seen during the summer of 2015 alone and seven patients in this group needed hospitalization. Reasons for hospitalization included systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, tachycardia, and muscle spasms. Two patients developed severe cellulitis, one patient had an anaphylactic reaction, and one was admitted to the

  12. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  13. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  14. Lévy night flights by the jellyfish Periphylla periphylla

    KAUST Repository

    Ugland, KI

    2014-10-22

    Jellyfish blooms occur in marine environments around the world and have been linked to over-fishing, eutrophication and climatic change. In some coastal areas of Norway, the circumglobal Periphylla periphylla has increased to exceptionally high abundances and has replaced fish as the main planktivorous predator despite the ineffectiveness of its non-visual predation compared to visual fish predation. Using data from a bottom-mounted acoustic platform, we collected 12341 in situ measurements of individual vertical movements of large individuals of P. periphylla. These jellyfish are characterized by a stepwise vertical movement. The distribution of their vertical swimming distances was extremely left skewed; about 85% of the swimming distances were less than 3 m, and a few displacements were extremely long with a maximum of 85 m. Chi-square tests of goodness of fit to the tail and Akaike’s information criterion gave overwhelming evidence of the truncated power law. There was a clear diel pattern in the exponent with values significantly larger than 3 during the daytime and significantly lower than 3 at night. This pattern means that P. periphylla switches from relatively limited movements during the day to Lévy-like flights during the night. Since the abundance of zooplankton is large in the P. periphylla fjord, Brownian motion, rather than Lévy flight, is predicted by the optimal foraging hypothesis. It is therefore possible that the Lévy-like search pattern has evolved in the food-scarce oceanic environment, which is the main natural habitat of P. periphylla. Alternatively, the large individuals of the population addressed here may forage on scarcer prey sources than the main prevailing zooplankton in Lurefjorden.

  15. Lévy night flights by the jellyfish Periphylla periphylla

    KAUST Repository

    Ugland, KI; Aksnes, DL; Klevjer, TA; Titelman, J; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms occur in marine environments around the world and have been linked to over-fishing, eutrophication and climatic change. In some coastal areas of Norway, the circumglobal Periphylla periphylla has increased to exceptionally high abundances and has replaced fish as the main planktivorous predator despite the ineffectiveness of its non-visual predation compared to visual fish predation. Using data from a bottom-mounted acoustic platform, we collected 12341 in situ measurements of individual vertical movements of large individuals of P. periphylla. These jellyfish are characterized by a stepwise vertical movement. The distribution of their vertical swimming distances was extremely left skewed; about 85% of the swimming distances were less than 3 m, and a few displacements were extremely long with a maximum of 85 m. Chi-square tests of goodness of fit to the tail and Akaike’s information criterion gave overwhelming evidence of the truncated power law. There was a clear diel pattern in the exponent with values significantly larger than 3 during the daytime and significantly lower than 3 at night. This pattern means that P. periphylla switches from relatively limited movements during the day to Lévy-like flights during the night. Since the abundance of zooplankton is large in the P. periphylla fjord, Brownian motion, rather than Lévy flight, is predicted by the optimal foraging hypothesis. It is therefore possible that the Lévy-like search pattern has evolved in the food-scarce oceanic environment, which is the main natural habitat of P. periphylla. Alternatively, the large individuals of the population addressed here may forage on scarcer prey sources than the main prevailing zooplankton in Lurefjorden.

  16. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E.C. Fleming

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ13C and δ15N stable isotope values, we examined: (1 whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2 Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3 When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ15N (trophic position were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ15N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous

  17. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nicholas E C; Harrod, Chris; Newton, Jason; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata) within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ (13)C and δ (15)N stable isotope values, we examined: (1) whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2) Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3) When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ (15)N (trophic position) were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ (15)N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous assertions

  18. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish (cnidarians have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment.

  19. Estimated harvesting on jellyfish in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujang, Noriham; Hassan, Aimi Nuraida Ali

    2017-04-01

    There are three species of jellyfish recorded in Sarawak which are the Lobonema smithii (white jellyfish), Rhopilema esculenta (red jellyfish) and Mastigias papua. This study focused on two particular species which are L.smithii and R.esculenta. This study was done to estimate the highest carrying capacity and the population growth rate of both species by using logistic growth model. The maximum sustainable yield for the harvesting of this species was also determined. The unknown parameters in the logistic model were estimated using center finite different method. As for the results, it was found that the carrying capacity for L.smithii and R.esculenta were 4594.9246456819 tons and 5855.9894242086 tons respectively. Whereas, the population growth rate for both L.smithii and R.esculenta were estimated at 2.1800463754 and 1.144864086 respectively. Hence, the estimated maximum sustainable yield for harvesting for L.smithii and R.esculenta were 2504.2872047638 tons and 1676.0779949431 tons per year.

  20. [Skin cell response after jellyfish sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamicová, Katarína; Výbohová, Desanka; Fetisovová, Želmíra; Nováková, Elena; Mellová, Yvetta

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish burning is not commonly part of the professional finding in the central Europe health care laboratory. Holiday seaside tourism includes different and unusual presentations of diseases for our worklplaces. Sea water-sports and leisure is commonly connected with jellyfish burning and changes in the skin, that are not precisely described. Authors focused their research on detection of morphological and quantitative changes of some inflammatory cells in the skin biopsy of a 59-years-old woman ten days after a jellyfish stinging. Because of a comparison of findings the biopsy was performed in the skin with lesional and nonlesional skin. Both excisions of the skin were tested by imunohistochemical methods to detect CD68, CD163, CD30, CD4, CD3, CD8, CD20 a CD1a, to detect histiocytes, as well as several clones of lymphocytes and Langerhans cells (antigen presenting cells of skin), CD 117, toluidin blue and chloracetase esterase to detect mastocytes and neutrophils. Material was tested by immunofluorescent methods to detect IgA, IgM, IgG, C3, C4, albumin and fibrinogen. Representative view-fields were documented by microscope photocamera Leica DFC 420 C. Registered photos from both samples of the skin were processed by morphometrical analysis by the Vision Assistant software. A student t-test was used for statistical analysis of reached results. Mean values of individual found cells in the sample with lesion and without lesion were as follows: CD117 -2.64/0.37, CD68-6.86/1.63, CD163-3.13/2.23, CD30-1.36/0.02, CD4-3.51/0.32, CD8-8.22/0.50, CD3-10.69/0.66, CD20-0.56/0.66, CD1a-7.97/0.47 respectively. Generally mild elevation of eosinofils in lesional skin was detected. Increased values of tested cells seen in excision from lesional skin when compared with nonlesional ones were statistically significant in eight case at the level p = 0.033 to 0.001. A not statistically significant difference was found only in the group of CD163+ histiocytes. Authors detected numbers

  1. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders Lydik; Pålsson, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different...

  2. Clinical manifestations and managements in jellyfish envenomation A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Taheri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The phylum Cnidarians have over nine thousand species that approximately, one hundred species are dangerous for humans. Annually, a large number of deaths were reported due to jellyfish stings. The manifestations depend on their species and kind of venoms, and include the local and systemic manifestations. A number of methods and compounds were used and under investigation for management of injuries with jellyfishes. Due to the lack of an integrated systematic review, the current study was done. Materials and Methods: The PubMed data bank was searched for the term “Jellyfish”. A total of 1677 papers were found. These papers were divided into three categories: medical, biomedical and biotechnological fields. The medical category was further divided into three subcategories comprising systemic manifestations, cutaneous manifestations and treatments for the stings of jellyfishes. The biomedical category was further subdivided into genomics, proteomics, and biology of venoms, mechanisms of actions and products of biomedical significance. In this part of systematic review, the medical aspects of injuries with jellyfishes were evaluated. Results: The clinical manifestations in jellyfish envenomation depend on their species and the nature of venoms. The most common clinical manifestations of jellyfish stings are cutaneous presentations like urticasia, erythema, swelling, vesicles and severe dermonectoric manifestations. Systemic manifestations were seen in the stings of box jellyfishes, Portuguese man-of-war and in Irukandji syndrome. The most common recommendations for jellyfish envenomation managements include decreasing the local effects of venom, prevention of the venomous nematocysts release, and Controlling of systemic reactions. Application of commercial vinegar (4 - 6% acetic acid, hot water immersion (HWI (42 ° C for 20 minutes, ice packs, sea water rinsing for inactivating nematocysts, administration of topical and parenteral

  3. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

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    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  4. Optimization and preliminary characterization of venom isolated from 3 medically important jellyfish: the box (Chironex fleckeri), Irukandji (Carukia barnesi), and blubber (Catostylus mosaicus) jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, C J; Sutherland, S K; Fenner, P J; Young, A R

    2000-01-01

    To optimize venom extraction and to undertake preliminary biochemical studies of venom from the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), the Irukandji jellyfish (Carukia barnesi), and the blubber jellyfish (Catostylus mosaicus). Lyophilized crude venoms from box jellyfish tentacles and whole Irukandji jellyfish were prepared in water by homogenization, sonication, and rapid freeze thawing. A second technique, consisting of grinding samples with a glass mortar and pestle and using phosphate-buffered saline, was used to prepare crude venom from isolated nematocysts of the box jellyfish, the bells of Irukandji jellyfish, and the oral lobes of blubber jellyfish. Venoms were compared by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot test. Toxicity of some venoms was determined by intravenous median lethal dose assay in mice. Different venom extraction techniques produced significantly different crude venoms for both box and Irukandji jellyfish. Irukandji and blubber venom SDS-PAGE protein profiles were established for the first time. Analysis of Western blot tests revealed that box jellyfish antivenin reacted specifically with the venom of each jellyfish. Toxicity was found in Irukandji jellyfish venom derived by use of the mortar-and-pestle method, but not in the lyophilized venom. Glass mortar-and-pestle grinding and use of an appropriate buffer was found to be a simple and suitable method for the preparation of venom from each jellyfish species studied. This study contributes to biochemical investigations of jellyfish venoms, particularly the venom of the Irukandji jellyfish, for which there are, to our knowledge, no published studies. It also highlights the importance of optimizing venom extraction as the first step toward understanding the complex biological effects of jellyfish venoms.

  5. Jellyfish blooms in China: Dominant species, causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Zhijun; Liu Dongyan; Keesing, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Three jellyfish species, Aurelia aurita, Cyanea nozakii and Nemopilema nomurai, form large blooms in Chinese seas. We report on the distribution and increasing incidence of jellyfish blooms and their consequences in Chinese coastal seas and analyze their relationship to anthropogenically derived changes to the environment in order to determine the possible causes. A. aurita, C. nozakii and N. nomurai form blooms in the temperate Chinese seas including the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. N. nomurai forms offshore blooms while the other two species bloom mainly in inshore areas. Eutrophication, overfishing, habitat modification for aquaculture and climate change are all possible contributory factors facilitating plausible mechanisms for the proliferation of jellyfish blooms. In the absence of improvement in coastal marine ecosystem health, jellyfish blooms could be sustained and may even spread from the locations in which they now occur.

  6. Environmental DNA reflects spatial and temporal jellyfish distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Minamoto

    Full Text Available Recent development of environmental DNA (eDNA analysis allows us to survey underwater macro-organisms easily and cost effectively; however, there have been no reports on eDNA detection or quantification for jellyfish. Here we present the first report on an eDNA analysis of marine jellyfish using Japanese sea nettle (Chrysaora pacifica as a model species by combining a tank experiment with spatial and temporal distribution surveys. We performed a tank experiment monitoring eDNA concentrations over a range of time intervals after the introduction of jellyfish, and quantified the eDNA concentrations by quantitative real-time PCR. The eDNA concentrations peaked twice, at 1 and 8 h after the beginning of the experiment, and became stable within 48 h. The estimated release rates of the eDNA in jellyfish were higher than the rates previously reported in fishes. A spatial survey was conducted in June 2014 in Maizuru Bay, Kyoto, in which eDNA was collected from surface water and sea floor water samples at 47 sites while jellyfish near surface water were counted on board by eye. The distribution of eDNA in the bay corresponded with the distribution of jellyfish inferred by visual observation, and the eDNA concentration in the bay was ~13 times higher on the sea floor than on the surface. The temporal survey was conducted from March to November 2014, in which jellyfish were counted by eye every morning while eDNA was collected from surface and sea floor water at three sampling points along a pier once a month. The temporal fluctuation pattern of the eDNA concentrations and the numbers of observed individuals were well correlated. We conclude that an eDNA approach is applicable for jellyfish species in the ocean.

  7. JELLYFISH GALAXY CANDIDATES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Paccagnella, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Moretti, A.; D’Onofrio, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Padova (Italy); Jaffé, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Fritz, J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Michoacán (Mexico); Couch, W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04−0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity L{sub X}. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (10{sup 11}−10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M{sub ⊙} < 9 to > 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  8. Temporal and spatial patterns in the abundance of jellyfish in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to be considerably challenged because of significant overlaps in space and time between fish and jellyfish, and through the effects of competition and predation effects of jellyfish on fish. Keywords: Aequorea, Chrysaora, fish recruitment, jellyfish joyride, overfishing. African Journal of Marine Science 2012, 34(1): 131–146 ...

  9. Indonesian jellyfish as potential for raw materials of food and drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, S.; Fahmid, I. M.; Abdullah, N.; Zulhaeriah

    2018-05-01

    Jellyfish used to be considered as a pest of fish and a nuisance to fishing operations. Yet, forty years ago this jellyfish was found to be materials of food, medicine and cosmetics and the utilization of jellyfish is now familiar in Indonesia after being imported by China and Japan industry. This study aims to determine the potential development of jellyfish commodities as food and drugs from Indonesia with the target to improve the welfare of fishermen. This research used methods of rapid observation, limited interview, processing with immersion experiment and desiccation. In addition, various literatures were also used to enrich the knowledge about jellyfish business. Observation showed that the appearance of jellyfish in Indonesian waters varies based on the fertility of the waters affected by oceanographic conditions. Jellyfish contains low calorie and fat content, high protein and minerals as well as total collagen. Thus, jellyfish is a nutritious food source to be developed into food supplements, nutricosmetics and functional foods. Due to its large size, the jellyfish from Bunyu Island is more viable than jellyfish from Suppa Pinrang to be exported as raw material. Therefore, the manufacture of food and medicines from jellyfish materials is possible to be done in Indonesia.

  10. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type...... that is specialized to peer up through the water surface and that is suspended such that it is constantly looking straight up, irrespective of the orientation of the jellyfish. The visual information is used to navigate to the preferred habitat at the edge of mangrove lagoons....

  11. Exceptional phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Kenneth; Moltke Martiny, Kristian

    Phenomenological research is in traditional terms a matter of going 'back to the things themselves', as Husserl famously stated. But if phenomenology is to renew itself in creative ways and reveal new aspects of human experience it is of value to look for a certain kind of phenomena: exceptions. ...

  12. Evolution of complex asexual reproductive strategies in jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnedler-Meyer, Nicolas Azaña; Pigolotti, Simone; Mariani, Patrizio

    2018-01-01

    Many living organisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems rely on multiple reproductive strategies to reduce the risk of extinction in variable environments. Examples are provided by the polyp stage of several bloom-forming jellyfish species, which can reproduce asexually using different buddin...

  13. Preserving Canadian Exceptionalism: An Educator's Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational and societal differences between Canada and the United States. He claims that an egocentric culture, committed to immediate gratification, stands in the way of a healthy response to change. People are always seeking accommodation to the changes around them. When people choose familiar behaviour…

  14. The global susceptibility of coastal forage fish to competition by large jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnedler-Meyer, Nicolas Azaña; Mariani, Patrizio; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    dominance at low primary production, and a shift towards jellyfish with increasing productivity, turbidity and fishing. We present an index of global ecosystem susceptibility to shifts in fish–jellyfish dominance that compares well with data on jellyfish distributions and trends. The results are a step......Competition between large jellyfish and forage fish for zooplankton prey is both a possible cause of jellyfish increases and a concern for the management of marine ecosystems and fisheries. Identifying principal factors affecting this competition is therefore important for marine management......, but the lack of both good quality data and a robust theoretical framework have prevented general global analyses. Here, we present a general mechanistic food web model that considers fundamental differences in feeding modes and predation pressure between fish and jellyfish. The model predicts forage fish...

  15. Hematological parameters on the effect of the jellyfish venom Cassiopea andromeda in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we previously recorded an enormous population of the Cassiopea andromeda jellyfish that had increased dramatically from Bushehr coasts of Iran. The sub-acute toxicity of the jellyfish venom in rat organs was correspondingly carried out. The data presented in this paper relate to the in vivo and in vitro hematological effects of this venomous species of jellyfish venom.

  16. [Jellyfish and poison-producing animals that endanger swimmers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, M; Mayer, D E; Hemmer, W; Jarisch, R

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to fresh water as well as to sea water can cause unpleasant consequences. The water of lakes or biotopes may be the reason for severe itching reactions on exposed skin, caused by cercariae. Exposure to seawater may lead to skin affections including itching or burning urticarial lesions as well as life threatening reactions. The causes for these reactions are especially species of jellyfish. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  17. Antibacterial polyketides from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Li, Famei; Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Hong, Jongki; Bae, Kyung Sook; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Jung, Jee H

    2011-08-26

    Four new polyketides (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Paecilomyces variotii, which was derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The planar structures and relative configurations of these polyketides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 3089 and multi-drug-resistant Vibrio parahemolyticus 7001 with MIC values in the range 5-40 μg/mL.

  18. Characterization of jellyfish turning using 3D-PTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nicole; Dabiri, John

    2017-11-01

    Aurelia aurita are oblate, radially symmetric jellyfish that consist of a gelatinous bell and subumbrellar muscle ring, which contracts to provide motive force. Swimming is typically modeled as a purely vertical motion; however, asymmetric activations of swim pacemakers (sensory organs that innervate the muscle at eight locations around the bell margin) result in turning and more complicated swim behaviors. More recent studies have examined flow fields around turning jellyfish, but the input/output relationship between locomotive controls and swim trajectories is unclear. To address this, bell kinematics for both straight swimming and turning are obtained using 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) by injecting biocompatible elastomer tags into the bell, illuminating the tank with ultraviolet light, and tracking the resulting fluorescent particles in a multi-camera setup. By understanding these kinematics in both natural and externally controlled free-swimming animals, we can connect neuromuscular control mechanisms to existing flow measurements of jellyfish turning for applications in designing more energy efficient biohybrid robots and underwater vehicles. NSF GRFP.

  19. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Leone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo, whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest.

  20. A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Sung-Weon; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators was fabricated and activated to mimic real locomotive behavior with pulse and recovery processes. To imitate the curved shape of the jellyfish, a thermal treatment was applied to obtain a permanent initial deformation of a hemispherical form. The bio-inspired input signal was generated for mimicking real locomotion of the jellyfish. The vertical floating displacement and the thrust force of the biomimetic jellyfish robot under various input signals were measured and compared. The present results show that the bio-inspired electrical input signal with pulse-recovery process generates much higher floating velocity of the biomimetic jellyfish robot in comparison with pure sinusoidal excitations. The curved shape of the IPMC actuator through thermal treatments can be successfully applied to mimic the real biomimetic robots with smooth curves

  1. Impact of Stinging Jellyfish Proliferations along South Italian Coasts: Human Health Hazards, Treatment and Social Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Donno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy, and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007–2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007–2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively, and with ammonia (74% as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  2. Systematics of stalked jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Staurozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília S. Miranda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Staurozoan classification is highly subjective, based on phylogeny-free inferences, and suborders, families, and genera are commonly defined by homoplasies. Additionally, many characters used in the taxonomy of the group have ontogenetic and intraspecific variation, and demand new and consistent assessments to establish their correct homologies. Consequently, Staurozoa is in need of a thorough systematic revision. The aim of this study is to propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for Staurozoa, providing the first phylogenetic classification for the group. According to our working hypothesis based on a combined set of molecular data (mitochondrial markers COI and 16S, and nuclear markers ITS, 18S, and 28S, the traditional suborders Cleistocarpida (animals with claustrum and Eleutherocarpida (animals without claustrum are not monophyletic. Instead, our results show that staurozoans are divided into two groups, herein named Amyostaurida and Myostaurida, which can be distinguished by the absence/presence of interradial longitudinal muscles in the peduncle, respectively. We propose a taxonomic revision at the family and genus levels that preserves the monophyly of taxa. We provide a key for staurozoan genera and discuss the evolution of the main characters used in staurozoan taxonomy.

  3. Jellyfish Identification Software for Underwater Laser Cameras (JTRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Mariani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish can form erratic blooms in response to seasonal and irregular changes in environmental conditions with often large, transient effects on local ecosystem structure as well as effects on several sectors of the marine and maritime economy. Early warning systems able to detect conditions for jelly fish proliferation can enable management responses to mitigate such effects providing benefit to local ecosystems and economies. We propose here the creation of a research team in response to the EU call for proposal under the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund called “Blue Labs: innovative solutions for maritime challenges”. The project will establish a BLUELAB team with a strong cross-sectorial component that will benefit of the expertise of researchers in IT and Marine Biology, Computer Vision and embedded systems, which will work in collaboration with Industry and Policy maker to develop an early warning system using a new underwater imaging system based on Time of Flight Laser cameras. The camera will be combined to machine learning algorithm allowing autonomous early detection of jellyfish species (e.g. polyp, ephyra and planula stages. The team will develop the system and the companion software and will demonstrate its applications in real case conditions.

  4. Actuation control of a PiezoMEMS biomimetic robotic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandre, Alvaro; Olszewski, Oskar; Jackson, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    Biomimetic micro-robots try to mimic the motion of a living system in the form of a synthetically developed microfabricated device. Dynamic motion of living systems have evolved through the years, but trying to mimic these motions is challenging. Micro-robotics are particular challenging as the fabrication of devices and controlling the motion in 3 dimensions is difficult. However, micro-scale robotics have potential to be used in a wide range of applications. MEMS based robots that can move and function in a liquid environment is of particular interest. This paper describes the development of a piezoMEMS based device that mimics the movement of a jellyfish. The paper focuses on the development of a finite element model that investigates a method of controlling the individual piezoelectric beams in order to create a jet propulsion motion, consisting of a quick excitation pulse followed by a slow recovery pulse in order to maximize thrust and velocity. By controlling the individual beams or legs of the jellyfish robot the authors can control the robot to move precisely in 3 dimensions.

  5. Review of fatal and severe cases of box jellyfish envenomation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaikruea, Lakkana; Siriariyaporn, Potjaman; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Smithsuwan, Punnarai

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to describe severe and fatal cases of box jellyfish stings in Thailand. Medical records were reviewed and patients, relatives, health staffs, and witnesses were interviewed. The pictures of suspected box jellyfish were sent via e-mail to experts in the toxic jellyfish network for further identification. There were at least 8 cases of box jellyfish envenomation, with 4 fatal and 4 near-fatal cases. There were an equal number of male and female patients from 4 to 26 years of age. In each case, there was immediate severe pain followed by systemic reactions. Immediately after exposure to the sting, 7 victims collapsed experiencing severe pain at the tentacle marks, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. All patients had tentacle marks on their bodies. In none of the fatal cases was vinegar applied to the tentacle marks as first aid, but 3 out of the 4 near-fatal cases were treated with a vinegar application. © 2012 APJPH.

  6. Capacity Extension of Software Defined Data Center Networks With Jellyfish Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    We present a performance analysis of Jellyfish topology with Software-Defined commodity switches for Data Center networks. Our results show up to a 2-fold performance gain when compared to a Spanning Tree Protocol implementation.......We present a performance analysis of Jellyfish topology with Software-Defined commodity switches for Data Center networks. Our results show up to a 2-fold performance gain when compared to a Spanning Tree Protocol implementation....

  7. Jellyfish Envenomation Resulting In Vascular Insufficiency And Neurogenic Injury of Upper Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong CYL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a week after a jellyfish sting, a young man presented with regional cyanosis and threat of distal gangrene secondary to vascular spasm in the forearm. The patient also suffered from transient paresis and numbness of the affected upper limb. Contrasted imaging revealed unopacified vessels in the distal forearm and worsening swelling warranted emergency surgical fasciotomy for impending compartment syndrome. This case highlights the occurrence of jellyfish envenomation and the need for early treatment.

  8. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  9. Comparison of zooxanthellae densities from upside-down jellyfish, Cassiopea xamachana, across coastal habitats of The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Stoner, Elizabeth W.; Sebilian, Serina S.; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances may drive jellyfish blooms, and previous studies have suggested this is the case for upside-down jellyfish (Cassiopea xamachana). Cassiopea were found to have higher mean zooxanthellae densities in human-impacted areas on Abaco Island, The Bahamas, suggesting that nutrient loading in impacted sites may be one factor driving zooxanthellate jellyfish blooms. Gut contents from Cassiopea medusae were positively correlated to zooxanthellae densities, indicating that hete...

  10. Towards a miniature self-propelled jellyfish-like swimming robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhi Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish uses jet propulsion to achieve a diversity of propulsion modes in the water. In this article, a miniature jellyfish-inspired swimming robot is designed and built, which is capable of executing horizontal and vertical propulsion and maneuvers. In order to imitate the jellyfish in terms of morphology and kinematics, the robotic jellyfish is designed to be comprised of a streamlined head, a cavity shell, four separate drive units with bevel gears, and a soft outer skin encasing the drive units. A combination of four six-bar linkage mechanisms that are centrally symmetric is adopted as the driver to regulate the phases of contraction and relaxation of the bell-shaped body. Furthermore, a triangle wave generator is incorporated to generate rhythmic drive signals, which is implemented on the microcontroller. Through independent and coordinated control of the four drive units, the robotic jellyfish is able to replicate various propulsion modes similar to real jellyfish. Aquatic tests on the actual robot verify the effectiveness of the formed design scheme along with the proposed control methods.

  11. High activity and Levy searches: jellyfish can search the water column like fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Bastian, Thomas; Doyle, Thomas K; Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gravenor, Michael B; Hobson, Victoria J; Humphries, Nicolas E; Lilley, Martin K S; Pade, Nicolas G; Sims, David W

    2012-02-07

    Over-fishing may lead to a decrease in fish abundance and a proliferation of jellyfish. Active movements and prey search might be thought to provide a competitive advantage for fish, but here we use data-loggers to show that the frequently occurring coastal jellyfish (Rhizostoma octopus) does not simply passively drift to encounter prey. Jellyfish (327 days of data from 25 jellyfish with depth collected every 1 min) showed very dynamic vertical movements, with their integrated vertical movement averaging 619.2 m d(-1), more than 60 times the water depth where they were tagged. The majority of movement patterns were best approximated by exponential models describing normal random walks. However, jellyfish also showed switching behaviour from exponential patterns to patterns best fitted by a truncated Lévy distribution with exponents (mean μ=1.96, range 1.2-2.9) close to the theoretical optimum for searching for sparse prey (μopt≈2.0). Complex movements in these 'simple' animals may help jellyfish to compete effectively with fish for plankton prey, which may enhance their ability to increase in dominance in perturbed ocean systems.

  12. From fish to jellyfish in the eutrophicated Limfjorden (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Andersen, Per; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    the historical development of nutrient overloading and subsequent oxygen depletion in near-bottom water, and how the annual landings of edible bottom-dwelling fish species (plaice, flounder, eel and others) caught in Limfjorden have decreased from about 2,500 t in the early 1920s to only about 20 t in recent...... ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, which was observed in Limfjorden for the first time in 2007, is a second carnivore adding additional predation pressure of the indigenous A. aurita so that copepods and other mesozooplankton organisms may be virtually absent, as observed in 2008 and 2009 where ciliates made up...... a substantial part of the zooplankton biomass. Marine environmental management programmes should be aware of the increasing importance of both indigenous and new invasive jellyfish species that may show mass occurrence in especially eutrophicated and overfished areas...

  13. Biology and ecology of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Richardson, Anthony J; Winkel, Kenneth D; Fenner, Peter J; Lippmann, John; Hore, Russell; Avila-Soria, Griselda; Brewer, David; Kloser, Rudy J; Steven, Andy; Condie, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Irukandji stings are a leading occupational health and safety issue for marine industries in tropical Australia and an emerging problem elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Their mild initial sting frequently results in debilitating illness, involving signs of sympathetic excess including excruciating pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting, hypertension and a feeling of impending doom; some cases also experience acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema. These jellyfish are typically small and nearly invisible, and their infestations are generally mysterious, making them scary to the general public, irresistible to the media, and disastrous for tourism. Research into these fascinating species has been largely driven by the medical profession and focused on treatment. Biological and ecological information is surprisingly sparse, and is scattered through grey literature or buried in dispersed publications, hampering understanding. Given that long-term climate forecasts tend toward conditions favourable to jellyfish ecology, that long-term legal forecasts tend toward increasing duty-of-care obligations, and that bioprospecting opportunities exist in the powerful Irukandji toxins, there is a clear need for information to help inform global research and robust management solutions. We synthesise and contextualise available information on Irukandji taxonomy, phylogeny, reproduction, vision, behaviour, feeding, distribution, seasonality, toxins, and safety. Despite Australia dominating the research in this area, there are probably well over 25 species worldwide that cause the syndrome and it is an understudied problem in the developing world. Major gaps in knowledge are identified for future research: our lack of clarity on the socio-economic impacts, and our need for time series and spatial surveys of the species, make this field particularly enticing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen-fuel-powered bell segments of biomimetic jellyfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Yonas; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank; Haines, Carter; Novitski, David; Baughman, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Artificial muscles powered by a renewable energy source are desired for joint articulation in bio-inspired autonomous systems. In this study, a robotic underwater vehicle, inspired by jellyfish, was designed to be actuated by a chemical fuel source. The fuel-powered muscles presented in this work comprise nano-platinum catalyst-coated multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets, wrapped on the surface of nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA). As a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen gases makes contact with the platinum, the resulting exothermic reaction activates the nickel–titanium (NiTi)-based SMA. The MWCNT sheets serve as a support for the platinum particles and enhance the heat transfer due to the high thermal conductivity between the composite and the SMA. A hydrogen and oxygen fuel source could potentially provide higher power density than electrical sources. Several vehicle designs were considered and a peripheral SMA configuration under the robotic bell was chosen as the best arrangement. Constitutive equations combined with thermodynamic modeling were developed to understand the influence of system parameters that affect the overall actuation behavior of the fuel-powered SMA. The model is based on the changes in entropy of the hydrogen and oxygen fuel on the composite actuator within a channel. The specific heat capacity is the dominant factor controlling the width of the strain for various pulse widths of fuel delivery. Both theoretical and experimental strains for different diameter (100 and 150 µm) SMA/MWCNT/Pt fuel-powered muscles with dead weight attached at the end exhibited the highest magnitude under 450 ms of fuel delivery within 1.6 mm diameter conduit size. Fuel-powered bell deformation of 13.5% was found to be comparable to that of electrically powered (29%) and natural jellyfish (42%). (paper)

  15. Current-oriented swimming by jellyfish and its role in bloom maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian Christopher; Chalumeau, Julien; Bastian, Thomas; Armstrong, Claire Denise; Vandenabeele, Sylvie; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Hays, Graeme Clive

    2015-02-02

    Cross-flows (winds or currents) affect animal movements [1-3]. Animals can temporarily be carried off course or permanently carried away from their preferred habitat by drift depending on their own traveling speed in relation to that of the flow [1]. Animals able to only weakly fly or swim will be the most impacted (e.g., [4]). To circumvent this problem, animals must be able to detect the effects of flow on their movements and respond to it [1, 2]. Here, we show that a weakly swimming organism, the jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, can orientate its movements with respect to currents and that this behavior is key to the maintenance of blooms and essential to reduce the probability of stranding. We combined in situ observations with first-time deployment of accelerometers on free-ranging jellyfish and simulated the behavior observed in wild jellyfish within a high-resolution hydrodynamic model. Our results show that jellyfish can actively swim countercurrent in response to current drift, leading to significant life-history benefits, i.e., increased chance of survival and facilitated bloom formation. Current-oriented swimming may be achieved by jellyfish either directly detecting current shear across their body surface [5] or indirectly assessing drift direction using other cues (e.g., magnetic, infrasound). Our coupled behavioral-hydrodynamic model provides new evidence that current-oriented swimming contributes to jellyfish being able to form aggregations of hundreds to millions of individuals for up to several months, which may have substantial ecosystem and socioeconomic consequences [6, 7]. It also contributes to improve predictions of jellyfish blooms' magnitude and movements in coastal waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Jellyfish decomposition at the seafloor rapidly alters biogeochemical cycling and carbon flow through benthic food-webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweetman, A.K.; Chelsky, A.; Pitt, K.A.; Andrade, H.; Van Oevelen, D.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in magnitude in several locations around the world, including in fjords.While the factors that promote jellyfish blooms and the impacts of live blooms on marine ecosystems areoften investigated, the post-bloom effects from the sinking and accumulation of dead

  17. Environmental control of phase transition and polyp survival of a massive-outbreaker jellyfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Prieto

    Full Text Available A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa. Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records.

  18. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piraino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778 has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa. The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Hui Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038.

  20. Investigation of Gelatin Polypeptides of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum for Their Antioxidant Activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Liang Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish gelatin was hydrolyzed by different proteases to obtain antioxidative polypeptides. The gelatin hydrolysate obtained by progressive hydrolysis using trypsin and Properase E exhibited the highest hydrolysis degree and antioxidant activity. Three series of gelatin polypeptides (SCP1, SCP2 and SCP3 were obtained by ultrafiltrating the gelatin hydrolysate through molecular mass cut-off membranes of 10, 6 and 2 kDa, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis showed that SCP3 had the highest total hydrophobic amino acid content. The in vitro antioxidant tests demonstrated that SCP2 had the strongest hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and metal chelating ability, while SCP3 showed the highest reducing power, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion system and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The results support the feasibility of jellyfish gelatin as a natural antioxidant polypeptide provider, and enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration could be potent future processing technologies to utilize the abundant jellyfish resource.

  1. Systems approach modelling of the interactive effects of fisheries, jellyfish and tourism in the Catalan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Benjamin; Maynou, Francesc; Sabatés, Ana; Fuentes, Verónica; Canepa, Antonio; Sastre, Sergio

    2018-02-01

    Despite the large fluctuation in annual recordings of gelatinous plankton along the Catalan coast in the north western Mediterranean and the lack of long term data sets, there is a general perception that jellyfish abundances are increasing. Local authorities are concerned about the stranding events and arrivals of jellyfish to beaches and believe it could reduce the recreational appeal of the beaches - a valuable ecosystem service for the regional tourist industry. Previous studies also demonstrate the predation of jellyfish (Pelagia noctiluca ephyrae) upon some small pelagic fish larvae (Engraulis encrasicolus). Small pelagics are the principal source of revenue for the local fisheries. A social-ecological model was created in order to capture the effects of changes in abundance of P. noctiluca upon the local fisheries, the tourist industry and the wider economy. The following sub-models were constructed and connected following the systems approach framework methodology: an age-class based fisheries model; a jellyfish population matrix model; a jellyfish stranding model; a study on the impact of jellyfish strandings on beach users; and an economic input-output matrix. Various future scenarios for different abundances of jellyfish blooms were run. The "Expected blooms" scenario is similar to the quantity and size of blooms for 2000-2010. For a hypothetical "No blooms" scenario (standard background level of jellyfish but without any blooms) landings would increase by around 294 tonnes (5.1%) per year (averaged over 10 years) or approximately 0.19 M€ in profits per year (4.5%), and strandings would decrease by 49%. In a "Frequent blooms" scenario, landings would decrease by around 147 tonnes per year (2.5%) and decrease profits by 0.10 M€ per year (2.3%), and strandings would increase by 32%. Given the changes that these scenarios would cause on the regional gross domestic product and employment, this study concludes that the overall impact of either of these

  2. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  3. Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

    2010-02-01

    Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

  4. Flawed citation practices facilitate the unsubstantiated perception of a global trend toward increased jellyfish blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Pitt, Kylie A.; Condon, Robert H.; Lucas, Cathy H.; Novaes de Santana, Charles; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Speculation over a global rise in jellyfish populations has become widespread in the scientific literature, but until recently the purported ‘global increase’ had not been tested. Here we present a citation analysis of peer-reviewed literature to track the evolution of the current perception of increases in jellyfish and identify key papers involved in its establishment. Trend statements and citation threads were reviewed and arranged in a citation network. Trend statements were assessed according their degree of affirmation and spatial scale, and the appropriateness of the citations used to support statements was assessed. Analyses showed that 48.9% of publications misinterpreted the conclusions of cited sources, with a bias towards claiming jellyfish populations are increasing, with a single review having the most influence on the network. Collectively, these disparities resulted in a network based on unsubstantiated statements and citation threads. As a community, we must ensure our statements about scientific findings in general are accurately substantiated and carefully communicated such that incorrect perceptions, as in the case of jellyfish blooms, do not develop in the absence of rigorous testing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  5. Concurrent jellyfish blooms and tenacibaculosis outbreaks in Northern Norwegian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Bang Småge

    Full Text Available Tenacibaculosis is an increasing problem in the Norwegian Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry causing significant economic losses. In September 2015, two separate outbreaks of suspected tenacibaculosis occurred at two Atlantic salmon farms in Finnmark County in Northern Norway. The events resulted in major losses of smolts newly transferred into seawater. Prior to, and during the outbreaks, large numbers of small jellyfish, identified as Dipleurosoma typicum (Boeck were observed in the vicinity of the farms and inside the net-pens. This study investigates the possible link between the jellyfish, Tenacibaculum spp. and the tenacibaculosis outbreaks. Bacteriology, histology, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and real-time RT-PCR screening were performed on both fish and jellyfish samples. Based on the findings, Tenacibaculum finnmarkense was found to be the dominant bacteria associated with the tenacibaculosis outbreaks at both sites and that D. typicum is unlikely to be a vector for this fish pathogenic bacterium. However, results do show that the jellyfish caused direct damage to the fish's skin and may have exacerbated the bacterial infection by allowing an entry point for bacteria.

  6. Flawed citation practices facilitate the unsubstantiated perception of a global trend toward increased jellyfish blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Sanz-Martín, Marina

    2016-06-24

    Speculation over a global rise in jellyfish populations has become widespread in the scientific literature, but until recently the purported ‘global increase’ had not been tested. Here we present a citation analysis of peer-reviewed literature to track the evolution of the current perception of increases in jellyfish and identify key papers involved in its establishment. Trend statements and citation threads were reviewed and arranged in a citation network. Trend statements were assessed according their degree of affirmation and spatial scale, and the appropriateness of the citations used to support statements was assessed. Analyses showed that 48.9% of publications misinterpreted the conclusions of cited sources, with a bias towards claiming jellyfish populations are increasing, with a single review having the most influence on the network. Collectively, these disparities resulted in a network based on unsubstantiated statements and citation threads. As a community, we must ensure our statements about scientific findings in general are accurately substantiated and carefully communicated such that incorrect perceptions, as in the case of jellyfish blooms, do not develop in the absence of rigorous testing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  7. Learning from jellyfish: Fluid transport in muscular pumps at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; Dabiri, John

    2010-11-01

    Biologically inspired hydrodynamic propulsion and maneuvering strategies promise the advancement of medical implants and minimally invasive clinical tools. We have chosen juvenile jellyfish as a model system for investigating fluid dynamics and morphological properties underlying fluid transport by a muscular pump at intermediate Reynolds numbers. Recently we have described how natural variations in viscous forces are balanced by changes in jellyfish body shape (phenotypic plasticity), to the effect of facilitating efficient body-fluid interaction. Complementing these studies in our live model organisms, we are also engaged in engineering an artificial jellyfish, that is, a jellyfish-inspired construct of a flexible plastic sheet actuated by a monolayer of rat cardiomyocytes. The main challenges here are (1) to derive a body shape and deformation suitable for effective fluid transport under physiological conditions, (2) to understand the mechanical properties of the muscular film and derive a design capable of the desired deformation, (3) to master the proper alignment and timely contraction of the muscle component needed to achieve the desired deformation, and (4) to evaluate the performance of the design.

  8. An Exceptional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of the exceptional memory of the late Professor A. C. Aitken who was also a distinguished mathematician and mental calculator. Compared with Shereshevskii, another man with exceptional memory, he shows the scholar's reliance on conceptual mapping rather than the mnemonist's reliance on perceptual chaining. (Editor)

  9. MFTF exception handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, D.M.; Bridgeman, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    In the design of large experimental control systems, a major concern is ensuring that operators are quickly alerted to emergency or other exceptional conditions and that they are provided with sufficient information to respond adequately. This paper describes how the MFTF exception handling system satisfies these requirements. Conceptually exceptions are divided into one of two classes. Those which affect command status by producing an abort or suspend condition and those which fall into a softer notification category of report only or operator acknowledgement requirement. Additionally, an operator may choose to accept an exception condition as operational, or turn off monitoring for sensors determined to be malfunctioning. Control panels and displays used in operator response to exceptions are described

  10. GASP. IX. Jellyfish galaxies in phase-space: an orbital study of intense ram-pressure stripping in clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Yara L.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Smith, Rory; Vulcani, Benedetta; Fasano, Giovanni; Fritz, Jacopo; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Bettoni, Daniela; Hau, George; Biviano, Andrea; Bellhouse, Callum; McGee, Sean

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that galaxies falling into clusters can experience gas stripping due to ram pressure by the intra-cluster medium. The most spectacular examples are galaxies with extended tails of optically bright stripped material known as `jellyfish'. We use the first large homogeneous compilation of jellyfish galaxies in clusters from the WINGS and OmegaWINGS surveys, and follow-up MUSE observations from the GASP MUSE programme to investigate the orbital histories of jellyfish galaxies in clusters and reconstruct their stripping history through position versus velocity phase-space diagrams. We construct analytic models to define the regions in phase-space where ram-pressure stripping is at play. We then study the distribution of cluster galaxies in phase-space and find that jellyfish galaxies have on average higher peculiar velocities (and higher cluster velocity dispersion) than the overall population of cluster galaxies at all cluster-centric radii, which is indicative of recent infall into the cluster and radial orbits. In particular, the jellyfish galaxies with the longest gas tails reside very near the cluster cores (in projection) and are moving at very high speeds, which coincides with the conditions of the most intense ram pressure. We conclude that many of the jellyfish galaxies seen in clusters likely formed via fast (˜1-2 Gyr), incremental, outside-in ram-pressure stripping during first infall into the cluster in highly radial orbits.

  11. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  12. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL"−"1, 10ngL"−"1, 2μgL"−"1, 20μgL"−"1) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events. - Highlights:

  13. Jellyfish prediction of occurrence from remote sensing data and a non-linear pattern recognition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albajes-Eizagirre, Anton; Romero, Laia; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Vanhellemont, Quinten

    2011-11-01

    Impact of jellyfish in human activities has been increasingly reported worldwide in recent years. Segments such as tourism, water sports and leisure, fisheries and aquaculture are commonly damaged when facing blooms of gelatinous zooplankton. Hence the prediction of the appearance and disappearance of jellyfish in our coasts, which is not fully understood from its biological point of view, has been approached as a pattern recognition problem in the paper presented herein, where a set of potential ecological cues was selected to test their usefulness for prediction. Remote sensing data was used to describe environmental conditions that could support the occurrence of jellyfish blooms with the aim of capturing physical-biological interactions: forcing, coastal morphology, food availability, and water mass characteristics are some of the variables that seem to exert an effect on jellyfish accumulation on the shoreline, under specific spatial and temporal windows. A data-driven model based on computational intelligence techniques has been designed and implemented to predict jellyfish events on the beach area as a function of environmental conditions. Data from 2009 over the NW Mediterranean continental shelf have been used to train and test this prediction protocol. Standard level 2 products are used from MODIS (NASA OceanColor) and MERIS (ESA - FRS data). The procedure for designing the analysis system can be described as following. The aforementioned satellite data has been used as feature set for the performance evaluation. Ground truth has been extracted from visual observations by human agents on different beach sites along the Catalan area. After collecting the evaluation data set, the performance between different computational intelligence approaches have been compared. The outperforming one in terms of its generalization capability has been selected for prediction recall. Different tests have been conducted in order to assess the prediction capability of the

  14. Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: a numerical study of simplified jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschlag, Gregory; Miller, Laura

    2011-09-21

    The Scallop theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number=0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. Juvenile jellyfish, or ephyrae, break off from polyps swimming at Re greater than 5. Many other organisms, such as scallops, rarely swim at Re less than 100. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the 2D Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward velocities and work put into the system are calculated for Re between 1 and 320. The results show that forward velocities rapidly decay with decreasing Re for all bell shapes when Re<10. Similarly, the work required to generate the pulsing motion increases significantly for Re<10. When compared to actual organisms, the swimming velocities and vortex separation patterns for the model prolate agree with those observed in Nemopsis bachei. The forward swimming velocities of the model oblate jellyfish after two pulse cycles are comparable to those reported for Aurelia aurita, but discrepancies are observed in the vortex dynamics between when the 2D model oblate jellyfish and the organism. This discrepancy is likely due to a combination of the differences between the 3D reality of the jellyfish and the 2D simplification, as well as

  15. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  16. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  17. The homeobox gene Msx in development and transdifferentiation of jellyfish striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sabina; Yanze, Nathalie; Seipel, Katja

    2005-01-01

    Bilaterian Msx homeobox genes are generally expressed in areas of cell proliferation and in association with multipotent progenitor cells. Likewise, jellyfish Msx is expressed in progenitor cells of the developing entocodon, a cell layer giving rise to the striated and smooth muscles of the medusa. However, in contrast to the bilaterian homologs, Msx gene expression is maintained at high levels in the differentiated striated muscle of the medusa in vivo and in vitro. This tissue exhibits reprogramming competence. Upon induction, the Msx gene is immediately switched off in the isolated striated muscle undergoing transdifferentiation, to be upregulated again in the emerging smooth muscle cells which, in a stem cell like manner, undergo quantal cell divisions producing two cell types, a proliferating smooth muscle cell and a differentiating nerve cell. This study indicates that the Msx protein may be a key component of the reprogramming machinery responsible for the extraordinary transdifferentation and regeneration potential of striated muscle in the hydrozoan jellyfish.

  18. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  19. Predicting the Presence of Scyphozoan Jellyfish in the Gulf of Mexico Using a Biophysical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksa, K. T.; Nero, R. W.; Wiggert, J. D.; Graham, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    The study and quantification of jellyfish (cnidarian medusae and ctenophores) is difficult due to their fragile body plan and a composition similar to their environment. The development of a predictive biophysical jellyfish model would be the first of its kind for the Gulf of Mexico and could provide assistance in ecological research and human interactions. In this study, the collection data of two scyphozoan medusae, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Aurelia spp., were extracted from SEAMAP trawling surveys and were used to determine biophysical predictors for the presence of large jellyfish medusae in the Gulf of Mexico. Both in situ and remote sensing measurements from 2003 to 2013 were obtained. Logistic regressions were then applied to 27 biophysical parameters derived from these data to explore and determine significant predictors for the presence of medusae. Significant predictors identified by this analysis included water temperature, chlorophyll a, turbidity, distance from shore, and salinity. Future application for this model include foraging assessment of gelatinous predators as well as possible near real time monitoring of the distribution and movement of these medusae in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. The Jellyfish: smart electro-active polymers for an autonomous distributed sensing node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blottman, John B.; Richards, Roger T.

    2006-05-01

    The US Navy has recently placed emphasis on deployable, distributed sensors for Force Protection, Anti-Terrorism and Homeland Defense missions. The Naval Undersea Warfare Center has embarked on the development of a self-contained deployable node that is composed of electro-active polymers (EAP) for use in a covert persistent distributed surveillance system. Electro-Active Polymers (EAP) have matured to a level that permits their application in energy harvesting, hydrophones, electro-elastic actuation and electroluminescence. The problem to resolve is combining each of these functions into an autonomous sensing platform. The concept presented here promises an operational life several orders of magnitude beyond what is expected of a Sonobuoy due to energy conservation and harvesting, and at a reasonable cost. The embodiment envisioned is that of a deployed device resembling a jellyfish, made in most part of polymers, with the body encapsulating the necessary electronic processing and communications package and the tentacles of the jellyfish housing the sonar sensors. It will be small, neutrally buoyant, and will survey the water column much in the manner of a Cartesian Diver. By using the Electro-Active Polymers as artificial muscles, the motion of the jellyfish can be finely controlled. An increased range of detection and true node autonomy is achieved through volumetric array beamforming to focus the direction of interrogation and to null-out extraneous ambient noise.

  1. Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urai Makoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees in 18 Japanese white rabbits. Purified qniumucin extracts from S. nomurai or A. aurita were used at 1 mg/ml. Rabbits were divided into four groups: a control (C group injected with saline; a hyaluronic acid (HA-only group (H group; two qniumucin-only groups (M groups; and two qniumucin + HA groups (MH groups. One milligram of each solution was injected intra-articularly once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Ten weeks after surgery, the articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Results In the C and M groups, macroscopic cartilage defects extended to the subchondral bone medially and laterally. When the H and both MH groups were compared, only minor cartilage degeneration was observed in groups treated with qniumucin in contrast to the group without qniumucin. Histologically, densely safranin-O-stained cartilage layers were observed in the H and two MH groups, but cartilage was strongly maintained in both MH groups. Conclusion At the concentrations of qniumucin used in this study, injection together with HA inhibited articular cartilage degeneration in this model of OA.

  2. Beyond the average: Diverse individual migration patterns in a population of mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Titelman, Josefin; Rø stad, Anders; Klevjer, Thor A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the diel behavior among the jellyfish Periphylla periphylla in Lurefjorden, Norway in a sampling campaign and by a > 3-month continuous acoustic study. Jellyfish distribution and behavior were recorded by an upward-facing, bottom-mounted echo sounder at 280-m depth. The population was typically divided into four groups, each with different behavior. Individuals of behavioral Mode 1 undertook synchronous diel vertical migrations (DVM) within the upper 100 m. Individuals of behavioral Mode 2, stayed at ~ 160-200-m depth during the day, and also exhibited synchronized DVM, ascending at dusk and descending at dawn. The smaller individuals of behavioral Mode 3 swam continuously up and down throughout both day and night, yet occurred below Mode 2 individuals in daytime (~ 200 m-bottom), while their vertical range encompassed the entire water column during night. Mode 4 behavior was displayed by large jellyfish located between ~ 130 m and the bottom. These animals shifted between remaining motionless and relocating in rapid steps during both day and night. These four main behavioral patterns persisted throughout the registration period, although the synchronously migrating Mode 2 behavior became weaker in spring. This acoustic study has unveiled more diverse migration behaviors than previously derived from net sampling and remote-operated vehicles methods and emphasizes the importance of studying individuals. DVM is complex because individuals in a plankton population may simultaneously engage in a range of various contrasting behaviors.

  3. To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Montgomery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing cause for concern on envenoming European species because of jellyfish blooms, climate change and globalization displacing species. Treatment of envenomation involves the prevention of further nematocyst release and relieving local and systemic symptoms. Many anecdotal treatments are available but species-specific first aid response is essential for effective treatment. However, species identification is difficult in most cases. There is evidence that oral analgesics, seawater, baking soda slurry and 42–45 °C hot water are effective against nematocyst inhibition and giving pain relief. The application of topical vinegar for 30 s is effective on stings of specific species. Treatments, which produce osmotic or pressure changes can exacerbate the initial sting and aggravate symptoms, common among many anecdotal treatments. Most available therapies are based on weak evidence and thus it is strongly recommended that randomized clinical trials are undertaken. We recommend a vital increase in directed research on the effect of environmental factors on envenoming mechanisms and to establish a species-specific treatment. Adequate signage on jellyfish stings and standardized first aid protocols with emphasis on protective equipment and avoidance of jellyfish to minimize cases should be implemented in areas at risk.

  4. Beyond the average: Diverse individual migration patterns in a population of mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2011-11-01

    We examined the diel behavior among the jellyfish Periphylla periphylla in Lurefjorden, Norway in a sampling campaign and by a > 3-month continuous acoustic study. Jellyfish distribution and behavior were recorded by an upward-facing, bottom-mounted echo sounder at 280-m depth. The population was typically divided into four groups, each with different behavior. Individuals of behavioral Mode 1 undertook synchronous diel vertical migrations (DVM) within the upper 100 m. Individuals of behavioral Mode 2, stayed at ~ 160-200-m depth during the day, and also exhibited synchronized DVM, ascending at dusk and descending at dawn. The smaller individuals of behavioral Mode 3 swam continuously up and down throughout both day and night, yet occurred below Mode 2 individuals in daytime (~ 200 m-bottom), while their vertical range encompassed the entire water column during night. Mode 4 behavior was displayed by large jellyfish located between ~ 130 m and the bottom. These animals shifted between remaining motionless and relocating in rapid steps during both day and night. These four main behavioral patterns persisted throughout the registration period, although the synchronously migrating Mode 2 behavior became weaker in spring. This acoustic study has unveiled more diverse migration behaviors than previously derived from net sampling and remote-operated vehicles methods and emphasizes the importance of studying individuals. DVM is complex because individuals in a plankton population may simultaneously engage in a range of various contrasting behaviors.

  5. On exceptional instanton strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Zotto, M.; Lockhart, G.

    According to a recent classification of 6d (1, 0) theories within F-theory there are only six “pure” 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3), SO(8), F4, E6, E7, and E8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons

  6. Nothing Exceptional: Against Agamben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colatrella, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Giorgio Agamben's work has become widely influential as a guide to explaining the extra-constitutional powers assumed by governments under the rubric of the War on Terror. His formulations, such as Homo Sacer and State of Exception, have been extended to apply to a wide variety of experiences of repression of liberties or social control, including…

  7. Signatures of active and passive optimized Lévy searching in jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Andy M

    2014-10-06

    Some of the strongest empirical support for Lévy search theory has come from telemetry data for the dive patterns of marine predators (sharks, bony fishes, sea turtles and penguins). The dive patterns of the unusually large jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus do, however, sit outside of current Lévy search theory which predicts that a single search strategy is optimal. When searching the water column, the movement patterns of these jellyfish change over time. Movement bouts can be approximated by a variety of Lévy and Brownian (exponential) walks. The adaptive value of this variation is not known. On some occasions movement pattern data are consistent with the jellyfish prospecting away from a preferred depth, not finding an improvement in conditions elsewhere and so returning to their original depth. This 'bounce' behaviour also sits outside of current Lévy walk search theory. Here, it is shown that the jellyfish movement patterns are consistent with their using optimized 'fast simulated annealing'--a novel kind of Lévy walk search pattern--to locate the maximum prey concentration in the water column and/or to locate the strongest of many olfactory trails emanating from more distant prey. Fast simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a large search space. This new finding shows that the notion of active optimized Lévy walk searching is not limited to the search for randomly and sparsely distributed resources, as previously thought, but can be extended to embrace other scenarios, including that of the jellyfish R. octopus. In the presence of convective currents, it could become energetically favourable to search the water column by riding the convective currents. Here, it is shown that these passive movements can be represented accurately by Lévy walks of the type occasionally seen in R. octopus. This result vividly illustrates that Lévy walks are not necessarily

  8. Spatial distribution and dietary overlap between Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus and moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shoji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of ichthyoplankton and jellyfish, and dietary overlap between the ichthyoplankton and jellyfish in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS, Japan. Ichthyoplankton, copepods, and jellyfish were collected during two cruises in July 2005 in the Sea of Hiuchi and in July 2006 in Hiroshima Bay within the SIS. Sea surface temperature (˚C, salinity, bottom-layer dissolved oxygen (mg l-1 and the abundance (no. m-2 of fish eggs and larvae were significantly higher in the Sea of Hiuchi. Japanese anchovy was most dominant (69.3% in number of eggs and 52.3% in number of larvae among the ichthyoplankton. Mean jellyfish biomass (g m-2 in Hiroshima Bay was significantly higher (50-folds than that in the Sea of Hiuchi. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant among the jellyfish collected, accounting for 85.6% in wet weight. Surface temperature had a significant effect on fish egg and larval distribution: abundance of fish eggs and larvae increased with increasing temperature. Jellyfish abundance was negatively correlated with the bottom-layer oxygen concentration. Stable isotope analysis indicated dietary overlap between the Japanese anchovy and the moon jellyfish in Hiroshima Bay.

  9. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  10. Exceptionalism and globalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Achieving sustainable use of the planet will require ethical judgments in both sciences and environmental politics. The purpose of this editorial is to discuss two paradigms, exceptionalism and globalism, that are important in this regard. Exceptionalism is the insistence that one set of rules or behaviors is acceptable for an individual or country but that a different set should be used for the rest of the world. For example, the disparity in per capita consumption of resources and economic status has increased dramatically in the last century, but the consumers of great amounts of resources do not feel a proportionate responsibility for addressing this issue. Globalism is defined as individual and societal willingness to diminish, postpone or forgo individual natural resource use to protect and enhance the integrity of the global ecological life support system. Increasing affluence and the still increasing human population, coupled with wide dissemination of information and an increasing awareness that humans occupy a finite planet, exacerbate this already difficult situation. Increased interest in sustainable use of the planet makes open discussion of these issues mandatory because individuals cannot function in isolation from the larger society of which they are a part. Similarly, no country can function in isolation from other countries, which collectively form an interactive mosaic. This discussion identifies some of the crucial issues related to exceptionalism and globalism, which must be addressed before sustainable use of the planet can be achieved.

  11. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...... in the sports of the Olympic Summer Games. The findings show only a very weak correlation, if any at all. However, a detailed analysis of country evidence shows interesting trends and details. The paper concludes with tentative explanations for the findings including the contradictory country evidence....

  12. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  13. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements...... between growth in GNP per capita and growth in medal points (no. 1: five points, no. 2: three points, no.3: two points) in Olympic Summer Games. The findings show no correlation and in a few calculations a very weak correlation. Among the countries behaving in accordance with the hypothesis in the most...

  14. Jellyfish: Observational Properties of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping Events in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conor, McPartland; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the physical origin and observational signatures of extreme ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z=0.3-0.7, based on data in the F606W passband obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen ``jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define quantitative morphological criteria to select candidate galaxies which are similar to known cases of RPS. Considering a sample of 16 ``jellyfish" galaxies (10 of which we present for the first time), we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on dynamical features such as apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the observed events occur primarily at large distances from the cluster core and involve infall trajectories featuring high impact parameters. Simple models of cluster growth show that such trajectories are consistent with two scenarios: 1) galaxy infall along filaments; and 2) infall at high velocities (≥1000 km/s) characteristic of cluster mergers. The observed distribution of events is best described by timescales of ˜few Myr in agreement with recent numerical simulations of RPS. The broader areal coverage of the Hubble Frontier Fields should provide an even larger sample of RPS events to determine the relative contributions of infall and cluster mergers. Prompted by the discovery of several jellyfish galaxies whose brightness in the F606W passband rivals or exceeds that of the respective brightest cluster galaxy, we attempt to constrain the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing RPS. The observed significant excess at the bright end compared to the luminosity functions of blue cluster members strongly suggests enhanced star formation, thus challenging theoretical and numerical studies according to which RPS merely displaces existing star-forming regions. In-depth studies of individual objects will help test our

  15. Swim pacemakers in box jellyfish are modulated by the visual input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Bielecki, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A major part of the cubozoan central nervous system is situated in the eye-bearing rhopalia. One of the neuronal output channels from the rhopalia carries a swim pacemaker signal, which has a one-to-one relation with the swim contractions of the bell shaped body. Given the advanced visual system...... of box jellyfish and that the pacemaker signal originates in the vicinity of these eyes, it seems logical to assume that the pacemakers are modified by the visual input. Here, the firing frequency and distribution of inter-signal intervals (ISIs) of single pacemakers are examined in the Caribbean box...

  16. Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Nilsson, Dan-E.

    2009-01-01

    Cubomedusae have a total of 24 eyes of four morphologically different types. Two of these eye types are camera-type eyes (upper and lower lens-eye), while the other two eye types are simpler pigment pit eyes (pit and slit eye). Here, we give a description of the visual system of the box jellyfish...... those in the previously investigated species Tripedalia cystophora. In the lower lens-eye of C. bronzie, blur circles subtend 20 and 52° for closed and open pupil, respectively, effectively removing all but the coarsest structures of the image. Histology reveals that the retina of the lower lens...

  17. Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Andersson, F; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2008-01-01

    mere light meters. The slit eyes, comprising four cell types, are complex and highly asymmetric. They also hold a lens-like structure, but its optical power is minute. Optical modeling suggests spatial resolution, but only in one plane. These unique and intriguing traits support strong peripheral......The visual system of box jellyfish comprises a total of 24 eyes. These are of four types and each probably has a special function. To investigate this hypothesis the morphology and optics of the lesser eyes, the pit and slit eyes, were examined. The pit eyes hold one cell type only and are probably...

  18. Exceptional composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carmona, Adrian [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Chala, Mikael [Universitat de Valencia y IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    We study the dark matter phenomenology of non-minimal composite Higgs models with SO(7) broken to the exceptional group G{sub 2}. In addition to the Higgs, three pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons arise, one of which is electrically neutral. A parity symmetry is enough to ensure this resonance is stable. In fact, if the breaking of the Goldstone symmetry is driven by the fermion sector, this Z{sub 2} symmetry is automatically unbroken in the electroweak phase. In this case, the relic density, as well as the expected indirect, direct and collider signals are then uniquely determined by the value of the compositeness scale, f. Current experimental bounds allow one to account for a large fraction of the dark matter of the Universe if the dark matter particle is part of an electroweak triplet. The totality of the relic abundance can be accommodated if instead this particle is a composite singlet. In both cases, the scale f and the dark matter mass are of the order of a few TeV. (orig.)

  19. New Nordic Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbolt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    At the 2009 Nordic Culture Forum summit in Berlin that centered on the profiling and branding of the Nordic region in a globalized world, one presenter stood out from the crowd. The lobbyist Annika Sigurdardottir delivered a speech that called for the establishment of “The United Nations of Norden...... that have been central to the debates on the branding of Nordicity over the last decades: on the one hand, the discourse of “Nordic exceptionalism,” that since the 1960s has been central to the promotion of a Nordic political, socio-economic, and internationalist “third way” model, and, on the other hand......, the discourse on the “New Nordic,” that emerged out of the New Nordic Food-movement in the early 2000s, and which has given art and culture a privileged role in the international re-fashioning of the Nordic brand. Through an analysis of Kim and Einhorn’s United Nations of Norden (UNN)-performance, the article...

  20. Analyzing Beach Recreationists’ Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Loureiro, Maria L.; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents’ mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms. PMID:26053674

  1. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo A L D; Loureiro, Maria L; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms.

  2. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A L D Nunes

    Full Text Available Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms.

  3. Effects of large gut volume in gelatinous zooplankton: ingestion rate, bolus production and food patch utilization by the jellyfish Sarsia tubulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L.J.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    or with jellyfish that were pre-adjusted to the food concentration before incubation. The findings have implications for design and interpretation of experiments. The possibility for jellyfish to feed at maximum clearance rate in either very high prey concentration for a short time or low prey concentration...... for a long time was illustrated with calculations of prey uptake by S. tubulosa feeding in prey concentrations of variable heterogeneity. The ability of jellyfish to capture prey at maximum clearance rate under different prey concentrations, and to accumulate relatively large amounts of food in their guts...

  4. Is it possible to determine the economic impact of jellyfish outbreaks on fisheries? A Case Study – Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. NASTAV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the economy and the environment is becoming a fact of increasing importance. Productive coastal areas have been recognised as one of the most valuable ecosystems from an ecological and socio-economic point of view. In this paper we focus on the massive presence of jellyfish in the northern Adriatic and their effect on the Slovenian economy. Our results indicate that high jellyfish abundance in 2004 resulted in a reduction of fish catch, value added, gross income, and employment in the fishing industry. Moreover, the government and the EU have acknowledged the impact of jellyfish on the fishing industry by allocating financial help to the fishermen involved. We attempted to assess other factors influencing the fishing industry but none were statistically significant. The input-output analysis has not revealed a significant impact on the entire Slovenian economy presumably due to the small contribution of the fishing industry to Slovenian GDP. Our work is a first attempt to relate ecological changes such as jellyfish outbreaks in the northern Adriatic to the wider economy and we suggest that such a methodology can be applied to other countries/regions and to other natural phenomena affecting the economy.

  5. Clearance rates of jellyfish and their potential predation impact on zooplankton and fish larvae in a neritic ecosystem (Limfjorden, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. J.; Moeslund, O.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    clearance potential were given assumed clearance rate values, but the collective predation potential by these species was evaluated to be small. Hydromedusae dominated numerically and had their highest potential clearance impact in spring, but overall jellyfish clearance potential on copepods was low during...

  6. Direct evidence of an efficient energy transfer pathway from jellyfish carcasses to a commercially important deep-water species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Kathy M; Jones, Daniel O B; Sweetman, Andrew K

    2017-12-12

    Here we provide empirical evidence of the presence of an energetic pathway between jellyfish and a commercially important invertebrate species. Evidence of scavenging on jellyfish carcasses by the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) was captured during two deployments of an underwater camera system to 250-287 m depth in Sognefjorden, western Norway. The camera system was baited with two Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa) carcasses to simulate the transport of jellyfish detritus to the seafloor, hereby known as jelly-falls. N. norveigus rapidly located and consumed a large proportion (>50%) of the bait. We estimate that the energy input from jelly-falls may represent a significant contribution to N. norvegicus energy demand (0.21 to 10.7 times the energy required for the population of N. norvegicus in Sognefjorden). This potentially high energetic contribution from jelly-falls highlights a possible role of gelatinous material in the support of commercial fisheries. Such an energetic pathway between jelly-falls and N. norvegicus could become more important with increases in jellyfish blooms in some regions.

  7. Structural and Developmental Disparity in the Tentacles of the Moon Jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gold

    Full Text Available Tentacles armed with stinging cells (cnidocytes are a defining trait of the cnidarians, a phylum that includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydras. While cnidarian tentacles are generally characterized as structures evolved for feeding and defense, significant variation exists between the tentacles of different species, and within the same species across different life stages and/or body regions. Such diversity suggests cryptic distinctions exist in tentacle function. In this paper, we use confocal and transmission electron microscopy to contrast the structure and development of tentacles in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia species 1. We show that polyp oral tentacles and medusa marginal tentacles display markedly different cellular and muscular architecture, as well as distinct patterns of cellular proliferation during growth. Many structural differences between these tentacle types may reflect biomechanical solutions to different feeding strategies, although further work would be required for a precise mechanistic understanding. However, differences in cell proliferation dynamics suggests that the two tentacle forms lack a conserved mechanism of development, challenging the textbook-notion that cnidarian tentacles can be homologized into a conserved bauplan.

  8. Multiple photoreceptor systems control the swim pacemaker activity in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Mori, S.

    2009-01-01

    Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each with a s......Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each...... with a similar set of six eyes of four morphologically different types. We have examined how each of the four eye types influences the swim pacemaker. Multiple photoreceptor systems, three of the four eye types, plus the rhopalial neuropil, affect the swim pacemaker. The lower lens eye inhibits the pacemaker...... when stimulated and provokes a strong increase in the pacemaker frequency upon light-off. The upper lens eye, the pit eyes and the rhopalial neuropil all have close to the opposite effect. When these responses are compared with all-eye stimulations it is seen that some advanced integration must take...

  9. A gonad-expressed opsin mediates light-induced spawning in the jellyfish Clytia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga Artigas, Gonzalo; Lapébie, Pascal; Leclère, Lucas; Takeda, Noriyo; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Jékely, Gáspár

    2018-01-01

    Across the animal kingdom, environmental light cues are widely involved in regulating gamete release, but the molecular and cellular bases of the photoresponsive mechanisms are poorly understood. In hydrozoan jellyfish, spawning is triggered by dark-light or light-dark transitions acting on the gonad, and is mediated by oocyte maturation-inducing neuropeptide hormones (MIHs) released from the ectoderm. We determined in Clytia hemisphaerica that blue-cyan light triggers spawning in isolated gonads. A candidate opsin (Opsin9) was found co-expressed with MIH within specialised ectodermal cells. Opsin9 knockout jellyfish generated by CRISPR/Cas9 failed to undergo oocyte maturation and spawning, a phenotype reversible by synthetic MIH. Gamete maturation and release in Clytia is thus regulated by gonadal photosensory-neurosecretory cells that secrete MIH in response to light via Opsin9. Similar cells in ancestral eumetazoans may have allowed tissue-level photo-regulation of diverse behaviours, a feature elaborated in cnidarians in parallel with expansion of the opsin gene family. PMID:29303477

  10. Investigation into the hemolytic activity of tentacle venom from jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-03-01

    Cyanea nozakii Kishinouy e ( C. nozakii), a giant cnidarian of the class Scyphomedusae, order Semaeostomeae and family Cyaneidae, is widely distributed in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and is abundant from late summer to early autumn. Venom produced by C. nozakii during mass agglomerations can contaminate seawater resulting in death of the halobios and seriously damage commercial fisheries. Swimmers and fishermen commonly suff er painful stings from this jellyfish, resulting in local edema, tingling, breathing difficulties, depressed blood pressure and even death. Such effects arise from the complex mixture of biologically active molecules that make up jellyfish venom. In the present study, the hemolytic activity of venom from tentacles of C. nozakii and factors aff ecting its activity were assayed. The HU50 ( defined as the amount of protein required to lyse 50 % of erythrocytes) of the venom against dove and chicken erythrocytes was 34 and 59 μg/mL, respectively. Carboxylmethyl chitosan and glycerol could increase hemolytic activity at concentrations greater than 0.06% and 0.2 mol/L, respectively.

  11. A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot actuated by an iris mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marut, Kenneth; Stewart, Colin; Michael, Tyler; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot (JetPRo) is designed, fabricated, and characterized with the objective of creating a fast-swimming uncrewed undersea vehicle. JetPRo measures 7.9 cm in height, 5.7 cm in diameter and is designed to mimic the proficient jetting propulsion mechanism used by the hydromedusa Sarsia tubulosa, which measures approximately 1 cm in diameter. In order to achieve the uniform-bell contraction used by S. tubulosa, we develop a novel circumferential actuation technique based on a mechanical iris diaphragm. When triggered, this mechanism induces a volumetric change of a deformable silicone cavity to expel a jet of fluid and produces positive thrust. A theoretical jetting model is used to optimize JetPRo’s gait for maximum steady-state swimming velocity, a result achieved by minimizing the timing between the contraction and relaxation phases. We validate this finding empirically and quantify the swimming performance of the robot using video tracking and time resolved digital particle image velocimetry. JetPRo was able to produce discrete vortex rings shed before pinch off and swim upwards with a maximum steady-state velocity of 11.6 cm s −1 , outperforming current state-of-the-art robotic jellyfish in velocity as well as diameter-normalized velocity. (paper)

  12. The spectral sensitivity of the lens eyes of a box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora (Conant)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coates, Melissa M; Garm, Anders; Theobald, Jamie C

    2006-01-01

    Box jellyfish, or cubomedusae (class Cubozoa), are unique among the Cnidaria in possessing lens eyes similar in morphology to those of vertebrates and cephalopods. Although these eyes were described over 100 years ago, there has been no work done on their electrophysiological responses to light. ...... result from the presence of a single receptor type containing a single opsin. The peak sensitivity is to blue-green light. Visual pigment template fits indicate a vitamin A-1 based opsin with peak sensitivity near 500 nm for both eye types.......Box jellyfish, or cubomedusae (class Cubozoa), are unique among the Cnidaria in possessing lens eyes similar in morphology to those of vertebrates and cephalopods. Although these eyes were described over 100 years ago, there has been no work done on their electrophysiological responses to light. We...... used an electroretinogram (ERG) technique to measure spectral sensitivity of the lens eyes of the Caribbean species Tripedalia cystophora. The cubomedusae have two kinds of lens eyes, the lower and upper lens eyes. We found that both lens eye types have similar spectral sensitivities, which likely...

  13. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca R; Dunn, Casey W

    2017-01-01

    Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa). To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole) on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae). In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa.

  14. Applied radiotracer techniques for studying pollutant bioaccumulation in selected marine organisms (jellyfish, crabs and sea stars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Teyssie, J.-L.; Cotret, O.; Danis, B.; Warnau, M.; Rouleau, C.

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific information on contaminant biokinetics in marine biota is often necessary for properly interpreting monitoring data on trace contaminant levels in bioindicator species living under varying environmental conditions. Radiotracers have been employed in laboratory experiments to assess the uptake, distribution and retention of selected heavy metals and PCB congeners in three potential marine bioindicators occupying different ecological niches in the coastal zone. Pelagic and benthic jellyfish readily accumulated Co, Ag, Zn, Cd, 137 Cs and 241 Am from both water and food and retained them with biological half-lives (Tb1/2) ranging from a few days to several weeks. Zinc and silver were accumulated to the greatest degree (CF ∼ 4 · 10 2 ), with benthic jellyfish having a greater affinity for metals than the pelagic species. Results from light-dark experiments indicate that the enhanced metal uptake in the benthic jellyfish is due to the presence of endosymbiotic photosynthetic zooxanthellae situated in the arms of organisms. Shore crabs ingesting Ag, a sewage-related contaminant, readily accumulated the metal with male crabs assimilating some 71% and female crabs 51% of the Ag from their food. Moreover, the assimilated fraction of Ag remained virtually immobile in their tissues as evidenced by an extremely long Tb1/2 for depuration of 7.3 years. Sea stars exposed to 14 C-labelled PCB congener no. 153 in sea water accumulated the congener mainly in the body wall and podia reaching lipid weight CFs that ranged between approximately 2 · 10 5 to 4 · 10 5 . In contrast, following exposure in radiolabelled sediments, the corresponding PCB transfer factors in the same tissues were much lower, viz., 3 · 10 2 to 5 · 10 2 . Nevertheless, regardless of the exposure mode, CFs of PCB in the other tissues (digestive system, gonads, pyloric and rectal caeca) were consistently one to two orders of magnitude lower, an observation which suggests that sea star body

  15. Antioxidant activity of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and hydroxyl radical averting capacity methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hasegawa, Yoshiro; Tokunaga, Takushi; Ogawa, Shinya; Fukuda, Kyoko; Nagatsuka, Norie; Nagao, Keiko; Ueno, Shunshiro

    2011-01-01

    The giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (reaching sizes of up to 2 m diameter and 150 kg), which forms dense blooms, has caused extensive damage to fisheries by overloading trawl nets, while its toxic nematocysts cause dermatological symptoms. Giant jellyfish are currently discarded on the grounds of pest control. However, the giant jellyfish is considered to be edible and is part of Chinese cuisine. Therefore, we investigated whether any benefits for human health may be derived from consumption of the jellyfish in order to formulate medicated diets. Antioxidant activity of Nemopilema nomurai was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) methods. Based on the results, the ORAC value of the giant jellyfish freeze-dried sample was 541 µmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g and the HORAC value was 3,687 µmol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g. On the other hand, the IC50 value of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity measured by using the electron spin resonance method was 3.3%. In conclusion, the results suggest that the freeze-dried powder of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai is a potentially beneficial food for humans.

  16. Floating nurseries? Scyphozoan jellyfish, their food and their rich symbiotic fauna in a tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Riascos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The anthropogenic modification of trophic pathways is seemingly prompting the increase of jellyfish populations at the expense of planktivorous fishes. However, gross generalizations are often made because the most basic aspects of trophic ecology and the diverse interactions of jellyfish with fishes remain poorly described. Here we inquire on the dynamics of food consumption of the medusoid stage of the scyphozoan jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris and characterize the traits and diversity of its symbiotic community. Methods S. meleagris and their associated fauna were sampled in surface waters between November 2015 and April 2017 in Málaga Bay, an estuarine system at the Colombian Pacific. Stomach contents of medusae were examined and changes in prey composition and abundance over time analysed using a multivariate approach. The associated fauna was identified and the relationship between the size of medusae and the size those organisms tested using least-square fitting procedures. Results The presence of S. meleagris medusa in surface waters was seasonal. The gut contents analysis revealed that algae, copepods and fish early life stages were the more abundant items, and PERMANOVA analysis showed that the diet differed within the seasons (P(perm = 0.001 but not between seasons (P(perm = 0.134. The majority of the collected medusae (50.4% were associated with individuals of 11 symbiotic species, 95.3% of them fishes, 3.1% crustaceans and 1.6% molluscs. Therefore, this study reports 10 previously unknown associations. The bell diameter of S. meleagris was positively related to the body sizes of their symbionts. However, a stronger fit was observed when the size relationship between S. meleagris and the fish Hemicaranx zelotes was modelled. Discussion The occurrence of S. meleagris was highly seasonal, and the observed patterns of mean body size through the seasons suggested the arrival of adult medusae to the estuary from adjacent

  17. Floating nurseries? Scyphozoan jellyfish, their food and their rich symbiotic fauna in a tropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Willington; Hopfe, Charlotte; Morales, Diego; Navarrete, Ángela; Tavera, José

    2018-01-01

    Background The anthropogenic modification of trophic pathways is seemingly prompting the increase of jellyfish populations at the expense of planktivorous fishes. However, gross generalizations are often made because the most basic aspects of trophic ecology and the diverse interactions of jellyfish with fishes remain poorly described. Here we inquire on the dynamics of food consumption of the medusoid stage of the scyphozoan jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris and characterize the traits and diversity of its symbiotic community. Methods S. meleagris and their associated fauna were sampled in surface waters between November 2015 and April 2017 in Málaga Bay, an estuarine system at the Colombian Pacific. Stomach contents of medusae were examined and changes in prey composition and abundance over time analysed using a multivariate approach. The associated fauna was identified and the relationship between the size of medusae and the size those organisms tested using least-square fitting procedures. Results The presence of S. meleagris medusa in surface waters was seasonal. The gut contents analysis revealed that algae, copepods and fish early life stages were the more abundant items, and PERMANOVA analysis showed that the diet differed within the seasons (P(perm) = 0.001) but not between seasons (P(perm) = 0.134). The majority of the collected medusae (50.4%) were associated with individuals of 11 symbiotic species, 95.3% of them fishes, 3.1% crustaceans and 1.6% molluscs. Therefore, this study reports 10 previously unknown associations. The bell diameter of S. meleagris was positively related to the body sizes of their symbionts. However, a stronger fit was observed when the size relationship between S. meleagris and the fish Hemicaranx zelotes was modelled. Discussion The occurrence of S. meleagris was highly seasonal, and the observed patterns of mean body size through the seasons suggested the arrival of adult medusae to the estuary from adjacent waters. The diet

  18. The Occurrence of Type S1A Serine Proteases in Sponge and Jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by th e 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution , being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is larg ely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occ urrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be enti rely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them ha ve been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria, We now report the existence of Group SlA serine proteases in a sponge (phylu m Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conc lude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  19. Visually guided obstacle avoidance in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; O'Connor, M; Parkefelt, L

    2007-01-01

    Box jellyfish, cubomedusae, possess an impressive total of 24 eyes of four morphologically different types. Two of these eye types, called the upper and lower lens eyes, are camera-type eyes with spherical fish-like lenses. Compared with other cnidarians, cubomedusae also have an elaborate...... behavioral repertoire, which seems to be predominantly visually guided. Still, positive phototaxis is the only behavior described so far that is likely to be correlated with the eyes. We have explored the obstacle avoidance response of the Caribbean species Tripedalia cystophora and the Australian species...... a tendency to follow the intensity contrast between the obstacle and the surroundings (chamber walls). In the flow chamber Tripedalia cystophora displayed a stronger obstacle avoidance response than Chiropsella bronzie since they had less contact with the obstacles. This seems to follow differences...

  20. Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Chen, Xiaolin; Yue, Yang; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-09-24

    The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as a reduction in the production and quality of silk. This study aims to assay the effect of venom from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on growth, cuticle and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the silkworm B. mori by the leaf dipping method. The experimental results revealed that the four samples caused neither antifeeding nor a lethal effect on B. mori. The sample SFV inhibited B. mori growth after 6 days of treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The samples SFV, DSFV and Fr-1 inhibited the precipitation and synthesis of chitin in the cuticle after 12 and 14 days of treatment. In the case of the four samples, the AChE was significantly improved after 14 days of treatment.

  1. Floating nurseries? Scyphozoan jellyfish, their food and their rich symbiotic fauna in a tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, José M; Aguirre, Willington; Hopfe, Charlotte; Morales, Diego; Navarrete, Ángela; Tavera, José

    2018-01-01

    The anthropogenic modification of trophic pathways is seemingly prompting the increase of jellyfish populations at the expense of planktivorous fishes. However, gross generalizations are often made because the most basic aspects of trophic ecology and the diverse interactions of jellyfish with fishes remain poorly described. Here we inquire on the dynamics of food consumption of the medusoid stage of the scyphozoan jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris and characterize the traits and diversity of its symbiotic community. S. meleagris and their associated fauna were sampled in surface waters between November 2015 and April 2017 in Málaga Bay, an estuarine system at the Colombian Pacific. Stomach contents of medusae were examined and changes in prey composition and abundance over time analysed using a multivariate approach. The associated fauna was identified and the relationship between the size of medusae and the size those organisms tested using least-square fitting procedures. The presence of S. meleagris medusa in surface waters was seasonal. The gut contents analysis revealed that algae, copepods and fish early life stages were the more abundant items, and PERMANOVA analysis showed that the diet differed within the seasons ( P (perm)  = 0.001) but not between seasons ( P (perm)  = 0.134). The majority of the collected medusae (50.4%) were associated with individuals of 11 symbiotic species, 95.3% of them fishes, 3.1% crustaceans and 1.6% molluscs. Therefore, this study reports 10 previously unknown associations. The bell diameter of S. meleagris was positively related to the body sizes of their symbionts. However, a stronger fit was observed when the size relationship between S. meleagris and the fish Hemicaranx zelotes was modelled. The occurrence of S. meleagris was highly seasonal, and the observed patterns of mean body size through the seasons suggested the arrival of adult medusae to the estuary from adjacent waters. The diet of S. meleagris in the study

  2. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  3. Jellyfish: the origin and distribution of extreme ram-pressure stripping events in massive galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Conor; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke; Blumenthal, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observational signatures and physical origin of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.3-0.7, based on images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen `jellyfish' galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define morphological criteria to select 211 additional, less obvious cases of RPS. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of 124 candidates so far confirmed 53 as cluster members. For the brightest and most favourably aligned systems, we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on the orientation of apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the onset of these events occurs primarily at large distances from the cluster core (>400 kpc), and that the trajectories of the affected galaxies feature high-impact parameters. Simple models show that such trajectories are highly improbable for galaxy infall along filaments but common for infall at high velocities, even after observational biases are accounted for, provided the duration of the resulting RPS events is ≲500 Myr. We thus tentatively conclude that extreme RPS events are preferentially triggered by cluster mergers, an interpretation that is supported by the disturbed dynamical state of many of the host clusters. This hypothesis implies that extreme RPS might occur also near the cores of merging poor clusters or even merging groups of galaxies. Finally, we present nine additional `jellyfish" galaxies at z > 0.3 discovered by us, thereby doubling the number of such systems known at intermediate redshift.

  4. Temperature-dependent settlement of planula larvae of two scyphozoan jellyfish from the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambill, Maria; McNaughton, Sadie L.; Kreus, Markus; Peck, Myron A.

    2018-02-01

    Exploring the settlement dynamics of the planula larvae is critical to understanding the establishment of polyp populations that can give rise to blooms of scyphozoan jellyfish. We conducted experiments to examine the effects of temperature on settlement of planulae of the scyphozoans Cyanea lamarckii and Chrysaora hysoscella, two jellyfish commonly encountered within the North Sea. When provided immediate access to substrate, larvae of C. lamarckii were able to settle at each of 12 temperatures between 9 and 27 °C. Most settlement occurred within the first five days and warmer temperatures were not only associated with decreased time to settlement but also increased settlement success. When not allowed access to substrate and maintained in the water column, planula larvae remained competent to settle for 21, 21 and 14 days at 11.3, 13.4 and 19.4 °C, respectively. Based on these maximum times of competency, hydrodynamic model simulations suggested that the planula larvae of C. lamarckii released in May could be transported up to 100 km before settlement. A substrate choice experiment indicated that larvae of C. hysoscella settled in similar numbers onto PET, wood and concrete. Settlement was highest at 20 °C and a 12/12 light/dark regime and lower at 10 °C and 15 °C in total darkness. The results of all three experiments suggest that projected warming of the North Sea will not impede the settlement of planula larvae of resident C. lamarckii and C. hysoscella populations. Species- and/or population-specific differences may exist in the ecophysiology of planula larvae and additional experiments are needed to understand the mechanisms promoting the establishment of new benthic populations of polyps. That information, combined with process knowledge on the productivity of benthic polyps, will be needed to better understand and predict climate-dependent changes in the production of scyphozoans and other gelatinous plankton.

  5. Phospholipase A2 activity of the Persian Gulf upside-down jellyfish venom (Cassiopea andromeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossean Mohebbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The venomous jellyfish Cassiopea andromeda can produce envenomation and different toxicological and biological effects by their nematocysts. The phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2 are toxic and induce various pharmacological effects including neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and anticoagulant activities. The main aim of the current project was to screen the in vitro PLA2 activity of the C. andromeda crude venom. To better understand the experimental result; a molecular docking study was also performed. Materials and methods: The live specimens were collected from Nayband lagoon, by a trawl net, and separation of their tentacles was done according to Bloom 's et al., method. The PLA2 activity of crude venom was performed according to the acidimetric method of Tan and Tan. The lyophilized venom was subjected to Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectroscopy, and the obtained structures were used for docking study against PLA2. The indoxam was considered as standard control. Results: The PLA2 activity of the jellyfish crude venom was 413 ±0.08 µmol/min/mg. Analysis of the crude venom detected seven compounds (i-vii using GC-MS. Docking data was also confirmed the experimental results. According to the docking results, the highest affinity (-6.7 (kcal/mol was observed in the compound “Pregn-5-ene-3,11-dione, 17,20:20,21 bis [methylenebis(oxy]-, cyclic 3-(1,2-ethane diyl acetal”. Conclusions: A high PLA2 level was found in the venom of C. andromeda. There was a good correlation between in vitro and in silico studies.

  6. Influences of temperature and salinity on asexual reproduction and development of scyphozoan jellyfish from the British Isles

    OpenAIRE

    Widmer, Chad L.

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa) play important roles in pelagic ecosystems as predators and prey. Seasonally they form blooms facilitating reproductive success, but that are at times problematic for human enterprise. Medusa abundance has been correlated with environmental variables in several instances. However, the direct mechanisms for changes in medusa abundance are unclear. As global sea surface temperatures continue to change there is increasing concern that warming may enha...

  7. Exceptional groups from open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.R.; Zwiebach, B.

    1998-01-01

    We consider type IIB theory compactified on a two-sphere in the presence of mutually non-local 7-branes. The BPS states associated with the gauge vectors of exceptional groups are seen to arise from open strings connecting the 7-branes, and multi-pronged open strings capable of ending on more than two 7-branes. These multi-pronged strings are built from open string junctions that arise naturally when strings cross 7-branes. The different string configurations can be multiplied as traditional open strings, and are shown to generate the structure of exceptional groups. (orig.)

  8. Thermal band image processing on the warm water discharges of nuclear power plants and the drifting of Echizen-Jellyfishes by using terra/aqua-MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshinobu; Fujita, Yusuke

    2005-01-01

    At the Awara campus (lat. 36.264degN, long, 136.235degE) of Fukui University of Technology, a Terra/Aqua-MODIS receiving system is operated from September, 2003. This paper deals with the thermal band image processing by using the received MODIS data. In chapter 2, we investigate the image representation of the warm water discharges of nuclear power plants located with Wakasa Bay of Fukui Prefecture. In chapter 3, we describe the image processing of the drifting of Echizen-Jellyfishes. The Echizen-Jellyfish, a kind of big jellyfish, whose scientific name is Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye, appeared in large quantities in 2003 and did serious damage to the fishery in Japan Sea. (author)

  9. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Liang, Likun; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  10. Effect of tea saponin on ephyrae and polyps of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Dong

    Full Text Available The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1 is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments. The 24 h and 48 h median lethal concentrations (LC50 values of tea saponin for Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were 1.9 and 1.1 mg L-1 respectively, while the LC50 value for Aurelia sp.1 polyps was 0.4 mg L-1 after 24h and 48 h of exposure to tea saponin. Comparison with literature results of tea saponin on A. japonicus indicates that the resistance of A. japonicus to tea saponin is 12-18 times greater than that of Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae. Therefore, the appropriate tea saponin dosage for the control of Aurelia sp.1 should be paid enough attention in order to minimize possible damage for sea cucumber. We suggest that the recommended level of tea saponin to eradicate Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in sea cucumber culture ponds be lower than 1.35 mg L-1.

  11. Construction of chitin/PVA composite hydrogels with jellyfish gel-like structure and their biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng; Wang, Zhenggang; Cao, Yan; Zhao, Yanteng; Duan, Bo; Chen, Yun; Xu, Min; Zhang, Lina

    2014-09-08

    High strength chitin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite hydrogels (RCP) were constructed by adding PVA into chitin dissolved in a NaOH/urea aqueous solution, and then by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) and freezing-thawing process. The RCP hydrogels were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state (13)C NMR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and compressive test. The results revealed that the repeated freezing/thawing cycles induced the bicrosslinked networks consisted of chitin and PVA crystals in the composite gels. Interestingly, a jellyfish gel-like structure occurred in the RCP75 gel with 25 wt % PVA content in which the amorphous and crystalline PVA were immobilized tightly in the chitin matrix through hydrogen bonding interaction. The freezing/thawing cycles played an important role in the formation of the layered porous PVA networks and the tight combining of PVA with the pore wall of chitin. The mechanical properties of RCP75 were much higher than the other RCP gels, and the compressive strength was 20× higher than that of pure chitin gels, as a result of broadly dispersing stress caused by the orderly multilayered networks. Furthermore, the cell culture tests indicated that the chitin/PVA composite hydrogels exhibited excellent biocompatibility and safety, showing potential applications in the field of tissue engineering.

  12. Polyp Removal of a Bloom Forming Jellyfish, Aurelia coerulea, in Korean Waters and Its Value Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Wonduk; Chae, Jinho; Koh, Byoung-Seol; Han, Changhoon

    2018-04-01

    Aurelia coerulea is a bloom forming jellyfish that first appeared before 1980 in the western and southern Korean seas and which has been blamed for huge economical losses in all fields of marine activities. As a preventive measure to reduce economical losses, polyp removal was undertaken at Lake Shihwa, Lake Saemangeum, and Masan Bay, Korea. In the course of efforts during 2 years to remove polyps, polyps were surveyed, quantified, and removed. In these areas, the initial total polyp abundance was 5.04 × 109 and 46.25% of them were removed; Lake Shihwa the highest rates of removal and Lake Saemangeum the lowest. These efforts to remove polyps prevented the appearance of 1.20 × 109 medusae, corresponding to 78.28 × 106 kg. The cost of polyp removal was evaluated and compared with that of medusae removal. The ratio between the cost of polyp removal and that of medusae removal ranged between 0.78-3.14%, indicating large cost savings for polyp removal undertakings. However, the effect of polyp removal varied from positive to none, and we assumed that the cleared surface for polyp removal, quantity of removed polyp, and existence of polyps' hotspots in neighboring areas were the causes of the non-effectiveness of polyp removal undertakings.

  13. Jellyfish stinging is driven by the moving front of the nematocyst's tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Uri; Park, Sinwook; Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Yossifon, Gilad; Lotan, Tamar

    2017-11-01

    Nematocysts are ultra-fast stinging organelles that are utilized by the Cnidaria phylum for prey capture, defense and locomotion. They consist of a capsule and a tubule and exert high pressure and acceleration to penetrate the target organism. Previous studies report that the ejection and elongation of the tubule are driven by a buildup of osmotic potential in the capsule. We question this explanation using a microfluidic system that controls the osmotic potential by directing the tubule through oil, where no osmotic potential can develop, while keeping the capsule in water. It was found that the time needed for elongation through oil is orders of magnitude larger than through water. Our mathematical model shows that the p γGlu concentration in the tubule is higher than in the capsule and the internal pressure that develops there serves as the elongation driving force. These findings imply that modifications of the environment along the tubule route have the potential to slow down the process and reduce its impact. This may shed light on prey defense strategies, human protection against jellyfish stinging, the use of nematocysts for drug delivery and exploration of osmotic based methods for nanotubes production and elongation.

  14. Learned Helplessness in Exceptional Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Herman B.; Kowitz, Gerald T.

    The research literature on learned helplessness in exceptional children is reviewed and the authors' efforts to identify and retrain learning disabled (LD) children who have characteristics typical of learned helplessness are reported. Twenty-eight elementary aged LD children viewed as "learned helpless" were randomly assigned to one of four…

  15. 76 FR 53157 - Excepted Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Excepted Service AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM... Administration. Office of Management. Special Assistant.... DE110117 6/22/2011 Office of the Special Assistant... Directors... Special Assistant.... EB110010 6/9/2011 GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Pacific Rim Region...

  16. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  17. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  18. Prospective study of Chironex fleckeri and other box jellyfish stings in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J; Jacups, Susan P

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of box jellyfish envenoming in the Top End of the Northern Territory and, in particular, confirmed stings from the major Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Prospective collection of clinical data and skin scrapings or sticky-tape tests for nematocyst identification from patients presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital and remote coastal community health clinics in the Northern Territory, spanning 10 950 km of coastline; analysis of tidal, weather and seasonal data. All patients with jellyfish sting details recorded between 1 April 1991 and 30 May 2004. Demographic and clinical features, use of C. fleckeri antivenom, and associations between weather, seasonal and tidal factors and confirmed C. fleckeri stings. Of 606 jellyfish stings documented, 225 were confirmed to have been caused by C. fleckeri. 37% of C. fleckeri stings were in children, 92% occurred during the "stinger season" (1 October to 1 June), 83% occurred in water 1 m or less deep, and 17% occurred while victims were entering the water. Stings were least common on outgoing tides (P < 0.001) and commonest between 15:00 and 18:00 (P < 0.001) and on days with wind speed less than that month's average (P < 0.001). Nearly all victims experienced immediate pain, but this could often be controlled with ice; only 30% required parenteral narcotics and 8% required hospital admission. Cardiorespiratory arrest occurred within several minutes of the sting in the one fatal case, involving a 3-year-old girl with only 1.2 m of visible tentacle contact. C. fleckeri antivenom was given to another 21 patients, none of whom had life-threatening features at the time they were given antivenom. Most C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening; patients who die usually have cardiopulmonary arrest within minutes of the sting. The potential benefit of antivenom and magnesium under these circumstances remains to be shown, but a protocol with their rapid use is recommended

  19. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea: video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G Heaslip

    Full Text Available The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19 in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h, and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata was the dominant prey (83-100%, but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models. Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001. Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1 (up to 840 kg • d(-1 or approximately 261 (up to 664 jellyfish • d(-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1 equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  20. CMS : An exceptional load for an exceptional work site

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Components of the CMS vacuum tank have been delivered to the detector assembly site at Cessy. The complete inner shell was delivered to CERN by special convoy while the outer shell is being assembled in situ. The convoy transporting the inner shell of the CMS vacuum tank took a week to cover the distance between Lons-le-Saunier and Point 5 at Cessy. Left: the convoy making its way down from the Col de la Faucille. With lights flashing, flanked by police outriders and with roads temporarily closed, the exceptional load that passed through the Pays de Gex on Monday 20 May was accorded the same VIP treatment as a leading state dignitary. But this time it was not the identity of the passenger but the exceptional size of the object being transported that made such arrangements necessary. A convoy of two lorries was needed to transport the load, an enormous 13-metre long, 6 metre diameter cylinder weighing 120 tonnes. It took a week to cover the 120 kilometres between Lons-le-Saunier and the assembly site for...

  1. Combined effects of ocean acidification and temperature on planula larvae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting

    2018-08-01

    Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric CO 2 have caused two environmental stressors, ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases, which represent major abiotic threats to marine organisms. Here, we investigated for the first time the combined effects of ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases on the behavior, survival, and settlement of the planula larvae of Aurelia coerulea, which is considered a nuisance species around the world. Three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3) and two temperature levels (24 °C and 27 °C) were used in the present study. There were no interactive effects of temperature and pH on the behavior, survival, and settlement of planula larvae of A. coerulea. We found that the swimming speed and mortality of the planula larvae of A. coerulea were significantly affected by temperature, and low pH significantly affected settlement. Planula larvae of A. coerulea from the elevated temperature treatment moved faster and showed higher mortality than those at the control temperature. The settlement rate of A. coerulea planulae was significantly higher at the pH level of 7.3 than at other pH levels. These results suggest that seawater temperature increase, rather than reduced pH, was the main stress factor affecting the survival of A. coerulea planulae. Overall, the planula larvae of the common jellyfish A. coerulea appeared to be resistant to ocean acidification, but may be negatively affected by future seawater temperature increases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for aquaporin-mediated water transport in nematocytes of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Angela; Morabito, Rossana; La Spada, Giuseppina; Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K

    2011-01-01

    Nematocytes, the stinging cells of Cnidarians, have a cytoplasm confined to a thin rim. The main cell body is occupied by an organoid, the nematocyst, containing the stinging tubule and venom. Exposed to hypotonic shock, nematocytes initially swell during an osmotic phase (OP) and then undergo regulatory volume decrease (RVD) driven by K(+), Cl(-) and obligatory water extrusion mechanisms. The purpose of this report is to characterize the OP. Nematocytes were isolated by the NaSCN/Ca(2+) method from tentacles of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, collected in the Strait of Messina, Italy. Isolated nematocytes were subjected to hyposmotic shock in 65% artificial seawater (ASW) for 15 min. The selective aquaporin water channel inhibitor HgCl(2) (0.1-25 μM) applied prior to osmotic shock prevented the OP and thus RVD. These effects were attenuated in the presence of 1mM dithiothreitol (DTT), a mercaptide bond reducing agent. AgNO(3) (1 μM) and TEA (tetraethylammonium, 100 μM), also reported to inhibit water transport, did not alter the OP but significantly diminished RVD, suggesting different modes of action for the inhibitors tested. Based on estimates of the nematocyte surface area and volume, and OP duration, a relative water permeability of ~10(-7) cm/sec was calculated and the number of putative aquaporin molecules mediating the OP was estimated. This water permeability is 3-4 orders of magnitude lower in comparison to higher order animals and may constitute an evolutionary advantage for Cnidarian survival. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Exceptional circles of radial potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, M; Perry, P; Siltanen, S

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear scattering transform is studied for the two-dimensional Schrödinger equation at zero energy with a radial potential. Explicit examples are presented, both theoretically and computationally, of potentials with nontrivial singularities in the scattering transform. The singularities arise from non-uniqueness of the complex geometric optics solutions that define the scattering transform. The values of the complex spectral parameter at which the singularities appear are called exceptional points. The singularity formation is closely related to the fact that potentials of conductivity type are ‘critical’ in the sense of Murata. (paper)

  4. X exceptionalism in Caenorhabditis speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Asher D

    2017-11-13

    Speciation genetics research in diverse organisms shows the X-chromosome to be exceptional in how it contributes to "rules" of speciation. Until recently, however, the nematode phylum has been nearly silent on this issue, despite the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans having touched most other topics in biology. Studies of speciation with Caenorhabditis accelerated with the recent discovery of species pairs showing partial interfertility. The resulting genetic analyses of reproductive isolation in nematodes demonstrate key roles for the X-chromosome in hybrid male sterility and inviability, opening up new understanding of the genetic causes of Haldane's rule, Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, and enabling tests of the large-X effect hypothesis. Studies to date implicate improper chromatin regulation of the X-chromosome by small RNA pathways as integral to hybrid male dysfunction. Sexual transitions in reproductive mode to self-fertilizing hermaphroditism inject distinctive molecular evolutionary features into the speciation process for some species. Caenorhabditis also provides unique opportunities for analysis in a system with XO sex determination that lacks a Y-chromosome, sex chromosome-dependent sperm competition differences and mechanisms of gametic isolation, exceptional accessibility to the development process and rapid experimental evolution. As genetic analysis of reproductive isolation matures with investigation of multiple pairs of Caenorhabditis species and new species discovery, nematodes will provide a powerful complement to more established study organisms for deciphering the genetic basis of and rules to speciation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Density-driven water exchange controls seasonal declines in the abundance of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) in a Danish fjord system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine; Jürgensen, Carsten; Steiner, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    and disappears by winter. While food limitation has been suggested as possible driver of distinct seasonal declines in the local jellyfish abundance, the role of hydrodynamic forcing in the shallow, semi-enclosed system is still unclear. Based on regular measurements from a two-year field campaign, we provide...

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  7. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  8. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  9. The physics of exceptional points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W D

    2012-01-01

    A short résumé is given about the nature of exceptional points (EPs) followed by discussions about their ubiquitous occurrence in a great variety of physical problems. EPs feature in classical as well as in quantum mechanical problems. They are associated with symmetry breaking for PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, where a great number of experiments has been performed, in particular in optics, and to an increasing extent in atomic and molecular physics. EPs are involved in quantum phase transition and quantum chaos; they produce dramatic effects in multichannel scattering, specific time dependence and more. In nuclear physics, they are associated with instabilities and continuum problems. Being spectral singularities they also affect approximation schemes. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  10. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  11. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted......-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier...

  12. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  13. 42 CFR 423.578 - Exceptions process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions process. 423.578 Section 423.578 Public..., Redeterminations, and Reconsiderations § 423.578 Exceptions process. (a) Requests for exceptions to a plan's tiered... sponsor may design its exception process so that very high cost or unique drugs are not eligible for a...

  14. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  15. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  16. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  17. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  18. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  19. Preservation and reactivation of Candidatus Jettenia asiatica and Anammoxoglobus propionicus using different preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Pra, M C; Scussiato, L A; Cantão, M; Ibelli, A M G; Kunz, A

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria have peculiar characteristics that make them difficult to cultivate. The conservation of these microorganisms in culture collections or laboratories requires successful preservation and reactivation techniques. Furthermore, studies have shown that successful reactivation may be preservative dependent. Considering this, the present study aimed to evaluate the preservation and reactivation of anammox consortia enriched from swine manure treatment lagoons, by using different preservative agents at different temperatures: KNO 3 (at 4 °C), glycerol (-20 °C, -80 °C), and skimmed cow milk (-20 °C, -80 °C, -200 °C). After 4 months, the biomass was thawed (except for KNO 3 ), and the reestablishment of anammox activity was evaluated by stoichiometric coefficients. Microbial community transformation during the reactivation process was also studied by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The results showed that the anammox biomass preserved with glycerol or skimmed cow milk at -80 °C recovered activity, while the biomass preserved with other methodologies did not reestablish activity during the studied time (90 days). The bacterial community from the biomass with anammox activity was characterized and showed the presence of Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, Candidatus Jettenia asiatica, and Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus. Preservation with skimmed cow milk at -80 °C favored the selection of Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus, while preservation with glycerol at -80 °C was successful for Candidatus Jettenia asiatica. The present study was effective on anammox sludge preservation and reactivation using low-cost processes for anammox cultures preservation, which is important for biomass transport and deammonification reactor start up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellular respiration, oxygen consumption, and trade-offs of the jellyfish Cassiopea sp. in response to temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbour, Samir M.; Zimmer, Martin; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Pelagic jellyfish blooms are increasing worldwide as a potential response to climate-change. However, virtually nothing is known about physiological responses of jellyfish to e.g. sudden changes in water temperature due to extreme weather events. When confronted with a sudden decrease or increase in water temperature by 6 °C, medusae of Cassiopea sp. exhibited a strong response in locomotor activity (i.e., bell pulsation increased and decreased by ca. 37 and 46% in hot and cold acute (2 h) treatments, respectively) relative to control. Although medusae significantly gained in body mass (wet weight) upon chronic (2 weeks) heat treatment, their body size (e.g., bell diameter) did not change over this time interval. In contrast, chronic cold treatment resulted in both significant shrinking (reduced diameter) and mass loss. Measurements of mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) activities and rate of respiratory oxygen uptake (MO2) are good estimates of energy consumption and the potential aerobic metabolic rates of an organism. While both acute treatments significantly increased ETS-activities, acclimation over two weeks resulted in a drop in activities to the control levels. Whereas acute heat treatment significantly increased MO2, chronic exposure resulted in significant MO2 decrease compared to control; however no changes in MO2 could be observed in both acute and chronic cold treatments. Overall these results suggest an enhanced growth in response to global warming, whereas low temperatures may set the limits for successful invasion of Cassiopea into colder water bodies. Our results provide a framework for understanding the physiological tolerance of Cassiopea under possible future climate changes.

  1. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the relation between general society and preservation, the content and the structure of preservation activities, and the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the preventive preservation are described. The optimization of the preventive preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  2. 7 CFR 3565.13 - Exception authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency official may request and the Administrator or designee may make an exception to any requirement or... program objectives, and provided that such an exception is not inconsistent with any applicable law or...

  3. 7 CFR 4280.104 - Exception authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency Improvements Program § 4280.104 Exception authority. The Administrator may, on a case-by-case basis, make an exception to any requirement or provision of this subpart that is not inconsistent with...

  4. 7 CFR 4274.381 - Exception authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program (IRP) § 4274.381 Exception authority. The Administrator may, in individual cases, grant an exception to any requirement or provision of this subpart which is not inconsistent with any applicable law...

  5. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  6. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  7. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  8. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  9. Indiana Pavement Preservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ghim Ping (Raymond); Nantung, Tommy E.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2010-01-01

    State highway agencies are facing immense pressure to maintain roads at acceptable levels amidst the challenging financial and economic situations. In recent years, pavement preservation has been sought as a potential alternative for managing the pavement assets, believing that it would provide a cost-effective solution in maintaining infrastructural conditions and meeting user expectations. This study explores the potential of pavement preservation concepts in managing the agency‘s pavement ...

  10. 8 CFR 258.2 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... longshore work at any United States port under the exceptions provided for in paragraphs (a)(2), (b), or (c... hazardous dry bulk cargo. (i) All tankers qualify for the hazardous cargo exception, including parcel tankers, except for a tanker that has been gas-freed to transport non-hazardous dry bulk commodities. (ii...

  11. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted benefits. 148.220 Section 148.220 Public... FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Preemption; Excepted Benefits § 148.220 Excepted benefits... provision of the benefits described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section (or any combination of the...

  12. Dermatologia comparativa: lesão de ataque por caravela portuguesa (Physalia physalis Comparative dermatology: skin lesion produced by attack of jellyfishes (Physalia physalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Araújo Palmeira Queiroz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demonstra-se lesão dermatológica, em caprichoso formato de coração, característica de ataque por caravela-portuguesa, em banhista do sexo feminino, 21 anosIt is reported the case of a 21-year-old female bather with a skin lesion, heart-shaped ,characteristic of attack by jellyfish

  13. UVIT view of ram-pressure stripping in action: Star formation in the stripped gas of the GASP jellyfish galaxy JO201 in Abell 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K.; Poggianti, B. M.; Gullieuszik, M.; Fasano, G.; Bellhouse, C.; Postma, J.; Moretti, A.; Jaffé, Y.; Vulcani, B.; Bettoni, D.; Fritz, J.; Côté, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Hutchings, J. B.; Mohan, R.; Sreekumar, P.; Stalin, C. S.; Subramaniam, A.; Tandon, S. N.

    2018-06-01

    Jellyfish are cluster galaxies that experience strong ram-pressure effects that strip their gas. Their Hα images reveal ionized gas tails up to 100 kpc, which could be hosting ongoing star formation. Here we report the ultraviolet (UV) imaging observation of the jellyfish galaxy JO201 obtained at a spatial resolution ˜ 1.3 kpc. The intense burst of star formation happening in the tentacles is the focus of the present study. JO201 is the "UV-brightest cluster galaxy" in Abell 85 (z ˜ 0.056) with knots and streams of star formation in the ultraviolet. We identify star forming knots both in the stripped gas and in the galaxy disk and compare the UV features with the ones traced by Hα emission. Overall, the two emissions remarkably correlate, both in the main body and along the tentacles. Similarly, also the star formation rates of individual knots derived from the extinction-corrected FUV emission agree with those derived from the Hα emission and range from ˜ 0.01 -to- 2.07 M⊙ yr-1. The integrated star formation rate from FUV flux is ˜ 15 M⊙ yr-1. The unprecedented deep UV imaging study of the jellyfish galaxy JO201 shows clear signs of extraplanar star-formation activity due to a recent/ongoing gas stripping event.

  14. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  15. Cuban strategy for reproducing, preserving and developing nuclear knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias Hardy, L.L.; Guzman Martinez, F.; Rodriguez Hoyos, O.E.; Lopez Nunez, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the problems in the changing world is the preservation of knowledge for the next human generation, and nuclear knowledge is not an exception. Cuba has worked for reproducing, preserving, developing and capturing nuclear knowledge, mainly through a higher education centre, the Higher Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies. This institute is a component of a national network in the preparation of manpower not only for nuclear activities but also for environmental and managerial activities too. (author)

  16. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  17. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the ex post facto preservation and the content to be possessed in 'preservation engineering' are described. The optimization of the ex post facto preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  18. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  19. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  20. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  1. Preserving food with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C

    1978-01-01

    Food irradiation is becoming an increasingly more important method of food preservataion. The irradiation process and its advangages are briefly described, and its use in the preservation of poultry and various kinds of fruits is discussed. Fruit export is hampered by restrictions due to infestation. Radiation disinfestation will therefore be of great advantage and may lead to a growth in export markets

  2. Preserve America News

    Science.gov (United States)

    phone number. Whether or not you're able to let us know ahead of time, however, we hope you can join us Amache Preservation Society in Colorado and the Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery in New York. This brings Places: Breathing New Life into Our Communities." Read about this informative session. National

  3. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  4. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  5. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  6. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  7. DNA preservation in silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yawen; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Gong, He; Liu, Meng; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-27

    The structure of DNA is susceptible to alterations at high temperature and on changing pH, irradiation and exposure to DNase. Options to protect and preserve DNA during storage are important for applications in genetic diagnosis, identity authentication, drug development and bioresearch. In the present study, the stability of total DNA purified from human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as that of plasmid DNA, was studied in silk protein materials. The DNA/silk mixtures were stabilized on filter paper (silk/DNA + filter) or filter paper pre-coated with silk and treated with methanol (silk/DNA + PT-filter) as a route to practical utility. After air-drying and water extraction, 50-70% of the DNA and silk could be retrieved and showed a single band on electrophoretic gels. 6% silk/DNA + PT-filter samples provided improved stability in comparison with 3% silk/DNA + filter samples and DNA + filter samples for DNA preservation, with ∼40% of the band intensity remaining at 37 °C after 40 days and ∼10% after exposure to UV light for 10 hours. Quantitative analysis using the PicoGreen assay confirmed the results. The use of Tris/borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer enhanced the preservation and/or extraction of the DNA. The DNA extracted after storage maintained integrity and function based on serving as a functional template for PCR amplification of the gene for zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750) and for transgene expression of red fluorescence protein (dsRed) in HEK293 cells. The high molecular weight and high content of a crystalline beta-sheet structure formed on the coated surfaces likely accounted for the preservation effects observed for the silk/DNA + PT-filter samples. Although similar preservation effects were also obtained for lyophilized silk/DNA samples, the rapid and simple processing available with the silk-DNA-filter membrane system makes it appealing for future applications.

  8. 48 CFR 39.204 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Electronic and Information Technology 39.204 Exceptions. The... standards to the maximum extent practicable; (b) Is for a national security system; (c) Is acquired by a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions. 39.204 Section...

  9. 7 CFR 774.24 - Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.24 Exception. The Agency may grant an exception to any of the requirements of this section, if the proposed change is in the best financial interest of the Government and not inconsistent with the authorizing statute or other applicable law. ...

  10. 7 CFR 773.23 - Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.23 Exception. The Agency may grant an exception to the security requirements of this section, if the proposed change is in the best financial interest of the Government and not inconsistent with the authorizing statute or other applicable law. ...

  11. 22 CFR 126.3 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions. 126.3 Section 126.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS... of the United States Government, the Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls may make an exception...

  12. 24 CFR 51.105 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions. 51.105 Section 51.105... ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Noise Abatement and Control § 51.105 Exceptions. (a) Flexibility for non... acceptability standard of 65 decibels, the Acceptable Zone may be shifted to Ldn 70 on a case-by-case basis if...

  13. 44 CFR 17.625 - Exception provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exception provision. 17.625 Section 17.625 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.625 Exception...

  14. Educating Exceptional Children: Current Issue for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    The Oxford dictionary defines exceptionality as "forming an exception; very unusual; outstandingly good." A thesaurus provides the following synonyms: outstanding, excellent, brilliant, antonym of ordinary. In education and psychology textbooks and journals, however, it is often defined in ways that focus on limitations, with synonyms…

  15. 48 CFR 1325.103 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 1325.103 Exceptions. (a) The designee authorized to make a... has an agreement with a foreign government providing a blanket exception to the Buy America Act is set... documentation supporting a determination that nonavailabilty of an article is likely to affect future...

  16. 29 CFR 1905.28 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Hearings § 1905.28 Exceptions. Within 20 days after service of a... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions. 1905.28 Section 1905.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF...

  17. 48 CFR 1503.602 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contracts with Government Employees or Organizations... Resources Management may authorize an exception, in writing, to the policy in FAR 3.601 and 1503.601 for the... shall consult with the Designated Agency Ethics Official before authorizing any exceptions. [60 FR 38505...

  18. 48 CFR 9.304 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions. 9.304 Section... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 9.304 Exceptions. Normally, testing and approval is not required in contracts for— (a) Research or development; (b) Products requiring qualification...

  19. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  20. 2015 Site Environmental Report Fernald Preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hooten, Gwen [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016). Remediation of the Fernald Preserve has been successfully completed with the exception of the groundwater. During 2015, activities at the Fernald Preserve included: environmental monitoring activities related to direct radiation, groundwater, and surface water; ecological restoration monitoring and maintenance as well as inspections, care, and monitoring of the site and the OSDF to ensure that provisions of the LMICP are fully implemented; OSDF leak detection monitoring and collection, monitoring, and treatment of leachate from the OSDF; extraction, monitoring, and treatment of contaminated groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer (Operable Unit 5); ongoing operation of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, associated outreach, and educational activities; and monitoring as specified in the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Environmental monitoring programs were developed to ensure that the remedy remains protective of the environment. The requirements of these programs are described in detail in the LMICP and reported in this Site Environmental Report.

  1. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...... isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids......, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has...

  2. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  3. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  4. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

  5. Sea Water Acidification Affects Osmotic Swelling, Regulatory Volume Decrease and Discharge in Nematocytes of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP, regulatory volume decrease (RVD and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy, was assessed. Methods: Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. Results: At normal pH (7.65, nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Conclusion: Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment.

  6. Sea water acidification affects osmotic swelling, regulatory volume decrease and discharge in nematocytes of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C; La Spada, Giuseppa

    2013-01-01

    Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP), regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy), was assessed. Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW) with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. At normal pH (7.65), nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Vadassova, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  8. Preservation and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the application of gamma radiation to preservation of cultural objects for disinsectization, disinfection and strengthening of materials such as wood or stone by impregnation with a liquid resin and in situ polymerization. As heavy equipment is required two facilities are specialized a 1000 T Bq cobalt 60 source at Grenoble (France) and 100 T Bq one at Rostoky (Czechoslovakia). Examples of treated objects are given [fr

  9. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  10. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  11. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  12. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  13. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  14. 48 CFR 225.103 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... covered by the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement, the Under Secretary of Defense...) In order not to impair integration of the military and commercial industrial base. (B) Except as...

  15. 7 CFR 1780.25 - Exception authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authority. The Administrator may, in individual cases, make an exception to any requirement or provision of this part which is not inconsistent with the authorizing statute or other applicable law and is...

  16. 7 CFR 1779.17 - Exception authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator may, in individual cases, make an exception to any requirement or provision of this part which is not inconsistent with the authorizing statute or other applicable law and is determined to be in the...

  17. 7 CFR 4279.15 - Exception authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authority. The Administrator may, in individual cases, grant an exception to any requirement or provision of this subpart which is not inconsistent with any applicable law provided, the Administrator determines...

  18. 7 CFR 1775.68 - Exception authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authority. The Administrator may, in individual cases, make an exception to any requirement or provision of this part which is not inconsistent with the authorizing statute or other applicable law and is...

  19. 40 CFR 262.55 - Exception reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.55 Exception reports... Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460, if any of the following occurs: ...

  20. 48 CFR 825.202 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 825.202 Exceptions. (a) When a... HCA believes that the non-availability of an article is likely to affect future acquisitions, include...

  1. From Ethical Exceptionalism to Ethical Exceptions: The Rule and exception Model and the Changing Meaning of Ethics In German Bioregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathrin

    2017-12-01

    Germany is an interesting case with respect to the governance of reprogenetics. It has a strong profile in the technosciences and high aims regarding the global bioeconomy, yet her regulation of human genetics, reproductive medicine and embryo research has for a long time been rather restrictive. German biopolitical exceptionalism has often been explained by reference to Catholicism and the legacy of the Nazi past. The Germans, so goes the common story, have learnt the lessons of history and translated them into unconditional respect for human dignity, which in turn translates into unconditional protection of human life, including the human embryo, and the firm repudiation of any eugenic distinction between 'life worth to live' and 'life not worth to live'. This, however, is not the whole story. Alongside deontological strictness we find another strand of governing body politics and reprogenetics in Germany, the rule-and-exception model, running from the mid-1970s abortion law via the 2002 Stem Cell Act to the 2011 regulation of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. In contrast to the former, that strongly draws on Kant and his concept of human dignity, the latter bears resemblances to Carl Schmitt's concept of state of exception. The article will show that the rule-and-exception model builds the exception into the rule and transforms the meaning and mandate of ethics, namely from safeguarding ethical standards to deciding about the exception. Given that the exception has now tended to become the rule, the question is whether the lessons of history will govern German reprogenetics for much longer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    discomfort at President Bush’s rallying good against evil speeches and the words of the NSS. The President’s us versus them foreign policies...of global leadership, and of concern for the well being of the global community. Classically, American exceptionalism refers to the uniquely free ...longer that force for good, but a force for its own good. Exceptionalism once meant a nation free from tyrannical rule and offering of bountiful

  3. 28 CFR 73.2 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions. 73.2 Section 73.2 Judicial... GOVERNMENTS § 73.2 Exceptions. (a) The exemption provided in 18 U.S.C. 951(d)(4) for a “legal commercial...-89, 54 FR 46608, Nov. 6, 1989, as amended by Order No. 3018-2008, 73 FR 73182, Dec. 2, 2008] ...

  4. 2015 Site Environmental Report Fernald Preserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, Bill; Hooten, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site's environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve's compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the ''Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,'' which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016). Remediation of the Fernald Preserve has been successfully completed with the exception of the groundwater. During 2015, activities at the Fernald Preserve included: environmental monitoring activities related to direct radiation, groundwater, and surface water; ecological restoration monitoring and maintenance as well as inspections, care, and monitoring of the site and the OSDF to ensure that provisions of the LMICP are fully implemented; OSDF leak detection monitoring and collection, monitoring, and treatment of leachate from the OSDF; extraction, monitoring, and treatment of contaminated groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer (Operable Unit 5); ongoing operation of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, associated outreach, and educational activities; and monitoring as specified in the site's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Environmental monitoring programs were developed to ensure that the remedy remains protective of the environment. The requirements of these programs are described in detail in the LMICP and reported in this Site Environmental Report.

  5. Preservative treatments for building components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow

    2007-01-01

    The wood species most commonly used in construction have little natural durability Thus, they are treated with preservatives when used in conditions that favor biodeterioration. The type of preservative used varies with the type of wood product, exposure condition, and specific agent of deterioration. This paper discusses the characteristics of several preservative...

  6. β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca2+ release by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Bo; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2017-07-25

    Intracellular Ca 2+ overload induced by extracellular Ca 2+ entry has previously been confirmed to be an important mechanism for the cardiotoxicity as well as the acute heart dysfunction induced by jellyfish venom, while the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Under extracellular Ca 2+ -free or Ca 2+ -containing conditions, the Ca 2+ fluorescence in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes pre-incubated with tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and β blockers was scanned by laser scanning confocal microscope. Then, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration and protein kinase A (PKA) activity in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were determined by ELISA assay. Furthermore, the effect of propranolol against the cardiotoxicity of TE was evaluated in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and intact rats. The increase of intracellular Ca 2+ fluorescence signal by TE was significantly attenuated and delayed when the extracellular Ca 2+ was removed. The β adrenergic blockers, including propranolol, atenolol and esmolol, partially inhibited the increase of intracellular Ca 2+ in the presence of 1.8 mM extracellular Ca 2+ and completely abolished the Ca 2+ increase under an extracellular Ca 2+ -free condition. Both cAMP concentration and PKA activity were stimulated by TE, and were inhibited by the β adrenergic blockers. Cardiomyocyte toxicity of TE was antagonized by β adrenergic blockers and the PKA inhibitor H89. Finally, the acute heart dysfuction by TE was antagonized by propranolol in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and intact rats. Our findings indicate that β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca 2+ overload through intracellular Ca 2+ release by TE from the jellyfish C. capillata.

  7. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  8. Fertility Preservation in Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennia Michaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

  9. Radiation preservation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, A.; Tasnim, A.; Khan, M.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for preservation of red hot pepper has been explained in report, as it can kill the harmful organisms without altering the organolpetic properties. The sample were dried and reduced to pass through 20 mesh. The samples were irradiated at different dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and results have been shown after different time intervals. Radiation and packaging treatments resulted normaly no effect on the color of dry fruits. (A.B)

  10. Preserving Transactional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Day Thomson

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an adaptation of a longer report commissioned by the UK Data Service. The longer report contributes to on-going support for the Big Data Network – a programme funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The longer report can be found at doi:10.7207/twr16-02. This paper discusses requirements for preserving transactional data and the accompanying challenges facing the companies and institutions who aim to re-use these data for analysis or research. It present...

  11. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  12. Mutual preservation of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitia, Andrzej; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wong, Chee Wei

    2012-01-01

    We study a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings (JC) model where two entangled pairs of two-level atoms interact indirectly. We show that there exist initial states of the qubit system so that two entangled pairs are available at all times. In particular, the minimum entanglement in the pairs as a function of the initial state is studied. Finally, we extend our findings to a model consisting of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. We use a non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to obtain the steady-state density matrix for the qubits. We show that the multi-mode model also displays dynamical preservation of entanglement. -- Highlights: ► Entanglement dynamics is studied in a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model. ► We show that for certain initial states, the atoms remain entangled at all times. ► We extend the results to the case of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. ► The model suggest that indirect interaction may help to preserve entanglement.

  13. Post-exceptionalism in public policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Framing the special issue on the transformation of Food and Agricultural Policy, this article introduces the concept of post-exceptionalism in public policies. The analysis of change in agri-food policy serves as a generative example to conceptualize current transformations in sectoral policy...... arrangements in democratic welfare states. Often these arrangements have been characterized by an exceptionalist ideational framework that legitimizes a sector’s special treatment through compartmentalized, exclusive and producer-centered policies and politics. In times of internationalization of policy......-making, increasing interlinkage of policy areas and trends towards self-regulation, liberalization and performance-based policies, policy exceptionalism is under pressure to either transform or give way to (neo-)liberal policy arrangements. Post-exceptionalism denotes a partial transformation of exceptionalist ideas...

  14. Amendments to excepted benefits. Final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document contains final regulations that amend the regulations regarding excepted benefits under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, the Internal Revenue Code (the Code), and the Public Health Service Act. Excepted benefits are generally exempt from the health reform requirements that were added to those laws by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In addition, eligibility for excepted benefits does not preclude an individual from eligibility for a premium tax credit under section 36B of the Code if an individual chooses to enroll in coverage under a Qualified Health Plan through an Affordable Insurance Exchange. These regulations finalize some but not all of the proposed rules with minor modifications; additional guidance on limited wraparound coverage is forthcoming.

  15. Session-based Choreography with Exceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Choreography has recently emerged as a pragmatic and concise way of describing communication-based systems such as web services and financial protocols. Recent studies have investigated the transition from the design stage of a system to its implementation providing an automatic way of mapping...... a choreograhy into executable code. In this work, we focus on an extension of choreography with a communication-based (interactional) exception mechanism by giving its formal semantics. In particular, we discuss through some examples how interactional exceptions at choreography level can be implemented into end...

  16. A geometric formulation of exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque, Pascal du [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Hassler, Falk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB #3255, 120 E. Cameron Ave., Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); City University of New York, The Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University, Pupin Hall, 550 West 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lüst, Dieter [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Malek, Emanuel [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics,Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    We formulate the full bosonic SL(5) exceptional field theory in a coordinate-invariant manner. Thereby we interpret the 10-dimensional extended space as a manifold with SL(5)×ℝ{sup +}-structure. We show that the algebra of generalised diffeomorphisms closes subject to a set of closure constraints which are reminiscent of the quadratic and linear constraints of maximal seven-dimensional gauged supergravities, as well as the section condition. We construct an action for the full bosonic SL(5) exceptional field theory, even when the SL(5)×ℝ{sup +}-structure is not locally flat.

  17. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  18. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  19. 29 CFR 1921.14 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE IN ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS UNDER SECTION 41 OF THE LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Decision and Order § 1921.14 Exceptions. Within 20 days after the date of the decision of the...

  20. A Priceless Playground for Exceptional Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Patricia G.

    Described are 20 pieces of therapeutic playground equipment constructed by volunteers and fathers of children in the Early Learning Center for Exceptional Children (El Paso, Texas). It is noted that discarded and readily available materials (such as old tires) were used, and that no commercial playground equipment was purchased. Information on the…

  1. 15 CFR 1180.7 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY... INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.7 Exceptions. (a) An agency shall not be...) The product is an agency generated article that is published in a privately produced journal; or (5...

  2. Exceptional polynomials and SUSY quantum mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We show that for the quantum mechanical problem which admit classical Laguerre/. Jacobi polynomials as solutions for the Schrödinger equations (SE), will also admit exceptional. Laguerre/Jacobi polynomials as solutions having the same eigenvalues but with the ground state missing after a modification of the ...

  3. 48 CFR 725.403 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 725.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 725.403 Exceptions. FAR 25.4 establishes procedures for purchases under the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (including GATT's Agreement on Government Procurement) and...

  4. 26 CFR 1.306-2 - Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is the avoidance of Federal income tax. [T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.306-2 Exception. (a) If a shareholder terminates his entire stock...

  5. 48 CFR 825.103 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... article is likely to affect future acquisitions, include a recommendation that a copy of the determination... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions. 825.103 Section 825.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC...

  6. 48 CFR 225.7003-3 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions. 225.7003-3 Section 225.7003-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... the recommendation of the Strategic Materials Protection Board pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 187, determines...

  7. Working with Navajo Parents of Exceptional Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doris; And Others

    Undergraduate students at Northern Arizona University interviewed and surveyed 20 staff members at Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) on the Navajo Reservation and 14 parents of exceptional Navajo children enrolled in KUSD. Both groups were asked to identify challenges affecting the working relationship between parents and school on a rural…

  8. 31 CFR 211.3 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions. 211.3 Section 211.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DELIVERY OF CHECKS AND WARRANTS TO ADDRESSES OUTSIDE THE...

  9. Voices from the Classroom: Exceptional Teachers Speak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeroff, Gene I., Ed.

    The opinions and experiences reflected in this report are those of exceptional teachers chosen in a national competition, "Thanks to Teachers," sponsored by Apple Computer, Inc., the National Foundation for the Improvement of Education, the National Alliance of Business, and Group W Television. The report is divided into four sections: (1) the…

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  12. First report of a thioredoxin homologue in jellyfish: molecular cloning, expression and antioxidant activity of CcTrx1 from Cyanea capillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengliang Ruan

    Full Text Available Thioredoxins (Trx proteins are a family of small, highly-conserved and ubiquitous proteins that play significant roles in the resistance of oxidative damage. In this study, a homologue of Trx was identified from the cDNA library of tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and named CcTrx1. The full-length cDNA of CcTrx1 was 479 bp with a 312 bp open reading frame encoding 104 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the putative CcTrx1 protein harbored the evolutionarily-conserved Trx active site 31CGPC34 and shared a high similarity with Trx1 proteins from other organisms analyzed, indicating that CcTrx1 is a new member of Trx1 sub-family. CcTrx1 mRNA was found to be constitutively expressed in tentacle, umbrella, oral arm and gonad, indicating a general role of CcTrx1 protein in various physiological processes. The recombinant CcTrx1 (rCcTrx1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3, and then purified by affinity chromatography. The rCcTrx1 protein was demonstrated to possess the expected redox activity in enzymatic analysis and protection against oxidative damage of supercoiled DNA. These results indicate that CcTrx1 may function as an important antioxidant in C. capillata. To our knowledge, this is the first Trx protein characterized from jellyfish species.

  13. Learning from real and tissue-engineered jellyfish: How to design and build a muscle-powered pump at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; Lee, Hyungsuk; Feinberg, Adam; Ripplinger, Crystal; McCain, Megan; Grosberg, Anna; Dabiri, John; Parker, Kit

    2012-11-01

    Tissue-engineered devices promise to advance medical implants, aquatic robots and experimental platforms for tissue-fluid interactions. The design, fabrication and systematic improvement of tissue constructs, however, is challenging because of the complex interactions of living cell, synthetic materials and their fluid environments. In a proof of concept study we have tissue-engineered a construct that mimics the swimming of a juvenile jellyfish, a simple model system for muscle-powered pumps at intermediate Reynolds numbers with quantifiable fluid dynamics and morphological properties. Optimally designed constructs achieved jellyfish-like swimming and generated biomimetic propulsion and feeding currents. Focusing on the fluid interactions, we discuss failed and successful designs and the lessons learned in the process. The main challenges were (1) to derive a body shape and deformation suitable for effective fluid transport under physiological fluid conditions, (2) to understand the mechanical properties of muscle and bell matrix and device a design capable of the desired deformation, (3) to establish adequate 3D kinematics of power and recovery stroke, and (4) to evaluate the performance of the design.

  14. Lifestyle factors of people with exceptional longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpathak, Swapnil N; Liu, Yingheng; Ben-David, Orit; Reddy, Saritha; Atzmon, Gil; Crandall, Jill; Barzilai, Nir

    2011-08-01

    To assess lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits in men and women with exceptional longevity. Retrospective cohort study. A cohort of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with exceptional longevity defined as survival and living independently at age 95 and older. Four hundred seventy-seven individuals (mean 97.3 ± 2.8, range 95-109; 74.6% women) and a subset of participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I (n = 3,164) representing the same birth cohort as a comparison group. A trained interviewer administrated study questionnaires to collect information on lifestyle factors and collected data on anthropometry. People with exceptional longevity had similar mean body mass index (men, 25.4 ± 2.8 kg/m² vs 25.6 ± 4.0 kg/m² , P=.63; women, 25.0 ± 3.5 kg/m² vs 24.9 ± 5.4 kg/m² ; P = .90) and a similar proportion of daily alcohol consumption (men, 23.9 vs 22.4, P = .77; women, 12.1 vs 11.3, P = .80), of regular physical activity (men: 43.1 vs 57.2; P = .07; women: 47.0 vs 44.1, P = .76), and of a low-calorie diet (men: 20.8 vs 21.1, P=.32; women: 27.3 vs 27.1, P=.14) as the NHANES I population. People with exceptional longevity are not distinct in terms of lifestyle factors from the general population, suggesting that people with exceptional longevity may interact with environmental factors differently than others. This requires further investigation. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  16. Cognitive function in families with exceptional survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann

    2012-01-01

    members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important......The authors investigated whether cognitive function may be used as an endophenotype for longevity by assessing the cognitive performance of a family-based cohort consisting of 1380 individuals from 283 families recruited for exceptional survival in field centers in Boston, New York, Pittsburgh......, and Denmark. Cognitive performance was assessed in the combined offspring of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) probands and their LLFS siblings as compared with their spouses' cognitive performance. Our results indicate that the combined offspring of the LLFS probands and their siblings achieve significantly...

  17. Global Trade issues and Cultural Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa MARSON

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural exception has always been a key element in the French political and cultural field. It isbased on the principle that culture is not like any other merchandise because it goes beyond thecommercial. During the negotiations of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 the United States offeredto liberalize cultural goods and services. Due to the sensitive nature of the cultural industries, theEuropean Union led by France refused to make an offer of liberalization on these fields. Afterheated debates between the United States and the European Union, cultural exception has finallybecome a global issue since 2005. On 20 October, the UNESCO convention on cultural diversitywas voted by 148 countries to two (The United States and Israel to legally and globally recognizethe specific nature of cultural goods and services in the liberalization process.

  18. Nuclear knowledge preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

  19. Exceptional Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Three Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannie Kartapradja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR found in three individuals in a family that involves 4 chromosomes with 5 breakpoints. The CCR was ascertained in a phenotypically abnormal newborn with additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 4. Maternal karyotyping indicated that the mother carried an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 6, 11, and 18. Maternal transmission of the derivative chromosome 4 resulted in partial trisomy for chromosomes 6q and 18q and a partial monosomy of chromosome 4p in the proband. Further family studies found that the maternal grandmother carried the same apparently balanced CCR as the proband’s mother, which was confirmed using the whole chromosome painting (WCP FISH. High resolution whole genome microarray analysis of DNA from the proband’s mother found no evidence for copy number imbalance in the vicinity of the CCR translocation breakpoints, or elsewhere in the genome, providing evidence that the mother’s and grandmother’s CCRs were balanced at a molecular level. This structural rearrangement can be categorized as an exceptional CCR due to its complexity and is a rare example of an exceptional CCR being transmitted in balanced and/or unbalanced form across three generations.

  20. Exceptional points in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Markus; Rotter, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Open quantum systems are embedded in the continuum of scattering wavefunctions and are naturally described by non-Hermitian Hamilton operators. In the complex energy plane, exceptional points appear at which two (or more) eigenvalues of the Hamilton operator coalesce. Although they are a countable set of single points in the complex energy plane and therefore of measure zero, they determine decisively the dynamics of open quantum systems. A powerful method for the description of open quantum systems is the Feshbach projection operator formalism. It is used in the present paper as a basic tool for the study of exceptional points and of the role they play for the dynamics of open quantum systems. Among others, the topological structure of the exceptional points, the rigidity of the phases of the eigenfunctions in their vicinity, the enhancement of observable values due to the reduced phase rigidity and the appearance of phase transitions are considered. The results are compared with existing experimental data on microwave cavities. In the last section, some questions being still unsolved, are considered

  1. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  2. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  3. Organic preservation of fossil musculature with ultracellular detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

    2010-02-07

    The very labile (decay-prone), non-biomineralized, tissues of organisms are rarely fossilized. Occurrences thereof are invaluable supplements to a body fossil record dominated by biomineralized tissues, which alone are extremely unrepresentative of diversity in modern and ancient ecosystems. Fossil examples of extremely labile tissues (e.g. muscle) that exhibit a high degree of morphological fidelity are almost invariably replicated by inorganic compounds such as calcium phosphate. There is no consensus as to whether such tissues can be preserved with similar morphological fidelity as organic remains, except when enclosed inside amber. Here, we report fossilized musculature from an approximately 18 Myr old salamander from lacustrine sediments of Ribesalbes, Spain. The muscle is preserved organically, in three dimensions, and with the highest fidelity of morphological preservation yet documented from the fossil record. Preserved ultrastructural details include myofilaments, endomysium, layering within the sarcolemma, and endomysial circulatory vessels infilled with blood. Slight differences between the fossil tissues and their counterparts in extant amphibians reflect limited degradation during fossilization. Our results provide unequivocal evidence that high-fidelity organic preservation of extremely labile tissues is not only feasible, but likely to be common. This is supported by the discovery of similarly preserved tissues in the Eocene Grube Messel biota.

  4. An Exceptional Adenocarcinoma in a Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangaly Traore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal adenocarcinoma is very rare and usually occurs in the elderly. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with an anal margin painful tumor infiltrating the lower rectum, with perineal and vulvar permeation nodules and bilateral fixed inguinal and iliac lymph nodes. Histology showed anal adenocarcinoma with mucosecreting component and independent cells. She had no extra pelvic metastasis on CT scan. She underwent a colostomy and palliative care. This exceptional case challenges us on the diversity of forms of anal cancers that require a multidisciplinary approach. The precarious social context and the age of onset make it difficult to manage this rare cancer.

  5. Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.

  6. Exceptional Drought and Unconventional Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid B. Stevens

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic fracturing boom in Texas required massive water flows. Beginning in the summer of 2011, water became scarce as a prolonged heat wave and subsequent severe drought spread across the state. Oil and gas producers working in drought areas needed to purchase expensive local water or transport water from a non-drought county far from the drill site. In response to decreased water availability in drought areas, these producers completed fewer wells and completed wells that used less water. This decrease in well-level water use had a measurable effect on the amount of oil and gas produced by wells completed during exceptional conditions.

  7. Generalized IIB supergravity from exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baguet, Arnaud; Magro, Marc; Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Ens de Lyon, CNRS,F-69342 Lyon (France)

    2017-03-20

    The background underlying the η-deformed AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} sigma-model is known to satisfy a generalization of the IIB supergravity equations. Their solutions are related by T-duality to solutions of type IIA supergravity with non-isometric linear dilaton. We show how the generalized IIB supergravity equations can be naturally obtained from exceptional field theory. Within this manifestly duality covariant formulation of maximal supergravity, the generalized IIB supergravity equations emerge upon imposing on the fields a simple Scherk-Schwarz ansatz which respects the section constraint.

  8. Quartic trace identity for exceptional Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, S.

    1979-01-01

    Let X be a representation matrix of generic element x of a simple Lie algebra in generic irreducible representation ]lambda] of the Lie algebra. Then, for all exceptional Lie algebras as well as A 1 and A 2 , we can prove the validity of a quartic trace identity Tr(X 4 ) =K (lambda)[Tr(X 2 )] 2 , where the constant K (lambda) depends only upon the irreducible representation ]lambda], and its explicit form is calculated. Some applications of second and fourth order indices have also been discussed

  9. Food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  10. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  11. Anaerobic Cultures from Preserved Tissues of Baby Mammoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 4 C. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that prevents other bacteria from over-dominating a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one-month old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete such specimen ever recovered. The diversity of novel anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for the characterization of cultures.

  12. Exceptional quantum geometry and particle physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Dubois-Violette

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on an interpretation of the quark–lepton symmetry in terms of the unimodularity of the color group SU(3 and on the existence of 3 generations, we develop an argumentation suggesting that the “finite quantum space” corresponding to the exceptional real Jordan algebra of dimension 27 (the Euclidean Albert algebra is relevant for the description of internal spaces in the theory of particles. In particular, the triality which corresponds to the 3 off-diagonal octonionic elements of the exceptional algebra is associated to the 3 generations of the Standard Model while the representation of the octonions as a complex 4-dimensional space C⊕C3 is associated to the quark–lepton symmetry (one complex for the lepton and 3 for the corresponding quark. More generally it is suggested that the replacement of the algebra of real functions on spacetime by the algebra of functions on spacetime with values in a finite-dimensional Euclidean Jordan algebra which plays the role of “the algebra of real functions” on the corresponding almost classical quantum spacetime is relevant in particle physics. This leads us to study the theory of Jordan modules and to develop the differential calculus over Jordan algebras (i.e. to introduce the appropriate notion of differential forms. We formulate the corresponding definition of connections on Jordan modules.

  13. Exceptional confinement in G(2) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, K.; Minkowski, P.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2003-01-01

    We study theories with the exceptional gauge group G(2). The 14 adjoint 'gluons' of a G(2) gauge theory transform as {3}, {3-bar} and {8} under the subgroup SU(3), and hence have the color quantum numbers of ordinary quarks, anti-quarks and gluons in QCD. Since G(2) has a trivial center, a 'quark' in the {7} representation of G(2) can be screened by 'gluons'. As a result, in G(2) Yang-Mills theory the string between a pair of static 'quarks' can break. In G(2) QCD there is a hybrid consisting of one 'quark' and three 'gluons'. In supersymmetric G(2) Yang-Mills theory with a {14} Majorana 'gluino' the chiral symmetry is Z(4) χ . Chiral symmetry breaking gives rise to distinct confined phases separated by confined-confined domain walls. A scalar Higgs field in the {7} representation breaks G(2) to SU(3) and allows us to interpolate between theories with exceptional and ordinary confinement. We also present strong coupling lattice calculations that reveal basic features of G(2) confinement. Just as in QCD, where dynamical quarks break the Z(3) symmetry explicitly, G(2) gauge theories confine even without a center. However, there is not necessarily a deconfinement phase transition at finite temperature

  14. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  15. Effect of alkaloids derived from jellyfish (Aeginura sp.) on the intestinal histopathology and relative percentage survival (RPS) of tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) infected by Vibrio harveyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayani, S.; Fajar, M.; Rahman, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to determine the effect of alkaloid jellyfish compounds on intestinal histopathology of tiger grouper and to determine the best doses to the relative percent survival (RPS) of tiger grouper. The method of this research was descriptive with completely randomized design. The treatment of active alkaloid compound on feed was investigated for 28 days. The fish were then challenged with Vibrio harveyi at 105 CFU/cell for 7 days. Alkaloids were added to the feed with the doses (g alkaloid/kg feed) of 0 (control); A = 0.5; B = 0.75; C = 1.0; and D = 1.25. The intestinal histopathology and RPS were observed. The best RPS was found at a treatment of C with the value of 100 %.

  16. A method for in situ estimation of prey selectivity and predation rate in large plankton, exemplified with the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    , predation rate can be calculated as increase in gut content over time. Clearance rates for different prey can be calculated from predation rates and prey concentrations in the water, allowing accurate estimates of prey selectivity. Thus, the problem of unknown feeding history and feeding environment, which...... of a specific individual plankton predator in situ.After prey has been evacuated from the gut of an individual predator, the predator is incubated in situ, and observed by SCUBA-divers who recapture the individual after a defined time. Given that this incubation time is shorter than prey digestion time...... among individual jellyfish and among the various oral arms and gastric pouches within individuals. Clearance rates varied strongly with prey type. The medusae selected large crustacean prey (cladocerans and copepods/copepodites) over echinoderm larvae and copepod nauplii. Prey distribution within...

  17. Comparative study of the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of nematocyst venoms from the jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye and Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Min; Xu, Jintao; Liu, Yunlong; Zhang, Xuelei

    2017-10-01

    Two species of jellyfish, Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye and Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye, have occurred off coastal areas of the northeastern China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Bohai Sea in recent years. They influence marine ecosystem safety and fishery production, and also pose a risk to human health. The current study examined the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of crude venoms extracted from the nematocysts of C. nozakii and N. nomurai. The results showed that there were more nematocysts on tentacles from C. nozakii than on tentacles of the same length from N. nomurai. The protein concentration per nematocyst extracted from N. nomurai was higher than that from C. nozakii. Both nematocyst venoms showed dose- and time-dependent hemolytic activity on erythrocytes from chicken, pigeon, and sheep, with sheep erythrocytes being the most sensitive, with EC50 values of 69.69 and 63.62 μg/mL over a 30-min exposure with N. nomurai and C. nozakii nematocyst venoms, respectively. A cytotoxic assay of both jellyfish venoms on A431 human epidermal carcinoma cells resulted in IC50 values of 68.6 and 40.9 μg/mL after 24-h incubation, respectively, with venom from C. nozakii showing stronger cytotoxic activity than that from N. nomurai. The results of current study indicate that nematocyst venom from C. nozakii had stronger hemolytic and cytotoxic activities than that from N. nomurai and, thus, C. nozakii might be more harmful to the health of humans and other species than are N. nomurai when they appear in coastal waters.

  18. Federal Support for Preserve America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi's Heritage Tourism Industry Post Hurricane Katrina also received a $150,000 Preserve America Grant Arkansas Delta, one for music, one for African-American history, and one for agriculture. The project will

  19. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  20. Is There Muslim Exceptionalism in Democracy Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner

    to and between the 16th and 18th centuries are relatively less democratic today. The negative effect of early statehood on current levels of democracy is mediated by European colonization and settlement: Europeans were less likely to colonize and settle in territories with more developed state institutions......, also, to alternative theories of the causes and correlates of democracy. This paper presents evidence against the notion of Muslim exceptionalism in democracy research. Thus, outside the European continent, territories that were governed earlier and more consistently by state organizations up...... and were therefore less likely to bring nascent legalistic and representative institutions to these territories. When we remove the autocratic legacy of early statehood and the influence of European settlement, there is nothing signicantly negative about the degree of democracy in Muslim-majority countries....

  1. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  2. Unidirectional reflectionless light propagation at exceptional points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of unidirectional reflectionless light propagation in photonic devices at exceptional points (EPs. EPs, which are branch point singularities of the spectrum, associated with the coalescence of both eigenvalues and corresponding eigenstates, lead to interesting phenomena, such as level repulsion and crossing, bifurcation, chaos, and phase transitions in open quantum systems described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Recently, it was shown that judiciously designed photonic synthetic matters could mimic the complex non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics and realize unidirectional reflection at optical EPs. Unidirectional reflectionlessness is of great interest for optical invisibility. Achieving unidirectional reflectionless light propagation could also be potentially important for developing optical devices, such as optical network analyzers. Here, we discuss unidirectional reflectionlessness at EPs in both parity-time (PT-symmetric and non-PT-symmetric optical systems. We also provide an outlook on possible future directions in this field.

  3. Leibniz algebroids, twistings and exceptional generalized geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraglia, D.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate a class of Leibniz algebroids which are invariant under diffeomorphisms and symmetries involving collections of closed forms. Under appropriate assumptions we arrive at a classification which in particular gives a construction starting from graded Lie algebras. In this case the Leibniz bracket is a derived bracket and there are higher derived brackets resulting in an L∞-structure. The algebroids can be twisted by a non-abelian cohomology class and we prove that the twisting class is described by a Maurer-Cartan equation. For compact manifolds we construct a Kuranishi moduli space of this equation which is shown to be affine algebraic. We explain how these results are related to exceptional generalized geometry.

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options further? Fertility Preservation - Where Does It Fit? Options for Fertility Preservation The following diagram gives a brief description of fertility preservation options available to children diagnosed with cancer before and ...

  5. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  6. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for ...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult ...

  9. Preservation and phylogeny of Cambrian ecdysozoans tested by experimental decay of Priapulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Robert S.

    2016-09-01

    The exceptionally preserved Cambrian fossil record provides unique insight into the early evolutionary history of animals. Understanding of the mechanisms of exceptional soft tissue preservation frames all interpretations of the fauna and its evolutionary significance. This is especially true for recent interpretations of preserved nervous tissues in fossil ecdysozoans. However, models of soft tissue preservation lack empirical support from actualistic studies. Here experimental decay of the priapulid Priapulus reveal consistent bias towards rapid loss of internal non-cuticular anatomy compared with recalcitrant cuticular anatomy. This is consistent with models of Burgess Shale-type preservation and indicates that internal tissues are unlikely to be preserved with fidelity if organically preserved. This pattern, along with extreme body margin distortion, is consistent with onychophoran decay, and is therefore resolved as general for early ecdysozoans. Application of these patterns to phylogenetic data finds scalidophoran taxa to be very sensitive to taphonomically informed character coding, but not panarthropodan taxa. Priapulid decay also have unexpected relevance for interpretation of myomeres in fossil chordates. The decay data presented serve not only as a test of models of preservation but also a framework with which to interpret ecdysozoan fossil anatomies, and the subsequent evolutionary inferences drawn from them.

  10. [Exceptional etiology of acute renal: Burkitt's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Cherif; Doh, Kwame; Thiam, Ibou; Faye, Mariam; Woto-Gaye, Gisèle

    2018-02-05

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an exceptional cause of acute renal failure (ARF). The origin of the tumor clone may be lymphoid follicles secondary to renal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. With the presentation of this clinical case, the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and evolution of this extremely rare affection will be discussed. A 4-year-old patient with a recent history of acute osteomyelitis of the right thigh presented an ARF without indications of post-infectious glomerulonephritis. Ultrasound showed enlarged kidneys without dilation of the excretory cavities. Diffuse interstitial infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells of medium size were noted upon renal biopsy. The tumor cells expressed antibodies against CD20, CD10, Bcl6, and Ki67 but not against Bcl2 or CD3. The search for an EBV infection was positive. A few days after diagnosis, the evolution was spontaneously fatal. BL of the kidney is a rare condition that accounts for less than 1 % of kidney tumors, associated almost invariably with EBV infection. The diagnosis is confirmed histologically by renal biopsy and the criteria of Malbrain affirms the primitive character of the lymphoma. BL of the kidney is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency and may be fatal. Copyright © 2018 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-27

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  12. Stem cell policy exceptionalism: proceed with caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Geoffrey P; Peckman, Steven R

    2012-06-01

    The term "stem cell exceptionalism" has been used to characterize the policy response to controversies surrounding human embryonic stem cell research. For example, governments and funding agencies have adopted policies governing the derivation and use of human embryonic stem cell lines. These policies have effectively served to fill gaps in existing guidelines and regulations and signal that scientists are committed to a responsible framework for the conduct of research involving human embryos. Recent publications discuss whether ethical and policy issues associated with induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) from non-embryonic sources create a need for further policy intervention. We suggest many of the issues identified by commentators may be addressed through the application of established policy frameworks governing the use of tissue, human stem cells, and research participation by human research subjects. To the extent, iPSC research intersects with hESC research (e.g. the creation of human gametes and/or embryos), the policy framework governing hESC appears sufficiently robust at this time.

  13. Exceptionally elevated triglyceride in severe lipemia retinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin HY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Han Y Yin,1–3 Roberto Warman,2,4 Edward H Suh,2 Anny MS Cheng2,3 1Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Florida International University, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, 3Ocular Surface Center, Miami, 4Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: To report a case of successful treatment for severe lipemia retinalis with extreme severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG.Design: Observational case report.Observations: A 6-week-old infant with severe lipemia retinalis manifested diffuse creamy retinal vessels complicated with vulvar xanthomas. Extreme sHTG with 185-folds of the normal level was reported. Chromosome microarray and lipid gene sequencing confirmed a homozygous lipoprotein lipase gene coding mutation.Results: Under strict adherence to a high medium-chain triglycerides formula and discontinuation of breast milk, the lipemia retinalis and vulval lesions resolved along with a stable plasma lipid level throughout the follow-up period of 6 months.Conclusion: Strict adherence to a low-fat diet without breast milk appears to be effective in treating infants with severe lipemia retinalis associated with exceptionally high triglycerides. Keywords: hypertriglyceride, infant, lipemia retinalis, lipoprotein lipase gene

  14. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ISCTN: Cuban strategy for reproducing, preserving and developing the nuclear knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias Hardy, L.L.; Martinez, F.G.; Rodriguez Hoyos, O.E.; Nunez, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the problems in the changing world is the preservation of the knowledge for the next human generation and the nuclear knowledge is not an exception. Cuba has worked for reproducing, preserving, developing and capturing the nuclear knowledge, mainly through a higher education center, the Higher Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies. This institute is a component of a national network in the preparation of Manpower not only for nuclear activities and for environmental and managerial too. (author)

  16. Exceptional gauge groups and quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, L.P.; Biedenharn, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that a Hilbert space over the real Clifford algebra C 7 provides a mathematical framework, consistent with the structure of the usual quantum mechanical formalism, for models for the unification of weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions utilizing the exceptional Lie groups. In particular, in case no further structure is assumed beyond that of C 7 , the group of automorphisms leaving invariant a minimal subspace acts, in the ideal generated by that subspace, as G 2 , and the subgroup of this group leaving one generating element (e 7 ) fixed acts, in this ideal, as the color gauge group SU(3). A generalized phase algebra AcontainsC 7 is defined by the requirement that quantum mechanical states can be consistently constructed for a theory in which the smallest linear manifolds are closed over the subalgebra C(1,e 7 ) (isomorphic to the complex field) of C 7 . Eight solutions are found for the generalized phase algebra, corresponding (up to an overall sign), in effect, to the use of +- e 7 as imaginary unit in each of four superselection sectors. Operators linear over these alternative forms of imanary unit provide distinct types of ''lepton--quark'' and ''quark--quark'' transitions. The subgroup in A which leaves expectation values of operators linear over A invariant is its unitary subgroup U(4), and is a realization (explicitly constructed) of the U(4) invariance of the complex scalar product. An embedding of the algebraic Hilbert space into the complex space defined over C(1,e 7 ) is shown to lead to a decomposition into ''lepton and ''quark'' superselection subspaces. The color SU(3) subgroup of G 2 coincides with the SU(3) subgroup of the generalized phase U(4) which leaves the ''lepton'' space invariant. The problem of constructing tensor products is studied, and some remarks are made on observability and the role of nonassociativity

  17. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devore, L.; Chrzanowski, P.

    2008-01-01

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R and D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million. Severe

  18. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million

  19. Preservation theorems on finite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, M.

    1994-09-01

    This paper concerns classical Preservation results applied to finite structures. We consider binary relations for which a strong form of preservation theorem (called strong interpolation) exists in the usual case. This includes most classical cases: embeddings, extensions, homomorphisms into and onto, sandwiches, etc. We establish necessary and sufficient syntactic conditions for the preservation theorems for sentences and for theories to hold in the restricted context of finite structures. We deduce that for all relations above, the restricted theorem for theories hold provided the language is finite. For the sentences the restricted version fails in most cases; in fact the ''homomorphism into'' case seems to be the only possible one, but the efforts to show that have failed. We hope our results may help to solve this frustrating problem; in the meantime, they are used to put a lower bound on the level of complexity of potential counterexamples. (author). 8 refs

  20. Blogs as Objects of Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanyan, Karen; Gkotsis, George; Kalb, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    challenge for the digital preservation community. While the methodological frameworks for selecting these properties provide a good foundation, a continued discussion is necessary for further clarifying and improving the available methods. This paper advances earlier work by building on the exist......challenge for the digital preservation community. While the methodological frameworks for selecting these properties provide a good foundation, a continued discussion is necessary for further clarifying and improving the available methods. This paper advances earlier work by building...... analysis) and, subsequently, improve the final reformulation of the properties. To demonstrate the applicability of the modified framework, the paper presents a use case of a blog preservation initiative that is informed by stakeholder interviews and evaluation of structural and technological foundations...

  1. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norberg, E.

    1996-01-01

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed

  2. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, Loveness K.; Nout, Martinus J. R.; Smid, Eddy J.; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cak...

  3. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  4. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed.

  5. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.32... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.32 Historic preservation... Preservation Plan of the Corporation, are specified for preservation, shall be acomplished (a) in accordance...

  6. ACHP | Summary of the Preserve America Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative Preserve America: Explore and Enjoy Our Heritage (logo) Summary of the Preserve America Initiative Preserve America is a White House initiative that encourages and supports community efforts to preserve and enjoy our priceless cultural and natural heritage. The goals of the initiative include a greater shared

  7. Comparison of Tissue Preservation using Formalin and Ethanol as Preservative Formula

    OpenAIRE

    See Woan Shian; Arifin Soenggono; Sawkar Vijay Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue preservation can be performed through embalming, by providing the chemical embalming fluid to the human remains. Formalin’s preservative formula is the foundation for modern methods of embalming. Unfortunately, this preservative formula has several disadvantages. While Ethanol’s preservative formula is a considerable agent to replace formalin’s preservative formula. The aim of this study was to compare the tissue preservation using formalin and ethanol as preservative formu...

  8. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  9. Local quantum channels preserving classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhihua; Cao Huaixin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss local quantum channels that preserve classical correlations. First, we give two equivalent characterizations of classical correlated states. Then we obtain the relationships among classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels, commutativity-preserving local quantum channels and commutativity-preserving quantum channels on each subsystem. Furthermore, for a two-qubit system, we show the general form of classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels. (paper)

  10. A revolution in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  11. Hardcore Heritage: imagination for preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, E.; Rietveld, R.

    2017-01-01

    Should the practice of the historic preservation of built and landscape heritage necessarily be based on conservation? Monuments, listed buildings, landscapes, and other forms of built heritage, are typically regarded as immutable and untouchable—objects to be “conserved”—and as a result tend to

  12. 2007 Preserve America Presidential Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    aviation history museum that emphasizes people and culture as well as technology and events. With a the Private Preservation category, the two winners are: The History Channel, Save Our History Save Our History were Abbe Raven, president and CEO, A&E Television Networks; and Nancy Dubuc

  13. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts

  14. Beyond the Scope of Preservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikke, Stenbro,; Riesto, Svava

    2014-01-01

    Why are some parts of the built environment protected as national heritage and others not? Listing is the most restrictive tool of Norwegian and Danish preservation in the built environment and creates a specific version of the past told through buildings and sites. The heritage authorities in both...

  15. "No admittance except on business" 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bourrier

    2011-04-01

     sociologie embarquée », soit s’en dégager radicalement.“No admittance except on business”. Issues in negotiating entry into organisationsThis article has a history. The first reason for wanting to write it was linked to the development in 2007 of a master course in sociology on the conditions associated with being able to enter organisations. To my great surprise, and in spite of my efforts during the preparation of the course, I found few texts which discussed real entry conditions. This article reflects then this disappointment. The second reason concerns repeated observations of the hardening conditions in relation with studies undertaken within organisations, whether in France or the United States. Reports I have received confirm my observations that the field of high risk organisations has become particularly more and more difficult for young researchers or doctoral students to freely organize their work. Paradoxically, whilst more efforts are undertaken so that sociologists (amongst others have access to risk industries, researchers are confronted with conditions that are often rigid and hardly generous. As for the issues themselves that are studied, they are very aligned with the industrials’ own managerial questions. Ethnographic studies by immersion are abandoned in favour of action-research, in form de theses obliged, at the end of the day, to make propositions for improvements and recommendations about management tools. I have a feeling that what is happening in high-risk organisations is also the case for the sociology of organisations in general. In the first part of this article, I propose a partial revue of the way that the sociology of organisations has treated the question of entering into organisations. I will reflect on why there are so few works devoted to this question and on what the consequences may well be for the field itself. Secondly, I will examine the possibilities offered today as well as the efforts to make in order to, either, resolutely

  16. 45 CFR 670.5 - Exception in extraordinary circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving the safety of human life or of ships, aircraft, or equipment or facilities of high value, or the... FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Prohibited Acts, Exceptions § 670.5 Exception in...

  17. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  18. Detecting and explaining business exceptions for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Daniëls, H.A.M.; Hofman, W.; Hammoudi, S.; Maciaszek, L.; Cordeiro, J.; Dietz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic risk analysis can be based on causal analysis of business exceptions. In this paper we describe the concepts of automatic analysis for the exceptional patterns which are hidden in a large set of business data. These exceptions are interesting to be investigated further for their causes

  19. Execution Constraint Verification of Exception Handling on UML Sequence Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciraci, S.; Sözer, Hasan; Aksit, Mehmet; Havinga, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    Exception handling alters the control flow of the program. As such, errors introduced in exception handling code may influence the overall program in undesired ways. To detect such errors early and thereby decrease the programming costs, it is worthwhile to consider exception handling at design

  20. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C

    2011-01-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...

  1. Orbital preservation in a maxillectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Hitomi; Kumagai, Masahiko; Dosaka, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Toru; Atago, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Masamichi [Sapporo National Hospital (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the past 9 years, 38 patients of the maxillary cancer were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. Sixteen patients showed the orbital involvement as confirmed by a CT scan and/or MRI. An orbital excenteration was necessary in 6 patients, due mainly to deep intraorbital invasion, while in 10, the orbital contents were preserved despite the involvement of the orbital capsule. The local rate of the orbital region in the latter patients evaluated at 48 months after the initial surgery was 44%. For the treatment of the recurrence at the orbital capsule. The application of gold grain (Au{sup 198}) thus appeared to be a useful tool for further preserving the eye. (author)

  2. Orbital preservation in a maxillectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Hitomi; Kumagai, Masahiko; Dosaka, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Toru; Atago, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Masamichi

    1999-01-01

    In the past 9 years, 38 patients of the maxillary cancer were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. Sixteen patients showed the orbital involvement as confirmed by a CT scan and/or MRI. An orbital excenteration was necessary in 6 patients, due mainly to deep intraorbital invasion, while in 10, the orbital contents were preserved despite the involvement of the orbital capsule. The local rate of the orbital region in the latter patients evaluated at 48 months after the initial surgery was 44%. For the treatment of the recurrence at the orbital capsule. The application of gold grain (Au 198 ) thus appeared to be a useful tool for further preserving the eye. (author)

  3. INCORRECT PRESERVATION OF AMPUTATED DIGITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Ahčan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A decision to replant is critically dependent on the condition of the amputated digit and the way it was preserved during transport. The most common error is exposing the amputated digit to very low temperatures. Preservation directly on ice, on cooling devices in portable refrigerators, or on top of packets of frozen meat often result in a frozen and therefore unusable body digit.Methods. An inquiry questionnaire on correct methods of preservation of amputated digits was conducted on a sample of 30 lay persons, 30 medical students, and 15 physicians.Three simulations of most frequently used methods of preservation of amputated digit were conducted (the correct method; directly on ice; on cooling devices of portable refrigerators. Environment temperature of the (simulated amputated digits stored was measured.In a retrospective study, hospital records of patients treated at the Clinical department of plastic surgery and burns in Ljubljana between 1998 and 2002 were examined. We determined the number of replantations performed, gender of the patients, their age, the mechanism of the injury, the success rate of the replantation, and the duration of hospitalisation. In five case described in detail, we present an inadequate treatment of the amputated digits.Results. The results of the questionnaire survey show that no less than 86.7% of lay person respondents would have treated the injuries in an incorrect way; same holds for 43.4% students of medicine, and 33.3% of practicing physicians.The temperature of the simulated amputated digit remained above 5°C throughout the simulated correct treatment. When preserved directly on ice on or coolant bodies, the temperature dropped below the freezing point and never climbed above 0°C throughout the duration of the simulation (150 minutes.Between years 1998 and 2002, Clinical department of plastic surgery and burns at the University clinical centre Ljubljana admitted 124 injured persons with

  4. Nuclear Knowledge Preservation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna, Austria) was founded in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental organization, it was authorized for exchange of technical and scientific information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 35 years ago the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established from IAEA as an international bibliographic database in the nuclear field and in nuclear related areas. INIS as an instrument for a comprehensive and systematic dissemination of all information and knowledge becomes a big technological and science information system with 134 Members (114 countries and 20 international organizations). In INIS Membership Arrangements all Members are responsible for the collection, selection, description of information and providing the Agency with the full text of each item of non-conventional literature. Participation of each Member is important because decentralized information management is an operational philosophy of INIS. During all these years status of nuclear power changed significantly in the world. Some developing countries started to develop nuclear power programme and some developed countries showed tendency to decrease use of nuclear power. Anyway, expert knowledge accumulated over decades and the achievements in the field of nuclear science and technology have to be preserved and later transferred to future generations. It became obvious that the INIS is practically a pioneer in the area of nuclear knowledge preservation with well defined goals of knowledge preservation: selection of the most valuable information to convey to the future, ensuring that it remains accessible, readable and understandable and management of technological change. Main components of knowledge preservation are: selection of information for preservation including evaluation and prioritisation by value, use and risk, information capture (purchasing, copy, digitise, web links), describing, classifying, store and access

  5. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  6. Preservation of food and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Tomomichi

    1975-01-01

    In the application of radiation to preservation of food, there are some methods; sterilization, elimination of noxious insects, prevention of germination and control of maturation. The former two utilize the lethal effect of radiation to the living things and the latter two utilize the injurious effect on the metabolism of the living things. At present, irradiation to potato is most widely permitted for the purpose of prevention of germination, and the irradiation with 15 Krad (maximum) is allowed to preserve potato for 8 months in Japan. In the other hand, a large quantity of doses, such as 4.5 to 5.6 Mrad, is necessary to sterilize completely for industrial use, degeneration of food component and high cost come into question. In addition, food is directly taken into the mouth of human being, therefore, wholesomeness, legal permission and determination of dose must be examined. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  7. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  8. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  9. New method of preserving food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrard, G. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights)

    1983-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood.

  10. New method of preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrard, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  11. ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M

    2009-01-01

    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  12. The ZEUS data preservation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malka, Janusz; Wichmann, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    A project to allow long term access and physics analysis of ZEUS data (ZEUS data preservation) has been established in collaboration with the DESY-IT group. In the ZEUS approach the analysis model is based on the Common Ntuple project, under development since 2006. The real data and all presently available Monte Carlo samples are being preserved in a flat ROOT ntuple format. There is ongoing work to provide the ability to simulate new, additional Monte Carlo samples also in the future. The validation framework of such a scheme using virtualisation techniques is being explored. The goal is to validate the frozen ZEUS software against future changes in hardware and operating system. A cooperation between ZEUS, DESY-IT and the library was established for document digitisation and long-term preservation of collaboration web pages. Part of the ZEUS internal documentation has already been stored within the HEP documentation system INSPIRE. Existing digital documentation, needed to perform physics analysis also in the future, is being centralised and completed.

  13. Phase-preserved optical elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-03-25

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, 2010]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping.

  14. Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

  15. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition by a peptide isolated from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel (box jellyfish) venom hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Pamela Berilyn T; Rubio, Peter; Lirio, Stephen; Macabeo, Allan Patrick; Huang, Hsi-Ya; Corpuz, Mary Jho-Anne T; Villaflores, Oliver B

    2016-09-01

    The anti-angiotensin I converting enzyme activity of box jellyfish, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel venom hydrolysate was studied. The venom extract was obtained by centrifugation and ultrasonication. Protein concentration of 12.99 μg/mL was determined using Bradford assay. The pepsin and papain hydrolysate was tested for its toxicity by Limit test following the OECD Guideline 425 using 5 female Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the hydrolysate is nontoxic with an LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was determined using ACE kit-WST. Isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using column chromatography with SP-Sephadex G-25 yielded 8 pooled fractions with fraction 3 (86.5%) exhibiting the highest activity. This was followed by reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an octadecyl silica column (Inertsil ODS-3) using methanol:water 15:85 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Among the 13 fractions separated with the RP-HPLC, fraction 3.5 exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (84.1%). The peptide sequence ACPGPNPGRP (IC50 2.03 μM) from fraction 3.5 was identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy analysis (MALDI-TOF/MS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation is important. These key points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may ... several resources listed on the reverse that can help you locate a fertility preservation specialist to discuss ...

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation center closest to you Visit the Pediatric Oncofertility Research Foundation Visit the Patient Navigator Website ... Ginsberg JP. New advances in fertility preservation for pediatric cancer patients. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;23:9- ...

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and ... Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer ...

  19. 76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...-201] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule..., 2011, a document establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the wrong paragraph... alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications Commission. Matt Warner, Attorney...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future ... Can you refer us to a fertility preservation specialist to discuss my child’s options further? Fertility Preservation - ...

  1. A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents three main results for a holistic approach to bit preservation, where the ultimate goal is to find the optimal bit preservation strategy for specific digital material that must be digitally preserved. Digital material consists of sequences of bits, where a bit is a binary digit...... which can have the value 0 or 1. Bit preservation must ensure that the bits remain intact and readable in the future, but bit preservation is not concerned with how bits can be interpreted as e.g. an image. A holistic approach to bit preservation includes aspects that influence the final choice of a bit...... a holistic approach and include aspects of digital representation, confidentiality, availability, bit safety and costs when defining requirements for the bit preservation. Analysis of such requirements and choice of the final bit preservation solution can be supported by the three main results presented...

  2. Prolonged platelet preservation by transient metabolic suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badlou, Bahram Alamdary

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Different clinical studies have shown that transfusion of stored platelets results in better haemostasis in patients with thrombocytopenia with and without a platelet function defect. Objectives: Current preservation procedures aim to optimally preserve the metabolic status of

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JP, Kolon TF. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents With Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren ... 10. Nieman CL, et al. Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood ...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner ... there are options for preserving fertility in your child diagnosed with cancer. You may be focused on ...

  5. Preservation management for libraries, archives and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, G E

    2006-01-01

    Memory institutions such as libraries, archives, galleries and museums all share pressing concerns about preserving heritage. This book charts the diversity of preservation management in the contemporary information landscape, and offers guidance on preservation methods for the sustainability of collections from a range of international experts.

  6. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  9. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property to... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way...

  10. 76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...; Report No. 2936] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions to... applicability. Subject: In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, Broadband Industry Practices, published...

  11. Comprehensive preserving technique for Chinese chestnut storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang; Yang Baoan; Zhang Jianwei; Li Qiufang

    2003-01-01

    Chinese chestnut can be preserved for a long time by using a comprehensive preserving technique, which consists of casing, irradiating, treating with preserving agent and controlling environment conditions. The shelftime of the treated chestnuts reaches 11 months keeping no insects, no germination and good quality for eating with the good fruit ratio of 97.5% and water losing ratio of 3.8%

  12. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which ...

  13. Exceptions to the Stark law: practical considerations for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the applicable legislative exceptions to prohibitions under the Stark law, which governs common legitimate business relationships in surgical practice. Stark I and II prohibits all referrals (and claims) for the provision of designated health services for federal reimbursement if a physician or immediate family member has any financial relationship with the entity. Regardless of intent (unlike the antikickback statute), any financial relationship is illegal unless specifically excepted by statute. These exceptions are relevant to ownership, compensation arrangements, or both. The most important ones relevant to surgeons are as follows: physician service exception (services rendered in an intragroup referral); in-office ancillary services exception (office-based vascular laboratory); the whole hospital exception (ownership interest in a hospital or department); lease exception (conditions that must be met for a lease not to be considered illegal); bona fide employment exception (important to academic medical centers); personal services arrangement exception (vascular laboratory medical directorship); physician incentive plans exception (if volume or value of referrals are an issue); hospital-affiliated group practice exception (physician services billed by a hospital); recruitment arrangement exception (inducements by hospitals to relocate); items/services exception (transcription services purchased from a hospital); fair market value exception (covers services provided to health care entities); indirect compensation arrangements (dealings between a hospital and entity owned by physicians); and academic medical centers exception (new phase II rules broaden the definition of academic medical centers and ease the requirement that practice plans be tax-exempt organizations, among other changes. Although expert legal advice is required for navigation through the maze of Stark laws, it is incumbent on surgeons

  14. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  15. Polarization preservation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization

  16. Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (TTNPE) to embed multi-dimensional tensor data into low dimensional tensor subspace. Novel approaches to solve the optimization problem in TTNPE are proposed. For this embedding, we evaluate novel trade-off gain among classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction (storage) for supervised learning. It is shown that compared to the state-of-the-arts tensor embedding methods, TTNPE achieves superior trade-off in classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction in MNIST handwritten digits and Weizmann face datasets.

  17. Digital Preservation at the Swiss Federal Archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Archives (SFA) archives Swiss government data when it is no longer in use. The SFA is responsible for advising, inspecting and issuing directives in records management and archiving services in offices, agencies and institutions subjected to the Federal Act on Archiving; as well as archiving and disseminating records and data of archival value. With regard to RWM, it thus in fact is an additional regulator. The conceptual basis for digital archiving at the SFA is based on the ISO OAIS Open Archival Information System Reference Model (ISO 14721:2003). The SFA use a process-orientated approach. The SFA and the Federal Office decide jointly which documents and data are to be archived. Archive-worthy documents and data are selected on the basis of a systematic appraisal. Wherever possible this should be carried out pro-actively - before the documents are actually created - based on an indexing or classification system. If there is clarity, people will know what data - and metadata - to keep for the submission. The submission is split into several stages, from appraisal to the conclusion of the submission. Information is never changed once it is archived, except that it carries out conservation measures. New information is a new submission. The sustainable information management is a core expertise of national archives. The SFA preserves digital records and data and is responsible for their secure and appropriate safe-keeping, description and dissemination. For the archiving of relational databases (e.g. Microsoft Access, Oracle and SQL Server), the SFA have developed a format known as SIARD (Software Independent Archiving of Relational Databases). SIARD is an open standard and is supported by the SIARD Suite application, which can be used to convert relational databases into SIARD format. The SIARD Suite is now in use worldwide (over 170 downloads). The SFA distribute the SIARD Suite free of charge in conformity with the license agreement. Currently

  18. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based...

  19. OAIS and Distributed Digital Preservation in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    The aim of the paper is to illustrate how the distributed aspects of digital preservation can be aligned in practice, with the concepts and principles of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. There has been a growing awareness within the digital preservation community...... of the need for cooperation between organizations to address digital preservation requirements. One common example is that replicas of preservation copies of digital objects need to be independently preserved (e.g., stored, managed, monitored, documented) to ensure that at least one correct replica...... will survive for as long as needed. Such independence can be achieved through distributed digital preservation that relies upon specific agreements between participating and contributing organizations. The OAIS Reference Model does not address the challenges of distributed digital preservation in detail...

  20. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  1. Preserving information in neural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincich, Lawrence C; Horton, Jonathan C; Sharpee, Tatyana O

    2009-05-13

    Along most neural pathways, the spike trains transmitted from one neuron to the next are altered. In the process, neurons can either achieve a more efficient stimulus representation, or extract some biologically important stimulus parameter, or succeed at both. We recorded the inputs from single retinal ganglion cells and the outputs from connected lateral geniculate neurons in the macaque to examine how visual signals are relayed from retina to cortex. We found that geniculate neurons re-encoded multiple temporal stimulus features to yield output spikes that carried more information about stimuli than was available in each input spike. The coding transformation of some relay neurons occurred with no decrement in information rate, despite output spike rates that averaged half the input spike rates. This preservation of transmitted information was achieved by the short-term summation of inputs that geniculate neurons require to spike. A reduced model of the retinal and geniculate visual responses, based on two stimulus features and their associated nonlinearities, could account for >85% of the total information available in the spike trains and the preserved information transmission. These results apply to neurons operating on a single time-varying input, suggesting that synaptic temporal integration can alter the temporal receptive field properties to create a more efficient representation of visual signals in the thalamus than the retina.

  2. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  3. Brief concept of hip preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev S. Madan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of the anatomy of the hip joint and biomechanics across it, carry the immense importance to prevent future osteoarthritis of the joint. The aim of this review is to provide the brief concept of the methods to preserve the hip, especially in young adults. Attempts to preserve the hips start with the intense preoperative planning of the corrective procedure. Different parameters regarding the femur and acetabulum in all 3 dimensions need to be assessed. Especially, measurement of the anteversion of the femur and acetabulum is a significant step to avoid osteoarthritis. In addition, the suprapelvic and infrapelvic (spine and lower limb lengths alignment needs to be considered in the planning. Correction of the femoral side of the hip needs the understanding of the blood supply of the proximal femur which carries the risk of avascular necrosis more so with intracapsular osteotomies. Acetabular reorientation, to re-distribute the forces over the weight bearing part, can be carried out with re-directional osteotomy such as periacetabular osteotomy. It needs the understanding of the acetabular anatomy and the force distribution in it. To conclude, correction of both femoral and acetabular side parameters need to be considered in decision making depending on the alterations due to various etiologies causing the hip disorders.

  4. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2011-01-01

    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Is my network module preserved and reproducible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Langfelder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, one is interested in determining which of the properties of a network module change across conditions. For example, to validate the existence of a module, it is desirable to show that it is reproducible (or preserved in an independent test network. Here we study several types of network preservation statistics that do not require a module assignment in the test network. We distinguish network preservation statistics by the type of the underlying network. Some preservation statistics are defined for a general network (defined by an adjacency matrix while others are only defined for a correlation network (constructed on the basis of pairwise correlations between numeric variables. Our applications show that the correlation structure facilitates the definition of particularly powerful module preservation statistics. We illustrate that evaluating module preservation is in general different from evaluating cluster preservation. We find that it is advantageous to aggregate multiple preservation statistics into summary preservation statistics. We illustrate the use of these methods in six gene co-expression network applications including 1 preservation of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in mouse tissues, 2 comparison of human and chimpanzee brain networks, 3 preservation of selected KEGG pathways between human and chimpanzee brain networks, 4 sex differences in human cortical networks, 5 sex differences in mouse liver networks. While we find no evidence for sex specific modules in human cortical networks, we find that several human cortical modules are less preserved in chimpanzees. In particular, apoptosis genes are differentially co-expressed between humans and chimpanzees. Our simulation studies and applications show that module preservation statistics are useful for studying differences between the modular structure of networks. Data, R software and accompanying tutorials can be downloaded from the following webpage: http

  6. 28 CFR 66.6 - Additions and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additions and exceptions. 66.6 Section 66.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... additional administrative requirements except in codified regulations published in the Federal Register. (b...

  7. 49 CFR 173.3 - Packaging and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging and exceptions. 173.3 Section 173.3... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.3 Packaging and exceptions. (a) The packaging of hazardous materials.... standard packaging must be open to inspection by a representative of the Department. (b) The regulations...

  8. Designing Inclusive Learning for Twice Exceptional Students in Minecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Muireann; Robb, Nigel; Howell, Stephen; Marshall, Kevin; Goodman, Lizbeth

    2017-01-01

    Twice exceptional learners are intellectually or creatively gifted yet also experience one or more learning difficulties. These students face a unique set of challenges in educational settings. Recommended strategies for accommodating twice exceptional learners focus on--among other things--(1) providing freedom and variety, so that students can…

  9. Cultural Considerations for Twice-Exceptional Children from Asian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soeun

    2015-01-01

    Since the term twice-exceptional has been entered to the field of gifted education, many studies have investigated the population of students who possess both giftedness and disabilities. It has been shown that there are some challenges to recognizing twice-exceptional children due to current screening and identification process. For this reason,…

  10. Parents vs. Theorists: Dealing with the Exceptionally Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolan, Stephanie S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the fundamental rift between parents raising exceptionally gifted children and theorists who dismiss this population as "statistically insignificant." The role of intelligence tests in identifying the highly unusual mind is examined. The paper concludes that exceptionally gifted children are suffering intellectual…

  11. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302... REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.03 Symbol required; exceptions. (a) Each commercial container of... § 1308.31 of this chapter) shall have printed on the label the symbol designating the schedule in which...

  12. 75 FR 23288 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Old Town, Maine. The purpose of the... Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on Monday, May 17, 2010, from 8:30...

  13. 77 FR 16062 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its... Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The...

  14. 77 FR 28897 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its... Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The...

  15. 76 FR 17965 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its... Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The...

  16. 77 FR 70807 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its... with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The...

  17. 78 FR 42105 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ....97C22214.001] Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION... for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The... (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet on Thursday, July 18...

  18. 75 FR 82410 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its... Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The...

  19. 76 FR 40929 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its... with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The...

  20. 77 FR 47873 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its... with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The...

  1. 75 FR 53334 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting; correction. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Indian... Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its next meeting in Washington, DC. The...

  2. 75 FR 50780 - Advisory Board for Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Advisory Board for Exceptional Children AGENCY... (BIE) is announcing that the Advisory Board for Exceptional Children (Advisory Board) will hold its... with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) for Indian children with disabilities. DATES: The...

  3. 29 CFR 1606.3 - The national security exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The national security exception. 1606.3 Section 1606.3... DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.3 The national security exception. It is not an unlawful employment practice to deny employment opportunities to any individual who does not fulfill the national...

  4. 14 CFR 399.21 - Charter exemptions (except military).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charter exemptions (except military). 399.21 Section 399.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Authority § 399.21 Charter exemptions (except military). In deciding applications for exemptions from...

  5. 16 CFR 1101.42 - Imminent hazard exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imminent hazard exception. 1101.42 Section 1101.42 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... court. Once the exception applies, information may be disclosed to the public while the proceeding is...

  6. Mitrocomin from the jellyfish Mitrocoma cellularia with deleted C-terminal tyrosine reveals a higher bioluminescence activity compared to wild type photoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burakova, Ludmila P.; Natashin, Pavel V.; Markova, Svetlana V.; Eremeeva, Elena V.; Malikova, Natalia P.; Cheng, Chongyun; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Vysotski, Eugene S.

    2016-09-01

    The full-length cDNA genes encoding five new isoforms of Ca2 +-regulated photoprotein mitrocomin from a small tissue sample of the outer bell margin containing photocytes of only one specimen of the luminous jellyfish Mitrocoma cellularia were cloned, sequenced, and characterized after their expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent purification. The analysis of cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding mitrocomin isoforms allowed suggestion that two isoforms might be the products of two allelic genes differing in one amino acid residue (64R/Q) whereas other isotypes appear as a result of transcriptional mutations. In addition, the crystal structure of mitrocomin was determined at 1.30 Å resolution which expectedly revealed a high similarity with the structures of other hydromedusan photoproteins. Although mitrocomin isoforms reveal a high degree of identity of amino acid sequences, they vary in specific bioluminescence activities. At that, all isotypes displayed the identical bioluminescence spectra (473–474 nm with no shoulder at 400 nm). Fluorescence spectra of Ca2 +-discharged mitrocomins were almost identical to their light emission spectra similar to the case of Ca2 +-discharged aequorin, but different from Ca2 +-discharged obelins and clytin which fluorescence is red-shifted by 25–30 nm from bioluminescence spectra. The main distinction of mitrocomin from other hydromedusan photoproteins is an additional Tyr at the C-terminus. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that this Tyr is not important for bioluminescence because its deletion even increases specific activity and efficiency of apo-mitrocomin conversion into active photoprotein, in contrast to C-terminal Pro of other photoproteins. Since genes in a population generally exist as different isoforms, it makes us anticipate the cloning of even more isoforms of mitrocomin and other hydromedusan photoproteins with different bioluminescence properties.

  7. GASP. II. A MUSE View of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping along the Line of Sight: Kinematics of the Jellyfish Galaxy JO201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellhouse, C.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Hau, G. K. T.; McGee, S. L.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Omizzolo, A.; Sheen, Y.-K.; Vulcani, B.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a spatially resolved kinematic study of the jellyfish galaxy JO201, one of the most spectacular cases of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in the GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE (GASP) survey. By studying the environment of JO201, we find that it is moving through the dense intracluster medium of Abell 85 at supersonic speeds along our line of sight, and that it is likely accompanied by a small group of galaxies. Given the density of the intracluster medium and the galaxy’s mass, projected position, and velocity within the cluster, we estimate that JO201 must so far have lost ˜50% of its gas during infall via RPS. The MUSE data indeed reveal a smooth stellar disk accompanied by large projected tails of ionized ({{H}}α ) gas, composed of kinematically cold (velocity dispersion 100 km s-1) diffuse emission, that extend out to at least ˜ 50 {kpc} from the galaxy center. The ionized {{H}}α -emitting gas in the disk rotates with the stars out to ˜6 kpc but, in the disk outskirts, it becomes increasingly redshifted with respect to the (undisturbed) stellar disk. The observed disturbances are consistent with the presence of gas trailing behind the stellar component resulting from intense face-on RPS along the line of sight. Our kinematic analysis is consistent with the estimated fraction of lost gas and reveals that stripping of the disk happens outside-in, causing shock heating and gas compression in the stripped tails.

  8. Fabrication of human hair keratin/jellyfish collagen/eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: From waste to regenerative medicine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yavuz Emre; Sezgin Arslan, Tugba; Derkus, Burak; Emregul, Emel; Emregul, Kaan C

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we aimed at fabricating an osteoinductive biocomposite scaffold using keratin obtained from human hair, jellyfish collagen and eggshell-derived nano-sized spherical hydroxyapatite (nHA) for bone tissue engineering applications. Keratin, collagen and nHA were characterized with the modified Lowry method, free-sulfhydryl groups and hydroxyproline content analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) which confirmed the success of the extraction and/or isolation processes. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were isolated and the cell surface markers were characterized via flow cytometry analysis in addition to multilineage differentiation capacity. The undifferentiated hAMSCs were highly positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, but were not seen to express hematopoietic cell surface markers such as CD14, CD34 and CD45. The cells were successfully directed towards osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages in vitro. The microarchitecture of the scaffolds and cell attachment were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cell viability on the scaffolds was assessed by the MTT assay which revealed no evidence of cytotoxicity. The osteogenic differentiation of hAMSCs on the scaffolds was determined histologically using alizarin red S, osteopontin and osteonectin stainings. Early osteogenic differentiation markers of hAMSCs were significantly expressed on the collagen-keratin-nHA scaffolds. In conclusion, it is believed that collagen-keratin-nHA osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds have the potential of being used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Need of Reactor Dosimetry Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, Krassimira

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear safety requirements and philosophy have changed by the development of new nuclear systems and this imposes special research and development activity. Reactor dosimetry which is applied for determination of neutron field parameters and neutron flux responses in different regions of the reactor system plays an important role in determining of radiation exposure on reactor system elements as reactor vessel, internals, shielding; dose determination for material damage study; for conditioning of irradiation; dose determination for medicine and industry application; induced activity determination for decommissioning purposes. The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. (author)

  10. Correlation-Preserving Photo Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingjie; Zhang, Hongjie; Jing, Guangmei; Guo, Yanwen; Chen, Zhonggui; Wang, Wenping

    2017-05-12

    A new method is presented for producing photo collages that preserve content correlation of photos. We use deep learning techniques to find correlation among given photos to facilitate their embedding on the canvas, and develop an efficient combinatorial optimization technique to make correlated photos stay close to each other. To make efficient use of canvas space, our method first extracts salient regions of photos and packs only these salient regions. We allow the salient regions to have arbitrary shapes, therefore yielding informative, yet more compact collages than by other similar collage methods based on salient regions. We present extensive experimental results, user study results, and comparisons against the state-of-the-art methods to show the superiority of our method.

  11. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...... data is anonymized in the system using data cloaking and data swapping techniques. Finally, the paper empirically demonstrates that the proposed system is effective and feasible....

  12. Radiations to preserve world heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurel, T.

    2017-01-01

    This article details the use of radiation to preserve the archaeological and artistic heritage. Gamma radiations are used to kill living organisms (insects, fungi and moulds) and to solidify styren-polyester resins that may be injected in wood items to reinforce them. Neutron irradiations are used to reveal the structure of an item and to get information on the materials the item is made of. Both irradiations are non-destructive. Carbon 14 dating is efficient to age items but beyond 50.000 years the method becomes ineffective and other methods like thermoluminescence take over. For instance it is the thermoluminescence method applied on flints found on the Jebel Irhoud site (Morocco) that has allowed to push back the age of the first Homo Sapiens by 100.000 years to reach 300.000 years. (A.C.)

  13. [Chemotherapy and women fertility preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Tristan; Piver, Pascal; Durand, Lise-Marie; Donadel, Lorène; Pech, Jean-Christophe; Roux, Christophe; Aubard, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Agressive chemotherapy can lead to premature ovarian failure and loss of fertility in women and children. Embryo cryopreservation is an established clinical procedure of fertility preservation but with several limitations. Others options are available. Cryopreservation ovarian cortex tissu have to be suggested in case of high gonadotoxic treatment. It doesn't require puberty and delay in initiation of chemotherapy. The first birth in France after orthotopic graft of ovarian tissu thawed have been recently described with a promising process. Oocyte cryopreservation is available for women without partner but the experience is limited. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy as ovarian protectants seem interesting. Follicular growth and maturation in vitro are still experimental. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  15. Preserving experience through expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, J.B.; Weidman, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems technology, one of the branches in the field of computerized artificial intelligence, has existed for >30 yr but only recently has been made available on commercially standard hardware and software platforms. An expert system can be defined as any method of encoding knowledge by representing that knowledge as a collection of facts or objects. Decisions are made by the expert program by obtaining data about the problem or situation and correlating encoded facts (knowledge) to the data until a conclusion can be reached. Such conclusions can be relayed to the end user as expert advice. Realizing the potential of this technology, General Electric (GE) Nuclear Energy (GENE) has initiated a development program in expert systems applications; this technology offers the potential for packaging, distributing, and preserving nuclear experience in a software form. The paper discusses application fields, effective applications, and knowledge acquisition and knowledge verification

  16. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    with any other entity, including the service provider. Such privacy concerns lead to trust issues between entities, which clearly damages the functioning of the service and even blocks cooperation between entities with similar data sets. To enable joint efforts with private data, we propose a protocol......, or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner....

  17. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  18. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory...

  19. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  20. Towards Building a Blog Preservation Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Kasioumis, Nikos; Kalb, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Social media content and user participation has increased dramatically since the advent of Web 2.0. Blogs have become relevant to every aspect of business and personal life. Nevertheless, we do not have the right tools to aggregate and preserve blog content correctly, as well as to manage blog archives effectively. Given the rising importance of blogs, it is crucial to build systems to facilitate blog preservation, safeguarding an essential part of our heritage that will prove valuable for current and future generations. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards building a novel blog preservation platform featuring robust digital preservation, management and dissemination facilities for blogs. This work is part of the BlogForever project which is aiming to make an impact to the theory and practice of blog preservation by creating guidelines and software that any individual or organization could use to preserve their blogs.

  1. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  2. Managing the financial cost of exception to contracting standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    In managing financial cost of exception to contracting standards, the first step is to put up an intelligent contract standards exception monitoring system The next step is to maintain tailor-made, fair and transparent contracting standards The third step is to eliminate unnecessary information...... and repetitiveness in contracting standards The fourth step is to enable your organization and the customers or suppliers to handle the necessary exceptions themselves Finally you should consider the use of independent contracting standards and elimination of your own standards as a tool in managing the cost...

  3. Conceptual Paper: Digital Preservation Strategies in Archival Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Adila; Bullah Affandy Habee

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the overall overview of concept of preservation regardless if it is preservation of physical records/archives or digital records/archives is discussed. The concept of the preservation discussed includes preventive preservation, restorative preservation, and content preservation. Then the concept of digital preservation. Furthermore, this paper highlighted the strategies and methods used in implementing the preservation of digital records/archives. The issues those are involved ...

  4. [Safety and efficacy of a new preservative-free levocabastine ophthalmic solution (Levofree®) using the conjunctival provocation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, C; Siou-Mermet, R; Bassols, A

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of preservative-free levocabastine 0.05 % ophthalmic solution compared to placebo (vehicle) and to preserved levocabastine 0.05 % ophthalmic suspension in the prevention of allergic conjunctivitis induced by a conjunctival provocation test. Ninety-two subjects (18-50 years) with a previous history of allergic conjunctivitis to pollen were randomised to receive either preservative-free levocabastine solution in one eye and preserved levocabastine suspension in the fellow eye (n=69), or preservative-free levocabastine in one eye and placebo in the fellow eye (n=23). One drop of each product was administered 10 minutes (visit 3) and 4 hours (visit 4) prior to the provocation test. The primary efficacy criterion was the sum of the itching and conjunctival hyperemia scores assessed at 3, 5 and 10 minutes after the provocation test. The safety evaluation included adverse events, visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure and study drug drop sensation. The efficacy of the preservative-free solution was significantly higher than that of placebo at all time points (P≤0.01) with one exception at visit 4 (3 minutes after the provocation test). It was significantly higher than that of the preserved suspension at visit 3, and equivalent at visit 4. The incidence of adverse events was lower with the preservative-free solution than with the preserved suspension. 94.2 % and 95.7 % subjects rated preservative-free levocabastine drop sensation as "good" or "very good" at visits 3 and 4 respectively, whereas these rates were 68.1 % and 63.8 % with preserved levocabastine. This difference between the two formulations was highly statistically significant (Ppreservative-free levocabastine was superior to that of the placebo and of the preserved suspension at visit 3, at least as effective as the preserved suspension at visit 4, and better tolerated at each visit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Privacy Preservation in Distributed Subgradient Optimization Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Youcheng; Yu, Lean; Wang, Shouyang

    2015-01-01

    Privacy preservation is becoming an increasingly important issue in data mining and machine learning. In this paper, we consider the privacy preserving features of distributed subgradient optimization algorithms. We first show that a well-known distributed subgradient synchronous optimization algorithm, in which all agents make their optimization updates simultaneously at all times, is not privacy preserving in the sense that the malicious agent can learn other agents' subgradients asymptotic...

  6. Knowledge preservation strategies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruna, S.; Bachmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently facing several challenges. An internal threat to the safety and operations of nuclear power plants is the loss of those employees who hold knowledge that is either critical to operations or safety. This report discusses the possibilities to preserve knowledge in nuclear power plants. Dependent on the degree of tacitness two different knowledge preservation strategies can be discerned: personalization and codification. The knowledge preservation activities discussed are valued according to the criteria: cost, immediacy of availability and completeness

  7. ACHP | Sustainability and Historic Preservation Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preservation) Solar Panels Incorporating Solar Panels in a Rehabilitation Project (National Park Service ) Installing Solar Panels on Historic Buildings: A Survey of the Regulatory Environment (Department of Energy

  8. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...

  10. 32 CFR 644.86 - Exceptions and reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, public highways, public utilities, railroads and pipelines,” and “to the reservations, exceptions... or District Engineer, such as requirement to install the pipeline underground and at a specified...

  11. Vulnerability of historical masonry buildings under exceptional actions

    OpenAIRE

    Florio, Gilda

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the vulnerability assessment of historical masonry buildings under exceptional actions. In order to develop the study, the structural performance of masonry aggregates and isolated monumental buildings under extreme loading condition have been investigated.

  12. Vendors: Gifts Are the Exception to the Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    Informal interviews with several people working in different industries reveal that, without exception, the vendors say companies do not routinely offer school officials gifts and entertainment to sway purchasing decisions, but that it does happen. (MLF)

  13. 15 CFR 732.4 - Steps regarding License Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General Prohibition Six (Embargo), consult part 746 of the EAR for applicable License Exceptions. (b... export or reexport is subject to General Prohibition Six (Embargo) for embargoed destinations, License...

  14. 49 CFR 89.7 - Exceptions to delegated authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... not apply to any claim: (a) As to which there is an indication of (1) fraud; (2) the presentation of a... the claim; (b) Based on tax statutes; or (c) Arising from an exception made by the General Accounting...

  15. Framing charitable donations as exceptional expenses increases giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Abigail B; Sharma, Eesha; Alter, Adam L

    2015-06-01

    Many articles have examined the psychological drivers of charitable giving, but little is known about how people mentally budget for charitable gifts. The present research aims to address this gap by investigating how perceptions of donations as exceptional (uncommon and infrequent) rather than ordinary (common and frequent) expenses might affect budgeting for and giving to charity. We provide the first demonstration that exceptional framing of an identical item can directly influence mental budgeting processes, and yield societal benefits. In 5 lab and field experiments, exceptional framing increased charitable behavior, and diminished the extent to which people considered the effect of the donation on their budgets. The current work extends our understanding of mental accounting and budgeting for charitable gifts, and demonstrates practical techniques that enable fundraisers to enhance the perceived exceptionality of donations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Stark laws and fair market value exceptions: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebrasse, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    This article will focus on one aspect of complexity in modern healthcare, namely the implications of Stark laws and other fraud and abuse provisions, including anti-kickback statutes and HIPAA. Also, this article explores the prevalence of fair market value as an exception in the Stark laws and discusses the meanings of those exceptions. Finally, the article explores basic approaches to assessing fair market value, including cost, income, and marketing approaches.

  17. Making operations on standard-library containers strongly exception safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    -library containers to provide the strong guarantee of exception safety, instead of the default guarantee, without violating the stringent performance requirements specified in the C++ standard. In particular, we show that every strongly exception-safe operation on dynamic arrays and ordered dictionaries is only...... a constant factor slower than the corresponding default-guarantee operation. In terms of the amount of space, the overhead introduced is linear in the number of elements stored....

  18. THE EXCEPTION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALITY RAISED BEFORE AN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen HURUBÃ; Luminita GABURA

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper work is to determine whether the Constitutional Court of Romania could be notified by international tribunals in relation to cases tried under Romanian law. On 5 March 2013 the Constitutional Court of Romania decided, for the first time, on a case concerning an exception of unconstitutionality raised before an international tribunal of commercial arbitration. The exception of unconstitutionality of a Government Emergency Ordinance was raised in an arbitration case pe...

  19. Fertility Preservation for Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diane; Simons, Lisa; Johnson, Emilie K; Lockart, Barbara A; Finlayson, Courtney

    2017-07-01

    To describe fertility preservation (FP) utilization by transgender adolescents within a pediatric gender clinic between July 2013 and July 2016. A retrospective chart review was conducted to abstract demographic and clinical information among adolescents initiating gender-affirming hormones, including patient age at initial FP consultation, birth-assigned sex, race/ethnicity, and outcome of FP consultation. In our sample of 105 transgender adolescents, a total of 13 (seven transgender men and six transgender women) between the age of 14.2 and 20.6 years were seen in formal consultation for FP before initiating hormones. Of these adolescents, four completed sperm cryopreservation and one completed oocyte cryopreservation. Rates of FP utilization among transgender youth were low, which is consistent with a recently published report of FP utilization among transgender youth at another pediatric institution. Identified barriers to FP in our sample included cost, invasiveness of procedures, and desire not to delay medical transition. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preserving Data for Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macduff, M.; Sivaraman, C.

    2017-12-01

    The EERE Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) program established the Data Archive and Portal (DAP) to ensure the long-term preservation and access to A2e research data. The DAP has been operated by PNNL for 2 years with data from more than a dozen projects and 1PB of data and hundreds of datasets expected to be stored this year. The data are a diverse mix of model runs, observational data, and dervived products. While most of the data is public, the DAP has securely stored many proprietary data sets provided by energy producers that are critical to the research goals of the A2e program. The DAP uses Amazon Web Services (AWS) and PNNL resources to provide long-term archival and access to the data with appropriate access controls. As a key element of the DAP, metadata are collected for each dataset to assist with data discovery and usefulness of the data. Further, the DAP has begun a process of standardizing observation data into NetCDF, which allows users to focus on the data instead of parsing the many formats. Creating a central repository that is in tune with the unique needs of the A2e research community is helping active tasks today as well as making many future research efforts possible. In this presentation, we provide an overview the DAP capabilities and benefits to the renewable energy community.

  1. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  2. Endothelial cell preservation at hypothermic to normothermic conditions using clinical and experimental organ preservation solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Ivo C. J. H.; de Boon, Wadim M. I.; Heger, Michal; van Wijk, Albert C. W. A.; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial barrier function is pivotal for the outcome of organ transplantation. Since hypothermic preservation (gold standard) is associated with cold-induced endothelial damage, endothelial barrier function may benefit from organ preservation at warmer temperatures. We therefore assessed

  3. 21 CFR 50.23 - Exception from general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... person directing that the specimen be collected to know, at the time the specimen was collected, that... system is capable of tracking and will be used to track the proposed treatment from supplier to the... investigator (e.g., clinical laboratory director or other responsible person), required to preserve the life of...

  4. Anuran artifacts of preservation: 27 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Deichmann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements made on preserved anuran specimens are often used in studies of systematics, ecology and evolution. Here, we examine the effect of preservation on one of the most common measurement of frogs, snout-urostyle length (SUL. Preservation had significanteffects on the SUL of 13 of the 14 species of North American frogs included in this study, with all species decreasing in SUL by 0.31-5.62%. Smaller frog species did not shrink proportionally more or less than larger species. Absolute shrinkage was correlated with SUL and was greater in larger species. Within species, percent shrinkage was not significantly correlated with SUL in 10 species, but significantly greater for larger individuals in 3 species, and decreased with size in 1 species. Absolute shrinkage was statistically greater for larger individuals in 4 species. Our results agree with studies of morphological permutations in fish which show that most preservation-related changes take place within the first few months after initial preservation. We suggest that the potential consequences of using preserved specimens in research must be considered and that future studies continue to examine preservation effects, not only on frogs, but on all preserved specimens used in scientific investigations.

  5. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanini, S.

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation

  6. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  7. Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district, Kenya. ... Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing ...

  8. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall...

  9. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638.304 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of...

  10. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  11. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  12. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4 °C, normothermia at 37 °C and subnormothermia at 20 °C-25 °C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the “state of the art” and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  13. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  14. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu ... Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Patient Pocket Guides Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility ...

  15. Knowledge preservation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents examples of knowledge loss in different areas related to attrition, retirements or layoff as well as the consequences of the loss of knowledge. The nature of the so called tacit knowledge and its role as a barrier to knowledge preservation is discussed. Strategies for knowledge preservation in the nuclear industry are presented

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers ... Visit the Oncofertility Consortium Web site Use the online Clinic/Center Finder to find the fertility preservation ...

  17. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  18. The exceptional generalised geometry of supersymmetric AdS flux backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7589,LPTHE, 75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-29

    We analyse generic AdS flux backgrounds preserving eight supercharges in D=4 and D=5 dimensions using exceptional generalised geometry. We show that they are described by a pair of globally defined, generalised structures, identical to those that appear for flat flux backgrounds but with different integrability conditions. We give a number of explicit examples of such “exceptional Sasaki-Einstein” backgrounds in type IIB supergravity and M-theory. In particular, we give the complete analysis of the generic AdS{sub 5} M-theory backgrounds. We also briefly discuss the structure of the moduli space of solutions. In all cases, one structure defines a “generalised Reeb vector” that generates a Killing symmetry of the background corresponding to the R-symmetry of the dual field theory, and in addition encodes the generic contact structures that appear in the D=4 M-theory and D=5 type IIB cases. Finally, we investigate the relation between generalised structures and quantities in the dual field theory, showing that the central charge and R-charge of BPS wrapped-brane states are both encoded by the generalised Reeb vector, as well as discussing how volume minimisation (the dual of a- and F-maximisation) is encoded.

  19. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling...

  20. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  1. Preservation of the Rotorua geysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allia, R.G.; Lumb, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the preservation of the Rotorua Geysers the geothermal activity at Rotorua, New Zealand, which has always been noted for its special cultural, tourist, and scientific values. A gradual increase in the drawoff of geothermal fluid through wells since the 1950s raised national concerns in the early 1980s when spring and geyser activity significantly declined. A government-funded monitoring program began in 1982 to establish the rate and cause of the decline in activity, as well as the magnitude of the drawoff. No new wells were permitted within 1.5 km of the geyser area. By late 1985, the monitoring program confirmed that drawdown of the geothermal field was linked to the drawoff by geothermal wells. It recommended that the drawoff could be reduced by 75% by well sharing and efficiency increases. The link between well discharges and the activity of thermal decline was disputed by the Rotorua Geothermal Users Association. By late 1986, the continuing decline in field pressure was considered to be serious, so the Government recommended compulsory closure of wells within 1.5 km of the geysers, and imposed a charging policy for geothermal usage elsewhere in Rotorua. The closures were battled in the High Court, and subsequently there was also considerable local resistance and publicity to the forced entry onto private land by authorities trying to cement up wells. The combination of enforced well closures, and what was considered by some to be punitive charges for geothermal usage, resulted in an 80% reduction in geothermal well discharges by late 1989. Some of hot spring activity has returned, and geyser activity is more intense. Recently, some residents have been concerned that cooled former thermal areas near houses may be heating up again, and that the well closures have also caused a dangerous build up in gas pressure near surface. This claim is presently being investigated

  2. Pre-exposure to simultaneous, but not individual, climate change stressors limits acclimation capacity of Irukandji jellyfish polyps to predicted climate scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have investigated the immediate effects of end-of-century climate change scenarios on many marine species, yet it remains unclear whether we can reliably predict how marine species may respond to future conditions because biota may become either more or less resistant over time. Here, we examined the role of pre-exposure to elevated temperature and reduced pH in mitigating the potential negative effects of future ocean conditions on polyps of a dangerous Irukandji jellyfish Alatina alata. We pre-exposed polyps to elevated temperature (28 °C) and reduced pH (7.6), in a full factorial experiment that ran for 14 d. We secondarily exposed original polyps and their daughter polyps to either current (pH 8.0, 25 °C) or future conditions (pH 7.6, 28 °C) for a further 34 d to assess potential phenotypic plastic responses and whether asexual offspring could benefit from parental pre-exposure. Polyp fitness was characterised as asexual reproduction, respiration, feeding, and protein concentrations. Pre-exposure to elevated temperature alone partially mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness, while pre-exposure to reduced pH in isolation completely mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness. Pre-exposure to the dual stressors, however, reduced fitness under future conditions relative to those in the control treatment. Under future conditions, polyps had higher respiration rates regardless of the conditions they were pre-exposed to, suggesting that metabolic rates will be higher under future conditions. Parent and daughter polyps responded similarly to the various treatments tested, demonstrating that parental pre-exposure did not confer any benefit to asexual offspring under future conditions. Importantly, we demonstrate that while pre-exposure to the stressors individually may allow Irukandji polyps to acclimate over short timescales, the stressors are unlikely to occur in isolation in the long term, and

  3. Pre-exposure to simultaneous, but not individual, climate change stressors limits acclimation capacity of Irukandji jellyfish polyps to predicted climate scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Shannon G.

    2017-05-20

    Researchers have investigated the immediate effects of end-of-century climate change scenarios on many marine species, yet it remains unclear whether we can reliably predict how marine species may respond to future conditions because biota may become either more or less resistant over time. Here, we examined the role of pre-exposure to elevated temperature and reduced pH in mitigating the potential negative effects of future ocean conditions on polyps of a dangerous Irukandji jellyfish Alatina alata. We pre-exposed polyps to elevated temperature (28 °C) and reduced pH (7.6), in a full factorial experiment that ran for 14 d. We secondarily exposed original polyps and their daughter polyps to either current (pH 8.0, 25 °C) or future conditions (pH 7.6, 28 °C) for a further 34 d to assess potential phenotypic plastic responses and whether asexual offspring could benefit from parental pre-exposure. Polyp fitness was characterised as asexual reproduction, respiration, feeding, and protein concentrations. Pre-exposure to elevated temperature alone partially mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness, while pre-exposure to reduced pH in isolation completely mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness. Pre-exposure to the dual stressors, however, reduced fitness under future conditions relative to those in the control treatment. Under future conditions, polyps had higher respiration rates regardless of the conditions they were pre-exposed to, suggesting that metabolic rates will be higher under future conditions. Parent and daughter polyps responded similarly to the various treatments tested, demonstrating that parental pre-exposure did not confer any benefit to asexual offspring under future conditions. Importantly, we demonstrate that while pre-exposure to the stressors individually may allow Irukandji polyps to acclimate over short timescales, the stressors are unlikely to occur in isolation in the long term, and

  4. Pre-exposure to simultaneous, but not individual, climate change stressors limits acclimation capacity of Irukandji jellyfish polyps to predicted climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2017-09-01

    Researchers have investigated the immediate effects of end-of-century climate change scenarios on many marine species, yet it remains unclear whether we can reliably predict how marine species may respond to future conditions because biota may become either more or less resistant over time. Here, we examined the role of pre-exposure to elevated temperature and reduced pH in mitigating the potential negative effects of future ocean conditions on polyps of a dangerous Irukandji jellyfish Alatina alata. We pre-exposed polyps to elevated temperature (28 °C) and reduced pH (7.6), in a full factorial experiment that ran for 14 d. We secondarily exposed original polyps and their daughter polyps to either current (pH 8.0, 25 °C) or future conditions (pH 7.6, 28 °C) for a further 34 d to assess potential phenotypic plastic responses and whether asexual offspring could benefit from parental pre-exposure. Polyp fitness was characterised as asexual reproduction, respiration, feeding, and protein concentrations. Pre-exposure to elevated temperature alone partially mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness, while pre-exposure to reduced pH in isolation completely mitigated the negative effects of future conditions on polyp fitness. Pre-exposure to the dual stressors, however, reduced fitness under future conditions relative to those in the control treatment. Under future conditions, polyps had higher respiration rates regardless of the conditions they were pre-exposed to, suggesting that metabolic rates will be higher under future conditions. Parent and daughter polyps responded similarly to the various treatments tested, demonstrating that parental pre-exposure did not confer any benefit to asexual offspring under future conditions. Importantly, we demonstrate that while pre-exposure to the stressors individually may allow Irukandji polyps to acclimate over short timescales, the stressors are unlikely to occur in isolation in the long term, and

  5. From Wakeful Nights to the Occupation of Schools: State of Exception, Subjectivity and Social Rights in Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Lerena Misailidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New social movements are occupying the public space. They are watching the preservation of human rights and are reinventing politics. The article is a contribution for the discussion of the state of exception and the subjectivity of the exercise of citizenship as a praxis to defend social human rights. Inspired by Luís Alberto Warat, the text treats the problem within a critical view of law based on the psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan. So, the state of anomia present in globalization is treated within a dialectical perspective: bears totalitarian violence and the chance for reinvention of rights.

  6. Obama’s Dual Discourse on American Exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaz Miloš

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the highly contested concept of American exceptionalism, as described in the speeches of Barak Obama. The authors of the paper use discourse analysis to show that Obama is using the idea of American exceptionalism on two levels: US foreign policy and the US stance towards international law. Our conclusion is that Obama uses an implicit dual discourse in both these fields. Obama favours active US foreign policy, based on soft power instruments and multilateralism. He insists that American exceptionalism does not mean that the US can exempt itself from the norms of international law, however, he does not think the US should always have a very active foreign policy. He makes room for unilateral acting and the use of hard power instruments in foreign policy. He allows for the use of force even if is not in accordance with the norms of international law, when US national interests are threatened.

  7. Exceptional points enhance sensing in an optical microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijian; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Zhao, Guangming; Wiersig, Jan; Yang, Lan

    2017-08-01

    Sensors play an important part in many aspects of daily life such as infrared sensors in home security systems, particle sensors for environmental monitoring and motion sensors in mobile phones. High-quality optical microcavities are prime candidates for sensing applications because of their ability to enhance light-matter interactions in a very confined volume. Examples of such devices include mechanical transducers, magnetometers, single-particle absorption spectrometers, and microcavity sensors for sizing single particles and detecting nanometre-scale objects such as single nanoparticles and atomic ions. Traditionally, a very small perturbation near an optical microcavity introduces either a change in the linewidth or a frequency shift or splitting of a resonance that is proportional to the strength of the perturbation. Here we demonstrate an alternative sensing scheme, by which the sensitivity of microcavities can be enhanced when operated at non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies known as exceptional points. In our experiments, we use two nanoscale scatterers to tune a whispering-gallery-mode micro-toroid cavity, in which light propagates along a concave surface by continuous total internal reflection, in a precise and controlled manner to exceptional points. A target nanoscale object that subsequently enters the evanescent field of the cavity perturbs the system from its exceptional point, leading to frequency splitting. Owing to the complex-square-root topology near an exceptional point, this frequency splitting scales as the square root of the perturbation strength and is therefore larger (for sufficiently small perturbations) than the splitting observed in traditional non-exceptional-point sensing schemes. Our demonstration of exceptional-point-enhanced sensitivity paves the way for sensors with unprecedented sensitivity.

  8. Confinement in F4 Exceptional Gauge Group Using Domain Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh; Shahlaei, Amir

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the potential between static quarks in the fundamental representation of the F4 exceptional gauge group using domain structures of the thick center vortex model. As non-trivial center elements are absent, the asymptotic string tension is lost while an intermediate linear potential is observed. SU(2) is a subgroup of F4. Investigating the decomposition of the 26 dimensional representation of F4 to the SU(2) representations, might explain what accounts for the intermediate linear potential, in the exceptional groups with no center element.

  9. Use of glycerol-preserved corneas for corneal transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using “GPC” during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration of preservation of the GPC, and its outcome were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: Out of the 222 penetrating keratoplasty (PKP performed over the study period, the GPC was used in 34 patients (males = 31, 91.2% aged 15–74 years. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed in all cases in this cohort except one in which tectonic keratoplasty was done. The primary indication of PKP (91.2% was infectious keratitis. Of these, 20 (64.5% patients presented with perforated corneal ulcers. Post-PKP, ocular anatomy was preserved in 91.2%, and visual acuity of perception of light positive and accurate projection of rays in all the quadrants was obtained in 76.5% cases. Complications included glaucoma (n = 12, 35.1%, phthisis bulbi (n = 2, 5.9%, and graft reinfection and endophthalmitis after PKP (n = 1, 2.9%. The secondary procedure post-GPC and PKP were trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (n = 7, 58.3% in patients not controlled on topical antiglaucoma medication. Optical keratoplasty was performed in (n = 3 8.8% patients and triple procedure in (n = 2 5.8% patients with good visual acuity postprocedure. Conclusions: Acellular GPCs are useful in emergency keratoplasty to avoid loss of vision and can save the eye.

  10. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd [Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 141, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  11. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-01-01

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too

  12. 7 CFR 305.17 - Authorized treatments; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized treatments; exceptions. 305.17 Section 305.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Libya, Malta, Macedonia, Morocco, Sardinia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, and...

  13. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than certification...

  14. The Acceptance of Exceptionality: A Three Dimensional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry L.; Nivens, Maryruth K.

    A model extrapolates from E. Kubler-Ross' conception of the stages of grief to apply to parent and family reactions when an exceptionality is identified. A chart lists possible parent feelings and reactions, possible school reactions to the parent in grief, and the child's reactions during each of five stages: denial, rage and anger, bargaining,…

  15. 15 CFR 700.80 - Adjustments or exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS... exceptions. (a) A person may submit a request to the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, U... interim relief is granted in writing by the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security. (d) A...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3221-4 - Exception from supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception from supplemental tax. 31.3221-4...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3221...

  17. 24 CFR 203.41 - Free assumability; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise provided in the HOME Investment Partnerships (HOME) and the Homeownership and Opportunity for... limitations applicable in the jurisdiction. (3) Except as otherwise required by the HOME and HOPE programs... that the holder of the right of entry for condition broken also executes the mortgage, and that the...

  18. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-2 - Closer connection exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Duration and nature of tax home. The tax home maintained by the alien individual must be in existence for... exception. (a) In general. An alien individual who meets the substantial presence test may nevertheless be considered a nonresident alien for the current year if the following conditions are satisfied— (1) The...

  19. Brazil's Exception to the World-Class University Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The continued importance of university rankings has only served to fuel the growth of the "world-class" university movement. There is a growing impression that, in a globalised and interconnected world, no country can do without a world-class university. No country, that is, except Brazil. While Brazil has the resources necessary to…

  20. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  1. Non-Trade Concerns in Interpreting General Exception Clauses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Primarily, the objective of the measure must fall within the scope of any of the ... Balancing the Toothless Tiger and the Undermining Mole”, Journal of ..... listed in the exception clauses, there is a significant risk for abuse if they are left.

  2. 76 FR 70975 - Petition Requesting Exception From Lead Content Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... information provided, to http://www.regulations.gov . Do not submit confidential business information, trade... of divisions: Scale Models and Dyersville Die Cast (``petitioner''), submitted a petition requesting an exception from the lead content limit of 100 ppm under section 101(b) of the CPSIA for its die...

  3. Control of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Piotr Marek; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Various ways of controlling the extent of the ring of exceptional points in photonic crystal slabs are investigated. The extent of the ring in photonic crystal slabs is found to vary with the thickness of the slab. This enables recovery of Dirac cones in open, non-Hermitian systems, such as a pho...

  4. Computer Use and Behavior Problems in Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela; Miley, Neal; Seckinger, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated how engagement with computer games and TV exposure may affect behaviors of gifted students. We also compared behavioral and cognitive profiles of twice-exceptional students and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gifted students were divided into those with behavioral problems and those…

  5. 19 CFR 134.33 - J-List exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... planed, tongued and grooved T.D.s 49750; 50366(6). Flowers, artificial, except bunches. Flowers, cut... dimensions, shape or form. Monuments. Nails, spikes, and staples. Natural products, such as vegetables...) T.D. 49750. Skins, fur, dressed or dyed. Skins, raw fur. Sponges. Springs, watch. Stamps, postage...

  6. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor, stromal tumor, adenocarcinoma ...

  7. Generalized Fano lineshapes reveal exceptional points in photonic molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, N.; Intonti, F.; La China, Federico; Biccari, F.; Riboli, F.; Gerardino, A.; Li, L.; Linfield, E.H.; Pagliano, F.; Fiore, A.; Gurioli, M.

    2018-01-01

    The optical behavior of coupled systems, in which the breaking of parity and time-reversal symmetry occurs, is drawing increasing attention to address the physics of the exceptional point singularity, i.e., when the real and imaginary parts of the normal-mode eigenfrequencies coincide. At this

  8. Exceptional Lie groups, E-infinity theory and Higgs Boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Okaby, Ayman A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the correlation between El-Naschie's exceptional Lie groups hierarchies and his transfinite E-infinity space-time theory. Subsequently this correlation is used to calculate the number of elementary particles in the standard model, mass of the Higgs Bosons and some coupling constants

  9. An Exception Handling Service for Software Agent Ensembles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ... (I) the creation of better contingent contracts between agents (both human and software- based) as well as (2) exception-handling agents that monitor MAS for problem symptoms, diagnose the underlying problems, and intervene as appropriate to avoid or resolve these problems.

  10. Leading Change: How Boards and Presidents Build Exceptional Academic Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTaggart, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    In a time of transformation in higher education, "Leading Change: How Boards and Presidents Build Exceptional Institutions" fills a significant void in leadership literature and focuses on the changing level of board engagement. This book examines 18 institutions, across the spectrum of higher education, at which the board played a…

  11. 26 CFR 1.1245-4 - Exceptions and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the property in the hands of the son is $110,000. (b) Exception for transfers at death—(1) General... property which, upon Smith's death, is inherited by his son. Since the property is described in section..., and after B's death to distribute the property to C. If the basis of the property to the fiduciary and...

  12. 46 CFR 520.13 - Exemptions and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.13 Exemptions and exceptions. (a) General. Exemptions from the requirements of this... for the purpose of sale. (ii) British Columbia and Puget Sound Ports; rail cars—(A) Through rates. Transportation by water of cargo moving in rail cars between British Columbia, Canada and United States ports on...

  13. Multiply Degenerate Exceptional Points and Quantum Phase Transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borisov, D.; Růžička, František; Znojil, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2015), s. 4293-4305 ISSN 0020-7748 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * Cryptohermitian observbles * spectra and pseudospectra * real exceptional points * phase transitions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2015

  14. 26 CFR 1.461-5 - Recurring item exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a taxpayer using an accrual method... method of accounting for one or more types of recurring items incurred by the taxpayer. In the case of... basis in the future. (4) Materiality requirement. For purposes of this paragraph (b): (i) In determining...

  15. 38 CFR 4.86 - Exceptional patterns of hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing impairment. 4.86 Section 4.86 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Impairment of Auditory Acuity § 4.86 Exceptional patterns of hearing impairment. (a) When the puretone threshold at each of the four specified...

  16. 31 CFR 206.5 - Collection and deposit procedure exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection and deposit procedure exceptions. 206.5 Section 206.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL...

  17. Technology and Media for Exceptional Learners: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Wayne D.

    1977-01-01

    The author points out the need for greater application of technology in educational programs for exceptional children and suggests ways in which new developments (such as computer applications, video, sensory compensation devices, and communication satellite technology) can be used to implement some of the requirements of Public Law 94-142. (IM)

  18. Length correction for early-juvenile Brazilian herring Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 after preservation in formalin, ethanol and freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim N. S. Santos

    Full Text Available This work aims to quantify the variation in total length and body mass for the early-juvenile Brazilian herring Sardinella janeiro and to determine total length and body mass correction equation to allow fresh measures to be calculated from preserved ones. Fishes were randomly assigned to one of five preservation methods (freezing at - 20º C, 2.5% and 5% formalin, 70% and 95% ethanol, and measured for total length (TL and body mass (W before preservation, and on days 5, 15, 30, and 60 after storage. Significant reductions in total length and body mass occurred during the first 5 days after preservation and continued to contract significantly at a lesser rate through 30 days in most methods. Exceptions were shown for body mass in freezing and 5% formalin, where the greatest losses occurred after 30 days of preservation. The degree of shrinkage for total length and body mass was very much dependent on fish size, with smaller specimens shrinking more than larger ones. The fresh total length and body mass can be back-calculated using equations that describe the relationship between fresh and preserved individuals after 60 days storage for all methods except for body mass in freezing.

  19. Cornea procurement, preservation and transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson Silva

    1999-01-01

    Our experience on this subject is 40 years and we have seen the developments everywhere during this total period. Cornea procurement has been an unsurmountable problem in a large number of countries, mostly due to social and cultural reasons. The requirements for a simple eye bank to manage the supply for a local hospital are minimal. What is the most important is the donor base. In Sri Lanka nurtured in the traditions of Theravada Buddhism the donor base was easy to prepare. We had no difficulties with Christians and Hindus. For Muslims there are Fatwas in favour of donating eyes. But we always found them to be a reluctant group. But in predominantly Muslim countries, it is imperative that social workers should take up this issue, so those thousands may be helped. In all areas where attempts are made to procure comeas, it is important to have a day-and-night service available at short notice to collect any eyes offered. A trained technician with sterilised instruments to obtain eyes and blood sample must be available at a convenient location preferably in a large hospital. Even in places where the supply is infrequent, it is essential to have the readily-sterilised instruments to proceed to a donor site at short notice. To get eyes, general publicity in mass media alone is not sufficient. Such publicity makes people aware of the need for donor eyes and where a technician/doctor is available. What is more important is to canvass personally after a person has died For this purpose trained social workers may be employed, or the technician can do the motivation, as we do in Sri Lanka. Once eyes are removed, it is essential to pay careful attention to the appearance of the cadaver. It should not (and need not) cause any deformity as such event has a profound negative effect on the campaign. Many different preservation methods have been used over the years. Mc Carey-Kaufmann (MK) medium has been the standard for many years, and gives a life span of 4-5 days. The formula

  20. Summary of the preservation techniques and the evolution of the anammox bacteria characteristics during preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2017-06-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is a promising wastewater treatment method for biological nitrogen removal. A sufficient amount of active anammox sludge as a seed is crucial to the fast establishment and stability of the anammox process. Anammox bacteria is a kind of microorganism which is sensitive to the environmental conditions, e.g., oxygen, temperature. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of the anammox bacteria are 30-40 °C and 6.7-8.3. A proper preservation technique allows fast start-up of the anammox process, overcoming the long doubling time of anammox biomass. The preservation of the anammox sludge is influenced by various factors, e.g., preservation techniques, duration, temperature, substrates, and protective agents. During preservation, the characteristics of the anammox biomass, including the bioactivity, heme c content, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and sludge morphology, change with time. The optimum preservation technique is not invariable and it depends on the purpose of preservation (precedence of bioactivity or quantity), the bacterial community, and other parameters. It is important for the preserved anammox biomass to achieve reactivation so that stable anammox reactors can be established as soon as possible. However, because the preservation process is complicated, the knowledge regarding preservation is far from complete, and much future work will be required to increase the understanding of preservation.