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Sample records for exceeded general population

  1. Prediction in Partial Duration Series With Generalized Pareto-Distributed Exceedances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan; Madsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter Funder

    1992-01-01

    As a generalization of the common assumption of exponential distribution of the exceedances in Partial duration series the generalized Pareto distribution has been adopted. Estimators for the parameters are presented using estimation by both method of moments and probability-weighted moments......-weighted moments. Maintaining the generalized Pareto distribution as the parent exceedance distribution the T-year event is estimated assuming the exceedances to be exponentially distributed. For moderately long-tailed exceedance distributions and small to moderate sample sizes it is found, by comparing mean...... square errors of the T-year event estimators, that the exponential distribution is preferable to the correct generalized Pareto distribution despite the introduced model error and despite a possible rejection of the exponential hypothesis by a test of significance. For moderately short-tailed exceedance...

  2. Prediction in Partial Duration Series With Generalized Pareto-Distributed Exceedances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan; Madsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter Funder

    1992-01-01

    As a generalization of the common assumption of exponential distribution of the exceedances in Partial duration series the generalized Pareto distribution has been adopted. Estimators for the parameters are presented using estimation by both method of moments and probability-weighted moments...... distributions (with physically justified upper limit) the correct exceedance distribution should be applied despite a possible acceptance of the exponential assumption by a test of significance....

  3. General aviation accidents related to exceedance of airplane weight/center of gravity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2016-06-01

    Obesity, affects a third of the US population and its corollary occupant weight adversely impacts safe flight operations. Increased aircraft weight results in longer takeoff/landing distances, degraded climb gradients and airframe failure may occur in turbulence. In this study, the rate, temporal changes, and lethality of accidents in piston-powered, general aviation aircraft related to exceeding the maximum aircraft weight/center of gravity (CG) limits were determined. Nation-wide person body mass were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The NTSB database was used to identify accidents related to operation of aircraft outside of their weight/CG envelope. Statistical analyses employed T-tests, proportion tests and a Poisson distribution. While the average body mass climbed steadily (p<0.001) between 1999 and 2014 the rate of accidents related to exceedance of the weight/CG limits did not change (p=0.072). However, 57% were fatal, higher (p<0.001) than the 21% for mishaps attributed to other causes/factors. The majority (77%) of accidents were due to an overloaded aircraft operating within its CG limits. As to the phase of flight, accidents during takeoff and those occurring enroute carried the lowest (50%) and highest (85%) proportion of fatal accidents respectively. While the rate of general aviation accidents related to operating an aircraft outside of its weight/CG envelope has not increased over the past 15 years, these types of accidents carry a high risk of fatality. Airmen should be educated as to such risks and to dispel the notion held by some that flights may be safely conducted with an overloaded aircraft within its CG limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling of snow exceedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Sadovský, Zoltán; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-07-01

    Modelling of snow exceedances is of great importance and interest for ecology, civil engineering and general public. We suggest the favorable fit for exceedances related to the exceptional snow loads from Slovakia, assuming that the data is driven by Generalised Pareto Distribution or Generalized Extreme Value Distribution. Further, the statistical dependence between the maximal snow loads and the corresponding altitudes is studied.

  5. Alexithymia in the German general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Matthias; Popp, Kerstin; Schaefer, Ralf; Sitte, Wolfgang; Schneider, Christine; Hardt, Jochen; Decker, Oliver; Braehler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    The Toronto-Alexithymia-Scale (TAS-20) is used worldwide as a valid measurement of alexithymia. Until now, population-based standardization and cut-off values of the German TAS-20 version have not been available. This study provides these by means of a representative German sample and by investigating the factorial structure of the TAS-20. Data were generated from a representative random sample of the German general population (1,859 subjects aged between 20 and 69). The TAS-20 sum score was normally distributed. The mean value was 49.5 (SD=9.3) in men and 48.2 (SD=9.2) in women. Divorce, single and low social status were associated with enhanced sum scores. Ten percent of the population exceeded the TAS-20 sum score threshold of >or=61. The 66th percentile reached 53 for men and 52 for women. Factor analysis identified three factors that match the scales of the English original version. An additional fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") was extracted. Total explanation of variance by these four factors was 52.27%. The sum score of the German TAS-20 version is suited for the standardized measure of alexithymia. For selecting alexithymic individuals in experimental studies, the cut-off >or=61 is possibly too restrictive. Therefore, we propose the 66th percentile for the identification of high alexithymics. The TAS-20 sum score is associated with important socio-demographic variables. The factorial structure is reliable; the fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") provides differentiation of content and allows for enhanced explanation of variance.

  6. Hemochromatosis mutations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rolf Vaern; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Appleyard, Merete

    2004-01-01

    The progression rate of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis in individuals in the general population is unknown. We therefore examined in the general population iron overload progression rate in C282Y homozygotes. Using a cohort study of the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City...... saturation and ferritin levels increased slightly in male and female C282Y homozygotes. None of the C282Y homozygotes developed clinically overt hemochromatosis. In conclusion, individuals in the general population with C282Y homozygosity at most demonstrate modest increases in transferrin saturation...

  7. Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huikuan Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population (18.1% and pediatric population (18.8% were significantly higher than that in general population (8.2%. Prevalence of constipation defined by non-Rome criteria was higher than that by Rome criteria in general population. Prevalence rates of constipation were different for different geographical area. People with less education were predisposed to constipation. In pediatric population, prevalence of constipation was the lowest in children aged 2–6 years. Prevalence of constipation in ethnic minorities was higher than that in Han people. People with constipation were predisposed to FD, haemorrhoid, and GERD. Only 22.2% patients seek medical advice in general population. Conclusions. In China, prevalence of constipation was lower compared with most of other countries. The factors including female gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, age, educational class, and race seemed to have major effects on prevalence of constipation.

  8. Paranormal experiences in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C A; Joshi, S

    1992-06-01

    The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to a random sample of 502 adults in the general population of Winnipeg, a midwestern Canadian city. Results showed that paranormal/extrasensory experiences were common in the general population. They were linked to a history of childhood trauma and to other dissociative symptom clusters. A factor analysis of the paranormal experiences identified three factors which together accounted for 44.0% of the combined variance of the scores. A model is proposed in which paranormal experiences are conceptualized as an aspect of normal dissociation. Like dissociation in general, paranormal experiences can be triggered by trauma, especially childhood physical or sexual abuse. Such experiences discriminate individuals with childhood trauma histories from those without at high levels of significance.

  9. Tobacco addiction in the psychiatric population and in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the degree of tobacco addiction and identify independently associated factors by comparing the psychiatric population of secondary and tertiary care with the general population of the primary healthcare network. Method: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study, conducted in a municipality of São Paulo, with 134 smokers of a Mental Health Outpatient Unit (MHOU, a Psychiatric Hospital (PH, and a Primary Healthcare Unit (PHU. Data were collected by means of individual interviews, recorded on a mobile device. Data were statistically processed using Stata/12 Results: Of the 134 participants, 54.5% were women. While 49.1% of the psychiatric population (MHOU/PH had medium/high nicotine addiction, 58.3% of smokers of the general population had very low/low dependency. The Poisson regression model indicated a higher prevalence of smokers with high dependence among men (PR = 1.41, people aged 49 years or less (15 - 29 years, PR = 4.06, 30 - 39 PR = 2.96 years, 40 - 49 years PR = 1.84, with severe mental disorders (PR = 3.05, with anxiety disorders/other (PR = 3.98, and with high suicide risk (PR = 1.55. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence was greater in the psychiatric population than in the general population. The independent factors associated with severe dependence were sex, age group, diagnosis, and current risk of suicide. These results trigger reflection among nurses on the need to focus more attention on a neglected subject in mental health services.

  10. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66 and self-reported (n = 313 hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995. High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  11. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...

  12. A general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Piter

    2011-12-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection.

  13. Attitudes of General Population and Physicians Towards Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mayda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess attitudes of general population and medical doctors towards alcohol addiction. Material and Method: 99 medical doctors who worked university hospitals, public hospitals or health centers and 101 people who selected from the community to represent the overall population enrolled in our study. All the participants were asked to anonymously complete a questinnaire about stigmatization, including questions assessing social distance, dangerousness and skillfullness. Results: Contrary to expectattions, there were not statistically significant differences in the attitudes of general poupulation and physicians towards alcohol dependences (all scales, p>0.05.Discussion: Both medical doctors and general population appear to have negative thoughts about alcohol dependence. New education strategies is developed in the field of general medical education and psychiatry in order to change negative attitudes towards alkohol addiction.

  14. Mortality by causes in HIV-infected adults: comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floristan Yugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups. Methods Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain. This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR. Results There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years. About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1 and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5. The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6, drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0, suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7, cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1 and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1. Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007. Conclusions Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.

  15. General siting regulation and population distribution criteria for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1983-01-01

    A new national regulation for nuclear power plant siting is described. The main body of the regulation is similar in contents to the IAEA Code of Practice in siting, but exceeds its scope in certain areas and covers all aspects of the impact of the plant on the population and the environment of the region, including non-radiological effects. The regulation is accompanied by appendices which refer to site suitability criteria with respect to the radiological consequences from the operational states of the plant and with respect to accidents, including core-melt accidents; these reflect the particular geographic and demographic situation of Greece

  16. Comparison of aesthetic perception of smile between dentists and general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, H.A.; Qazi, F.U.R.; Jat, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    To compare aesthetic perception of smile between general population and dentists by varying lengths of maxillary lateral incisors. Introduction: Patient perception and expectation of their smile plays a very important role when providing an anterior tooth restoration. The aim of conducting the study was to compare the perception of esthetic smile between general population and dentists by varying length of maxillary lateral incisors. Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A photograph of a female smile from frontal view was digitally altered to produce images with varying lengths of maxillary lateral incisor. These images were arranged in descending order; from most attractive to least attractive by the participants. The participants of the study included two groups; first group comprised of Dental Surgeons where as second group consisted of general population. Results: Evaluation of the results showed a significant difference in aesthetic perception of smile between the Dentist and general population. Conclusion: Perception of aesthetics is not similar between the dentists and the general population. (author)

  17. Personal values and self-esteem in general and clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60 and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60. The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments between the two groups. The clinical sample scored significantly lower in Self-esteem, Self- direction, Hedonism, and Openness to Change. For this reason, Pearson correlations were calculated in differential groups (clinical and general between the PVQ and the Self-esteem Scale. In the general population group self-esteem was associated to one value: Self-direction. In the clinical group, self-esteem was associated mainly to Self- direction, but also to Hedonism, Power and Security; and to the axis Self-promotion and Openness to Change. Both in the clinical and general population samples it was found a significant association between the interest in having independent thought, freedom of action and exploring with higher levels of self-esteem. 

  18. Personality disorders and smoking in Spanish general and clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Río, Elena; López Durán, Ana; Martinez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is consistent evidence about the relationship between smoking and mental health. This study compares the relationship between tobacco use and personality disorders (PDs) in Spanish adults from general and clinical population, taking into account nicotine dependence (ND), and the presence of any mental disorder. Method: The sample was made up of 1,079 smokers (519 from general population, 560 from clinical population). PDs were assessed by means of the Inter...

  19. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  20. Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar disorder in the general population: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record

  1. Working situation of cancer survivors versus the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the working situation of cancer survivors and the general (cancer-free) population and investigate characteristics associated with the increased likelihood of unemployment between the two groups. We selected 1927 cancer survivors from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data less than 65 years of age and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1924 individuals from the general population who closely resembled the cancer survivors. Compared to the general population, cancer survivors were less likely to be engaged in paid work, particularly as permanent workers, and were more likely to work regular hours. Additionally, they tended to do less work that involved lifting or moving heavy objects and uncomfortable postures and were more willing to express their emotions. An increased probability of unemployment among cancer survivors was associated with being over 50 years old, being female, having a lower monthly income, having multiple comorbidities, belonging to a nuclear family, being a National Basic Livelihood Act beneficiary, and having a recent diagnosis. Cancer survivors may want to pursue flexible occupations and improve their working situation. Further, they perceive their workplace more positively compared to the general population. Respecting the cancer survivor's choice to find flexible working conditions that suit their health needs and status, health-care providers involved in managing work-related issues among cancer survivors should be aware of the interaction between work-related concerns and post-cancer disease management.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  3. Natriuretic peptides: prediction of cardiovascular disease in the general population and high risk populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per

    2009-01-01

    (General Practitioner) setting as in the acute setting. Supporting this use is a very strong prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides. This has been shown in as well heart failure as acute coronary syndromes, but also in the general population and in high-risk groups as patients with diabetes......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...

  4. A general modeling framework for describing spatially structured population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance

  5. Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Bernd; Decker, Oliver; Müller, Stefanie; Brähler, Elmar; Schellberg, Dieter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-03-01

    The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a practical self-report anxiety questionnaire that proved valid in primary care. However, the GAD-7 was not yet validated in the general population and thus far, normative data are not available. To investigate reliability, construct validity, and factorial validity of the GAD-7 in the general population and to generate normative data. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted in Germany between May 5 and June 8, 2006. Five thousand thirty subjects (53.6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years. The survey questionnaire included the GAD-7, the 2-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and demographic characteristics. Confirmatory factor analyses substantiated the 1-dimensional structure of the GAD-7 and its factorial invariance for gender and age. Internal consistency was identical across all subgroups (alpha = 0.89). Intercorrelations with the PHQ-2 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were r = 0.64 (P < 0.001) and r = -0.43 (P < 0.001), respectively. As expected, women had significantly higher mean (SD) GAD-7 anxiety scores compared with men [3.2 (3.5) vs. 2.7 (3.2); P < 0.001]. Normative data for the GAD-7 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Approximately 5% of subjects had GAD-7 scores of 10 or greater, and 1% had GAD-7 scores of 15 or greater. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the GAD-7 as a measure of anxiety in the general population. The normative data provided in this study can be used to compare a subject's GAD-7 score with those determined from a general population reference group.

  6. The Hawkesbury-Nepean region: has the optimum population size been exceeded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Pearson, B

    1995-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government has not included population size as an intersectoral component of the environmentally sustainable development process. The aim of this article is to show how water quality is a key indicator of environmental degradation and of declines in the quality of life. This study is an analysis of the environmental impacts of population on the Hawkesbury-Nepean River System and of the costs involved in change. Environmental degradation is viewed as the result of population size, per capita consumption, the quality of technology, and the organization of space and technology. The quantity and quality of freshwater systems are considered to be useful indicators of environmental degradation over large spatial areas because the impacts are associated with both land and water environments. The catchment area of this river system covers about 231,730 sq. km (68% bushland, 5% urban, 25% agricultural, and 0.1% industrial). About 45% of the land area is protected due to six dams, which provide 98% of water used in Sydney, Illawarra, and the Blue Mountains. Estimated population usage is 600,000-700,000 people. River flows are modified by dams, sewage discharges, water abstractions, and urban run-off from development. River use includes tourism, fishing, and recreation. The system suffers from severe eutrophication, bacterial contamination, toxic pollution, and hypoxia. The conclusion was reached after many years of concern that large-scale development should be deferred. However, housing plans continue for a 70% population increase by 2008. Sewage treatment improvements are costly. Alternatives are re-use of effluents ($2.5-3.5 billion for nonpotable use and $4-4.5 billion for potable use), diversion to the ocean ($3 billion), zero river discharge ($8400 per property for installation and $700 per annum maintenance), or inland disposal ($19 billion). Environmental protection efforts are also costly: $45 million worth of water for flushing away an algal

  7. Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District (Mexico) ... in a population living close to a mine and mineral processing plant in Mexico ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  8. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence...... of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness...

  9. Problem drinking and exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol consumption in Scottish men: associations with life course socioeconomic disadvantage in a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzeval Michaela

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With surveys suggesting that exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol intake is commonplace, the health and social impact of modifying intake on a population level is potentially considerable. If public health interventions are to be successfully implemented, it is first important to identify correlates of such behaviours, including socioeconomic disadvantage. This was the aim of the present study. Methods Population-representative cohort study of 576 men from the West of Scotland. Data on life course socioeconomic position were collected in 1988 (at around 55 years of age. Alcohol consumption patterns (detailed seven day recall and problem drinking (CAGE questionnaire were ascertained in 1990/2 (at around 59 years of age. A relative index of inequality was computed to explore the comparative strength of different indicators of social circumstances from different periods of the life course. Results Socioeconomic adversity in both early life and in adulthood was related to an increased risk of exceeding the weekly and daily alcohol guidelines, with adult indicators of socioeconomic position revealing the strongest associations. Of these, material indicators of socioeconomic deprivation in adulthood – car ownership, housing tenure – were marginally more strongly related to heavy alcohol intake and problem drinking than education, income and occupational social class. A substantial proportion of the influence of early life deprivation on alcohol intake was mediated via adult socioeconomic position. Similar results were apparent when problem drinking was the outcome of interest. Conclusion In men in this cohort, exposure to disadvantaged social circumstances across the lifecourse, but particularly in adulthood, is associated with detrimental patterns of alcohol consumption and problem drinking in late middle age.

  10. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  11. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides: testing in general populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemos, J.A. de; Hildebrandt, P.

    2008-01-01

    Screening of general populations with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP) holds promise for the detection of significant underlying cardiac structural and functional abnormalities, as well as for the early detection of the propensity to develop future cardiovascular events....... In comparative studies to date, NT-proBNP performs at least as well as BNP in the detection of heart disease and prognostication in the general population. In some studies and subgroups, NT-proBNP appears to outperform BNP in population screening. More needs to be learned about noncardiac sources of NT...

  12. A General Framework for Setting Quantitative Population Objectives for Wildlife Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Dybala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss1art8Quantitative population objectives are necessary to successfully achieve conservation goals of secure or robust wildlife populations. However, existing methods for setting quantitative population objectives commonly require extensive species-specific population viability data, which are often unavailable or are based on estimates of historical population sizes, which may no longer represent feasible objectives. Conservation practitioners require an alternative, science-based method for setting long-term quantitative population objectives. We reviewed conservation biology literature to develop a general conceptual framework that represents conservation biology principles and identifies key milestones a population would be expected to pass in the process of becoming a recovered or robust population. We then synthesized recent research to propose general hypotheses for the orders of magnitude at which most populations would be expected to reach each milestone. The framework is structured as a hierarchy of four population sizes, ranging from very small populations at increased risk of inbreeding depression and extirpation (< 1,000 adults to large populations with minimized risk of extirpation (> 50,000 adults, along with additional modifiers describing steeply declining and resilient populations. We also discuss the temporal and geographic scales at which this framework should be applied. To illustrate the application of this framework to conservation planning, we outline our use of the framework to set long-term population objectives for a multi-species regional conservation plan, and discuss additional considerations in applying this framework to other systems. This general framework provides a transparent, science-based method by which conservation practitioners and stakeholders can agree on long-term population objectives of an appropriate magnitude, particularly when the alternative approaches are

  13. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in autistic traits in early adulthood and to test if there is assortative mating (non-random partner choice) for autistic traits in the general population. Design: Twin family study using structural equation

  14. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  15. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study, I...

  16. Practice patterns among male and female general dentists in a Washington State population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Michael A; Leggott, Penelope J; Robertson, Paul B; Porterfield, Denise L; Felber, Gene D

    2005-06-01

    Women make up about 14 percent of general dentists in the United States, and the proportion is projected to exceed 29 percent by 2020. The authors obtained dental benefits claims data from the Washington Dental Service (WDS), Seattle, and used them to examine the practice patterns of 265 women and 1,947 men engaged in general dentistry for at least 26 days in 2001. Practice variables of interest included age, days worked, procedures performed and total income from WDS reimbursements and patient copayments. The number, age and sex of patients treated also were obtained. Using productivity data, the authors also estimated the potential impact of an increase in the percentage of female dentists in the state. The authors found no differences between male and female dentists in the number of procedures per patient, income per patient or income per day of work. Frequency distributions of various services were highly similar for both groups. Multiple regression models showed no influence of dentist's sex on total income. However, the mean and median numbers of days worked were about 10 percent lower for female dentists than for male dentists. This difference was consistent with the finding that female dentists treated approximately 10 percent fewer patients, performed about 10 percent fewer procedures and had a combined income of about 10 percent less than that of male dentists. Practice patterns of male and female dentists generally were equivalent in this WDS population. Female and male dentists provided a similar range of services and earned an equal income per patient treated and per day worked. However, women worked fewer days per year than did men, irrespective of age. If the dental work force and practice patterns remain unchanged otherwise, the total number of patients treated per dentist will decrease slightly as women make up an increasing proportion of dentists.

  17. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... preclinical disease and may be of value in cancer screening. In colorectal cancer screening in particular, where the current need is to improve compliance, it suggests that p53 autoantibodies may contribute towards risk stratification.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi...

  18. Impact of Multidetector Computerized Tomography (MDCT) On The General Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, B.B.; Ribeiro, N.C. [Servico de Radiologia, Hospital de Curry Cabral, Rua da Beneficencia, 8, 1069-166 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    Multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) appeared in the early 1990s, as a technological evolution of computerized tomography. As one would expect, the evolution continues and, each year, more powerful equipments appear, with new medical applications. However, the general use of this technique has lead to the dramatic increase on the general population irradiation. Special concern is required regarding the most vulnerable groups, like the pediatric population, the pregnant and the young female. Due to a larger awareness of this irradiation risks, some initiatives have been developed, coming from different areas, aiming to maximize the benefit to risk ratio of MDCT. (author)

  19. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...... occasions 8 years apart (1990 and 1998) for the presence of antibodies against C. difficile in serum. The overall seroprevalence of C. difficile increased significantly from 19% in 1990 to 27% in 1998 (P... was about four times higher in 1998 than in 1990. In conclusion, the observed increase in seroprevalence suggests a higher exposure to C. difficile in the general Danish adult population....

  20. Views on life and death of physicians, nurses, cancer patients and general population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Noriyasu; Kuroda, Yujiro; Nakajima, Kasumi; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Kanai, Yoshiaki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Kotani, Midori; Kitazawa, Yutaka; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate views on life and death among physicians, nurses, cancer patients, and the general population in Japan and examine factors affecting these views. We targeted 3,140 physicians, 470 nurses, 450 cancer patients, and 3,000 individuals from the general population. We used the Death Attitudes Inventory (DAI) to measure attitudes toward life and death. The collection rates were 35% (1,093/3,140), 78% (366/470), 69% (310/450), and 39% (1,180/3,000) for physicians, nurses, patients, and the general population, respectively. We found that age, sex, social role (i.e., physician, nurse, cancer patient, and general population) were significantly correlated with DAI subscales. Compared with general population, attitudes toward death of physicians, nurses and cancer patients differed significantly even after adjusted their age and sex. Our study is the first to analyze differences in views on life and death among physicians, nurses, cancer patients, and the general population in Japan.

  1. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...

  2. Cortical processes of speech illusions in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, E; Bodar, L; van Os, J; Lousberg, R

    2016-10-18

    There is evidence that experimentally elicited auditory illusions in the general population index risk for psychotic symptoms. As little is known about underlying cortical mechanisms of auditory illusions, an experiment was conducted to analyze processing of auditory illusions in a general population sample. In a follow-up design with two measurement moments (baseline and 6 months), participants (n = 83) underwent the White Noise task under simultaneous recording with a 14-lead EEG. An auditory illusion was defined as hearing any speech in a sound fragment containing white noise. A total number of 256 speech illusions (SI) were observed over the two measurements, with a high degree of stability of SI over time. There were 7 main effects of speech illusion on the EEG alpha band-the most significant indicating a decrease in activity at T3 (t = -4.05). Other EEG frequency bands (slow beta, fast beta, gamma, delta, theta) showed no significant associations with SI. SIs are characterized by reduced alpha activity in non-clinical populations. Given the association of SIs with psychosis, follow-up research is required to examine the possibility of reduced alpha activity mediating SIs in high risk and symptomatic populations.

  3. General self-efficacy in the Norwegian population: Differences and similarities between sociodemographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine K; Schou-Bredal, Inger

    2018-02-01

    General self-efficacy (GSE) refers to optimistic self-beliefs of being able to perform and control behaviors, and is linked with various physical and mental health outcomes. Measures of self-efficacy are commonly used in health research with clinical populations, but are less explored in relationship to sociodemographic characteristics in general populations. This study investigated GSE in relation to sociodemographic characteristics in the general population in Norway. As part of a larger national survey, the GSE scale was administered to a general population sample, and 1787 out of 4961 eligible participants (response rate 36%) completed the scale. Group comparisons were conducted using independent t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to examine factors independently associated with GSE. GSE was lower for older compared to younger participants ( p employment were independently associated with higher GSE. Age moderated the associations between gender and employment on one hand, and GSE on the other. The association between being male and having higher GSE was more pronounced in younger age, as was the association between being employed and having higher GSE. Male gender and being employed were related to higher GSE among persons in the general population in Norway, and these associations were stronger among persons of younger age. The findings are considered fairly representative for the Norwegian population.

  4. Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumpf, H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Bischof, A.; Kastirke, N.; Gürtler, D.; Bischof, G.; Meerkerk, G.J.; John, U.; Meyer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. Aims: This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. Methods: A

  5. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liang, Chung-Chao; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2017-06-06

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual's activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan's general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of

  6. Celebrity suicides and their differential influence on suicides in the general population: a national population-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-04-01

    Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide.

  7. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-01-01

    in the general population is a rather stable condition, characterized as either being present or absent. However, only one of the reviewed studies had used frequent data collection, which would be necessary when studying detailed course patterns over time. It was the purpose of this study to see......, if it was possible to identify whether LBP, when present, is rather episodic or chronic/persistent. Further, we wanted to see if it was possible to describe any specific course profiles of LBP in the general population....

  9. Generalised joint hypermobility and shoulder joint hypermobility, - risk of upper body musculoskeletal symptoms and reduced quality of life in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Østengaard, Lasse; Hansen, Sebrina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is a hereditary condition with an ability to exceed the joints beyond the normal range. The prevalence of GJH in the adult population and its impact on upper body musculoskeletal health and quality of life has mostly been studied in selected popul...

  10. Radiation protection training for diverse general employee populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection training for the general employee at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has undergone a great deal of restructuring in the last two years. The number of personnel totally dedicated to nuclear facilities is less than a fifth of our employees and the percentage of contracted employees who are dedicated radiation workers is much smaller. However, the aging of our facilities and increasing emphasis on environmental control means that everyone needs to understand the basics of radiation protection. In accordance with changing DOE guidelines and internal ORNL policies, greater emphasis has been placed on keeping training focused on current issues, training the total workforce, and requiring some type of testing or feedback mechanism. This report describes efforts to instill respect, but not fear, of radiation in the work environment. Flexible tools are being developed to meet this objective for several diverse general employee populations. Continuing efforts include consideration of computer-based training for retraining, developing additional modules for specialized groups and jobs, and testing/documentation appropriate to each population segment. 6 refs

  11. Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer 2003 - Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values during the summer season April-August 2003 and comparisons with previous years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiala, J.; Cernikovsky, L.; Leeuw, F. de; Kurfuerst, P.; Aalst, R. van (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    In the period 1995-2003 of reporting tinder the old ozone directive, there has been little or no change in the reported exceedances of ozone threshold values. This is not unexpected as reductions in the EU emissions of nitrogen oxides and nonmethane volatile organic compounds, the main ozone precursors, have so far been limited - about 30 % between 1990 and 2000. 2010 under the national emission teilings directive. While peak ozone concentrations seem to go down, ozone concentration statistics relevant to the target values set in the new ozone directive show little or no reduction in the period 1996-2000. Very few stations actually show a significant downward trend for these stabstics. The threshold for warning the population continues to be exceeded on a few occasions Bach year, while the threshold for informing the population is exceeded at riost stations in most countries (outside northern Europe and Ireland) each year, generally more so in warm summers. These exceedances are likely to retur in years with temperatures above the long-term average until there is a substantially larger decrease in precursor emissions. A further reduction of about 30 % is foreseen towards Under current legislation and with the rate of turnover of the vehicle fleet, furtber reductions will gradually occur towards 2010, and further reductions may be necessary to achieve the target values of the new ozone directive. Note that, due to the uncertainties caused by year-to-year meteorological variations and the changes in the monitoring station configuration, these conclusions are tentative. (au)

  12. The more information, the more negative stigma towards schizophrenia: Brazilian general population and psychiatrists compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade; Hengartner, Michael Pascal; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Lawson, Fabio Lorea; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-02-28

    Findings on stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia have been inconsistent in comparisons between mental health professionals and members of the general public. In this regard, it is important to obtain data from understudied sociocultural settings, and to examine how attitudes toward mental illness vary in such settings. Nationwide samples of 1015 general population individuals and 1414 psychiatrists from Brazil were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Respondents from the general population were asked to identify an unlabeled schizophrenia case vignette. Psychiatrists were instructed to consider "someone with stabilized schizophrenia". Stereotypes, perceived prejudice and social distance were assessed. For the general population, stigma determinants replicated findings from the literature. The level of the vignette's identification constituted an important correlate. For psychiatrists, determinants correlated in the opposite direction. When both samples were compared, psychiatrists showed the highest scores in stereotypes and perceived prejudice; for the general population, the better they recognized the vignette, the higher they scored in those dimensions. Psychiatrists reported the lowest social distance scores compared with members of the general population. Knowledge about schizophrenia thus constituted an important determinant of stigma; consequently, factors influencing stigma should be further investigated in the general population and in psychiatrists as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  14. Subset selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.

    1996-01-01

    We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. We obtain exact results for the probability of correct selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations which only differ in their location parameter. Some open problems are formulated.

  15. Prevalence of hepatitis C in the general population in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavenburg, S.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.M.; Hermsen, J.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood-blood contact and this leads to high HCV prevalence in risk populations such as haemophilia patients and intravenous drug users. The prevalence in the general Dutch population is unknown, although it appears to be very low in

  16. Occupational airborne exposure of the general population of a Norwegian county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, P; Baste, V; Hanoa, R; Gulsvik, A

    1992-02-01

    Occupational airborne exposure was examined for a stratified sample (N = 1275) of the general population aged 18-73 years in Hordaland County, Norway. The subjects identified all jobs of more than six months since leaving school and stated whether they had been occupationally exposed to specific agents and work processes potentially harmful to the lungs. The prevalence in the population ever having been exposed was 18% for asbestos, 9% for quartz, 5% for aluminum dust, 6% for wood dust, 12% for metal gases, 12% for welding, 9% for soldering, and 1% for hairdressing. According to occupational title (last job), 3% of the population had held a job with a high degree of airborne exposure, 26% a job with moderate exposure, and 70% a job with no airborne exposure. During their worklife both the men and the women tended to leave polluted jobs more often than unpolluted jobs. Occupational exposure to airborne pollutants potentially harmful to the lungs is widespread in this Norwegian general population.

  17. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  18. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system. Using probability proportional to size (PPS sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD, 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction. Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and

  19. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; ppolice officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; ppolice officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  20. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner AC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England.Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF, 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations.Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin.

  1. Modeling environmental noise exceedances using non-homogeneous Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Claudio; Quartieri, Joseph; Barrios, Juan M; Rodrigues, Eliane R

    2014-10-01

    In this work a non-homogeneous Poisson model is considered to study noise exposure. The Poisson process, counting the number of times that a sound level surpasses a threshold, is used to estimate the probability that a population is exposed to high levels of noise a certain number of times in a given time interval. The rate function of the Poisson process is assumed to be of a Weibull type. The presented model is applied to community noise data from Messina, Sicily (Italy). Four sets of data are used to estimate the parameters involved in the model. After the estimation and tuning are made, a way of estimating the probability that an environmental noise threshold is exceeded a certain number of times in a given time interval is presented. This estimation can be very useful in the study of noise exposure of a population and also to predict, given the current behavior of the data, the probability of occurrence of high levels of noise in the near future. One of the most important features of the model is that it implicitly takes into account different noise sources, which need to be treated separately when using usual models.

  2. Genetic variation in ABCA1 predicts ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, BG; Jensen, Gorm B

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population.......We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population....

  3. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety......, depression and impulsivity. A feature of our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic item” question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8,405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...

  4. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  5. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  6. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  7. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? A cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood. ‎

  8. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Bhandarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.

  9. Penetrance of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, Shiva; Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In case-control studies of Europeans, heterozygosity for Arg702Trp(rs2066844), Gly908Arg(rs2066845) and Leu1007fsinsC(rs5743293) on the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of Crohn disease, whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity is associated with a 17-fold greater ...... risk. However, the importance of these genetic variants if identified in particular individuals within the general population is unknown. We undertook this study to estimate the penetrance of these variants in the general population....

  10. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  11. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left.......4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals with COPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the presence of left...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...

  12. Cumulative trauma and current posttraumatic stress disorder status in general population and inmate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Agee, Elisha; Dietrich, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This research was undertaken to examine the role between cumulative exposure to different types of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status in general population and prison samples. Two archival datasets were examined: the standardization sample for the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic States (DAPS; Briere, 2001), and data from a study on trauma and posttraumatic sequelae among inmates and others. PTSD was found in 4% of the general population sample and 48% of the prison sample. Trauma exposure was very common among prisoners, including a 70% rate of childhood sexual abuse for women and a 50% rate for men. Lifetime number of different types of trauma was associated with PTSD in both the general population and prison samples, even when controlling for the effects of sexual trauma. Cumulative interpersonal trauma predicted PTSD, whereas cumulative noninterpersonal trauma did not. In the general population sample, participants who had only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 0% likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those with 6 or more other trauma types had a 12% likelihood. In the prison sample, those with only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 17% percent likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those exposed to 6 or more other trauma types had a 64% chance of PTSD. Cumulative trauma predicts current PTSD in both general population and prison samples, even after controlling for sexual trauma. PTSD appears to develop generally as a function of exposure to multiple types of interpersonal trauma, as opposed to a single traumatic event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Total mortality by transferrin saturation levels: two general population studies and a metaanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....

  14. [Do vitamins from foods fortified exceed the allowed limits? Study carried out in population young adolescent and young adult of the metropolitan region of Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas Sepúlveda, Alejandra; Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Gaete Verdugo, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the usual consumption of vitamins in an adolescent population and young adult in the Metropolitan Region, were 213 food fortified with vitamins of the Chilean market. A survey of consumption and nutrient intake was calculated. The result added vitamins added to food. The normality of the variables of the intake was assessed and data were subjected to analysis of descriptive statisticians and percentiles are determined. Estimated percentages of subjects whose values exceed those fixed for DDR and UL listed for each vitamin and percentage of excess for each case. Discriminant analysis was performed using the M Box test. The correlation canonical and the Statisticians Wilks were estimated. Finally it was estimated the percentage of correctly classified data. Data were processed by the program SPSS 20.0 with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. The results indicate that you for all the studied vitamins, the percentage of subjects who more than the DDR is for total folate (96.4%) and the lowest percentage is given for the vitamin E and B12 in young adult women. The percentage of subjects who exceed the UL values is greatest for the vitamin B3 (91.9%). According to the canonical correlation, there are differences in behavior between the groups. It is recommended to monitor the behavior and consumption of food fortified with vitamins, especially of the complex B and A. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to aluminium in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Zhao-Ping; Yang, Da-Jin; Liang, Jiang; Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Xu, Hai-Bin; Li, Feng-Qin; Li, Ning

    2016-10-01

    In order to address the issue of excessive intake of aluminium (Al) from Al-containing food additives in the Chinese diet, this study conducted a dietary exposure assessment of Al in the general population based on the national surveillance data of Al content in foods and national food consumption data. It was found that the mean dietary exposure of the whole Chinese population to Al from Al-containing food additives was 1.795 mg kg ‒1 bw week ‒1 , not exceeding the PTWI, while high dietary exposures (e.g., 97.5 th percentile) to Al were 7.660 and 2.103-2.903 mg kg ‒1 bw week ‒1 for children, respectively, both exceeding the PTWI. It was found that the dietary exposure to Al for 32.5% of the total Chinese population and 42.6% of children aged 4-6 years exceeded the PTWI. Wheat flour and wheat-based products are the main source of dietary A l exposure (85% of the total intake); and puffed foods are the major source of Al intake for children. These findings suggested that consumption of Al-containing food additives could be a health concern for consumers with high food consumption (97.5 th percentile) and children under the age of 14 years.

  16. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a

  17. Level of understanding of Alzheimer disease among caregivers and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, C; Cetó, M; Arias, A; Blasco, E; Gil, M P; López, R; Dakterzada, F; Purroy, F; Piñol-Ripoll, G

    2018-05-11

    Understanding of Alzheimer disease is fundamental for early diagnosis and to reduce caregiver burden. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of understanding of Alzheimer disease among informal caregivers and different segments of the general population through the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale. We assessed the knowledge of caregivers in different follow-up periods (less than one year, between 1 and 5 years, and over 5 years since diagnosis) and individuals from the general population. Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale scores were grouped into different items: life impact, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, disease progression, and caregiving. A total of 419 people (215 caregivers and 204 individuals from the general population) were included in the study. No significant differences were found between groups for overall Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale score (19.1 vs. 18.8, P = .9). There is a scarce knowledge of disease risk factors (49.3%) or the care needed (51.2%), while symptoms (78.6%) and course of the disease (77.2%) were the best understood aspects. Older caregiver age was correlated with worse Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale scores overall and for life impact, symptoms, treatment, and disease progression (P < .05). Time since diagnosis improved caregivers' knowledge of Alzheimer disease symptoms (P = .00) and diagnosis (P = .05). Assessing the degree of understanding of Alzheimer disease is essential to the development of health education strategies both in the general population and among caregivers. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  19. Sleep and psychopatholgy : in the general population and bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate the relation between sleep and psychopathology. We examined two groups; bipolar patients and adolescents from the general population that are both characterized by mood fluctuations and are vulnerable for disturbances in sleep-wake pattern. Using wearables

  20. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  1. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  2. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessm...

  3. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessment...

  4. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...... or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1 were overrepresented in individuals with the lowest 1% (n=95) or highest 1% (n=95) HDL-C levels in the general population by screening the core promoter and coding region of ABCA1. For all nonsynonymous SNPs identified, we determined the effect of genotype...... on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...

  5. Generalized Population Analysis of Three-Center Two-Electron Bonding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponec, Robert; Cooper, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2004), s. 1002-1011 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072006; GA MŠk OC D9.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : multicenter bonding * generalized population analysis * post-Hartree Fock wave functions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2004

  6. Profile of mortality from external causes among Seventh-day Adventists and the general populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Ana Paula Costa; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de

    2017-07-01

    This paper aimed to compare the profile of mortality from external causes among Seventh-day Adventists and the general population of Espírito Santo from 2003 to 2009. A search of Adventists was performed in the nominal database of the Mortality Information System containing data on Adventists provided by the administrative offices of the institution. Deaths from external causes occurred during the study period were then divided into two groups: Adventists and the general population. Adventists had lower proportional mortality from external causes (10%) than the general population (19%), and males were the main reason for this difference. In both groups, deaths prevailed in the 20-29 years age group. Deaths from accidental causes were most significant among Adventists (68.08%), while deaths from intentional causes related to assault and self-inflicted injuries were more significant in the general population (53.67% of all deaths). The standardized mortality ratio for external causes was 41.3, thus, being Adventist reduced mortality by 58.7%. It is believed that the benefit of Adventists observed for mortality from external causes is related to this group's abstinence from alcohol consumption.

  7. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p < .0005; SPS(11): β = .27, p < .0005; BFNE-II: β = .11, p = .007) independent of demographics and the scores on the individual Type D components. This interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated

  8. Xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, and ischaemic vascular disease and death in general population: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population.......To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population....

  9. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  10. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Prevalence and cost of hospital medical errors in the general and elderly United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Peter J; Pandya, Bhavik; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Kaplan, Harold S

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the differences in the prevalence rate and costs of hospital medical errors between the general population and an elderly population aged ≥65 years. Methods from an actuarial study of medical errors were modified to identify medical errors in the Premier Hospital Database using data from 2009. Visits with more than four medical errors were removed from the population to avoid over-estimation of cost. Prevalence rates were calculated based on the total number of inpatient visits. There were 3,466,596 total inpatient visits in 2009. Of these, 1,230,836 (36%) occurred in people aged ≥ 65. The prevalence rate was 49 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits in the general cohort and 79 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits for the elderly cohort. The top 10 medical errors accounted for more than 80% of the total in the general cohort and the 65+ cohort. The most costly medical error for the general population was postoperative infection ($569,287,000). Pressure ulcers were most costly ($347,166,257) in the elderly population. This study was conducted with a hospital administrative database, and assumptions were necessary to identify medical errors in the database. Further, there was no method to identify errors of omission or misdiagnoses within the database. This study indicates that prevalence of hospital medical errors for the elderly is greater than the general population and the associated cost of medical errors in the elderly population is quite substantial. Hospitals which further focus their attention on medical errors in the elderly population may see a significant reduction in costs due to medical errors as a disproportionate percentage of medical errors occur in this age group.

  12. Imidacloprid-susceptible Nilaparvata lugens individuals exceeded resistant individuals in a mixture population with density pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Na; Tian, Jiahua; Zhang, Yixi; Li, Zhong; Liu, Zewen

    2018-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance in pest insects have mainly been studied under optimal laboratory conditions. However, resistant insects face more stressors than just insecticides in the field, and how the resistant population reacts to these stressors is of practical importance for the control of pest insects such as the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of population density on the competitiveness of resistant and susceptible individuals. Two isogenic N. lugens populations, a highly imidacloprid-resistant population (HZ-R) with a resistance ratio (RR) of 227.10 and a relatively susceptible population (HZ-S) with an RR of 2.99, were created from a field-resistant population (HZ; RR 62.51). The high resistance levels of HZ-R and HZ were mainly attributable to the overexpression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes such as CYP6ER1, CYP6AY1, CYP6CW1 and CYP4CE1 compared with HZ-S, this being supported by piperonyl butoxide synergism. HZ-R was observed to be more resistant to thiacloprid and etofenprox compared with HZ and HZ-S. Most interestingly, in high population density treatments, HZ-S individuals were much more competitive than HZ-R individuals. Imidacloprid-resistant individuals of N. lugens are less competitive than their susceptible counterparts under density pressure. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Stroke Awareness in the General Population: A Study from Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the awareness level of the Jordanian general population regarding the definition, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and consequences of stroke. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was handed to participants by trained students, the participants were chosen randomly from ...

  14. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  15. Epidemiology of vestibular vertigo: a neurotologic survey of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, H K; von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T

    2005-09-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of vestibular vertigo in the general population and to describe its clinical characteristics and associated factors. The neurotologic survey had a two-stage general population sampling design: nationwide modified random digit dialing sampling for participation in the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) with screening of a random sample of 4,869 participants for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by detailed neurotologic interviews developed through piloting and validation (n = 1,003, response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for vestibular vertigo were rotational vertigo, positional vertigo, or recurrent dizziness with nausea and oscillopsia or imbalance. Vestibular vertigo was detected by our interview with a specificity of 94% and a sensitivity of 84[corrected]% in a concurrent validation study using neurotology clinic diagnoses as an accepted standard (n = 61). The lifetime prevalence of vestibular vertigo was 7.4[corrected]%, the 1-year prevalence was 4.9[corrected]%, and the incidence was 1.4[corrected]%. In 80% of affected individuals, vertigo resulted in a medical consultation, interruption of daily activities, or sick leave. Female sex, age, lower educational level, and various comorbid conditions, including tinnitus, depression, and several cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, were associated with vestibular vertigo in the past year in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, only female sex, self-reported depression, tinnitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia had an independent effect on vestibular vertigo. Vestibular vertigo is common in the general population, affecting [corrected] 5% of adults in 1 year. The frequency and health care impact of vestibular symptoms at the population level have been underestimated.

  16. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...... ratios for HNPCC in a case-control design were 419 (95 % CI: 53-18,900) for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 19 (5-72) for 307-19A>G, 194 (21-1,768) for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca); ins(attt), and 0.3 (0.1-0.7) for 1,039-8T>A in MLH1. In the general population, incidence rate ratios for 1,039-8T>A carriers versus...

  17. Health Effects of Job Insecurity among Employees in Swiss General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Barbara D'AVANZO; Brigitte BISIG

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate at national level the association between health and the social distress in which the whole employed population is plunged as a consequence of job insecurity. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Switzerland. Subjects. Individuals working full or part time as employees drawn from a random sample (N=2024) of the Swiss general population interviewed by phone. Main outcome measures. Prevalence rates of ten self reported health and health related behaviour indicators...

  18. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  19. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack...... of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  20. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Ladino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.

  1. Do Class III patients have a different growth spurt than the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Sik; Lee, Shin-Jae; An, Hongseok; Donatelli, Richard E; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the timing and length of the growth spurt of Class III prognathic patients is fundamental to the strategy of interceptive orthopedic orthodontics as well as to the timing of orthognathic surgery. Consequently, this study was undertaken to determine whether there are any significant differences in the stature growth pattern of Class III subjects compared with non-Class III subjects and the general population. Twelve-year longitudinal stature growth data were collected for 402 randomly selected adolescents in the general population, 55 Class III mandibular prognathic patients, and 37 non-Class III patients. The growth data were analyzed by using the traditional linear interpolation method and nonlinear growth functions. The 6 stature growth parameters were measured: age at takeoff, stature at takeoff, velocity at takeoff, age at peak height velocity, stature at peak height velocity, and velocity at peak height velocity. Comparisons in the stature growth parameters and 15 cephalometric variables among the general population, Class III subjects, and non-Class III subjects were made with multivariate analysis. Patients with Class III prognathism did not have different growth parameters compared with Class II subjects or the general population. This study does not allow meaningful conclusions with regard to the relationship of mandibular size and stature growth pattern. The application of nonlinear growth curves vs the traditional linear interpolation method was also discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aldosterone and glomerular filtration--observations in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer; Dittmann, Kathleen; Völzke, Henry; Endlich, Karlhans; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2014-03-10

    Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone promotes renal damage. Since data on the association between aldosterone and renal function in the general population are sparse, we chose to address this issue. We investigated the associations between the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) or the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a sample of adult men and women from Northeast Germany. A study population of 1921 adult men and women who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania was selected. None of the subjects used drugs that alter PAC or ARR. The eGFR was calculated according to the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum triglyceride concentrations and time of blood sampling revealed inverse associations of PAC or ARR with eGFR (ß-coefficient for log-transformed PAC -3.12, p < 0.001; ß-coefficient for log-transformed ARR -3.36, p < 0.001). Logistic regression models revealed increased odds for CKD with increasing PAC (odds ratio for a one standard deviation increase in PAC: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.71). There was no statistically significant association between ARR and CKD. Our study demonstrates that PAC and ARR are inversely associated with the glomerular filtration rate in the general population.

  3. Perception and image of dermatology in the German general population 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, M; Eissing, L; Elsner, P; Strömer, K; Schäfer, I; Enk, A; Reusch, M; Kaufmann, R

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to other European countries, dermatologists in Germany provide health care for a broad spectrum of diseases of the skin and mucous membranes. Current population-based data on the perception of dermatology were lacking to date. Analysis of the perception of dermatology from the general population's perspective with regard to utilization, satisfaction and responsibility. Nation-wide survey on awareness, utilization, rating and image of dermatology in October 2014 through computer-assisted telephone interviews on a representative sample of the adult general population (n = 1015), performed by the FORSA institute. Dermatologists as a medical specialist group are familiar to 88% of the population (2002: 65%), and approx. 82% of respondents underwent dermatological treatment in the past. Satisfaction with this treatment is high to very high in 80-90% of respondents. The majority (60-80%) name dermatologists as the desired primary provider of care for the largest share of common skin diseases. For allergic diseases, mucous membrane diseases, venous disorders and paediatric skin diseases, this rate is significantly below 50%. In Germany, dermatologists are perceived and valued as providers of care. In the case of skin cancer and chronic inflammatory skin diseases, they are experienced as primary care givers, whereas they are associated less frequently than their competence would justify with providing treatment for allergic and mucous membrane diseases and venous disorders. Further education of the general public and medical profession is required. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...

  5. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The consumption of fish and seafood usually is the main source of intake of methylmercury for members of the general population. Therefore subjects having a diet rich in these food items present a high risk of exceeding the tolerable recommended weekly intake of mercury set by FAO and WHO. The average consumption of fish at a national level is rather small in Italy, 12.5 kg per year, consequently the risk of exposure to elevated levels of mercury through the diet for members of the Italian general population is rather negligible. However, fish is one of the main components of the diet of some population groups. These groups are usually found in coastal towns close fishing ports and include subjects working as fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. The purpose of this research programme, carried our with the collaboration of the National Institute of Nutrition is to determine the levels of mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of subjects having a higher than average fish consumption and to evaluate the effects of elevated intakes of mercury. 1 ref., 13 figs

  6. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...

  7. Prayer Attendance and General Health in the Iranian Adult Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotodehasl, Nemat; Ghorbani, Raheb; Mahdavi-Nejad, Gholamhosein; Haji-Aghajani, Saeed; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between prayer attendance and general health among adult urban population in Iran. A total of 470 males older than 17 years, chosen by multistage sampling, were investigated. The results showed that people who did not perform prayers compared to those who said prayers on time and performed Nafilahs (supererogatory prayers) were 2.87 (OR 2.87, 95 % CI 1.23-6.70, p = 0.015) times at risk of general health problems. In conclusion, the findings show that increasing the degree of people's belief in prayer can lead to improve general health.

  8. Deposition and retention of plutonium in the United States general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1959, a Los Alamos National Laboratory study has analyzed over 5000 tissues from 1100 individuals of the nonoccupationally exposed general population for fallout plutonium. These data have been useful in determining the tissue distributions and the annual baseline levels of environmental plutonium in the United States population. The effects of age, sex, date of death, cause of death and geographic location of resididence on the observed plutonium deposition have been evaluated. Because of the difference in biological turnover times of plutonium in the various organs of the body and the changing concentrations of plutonium in the atmosphere, the plutonium concentration ratios between tissues have changed as a function of time. However, our data indicate that over the past 10 years, the highest concentrations in the general population are found in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and the liver and the lowest concentrations are in the spleen, gonads and kidney. The median body burdens of plutonium in the US population are estimated to have reached 12 pCi during the 1960's and have declined to about 2 pCi in 1977. Large errors in estimated skeletal burdens of plutonium may exist because of small specimen sample sizes and a lack of knowledge concerning the relative distribution of plutonium among the various bones of the human body

  9. Differences Between Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal Between Heart Disease and Generalal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Reza Mirlohi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Heart disease and emotional disorders often co-occur, but effective role in dysregulation of heart disease that is often overlooked. Evidence suggests that people with heart disease are more problems in regulating their emotions. The study compared the re-evaluation of cognitive emotion regulation commonly used two strategies- and suppression- between heart disease and the general population. Methods: Sixty men (30 with heart complaints and 30 without the condition were selected by convenience sampling method and they responded to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John and a demographic questionnaire responded. To analyze the results and descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and inferential statistics, independent T-test was used SPSS software was used. Results: The result shows that heart disease and general population re-evaluation strategies groups (P<0.01. This is not only different from the strategy reassessment, but in different repression, too. (P <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that heart disease and general population used different strategies to regulate their emotions. The key to finding the heart disease group prefer repression to regulate their emotions.

  10. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the general adult population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R Brock; Farrer, Thomas J; Primosch, Mark; Hedges, Dawson W

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. To understand the extent of TBI, it is important to assess the prevalence of TBI in the general population. However, the prevalence of TBI in the general population can be difficult to measure because of differing definitions of TBI, differing TBI severity levels, and underreporting of sport-related TBI. Additionally, prevalence reports vary from study to study. In this present study, we used meta-analytic methods to estimate the prevalence of TBI in the adult general population. Across 15 studies, all originating from developed countries, which included 25,134 adults, 12% had a history of TBI. Men had more than twice the odds of having had a TBI than did women, suggesting that male gender is a risk factor for TBI. The adverse behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric effects associated with TBI coupled with the high prevalence of TBI identified in this study indicate that TBI is a considerable public and personal-health problem. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Quality of life profile of general Vietnamese population using EQ-5D-5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hoang Le, Quynh Ngoc; Tran, Tung Thanh; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-10-11

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a vital benchmark to assess the effects of health interventions and policies. Measuring HRQOL of the general population is essential to establish a reference for health outcomes evaluations. However, evidence on HRQOL of general populations in low and middle income countries is very limited. This study aimed to measure HRQOL of the Vietnamese population by using the EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) instrument and determine its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in Hanoi with 1571 residences in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. EQ-5D-5L and EQ- visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were used to assess HRQOL. Potential covariates included socio-demographic characteristics, having acute symptoms in the last four weeks, chronic diseases in the last three months, having multiple health issues, and health service utilisation in the last twelve months. A generalized linear model was employed to identify the association between HRQOL and covariates. Overall, the mean EQ-5D utility index was 0.91 (SD = 0.15), and the mean EQ-VAS score was 87.4 (SD = 14.3). The highest proportion of respondents reporting any problems was in Usual activities (24.3%), followed by Anxiety/Depression (15.2%) and Pain/Discomfort (10.0%), while the lowest percentage was in Self-care (2.5%). Lower HRQOL composite scores were related to unemployment, lower income, higher education, living in urban areas, having chronic diseases, having multiple health issues and using health service. For any health problem self-reported by respondents, the health utility reduced by 0.02 (respiratory diseases) to 0.15 (musculoskeletal diseases). Health utility of the general population and reductions for self-reported health problems in this study are useful for future population health evaluations and comparisons. It also informs the development of interventions to reduce health problems of the general population.

  12. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, B

    1995-12-01

    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  13. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  14. Chronic widespread pain prevalence in the general population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Steultjens, M; Riskowski, J

    2018-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a significant burden in communities. Understanding the impact of population-dependent (e.g., age, gender) and contextual-dependent (e.g. survey method, region, inequality level) factors have on CWP prevalence may provide a foundation for population-based strategies to address CWP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the global prevalence of CWP and evaluate the population and contextual factors associated with CWP. A systematic review of CWP prevalence studies (1990-2017) in the general population was undertaken. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine CWP prevalence, and study population data and contextual factors were evaluated using a meta-regression. Thirty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Study CWP prevalence ranged from 1.4% to 24.0%, with CWP prevalence in men ranging from 0.8% to 15.3% and 1.7% to 22.1% in women. Estimated overall CWP prevalence was 9.6% (8.0-11.2%). Meta-regression analyses showed gender, United Nations country development status, and human development index (HDI) influenced CWP prevalence, while survey method, region, methodological and reporting quality, and inequality showed no significant effect on the CWP estimate. Globally CWP affects one in ten individuals within the general population, with women more likely to experience CWP than men. HDI was noted to be the socioeconomic factor related to CWP prevalence, with those in more developed countries having a lower CWP prevalence than those in less developed countries. Most CWP estimates were from developed countries, and CWP estimates from countries with a lower socioeconomic position is needed to further refine the global estimate of CWP. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current global CWP prevalence by examining the population-level (e.g. age, gender) and contextual (e.g. country development status; survey style; reporting and methodologic quality) factors associated with CWP prevalence. This analyses

  15. Nicotine Intake in Pregnant Smokers and a General Population of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Jacob, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether pregnant smokers have the same nicotine intake from cigarettes as a general population of smokers and whether the known lower daily cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers is associated with higher nicotine intake among pregnant smokers. The study was a cross-sectional comparison of pregnant smokers and a general population of smokers in smoking cessation clinics. Participants were treatment-seeking pregnant (n = 476), nonpregnant female (n = 116), and male (n = 195) smokers who participated in two independent smoking cessation trials. Nicotine intake was measured as saliva cotinine/ cigarette/kg body weight ratio. The mean saliva cotinine (μg/L)/ cigarette/kg body weight (0.21, SD = 0.15) of pregnant smokers was similar to that of nonpregnant female smokers (0.24, SD = 0.14) and higher than that of male smokers (0.18, SD = 0.12, p = .002) despite a substantially lower number of cigarettes per day (pregnant smokers: 12, SD = 6; nonpregnant female smokers: 26.6, SD = 11.7; male smokers: 23.5, SD = 9.5, p smokers, saliva cotinine, as expected, increased in parallel with the number of cigarettes per day, but nicotine intake (cotinine/cigarette/kg body weight) was inversely associated with daily cigarette consumption (p smokers (p = .43). This secondary analysis showed that pregnant smokers' nicotine intake was similar to that of a general population of smokers despite a lower cigarette consumption rate. Among pregnant smokers, lower daily cigarette consumption was associated with higher nicotine intake from cigarettes, suggesting compensatory smoking.

  16. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  17. Explaining sex differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain in a general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Vet, Henrica C W de; Picavet, H Susan J

    2006-01-01

    Many studies report a female predominance in the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) but the mechanisms explaining these sex differences are poorly understood. Data from a random postal questionnaire survey in the Dutch general population were used to examine whether sex differences in

  18. How much Baltic salmon can be consumed without exceeding the tolerable safety limit ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, H.R. [Mobile Nutrients Ltd. (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    Because Baltic salmon is a top predator preying on sprat, herring and tobis, it is very vulnerable to contamination with dioxin and PCBs. The EU safety limit (SL) for fish is 4 picogram (pg) WHOTEQ g{sup -1} fresh fish. In April 2004, Danish commercial salmon fishing was banned to in the Baltic sea around Bornholm and Gotland (mainly ICES areas 25, 26), because the Food Administration reported dioxin levels exceeding the intervention level of 3 pg g{sup -1} fresh salmon. Their report was based on data from 10 individual salmon, and 3 pooled samples, each with 10 salmon. Since dioxins are widespread in the environment, the human population face a trade off to produce sufficient food that is safe to eat and avoid eating contaminated food. The world population is increasing, and the demand for healthy food is steadily increasing. Consequently, there is a need for risk assessments, where the consequences of eating foods with different grades of contamination is evaluated. The evaluation must be based on data of high quality, and because dioxin accumulation is a slow proces, the risk assessments should consider long time periods of months and years instead of days and weeks. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the statistical variation of dioxin data from Baltic herring and salmon. The data are used to calculate the quantity of herring and salmon, that humans of different body weight can eat without exceeding the tolerable daily intake (TDI). (In dietary recommendations exposure from dairy products etc. must also be taken into account). A PCDD/F box model is proposed that subtract losses during cooking and postprandially.

  19. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  20. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  1. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  2. Epidemiology of dizziness in northern Poland – The first Polish neurootologic survey of the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Wojtczak

    2017-09-01

    The authors present the first Polish neurootologic survey of epidemiology of dizziness in the general population. This condition is common in the general population, and this study indicates its prevalence in 16.4% of the inhabitants of the town and district of Bytów. It is recommendable that epidemiological studies should be carried out.

  3. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  4. Low Use and Adherence to Maintenance Medication in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that use of and adherence to maintenance medication is low among individuals in the general population who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , even in cases of severe and very severe COPD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 5,812 individuals...... with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study, and classified them according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) airflow limitation grades 1-4. Dispensing of fixed-dose combinations of inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting beta2-agonists, long-acting anti...... for COPD in the general population was associated with the severity of COPD as defined by GOLD, but even in severe and very severe COPD, use and adherence was low....

  5. Thyroid status and mortality in nonagenarians from long-lived families and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A.; van der Spoel, Evie; Beekman, Marian

    2017-01-01

    (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) were measured. In nonagenarians from long-lived families and from the general population, associations between thyroid parameters and mortality were similar. We found no interaction between study population and parameters of thyroid status...

  6. Patients’ perception of differences in general practitioners’ attitudes toward immigrants compared to the general population: Qualicopc Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534

  7. Urinary phthalate metabolites and male reproductive function parameters in Chongqing general population, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Niya; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Li, Yafei; Lin, Hui; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing City of China, and to determine the possible associations between phthalate exposure and male reproductive function parameters. We recruited 232 general men through Chongqing Family Planning Research Institute and Reproductive Center of Chongqing. In a single spot urine sample from each man, phthalate metabolites, including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), phthalic acid (PA), and total PA were analyzed using solid phase extraction and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Semen parameters were dichotomized based on World Health Organization reference values. Sperm DNA damage were analyzed using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Reproductive hormones were determined in serum by the radioimmunoassay kit. We observed a weak association between urinary MBP concentration and sperm concentration in Chongqing general population. MBP levels above the median were 1.97 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-4.04) more likely to have sperm concentration below the reference value. There were no other associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive function parameters after adjusted for potential risk factors. Our study suggested that general population in Chongqing area of China exposure to the environmental level of phthalate have weak or without adverse effects on the reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...... screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. Methods: The Inter99 study (1999 – 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent......-screening of psychological status did not influence the psychological impact of screening. Conclusions: This large, randomised intervention study supports that screening for risk factors to IHD does not increase mental distress, not even in the mentally or socioeconomically most vulnerable persons.This study included...

  9. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.

  10. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horim Yi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  11. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  12. MACROD2 gene associated with autistic-like traits in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel M; Cadby, Gemma; Blangero, John; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Moses, Eric K

    2014-12-01

    There is now substantial evidence that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical autism spectrum disorders (ASD) representing the extreme end of this distribution. In this study, we sought to evaluate five independently identified genetic associations with ASD with autistic-like traits in the general population. In the study cohort, clinical phenotype and genomewide association genotype data were obtained from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The outcome measure used was the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a quantitative measure of autistic-like traits of individuals in the cohort. Total AQ scores were calculated for each individual, as well as scores for three subscales. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with ASD, reported in previously published genomewide association studies, were selected using a nominal cutoff value of P less than 1.0×10. We tested whether these five SNPs were associated with total AQ and the subscales, after adjustment for possible confounders. SNP rs4141463 located in the macro domain containing 2 (MACROD2) gene was significantly associated with the Communication/Mindreading subscale. No other SNP was significantly associated with total AQ or the subscales. The MACROD2 gene is a strong positional candidate risk factor for autistic-like traits in the general population.

  13. A comparison of cervical cancer screening rates among women with traumatic spinal cord injury and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilcher, Sara J T; Newman, Alice; Jaglal, Susan B

    2010-01-01

    Previous qualitative and survey studies have suggested women with spinal cord injury (SCI) are screened less often for cervical cancer compared with the general population. We investigated whether cervical cancer screening rates differ between population-based women with and without traumatic SCI, matched for age and geography. A double cohort design was used, comparing women with SCI to the general population (1:4) using administrative data for Ontario, Canada. Women with SCI, identified using the Discharge Abstract Database for the fiscal years 1995-1996 to 2001-2002, were female residents of Ontario between the ages of 25 and 66, admitted to an acute care facility with a traumatic SCI (ICD-9 CM code 806 or 952). Women in the general Ontario population were randomly matched by age and geography. Screening rates were calculated from fee codes related to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests for a 3-year period preinjury and postinjury. There were 339 women with SCI matched to 1506 women in the general Ontario population. Screening rates pre-SCI were 55% for women with SCI and 57% during this same time period for matched women in the general population; post-SCI rates were 58% for both the two groups. Factors predicting the likelihood of receiving a Pap test for SCI cases included younger age and higher socioeconomic status. Utilization data suggest that there are no significant differences in screening rates for women with SCI compared with the general population. However, screening rates for women with SCI were significantly influenced by age as well as income.

  14. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to ``burn,'' very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed ``heat after death'' will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear ``burning.''

  15. The relationship of quality of life and distress in prostate cancer patients compared to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Lehmann-Laue, Antje; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ried, Alexander; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-06-30

    The aim of this study is two-fold. The first part compares quality of life (QoL) data of prostate cancer patients with those of a representative and age-specific sample of the general population and analyzes the influence of cancer related as well as socio-demographic parameters on QoL. Secondly, differences in QoL depending on the experienced psychological distress will be shown both in prostate cancer patients and in the general population. A sample of 265 prostate cancer patients completed both the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during their stay in the hospital. A total HADS cut off score of 15 was used to indicate psychological distress and significant emotional concerns in patients and men of the general population. The results of the patients were compared with those of the general population (N=444). Prostate cancer patients reported significantly worse levels of social and emotional functioning as well as more symptoms like insomnia, constipation and diarrhea compared to the general population. Patients and men of the general population with a total HADS score >/=15 reported lower QoL in all sub-scales except for diarrhea in comparison to people without distress. Psychological distress is accompanied by lower QoL and therefore should be taken into consideration when QoL is assessed. Furthermore, clinicians should be trained by professionals to detect distress in their patients and to pay more attention to their emotional concerns, which are strongly associated with the patients' well-being and QoL during their stay in hospital.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Müller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01, was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%, of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%, with no more than an elementary school education (77% and married (64.6%. In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system.

  17. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites level in urine of general population in eight provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Chunguang; Liu, Cuilan; Wang, Gang; Song, Xinkui; Huang, Hanlin; Zhu, Baoli; Shao, Hua; Zhao, Chunxiang; Han, Changcheng; Peng, Shanzhuo; Jiang, Xianlong; Yu, Shanfa; Ji, Hongrong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Sun, Ran; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2014-02-01

    To assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites in urine of general population in China among 8 provinces, provide the baseline of the metabolites in the general population. From 2009 to 2010, 18 120 subjects of general population aged 6-60 years old were recruited from 24 areas among 8 provinces in east, west and central areas of China mainland by cluster random sampling. The information of the living environment and health condition were collected by questionnaire and spot urine samples were collected, 4 680 urine samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and monohydroxy metabolites distribution in urine among groups of gender and ages were analysed. Geometric means (GM) of 2-naphthol, 1-naphthol, 3-phenanthrol and 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in urine (95%CI) were 1.85 (1.75-1.95), 1.55 (1.50-1.61), 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.82 (0.78-0.85) µg/L, respectively;and median are 2.44, population were significantly different (P population aged 6-12, 13-16, 17-20, 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 years old were 1.60, 1.56, 1.69, 2.23, 1.91 and 1.86 µg/L (χ(2) = 17.90, P population were different, it provided a basic data for the further study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomonitoring in the population.

  18. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  19. Hepatitis B, C, and D virus infection showing distinct patterns between injection drug users and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Fengfan; Wen, Bo; Luo, Shan; Yuan, Dongping; Lin, Yingbiao; Ou, Wensheng; Tang, Ping; Dai, Guozhi; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Wenpei; Qu, Xiaowang

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are known to be prevalent in injection drug users (IDUs); however, the relationship between the molecular epidemiologic features of hepatitis virus infection in high-risk individuals and the general population has not yet been established. In total, 1049 IDUs and 672 individuals who underwent physical examinations at Chenzhou hospital, Hunan Province, China, were enrolled. HBV, HCV, and HDV infections were screened with serologic tests in both populations. HBsAg-positive, anti-HCV IgG-positive, and anti-HDV IgG-positive samples were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing. Significantly higher HBV (21.54 vs 16.52%, P = 0.01), HCV (45.95% vs 1.34%, P infections were detected in IDUs compared with the general population. The dual infection of HBV/HCV or HBV/HDV was also significantly higher in IDUs than in the general population. HBV genotype B and HDV genotype II were dominants in both populations. HCV infection showed genotype 6a (49.52%) dominant in IDUs, but genotype 1b accounted for 50% infection, which was followed by genotype 6a (33.33%) in the general population. Higher viral loads were associated with HBV genotype B and HCV genotype 6a compared with non-dominant genotypic infections. HBV and HDV infections shared similar patterns by IDUs and the general populations, and HCV infection exhibited distinct features between two populations. Our results suggest different molecular epidemiologic characteristics of HBV, HCV, and HDV infection in two populations. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  1. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    to cases where the Gumbel distribution is the appropriate asymptotic extreme value distribution. However, two extra parameters are introduced by which a more general and flexible class of extreme value distributions is obtained with the Gumbel distribution as a subclass. The general method is implemented...... within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out......The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted...

  2. How many people in Canada use prescription opioids non-medically in general and street drug using populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Patra, Jayadeep; Mohapatra, Satya; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Medical prescriptions for opioids as well as their non-medical use have increased in Canada in recent years. This study aimed to estimate the number of non-medical prescription opioid (PO) users in the general and street drug using populations in Canada. The number of non-medical PO users among the general population and the number of non-medical PO users, heroin users, or both among the street drug using population was estimated for Canada and for the most populous Canadian provinces. Different estimation methods were used: 1) the number of non-medical PO users in the Canadian general population was estimated based on Canadian availability data, and the ratio of US availability to non-medical PO use from US survey data; 2) numbers within the street drug using population were indirectly estimated based on overdose death data, and a key informants survey. Distribution and trends by usage of opioids were determined by using the multi-site Canadian OPICAN cohort data. Between 321,000 to 914,000 non-medical PO users were estimated to exist among the general population in Canada in 2003. The estimated number of non-medical PO users, heroin users, or both among the street drug using population was about 72,000, with more individuals using nonmedical PO than heroin in 2003. Based on data from the OPICAN survey, in 2005 the majority of the street drug using population in main Canadian cities was non-medical PO users, with the exception of Vancouver and Montreal. A relative increase of 24% was observed from 2002 to 2005 in the proportion of the street drug using population who used non-medical POs only. There is an urgent need to further assess the extent and patterns of non-medical prescription opioid use, related problems and drug distribution channels in Canada.

  3. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Matteis, S.; Consonni, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Tucker, M.; Peters, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Bertazzi, P.A.; Caporaso, N.E.; Pesatori, A.C.; Wacholder, S.; Landi, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. METHODS: We applied

  4. Associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population. Aims To assess the associations between the presence of 12-month and remitted (lifetime minus 12-month) mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and sexual

  5. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000's: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV's unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34-1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59-2.67). These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease.

  6. Prevalences of rheumatoid arthritis in Roman Catholic nuns and the general female population in Brittany, France: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Y; Saraux, A; Le Goff, P

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of lifestyle factors on the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing Roman Catholic nuns and the general female population. RA prevalence in the general population was evaluated using a standardized telephone survey in 1857 homes taken at random. Individuals who reported an inflammatory joint disease were contacted by a rheumatologist of our unit, missing data were collected from the general practitioner or rheumatologist with the patient's permission, and if necessary a physical examination was done by a rheumatologist. The 9 largest Roman Catholic nun communities in Brittany were screened using the same standardized questionnaire administered face-to-face; nuns who reported an inflammatory joint disease were interviewed and examined by rheumatologists. In both populations, RA was diagnosed when (1) the rheumatologist of our unit who interviewed the patient considered the RA classification criteria positive and (2) the rheumatologist who examined the patient gave a diagnosis of RA independently from RA classification criteria. Data were available for 1706 adult females in the general population and 721 nuns. Of the 20 nuns who reported RA or polyarthritis, 11 received a diagnosis of RA (prevalence 1.52%). The prevalences adjustedfor the French population after 40 years were 1.66% (95% confidence interval, 0.84-2.44) and 1.33 (0.27-2.40) among the nuns and the general female population, respectively. Although our nun population was too small for definite conclusions, we found no evidence of a difference in RA prevalence among nuns and the general female population in Brittany.

  7. Comparative performance of diabetes-specific and general population-based cardiovascular risk assessment models in people with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, J-B; Kengne, A P

    2013-10-01

    Multivariable models for estimating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in people with diabetes comprise general population-based models and those from diabetic cohorts. Whether one set of models should receive preference is unclear. We evaluated the evidence on direct comparisons of the performance of general population vs diabetes-specific CVD risk models in people with diabetes. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 2013. Two reviewers independently identified studies that compared the performance of general CVD models vs diabetes-specific ones in the same group of people with diabetes. Independent, dual data extraction on study design, risk models, outcomes; and measures of performance was conducted. Eleven articles reporting on 22 pair wise comparisons of a diabetes-specific model (UKPDS, ADVANCE and DCS risk models) to a general population model (three variants of the Framingham model, Prospective Cardiovascular Münster [PROCAM] score, CardioRisk Manager [CRM], Joint British Societies Coronary Risk Chart [JBSRC], Progetto Cuore algorithm and the CHD-Riskard algorithm) were eligible. Absolute differences in C-statistic of diabetes-specific vs general population-based models varied from -0.13 to 0.09. Comparisons for other performance measures were unusual. Outcomes definitions were congruent with those applied during model development. In 14 comparisons, the UKPDS, ADVANCE or DCS diabetes-specific models were superior to the general population CVD risk models. Authors reported better C-statistic for models they developed. The limited existing evidence suggests a possible discriminatory advantage of diabetes-specific over general population-based models for CVD risk stratification in diabetes. More robust head-to-head comparisons are needed to confirm this trend and strengthen recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Food Addiction: Its Prevalence and Significant Association with Obesity in the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background ?Food addiction? shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, ?food addiction? contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. Objectives to assess 1) the prevalence of ?food addiction? in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of ?food addiction? were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than contr...

  9. The relationship of quality of life and distress in prostate cancer patients compared to the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Lehmann-Laue, Antje; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ried, Alexander; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is two-fold. The first part compares quality of life (QoL) data of prostate cancer patients with those of a representative and age-specific sample of the general population and analyzes the influence of cancer related as well as socio-demographic parameters on QoL. Secondly, differences in QoL depending on the experienced psychological distress will be shown both in prostate cancer patients and in the general population. Material and Methods: A sample of 265 prostate cancer patients completed both the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during their stay in the hospital. A total HADS cut off score of 15 was used to indicate psychological distress and significant emotional concerns in patients and men of the general population. The results of the patients were compared with those of the general population (N=444). Results: Prostate cancer patients reported significantly worse levels of social and emotional functioning as well as more symptoms like insomnia, constipation and diarrhea compared to the general population. Patients and men of the general population with a total HADS score ≥15 reported lower QoL in all sub-scales except for diarrhea in comparison to people without distress. Discussion: Psychological distress is accompanied by lower QoL and therefore should be taken into consideration when QoL is assessed. Furthermore, clinicians should be trained by professionals to detect distress in their patients and to pay more attention to their emotional concerns, which are strongly associated with the patients’ well-being and QoL during their stay in hospital. PMID:20628652

  10. Preventive psychosocial parental and school programmes in a general population

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Hans O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Numerous preventive programmes have emerged, and need to be investigated to determine their effects on the normal population. Earlier studies have shown a decrease in depressive symptoms, positive effects on children’s disruptive behaviour problems, and an improvement in parental competence. About a fifth of the parents in previous studies had problem-oriented (targeted) reasons for enrolment, whereas the rest of the parents had general (universal) reasons. The results of those s...

  11. Causes of death in rheumatoid arthritis: How do they compare to the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdifield, Jessica; Paterson, J Michael; Huang, Anjie; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2018-03-07

    To compare mortality rates, underlying causes of death, excess mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients relative to the general population. We studied an inception cohort of 87,114 Ontario RA patients and 348,456 age/sex/area-matched general population comparators over 2000 to 2013. All-cause, cause-specific, and excess mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (MRRs), and YPLL were estimated. A total of 11,778 (14% of) RA patients and 32,472 (9% of) comparators died during 508,385 and 1,769,365 person-years (PY) of follow-up, respectively, for corresponding mortality rates of 232 (95% CI 228, 236) and 184 (95% CI 182, 186) per 10,000 PYs. Leading causes of death in both groups were diseases of the circulatory system, cancer, and respiratory conditions. Increased mortality for all-cause and specific causes was observed in RA relative to the general population. MRRs were elevated for most causes of death. Age-specific mortality ratios illustrated a high excess mortality among RA patients under 45 years of age for respiratory disease and circulatory disease. RA patients lost 7,436 potential years of life per 10,000 persons, compared with 4,083 YPLL among those without RA. Mortality rates were increased in RA patients relative to the general population across most causes of death. The potential life years lost (before the age of 75) among RA patients was roughly double that among those without RA, reflecting higher rate ratios for most causes of death and RA patients dying at earlier ages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. [Criterion Validity of the German Version of the CES-D in the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Rebecca; Baumgartner, Josef S; van den Nest, Miriam; Friedrich, Fabian; Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Wancata, Johannes

    2018-04-17

    The "Center of Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scale" (CES-D) is a well-known screening tool for depression. Until now the criterion validity of the German version of the CES-D was not investigated in a sample of the adult general population. 508 study participants of the Austrian general population completed the CES-D. ICD-10 diagnoses were established by using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted. Possible gender differences were explored. Overall discriminating performance of the CES-D was sufficient (ROC-AUC 0,836). Using the traditional cut-off values of 15/16 and 21/22 respectively the sensitivity was 43.2 % and 32.4 %, respectively. The cut-off value developed on the basis of our sample was 9/10 with a sensitivity of 81.1 % und a specificity of 74.3 %. There were no significant gender differences. This is the first study investigating the criterion validity of the German version of the CES-D in the general population. The optimal cut-off values yielded sufficient sensitivity and specificity, comparable to the values of other screening tools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Prevalence of constipation among the general population: a community-based survey from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Mamta; Saini, Sushma Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Constipation is a frequent health problem leading to great discomfort to the person and affects his or her quality of life. It is considered to be highly prevalent in the general population, but there is little data supporting the findings. This study was undertaken with an objective to assess the prevalence of constipation and its associated factors among the general population of Dadu Majra Colony, UT, Chandigarh, India. A total of 505 individuals were interviewed through structured questionnaire based on ROME II criteria for constipation. Results revealed that the prevalence of self-reported constipation within the last 1 year was 24.8% whereas 16.8% of participants had constipation according to the Rome II criteria. Most of the subjects (83%) were within the age group of 18-59 years with mean age (years) of 38.64 ± 15.57. Constipation was significantly more frequent in females than in males (20% vs. 13%) and in nonworking population than in working population (20% vs. 12%). Poor dietary habits, lesser fluid intake per day, and lesser physical activity were found to be significant factors leading to the constipation. About 18% of constipated subjects reported physicians' consultation, whereas 8% reported the use of laxatives to relieve their constipation.

  14. Employee Health Behaviors, Self-Reported Health Status, and Association With Absenteeism: Comparison With the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.

  15. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome among the general female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarannum, Fouzia; Prasad, R K Shiva; Shobha, R; Kumar, B B Santosh; Ebenezer, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Preterm low birth weight (PTLBW) is a public health issue which needs to be dealt with by educating the general female population. One of the major contributing factors is periodontal disease and treatment of the same could reduce the occurrence of PTLBW babies. Therefore, awareness of this among the female population is highly essential. Hence, this survey was planned with the aim to explore the awareness of the general female population regarding the association of periodontal disease and PTLBW. This survey consisted of nine close-ended questions answered by 1284 females. Younger individuals had higher knowledge scores as compared to the older individuals (r = -0.161) and the more educated group had a higher knowledge score as compared to the less educated groups (r = 0.322). Furthermore, married women seemed to be more aware of the relation of PTLBW to periodontal disease as compared to unmarried women. Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.

  17. Prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia - The RISE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Schöfer, H; Araviiskaia, E; Audibert, F; Kerrouche, N; Berg, M

    2016-03-01

    There is an unmet need for general population-based epidemiological data on rosacea based on contemporary diagnostic criteria and validated population survey methodology. To evaluate the prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia. General population screening was conducted in 9-10 cities per country to ensure adequate geographic representation. In Part I of this two-phase study, screening of a representative sample of the general population (every fifth person or every fifth door using a fixed-step procedure on a random route sample) was expedited with use of a questionnaire and algorithm based on current diagnostic criteria for rosacea. Of the subjects that screened positive in the initial phase, a randomly selected sample (every third subject) t`hen underwent diagnostic confirmation by a dermatologist in Part II. A total of 3052 and 3013 subjects (aged 18-65 years) were screened in Germany and Russia respectively. Rosacea prevalence was 12.3% [95%CI, 10.2-14.4] in Germany and 5.0% [95%CI, 2.8-7.2] in Russia. The profile of subjects with rosacea (75% women; mean age of 40 years; mainly skin phototype II or III, majority of subjects with sensitive facial skin) and subtype distribution were similar. Overall, 18% of subjects diagnosed with rosacea were aged 18-30 years. Over 80% were not previously diagnosed. Within the previous year, 47.5% of subjects had received no rosacea care and 23.7% had received topical and/or systemic drugs. Over one-third (35% Germany, 43% Russia) of rosacea subjects reported a moderate to severe adverse impact on quality of life. Rosacea is highly prevalent in Germany (12.3%) and Russia (5.0%). The demographic profile of rosacea subjects was similar between countries and the majority were previously undiagnosed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Fifty Shades of Belgian Gray: The Prevalence of BDSM-Related Fantasies and Activities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Lien; Huys, Wim; Coppens, Violette; Seeuws, Jantien; Goethals, Kris; Morrens, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    Bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochism (BDSM) is gaining popularity through the mainstream media. Nevertheless, very little is known about the prevalence of BDSM-related fantasies and activities in the general population. To determine the prevalence of BDSM fantasies and behavioral involvement in four different age groups of the general population in Belgium. By use of a cross-sectional survey questionnaire, the level of interest in several BDSM-related activities was investigated in a sample representative of the general Belgian population (N = 1,027). The questionnaire evaluated interest in 54 BDSM activities and 14 fetishes. Self-identification as BDSM practitioner, situational context of BDSM practice, age at awareness of these interests, and transparency to others were queried. Individual item scores and summary scores on four BDSM categories were included in the analyses. A high interest in BDSM-related activities in the general population was found because 46.8% of the total sample had ever performed at least one BDSM-related activity and an additional 22% indicated having (had) fantasies about it. Interestingly, 12.5% of the total population indicated performing at least one BDSM-related activity on a regular basis. When asked whether they saw themselves as being interested in BDSM, 26% stated this to be the case and 7.6% self-identified as BDSM practitioners. Interests in dominant and submissive activities were comparable and, remarkably, were highly intercorrelated. BDSM and fetish interests were significantly higher in men than in women. The older group (48-65 years) had significantly lower BDSM scores compared with their younger peers. Of participants with a BDSM interest, 61.4% became aware of it before 25 years of age. There is a high level of interest in BDSM in the general population, which strongly argues against stigmatization and pathologic characterization of these interests. This is the first thorough study

  19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Mixed population Minority Game with generalized strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M.; Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a quantitative theory, based on crowd effects, for the market volatility in a Minority Game played by a mixed population. Below a critical concentration of generalized strategy players, we find that the volatility in the crowded regime remains above the random coin-toss value regardless of the `temperature' controlling strategy use. Our theory yields good agreement with numerical simulations.

  20. The Prevalence and Typologies of Controlling Behaviors in a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Sleath, Emma; Tramontano, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and typologies of controlling behaviors within a general population sample. Participants ( N = 427) completed the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Prevalence of perpetration and victimization of controlling behaviors was relatively high, although the frequency and severity of the behaviors was mainly low level. Five clusters were established based on the use of five types of controlling behaviors: economic, threatening, intimidating, emotional, and isolating. Significant differences were found between the perpetration clusters and (a) minor physical assault, (b) severe physical assault, (c) minor psychological aggression, and (d) severe psychological aggression. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the victimization clusters and (a) physical assault, (b) minor psychological aggression, and (c) severe psychological aggression. It is clear that controlling behaviors are a feature within general population relationships, and further research is required to understand when such behaviors become problematic, and what needs to be done to prevent this from happening.

  1. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  3. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac d......% to 17%). CONCLUSIONS: In the general population with dyspnea, plasma proBNP concentrations are increased in left ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction, or diastolic dysfunction, but are unaffected by pulmonary dysfunction.......OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... dyspnea in the emergency department, but their diagnostic significance in evaluating chronic dyspnea in the general population is unknown. METHODS: Within the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a large, community-based population study, dyspnea was evaluated by spirometry, oxygen saturation, echocardiography...

  4. Prostate-specific antigen and long-term prediction of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2012-01-01

    It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population.......It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population....

  5. Autistic Traits in the General Population: What Mediates the Link with Depressive and Anxious Symptomatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbrook, Ainslie; Whittingham, Koa

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population is widely recognised. This study examined the role of three potential mediating variables in the relationship between autistic traits and depressive/anxious symptomatology in the general population. Participants included 231 university…

  6. Predictive validity of the Work Ability Index and its individual items in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Leijon, Ola; Vaez, Marjan; Hallgren, Mats; Torgén, Margareta

    2017-06-01

    This study assesses the predictive ability of the full Work Ability Index (WAI) as well as its individual items in the general population. The Work, Health and Retirement Study (WHRS) is a stratified random national sample of 25-75-year-olds living in Sweden in 2000 that received a postal questionnaire ( n = 6637, response rate = 53%). Current and subsequent sickness absence was obtained from registers. The ability of the WAI to predict long-term sickness absence (LTSA; ⩾ 90 consecutive days) during a period of four years was analysed by logistic regression, from which the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) was computed. There were 313 incident LTSA cases among 1786 employed individuals. The full WAI had acceptable ability to predict LTSA during the 4-year follow-up (AUC = 0.79; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.82). Individual items were less stable in their predictive ability. However, three of the individual items: current work ability compared with lifetime best, estimated work impairment due to diseases, and number of diagnosed current diseases, exceeded AUC > 0.70. Excluding the WAI item on number of days on sickness absence did not result in an inferior predictive ability of the WAI. The full WAI has acceptable predictive validity, and is superior to its individual items. For public health surveys, three items may be suitable proxies of the full WAI; current work ability compared with lifetime best, estimated work impairment due to diseases, and number of current diseases diagnosed by a physician.

  7. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Torben, Jørgensen; Schröder, Andreas Bak

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population....... The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health. RESULTS: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0%) had a profile characterized......, and self-perceived health. CONCLUSION: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The profiles have the potential to be used in further epidemiological studies on risk factors and prognosis of somatic symptoms but should be confirmed in other...

  8. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time is c...... considerably over time. This could hold implications for COPD treatment and challenge assumptions made about disease progression....... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...... obstructive pulmonary disease treatment guidelines and their practical application. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: VARIATIONS IN DISEASE PROGRESSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffer from frequent exacerbations do not necessarily persist with such severity over time...

  9. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. Methods The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982–2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. Results The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P type and a history of cranial radiation therapy were associated with outcomes. Conclusion An altered self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25332406

  10. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    , the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...

  11. 29 CFR 4.162 - Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500. 4.162... Compensation Standards § 4.162 Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500. (a) Pursuant to the statutory... contain a provision specifying the fringe benefits to be furnished the various classes of service...

  12. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  13. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000’s: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. Methods We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. Results The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV’s unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34–1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59–2.67). Conclusions These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease. PMID:27814374

  14. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  15. Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Vermulst, Ad A; Bischof, Anja; Kastirke, Nadin; Gürtler, Diana; Bischof, Gallus; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. A telephone survey was conducted based on a random digit dialling procedure including landline telephone (n=14,022) and cell phone numbers (n=1,001) in participants aged 14-64. The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) served as the basis for a LCA used to look for subgroups representing participants with Internet addiction or at-risk use. CIUS was given to participants reporting to use the Internet for private purposes at least 1 h on a typical weekday or at least 1 h on a day at the weekend (n=8,130). A 6-class model showed best model fit and included two groups likely to represent Internet addiction and at-risk Internet use. Both groups showed less social participation and the Internet addiction group less general trust in other people. Proportions of probable Internet addiction were 1.0% (CI 0.9-1.2) among the entire sample, 2.4% (CI 1.9-3.1) in the age group 14-24, and 4.0% (CI 2.7-5.7) in the age group 14-16. No difference in estimated proportions between males and females was found. Unemployment (OR 3.13; CI 1.74-5.65) and migration background (OR 3.04; CI 2.12-4.36) were related to Internet addiction. This LCA-based study differentiated groups likely to have Internet addiction and at-risk use in the general population and provides characteristics to further define this rather new disorder. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    Full Text Available Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury.A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors.The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%. However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001.

  17. General two-species interacting Lotka-Volterra system: Population dynamics and wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoqi; Wang, Mao-Xiang; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2018-05-01

    The population dynamics of two interacting species modeled by the Lotka-Volterra (LV) model with general parameters that can promote or suppress the other species is studied. It is found that the properties of the two species' isoclines determine the interaction of species, leading to six regimes in the phase diagram of interspecies interaction; i.e., there are six different interspecific relationships described by the LV model. Four regimes allow for nontrivial species coexistence, among which it is found that three of them are stable, namely, weak competition, mutualism, and predator-prey scenarios can lead to win-win coexistence situations. The Lyapunov function for general nontrivial two-species coexistence is also constructed. Furthermore, in the presence of spatial diffusion of the species, the dynamics can lead to steady wavefront propagation and can alter the population map. Propagating wavefront solutions in one dimension are investigated analytically and by numerical solutions. The steady wavefront speeds are obtained analytically via nonlinear dynamics analysis and verified by numerical solutions. In addition to the inter- and intraspecific interaction parameters, the intrinsic speed parameters of each species play a decisive role in species populations and wave properties. In some regimes, both species can copropagate with the same wave speeds in a finite range of parameters. Our results are further discussed in the light of possible biological relevance and ecological implications.

  18. ATLAS: Exceeding all expectations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “One year ago it would have been impossible for us to guess that the machine and the experiments could achieve so much so quickly”, says Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS spokesperson. The whole chain – from collision to data analysis – has worked remarkably well in ATLAS.   The first LHC proton run undoubtedly exceeded expectations for the ATLAS experiment. “ATLAS has worked very well since the beginning. Its overall data-taking efficiency is greater than 90%”, says Fabiola Gianotti. “The quality and maturity of the reconstruction and simulation software turned out to be better than we expected for this initial stage of the experiment. The Grid is a great success, and right from the beginning it has allowed members of the collaboration all over the world to participate in the data analysis in an effective and timely manner, and to deliver physics results very quickly”. In just a few months of data taking, ATLAS has observed t...

  19. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K

    2015-05-01

    Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982-2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Phenotypes of individuals affected by airborne chemicals in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, A.; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    to symptoms than less severely affected individuals, and the number of symptoms was more predictive for severity than the number of exposures. Most predictive for the severity of reported symptoms were CNS-symptoms other than headache (OR = 3.2, P ... (OR = 2.0, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CNS-symptoms except from headache were a main characteristic of individuals severely affected by common chemical exposures in a general population-based sample...

  1. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked with population density, which has increased over the past centuries. We have analysed how emissions from several landscape biomass burning sources could have fluctuated to yield emissions that are in correspondence with recent results based on ice core mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and its isotopic signature measured at South Pole station (SPO. Based on estimates of contemporary landscape fire emissions and the TM5 chemical transport model driven by present-day atmospheric transport and OH concentrations, we found that CO mixing ratios at SPO are more sensitive to emissions from South America and Australia than from Africa, and are relatively insensitive to emissions from the Northern Hemisphere. We then explored how various landscape biomass burning sources may have varied over the past centuries and what the resulting emissions and corresponding CO mixing ratio at SPO would be, using population density variations to reconstruct sources driven by humans (e.g., fuelwood burning and a new model to relate savanna emissions to changes in fire return times. We found that to match the observed ice core CO data, all savannas in the Southern Hemisphere had to burn annually, or bi-annually in combination with deforestation and slash and burn agriculture exceeding current levels, despite much lower population densities and lack of machinery to aid the deforestation process. While possible, these scenarios are unlikely and in conflict with current literature. However, we do show the large potential for increased emissions from savannas in a pre-industrial world. This is mainly because in the past, fuel beds were probably less fragmented compared to the

  2. Comorbid Disorders and Sociodemographic Variables in Temporomandibular Pain in the General Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Corine M.; Ligthart, Lannie; Schuller, Annemarie A.; Lobbezoo, Frank; de Jongh, Ad; van Houtem, Caroline M. H. H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to

  3. Comorbid disorders and sociodemographic variables in temporomandibular pain in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C.M.; Ligthart, L.; Schuller, A.A.; Lobbezoo, F.; de Jongh, A.; van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD)-pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to

  4. Joint Hypermobility Classes in 9-Year-Old Children from the General Population and Anxiety Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Navarro, José Blas; Osa, Núria de la; Penelo, Eva; Bulbena, Antoni

    2018-05-25

    To obtain joint hypermobility classes in children from the general population and to study their characteristics in relation to anxiety measures. A total of 336 nine-year-old children from the general population were clinically assessed through 9 items of hypermobility, and their parents reported about the severity of anxiety symptoms. Latent class analysis was estimated to group the children according to the presence of hypermobility symptoms, and the obtained classes were related to anxiety. A 2-class solution, labeled as high hypermobility and low hypermobility, best fitted the data. Children in the high hypermobility group scored higher in separation anxiety, social phobia, physical injury fears, and total anxiety than did those in the low group. When applying the threshold reference scores to the total anxiety score, 7.4% of children in the high hypermobility group versus 6% in the low group were reported to experience clinical elevations on total anxiety. High symptoms of hypermobility are associated with higher scores in anxiety symptoms in children from the general population. Children with frequent symptoms of hypermobility may benefit from screening for anxiety symptoms because a subset of them are experiencing clinical elevations and may need comprehensive physical and psychological treatment.

  5. Fifty shades of Belgian gray : the prevalence of BDSM-related fantasies and activities in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Holvoet, Lien; Huys, Wim; Coppens, Violette; Seeuws, Jantien; Goethals, Kris; Morrens, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background Bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochism (BDSM) is gaining popularity through the mainstream media. Nevertheless, very little is known about the prevalence of BDSM-related fantasies and activities in the general population. Aim To determine the prevalence of BDSM fantasies and behavioral involvement in four different age groups of the general population in Belgium. Methods By use of a cross-sectional survey questionnaire, the level of int...

  6. TRIB1 and GCKR polymorphisms, lipid levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population.......The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population....

  7. Risk of atherosclerosis in general Czech population is very high - preventive examinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Martinková, Patrícia

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, suppl 1 (2007), S66-S66 ISSN 1741-8267. [EuroPrevent Congress. 19.04.2007-21.04.2007, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : risk of atherosclerosis * preventive examinations * general population Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  8. Prevalence of early and late prematurity is similar among pediatric type 1 diabetes patients and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Adi; Shalitin, Shlomit; Eyal, Ori; Loewenthal, Neta; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Levy, Milana; Dally-Gottfried, Orna; Landau, Zohar; Zung, Amnon; Levy-Khademi, Floris; Zangen, David; Tenenbaum-Rakover, Yardena; Rachmiel, Marianna

    2018-02-22

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (prematurity and early prematurity (prematurity and birth season were compared with the general population birth registry using Pearson Chi-square test. The study population included 1452 T1DM patients, 52.7% males, and 2 138 668 subjects in the general non-T1DM population, 51.2% males. The prevalence of late and early prematurity was similar between groups (6.1% and 2.2% in the T1DM group vs 5.6% and 2.0% in the general non-T1DM group, P = 0.25 and P = 0.38, respectively). OR for prematurity among T1DM patients was 1.15 (0.95-1.39), P = 0.16. No difference in birth season was demonstrated between preterm and term, in T1DM and general non-T1DM populations. Ethiopian descent was more prevalent among T1DM patients compared with the non-T1DM population, in both term and preterm born. This is the largest population-based study, and the first in the Middle East geographical area, indicating that prematurity, including early prematurity, is not associated with T1DM during childhood. The study was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT02929953. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasazuki Shizuka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to provide information on awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population. Methods A nationwide representative sample of 2,000 Japanese aged 20 or older was asked about their perception and level of concern about various environmental and genetic risk factors in relation to cancer prevention, as a part of an Omnibus Survey. Interviews were conducted with 1,355 subjects (609 men and 746 women. Results Among 12 risk factor candidates, the attributable fraction of cancer-causing viral and bacterial infection was considered highest (51%, followed by that of tobacco smoking (43%, stress (39%, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (37%. On the other hand, the attributable fractions of cancer by charred fish and meat (21% and alcohol drinking (22% were considered low compared with other risk factor candidates. For most risk factors, attributable fraction responses were higher in women than in men. As a whole, the subjects tended to respond with higher values than those estimated by epidemiologic evidence in the West. The attributable fraction of cancer speculated to be genetically determined was 32%, while 36% of cancer was considered preventable by improving lifestyle. Conclusion Our results suggest that awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes in the Japanese general population tends to be dominated by cancer-causing infection, occupational exposure, air pollution and food additives rather than major lifestyle factors such as diet.

  10. Artificial neural network models for prediction of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in general Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for cardiovascular autonomic (CA) dysfunction in the general population. Methods We analyzed a previous dataset based on a population sample consisted of 2,092 individuals aged 30–80 years. The prediction models were derived from an exploratory set using ANN analysis. Performances of these prediction models were evaluated in the validation set. Results Univariate analysis indicated that 14 risk factors showed statistically significant association with CA dysfunction (P < 0.05). The mean area under the receiver-operating curve was 0.762 (95% CI 0.732–0.793) for prediction model developed using ANN analysis. The mean sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were similar in the prediction models was 0.751, 0.665, 0.330 and 0.924, respectively. All HL statistics were less than 15.0. Conclusion ANN is an effective tool for developing prediction models with high value for predicting CA dysfunction among the general population. PMID:23902963

  11. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  12. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Fung

    Full Text Available The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%, a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L., occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  13. Differences in labour participation between people living with HIV and the general population: Results from Spain along the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2018-01-01

    HIV/AIDS (Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) not only has a strong impact on the health of the worldwide population but also affects the labour status of HIV-positive people. The primary aim of this paper is to compare the labour participation of people living with HIV (PlwHIV) with the labour participation of the general population along the last business cycle in Spain. The data used are from the Hospital Survey on HIV-AIDS, with a total sample size of 4,651 PlwHIV and the Labour Force Survey from 2001 to 2010, with a total sample size of 660,674 individuals as general population. Propensity Score Matching method was used to analyse the differences between the labour participation of PlwHIV and the general population. Additionally, several specific models categorised into different subgroups (gender, education, source of infection and level of defences) were also performed. We identified a convergence in labour participation across the period in the two populations considered: PlwHIV was 23% less likely to have a job than the general population during 2001-2002 and 14% less likely during 2009-2010. This convergence is mainly explained by two facts: first, the positive evolution of people infected by sex; second, the change in the PlwHIV population composition with a decreasing weight of people infected by drug use throughout the decade. Thereby, at the end of period, there was no statistical difference in the employment rate between PlwHIV infected through sex and the general population but there was strongly difference in PlwHIV infected through drugs. Inmunological status, source of infection and level of education play a relevant role among the PlwHIV population when comparing their labour participation with the general population. In spite of this positive result, the likelihood of being employed in HIV-positive people continues to be different from that of non-carriers. Our study shows that institutional features of labour

  14. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Context The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. Recently, a strong association was found between elevated levels of nonfasting triglycerides, which indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, and increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective To test...... the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, Danish population - based cohort study initiated in 1976, with follow- up through July 2007....... Participants were 13 956 men and women aged 20 through 93 years. A cross- sectional study included 9637 individuals attending the 1991- 1994 examination of the prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Prospective study: baseline levels of nonfasting triglycerides, other risk factors at baseline and at follow...

  15. Recommended vitamin D levels in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Sources of dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of dietary protein on blood pressure (BP), especially for plant protein. We examined the relationship between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal, dairy, meat and grain) and the risk of hypertension in a general population of 3588 Dutch

  17. The prevalence of insomnia in the general population in China: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Cao

    Full Text Available This is the first meta-analysis of the pooled prevalence of insomnia in the general population of China. A systematic literature search was conducted via the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Interne (CNKI, WanFang Data and SinoMed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program. A total of 17 studies with 115,988 participants met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in China was 15.0% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 12.1%-18.5%. No significant difference was found in the prevalence between genders or across time period. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in population with a mean age of 43.7 years and older (11.6%; 95% CI: 7.5%-17.6% was significantly lower than in those with a mean age younger than 43.7 years (20.4%; 95% CI: 14.2%-28.2%. The prevalence of insomnia was significantly affected by the type of assessment tools (Q = 14.1, P = 0.001. The general population prevalence of insomnia in China is lower than those reported in Western countries but similar to those in Asian countries. Younger Chinese adults appear to suffer from more insomnia than older adults.CRD 42016043620.

  18. Interarm blood pressure difference and target organ damage in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jouni K; Puukka, Pauli J; Jula, Antti M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate interarm differences of blood pressure (BP) and its determinants, and to clarify whether both arms are equally good in assessing BP and target organ damage in the general population. We studied a representative sample of Finnish adult population with 484 study participants, ages 25-74 years. BP was measured twice by an oscillometric monitor simultaneously on both arms. Study participants underwent a clinical examination including measurements of serum lipids, glucose and indicators of target organ damage. BP was 2.3/0.2 mmHg higher on right than on left arm (P differences). SBP and DBP measured on right and left arms correlated equally with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), posterior wall thickness (PWT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and albuminuria. Higher SBP level was an independent determinant of both greater systolic and diastolic interarm BP difference. Exaggerated absolute diastolic interarm BP difference (>5 mmHg) was associated with higher BMI, arm circumference, LVMI, IVST and PWT, whereas exaggerated absolute systolic interarm BP difference (>10 mmHg) was not associated with any clinical variables. There was only a small difference in BP between arms in a healthy general population. Both arms are equally good determinants of target organ damage. BP should be measured at least once on both arms and prefer the arm with higher BP readings in the future BP measurements.

  19. Development of Thresholds and Exceedance Probabilities for Influent Water Quality to Meet Drinking Water Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, K. L.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.; Balaji, R.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water treatment utilities (DWTU) are tasked with the challenge of meeting disinfection and disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations to provide safe, reliable drinking water under changing climate and land surface characteristics. DBPs form in drinking water when disinfectants, commonly chlorine, react with organic matter as measured by total organic carbon (TOC), and physical removal of pathogen microorganisms are achieved by filtration and monitored by turbidity removal. Turbidity and TOC in influent waters to DWTUs are expected to increase due to variable climate and more frequent fires and droughts. Traditional methods for forecasting turbidity and TOC require catchment specific data (i.e. streamflow) and have difficulties predicting them under non-stationary climate. A modelling framework was developed to assist DWTUs with assessing their risk for future compliance with disinfection and DBP regulations under changing climate. A local polynomial method was developed to predict surface water TOC using climate data collected from NOAA, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the IRI Data Library, and historical TOC data from three DWTUs in diverse geographic locations. Characteristics from the DWTUs were used in the EPA Water Treatment Plant model to determine thresholds for influent TOC that resulted in DBP concentrations within compliance. Lastly, extreme value theory was used to predict probabilities of threshold exceedances under the current climate. Results from the utilities were used to produce a generalized TOC threshold approach that only requires water temperature and bromide concentration. The threshold exceedance model will be used to estimate probabilities of exceedances under projected climate scenarios. Initial results show that TOC can be forecasted using widely available data via statistical methods, where temperature, precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and NDVI with various lags were shown to be important

  20. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  1. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuan

    Full Text Available Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness.This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor.From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore.Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception.There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.

  2. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.

  3. Prognosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population...... of COPD are needed. Funding:The Danish Lung Association, the Danish Cancer Society, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, and University of Copenhagen.......Background: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population......%) were at high risk of having COPD. 3699 (11%) of these participants met the COPD criteria and 2903 (78%) were undiagnosed, of whom 2052 (71%) were symptomatic. During a median follow-up of 6·1 years (IQR 4·9), we recorded 800 exacerbations, 2038 cases of pneumonia, and 2789 deaths in the 32 518...

  4. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes modify lung function decline in the general population: SAPALDIA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann-Liebrich Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Deficiency in antioxidative and detoxifying Glutathione S-transferase (GST gene has been associated with poorer lung function in children, smokers and patients with respiratory diseases. In the present study, we assessed whether low activity variants in GST genes are also associated with accelerated lung function decline in the general adult population. Methods We examined with multiple regression analysis the association of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes with annual decline in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 during 11 years of follow-up in 4686 subjects of the prospective SAPALDIA cohort representative of the Swiss general population. Effect modification by smoking, gender, bronchial hyperresponisveness and age was studied. Results The associations of GST genotypes with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 were comparable in direction, but most consistent for FEV1. GSTT1 homozygous gene deletion alone or in combination with GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with excess decline in FEV1 in men, but not women, irrespective of smoking status. The additional mean annual decline in FEV1 in men with GSTT1 and concurrent GSTM1 gene deletion was -8.3 ml/yr (95% confidence interval: -12.6 to -3.9 relative to men without these gene deletions. The GSTT1 effect on the FEV1 decline comparable to the observed difference in FEV1 decline between never and persistent smoking men. Effect modification by gender was statistically significant. Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic GSTT1 deficiency is a prevalent and strong determinant of accelerated lung function decline in the male general population.

  5. Quality of life and associated factors in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Holst, R; Thilsing, T

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps describes methods to perform population-based and clinical studies on Chronic Rhinosinusitis in a standardized way and it also describes how to clinical investigate CRS. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate Quality...... of life and objective findings in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis recruited from the general population....

  6. Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Do students with mild-intellectual disability mimic students in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacoricona Alfaro, Dibia Liz; Ehlinger, Virginie; Spilka, Stanislas; Ross, Jim; Sentenac, Mariane; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-01

    Education policies encourage inclusion of students with mild-intellectual disability (mild-ID) in community/school life. However, such policies potentially increase exposure to substance use. This article examines tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French students enrolled in special units for students with disabilities (ULIS) at mainstream junior high schools compared to those of general population of the equivalent age; and explores factors associated with substance use among ULIS students, known to present mostly mild-ID. In 2014, a questionnaire adapted from the international HBSC/WHO study was administered to 700 ULIS students (mean-age 14.2). Comparative data were gathered from 7023 junior high-school students (mean-age 13.6) in the general population. Among students <14 years-old, tobacco and alcohol use rates were similar between ULIS and general population. For students ≥14, alcohol use remained comparable, while tobacco and cannabis use were higher in general population. Among ULIS students, low perceived health/life satisfaction, divorced/separated parents and high perceived academic demands were associated with tobacco use. Bullying, not liking school very much and attending schools outside a deprived area were associated with alcohol use. Having had sexual intercourse and not perceiving one's health as excellent were associated with cannabis use. Having dated was associated with using all three substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. General considerations on the population ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nuta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most important issues of the current context, the ageing of the population, with major consequences on the financial stability of the nation. This restructure of the population (that change the shape of the population pyramid , as a result, on the one hand, of the reducing in the fertility rate, on the other hand, increasing in life expectancy and last but not least, due to migration, unbalance national budgets, generating negative effects in economic, financial and social terms.

  8. Comparison of Clinical Features in a Population of Basic Military Trainees Versus the General Department of Defense Beneficiary Population Presenting With Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuller, H Samuel; Park, Jisuk; Lott, Lisa; Tavish, Michele; Danaher, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is a well-documented cause of morbidity, extra expense, and lost training time among basic military trainees (BMTs). The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical presentation of influenza in the BMT population and to better understand how this presentation differs from that of the general Department of Defense (DoD) beneficiary population (non-BMTs). Clinical and demographic data were collected in a prospective study that enrolled DoD beneficiaries presenting to medical treatment facilities in San Antonio, Texas, with URI symptoms between January 2005 and March 2011. Vital signs and symptom duration were collected at the time of enrollment along with basic demographic information. Among 4,448 participants enrolled, 466 (10.5%) tested positive for influenza: 198 of 3,103 BMTs (6.4%) vs. 268 of 1,345 non-BMTs (20%) (p 0.5°F, p 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, p 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, p standard deviation = 1.4) symptoms, whereas non-BMTs presented with a mean of 6.9 (standard deviation = 1.3) symptoms (p < 0.01). The pretest probability of a BMT presenting with URI symptoms having influenza is significantly lower than that for the general DoD beneficiary population. BMTs with influenza presented sooner, with higher fever, and with fewer overall symptoms than the general DoD beneficiary population. These differences are likely attributable to early reporting and response bias and less likely attributed to age. Military efforts to identify BMTs with suspected influenza infection early and to refer them for treatment promptly are efficacious. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Biomonitoring of urinary metals in a population living in the vicinity of industrial sources: a comparison with the general population of Andalusia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Daponte, Antonio; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Godoy, Patricia; Pla, Antonio; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2008-12-15

    The Ria of Huelva (south-west Spain) is one of the most polluted fluvial-estuarine systems in the world. Industrial activity delivers huge amounts of pollutants to the local environment, particularly heavy metals and arsenic. Here we aimed to determine urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni in a representative sample (n=857) of adults living in the Ria of Huelva. Levels were compared to those from a representative sample of 861 adults of the general urban population of Andalusia (southern Spain) and multiple regression models were developed to identify individual factors associated with urinary levels of these elements. Arsenic levels were significantly higher in the Ria of Huelva as compared to other Andalusian cities, whereas Cd and Ni levels were significantly lower. Despite these differences, levels in both groups were similar to the reference values reported in previous studies for general population. Age, gender, diet and lifestyle were the major factors contributing to the interindividual variation in urinary metals. In conclusion, despite living in a highly polluted area, the population of the Ria of Huelva failed to show higher urinary levels of the studied metals as compared to a reference urban population of the same region.

  10. Was it worthwhile? Where have the benefits of rooftop solar photovoltaic generation exceeded the cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnav, Parth; Horner, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2017-09-01

    We estimate the lifetime magnitude and distribution of the private and public benefits and costs of currently installed distributed solar PV systems in the United States. Using data for recently-installed systems, we estimate the balance of benefits and costs associated with installing a non-utility solar PV system today. We also study the geographical distribution of the various subsidies that are made available to owners of rooftop solar PV systems, and compare it to distributions of population and income. We find that, after accounting for federal subsidies and local rebates and assuming a discount rate of 7%, the private benefits of new installations will exceed private costs only in seven of the 19 states for which we have data and only if customers can sell excess power to the electric grid at the retail price. These states are characterized by abundant sunshine (California, Texas and Nevada) or by high electricity prices (New York). Public benefits from reduced air pollution and climate change impact exceed the costs of the various subsidies offered system owners for less than 10% of the systems installed, even assuming a 2% discount rate. Subsidies flowed disproportionately to counties with higher median incomes in 2006. In 2014, the distribution of subsidies was closer to that of population income, but subsidies still flowed disproportionately to the better-off. The total, upfront, subsidy per kilowatt of installed capacity has fallen from 5200 in 2006 to 1400 in 2014, but the absolute magnitude of subsidy has soared as installed capacity has grown explosively. We see considerable differences in the balance of costs and benefits even within states, indicating that local factors such as system price and solar resource are important, and that policies (e.g. net metering) could be made more efficient by taking local conditions into account.

  11. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  12. The ethnic gap in mobility: a comparison of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants and the general Finnish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rask

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many ethnic minority populations have poorer health than the general population. However, there is limited knowledge on the possible ethnic gap in physical mobility. We aim to examine the prevalence of mobility limitations in working-age Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in comparison to the general population in Finland. We also determine whether the association between ethnic group and mobility limitation remains after taking into account socio-economic and health-related factors. Methods We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu and the Finnish Health 2011 Survey. The participants comprised 1880 persons aged 29–64 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of difficulties in various mobility tasks was calculated using predictive margins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between socio-economic, health- and migration-related factors and mobility limitation (self-reported difficulty in walking 500 m or stair climbing. The association between ethnic group and mobility limitation was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results Mobility limitations were much more prevalent among Somali origin women (46 % and Kurdish origin men (32 % and women (57 % compared to men and women in the general Finnish population (5–12 %. In Russian origin men and women, the prevalence of mobility limitation (7–17 % was similar to the general Finnish population. Socio-economic and health-related factors, but not migration-related factors (time lived in Finland and language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish, were found to be associated with mobility limitation in the studied populations. Somali and Kurdish origin migrants were found to have increased odds for mobility limitation compared to the general Finnish population, even after adjusting for socio-economic and health-related factors (Somalis odds ratio [OR] 3.61; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.07–6.29, Kurds

  13. [Which zoonoses should the general population be more awareness of ? Qualitative research targeted at veterinarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Feng, Qiaolian; Kigawa, Mika; Marui, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which zoonoses should the general population be more aware of. We conducted qualitative research (Delphi method) on thirty veterinarians who were selected from the whole country. Twenty-four diseases were selected. The reasons for their selection were classified into three categories: "Amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior", "Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics" and "Social characteristics". More than half of the top ten zoonoses are those that are not transmitted from humans to humans, with rabies in the first place, avian influenza (with its high pathogenicity) in the second place and psittacosis in the third place. From the top ten diseases, it is considered that the prevention of animal-to-human transmission should be emphasized. In addition, from the reasons for the selection, it is suggested that it is necessary to review social characteristics, such as the inadequacy of quarantine and the insufficiencies of legal systems. As for the zoonoses that are transmitted from humans to humans, it will be indispensable in the future to widely spread information on zoonoses and enlighten the general population about them. It is thought that this survey can be a basis for selecting a zoonosis that should be given priority in enlightening the general population.

  14. Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan.

  15. 40 CFR 1045.107 - What are the not-to-exceed emission standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the not-to-exceed emission... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1045.107 What are the not-to-exceed emission standards? Not...) For engines equipped with a catalyst, use NTE multipliers from the following table across the...

  16. Prevalence of contact allergy in the general population: Sensitization to metals with a focus on nickel sulfate, the EDEN Fragrance Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.-L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Elsner, P.; Gonçalo, M.; Naldi, L.; Svensson, Å.; Diepgen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization to metals is assessed mostly in clinical populations. Studies in the general population are scarce. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of metal sensitization in the general population and to determine risk factors for nickel sensitization. In five European countries (the

  17. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

     Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... than age and sex, classical socioeconomic factors do not play a great a role in determining drinking patterns. Social integrative factors in particular influence women's drinking. Conclusions: With respect to the rest of Europe and North America, Danes consume high levels of alcohol with a large...

  18. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal and US general population with SHEDS-multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due t...

  19. Chronic depression : Determinants and consequences of chronic major depression in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is chronicity of major depressive disorder (MDD). The main aims of the study are to examine: 1. the duration of a major depressive episode (MDE) and the rate of a chronic duration of MDE in the general population, 2. the determinants of (chronic) duration of

  20. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    1966 and 2007. The most prevalent contact allergens were nickel, thimerosal, and fragrance mix. The median nickel allergy prevalence was 8.6% (range 0.7-27.8%) and demonstrates that nickel was an important cause of contact allergy in the general population and that it was widespread in both men...

  1. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  2. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  3. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: An EORTC-GELA general population case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.E. van der Kaaij (Marleen A.); N. Heutte (Natacha); P. Meijnders (Paul); E. Abeilard-Lemoisson (Edwige); M. Spina (Michele); L.C. Moser (Lotte); A. Allgeier (Anouk); B. Meulemans (Bart); B. Dubois (Brice); A.H.M. Simons; P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); B.M.P. Aleman (Berthe); E.M. Noordijk (Evert); C. Fermé (Christophe); J. Thomas (Jose); A. Stamatoullas (Aspasia); C. Fruchart (Christophe); P. Brice (Pauline); I. Gaillard (Isabelle); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); C. Sebban (Catherine); W.G. Smit (Wilma); S. Bologna (Serge); J.M. Roesink (Judith); F. Ong (Francisca); J.-L. André (Jean-Luc); J. Raemaekers (John); M. Henry-Amar (Michel); J.C. Kluin-Nelemans (Hanneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. Patients and Methods: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors

  4. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: an EORTC-GELA general population case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Meijnders, P.; Abeilard-Lemoisson, E.; Spina, M.; Moser, L.C.; Allgeier, A.; Meulemans, B.; Dubois, B.; Simons, A.H.; Lugtenburg, P.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Stamatoullas, A.; Fruchart, C.; Brice, P.; Gaillard, I.; Doorduijn, J.K.; Sebban, C.; Smit, W.G.; Bologna, S.; Roesink, J.M.; Ong, F.; Andre, M.P.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors treated

  5. A New Screening Programme for Autism in a General Population of Swedish Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Gudrun; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Ekeroth, Gunnar; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evidence from early intervention studies of autism has emphasised the need for early diagnosis. Insight into the early presentation of autism is crucial for early recognition, and routine screening can optimise the possibility for early diagnosis. General population screening was conducted for 2.5-year-old children at child health centres in…

  6. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  7. Respiratory symptoms and occupation: a cross-sectional study of the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriëtte A

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focused on respiratory symptoms due to occupational exposures in a contemporary general population cohort. Subjects were from the Dutch Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN. The composition of this population enabled estimation of respiratory risks due to occupation from the recent past for both men and women. Methods The study subjects (aged 20–59 were all inhabitants of Doetinchem, a small industrial town, and came from a survey of a random sample of 1104 persons conducted in 1993. A total of 274 cases with respiratory symptoms (subdivided in asthma and bronchitis symptoms and 274 controls without symptoms were matched for age and sex. Relations between industry and occupation and respiratory symptoms were explored and adjusted for smoking habits and social economic status. Results Employment in the 'construction' (OR = 3.38; 95%CI 1.02 – 11.27, 'metal' (OR = 3.17; 95%CI 0. 98 – 10.28, 'rubber, plastics and synthetics' (OR = 6.52; 95%CI 1.26 – 53.80, and 'printing' industry (OR = 3.96; 95%CI 0.85 – 18.48 were positively associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms. In addition, the 'metal' industry was found to be weakly associated with asthma symptoms (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.87 – 7.69. Duration of employment within these industries was also positively associated with respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in the general population are traceable to employment in particular industries even in a contemporary cohort with relatively young individuals.

  8. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2014-03-30

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prothrombin and risk of venous thromboembolism, ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Juul, Klaus; Zacho, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that Prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity associate with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) in the general population and re-tested risk of IHD and ICVD in two case......-control studies. METHODS: 9231 individuals from the Danish general population were followed for VTE (VTE=DVT+PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), ICVD, and ischemic stroke (IS) for a median of 24 years. Case-control studies included 2461 IHD cases and 867...

  11. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-07-10

    Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20-35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. The model identified four health behaviour patterns: 'risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; 'moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; 'risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and 'smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the 'risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the 'risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the 'moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the 'smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions.

  12. On the stability analysis of a general discrete-time population model involving predation and Allee effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdan, H.; Duman, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the stability analysis of equilibrium points of a general discrete-time population dynamics involving predation with and without Allee effects which occur at low population density. The mathematical analysis and numerical simulations show that the Allee effect has a stabilizing role on the local stability of the positive equilibrium points of this model.

  13. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796

  14. Proton Pump Inhibitor Usage and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam H Shah

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes amongst clopidogrel users after an acute coronary syndrome. Recent pre-clinical results suggest that this risk might extend to subjects without any prior history of cardiovascular disease. We explore this potential risk in the general population via data-mining approaches.Using a novel approach for mining clinical data for pharmacovigilance, we queried over 16 million clinical documents on 2.9 million individuals to examine whether PPI usage was associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population.In multiple data sources, we found gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD patients exposed to PPIs to have a 1.16 fold increased association (95% CI 1.09-1.24 with myocardial infarction (MI. Survival analysis in a prospective cohort found a two-fold (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.07-3.78; P = 0.031 increase in association with cardiovascular mortality. We found that this association exists regardless of clopidogrel use. We also found that H2 blockers, an alternate treatment for GERD, were not associated with increased cardiovascular risk; had they been in place, such pharmacovigilance algorithms could have flagged this risk as early as the year 2000.Consistent with our pre-clinical findings that PPIs may adversely impact vascular function, our data-mining study supports the association of PPI exposure with risk for MI in the general population. These data provide an example of how a combination of experimental studies and data-mining approaches can be applied to prioritize drug safety signals for further investigation.

  15. Feasibility of a Web-Based Cross-Over Paleolithic Diet Intervention in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Bikker, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The primary aim was to investigate feasibility of a web-based cross-over Paleolithic diet intervention in the general population. The secondary aim was to calculate the sample size needed to reach a statistically significant difference in effect of a Paleolithic-like diet on

  16. Validity of the Malaise Inventory in general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, B; Pickles, A; Power, C; Collishaw, S; Maughan, B

    1999-06-01

    The Malaise Inventory is a commonly used self-completion scale for assessing psychiatric morbidity. There is some evidence that it may represent two separate psychological and somatic subscales rather than a single underlying factor of distress. This paper provides further information on the factor structure of the Inventory and on the reliability and validity of the total scale and two sub-scales. Two general population samples completed the full Inventory: over 11,000 subjects from the National Child Development Study at ages 23 and 33, and 544 mothers of adolescents included in the Isle of Wight epidemiological surveys. The internal consistency of the full 24-item scale and the 15-item psychological subscale were found to be acceptable, but the eight-item somatic sub-scale was less reliable. Factor analysis of all 24 items identified a first main general factor and a second more purely psychological factor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the validity of the scale held for men and women separately and for different socio-economic groups, by reference to external criteria covering current or recent psychiatric morbidity and service use, and that the psychological sub-scale had no greater validity than the full scale. This study did not support the separate scoring of a somatic sub-scale of the Malaise Inventory. Use of the 15-item psychological sub-scale can be justified on the grounds of reduced time and cost for completion, with little loss of reliability or validity, but this approach would not significantly enhance the properties of the Inventory by comparison with the full 24-item scale. Inclusion of somatic items may be more problematic when the full scale is used to compare particular sub-populations with different propensities for physical morbidity, such as different age groups, and in these circumstances it would be a sensible precaution to utilise the 15-item psychological sub-scale.

  17. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and risk of hypertension in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Han, Lili; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the association of fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance with subsequent risk of hypertension have yielded conflicting results. To quantitatively assess the association of fasting insulin concentrations or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with incident hypertension in a general population by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases until August 31, 2016 for prospective observational studies investigating the elevated fasting insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR with subsequent risk of hypertension in the general population. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was calculated for the highest versus the lowest category of fasting insulin or HOMA-IR. Eleven studies involving 10,230 hypertension cases were identified from 55,059 participants. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled adjusted RR of hypertension was 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) for fasting insulin concentrations and 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.62) for HOMA-IR comparing the highest to the lowest category. Subgroup analysis results showed that the association of fasting insulin concentrations with subsequent risk of hypertension seemed more pronounced in women (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.60) than in men (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.88). This meta-analysis suggests that elevated fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of hypertension in the general population. Early intervention of hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may help clinicians to identify the high risk of hypertensive population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life in German Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Comparison to German General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaantje Barth

    Full Text Available Aims of the study were to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL in adult patients with former diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA, to compare their HRQOL with the general population and to identify factors related to a poor outcome.In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was performed by mailing a questionnaire to a large cohort of former and current patients of the German Centre for Rheumatology in Children and Adolescents. Only adult patients (≥18 years with a diagnosis compatible with JIA were included (n = 2592; response 66%. The questionnaire included information about HRQOL (EQ5D, disease-related questions and socio-demographics. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI of problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain and anxiety/depression were standardized to the German general population. Factors associated with low HRQOL in JIA patients were identified using logistic regression models.Sixty-two percent of the study population was female; age range was 18-73 years. In all dimensions, JIA patients reported statistically significantly more problems than the general population with largest differences in the pain dimension (JIA patients 56%; 95%CI 55-58%; general population 28%; 26-29% and the anxiety/depression dimension (28%; 27-29% vs. 4%; 4-5%. Lower HRQOL in JIA patients was associated with female sex, older age, lower level of education, still being under rheumatic treatment and disability.HRQOL in adult JIA patients is considerably lower than in the general population. As this cohort includes historic patients the new therapeutic schemes available today are expected to improve HRQOL in future.

  19. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life in German Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Comparison to German General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Swaantje; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Schlichtiger, Jenny; Molz, Johannes; Bisdorff, Betty; Michels, Hartmut; Hügle, Boris; Radon, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Aims of the study were to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adult patients with former diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), to compare their HRQOL with the general population and to identify factors related to a poor outcome. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was performed by mailing a questionnaire to a large cohort of former and current patients of the German Centre for Rheumatology in Children and Adolescents. Only adult patients (≥18 years) with a diagnosis compatible with JIA were included (n = 2592; response 66%). The questionnaire included information about HRQOL (EQ5D), disease-related questions and socio-demographics. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain and anxiety/depression were standardized to the German general population. Factors associated with low HRQOL in JIA patients were identified using logistic regression models. Sixty-two percent of the study population was female; age range was 18-73 years. In all dimensions, JIA patients reported statistically significantly more problems than the general population with largest differences in the pain dimension (JIA patients 56%; 95%CI 55-58%; general population 28%; 26-29%) and the anxiety/depression dimension (28%; 27-29% vs. 4%; 4-5%). Lower HRQOL in JIA patients was associated with female sex, older age, lower level of education, still being under rheumatic treatment and disability. HRQOL in adult JIA patients is considerably lower than in the general population. As this cohort includes historic patients the new therapeutic schemes available today are expected to improve HRQOL in future.

  20. Clozapine usage increases the incidence of pneumonia compared with risperidone and the general population: a retrospective comparison of clozapine, risperidone, and the general population in a single hospital over 25 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Zachary R; George, Wales T; O'Brien, Jeffrey B; Jancik, Jon; Colon, Eduardo; Rasimas, Joseph J

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence of pneumonia in patients taking clozapine was more frequent compared with those taking risperidone or no atypical antipsychotics at all before admission to a tertiary care medical center. This was a retrospective, case-matched study of 465 general medicine patients over a 25 month period from 1 July 2010 to 31 July 2012. Detailed electronic medical records were analyzed to explore the association between the use of two atypical antipsychotics and incidence of pneumonia. Of the 155 patients in the clozapine group, 54 (34.8%) had documented pneumonia compared with 22 (14.2%) in the risperidone group and 18 (11.6%) in the general population group. Clozapine, when compared with the untreated general population, was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (odds ratio=4.07; 95% confidence interval=2.25-7.36). There was, however, no significant increase in the risk of pneumonia associated with the use of risperidone (odds ratio=1.26; 95% confidence interval=0.65-2.45). Clozapine use is associated with increased risk of pneumonia that may be related to immunologic factors or side effects of sedation and drooling that make aspiration more likely, although causative mechanisms require further investigation. These findings suggest that providers should use added caution in choosing candidates for clozapine therapy.

  1. Population genomics of the inbred Scandinavian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Olsson, Maria; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ellegren, Hans

    2009-04-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population represents one of the genetically most well-characterized examples of a severely bottlenecked natural population (with only two founders), and of how the addition of new genetic material (one immigrant) can at least temporarily provide a 'genetic rescue'. However, inbreeding depression has been observed in this population and in the absence of additional immigrants, its long-term viability is questioned. To study the effects of inbreeding and selection on genomic diversity, we performed a genomic scan with approximately 250 microsatellite markers distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. We found linkage disequilibrium (LD) that extended up to distances of 50 Mb, exceeding that of most outbreeding species studied thus far. LD was particularly pronounced on the X chromosome. Overall levels of observed genomic heterozygosity did not deviate significantly from simulations based on known population history, giving no support for a general selection for heterozygotes. However, we found evidence supporting balancing selection at a number of loci and also evidence suggesting directional selection at other loci. For markers on chromosome 23, the signal of selection was particularly strong, indicating that purifying selection against deleterious alleles may have occurred even in this very small population. These data suggest that population genomics allows the exploration of the effects of neutral and non-neutral evolution on a finer scale than what has previously been possible.

  2. Insomnia and hypnotic use in Campo Grande general population, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza José Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insomnia prevalence in general population was determined by means of 408 home interviews of adults, in a representative sample of Campo Grande city, Brazil. The random sample was stratified by sex, age and economic social status. Insomnia subtypes evaluated were the disorders of sleep initiation (DSI, sleep maintenance (DSM and early awakening (DEA. A structured questionnaire was used with the consent from the interviewed subjects. Statistics used chi-square, and Fisher tests; and inferences based on binomial distribution parameters; the significance level was 5% and confidence interval (CI was 95%.The general prevalence of insomnia was 19.1% (sd=2.0%, mostly women (p=0.0015, and people of less years of schooling (p=0.0317, subtype DSI (14.2%, p=0.0043, and chronic (p=0.7022. Hypnotic drugs were used by 6.9%(sd=1.3% in the last month. Use in the last 2 years, 70.3% mostly insomniacs (p<0.0001, women (p=0.0372 and people over 30 years of age (p=0.0536.

  3. Drinking Distilled. Onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Although most people in Western society drink alcohol and regard this to be harmless and normal, some people drink excessively and develop an alcohol use disorder. This thesis examined the onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population using 3-year longitudinal data

  4. Mortality among patients with cleared hepatitis C virus infection compared to the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum

    2011-01-01

    The increased mortality in HCV-infected individuals partly stems from viral damage to the liver and partly from risk-taking behaviours. We examined mortality in patients who cleared their HCV-infection, comparing it to that of the general population. We also addressed the question whether prognosis...

  5. Mercury in United Kingdom topsoils; concentrations, pools, and Critical Limit exceedances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E., E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Poskitt, J.M.; Lawlor, A.J.; Wadsworth, R.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A.; Hall, J.R. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The median total mercury concentration in 898 UK rural topsoils, sampled between 1998 and 2008, was 0.095 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Approximate adjustment for unreactive metal produced an estimate of 0.052 {mu}g g{sup -1} for reactive Hg. The highest concentrations were in the north and west, where organic-rich soils with low bulk densities dominate, but the spatial pattern was quite different if soil Hg pools (mg m{sup -2}) were considered, the highest values being near to the industrial north of England and London. Possible toxic effects of Hg were best evaluated by comparison with soil Critical Limits expressed as ratios of Hg to soil organic matter, or soil solution Hg{sup 2+} concentrations, estimated by chemical speciation modelling. Only a few percent of the rural UK soils showed exceedance, and this also applied to rural soils from the whole of Europe. UK urban and industrial soils had higher Hg concentrations and more cases of exceedance. - Highlights: > Concentrations of Hg in rural soils are highest near to industrial areas and London. > Mercury is strongly associated with soil organic matter. > Only a few percent of UK rural soils have Hg levels higher than Critical Limits. > Critical Limit exceedances are found for 15-30% of urban and industrial soils. - Mercury contents of 898 UK and 868 European rural soils are largely lower than Critical Limit values, but appreciable numbers of soils in UK urban and industrial areas show exceedance.

  6. The prevalence of allergic contact sensitization in a general population in Tromsø, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromsø, Northern Norway. A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administered questionnaire. Of the adults, 531 (64%) were actually TRUE tested (using a standardized, ready-to-apply patch test system) and completed the self-administered questionnaire about ear piercing, metal reactions, skin reactions to different allergens, atopic dermatitis, eczema, cooking equipment and diet. The study showed that nickel (19.2%; women 31.1% and men 5.0%), fragrance mix (3.4%) and cobalt (1.7%) were the most prevalent allergens causing contact sensitization. For all other allergens, less than 1.1% tested positive. Eighty-four (45.2%) subjects with a positive history of metal dermatitis had negative patch tests. Contact sensitization was found frequently in this general adult population, especially to nickel and perfumes with a predominance among females. An eczematous reaction caused by cheap earrings seemed to be the best indicator for metal sensitivity.

  7. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects.

  8. Association of Blood Eosinophil and Blood Neutrophil Counts with Asthma Exacerbations in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated...... with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma. We recorded baseline blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and asthma exacerbations during...... with blood eosinophil counts >0.29 × 10(9)/L (highest tertile) vs individuals with blood eosinophil counts

  9. Helicobacter pylori Infection in the general population: A Middle Eastern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedmat, Hossein; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Agah, Shahram; Taheri, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is probably the most important factor that has been associated with the development of gastric cancers in human populations. However, there are no reliable data on the prevalence of this infection in the Middle East. In this article, based on a comprehensive literature review, we aimed to evaluate the situation in this region. The literature has been searched for the incidence and prevalence of H.pylori infection by Pubmed and Google Scholar. Search was repeated for each of the Middle Eastern countries, and to empower the method, citations of each found article were searched for the related studies. Seventy seven reports from the countries of the Middle East region had been reviewed and they all indicated a high rate of infection either in the general population or in the dyspeptic patients, the rate seemed to be higher in patients with dyspepsia, in patients with histologically confirmed gastritis and in patients of older age groups.

  10. The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory: psychometric properties in an adolescent general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2012-07-01

    Onset of social phobia (SP) typically occurs in adolescence. Short screening instruments for its assessment are needed for use in primary health and school settings. The 3-item Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) has demonstrated effectiveness in screening for generalized SP (GSP) in adults. This study examined the psychometrics of the Mini-SPIN in an adolescent general population sample. Three hundred fifty adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were clinically interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version for identification of SP and other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I disorders, blind to their Mini-SPIN status. Associations between SP; subclinical SP; other anxiety, depressive, and disruptive disorders; and Mini-SPIN scores were examined, and diagnostic efficiency statistics were calculated. The association between Mini-SPIN scores and the generalized subtype of SP was also examined. As in adults, the Mini-SPIN items differentiated subjects with SP from those without. A score of 6 points or greater was found optimal in predicting SP with a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 84%, and positive and negative predictive values of 26% and 99%. The Mini-SPIN also possessed discriminative validity, as scores were higher for adolescents with SP than they were for those with depressive, disruptive, and other anxiety disorders. The Mini-SPIN was also able to differentiate adolescents with GSP from the rest of the sample. The Mini-SPIN has good psychometrics for screening SP in adolescents from general population and may have value in screening for GSP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep quality and covariates as predictors of pain intensity among the general population in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Kun; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Mi; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Hui-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of sleep quality and its relationship with the prevalence of pain among rural Chinese people and to explore the association between sleep quality and pain intensity among the general population in real-life settings. This cross-sectional survey included a total of 2052 adults from rural areas in Liuyang, Hunan Province, recruited through random multistage sampling. The distributions of sleep quality and pain prevalence among the participants over a 4-week period were described. Because of multicollinearity among variables, the influence of self-rated sleep quality and psychosocial covariates on pain intensity was explored using a ridge regression model. The data showed that participants reporting all categories of sleep quality experienced some degree of pain. Sleep quality, along with physical and mental health, was a negative predictor of pain intensity among the general population. Symptoms of depression positively predicted pain intensity. Poor sleep quality increased pain intensity among the participants. Both previous research and the present data suggest that improving sleep quality may significantly decrease pain intensity in the general population. The relationship between sleep and pain may be bidirectional. This finding also suggests that treatment for sleep disorders and insomnia should be addressed in future efforts to alleviate pain intensity.

  12. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  13. Detection of sequential activation of left atrium and coronary sinus musculature in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ota, MD

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Far-field LA potentials are often recorded in the CS during sequential LA and CSM activation in the general population. The timing of LA potentials in CS recordings reflected the direction of conduction across the CSM.

  14. Aging-related trajectories of lung function in the general population-The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Schipper, Maarten; Wouters, Inge M; Boezen, Marike; Smit, Henriëtte A; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Picavet, H Susan J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore trajectories of lung function decline with age in the general population, and to study the effect of sociodemographic and life style related risk factors, in particular smoking and BMI. For this purpose, we used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS)

  15. Associations between dietary factors and markers of NAFLD in a general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Sluik, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The objective of this sudy was to assess the relationship between dietary intake and fatty liver as scored by the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in a large cross-sectional study among a general Dutch adult population. Diet is known to affect liver fat accumulation in

  16. Parliamentary privilege--mortality in members of the Houses of Parliament compared with the UK general population: retrospective cohort analysis, 1945-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John; Crayford, Tim

    2015-12-14

    To examine mortality in members of the two UK Houses of Parliament compared with the general population, 1945-2011. Retrospective cohort analysis of death rates and predictors of mortality in Members of Parliament (MPs) and members of the House of Lords (Lords). UK. 4950 MPs and Lords first joining the UK parliament in 1945-2011. Standardised mortality ratios, comparing all cause death rates of MPs and Lords from first election or appointment with those in the age, sex, and calendar year matched general population. Between 1945 and 2011, mortality was lower in MPs (standardised mortality ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.76) and Lords (0.63, 0.60 to 0.67) than in the general population. Over the same period, death rates among MPs also improved more quickly than in the general population. For every 100 expected deaths, 22 fewer deaths occurred among MPs first elected in 1990-99 compared with MPs first elected in 1945-49. Labour party MPs had 19% higher death rates compared with the general population than did Conservative MPs (relative mortality ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.40). The effect of political party on mortality disappeared when controlling for education level. From 1945 to 2011, MPs and Lords experienced lower mortality than the UK general population, and, at least until 1999, the mortality gap between newly elected MPs and the general population widened. Even among MPs, educational background was an important predictor of mortality, and education possibly explains much of the mortality difference between Labour and Conservative MPs. Social inequalities are alive and well in UK parliamentarians, and at least in terms of mortality, MPs are likely to have never had it so good. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Differences in health-related quality of life between older nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and the general population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drageset, Jorunn; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Eide, Geir Egil; Clipp, Elizabeth C; Bondevik, Margareth; Nortvedt, Monica W; Nygaard, Harald A

    2008-05-01

    To advance the understanding of health-related quality of life among older nursing home residents by assessing their health-related quality of life and comparing this with norms from the general population. The study used a two-group cross-sectional comparative design. The samples comprised 227 nursing home residents aged 65-102 years with at least six months' residence and a representative population sample of 1137 Norwegian citizens aged 65-102 years. All nursing home residents had a Clinical Dementia Rating Scale score > or =0.5 and were capable of conversing. The respondents provided demographic information and were surveyed using the SF-36 Health Survey. We used univariate and multivariate linear models to identify possible differences in health-related quality of life between the nursing home residents and the general population, controlled for age, sex, marital status and education. After adjustment for age, group, sex, marital status and education, the nursing home residents scored significantly higher on bodily pain and on physical and emotional role limitation and significantly lower on the other SF-36 subscales, except social functioning, with the largest differences for physical functioning (mean nursing home 23.2 and mean general population 62.9). The general population scores on all subscales generally increased with increasing education but not among the nursing home residents. The mean SF-36 scale scores differed markedly between the nursing home residents and the general population, with the nursing home residents generally scoring lower. The association with background variables known to be related to health-related quality of life differed between the groups. Healthcare professionals should increase attention to health-related quality of life among nursing home residents, periodically assess health-related quality of life and consider interventions that may improve health-related quality of life in older institutionalised populations. This study

  18. Benzodiazepine use in general population, the municipality of Berane, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzodiazepines can be classified as one of the most frequently prescribed categories of medication. This medication category is distinguished by a high risk of tolerance and dependence, in the case of long-term, excessive use. Aim: The aim of our study was to analyse the use of benzodiazepines in the general population, municipality of Berane, Montenegro, during the previous year. Methods: Research was based on the analysis of 1000 prescriptions of benzodiazepines, issued by physicians in Primary Health Care. The diagnostic manual utilised for the purpose of this research was International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The survey was conducted for a period of 40 days during January and February 2015. Results: The study was performed in the general population, age from 18 to 98 years (621 females and 379 males. The average age of all participants in the study was 64.1±13.1 years. Analysis of data confirmed that the most frequently prescribed from the group of benzodiazepines were: diazepam (42.2%, bromazepam (30.3%, lorazepam (16.4%, alprazolam (6.4%, nitrazepam (2.6% and clonazepam (2.1%. The significant statistical difference (x2=58.664; p<0.001 was found between female patients who used benzodiazepines in 62.1% of cases, compared to male patients who used benzodiazepines in 37.9% of cases. It was confirmed that benzodiazepines were usually prescribed for 17 different diagnoses, mostly for diagnoses from the group I, viz. cluster-diseases of the circulatory system (39.7%, group F-mental and behavioural disorders (31.1% and group E-endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (7.7%. Conclusion: Studies about drug utilisation provide plenty of useful information which can be further used with the aim of achieving more rational prescribing and more effective patient treating.

  19. Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Magiria, Matina; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop

    2014-04-01

    The current study evaluates the reliability and factor-structure replicability of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in its Greek Version. The TEMPS-A was administered to a convenient sample of 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4% and 298 males; 40.6%). Their mean age was 40.80±11.48 years (range 25-67 years). The analysis included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, the calculation of the threshold to define dominant temperaments (+2 standard deviations or 95th percentile), confirmatory factor analysis and the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients between the temperament scales scores. Analysis of Covariance with age as covariate and post-hoc t-test was used to search for differences in temperament scores between males and females. Also a table of percentile values corresponding to a raw score was created. Internal consistency was excellent for the various temperaments (0.72-0.88). The factor analysis confirmed the five factor solution as the best factor solution. All TEMPS items were included in the final version of the scale in the Greek language. The study sample included subjects from the general population, but it is a convenient and not representative sample. Although the authors tried to select them on the basis of being mentally healthy and without a psychiatric history, there is always a degree of uncertainty. There is also always the possibility some of them to manifest a mental disorder in the future, thus being currently in a premorbid state. The Greek version of the TEMPS-A, has good internal consistency and factor structure similar to what was found in other translations. Overall our results are in accord with the literature and in line with theoretical considerations as well as with empirical evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Employment status and work-related difficulties in lung cancer survivors compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Zo, Jae Ill; Kim, Jhingook; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Seok-Jun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the employment status of lung cancer survivors and the work-related problems they face. Although the number of lung cancer survivors is increasing, little is known about their employment and work-related issues. We enrolled 830 lung cancer survivors 12 months after lung cancer curative surgery (median time after diagnosis, 4.11 years) and 1000 volunteers from the general population. All participants completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Core 30-item and a questionnaire that included items relating to their jobs. We used logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of unemployment. The employment rate of lung cancer survivors decreased from 68.6% at the time of diagnosis to 38.8% after treatment, which was significantly lower than the employment rate of the general population (63.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.66-3.22). The posttreatment unemployment rate was higher for women than for men. Among survivors, employment was inversely associated with older age, household income, number of comorbidities, and poor social functioning. Fatigue (78.6%) was the most common work-related problem reported by survivors. Lung cancer survivors experienced more difficulties in employment than did the general population. Age, monthly household income, number of comorbidities, and social functioning appear to be important factors influencing employment status. These findings suggest that lung cancer survivors need support to cope with the financial impact of cancer.

  1. Contact sensitization to fragrances in the general population: a Koch's approach may reveal the burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Linneberg, A

    2009-01-01

    subjects were tested in total. The median prevalence of FM and MP sensitization among adults was 2.3% (women, 1.7%; men, 1.3%) and 1.1% (women, 1.4%; men, 0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the reliability of patch test data from the general population and exposure data obtained from patients...... the prevalence of fragrance sensitization in the general population, and to suggest how future population-based studies and questionnaires should be constructed, better to assess the prevalence and burden of fragrance sensitization. This is of relevance as it is often difficult to establish causality...... in biological systems. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching Pubmed-Medline, Biosis and contact dermatitis textbooks. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were identified, of which 13 were performed among adults. Sample sizes varied between 82 and 2545 tested subjects, and 11 648...

  2. Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder contributes to neurodevelopmental traits in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2014-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥ 1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥ 1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mortality Rates in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C and Cirrhosis Compared With the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Sofie; Brehm Christensen, Peer; Ladelund, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about mortality rates (MRs) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with cirrhosis is limited. This study aimed to estimate all-cause MRs among patients with CHC with or without cirrhosis in Denmark compared with the general population. Methods: Patients registered...... in the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C with CHC and a liver fibrosis assessment were eligible for inclusion. Liver fibrosis was assessed by means of liver biopsy, transient elastography, and clinical cirrhosis. Up to 20 sex- and age-matched individuals per patient were identified in the general population....... Data were extracted from nationwide registries. Results: A total of 3410 patients with CHC (1014 with cirrhosis), and 67 315 matched individuals were included. Adjusted MR ratios (MRRs) between patients with or without cirrhosis and their comparison cohorts were 5.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4...

  4. All-cause mortality in treated HIV-infected adults with CD4 ≥500/mm3 compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewden, Charlotte; Bouteloup, Vincent; De Wit, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a large European collaborative study, we aimed to identify the circumstances in which treated HIV-infected individuals will experience similar mortality rates to those of the general population.......Using data from a large European collaborative study, we aimed to identify the circumstances in which treated HIV-infected individuals will experience similar mortality rates to those of the general population....

  5. [Knowledge of the general population about hypertension and diabetes mellitus in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchunga, P B; Malanda, B; Mweze, M C; Dupont, B; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Kashongwe, Z; Kabinda, J M; Buysschaert, M

    2012-04-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a country in a post-conflict period, high priority cannot be given to non-communicable diseases other than to emergencies. This certainly involves inadequacy in raising awareness for prevention of these diseases. To evaluate the level of knowledge of the Congolese general population on hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Responses to a questionnaire from 3% of the general population aged 15 and older in the city of Bukavu and two rural areas: Hombo and Walungu (South Kivu, eastern DRC), recruited after stratification by ward in the city of Bukavu and a group of prone villages were expected. The questions focused on identification, testing, causes, complications and treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Of the 7770 respondents, screening for hypertension and diabetes mellitus affected only 14.9% and 7.3% of subjects respectively. Knowledge of these two conditions was generally low in the general population, although better in the subgroups of patients and those with higher socioeconomic level (Pknowledge (Pknowledge about hypertension and diabetes mellitus and their testing in South Kivu is low. It is imperative that the Congolese government includes non-communicable diseases in its priorities of the millennium. Similarly, the WHO should actively contribute to screening for them in low-income countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Levels of perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from the general population of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Im-Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Daegu (Korea); Kannan, K. [Wardsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and Dept. of Env. Health and Tox., SUNY, Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was found to be widespread in human populations and wildlife Major applications of these POSF-based products have included surfactants in: specialty paper and packaging products, carpet, upholstery, and textile products and in certain insecticide formulation. Depending on the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, such POSF based products may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, a stable and persistent end product that has the potential to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve environmental and dietary exposure to PFOS or to precursor molecules of PFOS. PFOS and related perfluorinated compounds have recently been detected at low parts per billion (nanogram per milliliter) concentrations in the general population from 10 different countries including Korea. In the present report, the levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in the general population from Korea were analyzed with respect to occupation, smoking status, sex, age and socio-economic status. The degree of association between the four target fluorochemicals measured in this study (PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOSA) were also analyzed by linear regression to determine the potential association between their sources of exposure.

  7. Cuestionario general de salud-12: análisis de factores en población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia General health questionnaire-12: factor analysis in the general population of Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: el cuestionario general de salud de doce puntos (GHQ-12 es un instrumento diseñado para cuantificar síntomas emocionales (trastornos mentales comunes en diferentes contextos. Sin embargo, no se conoce la estructura factorial de esta versión en población colombiana. OBJETIVO: conocer la estructura de factores y la mejor forma de puntuación para el GHQ-12 en población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia. MÉTODO: una muestra probabilística de la población general, representada por 2.496 adultos entre 18 y 65 años, diligenció el GHQ-12. Se determinó la consistencia interna y los factores para las formas de puntuación ordinal (0-1-2-3 y binarias (0-0-0-1, 0-0-1-1 y 0-1-1-1. RESULTADOS: la forma ordinal mostró una consistencia interna de 0,779 y dos factores que explicaban 42,5% de la varianza. Por otro lado, la forma binaria 0-1-1-1 presentó una consistencia interna de 0,774; la forma 0-0-1-1, de 0,708; y la forma 0-0-0-1, de 0,360. Las formas binarias 0-1-1-1 y 0-0-1-1 mostraron tres factores responsables de 50,6% y 46,3%, respectivamente. La forma 0-0-0-1 no presentó una aceptable solución factorial. CONCLUSIONES: en Bucaramanga, la forma de puntuación ordinal presenta un mejor comportamiento psicométrico que las binarias. Todas las formas de puntuación muestran alta consistencia interna y aceptable solución factorial, excepto la forma 0-0-0-1 BACKGROUND: The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 was designed to quantify emotional symptoms (common mental disorders in different settings. However, its factor structure is not known in Colombian population. OBJECTIVE: To establish the factor structure and the best form of punctuation for the GHQ-12 in the general population of Bucaramanga, Colombia. METHOD: A probabilistic sample of 2,496 adults from the general population in Bucaramanga, Colombia, completed the GHQ-12. The internal consistency and analysis factor were computed for the ordinal scoring (0-1-2-3 and for

  8. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms: A Japanese general adult population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Konno, Chisato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Sakae; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between unhealthy lifestyles factors and depressive symptoms among the general adult population in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the Japanese general adult population. Data from 2334 people aged 20 years or older were analyzed. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. Participants completed a face-to-face interview about unhealthy lifestyle factors, including lack of exercise, skipping breakfast, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals, insufficient sleep, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and obesity. Presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a score of ≥ 16 on the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Relationships between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic variables and other unhealthy lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that insufficient sleep, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals and lack of exercise were significantly associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with odds ratios ranging from 1.56 for lack of exercise to 3.98 for insufficient sleep. Since this study was a cross-sectional study, causal relationships could not be determined. These results suggest that promoting a healthy lifestyle focused on sleep, food intake and exercise may be important for individuals with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianLi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold

  11. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  12. Quantifying tone deafness in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, John A; Wise, Karen J; Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    the general population, whose purpose is to discriminate "true" from "false" amusics. Such discrimination is essential to achieve a better understanding of the variety of causes of low musical achievement.

  13. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  14. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R.C.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Means and variances of family size measured in five year-classes of wire-tagged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were linearly related. Population effective size was calculated by using estimated means and variances of family size in a 25-yr data set. Although numbers of age 3 adults returning to the hatchery appeared to be large enough to avoid inbreeding problems (the 25-yr mean exceeded 4500), the numbers actually contributing to the hatchery production may be too low. Several strategies are proposed to correct the problem perceived. Argument is given to support the contention that the problem of effective size is fairly general and is not confined to the present study population.

  15. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Roma Settlements: A Comparison with the General Population in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halánová, Monika; Veseliny, Eduard; Kalinová, Zuzana; Jarčuška, Peter; Janičko, Martin; Urbančíková, Ingrid; Pella, Daniel; Dražilová, Sylvia; Babinská, Ingrid

    2018-05-03

    Hepatitis E infection is one of the most frequent causes of acute hepatitis in the world. Currently five human genotypes with different geographical distributions and distinct epidemiologic patterns are identified. In Slovakia, only rare cases of hepatitis E have been reported in past years. Because the most important risk factors associated with HEV infection include consumption of contaminated pork meat and poor hygienic standards, the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HEV total antibodies and the main risk factors for HEV in the population living in separated and segregated Roma settlements ( n = 195), which represent places with increased risk of infection in Slovakia and to compare it with the prevalence in the general population ( n = 69). Of 264 respondents included in the study, 47 (17.8%) showed positivity for anti-HEV antibodies, 42 of whom were Roma (21.5%, n = 195) and 5 (7.2%, n = 69) non-Roma. The population living in Roma settlements lives in poorer conditions and are at higher risk of HEV in comparison to the general population. However, differences in living conditions within the settlements do not contributed to lower risk of HEV antibody prevalence between Roma living in settlements.

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in the general population of Andalusia, South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Fernando; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis F.; De Santiago, Esperanza; Ballesta, Julio; Pla, Antonio; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquin; Gomez, Joaquin; Lopez-Guarnido, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Villanueva, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Levels of metalloids (As - urine) and heavy metals (Hg - urine, Cd - whole blood and Zn - serum) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 601 subjects living in the area affected by the Aznalcollar mine spill (SW, Spain) and compared with those of a representative sample (960 subjects) selected from the Andalusian community (non-affected area), southern Spain. The characteristic parameters of the analytical method including uncertainty were determined for each metal. Potential associations of metal concentration with age, sex and body mass index as well as life-style habits (smoking, alcohol consumption and food habits) were explored. Concentrations of all the metals studied were statistically higher in the population of the affected area with respect to that of the non-affected area in Andalusia, although levels were always lower or similar to the values reported for the general population and below occupational reference limits. In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence that the spill had any incidence on human health in the population living in the affected area. There are few references in scientific literature reporting values from large series of samples, and hence our data could be useful for further studies

  17. Structure of general-population antibody titer distributions to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy; Todd, Stacy; de Bruin, Erwin; Thao, Tran Thi Nhu; Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao; Quan, Tran Minh; Vinh, Dao Nguyen; van Beek, Janko; Anh, Pham Hong; Lam, Ha Minh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le; Huy, Huynh Le Anh; Ha, Vo Thi Hong; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Koopmans, Marion; Boni, Maciej F

    2017-07-20

    Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A population's natural distribution of antibody titers to an endemic infectious disease may include information on multiple serological states - naiveté, recent infection, non-recent infection, childhood infection - depending on the disease in question and the acquisition and waning patterns of immunity. In this study, we investigate 20,152 general-population serum samples from southern Vietnam collected between 2009 and 2013 from which we report antibody titers to the influenza virus HA1 protein using a continuous titer measurement from a protein microarray assay. We describe the distributions of antibody titers to subtypes 2009 H1N1 and H3N2. Using a model selection approach to fit mixture distributions, we show that 2009 H1N1 antibody titers fall into four titer subgroups and that H3N2 titers fall into three subgroups. For H1N1, our interpretation is that the two highest-titer subgroups correspond to recent and historical infection, which is consistent with 2009 pandemic attack rates. Similar interpretations are available for H3N2, but right-censoring of titers makes these interpretations difficult to validate.

  18. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  19. Physiological Aldosterone Concentrations Are Associated with Alterations of Lipid Metabolism: Observations from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannich, M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Reincke, M; Adolf, C; Völzke, H; Rettig, R; Hannemann, A

    2018-01-01

    Aldosterone and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are involved in many pathophysiological processes that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Previously, associations between the concentrations of aldosterone and certain components of the lipid metabolism in the peripheral circulation were suggested, but data from the general population is sparse. We therefore aimed to assess the associations between aldosterone and HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, or non-HDL-C in the general adult population. Data from 793 men and 938 women aged 25-85 years who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania were obtained. The associations of aldosterone with serum lipid concentrations were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and HbA1c. The linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations of aldosterone with LDL-C ( β -coefficient = 0.022, standard error = 0.010, p = 0.03) and non-HDL-C ( β -coefficient = 0.023, standard error = 0.009, p = 0.01) as well as an inverse association of aldosterone with HDL-C ( β -coefficient = -0.022, standard error = 0.011, p = 0.04). The present data show that plasma aldosterone is positively associated with LDL-C and non-HDL-C and inversely associated with HDL-C in the general population. Our data thus suggests that aldosterone concentrations within the physiological range may be related to alterations of lipid metabolism.

  20. How "ought" exceeds but implies "can": Description and encouragement in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, John

    2017-11-01

    This paper tests a theory about the relationship between two important topics in moral philosophy and psychology. One topic is the function of normative language, specifically claims that one "ought" to do something. Do these claims function to describe moral responsibilities, encourage specific behavior, or both? The other topic is the relationship between saying that one "ought" to do something and one's ability to do it. In what respect, if any, does what one "ought" to do exceed what one "can" do? The theory tested here has two parts: (1) "ought" claims function to both describe responsibilities and encourage people to fulfill them (the dual-function hypothesis); (2) the two functions relate differently to ability, because the encouragement function is limited by the person's ability, but the descriptive function is not (the interaction hypothesis). If this theory is correct, then in one respect "ought implies can" is false because people have responsibilities that exceed their abilities. But in another respect "ought implies can" is legitimate because it is not worthwhile to encourage people to do things that exceed their ability. Results from two behavioral experiments support the theory that "ought" exceeds but implies "can." Results from a third experiment provide further evidence regarding an "ought" claim's primary function and how contextual features can affect the interpretation of its functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of suicide, accidental death, and premature natural death in a general-population birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S; Wadsworth, M

    1998-01-01

    Background Whether putative suicide risk factors, such as conduct and emotional disorders, are specific to suicide or are general associations of a continuum between subintentional and intentional self-destruction is not clear. We undertook an investigation of this issue in a UK population-based

  2. Alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder in a general population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Sharmila S.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between overall or specific alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder (AMD), a synonym for age-related macular degeneration, in a general population. Alcohol consumption and risk of early or late incident AMD (iAMD) were examined among all

  3. Syncope prevalence in the ED compared to general practice and population: a strong selection process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; van Dijk, Nynke; Ganzeboom, Karin S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Dekker, Lukas R. C.; Shen, Win-Kuang; Wieling, Wouter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence and distribution of the different causes of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) in the emergency department (ED) and chest pain unit (CPU) and estimated the proportion of persons with syncope in the general population who seek medical attention from either

  4. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...

  5. Heterogeneity of the jealousy phenomenon in the general population: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Sbrana, Alfredo; Rucci, Paola; Cherici, Luca; Mungai, Francesco; Gonnelli, Chiara; Massimetti, Enrico; Raimondi, Francesca; Doria, Maria Rosaria; Spagnolli, Sabrina; Ravani, Laura; Consoli, Giorgio; Catena Dell Osso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Despite the general agreement that normal jealousy is heterogenous, little is known about this specific topic. In the present study, we explored the possibility of distinguishing between four subtypes of "normal" jealousy (depressive, anxious, obsessive, and paranoid) amongst a cohort of 500 healthy university students by means of a specifically designed questionnaire, "Ouestionario della gelosia" (QUEGE). QUEGE is a self-report instrument of 30 items which explores the presence, frequency, and duration of feelings and behaviors related to jealousy. It was devised to investigate four hypothetical psychopathological profiles: depressive, paranoid, obsessive, and anxious. The factor analysis identified five rather than four clear-cut factors: self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal Sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessionality. Women showed statistically significant lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of obsessionality than men. Younger age (jealousy phenomenon in the general population.

  6. The value of vaccination: results of an Italian survey among Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cadeddu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:

    Background: In the Italian context, evolving toward the abandonment of compulsory vaccination, the
    maintenance of adequate levels of coverage appears as essential. The promotion of a good vaccination
    knowledge, supported by strong scientific evidence, and the collaboration of all the involved stakeholders,
    appears hence fundamental. The aim of this survey was to understand why vaccination is not appreciated
    for its real value by different stakeholders.
    Methods: In collaboration with other Italian Universities and Health Districts, in Summer 2011 we submitted
    a survey of 17 questions to a convenience sample of Italian Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General
    Population. The main questions analyzed the importance of vaccination for health, actions to attain vaccination
    value and consequences of a free choice policy.
    Results: Of the 173 stakeholders interviewed, 78% of Medical Doctors, 82% Policy Makers and 46%
    General Population believe that vaccination is important for health. The most important actions suggested
    for strengthening vaccination were information about its efficacy and safety and studies on its impact on
    Public Health, according to most of General Population and of Medical Doctors and Policy Makers, respectively.
    According to 60.4% Medical Doctors, 72.8% Policy Makers and 56.3% General Population the abolition
    of compulsory vaccination would lead to a reduction of vaccinees in all the Italian regions.
    Conclusions: Our study confirms the need for a thorough “education in vaccination”. Among stakeholders
    there are still doubts that hinder the decision process about vaccination policies and programmes. On
    the other hand, a call for an “Alliance” for promoting and implementing vaccination to its full potential
    would be favoured, as

  7. Eating and body attitudes related to noncompetitive bodybuilding in military and general Hungarian male student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc

    2007-02-01

    Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.

  8. [Distribution of chromium in whole blood and urine among general population in China between year 2009 and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chun-guang; Pan, Ya-juan; Zhang, Ai-hua; Wu, Bang-hua; Huang, Han-lin; Zhu, Chun; Liu, De-ye; Zhu, Bao-li; Xu, Guang; Shao, Hua; Peng, Shan-zhuo; Jiang, Xian-long; Zhao, Chun-xiang; Han, Chang-cheng; Ji, Hong-rong; Yu, Shan-fa; Zhang, Xiao-xi; Zhang, Long-lian; Zheng, Yu-xin; Yan, Hui-fang

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the chromium (Cr) levels in blood and urine among general population in China between 2009 and 2010, and thereby to analyze its prevalent features. From year 2009 to 2010, a total of 11 983 subjects of general population aged between 6 and 60 year-old were recruited from 24 districts in 8 provinces in eastern, central and western China mainland, by cluster random sampling method. The information about their living environment and health status were collected by questionnaire, and 11 983 blood samples and 11 853 urine samples were also collected. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to test the Cr level both in blood and urine; and the Cr distribution in blood and urine among groups of population in different ages, genders and districts, were then analyzed. Among general population in China, the geometric mean (GM) of Cr concentration in blood was 1.19 µg/L, with median at 1.74 µg /L and 95% percentile at 5.59 µg/L. The Cr concentration in blood among males and females were separately 1.18 µg/L and 1.20 µg/L(P > 0.05); while its GM in the groups of population aged 6 - 12, 12 - 16, 16 - 20, 20 - 30, 30 - 45 and 45 - 60 years old were 1.00, 1.22, 1.01, 1.40, 1.27 and 1.30 µg/L (P populations from eastern, central and western China were 1.00, 1.70 and 1.98 µg/L (P population, the GM of Cr concentration in urine was 0.53 µg/L, with median was lower than 0.42 µg/L and 95% percentile at 3.53 µg/L. The Cr concentration in urine among males and females were separately 0.52 µg/L and 0.53 µg/L (P > 0.05);while its GM in the groups of population aged 6 - 12, 12 - 16, 16 - 20, 20 - 30, 30 - 45 and 45 - 60 years old were 0.56, 0.60, 0.52, 0.50, 0.52 and 0.46 µg/L (P populations from eastern, central and western China were 0.58, population in China, and thereby provided basic data evidence for the following Cr biological monitoring studies in near future.

  9. Health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) among homeless persons compared to a general population sample in Stockholm County, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sun; Irestig, Robert; Burström, Bo; Beijer, Ulla; Burström, Kristina

    2012-03-01

    To describe and compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among homeless persons with a general population sample in Stockholm County, 2006, and to analyse the importance of certain social determinants of health among the homeless. Face-to-face interviews with 155 homeless persons and a postal survey to a general population sample, mainly based on the same questionnaire, including questions on social determinants of health and HRQoL measured with the EQ-5D. Chronic illness was three times more common among the homeless. HRQoL was worse among homeless persons than in the general population sample: the homeless reported more problems, especially more severe problems, in all the EQ-5D dimensions and had considerably lower EQ-5D(index) and EQ(VAS) score than the general population. Most problems were reported in the dimension anxiety/depression. Among the homeless, longer duration and more severe degree of homelessness lowered HRQoL, but few determinants were statistically significantly related to HRQoL. Having mental disease significantly lowered HRQoL. This study was an attempt to include hard-to-reach groups in an assessment of population health. Homeless persons had considerably worse HRQoL than the general population and reported most problems in the dimension anxiety/depression. Some diseases may contribute to causing homelessness; others may be seen as consequences. Homeless persons are a vulnerable group in society. Further interview studies are needed based on larger sample of homeless persons to explore health determinants such as sex, age, socioeconomic factors, duration and degree of homelessness, and health-related behaviours among the homeless persons.

  10. Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.

  11. How good is controlled attenuation parameter and fatty liver index for assessing liver steatosis in general population: correlation with ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhana, Sofia; Leitão, Jorge; Alves, Ana C; Bourbon, Mafalda; Cortez-Pinto, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Liver steatosis measurement by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for diagnosing steatosis, based on transient elastography. Its usefulness as screening procedure for hepatic steatosis in general population has not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CAP and fatty liver index (FLI) for detection and quantification of steatosis in general population. Recruitment was done from a prospective epidemiological study of the general adult population. Steatosis was evaluated using CAP, FLI and ultrasound (US). Steatosis scored according to Hamaguchi's US scoring, from 0 (S0) to 6 (S6) points. Hepatic steatosis defined by score ≥2 (S≥2) and moderate/severe steatosis by score ≥4 (S≥4). Performance of CAP and FLI for diagnosing steatosis compared with US was assessed using areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). From 219 consecutive individuals studied, 13 (5.9%) excluded because of failure/unreliable liver stiffness measurements. Steatosis prevalence: S≥2 38.4% and S≥4 12.1%. CAP significantly correlated with steatosis (ρ = 0.73, P steatosis score (ρ = 0.76; P steatosis quantification in the general population. Larger studies are needed for validation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  13. Attitudes of the German general population toward early diagnosis of dementia--results of a representative telephone survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Luck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of dementia has clearly improved. Even though none of the currently available treatments for the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer's dementia, promises a cure, early diagnosis provides several benefits for patients, caregivers, and health care systems. This study aimed to describe attitudes toward early diagnosis of dementia in the German general population. METHODS: A representative telephone survey of the German population aged 18+ years (n = 1,002 was conducted in 2011. RESULTS: The majority of respondents (69% would be willing to be examined for early diagnosis of dementia. Almost two thirds reported that they would prefer their general practitioner (GP as the first source of professional help. More than half of the respondents (55% stated their belief that dementia could be prevented. Respondents mostly indicated psychosocial prevention options. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the general population in Germany is very open to early diagnosis of dementia; however, this seems connected with large expectations on the effectiveness of prevention options. Dementia awareness campaigns may be employed to carefully inform the public about the prevention options currently available and their efficacy. To exploit GPs' potential as a gatekeeper for early detection of dementia, their ability to identify patients with antecedent and mild stages of the disease must be improved.

  14. Computer-assisted semen analysis parameters as predictors for fertility of men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2000-01-01

    The predictive value of sperm motility parameters obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was evaluated for the fertility of men from general population. In a prospective study with couples stopping use of contraception in order to try to conceive, CASA was performed on semen samples...

  15. Persistence of addictive disorders in a first-offender driving while impaired population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Sandra C; Stout, Robert; Laxton, Georgia; Skipper, Betty J

    2011-11-01

    We compared the prevalence of alcohol use and other psychiatric disorders in offenders 15 years after a first conviction for driving while impaired with a general population sample. To determine whether high rates of addictive and other psychiatric disorders previously demonstrated in this sample remain disproportionately higher compared with a matched general population sample. Point-in-time cohort study. Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Albuquerque, New Mexico. We interviewed convicted first offenders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. We calculated rates of diagnoses for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women (n = 362) and men (n = 220) adjusting for missing data using multiple imputation and compared psychiatric diagnoses with findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication by sex and Hispanic ethnicity. Eleven percent of non-Hispanic white women and 12.8% of Hispanic women in the driving while impaired sample reported 12-month alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with 1.0% and 1.8%, respectively, in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (comparison) sample. Almost 12% of non-Hispanic white men and 17.5% of Hispanic men in the driving while impaired sample reported 12-month alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with to 2.0% and 1.8%, respectively, in the comparison sample. These differences were statistically significant. Rates of drug use disorders and nicotine dependence were also elevated compared with the general population sample, while rates of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder were similar. In this sample, high rates of addictive disorders persisted over 10 years among first offenders and greatly exceeded those found in a general population sample.

  16. Circulating alpha1-antitrypsin in the general population: Determinants and association with lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT deficiency associated with low AAT blood concentrations is an established genetic COPD risk factor. Less is known about the respiratory health impact of variation in AAT serum concentrations in the general population. We cross-sectionally investigated correlates of circulating AAT concentrations and its association with FEV1. Methods In 5187 adults (2669 females with high-sensitive c-reactive protein (CRP levels ≤ 10 mg/l from the population-based Swiss SAPALDIA cohort, blood was collected at the time of follow-up examination for measuring serum AAT and CRP. Results Female gender, hormone intake, systolic blood pressure, age in men and in postmenopausal women, as well as active and passive smoking were positively, whereas alcohol intake and BMI inversely correlated with serum AAT levels, independent of CRP adjustment. We observed an inverse association of AAT with FEV1 in the total study population (p Conclusion The results of this population-based study reflect a complex interrelationship between tobacco exposure, gender related factors, circulating AAT, systemic inflammatory status and lung function.

  17. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Hunter, R. Douglas; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and

  18. IgE antibodies to alpha-gal in the general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Dam Laursen, A S; Vidal, C

    2014-01-01

    -gal-specific (s)IgE and its associated factors in the general adult population from two separated (Northern and Southern) European regions (Denmark and Spain, respectively). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2297 and 444 randomly selected adults from 11 municipalities in Denmark and one in Spain. Alpha-gal s.......1% in the Danish and Spanish series, respectively. The prevalence of sIgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L was 1.8% and 2.2% in Denmark and Spain, respectively. Alpha-gal sIgE positivity was associated with pet ownership in both series and, particularly, cat ownership (data available in the Danish series). Alpha-gal sIgE positivity...

  19. Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome among the general female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.

  20. Do impotent men with diabetes have more severe erectile dysfunction and worse quality of life than the general population of impotent patients? Results from the Exploratory Comprehensive Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction (ExCEED) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, David F; Latini, David M; Lubeck, Deborah P; Wallace, Katrine L; Henning, James M; Lue, Tom F

    2003-04-01

    Little is known regarding how diabetic men with erectile dysfunction (ED) differ from the general population of impotent men. The primary objective of this study was to compare disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and severity of ED in impotent men with and without diabetes. Validated functional and HRQOL questionnaires (including the International Index of Erectile Function, the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction scales) were administered to patients in an ED disease registry. Men with ED and a history of diabetes (n = 20) were compared with men with ED and no history of diabetes (n = 90) at baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. Diabetic impotent men reported worse erectile function and intercourse satisfaction at baseline, and ED had a greater impact on their emotional life. Diabetic men with ED had significantly different trends over time in the Erectile Function (P Emotional Life-Psychological Impact domain (P < 0.067). Impotent men with diabetes present with worse ED than nondiabetic men with ED, resulting in worse disease-specific HRQOL in the diabetic men. Although diabetic patients initially respond well to ED treatment, responses do not appear to be durable over time. Therefore, clinicians must provide longer-term follow-up when treating ED in diabetic patients.

  1. Predictive value of updating Framingham risk scores with novel risk markers in the U.S. general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart S Ferket

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to population-based cohort studies CT coronary calcium score (CTCS, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT, high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (CRP, and ankle-brachial index (ABI are promising novel risk markers for improving cardiovascular risk assessment. Their impact in the U.S. general population is however uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the predictive value of four novel cardiovascular risk markers for the U.S. general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk profiles, CRP and ABI data of 3,736 asymptomatic subjects aged 40 or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004 exam were used along with predicted CTCS and cIMT values. For each subject, we calculated 10-year cardiovascular risks with and without each risk marker. Event rates adjusted for competing risks were obtained by microsimulation. We assessed the impact of updated 10-year risk scores by reclassification and C-statistics. In the study population (mean age 56±11 years, 48% male, 70% (80% were at low (<10%, 19% (14% at intermediate (≥10-<20%, and 11% (6% at high (≥20% 10-year CVD (CHD risk. Net reclassification improvement was highest after updating 10-year CVD risk with CTCS: 0.10 (95%CI 0.02-0.19. The C-statistic for 10-year CVD risk increased from 0.82 by 0.02 (95%CI 0.01-0.03 with CTCS. Reclassification occurred most often in those at intermediate risk: with CTCS, 36% (38% moved to low and 22% (30% to high CVD (CHD risk. Improvements with other novel risk markers were limited. CONCLUSIONS: Only CTCS appeared to have significant incremental predictive value in the U.S. general population, especially in those at intermediate risk. In future research, cost-effectiveness analyses should be considered for evaluating novel cardiovascular risk assessment strategies.

  2. Predictive Value of Updating Framingham Risk Scores with Novel Risk Markers in the U.S. General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Agarwal, Isha; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Max, Wendy; Fleischmann, Kirsten E.

    2014-01-01

    Background According to population-based cohort studies CT coronary calcium score (CTCS), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (CRP), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are promising novel risk markers for improving cardiovascular risk assessment. Their impact in the U.S. general population is however uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the predictive value of four novel cardiovascular risk markers for the U.S. general population. Methods and Findings Risk profiles, CRP and ABI data of 3,736 asymptomatic subjects aged 40 or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 exam were used along with predicted CTCS and cIMT values. For each subject, we calculated 10-year cardiovascular risks with and without each risk marker. Event rates adjusted for competing risks were obtained by microsimulation. We assessed the impact of updated 10-year risk scores by reclassification and C-statistics. In the study population (mean age 56±11 years, 48% male), 70% (80%) were at low (risk. Net reclassification improvement was highest after updating 10-year CVD risk with CTCS: 0.10 (95%CI 0.02–0.19). The C-statistic for 10-year CVD risk increased from 0.82 by 0.02 (95%CI 0.01–0.03) with CTCS. Reclassification occurred most often in those at intermediate risk: with CTCS, 36% (38%) moved to low and 22% (30%) to high CVD (CHD) risk. Improvements with other novel risk markers were limited. Conclusions Only CTCS appeared to have significant incremental predictive value in the U.S. general population, especially in those at intermediate risk. In future research, cost-effectiveness analyses should be considered for evaluating novel cardiovascular risk assessment strategies. PMID:24558385

  3. Subset selection from generalized logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.

    1997-01-01

    We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. These generalized logistic distributions Type-I, Type-II and Type-III are indexed by a real valued parameter. They have been derived as mixtures with the standard logistic distribution and for discrete values of the

  4. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Indonesia's general population and coronary heart disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginting, H.; Näring, G.W.B.; Veld, W.M. van der; Srisayekti, W.; Becker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the validity and determines the cut-off point for the Beck Depression Inventory-II (the BDI-II) among Indonesians. The Indonesian version of the BDI-II (the Indo BDI-II) was administered to 720 healthy individuals from the general population, 215 Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

  5. Nonallergic rhinitis and its association with smoking and lower airway disease: A general population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; von Buchwald, Christian; Thomsen, Simon F

    2011-01-01

    The cause of nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) and its relation to lower airway disease remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of the occurrence of rhinitis in a Danish general population with focus on NAR and its association with smoking and lower airway disease....

  6. The Distracted Brain : The neurobiology and neuropsychology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Mous (Sabine)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the neurobiology and neuropsychology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems in the general population. The notion that child psychopathology might be better described within a dimensional framework, rather than with clearly defined diagnostic categories,

  7. What distinguishes weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry from the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-05-01

    Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Internet Activities During Leisure: A Comparison Between Adolescents With ADHD and Adolescents From the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2015-11-25

    Adolescents' leisure activities are increasingly focusing on Internet activities, and today, these coexist with traditional leisure activities such as sport and meeting friends. The purpose of the present study was to investigate leisure activities, particularly Internet activities, among boys and girls with ADHD, and compare these with boys and girls from the general population. The objective was also to explore how traditional leisure activities and Internet activities interrelate among adolescents with ADHD. Adolescents with ADHD (n = 102) were compared with adolescents from the general population on leisure activities and Internet use. Leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD tended to focus on Internet activities, particularly online games. Internet activities were broadening leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD, rather than being a substitute for traditional leisure activities. Internet activities may provide adolescents with ADHD accessible means of social interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Physiological Aldosterone Concentrations Are Associated with Alterations of Lipid Metabolism: Observations from the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hannich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aldosterone and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C are involved in many pathophysiological processes that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Previously, associations between the concentrations of aldosterone and certain components of the lipid metabolism in the peripheral circulation were suggested, but data from the general population is sparse. We therefore aimed to assess the associations between aldosterone and HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, or non-HDL-C in the general adult population. Methods. Data from 793 men and 938 women aged 25–85 years who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania were obtained. The associations of aldosterone with serum lipid concentrations were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and HbA1c. Results. The linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations of aldosterone with LDL-C (β-coefficient = 0.022, standard error = 0.010, p=0.03 and non-HDL-C (β-coefficient = 0.023, standard error = 0.009, p=0.01 as well as an inverse association of aldosterone with HDL-C (β-coefficient = −0.022, standard error = 0.011, p=0.04. Conclusions. The present data show that plasma aldosterone is positively associated with LDL-C and non-HDL-C and inversely associated with HDL-C in the general population. Our data thus suggests that aldosterone concentrations within the physiological range may be related to alterations of lipid metabolism.

  10. Functional Investigations of HNF1A Identify Rare Variants as Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Laeya Abdoli; Aukrust, Ingvild; Flannick, Jason; Molnes, Janne; Burtt, Noel; Molven, Anders; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David; Johansson, Stefan; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Variants in HNF1A encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1A) are associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young form 3 (MODY 3) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether functional classification of HNF1A rare coding variants can inform models of diabetes risk prediction in the general population by analyzing the effect of 27 HNF1A variants identified in well-phenotyped populations (n = 4,115). Bioinformatics tools classified 11 variants as likely pathogenic and showed no association with diabetes risk (combined minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.22%; odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 0.73–5.60; P = 0.18). However, a different set of 11 variants that reduced HNF-1A transcriptional activity to diabetes in the general population (combined MAF 0.22%; OR 5.04; 95% CI 1.99–12.80; P = 0.0007). Our functional investigations indicate that 0.44% of the population carry HNF1A variants that result in a substantially increased risk for developing diabetes. These results suggest that functional characterization of variants within MODY genes may overcome the limitations of bioinformatics tools for the purposes of presymptomatic diabetes risk prediction in the general population. PMID:27899486

  11. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Laure; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years), 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR): 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07-1.32), French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57), and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45). Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82) than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01). HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups of PLWHIV in France including MSM and heterosexual

  12. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Tron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. METHODS: We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. RESULTS: Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years, 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR: 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.07-1.32, French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57, and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45. Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82 than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02 and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01. HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups

  13. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in intimate partner violence offenders compared to the general population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Thomas J; Frost, R Brock; Hedges, Dawson W

    2012-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread. Several risk factors are associated with IPV perpetuation, including alcohol use and educational level. The aggression and violence associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggest that brain trauma may also be a risk factor for IPV. To examine the association between TBI and IPV, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed published studies reporting the prevalence of TBI in IPV perpetrators. The authors compared the frequency of TBI among IPV perpetuators to estimates of TBI in the general population using a single-sample test of proportions. Six studies containing a total of 222 subjects met inclusion criteria. Fifty-three percent (119) of the IPV perpetuators had a history of TBI, a prevalence significantly higher (p < .0001) than estimates of TBI in the general population. The prevalence of TBI among perpetuators of IPV appears significantly higher than the prevalence of TBI in the general population. To the extent that this association is causal, TBI may be a risk factor for interpersonal violence, although comparatively few source studies, lack of standardized information about TBI severity, and the inability to investigate potential confounding variables necessarily limit this conclusion.

  14. Screening for alcohol use disorders and at-risk drinking in the general population: psychometric performance of three questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Hapke, Ulfert; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Most screening questionnaires are developed in clinical settings and there are few data on their performance in the general population. This study provides data on the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the consumption questions of the AUDIT (AUDIT-C) and the Lübeck Alcohol Dependence and Abuse Screening Test (LAST) among current drinkers (n = 3551) of a general population sample in northern Germany. Alcohol dependence and misuse according to DSM-IV and at-risk drinking served as gold standards to assess sensitivity and specificity and were assessed with the Munich-Composite Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). AUDIT and LAST showed insufficient sensitivity for at-risk drinking and alcohol misuse using standard cut-off scores, but satisfactory detection rates for alcohol dependence. The AUDIT-C showed low specificity in all criterion groups with standard cut-off. Adjusted cut-points are recommended. Among a subsample of individuals with previous general hospital admission in the last year, all questionnaires showed higher internal consistency suggesting lower reliability in non-clinical samples. In logistic regression analyses, having had a hospital admission increased the sensitivity in detecting any criterion group of the LAST, and the number of recent general practice visits increased the sensitivity of the AUDIT in detecting alcohol misuse. Women showed lower scores and larger areas under the ROC curves. It is concluded that setting specific instruments (e.g. primary care or general population) or adjusted cut-offs should be used.

  15. Creatinine, eGFR and association with myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease and early death in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, Kirstine L; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that moderately elevated plasma creatinine levels and decreased levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and early death in the general population. METHODS: We...... studied 10,489 individuals with a plasma creatinine measurement and calculated eGFR from the Danish general population, of which 1498 developed myocardial infarction, 3001 ischemic heart disease, and 7573 died during 32 years follow-up. RESULTS: Cumulative incidences of myocardial infarction and ischemic...... heart disease as a function of age increased with increasing levels of creatinine, and survival decreased (log-rank trends: creatinine levels

  16. Perceived social support and its impact on depression and health-related quality of life: a comparison between cancer patients and general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyosang; Shin, Dong Wook; Jeong, Ansuk; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Kim, Jun Suk; Lee, Ji Eun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Eun-Cheol; Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that cancer patients' perception of social support is associated with their depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life. However, there have been little studies that compared the variates of cancer patients with the general population. We sought to compare differences in the level of perceived social support and the impact of perceived social support on depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life between cancer survivors and the general population. Data were collected from 1818 cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Center and regional cancer centers in South Korea. The control group of the general population was composed of 2000 individuals without cancer from community. Cancer patients reported significantly higher level of perceived social support than the general population, while they reported lower health-related quality of life and were more susceptible to depression. The positive associations of higher perceived social support with lower depressive symptoms, as well as with higher health-related quality of life, were stronger among cancer patients than among the general population. The interaction effect suggests that the impact of social support would be stronger among cancer patients than the general public. Thus, it would be beneficial to pay attention to providing social support to cancer patients, particularly to those who are more vulnerable. Furthermore, investigation of the most effective and efficient methods to deliver social support interventions would be worthwhile. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Clinical and psychosocial predictors of exceeding target length of stay during inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wesley; Buttineau, Mackenzie; Harvey, Jennifer K; Pucci, Rebecca A; Wong, Anna P M; Dell'Erario, Linda; Bosnyak, Stephanie; Reid, Shannon; Salbach, Nancy M

    2017-10-01

    In Ontario, Canada, patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation hospitals post-stroke are classified into rehabilitation patient groups based on age and functional level. Clinical practice guidelines, called quality-based procedures, recommend a target length of stay (LOS) for each group. The study objective was to evaluate the extent to which patients post-stroke at an inpatient rehabilitation hospital are meeting LOS targets and to identify patient characteristics that predict exceeding target LOS. A quantitative, longitudinal study from an inpatient rehabilitation hospital was conducted. Participants included adult patients (≥18 years) with stroke, admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital between 2014 and 2015. The percentage of patients exceeding the recommended target LOS was determined. Logistic regression was performed to identify clinical and psychosocial patient characteristics associated with exceeding target LOS after adjusting for stroke severity. Of 165 patients, 38.8% exceeded their target LOS. Presence of ataxia, recurrent stroke, living alone, absence of a caregiver at admission, and acquiring a caregiver during hospital LOS was each associated with significantly higher odds of exceeding target LOS in comparison to patients without these characteristics after adjusting for stroke severity (p stroke-specific factors may be helpful to adjust LOS expectations and promote efficient resource allocation. This exploratory study was limited to findings from one inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Cross-validation of results using data-sets from multiple rehabilitation hospitals across Ontario is recommended.

  18. Cognitive and psychological reactions of the general population three months after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kyutoku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The largest earthquake on record in Japan (magnitude 9.0 occurred on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of Northern Japan. These further triggered the Fukushima I nuclear power plant accidents. Such a hugely complex disaster inevitably has negative psychological effects on general populations as well as on the direct victims. While previous disaster studies enrolled descriptive approaches focusing on direct victims, the structure of the psychological adjustment process of people from the general population has remained uncertain. The current study attempted to establish a path model that sufficiently reflects the early psychological adaptation process of the general population to large-scale natural disasters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants from the primary disaster area (n = 1083 and other areas (n = 2372 voluntarily participated in an online questionnaire study. By constructing path models using a structural equation model procedure (SEM, we examined the structural relationship among psychological constructs known related to disasters. As post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS were significantly more present in people in the primarily affected area than in those in secondary- or non-affected areas, the path models were constructed for the primary victims. The parsimoniously depicted model with the best fit was achieved for the psychological-adjustment centered model with quality of life (QoL as a final outcome. CONCLUSION: The paths to QoL via negative routes (from negative cognitive appraisal, PTS, and general stress were dominant, suggesting the importance of clinical intervention for reducing negative cognitive appraisal, and for caring for general stress and PTS to maintain QoL at an early stage of psychological adaptation to a disaster. The model also depicted the presence of a positive route where positive cognitive appraisal facilitates post-traumatic growth (PTG to achieve a higher Qo

  19. Estimating the exceedance probability of rain rate by logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Long S.; Kedem, Benjamin

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the fraction of an area with rain intensity above a fixed threshold is highly correlated with the area-averaged rain rate. To estimate the fractional rainy area, a logistic regression model, which estimates the conditional probability that rain rate over an area exceeds a fixed threshold given the values of related covariates, is developed. The problem of dependency in the data in the estimation procedure is bypassed by the method of partial likelihood. Analyses of simulated scanning multichannel microwave radiometer and observed electrically scanning microwave radiometer data during the Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment period show that the use of logistic regression in pixel classification is superior to multiple regression in predicting whether rain rate at each pixel exceeds a given threshold, even in the presence of noisy data. The potential of the logistic regression technique in satellite rain rate estimation is discussed.

  20. Discrete two-sex models of population dynamics: On modelling the mating function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Legendre, Stéphane; Clobert, Jean

    2010-09-01

    Although sexual reproduction has long been a central subject of theoretical ecology, until recently its consequences for population dynamics were largely overlooked. This is now changing, and many studies have addressed this issue, showing that when the mating system is taken into account, the population dynamics depends on the relative abundance of males and females, and is non-linear. Moreover, sexual reproduction increases the extinction risk, namely due to the Allee effect. Nevertheless, different studies have identified diverse potential consequences, depending on the choice of mating function. In this study, we investigate the consequences of three alternative mating functions that are frequently used in discrete population models: the minimum; the harmonic mean; and the modified harmonic mean. We consider their consequences at three levels: on the probability that females will breed; on the presence and intensity of the Allee effect; and on the extinction risk. When we consider the harmonic mean, the number of times the individuals of the least abundant sex mate exceeds their mating potential, which implies that with variable sex-ratios the potential reproductive rate is no longer under the modeller's control. Consequently, the female breeding probability exceeds 1 whenever the sex-ratio is male-biased, which constitutes an obvious problem. The use of the harmonic mean is thus only justified if we think that this parameter should be re-defined in order to represent the females' breeding rate and the fact that females may reproduce more than once per breeding season. This phenomenon buffers the Allee effect, and reduces the extinction risk. However, when we consider birth-pulse populations, such a phenomenon is implausible because the number of times females can reproduce per birth season is limited. In general, the minimum or modified harmonic mean mating functions seem to be more suitable for assessing the impact of mating systems on population dynamics.

  1. Associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and semen quality parameters in a general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M.S.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Chen, Z.; Ye, A.; Kannan, K.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are urinary phthalate concentrations associated with altered semen quality parameters among males recruited from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER Urinary levels of metabolites of phthalate diesters are associated with lower total sperm counts, larger sperm head sizes, and higher percentages of morphologically abnormal sperm. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY High dose experiments in rats implicate phthalates as anti-androgens. Studies involving infertile men seeking care suggest that phthalates influence measures of semen quality raising concern about the implications for men in the general population. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This prospective cohort study comprised 501 male partners in couples discontinuing contraception to become pregnant, who were recruited from 16 US counties using population-based sampling frameworks from 2005 to 2009. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Urine and semen samples were obtained at baseline from 473 (94%) men, of whom 378 (80%) men provided a second sample the following month. Urine was analyzed for 14 monoester metabolites of phthalate diesters by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Semen samples were analyzed for 34 quality parameters categorized as general, motility, morphology, sperm head and sperm chromatin structure. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Urinary mono-[2-(carboxymethyl) hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isononyl phthalate (MNP) were significantly associated with lower total sperm counts and concentrations, larger sperm head sizes, higher proportions of megalo head sperm morphology, and/or other morphological changes. Urinary mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCPP) were significantly associated with lower sperm motility, and urine mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was significantly associated with higher sperm motility. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR

  2. [Analysis of the definitive statistics of the 11th General Population and Housing Census].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1992-01-01

    The 11th General Census of Population and Housing conducted in March 1990 enumerated 2,204,054 inhabitants in Sinaloa, for a density of 37.9 per sq. km. Sinaloa's population thus increased sevenfold from 297,000 in 1900. The proportion of Sinalioans in Mexico's population increased from 2.2% in 1900 to 2.7% in 1990. 38.4% of the population was under age 14, 57.0% was 14064, and 4.6% as over 65. The greatest challenge for the year 2010 will be to meet the demand for educational facilities, employment, and services for the growing elderly population. Sinaloa's population grew at an annual rate of 1.1 between 1980-90. 17 of its 18 municipios showed slowing growth rates between 1980-90, with only Escuinapa increasing its rate. Sinaloa's growth rate of 1.8% is still relatively high, and the population in the year 2000 is projected at 2.6 million. Population distribution and migration present problems that should be more actively addressed. Urban-urban migration is increasing in importance. In 1990, Sinaloa had 5247 localities of which only 85 had more than 2500 inhabitants and 4717 had fewer than 500. Growth of midsize localities with 500-2499 inhabitants may constitute an alternative allowing the demographic deconcentration and decentralization that Sinaloa urgently requires. The lack of jobs, infrastructure, educational and health services, housing, and food in the dispersed 4717 communities with fewer than 500 inhabitants makes them sources of emigration. Sinaloa's population is concentrated along the coast and in the 3 valleys of the north and central regions, which contain 80.8% of the population. One-third of the population lives on 12.1% of the territory in 2 municipios, while 12 municipios covering 67% of the territory contain just 24% of the population. Sinaloa's growth rate has declined from 4.3% between 1960-70 to 3.7% from 1970-80 and 1.8% in 1980-90.

  3. What is the gap in activity and participation between people with disability and the general population in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Yen, Chia-Feng; Escorpizo, Reuben; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Fang, Wen-Hui

    2017-08-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) was developed, based on the concept of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The ICF provides a common language and framework for health and health-related status and attempts to integrate the biopsychosocial model as a multidimensional perspective in understanding functioning. Activities and participation (AP) is one salient component of the ICF refers to the execution of a task by an individual, and how such tasks are involved in their daily life. It is essential to examine the gap between the general adult population and adults with disabilities. This gap may be attributed to health status, personal factors, and natural and social environments, which include social and health services and policies. The purposes: (1) To develop a normative activity and participation (AP) value for the adult population and people with disabilities; and (2) to compare the gap in AP normative values between the two groups in Taiwan. We use the WHODAS 2.0 to survey and develop a normative AP value for the general adult population, and used secondary data from National Disability Eligibility Determination System (NDEDS) of Taiwan to describe the AP functioning distribution of adult with disability. There were 1100 participants, selected by stratified proportional sampling from two cities. There were also 144,850 participants who were adults with disability, selected from the secondary database in Taiwan. The AP curve for the disabled population increased rapidly at the beginning. The summary score was 13.21 in the performance at 90 percentile for the general population and 82.61 score for disabled adults that the similar gap in every domain, its means that there are significant functioning difference and health equality in general adults population and adults with disabilities. This presents a substantial challenge for both the government and the whole

  4. Incidence and risk factors for suicide attempts in a general population of young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim; Agerbo, Esben

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from ...... on the increase in the period studied. Individuals exposed to multiple risk factors are at the highest risk for suicide attempts, and when spotted or in contact with authorities they should be given proper care and treatment to prevent suicide attempts and death.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...

  5. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Körner

    Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  6. Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison of the Risk between Physicians and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-ting; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P Taiwan's physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment. PMID:25802869

  7. Attitudes within the general population towards seeking professional help in cases of mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskar, Saska; Bracic, Mark Floyd; Kolar, Urska; Lekic, Ksenija; Juricic, Nusa Konec; Grum, Alenka Tancic; Dobnik, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Vatovec, Mojca

    2017-11-01

    Although effective treatment is available for a variety of mental disorders, the treatment and help-seeking gap remains high. One of the main obstacles to help-seeking behaviour is prevailing stigmatizing attitudes. To examine attitudes within the general population towards seeking professional help in times of mental distress. A representative general population survey ( N = 594) was conducted in Slovenia by means of an Internet-based questionnaire, covering data on demographic variables and attitudes towards help-seeking behaviour. More stigmatizing attitudes towards help-seeking behaviour were found in men, single persons, those of a younger age and lower educational achievement and in respondents coming from regions with a high suicide rate. Furthermore, 52.50% of the total sample have had an experience with psychological problems, yet only 41.50% of those have sought professional help. Experience with help-seeking behaviour in the past was associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. Knowledge and understanding of mental health problems are necessary prerequisites to seeking help, but not the only ones. To improve help-seeking behaviour, it is also important to combat stigmatizing attitudes. Additionally, destigmatizing campaigns should also focus on social norms.

  8. Prognostic Value of Echocardiography in Hypertensive Versus Nonhypertensive Participants From the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Daniel; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension may be the most significant cardiovascular risk factor. Few studies have assessed the prognostic value of echocardiography in hypertensive individuals. This study examines the incremental prognostic value of adding echocardiographic parameters to established risk factors in individuals...... of echocardiography in predicting cardiovascular outcomes in the general population is altered by hypertension. In hypertensive individuals, left ventricular mass index added incremental prognostic value in addition to established risk factors. In nonhypertensive individuals, global longitudinal strain added...

  9. Grip Strength Is Associated With Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenia and the General Population: A UK Biobank Study of 476559 Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Firth, Josh A; Large, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Simon; Hallgren, Mats; Ward, Philip B; Sarris, Jerome; Yung, Alison R

    2018-04-19

    Handgrip strength may provide an easily-administered marker of cognitive functional status. However, further population-scale research examining relationships between grip strength and cognitive performance across multiple domains is needed. Additionally, relationships between grip strength and cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia, who frequently experience cognitive deficits, has yet to be explored. Baseline data from the UK Biobank (2007-2010) was analyzed; including 475397 individuals from the general population, and 1162 individuals with schizophrenia. Linear mixed models and generalized linear mixed models were used to assess the relationship between grip strength and 5 cognitive domains (visual memory, reaction time, reasoning, prospective memory, and number memory), controlling for age, gender, bodyweight, education, and geographical region. In the general population, maximal grip strength was positively and significantly related to visual memory (coefficient [coeff] = -0.1601, standard error [SE] = 0.003), reaction time (coeff = -0.0346, SE = 0.0004), reasoning (coeff = 0.2304, SE = 0.0079), number memory (coeff = 0.1616, SE = 0.0092), and prospective memory (coeff = 0.3486, SE = 0.0092: all P reasoning (P > .1). Grip strength is significantly associated with cognitive functioning in the general population and individuals with schizophrenia, particularly for working memory and processing speed. Future research should establish directionality, examine if grip strength also predicts functional and physical health outcomes in schizophrenia, and determine whether interventions which improve muscular strength impact on cognitive and real-world functioning.

  10. Gender differences in a resources-demands model in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Klapp, Burghard F; Albani, Cornelia; Brähler, Elmar

    2014-09-01

    The population-based study examined postulated effects, derived from a resources-demands-model about gender-related aspects of self-efficacy, optimism, chronic stress, and exhaustion. Data acquisition was carried out by a market research institute with a multi-topic questionnaire in the general population (N = 2,552). Instruments administered were the Questionnaire for Self-Efficacy and Optimism, the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress, and the Chalder-Fatigue-Scale. Households and target persons were selected randomly. The analyses focused on structural equation modeling. There were significant differences in structural relations among the resource paths. In particular, significant gender differences were found with respect to self-efficacy, and among the exhaustion paths, namely in the mental dimension of exhaustion. The observed measures of chronic stress were found to be operating equivalently for both genders. Results suggest that resources play an important role in the understanding of how chronic stress is preceded and may lead to exhaustion in both genders. Personal resources seem to be more expressed by men than by woman, for whom the relation of resources to health is of greater importance than for men.

  11. Prevalence and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among older adults with intellectual disability in comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmon, Anna; Ahlström, Gerd; Höglund, Peter

    2017-11-23

    Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID) have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936). We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006-2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM). People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general population. To ensure that this is medically appropriate and not due to

  12. Prevalence and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among older adults with intellectual disability in comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Axmon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. Methods This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936. We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006–2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM. Results People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Conclusions Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general

  13. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, psleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least three insomnia symptoms (OR: 1.4) and women (OR: 1.4). The highest probability of the appearance of concentration difficulties was found in subjects younger than 65 Years, having a depressive disorder and using a psychotropic (15-44 years: OR 19.1; 45-64 years

  14. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  15. A sex-specific comparison of major depressive disorder symptomatology in the canadian forces and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Julie; Kinley, D Jolene; Bolton, James M; Zamorski, Mark A; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-07-01

    To compare major depressive disorder (MDD) symptomatology within men and women in a large, representative sample of Canadian military personnel and civilians. We used the Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being (Cycle 1.2 and Canadian Forces Supplement) (n = 36 984 and n = 8441, respectively) to compare past-year MDD symptomatology among military and civilian women, and military and civilian men. Logistic regression models were used to determine differences in the types of depressive symptoms endorsed in each group. Men in the military with MDD were at lower odds than men in the general population to endorse numerous symptoms of depression, such as hopelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.44; 99% CI 0.23 to 0.83) and inability to cope (AOR 0.53; 99% CI 0.31 to 0.92). Military women with MDD were at lower odds of thinking about their death (AOR 0.52; 99% CI 0.32 to 0.86), relative to women with MDD in the general population. Different MDD symptomatology among males and females in the military, compared with those in the general population, may reflect selection effects (for example, personality characteristics and patterns of comorbidity) or occupational experiences unique to military personnel. Future research examining the mechanisms behind MDD symptomatology in military personnel and civilians is required.

  16. Generally representative is generally representative: comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards' criticism of the general population norms created for the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV. In her criticism, she states that the norms are not applicable for any groups in South Africa, based on the fact that the norms were not stratified according to quality of education. A discussion of some of the key issues that impact on the creation of general population norms in the South African context is provided. Demographic characteristics such as education level, quality of education, urban and rural demarcations, and home language are all considered. While the utility of within-group norms is not denied, the adoption of these without reference to the general population is not advised. To recommend that practitioners simply dispense with the general population norm without evidence that it creates misclassification or does not function effectively for the intended population lacks scientific merit at the current time. The need for clinical studies and further predictive validity research using the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV is crucial to demonstrate the continued utility of the test in the South African context. Additional reference groups will improve the amount of comparative information available for clinicians to be able to make better informed decisions for diagnosis, but the general population norms will be an important starting point in this process.

  17. A general consumer-resource population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  18. Evaluation of LLNL BSL-3 Maximum Credible Event Potential Consequence to the General Population and Surrounding Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-16

    The purpose of this evaluation is to establish reproducibility of the analysis and consequence results to the general population and surrounding environment in the LLNL Biosafety Level 3 Facility Environmental Assessment (LLNL 2008).

  19. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  20. Patterns of stigma toward schizophrenia among the general population: a latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre A; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Guarniero, Francisco B; Lawson, Fabio L; Hengartner, Michael P; Rössler, Wulf; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2014-09-01

    Our purpose was to assess stigma toward schizophrenia in a representative sample of the Brazilian general population. The sample consisted of 1015 individuals interviewed by telephone. A vignette describing someone with schizophrenia was read, and four stigma aspects regarding this hypothetical individual were assessed: stereotypes, restrictions, perceived prejudice and social distance. Latent profile analysis searched for stigma profiles among the sample. Multinomial logistic regression was used to find correlates of each class. Four stigma profiles were found; 'no stigma' individuals (n = 251) mostly displayed positive opinions. 'Labelers' (n = 222) scored high on social distance; they more often had familial contact with mental illness and more often labeled the vignette's disorder as schizophrenia. 'Discriminators', the group with the majority of individuals (n = 302), showed high levels of stigmatizing beliefs in all dimensions; discriminators were significantly older. 'Unobtrusive stigma' individuals (n = 240) seemed to demonstrate uncertainty or low commitment since they mostly answered items with the middle/impartial option. Some findings from the international literature were replicated; however, familial contact increased stigma, possibly denoting a locally modulated determinant. Hereby, our study also adds important cross-cultural data by showing that stigma toward schizophrenia is high in a Latin-American setting. We highlight the importance of analyzing the general population as a heterogeneous group, aiming to better elaborate anti-stigma campaigns. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan AO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  2. An Economic Analysis of Cell-Free DNA Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in the US General Pregnancy Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Benn

    Full Text Available Analyze the economic value of replacing conventional fetal aneuploidy screening approaches with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT in the general pregnancy population.Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared conventional screening to NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA analysis in the annual US pregnancy population. Sensitivity and specificity for fetal aneuploidies, trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and monosomy X, were estimated using published data and modeling of both first- and second trimester screening. Costs were assigned for each prenatal test component and for an affected birth. The overall cost to the healthcare system considered screening costs, the number of aneuploid cases detected, invasive procedures performed, procedure-related euploid losses, and affected pregnancies averted. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of variation in parameters. Costs were reported in 2014 US Dollars.Replacing conventional screening with NIPT would reduce healthcare costs if it can be provided for $744 or less in the general pregnancy population. The most influential variables were timing of screening entry, screening costs, and pregnancy termination rates. Of the 13,176 affected pregnancies undergoing screening, NIPT detected 96.5% (12,717/13,176 of cases, compared with 85.9% (11,314/13,176 by conventional approaches. NIPT reduced invasive procedures by 60.0%, with NIPT and conventional methods resulting in 24,596 and 61,430 invasive procedures, respectively. The number of procedure-related euploid fetal losses was reduced by 73.5% (194/264 in the general screening population.Based on our analysis, universal application of NIPT would increase fetal aneuploidy detection rates and can be economically justified. Offering this testing to all pregnant women is associated with substantial prenatal healthcare benefits.

  3. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Foote

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose: Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results: The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01 and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01. The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8. The Alaska (38.9 and Southwest regions (27.3 had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions: Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.

  4. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Bowen, Elise; Hager, Ron L

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs) and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity ( p mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  5. Non-right-handedness and mental health problems among adolescents from the general population : The Trails Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Bruggeman, R; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Burger, Huib

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the association between non-right-handedness and mental problems among adolescents is specific for psychotic symptoms, we included a group of 2096 adolescents with a mean age of 14 years from the general population. Mental health problems were assessed using the parent,

  6. Detection of previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Dahl, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Under-diagnosis of COPD is a widespread problem. This study aimed to identify previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified through general practice. Methods: Participating GPs (n = 241) recruited subjects with no previous diagnosis of lung disease,...

  7. Prevalence of double incontinence, risk and influence on quality of life in a general female population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker- ten Hove, Marijke; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, MJ; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P M; Burger, CW; Vierhout, ME

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) are complaints with impact on quality of life (QOL). Few data are available on prevalence of double incontinence (DI) in the general female population. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of UI, AI, and DI, their associations with age,

  8. Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-03-20

    Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea. The participants were 1745 men and 1456 women aged 40-89 years. Sleep apnea was measured by home polysomnography and questionnaires were used to assess usual sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. A follow-up questionnaire 2 years after baseline ascertained driving habits and motor vehicle crash history. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of sleep apnea and sleep duration at baseline to the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes during the year preceding the follow-up visit, adjusting for relevant covariates. The population-attributable fraction of motor vehicle crashes was estimated from the sample proportion of motor vehicle crashes and the adjusted odds ratios for motor vehicle crash within each exposure category. Among 3201 evaluable participants, 222 (6.9%) reported at least one motor vehicle crash during the prior year. A higher apnea-hypopnea index (p vehicle crashes was 10% due to sleep apnea and 9% due to sleep duration less than 7 hours. Sleep deficiency due to either sleep apnea or insufficient sleep duration is strongly associated with motor vehicle crashes in the general population, independent of self-reported excessive sleepiness.

  9. New insights into the correlation structure of DSM-IV depression symptoms in the general population v. subsamples of depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2018-06-01

    Previous research failed to uncover a replicable dimensional structure underlying the symptoms of depression. We aimed to examine two neglected methodological issues in this research: (a) adjusting symptom correlations for overall depression severity; and (b) analysing general population samples v. subsamples of currently depressed individuals. Using population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal data from two nations (Switzerland, 5883 young men; USA, 2174 young men and 2244 young women) we assessed the dimensions of the nine DSM-IV depression symptoms in young adults. In each general-population sample and each subsample of currently depressed participants, we conducted a standardised process of three analytical steps, based on exploratory and confirmatory factor and bifactor analysis, to reveal any replicable dimensional structure underlying symptom correlations while controlling for overall depression severity. We found no evidence of a replicable dimensional structure across samples when adjusting symptom correlations for overall depression severity. In the general-population samples, symptoms correlated strongly and a single dimension of depression severity was revealed. Among depressed participants, symptom correlations were surprisingly weak and no replicable dimensions were identified, regardless of severity-adjustment. First, caution is warranted when considering studies assessing dimensions of depression because general population-based studies and studies of depressed individuals generate different data that can lead to different conclusions. This problem likely generalises to other models based on the symptoms' inter-relationships such as network models. Second, whereas the overall severity aligns individuals on a continuum of disorder intensity that allows non-affected individuals to be distinguished from affected individuals, the clinical evaluation and treatment of depressed individuals should focus directly on each individual's symptom profile.

  10. Epidemiological studies of general population groups exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Inskip, H.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continue to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose result are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by two consultants, Dr. Joan M. Davies and Dr. Hazel Inskip, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of the general population exposed to radiation, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. The primary objective is to provide background material for national authorities who have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection, as well as to other persons interested in this subject. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments

  11. Desire for autonomy in health care decisions: a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullati, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Charvet-Bérard, Agathe I; Perneger, Thomas V

    2011-04-01

    To examine factors associated with desire for autonomy in health care decisions in the general population. Mailed survey of 2348 residents of Geneva, Switzerland. Participants answered questions on a scale measuring their desire for autonomy in health care decisions. The scale was scored between 0 (lowest desire for autonomy) and 100 (highest desire for autonomy). On average the respondents favoured shared or active involvement in medical decisions (mean score 62.0, SD 20.9), but attitudes varied considerably. In the multivariate model, factors associated with a higher desire for autonomy included female gender, younger age, higher education, living alone, reporting an excellent global health and - a new observation compared to previous studies - having made several medical decisions in the past 6 months. The attitudes of the general public appear to be consistent with the model of shared decision making. However, people vary considerably in their desire for autonomy. An explicit assessment of each individual's desire for autonomy may improve the decision-making process. Such an assessment should be repeated regularly, as familiarity with medical decisions may increase the desire for autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  13. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melani Carla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare. Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1 codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence on regional databases; 2 demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall. Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60 in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45 in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts. Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.

  14. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin M T; Bena, Antonella; de Giacomi, Giovanna; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Melani, Carla; Biocca, Marco; Buiatti, Eva; Campo, Giuseppe; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S

    2008-10-28

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3-6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1) codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence) on regional databases; 2) demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the chiscore test) age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for married/unmarried men and women. Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall). Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57-1.60) in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40-1.45) in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2-3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts). This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.

  15. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p HDL cholesterol(p body mass index(p HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p adiposity.

  16. Longitudinal Relationships Between Positive Affect, Loneliness, and Suicide Ideation: Age-Specific Factors in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennardi, Marco; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Lara, Elvira; Arensman, Ella; Cabello, Maria

    2017-12-06

    The aims of this study were to analyze whether positive and negative affect, social support, and loneliness are factors longitudinally related to suicide ideation in the general population in different age groups. A total of 2,392 individuals from a nationally representative sample of the Spanish general population were evaluated in 2011-2012 and in 2014-2015. After including relevant control variables in the analyses, lower positive affect was prospectively related to ideation in 18- to 59-year-old individuals, whereas feelings of loneliness were related to ideation in 60-year-and-older individuals. Social support was not associated with suicide ideation in any age group. These results are in line with the need for age-tailored suicide prevention programs. The present findings might also suggest that health care professionals should consider feelings of loneliness rather than social support to assess the presence of suicide ideation in older people. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work....... Atopic dermatitis was the single most important risk factor for hand eczema. Hand eczema resulted in medical consultations in 70%, sick leave (> 7 days) in about 20%, and job change in about 10%. Mean sick time was longer among those with allergic hand eczema than those with atopic and irritant hand...

  18. Serum chemerin levels are inversely associated with renal function in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zylla, Stephanie; Rettig, Rainer; Völzke, Henry

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemerin has been found to be highly expressed in the kidneys of rodents and has been suggested to affect metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related phenotypes which are in turn related to kidney damage. Only few clinical studies have addressed the relation between circulating chemerin and renal...... function in humans, and no population-based analyses have yet been performed. The potential influence of MetS-related phenotypes on the assumed association has been largely neglected. We aimed to investigate the association of serum chemerin with renal function in a general population with special regard......GFR and revealed that each increase in chemerin per 25 ng/mL was associated with an about threefold higher odds of chronic kidney disease [odds ratio 2.72 (95% confidence interval 2.26-3.29)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a strong inverse association between serum chemerin levels and renal function...

  19. Genetic monitoring of irradiated Drosophila populations treated with antimutagen melanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.; Savchenko, V.K.; Lyakh, I.P.

    1986-01-01

    It was shown that viability of irradiated Drosophila is, on an average, lower than in intact populations. The fertility first decreases then increases exceeding the control level. Melanine added to the diet increases fertility and viability of both exposed and intact Drosophila populations

  20. Radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population exceeding the background as a result of mining and processing of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonchev, L.; Vasilev, G.

    1999-01-01

    The nearly 50-year-long history of researches, mining and processing and closure of uranium industry of researches, mining and processing and the closure of uranium industry sites in the country as well necessitate reassessment of the radiation exposure of the human population in the regions nearby such projects. Proceeding from the available data from expert examination reports the radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population in excess of the background as a result of mining and processing of uranium ores is analysed. The study covers about 135000 persons. The mean value of exposure above the background, attributable to the technologically increased background amounts to 3.04 mSv/a at effective background dose about 2.3 mSv/a. The collective effective dose is 410 mSv/a and represents about 5 per cent of the overall radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population

  1. Assessing uncertainty and risk in exploited marine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogarty, M.J.; Mayo, R.K.; O'Brien, L.; Serchuk, F.M.; Rosenberg, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment and management of exploited fish and invertebrate populations is subject to several types of uncertainty. This uncertainty translates into risk to the population in the development and implementation of fishery management advice. Here, we define risk as the probability that exploitation rates will exceed a threshold level where long term sustainability of the stock is threatened. We distinguish among several sources of error or uncertainty due to (a) stochasticity in demographic rates and processes, particularly in survival rates during the early fife stages; (b) measurement error resulting from sampling variation in the determination of population parameters or in model estimation; and (c) the lack of complete information on population and ecosystem dynamics. The first represents a form of aleatory uncertainty while the latter two factors represent forms of epistemic uncertainty. To illustrate these points, we evaluate the recent status of the Georges Bank cod stock in a risk assessment framework. Short term stochastic projections are made accounting for uncertainty in population size and for random variability in the number of young surviving to enter the fishery. We show that recent declines in this cod stock can be attributed to exploitation rates that have substantially exceeded sustainable levels

  2. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in 3603 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the general population of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Kahesa, Crispin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation for a po......The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation...

  3. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals' quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2(nd) round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) or Community

  4. Comparison of general health status, myocardial infarction, obesity, diabetes, and fruit and vegetable intake between immigrant Pakistani population in the Netherlands and the local Amsterdam population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Qaisar; Nicolaou, Mary; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Seidell, Jacob C

    2017-12-01

    South Asians living in Western countries have shown higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and related non-communicable diseases as compared to the local populations. The aim of this study was to compare the general health status and prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, high blood pressure, overweight, obesity, and fruit and vegetable intake between Pakistani immigrants in the Netherlands and local Amsterdam population. A health survey was conducted in 2012-2013 among Pakistanis in the Netherlands. Results were compared with a health survey conducted among inhabitants of Amsterdam in 2012. One hundred and fifty-four Pakistanis from four big cities of the Netherlands and 7218 inhabitants of Amsterdam participated. The data for Amsterdam population were weighed on the basis of age, gender, city district, marital status, ethnicity and income level while the data for Pakistanis were weighed on the basis of age and gender to make both data-sets representative of their general population. Pakistanis reported a high prevalence of MI (3.3%), diabetes (11.4%), high blood pressure (14.4%), overweight (35.5%) and obesity (18.5%) while Amsterdam population reported the prevalence as 2.5% for MI, 6.8% for diabetes, 15.3% for high blood pressure, 28.1% for overweight and 11.1% for obesity. Pakistanis had a significantly higher level of MI (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.19-6.14), diabetes (OR = 4.41; 95% CI: 2.66-7.33) and obesity (OR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12) after controlling for age, sex and educational level with Amsterdam population as the reference group. Pakistanis showed a higher intake of fruit and fruit juice as compared to Amsterdam population though the latter showed a higher intake of cooked vegetables. Higher prevalence of MI, diabetes and obesity among Pakistanis than Amsterdam population indicates the need for health scientists and policy-makers to develop interventions for tackling non-communicable diseases and its determinants among

  5. Genetic variation in the ABCA1 gene, HDL cholesterol, and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate a strong inverse association between low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). This review focuses on whether both rare and common genetic variation in ABCA1 contributes to plasma...... levels of HDL cholesterol and to risk of IHD in the general population, and further seeks to understand whether low levels of HDL cholesterol per se are causally related to IHD. Studies of the ABCA1 gene demonstrate a general strategy for detecting functional genetic variants, and show that both common...... and rare ABCA1 variants contribute to levels of HDL cholesterol and risk of IHD in the general population. The association between ABCA1 variants and risk of IHD appears, however, to be independent of plasma levels of HDL cholesterol. With the recent identification of the largest number of individuals...

  6. NOD2/CARD15 genotype, cardiovascular disease and cancer in 43 600 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    from two large Danish general population cohorts followed for 31 years: the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10 597) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (n = 32 999). We examined the risk of cardiovascular disease (2743 and 3890, respectively, in the two studies) and cancer (2144 and 3241......, respectively) by NOD2/CARD15 genotype using Cox and logistic regressions in both studies. To maximize statistical power, the three NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants were analysed together as follows: noncarriers for all three variants, heterozygotes for one of the three variants and homozygotes for one of the three...... variants pooled with compound heterozygotes for two variants. Results. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease and cancer in NOD2/CARD15 heterozygotes or homozygotes/compound heterozygotes versus noncarries did not differ from 1.0 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study...

  7. Protective containment behaviour under exceeded design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, I.; Stepan, J.; Maly, J.; Schererova, K.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution describes the calculation results of the behaviour of containment structure if loaded in excess of its design load. The Temelin NPP comprises two WWER 1000 blocks and containment consists of a pre-stressed reinforced concrete structure with a system of unbonded cables. The objective of the calculations was to determine the level of load caused by the internal pressure and temperature at which the containment protective function would fail. In the first step, the maximum overpressure was determined, which may be transferred by the containment structure. In further steps analyses were made of various combinations of simultaneous pressure and temperature loads. The contribution presents relevant calculation results, including the evaluation of containment structure behaviour including liner under loads that exceed its design parameters. (author)

  8. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. General seroprevalence of hepatitis and hepatitis B virus infections in population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokar, N.; Gill, M.L.; Malik, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by detection of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) in general population of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Sera of healthy adult individuals who presented for medical evaluation as a pre-employment criteria in the Gulf region were examined for presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV antibody. Alanine aminotransferase levels were also determined. Results: A total of 47,538 individuals were examined. Out of these, 2528 (5.31%) were positive for anti-HCV and 1221 (2.56%) individuals had positive HBsAg. Hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV both were found in 92 (0.19%) individuals. Mean age of subjects, positive for HCV antibody was 44 years and 40.5 years for HBV. Ninety-four percent individuals were males and 6% were females. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was normal in 56% of subjects with positive HCV and 84% of individuals with HBV. Conclusion: This study which evaluated predominantly a healthy male population, showed a high seroprevalence of anti-HCV and average seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. A large majority of these patients was young and had normal ALT. (author)

  10. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Maree Jones

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A genome-wide association study using 2,462,046 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 x 10-8. However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 x 10-5 add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD aetiology, PRKCB1 and CBLN1.The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 x 10-6, is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 x 10-6 is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1 gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  11. Health-related quality of life of prostate cancer patients compared to the general German population: age-specific results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Hinz, Andreas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Rabenalt, Robert; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the age-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of prostate cancer patients (PCPs). 387 PCPs were asked to self-assess their HRQOL with the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Patients' data were compared with those of the general German population. The reported global health/QOL scores of the study group and the general German population are nearly equal. However, most of the subdomains of HRQOL are negatively affected in PCPs, especially in younger patients (

  12. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  13. Social anxiety in the general population: introducing abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by the experience of stress, discomfort and fear in social situations, and is associated with substantial personal and societal burden. Two questionnaires exist that assess the aspects of social anxiety, i.e. social interaction anxiety (SIAS) and social phobia (SPS). There is no agreement in literature on the dimensionality of social anxiety. Further, the length of a questionnaire may negatively affect response rates and participation at follow-up occasions. To explore the structure of social anxiety in the general population, and to examine psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. Our second aim was to construct abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS that can be easily used and with minimal burden. A total of 1598 adults from the general Dutch population completed a survey asking information on social anxiety, mood and demographics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as reliability analysis with item-total statistics were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for social phobia, and a 2-factor structure for the SIAS, with the second factor containing both reversely scored items. The abbreviated versions of SPS (11 items) and SIAS (10 items) show excellent discriminant and construct validity (Cronbach's α=.90 and .92), while specificity analysis showed that gender, marital status and educational level (SIAS(10): pSIAS, reducing the questionnaire burden for participants in epidemiological and biobehavioral research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 16 CFR 1611.3 - Flammability-general requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM The Standard § 1611.3 Flammability—general requirement. The rate of burning shall not exceed 1.2 in./sec as judged by the average of five determinations...

  15. ATRF Earns Three Green Globes, Exceeds NIH Building Standards | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer From project management and energy and water efficiency to emissions and the indoor environment, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) was built with sustainability in mind, exceeding the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) building standards and earning three Green Globes from the Green Building Initiative (GBI).

  16. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill PhD, MPH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity ( p < .0001, 130.8 more minutes per week of aerobic activity ( p < .0001, and 42.7 more minutes of anaerobic activity per week ( p < .0001. Among those previously told they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or depression, 74.2%, 72.2%, 70.4%, and 60.6%, respectively, said that it motivated them to increase their physical activity. Percentages were similar between SGPs and the general population. SGPs were more likely motivated to be physically active to improve physical and mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  17. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in New Zealand: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Ashton, Janelle; Herbison, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The cardiovascular safety of sibutramine is currently under review by medicines regulatory authorities worldwide after the SCOUT (Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome Trial) showed an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients taking sibutramine. Further data regarding the cardiovascular safety of sibutramine in a general population are now required. To quantify the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in postmarketing use. Observational prospective cohort study of patients dispensed sibutramine during a 3-year period (2001-4) and followed up for at least 1 year after their last prescription. The study included record-linkage to national mortality datasets to identify fatal events. Postmarketing 'real-life' use of sibutramine in a general population in New Zealand. All New Zealand patients dispensed a prescription for sibutramine in a 3-year period (for whom a National Health Identification number could be validated). 15 686 patients were included in the record linkage study for fatal events. A subgroup of 9471 patients was followed up by intensive methods for non-fatal events. (i) Rate of death from all causes and from cardiovascular events; and (ii) rates of non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events. Total exposure to sibutramine for 15 686 patients in the validated cohort was 5431 treatment-years. The rate of death from all causes in this cohort was 0.13 (95% CI 0.05, 0.27) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The rate of death from a cardiovascular event was 0.07 (95% CI 0.02, 0.19) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The most frequent non-fatal cardiovascular events in the intensively followed up cohort were hypertension, palpitations, hypotensive events and tachycardia. Risk of death from a cardiovascular event in this general population of patients prescribed sibutramine was lower than has been reported in other overweight/obese populations. The results of this study suggest that further

  18. Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina; Bech, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second...

  19. Use of general practice, diagnostic investigations and hospital services before and after cancer diagnosis - a population-based nationwide registry study of 127,000 incident adult cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Karina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of patterns in cancer patients’ health care utilisation around the time of diagnosis may guide health care resource allocation and provide important insights into this groups’ demand for health care services. The health care need of patients with comorbid conditions far exceeds the oncology capacity and it is therefore important to elucidate the role of both primary and secondary care. The aim of this paper is to describe the use of health care services amongst incident cancer patients in Denmark one year before and one year after cancer diagnosis. Methods The present study is a national population-based case–control (1:10 registry study. All incident cancer patients (n = 127,210 diagnosed between 2001 and 2006 aged 40 years or older were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. Data from national health registries were provided for all cancer patients and for 1,272,100 controls. Monthly consultation frequencies, monthly proportions of persons receiving health services and three-month incidence rate ratios for one year before and one year after the cancer diagnosis were calculated. Data were analysed separately for women and men. Results Three months before their diagnosis, cancer patients had twice as many general practitioner (GP consultations, ten to eleven times more diagnostic investigations and five times more hospital contacts than the reference population. The demand for GP services peaked one month before diagnosis, the demand for diagnostic investigations one month after diagnosis and the number of hospital contacts three months after diagnosis. The proportion of cancer patients receiving each of these three types of health services remained more than 10% above that of the reference population from two months before diagnosis until the end of the study period. Conclusions Cancer patients’ health service utilisation rose dramatically three months before their diagnosis. This increase applied to

  20. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart......% confidence interval, 11%-30%) for ischemic stroke, 16% (8%-24%) for ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 3% (-5%-11%) for myocardial infarction, and 7% (1%-12%) for ischemic heart disease. Interpretation: In the general population, elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic...... stroke and ischemic cerebrovascular disease, independent of plasma CRP levels. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:672-680...

  1. Health care utilization in persons with spinal cord injury: part 2-determinants, geographic variation and comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, E; Scheel-Sailer, A; Koch, H G; Gemperli, A

    2017-09-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To investigate annual rates and geographic variation of health care utilization in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), and to identify factors associated with health care utilization. Community setting, entire country of Switzerland. Annual rates of planned and emergency visits to the general practitioner (GP), planned and emergency outpatient clinic visits and in-patient hospitalizations were compared between individuals with chronic SCI, over 16 years of age residing in Switzerland between late 2011 and early 2013 and a population sample (2012) of the Swiss general population. Risk factors for increased health service utilization were identified by means of regression models adjusted for spatial variation. Of 492 participants (86.2% response rate), 94.1% visited a health care provider in the preceding year, with most persons visiting GPs (88.4%) followed by outpatient clinics (53.1%) and in-patient hospitals (35.9%). The increase in utilization as compared with the general population was 1.3-, 4.0- and 2.9-fold for GP, outpatient clinic and in-patient hospital visit, respectively. GP utilization was highest in persons with low income (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.85) and old age (IRR 2.62). In the first 2 years post injury, health service visits were 1.7 (GP visits) to 5.8 times (emergency outpatient clinic visits) more likely compared with those later post injury. People with SCI more frequently use health services as compared with the general population, across all types of medical service institutions. GP services were used most often in areas where availability of specialized outpatient clinic services was low.

  2. A clinimetric analysis of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) in general population studies (Denmark, Norway, and Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Vassend, Olav; Bjørndal, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    the factor structure. The scalability of the traditional SCL-90-R subscales (somatization, hostility, and interpersonal sensitivity) as well as the affective subscales (depression and anxiety and ADHD) were tested by Mokken’s item response theory model. Results: Across the three general population studies...... the traditional scaled SCL-90-R factor including 83 items was identified by PCA. The Mokken analysis accepted the scalability of both the general factor and the clinical SCL-90-R subscales under examination. Conclusion: The traditional, scaled, general 83 item SCL-90-R scale is a valid measure of general...

  3. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sande, Marianne; Teunis, Peter; Sabel, Rob

    2008-07-09

    Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head) was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers). Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  4. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  5. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  6. Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the Turkish general population: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Turkish general population using the Turkish version of the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire. A total of 8143 volunteers (mean age: 38.5 (13.3) years; 52.3% males) were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face administration of the questionnaire forms including items on sociodemographic features, past history of gastric disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, the influence of reflux symptoms on patients' lives, physician visits, diagnostic tests, and reflux medications. A past history of gastric symptoms was reported in half of the population. More female participants (p<0.001) had a past history of gastric symptoms that yielded a previous diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in 19.1% of the population. The likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux disease was low in the majority (75.3%) of the subjects evaluated. Gastroesophageal reflux disease with an inconveniencing or disrupting impact on the patient's life was present in 17.9% and 6.8% of the population. Total gastroesophageal reflux disease-questionnaire scores and reflux prevalence were higher in older age groups (p<0.001). Females were more likely to have gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence based on reflux symptoms. The impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on sleep and psychological/emotional well-being was more pronounced in older and female patients, whereas the impact on eating/drinking behaviors and physical-social activities was more marked among females independent of their age (p<0.001). Reflux prevalence was higher in subjects from East Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions of Turkey (p<0.001 for each). Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease are compatible with the profile of the disease in the other Western populations, with a predilection for females and

  7. The prevalence and clinical significance of maxillary sinus mucous retention cysts in a general clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, N L

    1990-02-01

    Previous studies have documented the occurrence and potential clinical significance of MSMR cysts. Studies also have alluded to a relationship between the MSMR cyst and certain signs or symptoms of disease. We determined the prevalence of MSMR cysts in a general clinic population and identified some important correlations with clinical signs and symptoms.

  8. Observational and genetic plasma YKL-40 and cancer in 96,099 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Johansen, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    . For this purpose, we performed cohort and Mendelian randomization studies in 96,099 individuals from the Danish general population. Plasma levels of YKL-40 were measured in 21,643 and CHI3L1 rs4950928 was genotyped in 94,568 individuals. From 1943 through 2011, 2,291 individuals developed gastrointestinal cancer...

  9. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qihua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1 years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229. The total DES symptom scores (TDSS in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P  Conclusions The symptoms of dry eye are associated with an adverse impact on vision-related QoL in non-clinic-based general population, which is mainly represented as more ocular pain and discomfort, and impaired mental health as well. Apart from clinical examination, it is also important to refer to subjective symptoms and QoL scores when assessing the severity of DES.

  10. Incidence of new-onset wheeze: a prospective study in a large middle-aged general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Mathias; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Eva

    2015-12-16

    Wheeze is a very common respiratory symptom, which is associated with several factors and diseases. Studies on incidence of new-onset wheeze in general adult populations are rare. The present prospective study aimed to investigate the incidence rate of new-onset wheeze, and predictors for wheeze, in a general, middle-aged population. Individuals, born 1943-1973, who had participated in a previous Swedish study in 1993 (n = 15,813), were mailed a new respiratory questionnaire in 2003. The questionnaire, which included items about respiratory symptoms, atopy, and smoking was answered by 11,463 (72%). Incidence rates of new-onset wheeze were calculated. Cox regression analyses were performed with incident wheeze as an event and person-years under observation as dependent variable. Among those free of wheeze at baseline (n = 8885), there were 378 new cases of wheeze during the study period (1993-2003). The incidence rate was 4.3/1000 person-years. The adjusted risk was increased in relation to smoking (HR 2.1;95% CI 1.7-2.7), ex-smoking (HR 1.4;95% CI 1.1-1.9), young age (HR 1.7;95% CI 1.3-2.2), chronic bronchitis (HR 2.3;95% CI 0.96-5.7), and rhinitis (HR 1.8;95% CI 1.4-2.2) at baseline, and body mass index ≥30 (HR 1.9;95% CI 1.5-2.6) at follow-up. This is a unique study that presents an incidence rate for new-onset wheeze in a middle-aged, general population sample previously free of adult wheeze. The results indicate that new-onset wheeze is quite common in this age group. Health care staff should bear this in mind since new-onset wheeze could be one of the earliest symptoms of severe respiratory disease. Special attention should be paid to patients with a smoking history, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis or obesity.

  11. A prediction algorithm for first onset of major depression in the general population: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JianLi; Sareen, Jitender; Patten, Scott; Bolton, James; Schmitz, Norbert; Birney, Arden

    2014-05-01

    Prediction algorithms are useful for making clinical decisions and for population health planning. However, such prediction algorithms for first onset of major depression do not exist. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a prediction algorithm for first onset of major depression in the general population. Longitudinal study design with approximate 3-year follow-up. The study was based on data from a nationally representative sample of the US general population. A total of 28 059 individuals who participated in Waves 1 and 2 of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and who had not had major depression at Wave 1 were included. The prediction algorithm was developed using logistic regression modelling in 21 813 participants from three census regions. The algorithm was validated in participants from the 4th census region (n=6246). Major depression occurred since Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders IV. A prediction algorithm containing 17 unique risk factors was developed. The algorithm had good discriminative power (C statistics=0.7538, 95% CI 0.7378 to 0.7699) and excellent calibration (F-adjusted test=1.00, p=0.448) with the weighted data. In the validation sample, the algorithm had a C statistic of 0.7259 and excellent calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ(2)=3.41, p=0.906). The developed prediction algorithm has good discrimination and calibration capacity. It can be used by clinicians, mental health policy-makers and service planners and the general public to predict future risk of having major depression. The application of the algorithm may lead to increased personalisation of treatment, better clinical decisions and more optimal mental health service planning.

  12. Model of external exposure of population living in the areas subjected to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, we formulated the general approach to assessment of external doses to population living in contaminated areas (the model equation and the set of parameters). The model parameters were assessed on the basis of results of monitoring in the environment, phantom experiments, and social and demographic information obtained on the contaminated areas. Verification of model assessments performed by comparison with measurement results of individual external doses in inhabitants within the thermoluminescent dosimetry method have shown that differences in dose assessments within both methods does not exceed 1.5 times at a confidence level of 95%. In the paper, we present the results illustrating specific features of external dose formation in population living in the areas of Russia subjected to radioactive contamination due to nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, radioactive releases from the Mayak enterprise, and the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  13. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oelmann

    Full Text Available Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population.Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated.We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08, p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07, p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08, p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06, p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48, p = 0.03 and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47, p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months.This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  14. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Bangladeshi General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17

  15. ASSESSMENT OF RELATION BETWEEN MICROALBUMINURIA AND ISCHEMIC ELECTROCARDIOGRAM IN IRANIAN GENERAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khosravi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Enhancement of albumin exertion in urine increases the risk of renal and ischemic heart diseases (IHD. We assessed the association of urine albumin and sub-clinical IHD in a random sample of Iranian general population.    METHODS: The random sample in general population in Isfahan County was recruited to the cross-sectional study. From the all sample blood pressure and lipid profile were assessed and morning urine spot was measured for albumin and Creatinine. Microalbuminuria was defined either Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (ACR was 30-300mg. Also, the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG was carried out for all participants. The ECG pattern was divided to two categories; normal or ECG with ischemia. The logistic regression model was determined the odds of albuminuria for ischemic changes in ECG.    RESULTS: 999 subjects, age 35-70 years, participated to study. From all, 40.8% were male. Microalbuminuria was detected in 8% and sub-clinical ECG ischemic changes were found in 23.4%. The most frequent ischemic change was T wave inversion. The mean urine albumin levels in subjects with normal ECG was 9.6±14.6 mg/ml and in ischemic group was 8.5±12.2 mg/ml and they did not have statistically different. The odds ratios of neither Albumin-Creatinine ratio nor microalbuminuria were in significant range for risk to ischemic changes in ECG of apparently healthy participants. They was consecutively OR=0.9 (0.51-1.6, OR=0.99 (0.98-1.004.     CONCLUSION: Our finding didn’t declare any association between ACR and IHD. Because of showing this association in the other study; it needs more exploration regarding to association between microalbuminuria and cardiovascular diseases incidence.      Keywords: Ischemic heart diseases, electrocardiogram, Albumin-Creatinine Ratio, Urine Albumin

  16. The unclosing premature mortality gap in gout: a general population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark C; Rai, Sharan K; Lu, Na; Zhang, Yuqing; Choi, Hyon K

    2017-07-01

    Gout, the most common inflammatory arthritis, is associated with premature mortality. Whether this mortality gap has improved over time, as observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is unknown. Using an electronic medical record database representative of the UK general population, we identified incident gout cases and controls between 1999 and 2014. The gout cohort was divided based on year of diagnosis into early (1999-2006) and late (2007-2014) cohorts. We compared the mortality rates and HRs, adjusting for potential confounders between the cohorts. We conducted sensitivity analyses among patients with gout who received at least one prescription for urate-lowering therapy, which has been found to have a validity of 90%. In both cohorts, patients with gout showed similar levels of excess mortality compared with their corresponding comparison cohort (ie, 29.1 vs 23.5 deaths/1000 person-years and 23.0 vs 18.8 deaths/1000 person-years in the early and late cohorts, respectively). The corresponding mortality HRs were 1.25 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.30) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.29), and the multivariable HRs were 1.10 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.15) and 1.09 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.13), respectively (both p values for interaction >0.72). Our sensitivity analyses showed similar findings (both p values for interaction >0.88). This general population-based cohort study indicates that the level of premature mortality among patients with gout remains unimproved over the past 16 years, unlike RA during the same period. This unclosing premature mortality gap calls for improved management of gout and its comorbidities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Cooper, Katy; Viksveen, Petter; Fibert, Philippa; Thomas, Kate

    2017-05-01

    To systematically review surveys of 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide. Studies were identified via database searches to October 2015. Study quality was assessed using a six-item tool. All estimates were in the context of a survey which also reported prevalence of any complementary and alternative medicine use. A total of 36 surveys were included. Of these, 67% met four of six quality criteria. Twelve-month prevalence of treatment by a homeopath was reported in 24 surveys of adults (median 1.5%, range 0.2-8.2%). Estimates for children were similar to those for adults. Rates in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada all ranged from 0.2% to 2.9% and remained stable over the years surveyed (1986-2012). Twelve-month prevalence of all use of homeopathy (purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines and treatment by a homeopath) was reported in 10 surveys of adults (median 3.9%, range 0.7-9.8%) while a further 11 surveys which did not define the type of homeopathy use reported similar data. Rates in the USA and Australia ranged from 1.7% to 4.4% and remained stable over the years surveyed. The highest use was reported by a survey in Switzerland where homeopathy is covered by mandatory health insurance. This review summarises 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use from surveys conducted in eleven countries (USA, UK, Australia, Israel, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, South Korea, Japan and Singapore). Each year a small but significant percentage of these general populations use homeopathy. This includes visits to homeopaths as well as purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthorexia nervosa in the general population: a preliminary screening using a self-administered questionnaire (ORTO-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacciotti, C E; Perrone, P; Coli, E; Burgalassi, A; Conversano, C; Massimetti, G; Dell'Osso, L

    2011-06-01

    Orthorexia, from the Greek words orthos (straight, proper) and orexis (appetite), is a newly conceptualized disorder characterized by distorted eating habits and cognitions concerning supposedly healthy nutrition. In this article we present preliminary results of a wider research aimed to investigate the diffusion of Orthorexia in the general population and to highlight its characteristics and particularly the relationship with Eating Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. One-hundred and seventy seven adult subjects from the general population, were administered the ORTO-15 test, a selfadministered questionnaire specifically designed to assess orthorexic symptomatology; note that statistical analyses were repeated twice, referring to different diagnostic thresholds (40/35). Orthorexia had a 57.6% prevalence in our sample, using the 40-point threshold, with a female/male ratio 2:1; the figure was sensibly lower with the 35-point threshold (21%). The results of this study highlight the diffusion of Orthorexia which may constitute an important risk factor for mental and physical health, but also the opportunity of more specific diagnostic instruments, so to facilitate a thorough understanding of this disorder.

  19. A Study on OBE Exceedance Criteria Using the CAV Concept for NPPs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se Moon; Cho, Sung Il; Yun, Kwan Hee

    2009-01-01

    NPPs in Korea have so far complied with the US Regulatory Guide 1.12 Rev.1 (1974) for the seismic monitoring systems. However, researchers in Korea have been considering attempting to comply with Regulatory Guide 1.12 rev.2 (1997) when implementing all future seismic monitoring systems. To comply with the new regulations, Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) Exceedance Criteria applied with the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV) has to be developed for local use. The CAV was developed in the USA as one reasonable OBE exceedance criterion for NPPs; however, it has not been widely used outside the USA, not-withstanding its solid technical basis. It is, however, expected that the worldwide NPP construction boom will necessitate development and more frequent use of reasonable OBE exceedance criteria. As multi-units (four or more) are situated in one site in Korea, prevention of simultaneous shutdown of multi-unit caused by non damaging earthquakes is very important; otherwise, a serious economic loss could occur, and there could also be a great impact on the stability of the power grid that would arise due to the unnecessary shutdown. Actually, we have had the experience of observing a Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)-value greater than 0.1g (the current OBE level for Korean NPPs) due to an M=4.8 earthquake (20 th Jan. '07) that did not even cause any damage to the poorly-designed structures nearby. This experience gave a motivation to the KHNP should concern the needs of study on OBE exceedance criteria in view of application of the CAV to Korean seismic situation, which will be more practical. The present paper is intended to show the intermediate result of the research on Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) exceedance criteria in Korea

  20. Obesity and central fat pattern among Greenland Inuit and a general population of Denmark (Inter99)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M E; Glümer, C; Bjerregaard, P

    2003-01-01

    pressure, triglyceride, and higher levels of HDL cholesterol than the Danish participants at any given level of obesity. Fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels within obesity categories were not different in the two populations. Adjustment for physical activity, smoking, school education, and alcohol......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the obesity observed among the Inuit of Greenland and in a general Danish population was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances. DESIGN: Comparison of data from two population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999-2001. SUBJECTS...... received a standard 75 g OGTT. s-Triglyceride, s-HDL cholesterol, fasting and 2 h p-glucose and s-insulin were analysed. Blood pressure was measured. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by a questionnaire and interview. RESULTS: The Inuit had lower levels of 2-h glucose and insulin, blood...

  1. 41 CFR 102-85.105 - How does an agency pay for customer alterations that exceed the TI allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for customer alterations that exceed the TI allowance? 102-85.105 Section 102-85.105 Public Contracts....105 How does an agency pay for customer alterations that exceed the TI allowance? Amounts exceeding the TI allowance are paid in a one-time lump sum and are not amortized over the term of the occupancy...

  2. Heavy cannabis users at elevated risk of stroke: evidence from a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Dilini; McKetin, Rebecca; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    Case reports and hospital-based case-control studies suggest that cannabis use may increase the risk of stroke. We examined the risk of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) among cannabis users in the general community. A general population survey of Australians aged 20-24 years (n=2,383), 40-44 years (n=2,525) and 60-64 years (n=2,547) was used to determine the odds of lifetime stroke or TIA among participants who had smoked cannabis in the past year while adjusting for other stroke risk factors. There were 153 stroke/TIA cases (2.1%). After adjusting for age cohort, past year cannabis users (n=1,043) had 3.3 times the rate of stroke/TIA (95% CI 1.8-6.3, pcannabis weekly or more often (IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.1-10.7) with no elevation among participants who used cannabis less often. Heavy cannabis users in the general community have a higher rate of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack than non-cannabis users. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. The associations of morningness-eveningness with anger and impulsivity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Seung-Gul; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among morningness-eveningness, impulsivity and anger in the general population. A total of 1000 community-dwelling subjects (500 males) aged 20-77 years (mean± SD age: 39.6 ± 11.6 years) completed the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS), Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderation and mediation analyses were performed to determine whether the relationship between two variables depended on the third variable, referred to as a moderator, and whether the third variable, known as a mediator, was associated with the other two variables establishing causation. The MEQ scores exhibited significant negative associations with BIS (p moderator (p moderator (p = 0.030) in the association between MEQ and BIS. However, after controlling for the interaction of the BIS and MEQ, the MEQ scores did not significantly predict STAXI scores (p = 0.070). Additionally, the effect size of the mediating effect of the BIS scores on the relationship between the MEQ and STAXI (percent mediation: 53.2%) was larger than that of the STAXI scores on the association between the MEQ and BIS (percent mediation: 31.8%). The present results demonstrate that morningness-eveningness was closely related with both impulsivity and anger in the general population. Furthermore, these findings suggest that impulsivity may exercise a great influence on the association between morningness-eveningness and anger in two ways: as a moderator by modulating this relationship based on the level of impulsivity and as a mediator by acting as an intermediary factor.

  4. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  6. Cumulative trauma, hyperarousal, and suicidality in the general population: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Godbout, Natacha; Dias, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) both have been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, the underlying basis for this relationship is not clear. In a sample of 357 trauma-exposed individuals from the general population, younger participant age, cumulative trauma exposure, and all three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PTSD clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) were correlated with clinical levels of suicidality. However, logistic regression analysis indicated that when all PTSD clusters were considered simultaneously, only hyperarousal continued to be predictive. A path analysis confirmed that posttraumatic hyperarousal (but not other components of PTSD) fully mediated the relationship between extent of trauma exposure and degree of suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

  7. The prevalence and morbidity of sensitization to fragrance mix I in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population. Furt...... supported a recent decrease in the prevalence of FM I and MP sensitization in Denmark. The study also showed that fragrance sensitization was associated with self-reported cosmetic dermatitis and use of health care related to cosmetic dermatitis....

  8. How Providing Mentoring Relates to Career Success and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the General Managerial Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Polychroniou, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings: Mentoring…

  9. Self-Reported Use and Reasons among the General Population for Using Sports Nutrition Products and Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplements (DS’s and sport nutrition product (SNPs among the general population, to identify differences for gender, age, and exercise frequency, and to determine the main reasons for use. The study was designed as a web-based questionnaire in a representative sample (n = 1544 of the Dutch population. Sixty-two percent (n = 957 of the respondents reported having used DS’s, SNPs, or both in the last twelve months. Women and older people reported the highest DS use. The highest use of SNPs was reported by regular exercising men and younger people with improving sporting performance as their main objective. Most frequently reported DS’s were multivitamins (28% and vitamin C (19%—for SNPs, energy drinks (22% and isotonic drinks (19%. Health considerations were the most important motivation (DS’s 90% and SNPs 52%, but also performance was substantially reported (DS’s 14% and SNPs 35%. A substantial group of sedentary respondents also reported the use of SNPs. This study confirms that DS’s, SNPs, or both are widely used among the general population. Both health as performance are important reasons for use. It can be questioned whether the use of SNPs fits all respondents’ physical activity needs.

  10. An experimental study on developing seismic damage indicator appearing OBE exceedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D. S.; Kwon, K. J.; Lee, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Immediate measurement should be taken depending on the level of seismic damage to nuclear power plants when an earthquake exceeds Operating Base Earthquake by NRC regulatory guide. An earthquake at nuclear plant site is felt with seismic instrument and analyzed by seismic monitoring systems. However, if operators of insufficient knowledge to earthquake can recognize the intensity of the earthquake with a subsidiary indicating model, more immediate response can be conducted. This subsidiary indicating model is called seismic damage indicator. In this regard, an experimental study using shaking table was conducted to develop the seismic damage indicator by CAV and OBE compatible with NRC standard response spectrum. In this test result, stacked acrylic cylinders were manufactured to behave consistently for each direction of seismic load. If the developed SDI is installed in nuclear power plants, it is seemed to be useful in easily determining OBE exceedance easily, and counteracting by plant operator along with the existing seismic monitoring systems

  11. Validation of the EQ-5D in a general population sample in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Patrick, Donald L; Edwards, Todd C; Skalicky, Anne M; Zeng, Hai-Yan; Gu, Wen-Wen

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the EQ-5D in a general population sample in urban China. Thousand and eight hundred respondents in 18 communities of Hangzhou, China were recruited by multi-stage stratified random sampling. Respondents self-administered a questionnaire including the EQ-5D, the SF-36, and demographic questions. Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was evaluated using Kappa coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was used to indicate the absolute measurement error. Construct validity was established using convergent, discriminant, and known groups analyses. Complete data for all EQ-5D dimensions were available for 1,747 respondents (97%). Kappa values were from 0.35 to 1.0. The ICCs of test-retest reliability were 0.53 for the EQ-5D index score and 0.87 for the EQ VAS score. The SEM values were 0.13 (9.22% range) and 4.20 (4.20% range) for the EQ-5D index and EQ VAS scores, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between the EQ-5D and the SF-36 were stronger between comparable dimensions than those between less comparable dimensions, demonstrating convergent and discriminant evidence of construct validity. The Chinese EQ-5D distinguished well between known groups: respondents who reported poor general health and chronic diseases had worse HRQoL than those without. Older people, females, people widowed or divorced, and those with a lower socioeconomic status reported poorer HRQoL. Respondents reporting no problems on any EQ-5D dimension had better scores on the SF-36 summary scores than those reporting problems. The Chinese version of the EQ-5D demonstrated acceptable construct validity and fair to moderate levels of test-retest reliability in an urban general population in China.

  12. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis...... was used to analyse intercorrelations between the items. Results: The items ‘blackouts' (men and women) and ‘guilt and remorse' (women) are the most frequently reported consequences. Gender differences tended to be smaller for ‘guilt and remorse' and ‘concern of others', and largest for ‘morning drinking...

  13. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, T L; Ofenloch, R; Bruze, M; Cazzaniga, S; Coenraads, P J; Elsner, P; Goncalo, M; Svensson, Å; Naldi, L

    2015-12-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to assess the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions to different fragrances. In five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden) a random sample from the general population aged 18-74 years was drawn. In total, 12 377 subjects were interviewed in this cross-sectional study and a random sample (n = 3119) was patch tested using the TRUE Test and Finn Chamber techniques. Patch test procedures were harmonized by mandatory training before the study and monitoring during the study. The highest prevalence for contact allergy of 2·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·1-3·2] was found for fragrance mix (FM) I in petrolatum, with a high content of atranol and chloratranol, followed by 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·4) for FM II in petrolatum. The conservatively estimated prevalence of fragrance contact allergy was 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·5). This is defined as the existence of a positive patch test to FM I or FM II; any of their individual materials; Myroxylon pereirae; sesquiterpene lactones or 3- and 4-hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde that show clinical relevance, defined conservatively as lifetime avoidance of scented products and an itchy skin rash lasting > 3 days in a lifetime. Using the reported lifetime prevalence of any contact dermatitis instead of the lifetime prevalence of any itchy skin rash, the prevalence is 0·8% (95% CI 0·5-1·2). The prevalence rates of contact allergy to fragrances in women are about twice those in men. This study helps to identify targets for prevention of fragrance allergy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Large deviation estimates for exceedance times of perpetuity sequences and their dual processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraczewski, Dariusz; Collamore, Jeffrey F.; Damek, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    In a variety of problems in pure and applied probability, it is of relevant to study the large exceedance probabilities of the perpetuity sequence $Y_n := B_1 + A_1 B_2 + \\cdots + (A_1 \\cdots A_{n-1}) B_n$, where $(A_i,B_i) \\subset (0,\\infty) \\times \\reals$. Estimates for the stationary tail dist......-time exceedance probabilities of $\\{ M_n^\\ast \\}$, yielding a new result concerning the convergence of $\\{ M_n^\\ast \\}$ to its stationary distribution.......In a variety of problems in pure and applied probability, it is of relevant to study the large exceedance probabilities of the perpetuity sequence $Y_n := B_1 + A_1 B_2 + \\cdots + (A_1 \\cdots A_{n-1}) B_n$, where $(A_i,B_i) \\subset (0,\\infty) \\times \\reals$. Estimates for the stationary tail...... distribution of $\\{ Y_n \\}$ have been developed in the seminal papers of Kesten (1973) and Goldie (1991). Specifically, it is well-known that if $M := \\sup_n Y_n$, then ${\\mathbb P} \\left\\{ M > u \\right\\} \\sim {\\cal C}_M u^{-\\xi}$ as $u \\to \\infty$. While much attention has been focused on extending...

  15. 48 CFR 32.402 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate security; (ii) The advance payments will not exceed the unpaid contract price (see 32.410(b... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 32.402 General. (a) A limitation on authority to grant advance payments under Pub. L. 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435) is described at 50.102-3(b)(4...

  16. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Israel: A Comparison between the General Elderly Population and Elderly New Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iecovich, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated differences between the general elderly population and elderly new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries in regard to the incidence of elder abuse and neglect, victims' characteristics, and perpetrators' characteristics. In addition, the study sought to examine predictors of various types of abuse and…

  17. Elevated C-reactive protein and late-onset bipolar disorder in 78 809 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    is causal. METHOD: We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses with a median follow-up time of 5.9 years (interquartile range: 4.4-7.6) in 78 809 individuals from the general population, and used genetic variants influencing CRP levels to perform a Mendelian randomisation study. RESULTS: Elevated...

  18. Acoustic rhinometry in persons recruited from the general population and diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis according to EPOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J

    2014-01-01

    rhinometry (AR) is an objective method to determine nasal cavity geometry. The technique is based on a sound pulse reflection analysis in the nasal cavity and determines cross-sectional areas as a function of distance as well as volume. AR measurements in persons recruited from the general population...

  19. A comprehensive evaluation of potential lung function associated genes in the SpiroMeta general population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'en Obeidat

    Full Text Available Lung function measures are heritable traits that predict population morbidity and mortality and are essential for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Variations in many genes have been reported to affect these traits, but attempts at replication have provided conflicting results. Recently, we undertook a meta-analysis of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS results for lung function measures in 20,288 individuals from the general population (the SpiroMeta consortium.To comprehensively analyse previously reported genetic associations with lung function measures, and to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in these genomic regions are associated with lung function in a large population sample.We analysed association for SNPs tagging 130 genes and 48 intergenic regions (+/-10 kb, after conducting a systematic review of the literature in the PubMed database for genetic association studies reporting lung function associations.The analysis included 16,936 genotyped and imputed SNPs. No loci showed overall significant association for FEV(1 or FEV(1/FVC traits using a carefully defined significance threshold of 1.3×10(-5. The most significant loci associated with FEV(1 include SNPs tagging MACROD2 (P = 6.81×10(-5, CNTN5 (P = 4.37×10(-4, and TRPV4 (P = 1.58×10(-3. Among ever-smokers, SERPINA1 showed the most significant association with FEV(1 (P = 8.41×10(-5, followed by PDE4D (P = 1.22×10(-4. The strongest association with FEV(1/FVC ratio was observed with ABCC1 (P = 4.38×10(-4, and ESR1 (P = 5.42×10(-4 among ever-smokers.Polymorphisms spanning previously associated lung function genes did not show strong evidence for association with lung function measures in the SpiroMeta consortium population. Common SERPINA1 polymorphisms may affect FEV(1 among smokers in the general population.

  20. Twitter and Facebook are not Representative of the General Population: Political Attitudes and Demographics of British Social Media users

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Jonathan; Prosser, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    A growing social science literature has used Twitter and Facebook to study political and social phenomena including for election forecasting and tracking political conversations. This research note uses a nationally representative probability sample of the British population to examine how Twitter and Facebook users differ from the general population in terms of demographics, political attitudes and political behaviour. We find that Twitter and Facebook users differ substantially from the gen...

  1. Competition between Plant-Populations with Different Rooting Depths. 2. Pot Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendse, F.

    1981-01-01

    In a previous paper in this series a model was proposed lor the competition between plant populations with different rooting depths. This model predicts that in mixtures of plant populations with different rooting depths the Relative Yield Total will exceed unity. Secondly it predicts that in these

  2. Attitudes toward genetic testing among the general population and relatives of patients with a severe genetic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, M; Hakonen, A; Aro, A R

    1995-01-01

    evaluated attitudes toward gene tests in general and also respondents' preparedness to undergo gene tests for predictive testing, carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and selective abortion, in theoretical situations. The results of the study indicate that both the Finnish population in general and family...... members of AGU patients have a favorable attitude toward genetic testing. However, a commonly expressed reason against testing was that test results might lead to discrimination in employment or insurance policies. Based on the responses, we predict that future genetic testing programs will most probably...

  3. Use and Acceptance of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among the General Population and Medical Personnel: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frass, Michael; Strassl, Robert Paul; Friehs, Helmut; Müllner, Michael; Kundi, Michael; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased during the past decade and the attitude of the general public is mainly positive, but the debate about the clinical effectiveness of these therapies remains controversial among many medical professionals. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the existing literature utilizing different databases, including PubMed/Medline, PSYNDEX, and PsycLit, to research the use and acceptance of CAM among the general population and medical personnel. A special focus on CAM-referring literature was set by limiting the PubMed search to “Complementary Medicine” and adding two other search engines: CAMbase (www.cambase.de) and CAMRESEARCH (www.camresearch.net). These engines were used to reveal publications that at the time of the review were not indexed in PubMed. Results A total of 16 papers met the scope criteria. Prevalence rates of CAM in each of the included studies were between 5% and 74.8%. We found a higher utilization of homeopathy and acupuncture in German-speaking countries. Excluding any form of spiritual prayer, the data demonstrate that chiropractic manipulation, herbal medicine, massage, and homeopathy were the therapies most commonly used by the general population. We identified sex, age, and education as predictors of CAM utilization: More users were women, middle aged, and more educated. The ailments most often associated with CAM utilization included back pain or pathology, depression, insomnia, severe headache or migraine, and stomach or intestinal illnesses. Medical students were the most critical toward CAM. Compared to students of other professions (ie, nursing students: 44.7%, pharmacy students: 18.2%), medical students reported the least consultation with a CAM practitioner (10%). Conclusions The present data demonstrate an increase of CAM usage from 1990 through 2006 in all countries investigated. We found geographical differences, as well as differences between

  4. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection.

  5. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  6. Safety of iobitridol in the general population and at-risk patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); J. W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Honold, Elmar [Guerbet GmbH, Sulzbach (Germany); Wolf, Michael [Michael Wolf Information Systems, Puettlingen (Germany); Mohajeri, H.; Hammerstingl, R. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to review the rate of adverse events after contrast medium administration in the general population and at-risk patients (renal impairment, heart failure (NYHA III or IV), hypotension or hypertension, coronary artery disease, previous reaction to contrast media, asthma and/or allergies, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, poor general condition) under daily practice conditions in a post-marketing surveillance study. Two hundred and ten radiologists conducted various X-ray examinations in 52,057 patients. To document the safety of iobitridol in routine use, all patients undergoing X-ray examinations were included. Exclusion criteria were contraindications listed in the locally approved summary of product characteristics. The adverse event rate was 0.96% (at-risk patients 1.39%); the rate of serious adverse events 0.044% in all patients (at-risk patients 0.057%). Adverse events occurred more often in women than in men (P<0.001). In patients who had previously reacted to a contrast medium, adverse events were reported in 3.43% with mild to moderate symptoms. In 47.76% of these patients, a premedication was administered. There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events and serious adverse events whether premedicated or not (P=0.311 and P=0.295, respectively). Iobitridol was well-tolerated in 99.04% of cases (at-risk patients 98.61%). (orig.)

  7. General health influences episodes of xerostomia: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luciana; Kupek, Emil; Peres, Karen G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associated factors of changes in symptoms of xerostomia (SOX) in adults aged 20-59. A prospective population-based study was conducted in 2009 (n = 1720) and 2012 (n = 1222) in the urban area of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Information on SOX was collected in both years together with age, family income, years of schooling, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, changes in the body mass index (BMI; kg/m²), medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of chronic diseases, change in hypertension status and in the use and need for dentures, and number of remaining teeth. Associated factors with changes in SOX were investigated using multinomial logistic regression, considering those who had never reported this symptom as the reference. Prevalence of regular SOX was equal to 3.8% (95% CI: 2.9-5.1) and irregular (one period only) equal to 12.2% (95% CI: 10.2-14.5). Age, smoking habit, medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of depression, and weight gain increased the probability of regular SOX, whereas highest schooling level was associated with lower probability of this symptom. General and psychosocial health influenced the number of episodes of xerostomia symptoms, calling for multidisciplinary actions to prevent common risk behaviors for oral and general diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  9. High Sequence Variations in Mitochondrial DNA Control Region among Worldwide Populations of Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence and structure of the complete mtDNA control region (CR of M. cephalus from African, Pacific, and Atlantic populations are presented in this study to assess its usefulness in phylogeographic studies of this species. The mtDNA CR sequence variations among M. cephalus populations largely exceeded intraspecific polymorphisms that are generally observed in other vertebrates. The length of CR sequence varied among M. cephalus populations due to the presence of indels and variable number of tandem repeats at the 3′ hypervariable domain. The high evolutionary rate of the CR in this species probably originated from these mutations. However, no excessive homoplasic mutations were noticed. Finally, the star shaped tree inferred from the CR polymorphism stresses a rapid radiation worldwide, in this species. The CR still appears as a good marker for phylogeographic investigations and additional worldwide samples are warranted to further investigate the genetic structure and evolution in M. cephalus.

  10. [Prevalence survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the general population in St. Louis (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessinaba, S; Mbaye, A; Yabéta, G A D; Harouna, H; Sib, A E; Kane, A D; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Mbaye-Ndour, M; Niang, K; Diagne-Sow, D; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diao, M; Mathieu, J-B S; Kane, A

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming with their risk factors a real health problem in Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the general population in Saint-Louis, Senegal. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical made in May 2010, in the Senegalese aged 15, residing in the city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. A systematic random sampling and stratified cluster has been achieved. Cardiovascular risk factors for research were: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. The survey involved 1424 individuals with 983 women (69%). The average age was 43.4±17.8years. The prevalence of risk factors was: hypertension (46%), diabetes (10.4%), total cholesterol (36.3%), hyperLDLcholesterol (20.6%), obesity (body mass index≥30kg/m(2)) (23%), abdominal obesity (48.7% according to International Diabetes Federation and 33.2% according to National Cholesterol Education Program) physical inactivity (64.7%), smoking (5.8%) and metabolic syndrome (15.7%). There was predominance in women of risk factors except for smoking and diabetes. The overall cardiovascular risk was high in 24.9% according to the Framingham model, 28.8% (European Society of Hypertension) and 6.1% (SCORE). This survey found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a general population in Senegal, predominant in women. This should lead to better develop a strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sundqvist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530 were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking, at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking. There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35 and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90. After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR=1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women. Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.

  12. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-08-24

    Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443-2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221-3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063-2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146-2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults.

  13. The CT frequencies of various non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis patients and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergün, Tarkan; Lakadamyal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency of non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD)) patients and in the general population as diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: The abdominal CT findings of ESRD patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain during the years 2001–2010 have been retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-three HD (14 females, 19 males, mean age: 62 ± 10.5) and 22 PD patients (12 females, 10 males, mean age: 59 ± 9.4) with acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been included into the study. In addition, 127 individuals (68 females, 59 males, mean age: 40.7 ± 12.8) with normal renal functions who presented with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain diagnosed with an acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been prospectively evaluated during the years 2009–2010. Results: While the most frequent etiology in PD patients was peritonitis (45.4%), acute pancreatitis (13.6%) and perforation (18.1), and in HD patients it was nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (18.1%) and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding (21.2%). The basic causes of acute abdomen in the general population were ureteral stone (34.6%) and appendicitis (18.1%). Conclusions: The causes of acute abdominal pain in ESRD patients is significantly different when compared to the general population. And within this special patient population the etiology of acute abdomen differs depending on the renal replacement therapy modality they are receiving. Thus, the causes of acute abdomen in PD patients are mostly peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, and perforation, while being mostly nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding in patients receiving HD therapy.

  14. Comparative virulotyping of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolated from broilers, humans on broiler farms and in the general population and UTI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Angela H A M; Stalenhoef, Janneke E; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Franz, Eelco

    2016-10-15

    During the last decade extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli from food-producing animals, especially from broilers, have become a major public health concern because of the potential transmission of these resistant bacteria or their plasmid-encoded resistance genes to humans. The objective of this study was to compare ESC-resistant E. coli isolates from broilers (n=149), humans in contact with these broilers (n=44), humans in the general population (n=63), and patients with a urinary tract infection (UTI) (n=10) with respect to virulence determinants, phylogenetic groups and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/plasmidic-AmpC (pAmpC) genes. The most prevalent ESBL/pAmpC genes among isolates from broilers and individuals on broiler farms were bla CTX-M-1 , bla CMY-2 and bla SHV-12 . In isolates from humans in the general population bla CTX-M-1 , bla CTX-M-14 and bla CTX-M-15 were found most frequently, whereas in UTI isolates bla CTX-M-15 predominated. The marker for enteroaggregative E. coli, aggR, was only identified in a broiler and human isolates from the general population. The extraintestinal virulence genes afa and hlyD were exclusively present in human isolates in the general population and UTI isolates. Multivariate analysis, based on ESBL/pAmpC resistance genes, virulence profiles and phylogenetic groups, revealed that most UTI isolates formed a clearly distinct group. Isolates from broilers and humans associated with broiler farms clustered together. In contrast, isolates from the general population showed some overlap with the former two groups but primarily formed a separate group. These results indicate than transmission occurs between broilers and humans on broiler farms, but also indicate that the role of broilers as a source of foodborne transmission of ESC-resistant E. coli to the general population and subsequently causative agents of human urinary tract infections is likely relatively small. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  15. Time Trends of High Blood Pressure Prevalence, Awareness and Control in the Italian General Population : Surveys of the National Institute of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Anna; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palmieri, Luigi; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona

    2017-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods. To describe mean BP levels and high BP prevalence from 1978 to 2012 by sex and quinquennia of age. Data were derived from the following three studies: (i) Risk Factors and Life Expectancy (RIFLE), conducted between 1978 and 2002 in 13 Italian regions (>70,000 persons); (ii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare (OEC), conducted between 1998-2002 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons); and (iii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES), conducted between 2008-2012 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons). A significant decrease in mean systolic and diastolic BP levels and prevalence of high BP from 1978 to 2012 was observed both in men and women. BP and high BP increased by age classes in all considered periods. BP awareness and control also improved. Our data suggest that BP control could be achieved by 2020, as recommended by WHO.

  16. 7 CFR 1424.4 - General eligibility rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.4 General eligibility... be eligible for program payments, a producer must maintain records indicating for all relevant FY's.... (d) For producers not purchasing raw commodity inputs, the production must equal or exceed that...

  17. Postsystolic Shortening by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brainin, Philip; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a novel marker of contractile dysfunction in the myocardium. Our objective was to assess the prognostic potential of PSS on cardiovascular events and death in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study design consisted...... of a prospective cohort study of 1296 low-risk participants from the general population, who were examined by speckle tracking echocardiography. The primary end point was the composite of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death, defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs...... as having MACEs and 236 participants (18%) died. Increasing number of walls with PSS predicted both end points, an association that persisted after adjustment for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, global longitudinal strain, hypertension, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, LV mass...

  18. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Interleukin 1β (+3954; −511) Genotype Polymorphism and its Association with Severe Chronic Generalized Periodontitis in the Malaysian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shelly; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Abdullah, Fawzia; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin 1β (IL-1β) gene have been known to be associated with increased susceptibility to chronic periodontitis among various ethnic populations. SNPs are more commonly observed at loci + 3954 and − 511. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-1β gene polymorphism at loci +3954 and − 511, and its association with severe chronic generalized periodontitis among the ethnic Malay, Chinese, and Indians within the Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples from 120 subjects (60 cases and 60 controls) in the age group of 25–50 years were collected for isolation of genetic material using Norgen technique. Clinical attachment loss of ≥5 mm was considered as severe chronic generalized periodontitis. SNP's at loci +3954 and − 511 were identified and analyzed using Kompetitive Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Genotyping System (KASP™). Differences in the allele/genotype frequencies were assessed by Chi-square test (P Malaysian population was similar. Conclusion: IL-1β genotype polymorphism at +3954 and − 511 was found to be not associated with severe chronic generalized periodontitis among the three ethnicities in Malaysia. Studies with larger sample size should be done to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:28566859

  20. Trends in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population, United States - 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Emma L; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brooks, John T; Shouse, R Luke; Weiser, John

    2018-06-01

    Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16.2-17.4) in 2014. HIV-positive adults in care were significantly more likely to be current smokers compared with the general U.S. population; they were also less likely to quit smoking. For both HIV-positive adults in care and the general population, disparities were noted by racial/ethnic, educational level, and poverty-level subgroups. For most years, non-Hispanic blacks, those with less than high school education, and those living below poverty level were more likely to be current smokers and less likely to quit smoking compared with non-Hispanic whites, those with greater than high school education, and those living above poverty level, respectively. To decrease smoking-related causes of illness and death and to decrease HIV-related disparities, smoking cessation interventions are vital as part of routine care with HIV-positive persons. Clinicians who care for HIV-positive persons who smoke should utilize opportunities to discuss and implement smoking cessation strategies during routine clinical visits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Hand hygiene compliance in patients under contact precautions and in the general hospital population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer-Leyva, Martín; Mendoza-Flores, Lidia; Medina-Torres, Ana Gabriela; Salinas-Caballero, Ana Gabriela; Vidaña-Amaro, Jose Antonio; Garza-Gonzalez, Elvira; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2013-11-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is the single most important intervention for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Contact precautions are a series of actions that infection control units take to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We conducted an observational study of HH compliance. Observations were stratified as opportunities in patients under contact precautions and in the general hospital population. Trained infection control personnel performed all direct evaluations. A total of 3,270 opportunities were recorded. HH compliance was statistically higher in patients on contact precautions than in the overall population (70.3% vs 60.4%; P = .0001). Critical care areas had higher HH compliance when patients were isolated by contact precautions. Medical wards were statistically lower in HH when patients were under contact precautions. Respiratory technicians had the highest HH compliance in both overall performance and in patients under contact precautions. Medical students had a lower HH compliance in both evaluations (P Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Preoperative Radiotherapy on General and Disease-Specific Health Status of Rectal Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thong, Melissa S.Y.; Mols, Floortje; Lemmens, Valery E.P.P.; Rutten, Harm J.T.; Roukema, Jan A.; Martijn, Hendrik; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) on long-term health status of rectal cancer survivors. Using a population-based sample, we assessed the impact of pRT on general and disease-specific health status of rectal cancer survivors up to 10 years postdiagnosis. The health status of older (≥75 years old at diagnosis) pRT survivors was also compared with that of younger survivors. Methods and Materials: Survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated with surgery only (SU) or with pRT between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 38 (EORTC QLQ-CR38) questionnaire. The SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 (sexuality subscale) scores of the survivors were compared to an age- and sex-matched Dutch normal population. Results: A total of 340 survivors (response, 85%; pRT survivors, 71%) were analyzed. Overall, survivors had similar general health status. Both short-term (<5 years) and long-term (≥5 years) pRT survivors had significantly poorer body image and more problems with gastrointestinal function, male sexual dysfunction, and defecation than SU survivors. Survivors had comparable general health status but greater sexual dysfunction than the normal population. Older pRT survivors had general and disease-specific health status comparable to that of younger pRT survivors. Conclusions: For better survivorship care, rectal cancer survivors could benefit from increased clinical and psychological focus on the possible long-term morbidity of treatment and its effects on health status.

  3. Optometry-based general population survey of pupil ruff atrophy and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Ghee S; Stevenson, Peter J; Sargent, Geoff; Grimmer, Peter; Corbett, Patricia; Jourdain, Erin; Wells, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and describe the pupil ruff changes and relationship to intraocular pressure, pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma status in an optometric population in New Zealand. Prospective cross-sectional survey of an optometric population. Six hundred and twenty subjects over 50 years old routinely attending the participating optometry practices. Exclusion criteria included previous intraocular surgery, ophthalmic laser, uveitis, angle closure and secondary glaucoma. Multicentre study involving 11 optometry practices in the Wellington region, New Zealand. The pupillary ruff and associated gonioscopy findings of study participants were graded based on the previously published Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading system. Parameters evaluated include pupillary ruff absence and abnormality, pseudoexfoliation material and trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Correlations between intereye Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading differences and inter-eye intraocular pressure and cup:disc ratio differences. Six hundred and twenty subjects were included, with a mean age of 62.2 ± 9.1 years and mean intraocular pressure of 14.8 ± 3.4 mmHg. Four hundred and fourteen (66.8%) had bilateral pupil ruff changes and 12 (1.5%) had pseudoexfoliation. Inter-eye intraocular pressure asymmetry was significantly correlated with amount of missing pupillary ruff (r = 0.111; P = 0.022) and trabecular meshwork pigmentation (r = 0.147; P = 0.002). Inter-eye cup:disc ratio asymmetry was not correlated with any of the Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading parameters. Asymmetry of pupillary ruff absence and trabecular meshwork pigmentation was correlated with intraocular pressure asymmetry (but not with cup:disc ratio asymmetry) in a general optometric population setting in New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. 48 CFR 25.402 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... orexceeding) Constructioncontract (equal to or exceeding) WTO GPA $203,000 $203,000 $7,804,000 FTAs: Australia...,804,000 Morocco FTA 203,000 203,000 7,804,000 NAFTA: —Canada 25,000 70,079 9,110,318 —Mexico 70,079 70... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 25.402 Section 25...

  5. Self-reported asthma and allergies in top athletes compared to the general population - results of the German part of the GA2LEN-Olympic study 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Prevalence of asthma and allergies in top athletes is high. However, most previous studies did not include a general population comparison group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of asthma, allergies and medical treatment in different groups of German top athletes to the general population. Methods Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, 291 German candidates for participation (65%) completed a questionnaire on respiratory and allergic symptoms. Results were compared to those of a general population study in Germany (n = 2425, response 68%). Furthermore, associations between types of sports and the self-reported outcomes were calculated. All models were adjusted for age, sex, level of education and smoking. Results Athletes reported significantly more doctors' diagnosed asthma (17% vs. 7%), more current use of asthma medication (10% vs. 4%) and allergic rhinitis (25% vs. 17%) compared to the general population. After adjustment, top athletes only had an increased Odds Ratio for doctor's diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.5). Compared to the general population, athletes in endurance sports had an increased OR for doctor's diagnosed asthma (2.4; 1.5-3.8) and current use of asthma medication (1.8; 1.0-3.4). In this group, current wheeze was increased when use of asthma medication was taken into account (1.8; 1.1-2.8). For other groups of athletes, no significantly increased ORs were observed. Conclusions Compared to the general population, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis and treatment was shown for athletes involved in endurance sports. This might be due to a better medical surveillance and treatment of these athletes. PMID:21118543

  6. Quality of life, social functioning, family structure, and treatment history associated with crack cocaine use in youth from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Joana C M; Pechansky, Flávio; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo T; Silva, Ricardo A; Kapczinski, Flávio; Magalhães, Pedro V

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between crack cocaine use and dimensions of quality of life and social functioning in young adults. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study involving 1,560 participants in Pelotas, Brazil. Crack cocaine use and abuse were investigated using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) inventory. Outcomes of interest were quality of life, religiosity, and social functioning in terms of education, occupational status, family structure, and medical treatment history. Lifetime crack cocaine use was associated with poor quality of life, worse functioning, impaired academic performance, and lower religious involvement. A greater maternal presence and higher paternal absence were more also more pronounced in crack cocaine users, who were also more likely to seek psychological and psychiatric treatment than the general population. Quality of life was severely impacted by crack cocaine use, especially in terms of general and physical health. Social functioning also differed between the general population and crack users, who had lower educational attainment and religious involvement. Maternal presence, paternal absence, and mental health-seeking behaviors were also more frequent among crack cocaine users, although these individuals reported lower rates of treatment satisfaction. Crack cocaine users also had significant social impairment, so that interventions involving family management and a greater focus on general health, quality of life, and functioning may make crucial contributions to the recovery of this group.

  7. Knowledge and Concern about STIs/HIV and Sociodemographic Variables Associated with Getting Tested for HIV Among the General Population in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; de Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes; de la Paz Bermúdez, María

    2018-07-04

    HIV testing is important in terms of prevention and treatment. However, HIV testing rates in the Spanish general population remains low. Therefore, HIV testing promotion constitutes a key issue. A high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS is associated with having been tested for HIV. The general aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of people who had ever been tested for HIV in Spain. The sample consisted of 1,106 participants from the general population - 60.0% females and 40.0% males - aged between 17 and 55 years old. The assessment instruments were a questionnaire on sociodemographic data and HIV testing, a scale of knowledge about STIs and HIV/AIDS, and a scale of concern about STIs/HIV. Results showed that greater knowledge about STIs and HIV was associated with a greater likelihood of being tested for HIV (OR = .77; 95.0% CI = .73-.82; p concern about HIV/AIDS decreased the likelihood of not having been tested for HIV (OR = .87; 95.0% CI = .83-.92; p concern about STIs was, the lower their likelihood of not having been tested for HIV was (OR = .87; 95.0% CI = .83-.91; p < .05). It is necessary to promote HIV testing in the general population as well as to consider their socio-demographic and psychological characteristics.

  8. Developing a General Population Job-Exposure Matrix in the Absence of Sufficient Exposure Monitoring Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tmannetje, AM; McLean, DJ; Eng, AJ; Kromhout, H; Kauppinen, T; Fevotte, J; Pearce, NE

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand, there is a need for a comprehensive and accessible database with national occupational exposure information, such as a general population job-exposure matrix (GPJEM). However, few New Zealand-specific exposure data exist that could be used to construct such a GPJEM. Here, we present the methods used to develop a GPJEM for New Zealand (NZJEM), by combining GPJEMs from other countries with New Zealand-specific exposure information, using wood dust as an example to illustrate thi...

  9. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  10. Association between social support and depression in the general population: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grav, Siv; Hellzèn, Ove; Romild, Ulla; Stordal, Eystein

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the associations between perceived social support and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. Social support is seen as one of the social determinants for overall health in the general population. Studies have found higher probability of experiencing depression among people who have a lack of social support; evidence from the general population has been more limited. Subjective perception that support would be available if needed may reduce and prevent depression and unnecessary suffering. A cross-sectional survey with self-reported health was used. A total of 40,659 men and women aged 20-89 years living in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway with valid ratings of depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 were used. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between two types of perceived support (emotional and tangible) and depression. Gender, age and interaction effects were controlled for in the final model. The main finding was that self-rated perceived support was significantly associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression, even after controlling for age and gender; emotional support (OR = 3·14) and tangible support (OR = 2·93). The effects of emotional and tangible support differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups and both emotional and tangible support. Self-rated perceived functional social support is associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression. In the group of older people who have a lack of social support, women seem to need more emotional support and men tangible support. Health care providers should consider the close association between social support and depression in their continuing care, particularly in the older people. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Awareness About Anti-Smoking Related Laws and Legislation Among General Population in Slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandini; Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mongjam M; Ingle, Gopal K

    2018-04-02

    Almost 40% of Delhi's population lives in slums and is vulnerable to tobacco use. It is therefore important to assess their opinion and ensure compliance to antismoking legislation. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the general public residing in slums in Delhi regarding the smoke-free initiative of 2009, 3 years after intensive implementation. It was a cross-sectional study conducted among participants selected by cluster sampling from the slums in six districts of Delhi using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. A total of 708 slum dwellers were interviewed. Out of the total, only 16.1% (n = 114) of the participants had heard of The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA), though, they were aware about some of the provisions of the COTPA. Majority (n = 529; 74.7%) perceived the smoke-free zones as the places where smoking forms of tobacco are banned. Regarding the awareness about the places designated as smoke-free zones, 82.1% (n = 581) of the respondents named educational institutions. About 61% of the people interviewed reported to have seen people smoking at public places on the day of interview while only 21.5% reported to have seen any one getting punished for smoking. Awareness about COTPA was low. The study respondents perceived that no action was being taken against persons acting in violation of the law. Thus, there is a need for stricter implementation of COTPA and increased spreading of awareness among the general public. While awareness about antismoking legislation among general population (particularly slums) has been studied world over, this has not been the case in India. The study depicts opinion of one of the susceptible populations regarding tobacco control legislation, which has hitherto not been studied in the Indian context. This study has an important implication as it highlights the need

  12. Comparison of the Carlsson-Dent and GERD-Q questionnaires for gastroesophageal reflux disease symptom detection in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Omaña, R; Sánchez-Reyes, O; Ángeles-Granados, E

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an extremely common pathology in the general population and one of the main reasons for consultation in gastroenterology. There are different instruments for detecting its symptoms, but few studies comparing one tool with another have been conducted in Mexico. To compare the effectiveness of the Carlsson-Dent questionnaire (CDQ) and the GERD-Q questionnaire (GQQ) in detecting GERD symptoms in a general population. A prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 220 individuals in an open population within the time frame of May-June 2015. The subjects were evaluated through the self-assessment CDQ and GQQ. The positive scores from the CDQ (≥ 4) were compared with those of the GQQ (≥ 8), to determine which of the two instruments more easily detected patients with GERD symptoms. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were men and the mean patient age was 38.1 years. Fifty percent of the subjects presented with GERD symptoms with a positive score in at least one questionnaire; 45% had positive CDQ results and 23% had positive GQQ results. Fifty-seven percent of the patients with a positive CDQ score presented with overweight/obesity, as did 72% of the patients with a positive GQQ result. Finally, 20% of the individuals had positive results for reflux symptoms in both questionnaires. There was a prevalence of GERD symptoms in 50% of the individuals studied from a general population. The GQQ detected a greater number of GERD symptoms in patients that presented with overweight/obesity and the CDQ was considered easier for patients to understand and answer. It is striking that there was only 20% agreement between the two questionnaires, suggesting that they may be useful for identifying GERD symptoms in different populations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. The prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse symptoms and signs and their relation with bladder and bowel disorders in a general female population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker ten Hove, M.C.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P M; Burger, C.; Vierhout, ME

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: In selected populations, pelvic organ prolapse (POP) was associated with bladder/bowel symptoms, but data on the general female population are lacking. Our aim was to obtain normative data on the prevalence of POP and pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) symptoms and signs and

  14. The prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse symptoms and signs and their relation with bladder and bowel disorders in a general female population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker-ten Hove, M.C.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Burger, C.W.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: In selected populations, pelvic organ prolapse (POP) was associated with bladder/bowel symptoms, but data on the general female population are lacking. Our aim was to obtain normative data on the prevalence of POP and pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) symptoms and signs and

  15. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  16. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minette Karsten

    Full Text Available The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km, are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  17. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  18. The association of psychological factors and healthcare use with the discrepancy between subjective and objective respiratory-health complaints in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinheimo, Sanna; Vasankari, Tuula; Jokela, Markus; Kanervisto, Merja; Pirkola, Sami; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina

    2018-03-20

    We examined the prevalence of self-perceived respiratory symptoms (SRS) in the absence of any objective findings of respiratory pathology, and the association of such prevalence with psychological factors and healthcare use in the general population. The study was conducted among a nationally representative sample of Finnish adults (BRIF8901). Respiratory functioning was measured by a spirometry test. Structured questionnaires were used to measure SRS, physician visits and psychological factors of alexithymia, sense of coherence, illness worry and common mental disorders. Individuals with a diagnosed respiratory disease or a severe psychiatric disorder, determined in a diagnostic interview, were excluded, giving a sample comprising 4544 participants. Twenty-six per cent of the general population and 36% of those with no diagnosed severe psychiatric disorder or respiratory disease experienced SRS despite a normal spirometry result. Psychological factors were associated with SRS (0.0001 Respiratory symptoms without objective findings are common in the general population. The study results underline the role of psychological factors in the reporting of respiratory symptoms and the associated medical burden, thereby indicating the functional nature of the symptomatology.

  19. Measuring the impact of alcohol-related disorders on quality of life through general population preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva; Mosquera Nogueira, Jacinto

    To estimate the intangible effects of alcohol misuse on the drinker's quality of life, based on general population preferences METHODS: The most important effects (dimensions) were identified by means of two focus groups conducted with patients and specialists. The levels of these dimensions were combined to yield different scenarios. A sample of 300 people taken from the general Spanish population evaluated a subset of these scenarios, selected by using a fractional factorial design. We used the probability lottery equivalent method to derive the utility score for the evaluated scenarios, and the random-effects regression model to estimate the relative importance of each dimension and to derive the utility score for the rest of scenarios not directly evaluated. Four main dimensions were identified (family, physical health, psychological health and social) and divided into three levels of intensity. We found a wide variation in the utilities associated with the scenarios directly evaluated (ranging from 0.09 to 0.78). The dimensions with the greatest relative importance were physical health (36.4%) and family consequences (31.3%), followed by psychological (20.5%) and social consequences (11.8%). Our findings confirm the benefits of adopting a heterogeneous approach to measure the effects of alcohol misuse. The estimated utilities could have both clinical and economic applications. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. PAHs sensitivity of picophytoplankton populations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Agusti, Susana

    2018-01-01

    are higher than those reported for picophytoplankton from other oligotrophic marine waters and exceed by far the natural levels of PAHs in many oceans. Our findings reveal a possible adaptation of picophytoplankton populations to oil-related contaminants

  1. Evaluation of the Dutch general exemption level for voluntary fortification with folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fortification with folic acid was prohibited in the Netherlands. Since 2007, a general exemption is given to fortify with folic acid up until a maximum level of 100 µg/100 kcal. This maximum level was based on a calculation model and data of adults only. The model requires parameters on intake (diet, supplements, energy and on the proportion of energy that may be fortified. This study aimed to evaluate the model parameters considering the changing fortification market. In addition, the risk of young children exceeding the UL for folic acid was studied. Methods: Folic acid fortified foods present on the Dutch market were identified in product databases and by a supermarket inventory. Together with data of the Dutch National Consumption Survey-Young Children (2005/2006 these inventory results were used to re-estimate the model parameters. Habitual folic acid intake of young children was estimated and compared to the UL for several realistic fortification scenarios. Results: Folic acid fortified foods were identified in seven different food groups. In up to 10% of the population, the proportion of energy intake of folic acid fortified foods exceeded 10% – the original model parameter. The folic acid intake from food supplements was about 100 µg/day, which is lower than the intake assumed as the original model parameter (300 µg. In the scenarios representing the current market situation, a small proportion (<5% of the children exceeded the UL. Conclusion: The maximum fortification level of 100 µg/100 kcal is sufficiently protective for children in the current market situation. In the precautionary model to estimate the maximum fortification levels, subjects with high intakes of folic acid from food and supplements, and high energy intakes are protected from too high folic acid intakes. Combinations of high intakes are low in this population. The maximum levels should be monitored and revised with increasing fortification and

  2. [Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Andresen, Sabine; Pohling, Andrea; Allroggen, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population Various studies indicate that students in boarding schools experience a lot of violence during their accommodation. However, it is not proved whether adolescents in boarding schools are also a burdensome group regarding early childhood experiences such as neglect and abuse. The aim of the study was to find out more about the experiences of adolescents in boarding schools and to determine whether there are differences between adolescents in residential care and between the general population. Furthermore, it should be examined whether boys and girls differ in their experiences. In the study, adolescents of boarding schools and of residential care all over Germany, starting at the age of 15 (n = 322), were asked regarding physical and emotional neglect/abuse, light/severe parent violence, negative/positive educational behavior of the parents. The results show that students in boarding schools were less likely to be affected by childhood maltreatment and more likely to have experienced positive parental behavior compared to children in residential care. Compared to the general population, students in boarding schools were more often and more severely affected by parental violence. Moreover, girls had experienced parental violence more often than boys. The results indicate that in boarding schools there is a need for support offers for adolescents with a history of violent experiences and that the risk group should be identified directly at the admission to the school.

  3. Urban Ecology: Patterns of Population Growth and Ecological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer; Steward T.A. Pickett

    2012-01-01

    Currently, over 50% of the world’s population lives in urban areas. By 2050, this estimate is expected to be 70%. This urban growth, however, is not uniformly distributed around the world. The majority of it will occur in developing nations and create megacities whose populations exceed at least 10 million people. Not all urban areas, however, are growing. Some are...

  4. Adherence to the cervical cancer screening program in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Katzenstein, Terese L; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Pedersen, Gitte; Junge, Jette; Helleberg, Marie; Storgaard, Merete; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2014-05-13

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown. We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank. We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical cytologies. During the different calendar intervals throughout the study period between 29-46% of WLWH followed the HIV cervical screening guidelines. Adjusted OR's of attendance to the general population screening program for WLWH aged 30, 40 and 50 years, compared to controls, were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.55-0.80) and 0.84 (0.61-1.15). Predictors of attendance to the HIV cervical screening program were a CD4 count > 350 cells/μL and HIV RNA < 500 copies/mL. Calendar period after 2002 and HIV RNA < 500 copies/mL predicted attendance to the general population cervical screening program. The majority of WLWH do not follow the HIV guidelines for cervical screening. We support the idea of cytology as part of an annual review and integration of HIV care and cervical screening in a single clinic setting.

  5. Cardiometabolic risk indicators that distinguish adults with psychosis from the general population, by age and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L Foley

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  6. Diagnostic devices for osteoporosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M P; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Hermann, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A diagnostic gap exists in the current dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) based diagnostic approach to osteoporosis. Other diagnostic devices have been developed, but no comprehensive review concerning the applicability of these diagnostic devices for population-based screening...... have been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review of Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials was performed for population-based studies that focused on technical methods that could either indicate bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA, substitute for DXA...

  7. Polygenic scores for schizophrenia and educational attainment are associated with behavioural problems in early childhood in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Philip R; Polderman, Tinca J C; Bolhuis, Koen; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Posthuma, Danielle; Tiemeier, Henning

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in adults have identified numerous genetic variants related to psychiatric disorders and related traits, such as schizophrenia and educational attainment. However, the effects of these genetic variants on behaviour in the general population remain to be

  8. Metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms among rural Northeast general population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous researches aiming to estimate the association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms come out with inconsistent results. Besides, most of them are conducted in the developed areas. There is lack of the data from rural China. The aim of this study is to confirm whether gender difference exists among the relationship between MetS, metabolic components and depressive symptoms in the rural Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis enrolled 11430 subjects’ aged ≥35 from rural Northeast China. Metabolic and anthropometric indicators were measured according to standard methods. Depressive symptoms were defined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 6% among rural Northeast general population and the prevalence of MetS and its components were 39.0% for MetS, 42.9% for abdominal obesity, 67.1% for elevated blood pressure, 47.1% for hyperglycemia, 32.1% for hypertriglyceridemia, 29.5% for low HDL-C. Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05–1.46, P = 0.01 but not MetS (OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.94–1.30, P = 0.23. Moreover, depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.00–1.47, P = 0.05 in women only. But once adjusted for menopause status, depressive symptoms were no longer statically associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99–1.46, P = 0.07. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component but not MetS in rural Chinese population. Routine lipid screening should be recommended among rural depressed residents especially among female.

  9. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse Steen; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding proteins...... in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. Methods and results We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene...

  10. PAHs sensitivity of picophytoplankton populations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith

    2018-04-25

    In this study, we investigated the in situ responses of Red Sea picophytoplankton, the dominant phytoplankton group in the oligotrophic ocean, to two toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene and pyrene. The experiments were conducted across a latitudinal gradient of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, an area sensitive to oil pollution. We observed significant adverse effects on the growth and abundance of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes, at all stations sampled. Prochlorococcus, which was abundant only at one of the stations, also appeared to be affected. Pyrene was found to be more toxic to phytoplankton at all stations. In general, picoeukaryotes exhibited higher sensitivity to PAHs than Synechococcus. Populations in the highly oligotrophic Northern region of the Red Sea were more tolerant to PAHs, presumably influenced by the natural selection of more resistant strains of phytoplankton due to the prolonged exposure to PAHs. Toxicity threshold values estimated here are higher than those reported for picophytoplankton from other oligotrophic marine waters and exceed by far the natural levels of PAHs in many oceans. Our findings reveal a possible adaptation of picophytoplankton populations to oil-related contaminants, which may clearly influence their spatial distribution patterns in the Red Sea.

  11. Validation of the Oral Hygiene Habits Scale: Relationships with sociodemographic variables in the general and clinical population of Monterrey, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several socioeconomic factors are associated with poor oral hygiene habits. A version of the Oral Hygiene Habits Scale (OHHS was developed in Mexico to measure these factors; however, its relationship with sociodemographic variables has not been studied. The verification of these relationships could contribute to the validation of the scale. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between oral hygiene habits and sociodemographic variables of sex, age, schooling, self-defined socioeconomic stratum, occupation and marital status in the general and clinical population of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: A general population sample (GPS of 256 participants and a clinical sample (CPS of 240 participants were studied. The OHHS consisted of an eight-item Likert scale of 4 points ranging from 0 to 4. A descriptive correlational study was performed with a cross-sectional design. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Cramer's V coefficient, and multivariate aligned rank test. Results: In GPS and CPS groups, OHHS was related to sex, schooling, socioeconomic stratum, occupation and marital status, but not to age. There were no significant interactions between the samples (GPS and CPS and sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant relationship between oral hygiene habits and some sociodemographic variables in the general and clinical population. This relationship supports the validity of the OHHS.

  12. Sound levels in a neonatal intensive care unit significantly exceeded recommendations, especially inside incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Johanna; de Suremain, Aurelie; Berne Audeoud, Frederique; Ego, Anne; Debillon, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    This study measured sound levels in a 2008 built French neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and compared them to the 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations. The ultimate aim was to identify factors that could influence noise levels. The study measured sound in 17 single or double rooms in the NICU. Two dosimeters were installed in each room, one inside and one outside the incubators, and these conducted measurements over a 24-hour period. The noise metrics measured were the equivalent continuous sound level (L eq ), the maximum noise level (L max ) and the noise level exceeded for 10% of the measurement period (L 10 ). The mean L eq , L 10 and L max were 60.4, 62.1 and 89.1 decibels (dBA), which exceeded the recommended levels of 45, 50 and 65 dBA (p care was correlated to an increased noise level, except for a postconceptional age below 32 weeks. The sound levels significantly exceeded the AAP recommendations, particularly inside incubators. A multipronged strategy is required to improve the sound environment and protect the neonates' sensory development. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevalence of contact allergy to metals in the European general population with a focus on nickel sulfate and piercings: The EDEN Fragrance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttelaar, Marie L A; Ofenloch, Robert F; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Naldi, Luigi; Svensson, Åke; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2018-04-10

    Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N = 3119) from the general population (aged 18-74 years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in Sweden. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization varied between 3.8% (The Netherlands) and 0.9% (Italy), and the prevalence of chromium sensitization varied between 1.3% (Portugal) and 0.2% (Sweden). Significant associations were observed between nickel allergy and female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.19; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.99-6.74), past piercing use (OR 3.86; 95%CI: 2.85-5.24), and currently having ≥3 piercings (OR 5.58; 95%CI: 4.02-7.76). The prevalence of sensitization to metals in the European general population was high, mostly because of nickel. The lowest prevalence of contact allergy to nickel and chromium observed in Sweden supports the effectiveness of long-standing regulation. © 2018 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Performance scores in general practice: a comparison between the clinical versus medication-based approach to identify target populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Saint-Lary

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: From one country to another, the pay-for-performance mechanisms differ on one significant point: the identification of target populations, that is, populations which serve as a basis for calculating the indicators. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus medication-based identification of populations of patients with diabetes and hypertension over the age of 50 (for men or 60 (for women, and any consequences this may have on the calculation of P4P indicators. METHODS: A comparative, retrospective, observational study was carried out with clinical and prescription data from a panel of general practitioners (GPs, the Observatory of General Medicine (OMG for the year 2007. Two indicators regarding the prescription for statins and aspirin in these populations were calculated. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 21.690 patients collected by 61 GPs via electronic medical files. Following the clinical-based approach, 2.278 patients were diabetic, 8,271 had hypertension and 1.539 had both against respectively 1.730, 8.511 and 1.304 following the medication-based approach (% agreement = 96%, kappa = 0.69. The main reasons for these differences were: forgetting to code the morbidities in the clinical approach, not taking into account the population of patients who were given life style and diet rules only or taking into account patients for whom morbidities other than hypertension could justify the use of antihypertensive drugs in the medication-based approach. The mean (confidence interval per doctor was 33.7% (31.5-35.9 for statin indicator and 38.4% (35.4-41.4 for aspirin indicator when the target populations were identified on the basis of clinical criteria whereas they were 37.9% (36.3-39.4 and 43.8% (41.4-46.3 on the basis of treatment criteria. CONCLUSION: The two approaches yield very "similar" scores but these scores cover different realities and offer food for thought on the possible usage of these indicators in the

  15. Absence of low back pain in the general population followed fortnightly over one year with automated text messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to assess the usefulness of this definition of ´"non-episodes", by studying their presence over one year in the general population. Specifically, we wanted to: 1) determine the prevalence of non-episodes, 2) identify the proportion of study participants who could be classified as being...

  16. Mortality Rates in the General Irish Population Compared to Those with an Intellectual Disability from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; Kelly, Caraiosa; McCallion, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background:Historically, there has been higher and earlier mortality among people with intellectual disability as compared to the general population, but there have also been methodological problems and differences in the available studies. Method: Data were drawn from the 2012 National Intellectual Disability Database and the Census in Ireland. A…

  17. World Cup's impact on mental health and lifestyle behaviors in the general population: comparing results of 2 serial population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph Tai Fai; Tsui, Hi Yi; Mo, Phoenix Kit Han; Mak, Winnie Wing Sze; Griffiths, Sian

    2015-03-01

    This study compares the prevalence of health-related behaviors and mental health well-being in the Hong Kong general male population before and after the 2006 World Cup finals. Two anonymous, serial, comparable cross-sectional surveys. A total of 500 and 530 adult Chinese men, respectively, were interviewed in 2 telephone surveys before and after the finals. Those interviewed after the World Cup were more likely to eat snacks more than 3 d/wk, to be binge drinkers, or to spend more than 2 h/d communicating with family members. They were less likely to have higher General Health Questionnaire or lower Short Form-36 Health Survey Vitality scores (odds ratio [OR] = 0.684 and 0.765), to perceive family-related or work-related stress (OR = 0.327 and 0.345), or to self-report being sick or have visited a doctor (OR = 0.645 and 0.722). All variables between watchers versus nonwatchers of World Cup games were significant or marginally significant. Public health education should be incorporated into global sport events. © 2013 APJPH.

  18. Asthma, other atopic conditions and risk of infections in 105 519 general population never and ever smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helby, J; Nordestgaard, B G; Benfield, T; Bojesen, S E

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with atopic conditions may have increased susceptibility to infections outside the organs directly affected by their atopic condition. We tested the hypothesis that atopic conditions overall, and stratified by smoking history, are associated with increased risk of hospitalization for infections. We collected information on smoking history and self-reported atopic conditions from 105 519 individuals from the general population and followed them for up to 23 years for infectious disease hospitalizations and deaths. For asthma, we focused on never smokers with asthma diagnosed before age 50 (early asthma) to minimize confounding by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During follow-up, 11 160 individuals had infections. Never smokers with early asthma versus no atopic conditions had significantly increased risks of any infection (hazard ratio 1.65; 95% confidence interval 1.40-1.94), pneumonia (2.44; 1.92-3.11) and any non-respiratory tract infection (1.36; 1.11-1.67); results were similar in ever smokers. Never smokers with any asthma had significantly increased risks of any infection (1.44; 1.24-1.66) and pneumonia (1.99; 1.62-2.44). Neither atopic dermatitis (1.00; 0.91-1.10) nor hay fever (1.00; 0.93-1.07) was associated with risk of any infection. In never smokers, risk estimates for any infection were comparable between asthma and diabetes, as were the population attributable fractions of 2.2% for any asthma and 2.9% for diabetes. Early asthma was associated with significantly increased risks of any infection, pneumonia and any non-respiratory tract infection in never and ever smokers. In never smokers, risk estimates as well as population attributable fractions for any infection were comparable between asthma and diabetes, suggesting that asthma may be a substantial risk factor for infections in the general population. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Risk assessment of coumarin using the bench mark dose (BMD) approach: children in Norway which regularly eat oatmeal porridge with cinnamon may exceed the TDI for coumarin with several folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotland, T Ø; Paulsen, J E; Sanner, T; Alexander, J; Husøy, T

    2012-03-01

    Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of month of birth of individuals with autism spectrum disorder differs from the general population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciéslińska, Anna; Simmelink, Jannicke; Teodorowicz, M.; Verhoef, J.C.M.; Tobi, H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is causally dependent on genetic and environmental influences. We investigated whether autism spectrum disorders are associated with month of birth compared to the general population using a retrospective study, comparing ASD cases (n = 3478) with

  1. Psychopathology of the General Population Referred by Primary Care Physicians for Urgent Assessment in Psychiatric Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith McLenan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs to an Urgent Referral Team (URT based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors.Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits.Results: We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges.Conclusion: The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals.

  2. Psychotic-like experiences in the general population: characterizing a high-risk group for psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2011-01-01

    Recent research shows that psychotic symptoms, or psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), are reported not only by psychosis patients but also by healthy members of the general population. Healthy individuals who report these symptoms are considered to represent a non-clinical psychosis phenotype, and have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. Converging research now shows that this non-clinical psychosis phenotype is familial, heritable and covaries with familial schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A review of the research also shows that the non-clinical phenotype is associated extensively with schizophrenia-related risk factors, including social, environmental, substance use, obstetric, developmental, anatomical, motor, cognitive, linguistic, intellectual and psychopathological risk factors. The criterion and construct validity of the non-clinical psychosis phenotype with schizophrenia demonstrates that it is a valid population in which to study the aetiology of psychosis. Furthermore, it suggests shared genetic variation between the clinical and non-clinical phenotypes. Much remains to be learned about psychosis by broadening the scope of research to include the non-clinical psychosis phenotype.

  3. Using exceedance probabilities to detect anomalies in routinely recorded animal health data, with particular reference to foot-and-mouth disease in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K K; Hazelton, M L; Stevenson, M A; Lockhart, C Y; Pinto, J; Nguyen, L

    2014-10-01

    The widespread availability of computer hardware and software for recording and storing disease event information means that, in theory, we have the necessary information to carry out detailed analyses of factors influencing the spatial distribution of disease in animal populations. However, the reliability of such analyses depends on data quality, with anomalous records having the potential to introduce significant bias and lead to inappropriate decision making. In this paper we promote the use of exceedance probabilities as a tool for detecting anomalies when applying hierarchical spatio-temporal models to animal health data. We illustrate this methodology through a case study data on outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Viet Nam for the period 2006-2008. A flexible binomial logistic regression was employed to model the number of FMD infected communes within each province of the country. Standard analyses of the residuals from this model failed to identify problems, but exceedance probabilities identified provinces in which the number of reported FMD outbreaks was unexpectedly low. This finding is interesting given that these provinces are on major cattle movement pathways through Viet Nam. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Observed ozone exceedances in Italy: statistical analysis and modelling in the period 2002-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Serena; Curci, Gabriele; Candeloro, Luca; Conte, Annamaria; Ippoliti, Carla

    2017-04-01

    Local ambient air quality is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions. The year 2015 is considered by NASA scientists as one of the hottest at the global scale since 1880. Furthermore, in Europe it was the first summer after the introduction of Euro6 regulation, the latest emission standard for passenger vehicles. The goal of this study is twofold: (1) the investigation of the impact of the heat wave occurred in the summer of 2015 on ozone levels and (2) the exploration of the weight of temperature as driver of high-level ozone events with respect to other variables. We performed a quantitative examination of the ozone seasons (May-September) for the period 2002-2015 using ozone concentration and weather data from 24 stations across Italy. The number of exceedances of limit values set by the European directive was calculated for each year, and compared with the trend of ozone concentration and temperature. Furthermore, the data were grouped in clusters of consecutive days of ozone exceedances in order to characterize the duration and the intensity of high ozone events. Finally, we developed a multivariate logistic regression model to investigate the role of a set of independent variables (meteorological, and temporal variables, altitude, number of inhabitants, vehicle emission standard) on the probability of exceedances. Results show that 2015 is one of the hottest years after 2003. During the period 2002-2015, the average number of exceedances per station of the daily maximum 8-hour average is often higher than the limit established by the European directive (25 per year). The highest number of exceedances was 65 per station, reached in 2003. The Po Valley is confirmed as a hot spot for pollution, with more frequent exceedances and a higher sensitivity to temperature, especially at urban sites. Ozone events in 2015 were fewer than recent years, but of longer duration (on average 4 days against 3 days), and with similar mean

  5. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy K.C. Janssen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods: We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE. The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF. The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results: The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions: Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT.

  6. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the