WorldWideScience

Sample records for excavators

  1. Examining excavators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, K.; Behalek, L.; Burysek, P. (and others) [Prodeco (Czech Republic)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reports on how excavators are adapted to different applications, as illustrated by Prodeco's experience at supplying bucket wheel and bucket chain excavators in the Czech Republic and worldwide. The reconstruction of the cutting equipment of a bucket wheel excavator KU 800.20 located at Doly Bilina to prepare for digging hard overburden without using shaking blasting is described. 2 tabs., 4 photos.

  2. Crane and Excavator Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on crane and excavator operation is designed to enable the crane and excavator operator to perform his/her duties more proficiently. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide…

  3. The essence of excavators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Competition is hotting-up between rope shovel and hydraulic excavator manufacturers as demand mounts for surface loading equipment. The article gives an overview of major players and gives details of their popular models of excavators and rope shovels. It compares surface loading equipment from P & H, Bucyrus, THYI, OMZ, Komatsu, Hirachi, O & K and Liebherr. 4 tabs., 3 photos.

  4. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lislerud, A.

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  5. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  6. OPTIMIZING UPPER EXCAVATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Vasile VÎGA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential element when establishing the balance of a bucket wheel excavator is the determination of the barycentre, the best results being thus obtained by weighting after having installed all the components. The lack of correct balance for bucket wheel excavators determines their operation in an inadequate dynamic mode, or in extreme cases, there is the danger of losing stability by tilting over the excavator respectively suffering huge material and human loss. It is compulsory to verify for the correctness of the position and mass value of balance because there might be substantial error sources leading to compromise the operation. One of the most popular methods is that of weighting the entire equipment from the superior platform of the excavator. The weighting process implies the lifting of the excavators in three spots with hydraulic cylinders, the measurement of the forces, as well as the measurement of pressure inside the cylinders and of the stroke of each cylinder. The data measurement and rehashing installation is destined to determine the dimensions that finally define the weighting process of excavators or other operating machineries to which the balancing and control of stability is imposed.

  7. Excavation of LSS1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Excavation of the long straight-section LSS1 by an Alpine boring machine. View of the connection chamber, in the background, the roofs of the enlarged sections (8.5 m and 6 m). On the right, the access tunnel to PP1.

  8. Excavating the Spartans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilkes

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Few ancient Greek place names are so embedded in Western consciousness as Sparta, evoking as it does courage, harsh training, stern duty and endurance. By the 2nd century AD it had become a "heritage centre " admired by visiting Romans, and it flourished again in the Byzantine period. The Institute has been involved in new excavations at Sparta since 1989.

  9. Lightweight Robotic Excavation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robust, lightweight, power-efficient excavation robots are mission enablers for lunar outposts and surface systems. Lunar excavators of this type cost-effectively...

  10. Excavating a transfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The transfer tunnel being dug here will take the 450 GeV beam from the SPS and inject it into the LHC where the beam energies will be increased to 7 TeV. In order to transfer this beam from the SPS to the LHC, two transfer tunnels are used to circulate the beams in opposite directions. When excavated, the accelerator components, including magnets, beam pipes and cryogenics will be installed and connected to both the SPS and LHC ready for operation to begin in 2008.

  11. Safety excavation; Seguranca em escavacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Walter Manoel [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In the construction and maintenance services of buried pipelines, the excavation is the activity that contains larger risk, could cause serious accidents. Norms, procedures and technical articles, national and international goods, should be followed for legal and technical aspects. This paper - Safety in Excavations - has purpose to gather all the technical concepts and of safety in a document denominated Procedure of Safety Excavation, serving as instrument to systematize and control the execution of excavation services in construction civil, assembly and pipelines repairs, seeking the people, facilities and the environment's safety. (author)

  12. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, William E.; Day, Walter C.

    1970-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment

  13. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberg, William E; Day, Walter C [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment.

  14. Remote excavation using the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.H.; Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing remote excavation technologies for the Office of Technology Development, Robotics Technology Development Program. This work is being done to meet the need for remote excavation and removal of radioactive and contaminated buried waste at several DOE sites. System requirements are based on the need to uncover and remove waste from burial sites in a way that does not cause unnecessary personnel exposure or additional environmental contamination. Goals for the current project are to demonstrate dexterous control of a backhoe with force feedback and to implement robotic operations that will improve productivity. The Telerobotic Small Emplacement Excavator is a prototype system that incorporates the needed robotic and telerobotic capabilities on a commercially available platform. The ability to add remote dexterous teleoperation and robotic operating modes is intended to be adaptable to other commercially available excavator systems

  15. Customized excavators beat the odds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Blackstone Mining, launched in 1983, is based in eastern Ohio, near Cadiz and specializes in stripping small properties for Ohio Edison. Specially modified hydraulic excavators and an efficient mining technique allow the mining of marginal coal deposits. In 1986 Ken McBeth, the company's founder begun using a Cat 245 hydraulic excavator to cleanly and efficiently load coal and also remove overburden. Modifications include: a mass excavator boom 5 feet longer to better reach over the sides of haul trucks and load from higher benches; and larger hydraulic cylinders to maintain earthmoving production. McBeth also devised a fast economical technique for extracting coal from the thin, narrow seams. Soft cover material is removed by excavator; the remaining sand and limestone are blasted to within 2 feet of the seam; the remaining material is removed by an agricultural tractor with a blade; an excavator loads the coal into haul trucks starting at the toe of the face and working backwards. Haul trucks are not placed directly on the seam. This prevents contamination, reducing the price of the coal. There is no wash plant; the coal is hauled direct to the utility. 4 photos.

  16. A remotely operated excavator [HAZ-TRAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    HAZ-TRAK is a remotely operated excavator and material handling system for nuclear waste site characterization, waste site remediation, and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. HAZ-TRAK combines the power and mobility of a commercial excavator, with the dexterity and controllability of a force feedback manipulator system: when operating HAZ-TRAK as an excavator, the operator can feel buried objects. A master/slave control method enables the operator to intuitively control all the excavator arm functions with one hand. The main features of the excavator are described in this article. (author)

  17. Mechanical tunnel excavation in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperry, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Technical Review Board for the US high-level radioactive waste facility at Yucca Mountain has recommended maximum use of open-quotes the most modern mechanical excavation techniques...in order to reduce disturbance to the rock walls and to achieve greater economy of time and cost.close quotes Tunnels for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain can be economically constructed with mechanical excavation equipment. This paper presents the results of mechanical excavation of a tunnel in welded tuff, similar to the tuffs of Yucca Mountain. These results are projected to excavation of emplacement drifts in Yucca Mountain using a current state-of-the-art tunnel boring machine (TBM)

  18. Excavating wide inclines in weak strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, N N [Ukrspetsstroiproekt (USSR)

    1990-09-01

    Discusses schemes for excavation of transport inclines in surface mines under conditions of weak, unstable rocks characterized by a high water content. The schemes are aimed at maximum reduction of excavation operations without infringing the safety of personnel. Use of walking draglines (the EhSh-20/90, EhSh-100/100 and EhSh-10/70) is evaluated. Optimum schemes for incline excavation and determining optimum slope inclination are described on the example of the Berezovsk brown coal surface mine in the USSR. Efficiency of optimum schemes is analyzed: range of excavation, safety degree, landslide hazards, water influx rate, accident rate, etc.

  19. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%–90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  20. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  1. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  2. GPS-Based Excavation Encroachment Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    Excavation damage is the primary threat to the integrity of the natural gas distribution system. According to the Common Ground Alliance, the two primary root causes of excavation damage are failure to notify the one-call center and careless excavati...

  3. AECL's excavation stability study - summary of observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.; Chandler, N.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Excavation Stability Study (ESS) was conducted at the 420 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) to evaluate stability and the extent of excavation damage in tunnels as a function of tunnel geometry and orientation, geology, and excavation method. A series of ovaloid and circular openings were used to achieve different boundary stress levels and near-field stress distributions to assess the effect of tunnel geometry on damage development. Several of these openings had sections in both granite and granodiorite lithology, providing a comparison of damage in rock types with different strength characteristics. Damage around circular tunnels (one excavated by drill-and-blast, the other by mechanical means) was also investigated. The study.showed that mechanically stable openings can be excavated in the most adverse stress conditions at the 420 Level of the URL. In addition, it was shown that tunnel stability is sensitive to tunnel shape, variations in geology, and to some extent, the excavation method. Findings of the study are relevant in developing design criteria, and in assessing the feasibility of constructing large ovaloid openings in adverse stress conditions. This report summarizes the preliminary observations related to tunnel stability and excavation damage. (author). 8 refs., 7 tabs., 23 figs

  4. 100 Area excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992f). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications. The most recent applications are excavation of the 618-9 burial ground and partial remediation of the 316-5 process trenches (DOE-RL 1992a, 1992b). Both projects included excavation of soil and dust control (using water sprays). Excavation is a well-developed technology and equipment is readily available; however, certain aspects of the excavation process require testing before use in full-scale operations. These include the following: Measurement and control of excavation-generated dust and airborne contamination; verification of field analytical system capabilities; demonstration of soil removal techniques specific to the 100 Area waste site types and configurations. The execution of this treatability test may produce up to 500 yd 3 of contaminated soil, which will be used for future treatability tests. These tests may include soil washing with vitrification of the soil washing residuals. Other tests will be conducted if soil washing is not a viable alternative

  5. Summary report of soil removal preliminary excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickland, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    This report discusses a proposed technique to remove small areas, less than 2,000 m 2 , of contaminated soil and the results of an actual excavation. Based on the results of a trial excavation in uncontaminated soil and an excavation of two trenches in contaminated soil, it is concluded that the techniques described are a satisfactory means of contaminated soil removal. It can be done safely with a release of airborne plutonium a factor of 10 or more below the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) limit

  6. Report on Excavations at Sedgeford, Norfolk 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Cook

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Excavations were undertaken as part of the ongoing work of the Sedgeford Hall Archaeological Research Project, which was set up in 1995 with the aim of investigating the archaeological history of the parish of Sedgeford, west Norfolk.

  7. The huge ATLAS cavern now fully excavated

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Excavation of the ATLAS cavern is now complete! At the end of two years' work involving a tremendous technical challenge, the civil engineering contractors have succeeded in digging out one of the biggest experimental caverns in the world. Bravo!

  8. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.

  9. Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance, Self-Study #31419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    This course, Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance Self-Study (#31419), presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and requirements that affect safe excavations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An overview of the LANL excavation/fill/soil disturbance permit (EXID permit) approval process is also presented, along with potholing requirements for planning and performing excavations at LANL.

  10. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs

  12. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  13. Case Studies and Monitoring of Deep Excavations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korff, M.

    2017-01-01

    Several case histories from Dutch underground deep excavation projects are presented in this paper, including the lessons learned and the learning processes involved. The focus of the paper is on how the learning takes places and how it is documented. It is necessary to learn in a systematic and

  14. Heathrow Terminal 5 Excavation Archive (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Framework Archaeology

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Framework Archaeology is a Joint Venture agreement between Oxford Archaeology (OA and Wessex Archaeology (WA to provide archaeological services to BAA (formerly British Airports Authority, now Heathrow Airport Holdings Ltd. Given the potential scale of some of BAA's projects, the joint venture enables Framework Archaeology to draw on the full resources of both OA and WA, including site staff, specialist managers, administrative support, and technical facilities. In 1993, BAA plc and Heathrow Airport Limited submitted a joint planning application to develop an additional passenger terminal complex (Terminal 5, together with the provision of aircraft aprons and taxiways, and include the realignment of rivers and landscaping. The resulting archaeological excavations were undertaken as three main phases of work. Excavations in 1996 by the Museum of London Archaeology Service of approximately 4 ha of sludge stockpile areas (site code POK96. Between 1999-2000 Framework Archaeology excavated approximately 21 ha in the Perry Oaks sludge works and adjacent areas (WPR98. Framework Archaeology also undertook excavations between 2002-2007 as part of the construction of Terminal 5 (PSH02, TEC05 covering a further 50 hectares. Importantly the aim of the Terminal 5 archaeological programme was to move beyond the description and recovery of archaeological remains and to arrive at an understanding of the history of human inhabitation and the practical ways in which people established their presence in the material, social and political conditions of their day.

  15. Stepwise excavation in a permanent molar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Fernanda Ferruzzi; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2010-01-01

    with zinc oxide cement were performed to minimize the risk of pulp exposure during excavation. After 45 days, the remaining carious tissue was removed and a restoration with glass-ionomer lining (Vitrebond) and resin composite (P-50) was performed. Satisfactory morphology and function of the restoration...

  16. Dilmun revisited: excavations at Saar, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Crawford

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available About 2000 BC the island of Bahrain was at the centre of a prosperous trading community - the Early Dilmun civilization - that stretched from Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley. Excavations at the site of Saar have, since 1989, recovered much new information about the layout of the settlement and its local economy and social system.

  17. 100 area excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Development and screening of remedial alternatives for the 100 Area, using existing data, have been completed and are documented in the 100 Area Feasibility Study, Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1992a). Based on the results of the FS, the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE-RL 1992b) identifies and prioritizes treatability studies for the 100 Area. The data from the treatability study program support future focused FS, interim remedial measures (IRM) selection, operable unit final remedy selection, remedial design, and remedial actions. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992b). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications

  18. Effect of excavation method on rock mass displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    1998-01-01

    Rock mass displacement measurements have been performed to understand rock mass behavior and its dependence on excavation method during drift excavation at the Tono mine. Rock mass displacements of 1.46 mm and 0.67 mm have been measured at one meter (0.33D: blasting, 0.42D: machine, D: width of drift) from the walls of drifts excavated by the drill and blasting method and machine, respectively. Numerical analysis of rock mass displacements with Finite Element Method has been performed assuming an excavation disturbed zone. Measured and analysed rock mass displacements are consistent with each other for the drift excavation by the drill and blasting method. The excavation disturbed zone was narrower for the drift excavated by machine than for the drift excavated by the drill and blasting method. (author)

  19. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request number-sign M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal

  20. Excavating and loading equipment for peat mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Zhigulskaya, A. I.; Yakonovskaya, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the issues of sustainable development of Russian regions, related to ensuring energy security, are more urgent than ever. To achieve sustainable development, an integrated approach to the use of local natural resources is needed. Practically in all north regions of the Russian Federation, peat as a local natural resource is widespread, which has a practical application in the area of housing services. The paper presents the evaluation of technologies for open-pit peat mining, as well as analysis of technological equipment for peat production. Special attention is paid to a question of peat materials excavating and loading. The problem of equipment selection in a peat surface mine is complex. Many features, restrictions and criteria need to be considered. Use of low and ultra-low ground pressure excavators and low ground pressure front-end loaders with full-range tires to provide the necessary floatation in the peat bog environment is offered.

  1. Archeological Excavations at the Wanapum Cache Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. E. Marceau

    2000-01-01

    This report was prepared to document the actions taken to locate and excavate an abandoned Wanapum cache located east of the 100-H Reactor area. Evidence (i.e., glass, ceramics, metal, and wood) obtained from shovel and backhoe excavations at the Wanapum cache site indicate that the storage caches were found. The highly fragmented condition of these materials argues that the contents of the caches were collected or destroyed prior to the caches being burned and buried by mechanical equipment. While the fiber nets would have been destroyed by fire, the specialized stone weights would have remained behind. The fact that the site might have been gleaned of desirable artifacts prior to its demolition is consistent with the account by Riddell (1948) for a contemporary village site. Unfortunately, fishing equipment, owned by and used on behalf of the village, that might have returned to productive use has been irretrievably lost

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  3. Mining technology development for hard rock excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustrulid, W.; Cudnick, R.; Trent, R.; Holmberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    A research facility has been established in the granitic gneiss of the CSM Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado, for the purpose of evaluating/developing mining, geologic and geotechnical procedures appropriate for use in establishing nuclear waste repositories in hard rock. An experimental room has been excavated using careful blasting procedures. The extent and magnitude of blast damage is being evaluated. Structural geology is being mapped to assess continuity

  4. The underground research laboratory room 209 excavation response test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1992-02-01

    The response of the rock mass to excavation is an important factor in the design and performance of underground excavations and installations. This is particularly true in the excavation of vaults for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste, where the conditions in the rock mass around the disposal areas may affect the performance of engineered sealing systems installed to isolate the waste. The factors influencing, and mechanisms controlling, rock mass response to excavation must be understood in order to accommodate excavation response effects in disposal vault design and construction

  5. Overview of the excavation disturbance experiment at the Kamaishi mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya; Sato, Toshinori; Sugihara, Kozo; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    Excavation of an underground drift disturbs the rock mass around the opening by each of the following processes: Fracturing in the vicinity of opening induced by the excavation work and stress concentration. Changes in the apertures of existing fractures due to stress redistribution. Changes in water pressure around the opening due to water inflow and chemical changes due to the increased oxygen supply to the rock and such phenomena as degassing of groundwater. All of these mechanical, hydrological, and chemical changes to the rock mass are termed excavation disturbance and the affected area is called the 'Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ)'. The portion of the EDZ in which the rock mass is fractured due to excavation is called the Excavation Damaged Zone'. This experiment is focused on the mechanical and hydrological property changes caused by excavation, the degree and extend of which is important for the design, excavation and support of underground openings. The relevance of the EDZ for the geological isolation of nuclear waste disposal may be summarized as: 1) Relevance to near-field performance assessment. The EDZ is of importance for near-field performance assessment, as the development of new fractures and the opening of existing fractures due to excavation may create preferential pathways for mass transport from the engineered barrier system to natural transmissive flowpaths. 2) Relevance to the design, excavation and sealing of a repository. The excavation method affects the properties and the extend of the excavation damaged zone. The shape and the scale of the underground opening, and whether the underground opening is backfilled after excavation, will affect the final stress state. It is important to understand the EDZ for the design, excavation and sealing of a repository. 3) Initial and boundary conditions of in situ experiments. Information about the EDZ is necessary for the design and interpretation of certain in situ experiments. (author)

  6. Safety analysis of autonomous excavator functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, D.; Pace, C.; Morrey, R.; Sommerville, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an account of carrying out a hazard analysis to define the safety requirements for an autonomous robotic excavator. The work is also relevant to the growing generic class of heavy automated mobile machinery. An overview of the excavator design is provided and the concept of a safety manager is introduced. The safety manager is an autonomous module responsible for all aspects of system operational safety, and is central to the control system's architecture. Each stage of the hazard analysis is described, i.e. system model creation, hazard definition and hazard analysis. Analysis at an early stage of the design process, and on a system that interfaces directly to an unstructured environment, exposes certain issues relevant to the application of current hazard analysis methods. The approach taken in the analysis is described. Finally, it is explained how the results of the hazard analysis have influenced system design, in particular, safety manager specifications. Conclusions are then drawn about the applicability of hazard analysis of requirements in general, and suggestions are made as to how the approach can be taken further

  7. A STRUCTURAL MODEL OF AN EXCAVATOR WORKFLOW CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gurko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthwork improving is connected with excavators automation. In this paper, on the basis of the analysis of problems that a hydraulic excavator control system have to solve, the hierarchical structure of a control system have been proposed. The decomposition of the control process had been executed that allowed to develop the structural model which reflects the characteristics of a multilevel space-distributed control system of an excavator workflow.

  8. Theory and technology of rock excavation for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Dingxiang

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the technical advances in recent decades and the various theories on rock excavation raised by scholars from different countries, including China and Russia. It not only focuses on rock blasting but also illustrates a number of non-blasting methods, such as mechanical excavation in detail. The book consists of 3 parts: Basic Knowledge, Surface Excavation and Underground Excavation. It presents a variety of technical methods and data from diverse sources in the book, making it a valuable theoretical and practical reference resource for engineers, researchers and postgraduates alike.

  9. Development of excavator training simulator using leap motion controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, F.; Nainggolan, F.; Andayani, U.; Siregar, B.

    2018-03-01

    Excavator is a heavy machinery that is used for many industries purposes. Controlling the excavator is not easy. Its operator has to be trained well in many skills to make sure it is safe, effective, and efficient while using the excavator. In this research, we proposed a virtual reality excavator simulator supported by a device called Leap Motion Controller that supports finger and hand motions as an input. This prototype will be developed than in the virtual reality environment to give a more real sensing to the user.

  10. Modelling bucket excavation by finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecingina, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in geological components of the layers from lignite pits have an impact on the sustainability of the cup path elements and under the action of excavation force appear efforts leading to deformation of the entire assembly. Application of finite element method in the optimization of components leads to economic growth, to increase the reliability and durability of the studied machine parts thus the machine. It is obvious usefulness of knowledge the state of mechanical tensions that the designed piece or the assembly not to break under the action of tensions that must cope during operation. In the course of excavation work on all bucket cutting force components, the first coming into contact with the material being excavated cutting edge. Therefore in the study with finite element analysis is retained only cutting edge. To study the field of stress and strain on the cutting edge will be created geometric patterns for each type of cup this will be subject to static analysis. The geometric design retains the cutting edge shape and on this on the tooth cassette location will apply an areal force on the abutment tooth. The cutting edge real pattern is subjected to finite element study for the worst case of rock cutting by symmetrical and asymmetrical cups whose profile is different. The purpose of this paper is to determine the displacement and tensions field for both profiles considering the maximum force applied on the cutting edge and the depth of the cutting is equal with the width of the cutting edge of the tooth. It will consider the worst case when on the structure will act both the tangential force and radial force on the bucket profile. For determination of stress and strain field on the form design of cutting edge profile will apply maximum force assuming uniform distribution and on the edge surface force will apply a radial force. After geometric patterns discretization on the cutting knives and determining stress field, can be seen that at the

  11. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  12. Development of excavation technologies at the Canadian underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, Gregory W.; Martino, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    Several countries, Canada being among them, are developing concepts for disposal of used fuel from power generating nuclear reactors. As in underground mining operations, the disposal facilities will require excavation of many kilometres of shafts and tunnels through the host rock mass. The need to maintain the stability of excavations and safety of workers will be of paramount importance. Also, excavations required for many radioactive waste repositories will ultimately need to be backfilled and sealed to maintain stability and minimize any potential for migration of radionuclides, should they escape their disposal containers. The method used to excavate the tunnels and shafts, and the rock damage that occurs due to excavation, will greatly affect the performance characteristics of repository sealing systems. The underground rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering work performed at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has led to the development of excavation technologies that reduce rock damage in subsurface excavations. This paper discusses the excavation methods used to construct the URL and their application in planning for the construction of similar underground laboratories and repositories for radioactive wastes. (author)

  13. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE EXCAVATION METHODS IN BAUXITE DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Perić

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground bauxite excavation in Yugoslavia is getting more important recently due to gradual exploitation of shallow deposits. The main excavation method is sublevel caving method. That technology of exploitation is characterized by high excavation loosses reaching even to 50% due to mixing of bauxite with waste. By beds with competent limestone roof which are not liable to direct caving are formed unplanned open spaces so the work safety is often dangercd by sudden caving. That was the reason for carrying out the observations in situ and investigations on mathematical models to define boundary of excavated space stability. This investigation were the basis for the new conception of further excavation of the »Jukići-Didare« mine with the application of even three exploitation methods maximally adapted to the characteristics of the remaining part of deposit.

  14. Results of the Schooner excavation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewes, Howard A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Project Schooner, a nuclear detonation in interlayered hard and soft, partially saturated volcanic rock, was executed as a part of the Plowshare Program for development of nuclear excavation techniques. The primary objectives of this experiment were: (a) to obtain experimental data on crater development and size in a new medium to further verify existing rock mechanics computer codes and calculational techniques; and (b) to determine the fractional release of radioactivity from a nuclear detonation in wet rock. As was noted in the case of the Sedan experiment, appreciable (though relatively small) amounts of radioactivity were released to the environment from this detonation in hard, partially saturated rock. Although the thermo-nuclear explosive used in this experiment gave a yield of approximately 31 kilotons, only the equivalent of the fission products from about 370 tons of fission were distributed in both fallout and cloud. Data which have been reduced to date indicate that this released radioactivity underwent only a moderate amount of chemical fractionation, being much more similar in this respect to Sedan than to Danny Boy. (author)

  15. Summary of nuclear-excavation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, John [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Although many nuclear-excavation applications have been proposed, few have been seriously considered and none have been brought to fruition. This paper summarizes and discusses specific examples of a canal, a harbor, a highway cut and a nuclear quarry, all of which have been studied in some detail. It is believed that useful demonstration projects - such as a deep-water harbor and a nuclear quarry - can be safely accomplished with existing technology. Current assessments of the feasibility of constructing a sea-level canal in either Panama or Colombia appear to be favorable from a technical viewpoint. The concept of close spacing in row-charge designs has made it possible to greatly reduce the estimated required salvo yields for both proposed canals. Salvo yields have been reduced from 35 Mt to 13 Mt in Colombia and 11 Mt in Panama. As a result, the seismic motions predicted for large cities in these countries are similar to motions produced in populated areas in the United States by nuclear tests and earthquakes in which no real damage to residential or high-rise structures was noted. (author)

  16. Summary of nuclear-excavation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, John

    1970-01-01

    Although many nuclear-excavation applications have been proposed, few have been seriously considered and none have been brought to fruition. This paper summarizes and discusses specific examples of a canal, a harbor, a highway cut and a nuclear quarry, all of which have been studied in some detail. It is believed that useful demonstration projects - such as a deep-water harbor and a nuclear quarry - can be safely accomplished with existing technology. Current assessments of the feasibility of constructing a sea-level canal in either Panama or Colombia appear to be favorable from a technical viewpoint. The concept of close spacing in row-charge designs has made it possible to greatly reduce the estimated required salvo yields for both proposed canals. Salvo yields have been reduced from 35 Mt to 13 Mt in Colombia and 11 Mt in Panama. As a result, the seismic motions predicted for large cities in these countries are similar to motions produced in populated areas in the United States by nuclear tests and earthquakes in which no real damage to residential or high-rise structures was noted. (author)

  17. Results of the Schooner excavation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewes, Howard A.

    1970-01-01

    Project Schooner, a nuclear detonation in interlayered hard and soft, partially saturated volcanic rock, was executed as a part of the Plowshare Program for development of nuclear excavation techniques. The primary objectives of this experiment were: (a) to obtain experimental data on crater development and size in a new medium to further verify existing rock mechanics computer codes and calculational techniques; and (b) to determine the fractional release of radioactivity from a nuclear detonation in wet rock. As was noted in the case of the Sedan experiment, appreciable (though relatively small) amounts of radioactivity were released to the environment from this detonation in hard, partially saturated rock. Although the thermo-nuclear explosive used in this experiment gave a yield of approximately 31 kilotons, only the equivalent of the fission products from about 370 tons of fission were distributed in both fallout and cloud. Data which have been reduced to date indicate that this released radioactivity underwent only a moderate amount of chemical fractionation, being much more similar in this respect to Sedan than to Danny Boy. (author)

  18. Archaeological Excavations on the BTC Pipeline, Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Michael Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology and history of the Republic of Azerbaijan is not widely known in comparison with that of its neighbours. A recent summary of work in the Caucasus (Smith and Rubinson 2003 contained no specific references to results from Azerbaijan, although the studies were directly comparable and overlapped in period and geography. The reasons for this are many, perhaps the most influential is the presentation of material from Azerbaijan being confused with southern Azerbaijan in Iran in the wider academic audience and the use of the Cyrillic alphabet for reports written in the Azeri language over the past century. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC and South Caucasus Pipelines (SCP were constructed through Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey during the period 2003-5. BTC was built first from the Caspian Coast to the Georgian border during 2003 and 2004, while the SCP pipeline was built from the Georgian border towards the Caspian and parallel to the BTC in 2005. To investigate and mitigate the effects of this construction, a four year archaeological fieldwork programme (2001-2005 was carried out, followed by a further six-year post-excavation programme that ended in early 2011. This article draws on this extensive archaeological project that combines both the broad corpus of material known in Azerbaijan and new techniques introduced in the Republic for the first time and used on a range of sites that are of both national and international significance.

  19. Fatigue crack behaviour in mine excavator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Y.; Grondin, G.Y.; Elwi, A.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Fatigue cracking in excavation equipment represents a significant operating cost for oil sands operators. It is caused by high impact loads, the high frequency of load cycles, and large component sizes found in oil sands processing facilities. Monitoring and repair strategies for fatigue cracks are typically based on vendor specifications and the experience of maintenance personnel. This paper provided details of an optimized crack management program applied to a BE 395B shovel boom. The proposed crack management tool uses a chart to predict the remaining life of a corner crack in the shovel boom. Predictions are based on limited field measurements of operating loads as well as on data obtained from fatigue testing of boom material, and a finite element analysis of the shovel boom. Field and laboratory data are used along with fracture mechanics and finite element modelling to predict crack life. It was concluded that the tool will allow inspectors and planners to schedule repairs based on safe service life. The tool is applicable for any components subjected to fatigue loading. 3 refs., 21 tabs., 64 figs.

  20. Determination of near field excavation disturbance in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, R.; Hughes, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The computerized dilatometer system has rapidly and economically provided deformation moduli of low and high modulus rock, determined the extent of excavation disturbance surrounding an underground opening and located open fracture within a rock mass. Results from both test sites indicate that the moduli obtained were influenced by the in situ tangential stress field. It has been shown that the near field excavation disturbance is kept to a minimum through the use of careful excavation techniques such as the tunnel boring machine. In turn, the in situ tangential stress levels and deformation moduli are maximized while the corresponding permeability is minimized

  1. Radon in an underground excavation site in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venelampi, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports on radon measurements and actions taken in a large underground excavation site in Helsinki, where a coal store was excavated underneath an existing power plant. The measurements were carried out by taking grab samples using Lucas type scintillation cells. Large variations in radon concentrations were observed during the three-year study. The reasons for variations are discussed and recommendations are given for radon monitoring procedures in underground excavation sites. The importance of ventilation to reduce the radon level is stressed. (P.A.)

  2. Further excavations of the submerged city of Dwarka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.R.

    Since 1983 the Marine Archaeology Unit of the National Institute of Oceanography is engaged in the offshore exploration and excavation of the legendary city of Dwaraka in the coastal waters of Dwarka in Gujarat. Brief accounts of the findings...

  3. MPED: An ISRU Bucket Ladder Excavator Demonstrator System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a planetary surface tool called the Multi Purpose Excavation Demonstrator (MPED), which is intended to both extract Lunar Soil to feed an...

  4. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  5. Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible, impact-actuated digging tool for the excavation of frozen and compacted regolith on the lunar surface and...

  6. Telerobotic Excavator Designed to Compete in NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Rodney; Santin, Cara; Yousef, Ahmed; Nguyen, Thien; Helferty, John; Pillapakkam, Shriram

    2011-01-01

    The second annual NASA Lunabotics Mining competition is to be held in May 23-28, 2011. The goal of the competition is for teams of university level students to design, build, test and compete with a fully integrated lunar excavator on a simulated lunar surface. Our team, named Lunar Solutions I, will be representing Temple University's College of Engineering in the competition. The team's main goal was to build a robot which is able to compete with other teams, and ultimately win the competition. The main challenge of the competition was to build a wireless robot that can excavate and collect a minimum of 10 kilograms of the regolith material within 15 minutes. The robot must also be designed to operate in conditions similar to those found on the lunar surface. The design of the lunar excavator is constrained by a set of requirements determined by NASA and detailed in the competition's rulebook. The excavator must have the ability to communicate with the "main base" wirelessly, and over a Wi-Fi network. Human operators are located at a remote site approximately 60 meters away from the simulated lunar surface upon which the robot must excavate the lunar regolith surface. During the competition, the robot will operate in a separate area from the control room in an area referred to as the "Lunarena." From the control room, the operators will have to control the robot using visual feedback from cameras placed both within the arena and on the robot. Using this visual feedback the human operators control the robots movement using both keyboard and joystick commands. In order to place in the competition, a minimum of 10 kg of regolith material has to be excavated, collected, and dumped into a specific location. For that reason, the robot must be provided with an effective and powerful excavation system. Our excavator uses tracks for the drive system. After performing extensive research and trade studies, we concluded that tracks would be the most effective method for

  7. Excavated rock materials from tunnels for sprayed concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Judy Yuen Wah; Aarstad, Kari; De Weerdt, Klaartje; Bjøntegaard, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    Sand extracted from natural resources is widely used in concrete production nowadays. The increase in demand for concrete production has resulted in shortage of natural sand resources, especially in terms of suitable materials for concrete production. At the same time, large amounts of excavated rock materials are and have been generated from tunnelling projects and discarded. Hence, there is an opportunity to use these excavated rock materials as aggregates for concrete production. The chall...

  8. Radiological safety research for nuclear excavation projects - Interoceanic canal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klement, A.W. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The general radiological problems encountered in nuclear cratering and nuclear excavation projects are discussed. Procedures for assessing radiological problems in such projects are outlined. Included in the discussions are source term, meteorology, fallout prediction and ecological factors. Continuing research requirements as well as pre- and post-excavation studies are important considerations. The procedures followed in the current interoceanic canal feasibility studies provide examples of radiological safety problems, current solutions and needed research. (author)

  9. Radiological safety research for nuclear excavation projects - Interoceanic canal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, Jr, A W [U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The general radiological problems encountered in nuclear cratering and nuclear excavation projects are discussed. Procedures for assessing radiological problems in such projects are outlined. Included in the discussions are source term, meteorology, fallout prediction and ecological factors. Continuing research requirements as well as pre- and post-excavation studies are important considerations. The procedures followed in the current interoceanic canal feasibility studies provide examples of radiological safety problems, current solutions and needed research. (author)

  10. Determining the productivity of frontal-selective excavation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikenzhin, A E; Ermekov, T E

    1979-01-01

    The engineering parameters of the VMF-2 frontal-selective excavation machine are given. Calculation formulae are given for determining the feed speed of the working tool relative to the difference in the motion of the arm of the working tool and the feed speed of the hydraulic jack lifter. A methodology is developed for calculating the productivity of the excavator depending on various engineering conditions, accounting for modifications in its design.

  11. Controlled drill ampersand blast excavation at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Onagi, D.P.; Thompson, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A controlled drill and blast method has been developed and used to excavate the Underground Research Laboratory, a geotechnical facility constructed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in crystalline rock. It has been demonstrated that the method can effectively reduce the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and is suitable for the construction of a used fuel disposal vault in the plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield

  12. Room 209 excavation response test in the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in conjunction with excavation of a tunnel (Room 209) through a near-vertical water-bearing fracture oriented perpendicular to the tunnel axis. Encountering a fracture with such desirable characteristics provided a unique opportunity during construction of the URL to try out instrumentation and analytical methods for use in the Excavation Response Experiment (ERE) planned as one of the major URL experiments. The test has produced a valuable data set for validating numerical models. Four modelling groups predicted the response that would be monitored by the instruments. The predictions of the mechanical response were generally good. However, the predictions of the permeability and hydraulic pressure changes in the fracture, and the water flows into the tunnel, were poor. It is concluded that we may not understand the mechanisms that occur in the fracture in response to excavation. Laboratory testing, and development of a contracting joint code, has been initiated to further investigate this phenomenon. Preliminary results indicate that the excavation damaged zone in the walls and crown is less than 0.5 m thick and has relatively low permeability. The damaged zone in the floor is at least 1 m thick and has relatively high permeability. The damage in the floor could be reduced in future excavations by using controlled blasting methods similar to those used for the walls and crown

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation

  15. Choroidal Excavation in Eye with Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Asao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. Methods: This is an observational case report. Results: A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. Conclusions: The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field.

  16. Research on Trajectory Planning and Autodig of Hydraulic Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the advances in computer control technology keep emerging, robotic hydraulic excavator becomes imperative. It can improve excavation accuracy and greatly reduce the operator’s labor intensity. The 12-ton backhoe bucket excavator has been utilized in this research work where this type of excavator is commonly used in engineering work. The kinematics model of operation device (boom, arm, bucket, and swing in excavator is established in both Denavit-Hartenberg coordinates for easy programming and geometric space for avoiding blind spot. The control approach is based on trajectory tracing method with displacements and velocities feedbacks. The trajectory planning and autodig program is written by Visual C++. By setting the bucket teeth’s trajectory, the program can automatically plan the velocity and acceleration of each hydraulic cylinder and motor. The results are displayed through a 3D entity simulation environment which can present real-time movements of excavator kinematics. Object-Oriented Graphics Rendering Engine and skeletal animation are used to give accurate parametric control and feedback. The simulation result shows that a stable linear autodig can be achieved. The errors between trajectory planning command and simulation model are analyzed.

  17. Heart rot hotel: fungal communities in red-cockaded woodpecker excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2015-01-01

    Tree-cavity excavators such as woodpeckers are ecosystem engineers that have potentially complex but poorly documented associations with wood decay fungi. Fungi facilitate cavity excavation by preparing and modifying excavation sites for cavity excavators. Associations between fungi and endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCWs) are particularly interesting because...

  18. Identifying the cutting tool type used in excavations using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonak, J.; Gajewski, J. [Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The paper presents results of preliminary research on utilising neural networks to identify excavating cutting tool's type used in multi-tool excavating heads of mechanical coal miners. Such research is necessary to identify rock excavating process with a given head, and construct adaptation systems for control of excavating process with such a head.

  19. Archaeological Excavation and Deep Mapping in Historic Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carenza Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of more than a hundred small archaeological “test pit” excavations carried out in 2013 within four rural communities in eastern England. Each excavation used standardized protocols in a different location within the host village, with the finds dated and mapped to create a series of maps spanning more than 3500 years, in order to advance understanding of the spatial development of settlements and landscapes over time. The excavations were all carried out by local volunteers working physically within their own communities, supported and advised by professional archaeologists, with most test pits sited in volunteers’ own gardens or those of their friends, family or neighbors. Site-by-site, the results provided glimpses of the use made by humans of each of the excavated sites spanning prehistory to the present day; while in aggregate the mapped data show how settlement and land-use developed and changed over time. Feedback from participants also demonstrates the diverse positive impacts the project had on individuals and communities. The results are presented and reviewed here in order to highlight the contribution archaeological test pit excavation can make to deep mapping, and the contribution that deep mapping can make to rural communities.

  20. Prediction of permeability changes in an excavation response zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Naoto; Ishii, Takashi; Kuroda, Hidetaka; Tada, Hiroyuki

    1992-01-01

    In geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, stress changes due to cavern excavation may expand the existing fractures and create possible bypasses for groundwater. This paper proposes a simple method for predicting permeability changes in the excavation response zones. Numerical analyses using this method predict that the response zones created by cavern excavation would differ greatly in thickness and permeability depending on the depth of the cavern site and the initial in-situ stress, that when the cavern site is deeper, response zones would expand more and permeability would increases more, and that if the ratio of horizontal to vertical in-situ stress is small, extensive permeable zones at the crown and the bottom would occur, whereas if the ratio is large, extensive permeable zones would occur in the side walls. (orig.)

  1. Excavations at Kainapirina (SAC), Watom Island, Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.; Anson, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is the final report on excavations in 1985 at the locality of Kainapirina (site SAC), situated on the Reber mission station adjacent to Rakival village on Watom Island. It backgrounds previous investigations there, the objectives of the 1985 endeavours, and the excavation strategies undertaken to achieve them. The occupation sequence based on stratigraphy, dating, and associated structural features is described and illustrated. Aspects of the human skeletal remains recovered are briefly reviewed; the economic evidence is discussed in detail. Analyses are provided of the various portable artefacts from these Lapita contexts, particularly stone adzes. obsidian, and pottery. These document an 'exotic to Watom' exchange component among the local manufactures. It is concluded that these 1985 excavations at SAC currently best enable an understanding of the significance of the entire Reber-Rakival Lapita site. (author)

  2. Remotely operated excavator needs assessment/site visit summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, J.; Haller, S.; Worsley, R. [Westinghouse Environmental Management Co. of Ohio, Cincinnati, OH (United States); King, M. [THETA Technology Inc. (United States)

    1992-12-02

    The Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration requested an assessment of soil excavation needs relative to soil remediation. The following list identifies the DOE sites assessed: Mound Laboratory, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, and Fernald Site. The reviewed sites fall into one or more of the following three categories: production, EPA National Priorities List, or CERCLA (superfund) designation. Only three of the sites appear to have the need for a remotely operated excavator rope. Hanford and Idaho Falls have areas of high-level radioactive contamination either buried or in/under buildings. The Fernald site has a need for remote operated equipment of different types. It is their feeling that remote equipment can be used to remove the health dangers to humans by removing them from the area. Most interviewees stated that characterization technologies needs are more immediate concern over excavation. In addition, the sites do not have similar geographic conditions which would aid in the development of a generic precision excavator. The sites visited were not ready to utilize or provide the required design information necessary to draft a performance specification. This creates a strong case against the development of one type of ROPE for use at these sites. Assuming soil characterization technology/methodology is improved sufficiently to allow accurate and real time field characterization then development of a precision excavator might be pursued based on FEMP needs, since the FEMP`s sole scope of work is remediation. The excavator could then be used/tested and then later modified for other sites as warranted.

  3. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests

  4. Support system, excavation arrangement, and process of supporting an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Bill W.

    2017-08-01

    A support system, an excavation arrangement, and a process of supporting an object are disclosed. The support system includes a weight-bearing device and a camming mechanism positioned below the weight-bearing device. A downward force on the weight-bearing device at least partially secures the camming mechanism to opposing surfaces. The excavation arrangement includes a borehole, a support system positioned within and secured to the borehole, and an object positioned on and supported by the support system. The process includes positioning and securing the support system and positioning the object on the weight-bearing device.

  5. Geotechnical characterization and construction methods for SSC tunnel excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.P.; Lundin, T.K.

    1990-06-01

    The site for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) facility was selected in 1988 after a nationwide proposal competition. The selected site is located in Ellis County, Texas, surrounding the town of Waxahachie which is about 30 miles (48 km) south of the City of Dallas central business district. This paper will describe the geotechnical conditions anticipated for excavation at the SSC site. A general geologic and geomechanical description of the rock present will be followed by a summary of the site-specific conceptual design for the tunneled components of the SSC machine. The Supercollider project will include about 70 miles (113) km of tunnel excavation

  6. Excavations at Pukearuhe (N99/49), North Taranaki, 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.; Prickett, N.

    1984-01-01

    The 1968 salvage excavations at Pukearuhe (N99/49), north Taranaki, are reported. Pukearuhe was for long a Ngati Tama fortification; in the period 1865-1885 it was occupied by european forces, firstly, imperial troops and Taranaki military settlers, later, armed constabulary. Ngati Tama and european occupation was based on the powerful strategic situation of Pukearuhe at the northern gateway into Taranaki. Excavations revealed evidence of the Maori and European occupation. Radiocarbon dates were obtained for Maori occupation. European material adds to the knowledge of sites relating to the period of military conflict in Taranaki which extended from 1860 to the early 1880s

  7. Detailed measurements of deformation in the excavation disturbed zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.M.; Martino, J.B.; Spinney, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    An excavation damage extensometer (EDEX) is described. It was designed to enable detailed small-scale deformation measurements to be made in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around a tunnel opening in stressed rock. Its use in the Mine-by Experiment in unfractured granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (Manitoba) is described. The results obtained from an array of eight EDEX installations are presented. These demonstrate how the EDEX can be used to provide data on the EDZ which is supplementary to that obtained by larger scale borehole extensometers and a acoustic emission/micro-seismic monitoring system. (4 figures, 5 references) (UK)

  8. Outline and results of study on excavation response of rock mass around shaft in shaft excavation effects project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kozo; Matsui, Hiroya; Sato, Toshinori

    1993-01-01

    A shaft, with a diameter of 6 m and a depth of 150 m, has been newly excavated in sedimentary rock and excavation response of rock mass around the shaft has been measured and analyzed. Excavation response has been evaluated based on the results of measurement of rock mass movement, such as displacement and strain, and change of rock property, such as deformability and permeability. This study indicates that rock property has been changed with in about 1 m from the shaft wall, and rock mass movement and property change has been influenced by rock facies, fracture and re-distributed stress. The relation between property change and these factors is remained to be evaluated in future study. (author)

  9. Preliminary results of excavations at Lincoln Cave, Sterkfontein, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reynolds, SC

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available , sandwiched between two flowstone layers which could be dated using uranium series methods. The excavation furthermore yielded good indications that a portion of an older breccia has been eroded and that fauna and artefacts from this older, reworked breccia...

  10. Investigation of the impact of excavation (reinforced) on the seismic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, as a result of earthquake, abundant losses may be created as result of roof motion and sliding and rupture. Under normal conditions, the ground and soils forming the ground tolerate and transfer the existing stresses and any kind of action like excavation and release of trench and applying dynamic load could ...

  11. A new bee species that excavates sandstone nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many wonder why animals act in seemingly injurious ways. Understanding the behavior of pollinators such as bees is especially important because of the necessary ecosystem service they provide. The new species Anthophora pueblo, discovered excavating sandstone nests, provides a model system for addre...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.651 - Specific excavation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Exposure to vehicular traffic. Employees exposed to public vehicular traffic shall be provided with, and... containing a concentration of a flammable gas in excess of 20 percent of the lower flammable limit of the gas... ensure proper operation. (3) If excavation work interrupts the natural drainage of surface water (such as...

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ATTITUDE CONTROL BUCKET‐WHEEL EXCAVATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana ONDERKOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This lecture deals with the application problems of convertibility GPS system at paddle excavator K 800. The claims of the modern operating surface mining of the excavators requires a lot of information for monitoring of mining process, capacity mining, selective extraction etc. The utilization of monitoring the excavator setting by GPS system proved to be the only one proper because the receivers are resistant to the vibration, dust, temperature divergence and weather changeable. Only the direct contact with communications satellite is required. It means that they can´t be located in a metal construction space (shadow caused by construction elements, influence of electrical high voltage cables even they can´t be located close to the paddle wheel on the paddle boom (shadow possibility caused by cuttinng edge created during lower gangplanks mining. This is the reason that GPS receivers are set uppermost on the metal construction excavator and the mathematical formulation is required for determination of paddle wheel petting. The relations for calculation of the paddle wheel coordinate were defined mathematically and after that the mathematical model was composed.

  14. Detecting defects in diaphragm walls prior to excavation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.; Hopman, V.; Van Tol, A.F.; Broere, W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent incidents with leaking diaphragm walls during construction of subway lines in Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Netherlands) have led to reconsideration of the diaphragm wall as a retaining wall construction for deep excavations. In our opinion the joints between the panels are the weak spot. During

  15. Estimating RMR Values for Underground Excavations in a Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During underground excavations for civil or mining engineering purposes, the variations in rock mass quality are important, especially for the design of the most suitable support to be applied to ensure stability. The aim of this investigation is to model the expected behavior of the ground, and thus to predict the scenarios indicating potential variations in the quality of the rock mass during underground excavation. When considering the rock mass rating (RMR values observed at the excavation face in six study cases, which together total more than 27 km in length of underground excavation by drilling and blasting (D&B, and based on the observed RMR values at the face, the most probable value (1–100 is estimate for the RMR index at the five subsequent front advances. It is concluded that, up to about 20 m ahead of the current face, the quality of the rock mass for the next advances is close to the quality observed at the present face, and that, with increasing distance, there is a greater deviation of RMR values with respect to the quality observed at the current face.

  16. Chip shape and secondary fragmentation through TBM excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tanimoto, Chikaosa; Ueno, Takaaki; Koizumi, Yu; Nakane, Tatsuto

    2008-01-01

    The chips through TBM tunneling are well-known for one of useful indices to reflect the geological conditions. The flat and elongated chips whose width are equal to the spacing of cutter trace indicate the cutting face with less joints and good practice of TBM excavation with less secondary fragmentation rate. Through a case history in granitic rock, the authors proposed the new index, which is the ratio of length of major axis to thickness. Also the authors studied the relationship between the index and the excavation efficiencies. In conclusion, it was clarified that chips with the new index over 3.5 were generally observed when a TBM drove with less than 30% the secondary fragmentation rate. (author)

  17. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Department's needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications

  18. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  19. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  20. A Prototype Bucket Wheel Excavator for the Moon, Mars and Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muff, T.; Johnson, L.; King, R.; Duke, M. B.

    2004-02-01

    Excavation of surface regolith material is the first step in processes to extract volatile materials from planetary surface regolith for the production of propellant and life support consumables. Typically, concentrations of volatiles are low, so relatively large amounts of material must be excavated. A bucket wheel excavator is proposed, which has the capability of continuous excavation, which is readily adapted to granular regolith materials as found on the Moon, in drift deposits on Mars, and probably on the surface of asteroids and satellites, such as Phobos. The bucket wheel excavator is relatively simple, compared to machines such as front end loaders. It also has the advantage that excavation forces are principally horizontal rather than vertical, which minimizes the need for excavator mass and suits it to operations in reduced gravity fields. A prototype small bucket wheel excavator has been built at approximately the scale of the rovers that are carried to Mars on the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The prototype allows the collection of data on forces exerted and power requirements for excavation and will provide data on which more efficient designs can be based. At excavation rates in the vicinity of one rover mass of material excavated per hour, tests of the prototype demonstrate that the power required is largely that needed to operate the excavator hardware and not related strongly to the amount of material excavated. This suggests that the excavation rate can be much larger for the same excavation system mass. Work on this prototype is continuing on the details of transfer of material from the bucket wheel to an internal conveyor mechanism, which testing demonstrated to be problematic in the current design.

  1. ROCK MASS DAMAGED ZONE CAUSED BY BLASTING DURING TUNNEL EXCAVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Antičević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concerning the design of deep geological repositories, requirements in terms of damaged rock are the same or more rigorous than for the design of tunnel. The aforementioned research is directed towards determining the depth of damage zone caused by blasting. The depth of the damage zone is determined by measuring the changes of physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass around the tunnel excavation profile. By this research the drilling and blasting parameters were correlated with the depth and size of the damage zone (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Silica exposure to excavation workers during the excavation of a low level radiological waste pit and tritium disposal shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the task-length average (TLA) respirable dust and respirable silica airborne concentrations to which construction workers excavating volcanic tuff at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were exposed. These workers were excavating a low level radiological waste disposal pit of final dimensions 720 feet long, 132 feet wide and 60 feet deep. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) evaluate exposures; (2) determine if the type of machinery used affects the respirable dust concentration in the breathing zone of the worker; (3) evaluate the efficacy of wetting the pit to reduce the respirable dust exposure; and (4) determine if exposure increases with increasing depth of pit due to the walls of the pit blocking the cross wind ventilation

  3. Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Francis, N.; Houseworth, J.; Kramer, N.

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic

  4. Finite-element modelling of geomechanical and hydraulic responses to the room 209 heading extension excavation response experiment 2: post-excavation analysis of experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T; Griffith, P; Nakka, B W; Khair, K R

    1993-07-01

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the 240 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in conjunction with the excavation of a tunnel (Room 209) through a narrow, near-vertical, water-bearing fracture oriented almost perpendicular to the tunnel axis. This report presents a post-excavation analysis of the predicted mechanical response of the granitic rock mass to the tunnel excavation and the near-field hydraulic response of the fracture zone, compares the numerical modelling predictions with the actual measured response, provides information on the rock mass and fracture from back-analysis of the responses, and makes recommendations for future experiments. Results indicate that displacements and stress changes were reasonably well predicted. Pressure drops at hydrology boreholes and inflow to the tunnel were overpredicted, and fracture permeability changes were underpredicted. The permeability change is considered too large to be solely stress-induced. The back-calculated deformation modulus indicated nonlinear softening of the rock within 3.5 m of the tunnel wall. This is likely due to both excavation damage and the confining stress dependence of the modulus. For future excavation experiments it is recommended that mechanical excavation should replace the drill-and-blast technique; excavation damage should be incorporated into mechanical models; an improved hydraulic fracture model should be developed; and a coupled geomechanical-hydraulic analysis of fracture flow should be developed. (author). 16 refs., 15 tabs., 156 figs.

  5. Finite-element modelling of geomechanical and hydraulic responses to the room 209 heading extension excavation response experiment 2: post-excavation analysis of experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Griffith, P.; Nakka, B.W.; Khair, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the 240 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in conjunction with the excavation of a tunnel (Room 209) through a narrow, near-vertical, water-bearing fracture oriented almost perpendicular to the tunnel axis. This report presents a post-excavation analysis of the predicted mechanical response of the granitic rock mass to the tunnel excavation and the near-field hydraulic response of the fracture zone, compares the numerical modelling predictions with the actual measured response, provides information on the rock mass and fracture from back-analysis of the responses, and makes recommendations for future experiments. Results indicate that displacements and stress changes were reasonably well predicted. Pressure drops at hydrology boreholes and inflow to the tunnel were overpredicted, and fracture permeability changes were underpredicted. The permeability change is considered too large to be solely stress-induced. The back-calculated deformation modulus indicated nonlinear softening of the rock within 3.5 m of the tunnel wall. This is likely due to both excavation damage and the confining stress dependence of the modulus. For future excavation experiments it is recommended that mechanical excavation should replace the drill-and-blast technique; excavation damage should be incorporated into mechanical models; an improved hydraulic fracture model should be developed; and a coupled geomechanical-hydraulic analysis of fracture flow should be developed. (author). 16 refs., 15 tabs., 156 figs

  6. Development of a teleoperated backhoe for buried waste excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly five decades the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have engaged in broad-based research and development activities as well as nuclear weapons component production. As a by-product of these activities, large quantities of waste materials have been granted. One of the most common approaches used for solid waste storage was to bury waste containers in pits and trenches. With the current emphasis on environmental restoration, DOE now plans to either retrieve much of the legacy of buried waste or stabilize the waste in place via in situ vitrification or other means. Because of the variety of materials that have been buried over the years, the hazards of retrieval are significant if performed using conventional manned operations. The potential hazards, in addition to radiation exposure, include pyrophorics, toxic chemicals, and explosives. Although manifests exist for much of the buried waste, these records are often incomplete compared to today's requirements. Because of the potential hazards and uncertainty about waste contents and container integrity, it is highly desirable to excavate these wastes using remotely operated equipment. In this paper the authors describe the development of a teleoperated military tractor called the Small Emplacement Excavator (SEE). Development of the SEE is being funded jointly by both DOE and the US Army. The DOE sponsor is the Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Program. The US Army sponsor is the Program Manager for Ammunition Logistics, Picatinny Arsenal. The primary interest for DOE is in the application to remote excavation of buried waste, while the primary emphasis for the US Army is in the remote retrieval of unexploded ordnance. Technical requirements for these two tasks are very similar and, therefore, justify a joint development project. 1 ref

  7. Excavation Technology for Hard Rock - Problems and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillani, S.T.A.; Butt, N.

    2009-01-01

    Civil engineering projects have greatly benefited from the mechanical excavation of hard rock technology. Mining industry, on the other hand, is still searching for major breakthroughs to mechanize and then automate the winning of ore and drivage of access tunnels in its metalliferous sector. The aim of this study is to extend the scope of drag bits for road headers in hard rock cutting. Various factors that can impose limitations on the potential applications of drag bits in hard rock mining are investigated and discussed along with alternative technology options. (author)

  8. Rock samples from LEP/LHC tunnel excavation

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Rock samples taken from 0 to 170 m below ground on the CERN site when the LEP (Large Electron Positron collider) pit number 6 was drilled in Bois-chatton (Versonnex). The challenges of LHC civil engineering: A mosaic of works, structures and workers of differents crafts and origins. Three consulting consortia for the engineering and the follow-up of the works. Four industrial consortia for doing the job. A young team of 25 CERN staff, 30 surface buildings, 32 caverns of all sizes, 170 000 m3 of concrete, 420 000 m3 excavated. 1998-2004 : six years of work and 340 millions Swiss Francs.

  9. Effect of blasting on output increase of bucket wheel excavators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, P.

    1987-12-01

    In brown coal surface mines, consolidated sediments become a problem as mining operations advance into greater depth below the original terrain. Owing to higher digging resistance, the output of bucket wheel excavators drops. This problem may be solved by blasting technology and using drilling machines with higher digging force. This paper describes the blasting operations at the Nastup Mines in Tusmice, Czechoslovakia. About 60% of blasting explosives used is a simple mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel (ANFO), the rest falls on classic blasting gelatines and blasting explosives plasticized by slurry. It is found that blasting improves output by 30% while electric energy consumption is reduced.

  10. Assessment of the mechanical stability of underground excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Shigemori; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-01-01

    Each tunnel in the underground high level radioactive waste repository must be mechanically stable to maintain safety throughout the construction, emplacement operations and closure phase. The mechanical stability of underground excavations were assessed using a theoretical analysis and a finite element method taking a wide range of geological environment in Japan into consideration to establish confidence in the construction of disposal facilities. The results show that it is possible to maintain the mechanical stability with adequate tunnel spacing and disposal pit pitch and proper mechanical support. The procedure used for the analysis of the mechanical stability in the H12 report and the results are described in this report. (author)

  11. Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in

  12. Excavation of Site U14/1945, Oropi Valley, Tauranga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.

    2004-01-01

    Site U14/1945 was originally recorded as two small terraces, with two probable kumara storage pits visible on the surface of the upper terrace, and shell midden visible on the surface of the lower terrace, on a low, approximately 4 m high, hill. The most unusual feature in the site, and my main purpose in writing this paper, was the oven scoop in Trench 1. This feature appeared rather unusual when excavated for a number of reasons. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. A new bee species that excavates sandstone nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael C; Griswold, Terry; Pitts, James P; Parker, Frank D

    2016-09-12

    Humanity has long been fascinated by animals with apparently unfavorable lifestyles [1]. Nesting habits are especially important because they can limit where organisms live, thereby driving population, community, and even ecosystem dynamics [2]. The question arises, then, why bees nest in active termite mounds [3] or on the rim of degassing volcanoes, seemingly preferring such hardship [4]. Here, we present a new bee species that excavates sandstone nests, Anthophora (Anthophoroides) pueblo Orr (described in Supplemental Information, published with this article online), despite the challenges already inherent to desert life. Ultimately, the benefits of nesting in sandstone appear to outweigh the associated costs in this system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Underground excavation methods for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshel, J.; Gupta, D.; Nataraja, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on rock excavation methods for a High-Level Waste repository that should be selected to limit the potential for creating preferential pathways for groundwater to travel to the waste packages or for radionuclides to migrate to the accessible environment. The use of water and other foreign substances should be controlled so that the repository performance is not compromised. The excavated openings should remain stable so that operations can be carried out safely and the retrievability option maintained. As per the current conceptual designs presented by the Department of Energy, the exploratory shaft facility becomes a part of the repository if the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for repository development. Therefore, the methods of constructing the underground openings should be compatible with the performance requirements for the repository. Also, the degree of damage to the rock surrounding the openings and the extent of the damage zone should not preclude adequate site characterization. The ESf construction and operation should be compatible with the site data gathering activities, such as geological, thermomechanical, hydrological and geochemical testing

  15. Archaeological excavation of T10/993 at Matarangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furey, L.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the excavation of a small midden site, T10/993, representative of a number of like sites in the sand dunes at Matarangi on the east coast of the Coromandel Peninsula. Few sites of this type have been investigated archaeologically yet they are the remains of a very important part of the Maori economic cycle. The sites could be termed shellfish processing sites. The excavation was a condition imposed by Historic Places Trust on the granting of an authority to modify sites T10/993 and 994 (HPT Authority no. 1997/42), prior to destruction of the sites (Furey 1998). Matarangi Beach Estates commissioned the author to undertake an archaeological site survey of a grassed area at Matarangi Beach which was to be Stage 14 of the urban housing development. The area was in excess of 13 hectares. Two sites were found, T10/993 and 994, and recommendations made for monitoring of the dunes as the topsoil was removed (Furey 1997a). (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Shaft Boring Machine: A method of mechanized vertical shaft excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodell, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) is a vertical application of proven rock boring technology. The machine applies a rotating cutter wheel with disk cutters for shaft excavation. The wheel is thrust against the rock by hydraulic cylinders and slews about the shaft bottom as it rotates. Cuttings are removed by a clam shell device similar to conventional shaft mucking and the muck is hoisted by buckets. The entire machine moves down (and up) the shaft through the use of a system of grippers thrust against the shaft wall. These grippers and their associated cylinders also provide the means to maintain verticality and stability of the machine. The machine applies the same principles as tunnel boring machines but in a vertical mode. Other shaft construction activities such as rock bolting, utility installation and shaft concrete lining can be accomplished concurrent with shaft boring. The method is comparable in cost to conventional sinking to a depth of about 460 meters (1500 feet) beyond which the SBM has a clear host advantage. The SBM has a greater advantage in productivity in that it can excavate significantly faster than drill and blast methods

  17. FROM EXCAVATIONS TO WEB: A GIS FOR ARCHAEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. D'Urso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study and the protection of Cultural Heritage in recent years have undergone a revolution about the search tools and the reference disciplines. The technological approach to the problem of the collection, organization and publication of archaeological data using GIS software has completely changed the essence of the traditional methods of investigation, paving the way to the development of several application areas, up to the Cultural Resource Management. A relatively recent specific sector of development for archaeological GIS development sector is dedicated to the intra - site analyses aimed to recording, processing and display information obtained during the excavations. The case - study of the archaeological site located in the south - east of San Pietro Vetere plateau in Aquino, in the Southern Lazio, is concerned with the illustration of a procedure describing the complete digital workflow relative to an intra-site analysis of an archaeological dig. The GIS project implementation and its publication on the web, thanks to several softwares, particularly the FOSS (Free Open Source Software Quantum - GIS, are an opportunity to reflect on the strengths and the critical nature of this particular application of the GIS technology. For future developments in research it is of fundamental importance the identification of a digital protocol for processing of excavations (from the acquisition, cataloguing, up data insertion, also on account of a possible future Open Project on medieval Aquino.

  18. Evaluation of excavation experience: Pierre shale. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, J.F. Jr.; Gentry, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Pierre shale and its stratigraphic equivalents represent a potentially favorable geologic environment for underground storage of hazardous waste products. These rock formations cover great areal and vertical extents, and represent some of the least permeable rock formations within the continental United States. There are, however, several engineering problems associated with constructing underground openings in Pierre shale. This formation is relatively weak and tends to deteriorate rather rapidly if not protected from the mine environment. It will be necessary to place all underground openings below the surficially weathered upper 50 to 70 feet of Pierre shale which contains groundwater moving on fracture permeability. The optimum site for disposal of hazardous waste in Pierre shale, or its stratigraphic equivalents, would be a seismically stable platform bounded on all sides by faults. The optimum size of individual openings would be the minimum necessary for access, storage, and retrieval of waste components. Underground excavations in Pierre shale must be made with care, must be of limited dimensions, must be widely spaced, must be protected from prolonged contact with the mine environment, must be supported immediately after excavation, and must be sited to avoid areas of faulting and(or) intense jointing. Underground openings constructed with boring machines and supported with wet shotcrete are recommended

  19. Summary report of soil removal preliminary excavations. (Report No. ES-389-75-171)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickland, C.E.

    1975-07-01

    A proposed technique to remove small areas, 2 , of contaminated soil is discussed along with the results of an actual excavation. Based on the results of a trial excavation in uncontaminated soil and an excavation of two trenches in contaminated soil, it is concluded that the techniques described are a satisfactory means of contaminated soil removal. It can be done safely with a release of airborne plutonium a factor of 10 or more below the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) limit

  20. A study experiment of auto idle application in the excavator engine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Wawan, E-mail: wawan5527@gmail.com; Maksum, Hasan; Putra, Dwi Sudarno, E-mail: dwisudarnoputra@ft.unp.ac.id; Wahyudi, Retno [State University of Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Azmi, Meri, E-mail: meriazmi@gmail.com [State Polytechnic of Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of applying auto idle to excavator engine performance, such as machine unitization and fuel consumption in Excavator. Steps to be done are to modify the system JA 44 and 67 in Vehicle Electronic Control Unit (V-ECU). The modifications will be obtained from the pattern of the engine speed. If the excavator attachment is not operated, the engine speed will return to the idle speed automatically. From the experiment results the auto idle reduces fuel consumption in excavator engine.

  1. Parametric Optimization and Prediction Tool for Excavation and Prospecting Tasks, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics therefore proposed to develop a software tool for facilitating prospecting and excavation system trades in support of selecting an optimal...

  2. Numerical simulation of excavation and supporting of pit slope of the pump room in XNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mengqian; Zhu Xiuyun; Ji Zhonghua; Lu Yu; Sun Feng

    2014-01-01

    The research simulates the excavation and supporting of pit slope of the pump room in XNPC. According to the designing of excavation and supporting plan of slope, the numerical simulation of excavation and supporting of pit slope is conducted using the ANSYS finite element numerical simulation software. The simulation results show that, the displacement and stress caused by the excavation of above stage slope and pit slope are both small after taking some measures, including deep mixing pile reinforcement, retaining piles and prestressed anchor cable. Thus the slope is steady. (authors)

  3. Long-range terrain characterization for productive regolith excavation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research will develop long-range terrain characterization technologies for autonomous excavation in planetary environments. This work will develop a...

  4. Predictive modelling of an excavation test in indurated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garitte, B.; Vaunat, J.; Gens, A.; Vietor, T.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This Abstract presents the predictive hydro-mechanical (HM) modelling of an excavation performed in Opalinus clay in the Mont Terri underground laboratory. Niche 2 was excavated in the shaly facies of Opalinus clay from gallery 08. The area surrounding the gallery was intensively instrumented. The geology of Mont Terri is described in Thury and Bosssart (1999) and the parameters used in the analysis were taken from Bock (2009). The stress state is derived from Martin and Lanyion (2003). Gallery 08 is horseshoe shaped and has a mean radius of 2.25 m. It was excavated with a road header at a mean velocity of 1 m/day starting on January 30, 2008 (Gallery chainage 43.8) and ending on June 30, 2008 (Gallery chainage 123.8) with a stop from March 18, to April 24, to instrument the area of niche 2. Niche 2 was excavated by successive blastings 1.3 m deep until reaching a distance of 24 m from the gallery 08 wall. Advance was continuous from October 13, to November 7 with the exception of three stops of 3, 5 and 4 days. The niche has an average diameter of 4.5 m and has a slight upward slope of 0.98%. The excavation of gallery 08 from chainage 43.8 to chainage 123.8 and of the niche was simulated by relaxing the normal total stress and water pressure from the value before excavation to 0. The gallery advance rate was simulated in an approximate manner by applying successively the excavation procedure to 9 m long gallery sections. In the case of the niche, the blasting scheme and the application of the shotcrete was closely reproduced. The three dimensional geometry used in the simulation is shown. The coupled hydro-mechanical formulation used for the analysis is based on the simultaneous solution of the balance equation for solid mass, water mass and momentum (equilibrium). In accordance with field observations, it has been assumed that the medium remains saturated throughout. The formulation was completed with a number of

  5. Coastal dune dynamics in response to excavated foredune notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruessink, B. G.; Arens, S. M.; Kuipers, M.; Donker, J. J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dune management along developed coasts has traditionally focussed on the suppression of the geomorphic dynamics of the foredune to improve its role in sea defence. Because a stabilized foredune acts as an almost total barrier to aeolian transport from the beach, the habitat diversity in the more landward dunes has degraded. With the overarching objective to mitigate this undesirable loss in biodiversity, dune management projects nowadays increasingly intend to restore aeolian dynamics by reconnecting the beach-dune system with notches excavated through the foredune. Here, we use repeat topographic survey data to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal dune system in the Dutch National Park Zuid-Kennemerland to five notches excavated in 2012-2013 within an 850-m stretch of the 20-m high established foredune. The notches were dug in a V-shape (viewed onshore), with a width between approximately 50 and 100 m at the top, a (cross-dune) length between 100 and 200 m, and excavation depths between 9 and 12.5 m. The 1 × 1 m digital terrain models, acquired with airborne Lidar and UAV photogrammetry, illustrate that during the 3-year survey period the notches developed into a U-shape because of wall deflation, and that up to 8-m thick and 150-m long depositional lobes formed landward of the notches. Sand budget computations showed that the sand volume of the entire study area increased by about 22,750 m3/year, which, given the 850-m width of the study area, corresponds to an aeolian input from the beach of approximately 26.5 m3/m/year. Between 2006 and 2012 all wind-blown beach sand deposited on the seaward side of the foredune; since 2013, the notches have caused 75% of the sand to be deposited landward of the foredune. This highlights that the notches are highly effective conduits for aeolian transport into the back dunes. Future monitoring is required to determine for how long the notches will stimulate aeolian dynamics and if (and when) vegetation eventually

  6. Shaft Excavation in Frozen Ground at Point 5

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J

    2000-01-01

    Construction work on the 112 MCHF civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. The two shafts are to be sunk through approximately 50 m of water-bearing moraine to the underlying molasse rock. From a number of possible construction methods, ground freezing of the moraine was considered to be most appropriate. The ground freezing is used to control the groundwater and to support temporarily the moraine during excavation and lining of the shafts. The aim of this paper is to present the ground-freezing technique and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the system in the light of its first few months of running on the Point 5 site.

  7. Optical dating of potteries excavated from Pungnabtoseong earthen wall, Seoul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jin; Park, Mi Seon [Neosiskorea Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Joon; Nah, Hye Rim; Hong, Hyung Woo [National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emitted from natural crystalline mineral, usually quartz, feldspar, and so on, are mainly used to evaluate the paleodose for the age determination of archaeological and geological sample and the equivalent dose for retrospective dosimetry. TL/OSL age can be calculated as the ratio of paleodose to total annual dose rate which is determined from surrounding soil. In this study, we chemically extracted the quartz samples from potteries excavated in Pungnabtoseong earthen wall and observed the TL/OSL characteristics for paleodose determination. With the converted annual dose rate from the concentration of radioactive isotopes in its surrounding soil, optical date was evaluated and finally illustrated for interpreting the construction stage of Pungnabtoseong

  8. Stability assessment for underground excavations and key construction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Zhao, Yu; Niu, Fusheng

    2017-01-01

    This book examines how the state of underground structures can be determined with the assistance of force, deformation and energy. It then analyzes mechanized shield methods, the New Austrian tunneling method (NATM) and conventional methods from this new perspective. The book gathers a wealth of cases reflecting the experiences of practitioners and administrators alike. Based on statistical and engineering studies of these cases, as well as lab and field experiments, it develops a stability assessment approach incorporating a stable equilibrium, which enables engineers to keep the structure and surrounding rocks safe as long as the stable equilibrium and deformation compliance are maintained. The book illustrates the implementation of the method in various tunneling contexts, including soil-rock mixed strata, tunneling beneath operating roads, underwater tunnels, and tunnel pit excavation. It offers a valuable guide for researchers, designers and engineers, especially those who are seeking to understand the u...

  9. Excavations at Cook's Cove, Tolaga Bay, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.; Jacomb, C.; Brooks, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Cook's Cove site (Z17/311) on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand is an unusual example of an archaeological site spanning close to the full duration of the New Zealand prehistoric sequence. In addition to a record of Polynesian activities, the site is also well known as the type site for the North Island Holocene stratigraphy. Recent excavations at Cook's Cove have resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature of Polynesian occupation and adaptation in this part of the North Island. The application of an 'event phase' interpretative approach provides the means for reconstructing a detailed history of environmental processes and their relationships to cultural activities over a period of 700 years. (author). 61 refs., 17 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Application of neutron radiography to restoration of an excavated sword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuzawa, Fumitake; Murata, Tadashige; Ozaki, Makoto

    1992-01-01

    An excavated sword had turned to fragments of corrosion covered with grit and rust. There are two holes at the pommel and the guard which have elaborate inner walls. The original sword must have had the pommel and the guard, whose shapes had been the same as those of the holes. What were materials of them? Why have they disappeared to have changed into holes? No key which answers these questions has been gotten with macrography and X-ray radiography. Then neutron radiography was tried to examine that. Images which were not recognized on X-ray radiographs appeared on neutron ones. Above-mentioned questions were solved by investigation of them. This paper describes that the sword were well conserved and restored on the basis of it. (author)

  11. Bucket wheel excavator performances at Neyveli lignite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaraswamy, S; Mozumdar, B K

    1987-03-01

    Bucket-wheel excavators have been in use at the Neyveli Lignite Mine in the State of Tamil Nadu, India, since the early nineteen-sixties. The mining environment has been particularly harsh for BWE application. The adverse influencing factors are the hardness of the over-burden formation, high abrasivity of rock and artesian ground water conditions. In this paper, the performances of the BWEs at Neyveli have been statistically analysed to determine the effects of physico-mechanical properties of overburden, blasting and rainfall on machine productivity, availability, wear-and-tear of bucket teeth, power consumption, production efficiency and cost of mining. An empirical relationship between the production efficiency, defined as the ratio of actual production rate to the theoretical one, and the bench height and width, height of slices, specific cutting resistance of the overburden material and its clay content, consumption of explosives, and conveyor length has been established.

  12. Theoretical study of short pile effect in tunnel excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-yan; Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiao-mei; Li, Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The Misaki Sato Go ideal elastoplastic model is adopted and the two stage analysis theory is used to study the effect of tunnel excavation on short pile effect in this paper. In the first stage, the free field vertical displacement of the soil at the corresponding pile location is obtained by using empirical formula. In the second stage, the displacement is applied to the corresponding pile location. The equilibrium condition of micro physical differential equation settlement of piles. Then through logical deduction and the boundary condition expressions of the settlement calculation, obtain the pile side friction resistance and axial force of the week. Finally, an engineering example is used to analyze the influence of the change of main parameters on their effects.

  13. Characterization of enameled glass excavated from Laem Pho, southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanmanonda, W.; Won-in, K.; Tancharakorn, S.; Tantanuch, W.; Thongleurm, C.; Kamwanna, T.; Dararutana, P.

    2012-07-01

    Laem Pho in Surat Thani, southern province of Thailand is one of the most important historic site on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand. In this work, the enameled glass fragments which looked-like Islamic glass mainly excavated from this site were analyzed using SEM-EDS, PIXE and μ-XRF, in order to understand the chemical composition by comparing the archaeological data and topology. The structure of the enameled decoration was also studied. The resulting data indicated that high-magnesia alkali-lime silicate glass was produced. The presence of transition metals such as copper, iron and manganese were affected on the glass colorations. Typological classifications, technological observations and comparative studies serve to clarify the development and cultural inter-relationships of various glass objects along the trade and exchange networks in ancient maritime.

  14. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Laxemar. The inflow calculations were accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handled the impact of different deposition hole rejection criteria. The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled

  15. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  16. Characterization of enameled glass excavated from Laem Pho, southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanmanonda, W; Won-in, K; Tancharakorn, S; Tantanuch, W; Thongleurm, C; Kamwanna, T; Dararutana, P

    2012-01-01

    Laem Pho in Surat Thani, southern province of Thailand is one of the most important historic site on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand. In this work, the enameled glass fragments which looked-like Islamic glass mainly excavated from this site were analyzed using SEM-EDS, PIXE and μ-XRF, in order to understand the chemical composition by comparing the archaeological data and topology. The structure of the enameled decoration was also studied. The resulting data indicated that high-magnesia alkali-lime silicate glass was produced. The presence of transition metals such as copper, iron and manganese were affected on the glass colorations. Typological classifications, technological observations and comparative studies serve to clarify the development and cultural inter-relationships of various glass objects along the trade and exchange networks in ancient maritime.

  17. Stability of underground excavations in a repository system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calash, A.Y.; Greer, J.C.; Andrea, S.J.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Nguyen, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    The DOE is investigating the feasibility of constructing a deep geologic repository at the Hanford Site, Washington, for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The underground openings associated with the repository design include shafts, tunnels, emplacement rooms and boreholes. The stability of these underground openings, the extent and characteristics of the disturbed zones due to excavation, and their effects on groundwater flow path and travel time have a primary influence on the performance assessment of the Hanford Site as a nuclear waste repository. This study is being done in accordance with the requirements of the NRC. Results of structural analyses of shafts and tunnels under in situ stresses and/or medium weight are presented in this paper. Four different analyses were carried out to analyze the shaft: a plane strain model, axisymmetric model, 3-D model of a single material medium, and 3-D model of a three material medium

  18. Pajarito Plateau archaeological survey and excavations. [Los Alamos Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C.R.

    1977-05-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory lands were surveyed to locate pre-Columbian Indian ruins. The survey results will permit future construction to be planned so that most of the ancient sites in the area can be preserved. Indian occupation of the area occurred principally from late Pueblo III times (late 13th century) until early Pueblo V (about the middle of the 16th century). There are evidences of sporadic Indian use of the area for some 10,000 years. One Folsom point has been found, as well as many other archaic varieties of projectile points. Continued use of the region well into the historic period is indicated by pictographic art that portrays horses. In addition to an account of the survey, the report contains summaries of excavations made on Laboratory lands between 1950 and 1975.

  19. Assessment on the mechanical stability of underground excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Shigemori; Taniguchi, Wataru; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Koo, Shigeru; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kubota, Shigeru; Dewa, Katsuyuki

    1999-11-01

    It is planned to construct the tunnels and emplace waste packages at several hundred meters to 1,000 meters under the ground for the repository of high-level radioactive waste based on a policy to assure the safe life environment. It is required to be mechanically stable for the tunnels to assure the work safety throughout the construction, operation and closure phase. In this report, the mechanical stability of tunnels, that is a factor of design requisites, was evaluated by the analyses to present an outline of the technical reliability of geological disposal. To put it concretely, the tunnel sections were determined to have the required areas and shapes, and the analyses on the mechanical stability at tunnel excavations and earthquake, at tunnel intersections were conducted by the theoretical analysis and finite element method. The results obtained by these investigations are shown below: It will be able to construct the tunnels with present techniques. The mechanical stability of tunnels will be assured if proper supports are given, and adequate tunnel spacing and disposal-pit pitches are set. The mechanical stability will be assured at the tunnel intersections if proper reinforcement measures are taken. The reinforcement will be required for the intersection areas over the distance of 1D (D: diameter of tunnels) on the obtuse angle side, and 4D on the acute angle side, when intersection angle is set at 30 degrees. The investigations were conducted on the assumption that the experienced big earthquake occurred. The results show that the effect of earthquake on the mechanical stability of tunnels is small, and tunnels are stable at the earthquake when the mechanical stability at tunnel excavations is assured. (author)

  20. Grimsel test site. Excavation disturbed zone experiment (EDZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieg, B.; Blaser, P. C.; Adams, J.; Dollinger, H.; Kuhlmann, U.; Lanyon, G. W.

    2012-07-01

    The ‘Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) Experiment’ was conducted at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in the framework of safety analysis of deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes. It concentrated on investigating the hydraulic regime of the near-field of drilled tunnel sections under fully saturated conditions, with the aim of contributing to the development of methods for measuring and modelling axial water flow along tunnels and caverns. The studies focused on the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the rock mass in the direct vicinity of the tunnel wall. The EDZ is defined as the zone around the tunnel where excavation has altered the rock properties. The selected test location was a tunnel section where mechanical stressing of the rock and some breakouts had been observed. In-situ stress measurements were performed in order to record the actual stress redistribution in the tunnel near-field induced by excavation of the tunnel. A small stress increase and microfissures could be identified in the tunnel near-field. The stress measurements and the results of the geological mapping formed the basis for the rock mechanical modelling of the EDZ. Two different models of the development and geometry of the EDZ were used: (a) the regional 3D stress field modelling indicated that the topography has a significant influence on the primary stress field; a good agreement between the measured and calculated stresses in the GTS was achieved by applying an additional far-field tectonic stress component; (b) with the local 2D numerical disturbed zone modelling of the tunnel section itself, stress redistributions, possible plastifications and joint behaviour were investigated; all displacements of the rock matrix and the shear displacements of the discontinuities seem to be the result of the tunnel excavation; maximum shear deformations of 2 - 5 mm occur at the tunnel wall. Prior to the hydraulic test phase, the test location was decoupled from the normal GTS tunnel

  1. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. 1926.913... Use of Explosives § 1926.913 Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. (a) Detonators and... connecting wires are connected up. (b) When detonators or explosives are brought into an air lock, no...

  2. Bucket wheel excavators for open-cast mining all over the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, W.

    1979-04-01

    A report is given on the use of bucket wheel excavators, spreaders and tripper cars in open-cast mining of brown coal, oilsand and other minerals in Australia, Canada, India, Spain, USA and Yugoslavia as well as on the use of bucket wheel excavators for land reclamation in Singapore.

  3. Real-time support for precision excavation of radionuclide-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L. A.; Johnson, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to excavation design for sites with radionuclide-contaminated soils generally involve work plans with fixed excavation footprints and post-excavation verification sampling. Recent advancements in real-time data collection systems, combined with data loggers, location control systems, and secure project-support Web sites, allow for an alternative, more precise approach to excavation design and implementation. In this mode, traditional work plans are replaced with dynamic work plans. Excavation efforts are organized by lift, with real-time dig face screening performed and the data for each lift analyzed, before excavation continues. Rather than specifying excavation footprints, dynamic work plans identify the decision logic that will be used to determine footprints based on real-time data collection. The level of investment in excavation support data collection can be balanced against potential cost savings realized through waste stream minimization. Secure project support Web sites ensure that data sets generated during the remediation process are readily accessible to all who need to see them, whether they are on site or not. These include regulators, program managers, and technical support staff. This type of Web site allows for quick problem resolution, increased transparency in field decision making, and more efficient allocation of expensive technical staff time

  4. Drill, baby, drill: the influence of woodpeckers on post-fire vertebrate communities through cavity excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina L. Tarbill; Patricia N. Manley; Angela M. White

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the importance of woodpeckers as ecological engineers in forests due to their excavation of cavities. Although research in green, unburned forests has identified the influence of different excavators on secondary use by cavity-dependent species, little is known about the relative importance of cavities created by woodpeckers in recently...

  5. Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Johnson, Christian D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2012-11-16

    Deep excavation of soil has been conducted at the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 waste sites within the 100-BC Operable Unit at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) contamination with the excavations reaching to near the water table. Soil sampling showed that Cr(VI) contamination was still present at the bottom of the 100-C-7:1 excavation. In addition, Cr(VI) concentrations in a downgradient monitoring well have shown a transient spike of increased Cr(VI) concentration following initiation of excavation. Potentially, the increased Cr(VI) concentrations in the downgradient monitoring well are due to Cr(VI) from the excavation site. However, data were needed to evaluate this possibility and to quantify the overall impact of the 100-C-7:1 excavation site on groundwater. Data collected from a network of aquifer tubes installed across the floor of the 100-C-7:1 excavation and from temporary wells installed at the bottom of the entrance ramp to the excavation were used to evaluate Cr(VI) releases into the aquifer and to estimate local-scale hydraulic properties and groundwater flow velocity.

  6. Deformations and damage to buildings adjacent to deep excavations in soft soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korff, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into mechanisms of soil-structure interaction for buildings adjacent to deep excavations and to find a reliable method to design and monitor deep excavations in urban areas with soft soil conditions. The research focuses on typical Dutch conditions. The

  7. Dam geology and basic treatment(2). Adit substitution technique and measures against landslide involved in excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kin' ichi [Kinki Geological Center, Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan (JP)

    1988-12-25

    This paper discusses the adit substitution technique which is a method for special treatment of dams and measures against landslide involved in excavation. The adit substitution technique consists of excavating an adit in the natural ground, excavating another adit which is in contact with the first adit and is at a level higher than the first adit, placing concrete from the upper adit to the lower adit to fill first adit completely with concrete, excavating a third adit, filling the second adit with concrete similarly, and proceeding with this process to construct a water barrier within the natural ground until the water barrier reaches the required height. The paper explains examples of this technique used on four dams. It also explains examples of measures against excavation-induced landslide adopted on three dams. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Dig-face monitoring during excavation of a radioactive plume at Mound Laboratory, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.; Gehrke, R.J.; Carpenter, M.V.

    1995-12-01

    A dig-face monitoring system consists of onsite hardware for collecting information on changing chemical, radiological, and physical conditions in the subsurface soil during the hazardous site excavation. A prototype dig-face system was take to Mount Laboratory for a first trial. Mound Area 7 was the site of historical disposals of 232 Th, 227 Ac, and assorted debris. The system was used to monitor a deep excavation aimed at removing 227 Ac-contaminated soils. Radiological, geophysical, and topographic sensors were used to scan across the excavation dig-face at four successive depths as soil was removed. A 3-D image of the contamination plumes was developed; the radiation sensor data indicated that only a small portion of the excavated soil volume was contaminated. The spatial information produced by the dig-face system was used to direct the excavation activities into the area containing the 227 Ac and to evaluate options for handling the separate 232 Th plume

  9. Study on Excavation of Particular Part of Underground Cavern for Hydropower Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Shang, Qin; Zheng, Huakang

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, regarding four particular parts of underground cavern for hydropower station, i.e., crown, high sidewall, the intersection between high sidewall and tunnel and tailrace tunnel, by summarizing the previous construction experience, we have proposed the excavation approach based on “middle first and edge later, soft first and hard later”, “layered construction by excavating the thin layer first and supporting as the layer advances”, “tunnel first and wall later, small tunnels into large ones” and “excavating tunnels supported by separation piers”. In addition, the proposed excavation approach has been analyzed and verified with finite element numerical simulation. The result has indicated that the proposed special approach is reasonable and effective to reduce the turbulence on surrounding rocks, lower the influence of unloading during excavating and enhance the local and global stability of caverns and surrounding rocks.

  10. Digging Deep: Is Lunar Mantle Excavated Around the Imbrium Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, R. L.; Bretzfelder, J.; Buczkowski, D.; Ernst, C. M.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Petro, N. E.; Shusterman, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Moon has experienced over a dozen impacts resulting in basins large enough to have excavated mantle material. With many of those basins concentrated on the lunar near side, and extensive regolith mixing since the lunar magma ocean crystallized, one might expect that some mantle material would have been found among the lunar samples on Earth. However, so far, no mantle clasts have been definitively identified in lunar samples [1]. From orbit, a number of olivine-bearing localities, potentially sourced from the mantle, have been identified around impact basins [2]. Based on analysis of near-infrared (NIR) and imaging data, [3] suggest that roughly 60% of these sites represent olivine from the mantle. If this is the case and the blocks are coherent and not extensively mixed into the regolith, these deposits should be ultramafic, containing olivine and/or pyroxenes and little to no plagioclase. In the mid-infrared, they would thus exhibit Christiansen features at wavelengths in excess of 8.5 μm, which has not been observed in global studies using the Diviner Lunar Radiometer [4]. We present an integrated study of the massifs surrounding the Imbrium basin, which, at over 1000 km wide, is large enough to have penetrated through the lunar crust and into the mantle. These massifs are clearly associated with the Imbrium basin-forming impact, but existing geological maps do not distinguish between whether they are likely ejecta or rather uplifted from beneath the surface during crustal rebound [5]. We examine these massifs using vis, NIR and Mid IR data to determine the relationships between and the bulk mineralogy of local lithologies. NIR data suggest that the massifs contain exposures of four dominant minerals: olivine, Mg-rich orthopyroxene, a second low-Ca pyroxene, and anorthite. Mid IR results suggest that though many of these massifs are plagioclase-rich, portions of some may be significantly more mafic. We will present our growing mineralogical map of the

  11. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban; Follin, Sven

    2010-07-01

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled

  12. Combined Optimal Control System for excavator electric drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, N. S.; Kochetkov, V. P.; Platonova, E. V.; Glushkin, E. Y.; Dulesov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents a synthesis of the combined optimal control algorithms of the AC drive rotation mechanism of the excavator. Synthesis of algorithms consists in the regulation of external coordinates - based on the theory of optimal systems and correction of the internal coordinates electric drive using the method "technical optimum". The research shows the advantage of optimal combined control systems for the electric rotary drive over classical systems of subordinate regulation. The paper presents a method for selecting the optimality criterion of coefficients to find the intersection of the range of permissible values of the coordinates of the control object. There is possibility of system settings by choosing the optimality criterion coefficients, which allows one to select the required characteristics of the drive: the dynamic moment (M) and the time of the transient process (tpp). Due to the use of combined optimal control systems, it was possible to significantly reduce the maximum value of the dynamic moment (M) and at the same time - reduce the transient time (tpp).

  13. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled.

  14. Damage-induced permeability changes around underground excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, C.

    2005-07-01

    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is now considered more and more as a potential solution. During excavation, a disturbed zone develops in which damaging can be important and which can lead eventually to the failure of the rock. Fluid flow and permeability in the rock mass can be significantly modified producing a possible security risk. Our work consisted in an experimental study of the hydro-mechanical coupling of two argillaceous rocks: Boom clay (Mol, Belgium) and Opalinus clay (Mont-Terri, Switzerland). Triaxial tests were performed in a saturated state to study the permeability evolution of both clays with isotropic and deviatoric stresses. Argillaceous rocks are geo-materials with complex behaviour governed by numerous coupled processes. Strong physico-chemical interactions between the fluid and the solid particles and their very low permeability required the modification of the experimental set up. Moreover, specific procedures were developed to measure permeability and to detect strain localisation in shear bands. We show that for Boom Clay, permeability is not significantly influenced by strain localisation. For Opalinus clay, fracturing can induce an increase of the permeability at low confining pressure. (author)

  15. Does Avalanche Shovel Shape Affect Excavation Time: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Schindelwig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Europe and North America, approximately 150 fatalities occur as a result of avalanches every year. However, it is unclear whether certain shovel shapes are more effective than others in snow removal during avalanche victim recovery. The objective was to determine the performance parameters with a developed standardized test using different shovel shapes and to determine sex-specific differences. Hence, several parameters were determined for clearing the snow from a snow filled box (15 men, 14 women. A flat (F and a deep (D shovel blade with the shaft connected straight (S or in clearing mode (C were used for the investigation of the shovel shapes FS, DC and the subsequent use of DC&DS. Mean snow mass shifted per unit time increased significantly from 1.50 kg/s with FS to 1.71 kg/s (14% with DS and further to 1.79 kg/s (4% with DC&DS for all participants. Snow mass shifted per unit time was 44% higher (p < 0.05 for men than for women. In excavation operations, the sex-specific physical performance should be taken into account. The results were limited to barely binding snow, because only with this snow did the tests show a high reliability.

  16. EXCAVATION OF PITS (CHANNELS BY IMPACT OF PULSE POWER LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakhaev Koshkinbai Nazirovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an innovative hydromechanical solution of the problem of profiles development of pits and channels by impact of pulse (blasting power load on a surface of homogeneous soil mass, for example, when excavating solid rocks, frozen soil, etc. Thus, soil would be considered as an ideal heavy liquid (disregarding its mechanical strength and plastic properties. The solution of this problem is achieved by the method of consecutive conformal mappings of physical flow region (in the form of Kirchhoff complex on the region of complex potential (in the form of a rectangle. Thus, the new technique of geometrical image generation of the latter in the presence in the flow region of a fixed point with discontinuous variations of pressure head-flow function and the direction of speed of flow and representation of an elliptic sine of Jacobi by means of elementary functions are used. The received analytical functional dependencies allow to determine an outline of a funnel of the soil ejection and all the required hydromechanical characteristics of flow (head-flow function, function of flow, speed of flow, etc.. Thus, the soil ejection funnel outline (for a benchmark problem completely coincides with subproduct of the known rigorous solution of Lavrentyev-Kuznetsov.

  17. Numerical study on lateral wall displacement of deep excavation supported by IPS earth retention system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugen Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the 3D behavior characteristics of an excavation supported by an innovative prestressed support (IPS earth retention system. A numerical simulation was conducted in order to provide insight into the IPS system behavior by using the FLAC3D package. Prior to the parametric study, validation work was conducted by means of a comparison of the deformation between the field test data and numerical analysis results, and strong agreement was obtained. The reasonable excavation location, layered excavation thickness, and blocked excavation sequence are presented according to variable parameter analysis. In view of the previous findings, certain measurements are proposed in order to control the foundation pit deformation. The results indicate that prestress compensation has a significant effect on the IPS system behavior, while an optimized excavation sequence slightly improves its behavior. With the conclusion proposed based on the numerical results, the aim is to provide reference data for optimization design and the construction sequence. Keywords: FLAC3D, IPS system, Prestress compensation, Layered excavation, Blocked excavation, Deformation control

  18. Utilization of thin-layer chromatography for confirmational sampling during remedial excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple, efficient, inexpensive, and accurate method of chemical analysis. This method is applicable to field testing for confirming the limits of excavation during excavation of petroleum, oil, and/or lubricant (POL) contamination. Traditionally, excavation at contaminated sites suffers from a time delay due to the need to obtain laboratory confirmation of the limits of excavation. All suspected contaminated material is removed for stockpiling or remediation. The remaining soils need to be sampled to confirm that no contaminated material remains in the excavation. The site scientist collects samples and sends them out for analysis at a certified laboratory. The laboratory requires, even for a rush order, several days to analyze the samples. This time delay interferes with the efficiency of the operation. The excavations either have to be left open (which is a safety hazard) or reopened if additional material must be excavated. TLC samples can be collected and analyzed in several hours allowing for a short turnaround time for analytical results. The TLC method can be easily performed by a technician. Results of a case study from a subarctic Alaskan site will be reported. Simple operational TLC procedures will be shared. The equipment required for TLC analysis will be outlined. Correlation data between TLC and laboratory analysis will be presented

  19. Slope Stability Evaluation And Equipment Setback Distances For Burial Ground Excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcshane, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    After 1970 Transuranic (TRU) and suspect TRU waste was buried in the ground with the intention that at some later date the waste would be retrieved and processed into a configuration for long term storage. To retrieve this waste the soil must be removed (excavated). Sloping the bank of the excavation is the method used to keep the excavation from collapsing and to provide protection for workers retrieving the waste. The purpose of this paper is to document the minimum distance (setback) that equipment must stay from the edge of the excavation to maintain a stable slope. This evaluation examines the equipment setback distance by dividing the equipment into two categories, (1) equipment used for excavation and (2) equipment used for retrieval. The section on excavation equipment will also discuss techniques used for excavation including the process of benching. Calculations 122633-C-004, 'Slope Stability Analysis' (Attachment A), and 300013-C-001, 'Crane Stability Analysis' (Attachment B), have been prepared to support this evaluation. As shown in the calculations the soil has the following properties: Unit weight 110 pounds per cubic foot; and Friction Angle (natural angle of repose) 38 o or 1.28 horizontal to 1 vertical. Setback distances are measured from the top edge of the slope to the wheels/tracks of the vehicles and heavy equipment being utilized. The computer program utilized in the calculation uses the center of the wheel or track load for the analysis and this difference is accounted for in this evaluation.

  20. Field Observation of Soil Displacements Resulting Due Unsupported Excavation and Its Effects on Proposed Adjacent Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Nasir Al-Jorany

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil movement resulting due unsupported excavation nearby axially loaded piles imposes significant structural troubles on geotechnical engineers especially for piles that are not designed to account for loss of lateral confinement. In this study the field excavation works of 7.0 m deep open tunnel was continuously followed up by the authors. The work is related to the project of developing the Army canal in the east of Baghdad city in Iraq. A number of selected points around the field excavation are installed on the ground surface at different horizontal distance. The elevation and coordinates of points are recorded during 23 days with excavation progress period. The field excavation process was numerically simulated by using the finite element package PLAXIS 3D foundation. The obtained analysis results regarding the displacements of the selected points are compared with the field observation for verification purpose. Moreover, finite element analysis of axially loaded piles that are presumed to be existed at the locations of the observation points is carried out to study the effect of excavation on full scale piles behaviors. The field observation monitored an upward movement and positive lateral ground movement for shallow excavation depth. Later on and as the excavation process went deeper, a downward movement and negative lateral ground movement are noticed. The analyses results are in general well agreed with the monitored values of soil displacements at the selected points. It is found also that there are obvious effects of the nearby excavation on the presumed piles in terms of displacements and bending moments.

  1. Fuzzy mathematics method for theoretical analysis of ground movements due to underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenxiu (Changsa Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsa (China))

    1991-07-01

    The analysis of the rock mass movements due to excavation operations is one of the many important problems of rock mass mechanics. It is difficult to calculate the ground movements due to underground excavation accurately because of the complexity of the problem. In this paper, the application is described of the fuzzy probability measures to the analysis of ground movements. Based on the definition of the fuzzy probability measure, the theories for both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems are developed and are applied to the analysis of ground movements due to underground excavation. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Geological mappability of bored versus drill and blast excavations for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B.; Ozdemir, L.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of accurate geological mappability has been subject of intense debate in the selection of bored versus drill and blast excavation for radioactive waste repositories. This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the problems usually encountered in mappability on the basis of field experience from a large number of completed tunnels, mainly as part of the Norwegian hydropower projects. The main conclusion is that mapping in a mechanically excavated underground opening, with very few exceptions, reflects the in-situ conditions more accurately than mapping in a drill and blast tunnel. This is due to the overbreak effects of drill and blast excavation, primarily

  3. The antler finds at Bilzingsleben, excavations 1969-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Vollbrecht

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available 2820 antler remains from the Lower Palaeolithic site of Bilzingsleben, Thuringia, Germany (excavations 1969-1993 were the subject of detailed investigations. The two major goals were: 1.the consideration of taphonomic aspects 2.the critical evaluation of suggestions about artificial modifications to the antler material A detailed morphological description of the antler material provided the basis for the investigation. A prerequisite was the transfer of provenance data onto an x-y coordinate grid. Taphonomic aspects considered in this work include the relative frequencies of antler elements, estimates regarding the minimum number of individual deer, their age structure and seasonality, and, insofar as the condition of the antlers allowed, the classification of surface preservation, size classes and spatial distribution of the finds. The assemblage of antler finds, the majority of which seems to have come from red deer, is dominated by small fragments, mostly of tines. About one quarter of the finds are larger than 150 mm. Lower beams are more abundant than upper beams (e.g. crowns. Detailed counting, substantiated by systematic reconstruction, shows that in general the antlers are incomplete. After reconstruction of unshed antlers, it was possible to assess the minimum number of heads at 150 animals. Preliminary counting of postcranial and cranial (non antler cervid material points to about 70 cervids. Intentional accumulation of antlers by hominids can only be accepted as the reason for these disproportionate figures if other site formation processes can be ruled out. In fact, the correlation between sediment thickness and maximum antler densities, at least for finds smaller than 120mm, suggests that fluvial accumulation has to be taken into account as a probable element of the site formation history. Further, the mixture of unifacially abraded finds together with finds that exhibit bifacial abrasion points to a succession of changing fluvial

  4. Thermoluminescence dating of potteries excavated at Bhagwanpura and Mathura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Sasidharan, R.; Soman, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating attempts were made on sherds of freshly excavated potteries from Bhagwanpura and Mathura sites. TL measurements were generally made from the fine grains of the potsherds; attempts were also made to separate the quartz inclusions from some of the potsherds and evaluate the TL. Dose-rate estimations were made from an analysis of natural radioactivity of the samples; TLD estimation of the environmental gamma dose-rate component was also attempted for the Mathura sites. The TL age estimates ranged between 2000 and 5000 years, B.P. for the Bhagwanpura series and between 1400 and 3000 years, B.P. for the Mathura series. Distinctly different trends were seen in the ages of graywares and redwares from Bhagwanpura: with increasing depth at the site, the grayware ages diminished (upto 1.3 depth beyond which they do not occur) while the redware ages remain the same upto 1.3 m depth and increase regularly beyond. In the case of eight Mathura potsherds for which the archaeologists' expected age values were available, a good to fair (+- 2 to +- 19%) agreement with the TL ages could be seen for four sherds. The estimated accuracies of the TL ages range between +- 9 to +- 19% and such a high value stems from the generous allowance made for all possible values of water content in pottery and soil over the archaeological period; if reasonable values for the actual degree of wetness could be provided, the TL ages can be estimated with accuracies of the order of +- 5%. (auth.)

  5. Prediction of seismic motion from contained and excavation nuclear detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R A [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Capability to predict ground motions from nuclear events is developed on empirical and theoretical bases. Analyses of the experimental data provide basic predictions of peak particle motions and spectra which follow a (yield){sup m} times (distance){sup -n} relationship. The exponents on yield and distance are frequency dependent and derived from experiment and theory. Theory provides a physical understanding of the phenomena which allows extrapolation to off-NTS and atypical events. For example, yield scaling theory predicts significantly higher frequency motions and consequently larger ground accelerations for overburied events such as Gasbuggy, Rulison, Wasp and Wagon Wheel. These conclusions are observed from Gasbuggy (26 kt) which generated ground accelerations comparable to a normal buried event of 200 kt. This result is important in avoiding personal injury and assessing the probability of property damage. Conversely, theory predicts lower ground accelerations and seismic efficiencies for excavation events; these effects are observed from the Cabriolet and Schooner events and consequently predicted for the Sturtevant and Yawl events. With regard to the distance exponent, scattering theory determines a distance exponent which predicts greater attenuation effects on higher frequency motions. This trend is verified experimentally by regression analyses on a large number of data points which determine the distance exponent to range from -1.1 at low frequencies to -1.6 at high frequencies. Results indicate that cube root similarity scaling is not appropriate in the far field except possibly for peak particle displacements at the low frequency end of the spectrum. In addition to the source and transmission factors, current ground motion prediction techniques, on and off-NTS, take into account local site characteristics. Experimental evidence and theoretical models--layered media elastic theory, finite element modeling, and building response modeling

  6. In situ radiological characterization to support a test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keele, B.D.; Bauer, R.G.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-05-01

    An in situ radiological detection system was developed to support a small test excavation at a liquid waste disposal site at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Instrumentation, calibration and comparisons to samples are discussed

  7. Energy-saving analysis of hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  8. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2004-2005

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anon

    As a part of the Institutional Project, 'Application of geological and geophysical methods in marine archaeology and underwater explorations' (STS 0004), exploration and excavation of shipwrecks have been carried out from Nov 24-Dec 02, 2005 for 06...

  9. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2005-2006

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    As a part of the institutional project, 'Application of Geological and Geophysical methods in Marine Archaeology and Underwater Explorations, (OLP 0008)', exploration and excavation of shipwrecks have been carried out from 23 Jan 2006 to 21 Feb 2006...

  10. Calculation of the Chilling Requirement for Air Conditioning in the Excavation Roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueping Qin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively improve the climate conditions of the excavation roadway in coal mine, the calculation of the chilling requirement taking air conditioning measures is extremely necessary. The temperature field of the surrounding rock with moving boundary in the excavation roadway was numerically simulated by using finite volume method. The unstable heat transfer coefficient between the surrounding rock and air flow was obtained via the previous calculation. According to the coupling effects of the air flow inside and outside air duct, the differential calculation mathematical model of air flow temperature in the excavation roadway was established. The chilling requirement was calculated with the selfdeveloped computer program for forecasting the required cooling capacity of the excavation roadway. A good air conditioning effect had been observed after applying the calculated results to field trial, which indicated that the prediction method and calculation procedure were reliable.

  11. A method of modeling time-dependent rock damage surrounding underground excavations in multiphase groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian-Frear, T.; Freeze, G.

    1997-01-01

    Underground excavations produce damaged zones surrounding the excavations which have disturbed hydrologic and geomechanical properties. Prediction of fluid flow in these zones must consider both the mechanical and fluid flow processes. Presented here is a methodology which utilizes a mechanical model to predict damage and disturbed rock zone (DRZ) development around the excavation and then uses the predictions to develop time-dependent DRZ porosity relationships. These relationships are then used to adjust the porosity of the DRZ in the fluid flow model based upon the time and distance from the edge of the excavation. The application of this methodology is presented using a site-specific example from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a US Department of Energy facility in bedded salts being evaluated for demonstration of the safe underground disposal of transuranic waste from US defense-related activities

  12. Modeling and stability of electro-hydraulic servo of hydraulic excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenhua; Yin, Chenbo; Li, Guo; Sun, Menghui

    2017-11-01

    The condition of the hydraulic excavator is complicated and the working environment is bad. The safety and stability of the control system is influenced by the external factors. This paper selects hydraulic excavator electro-hydraulic servo system as the research object. A mathematical model and simulation model using AMESIM of servo system is established. Then the pressure and flow characteristics are analyzed. The design and optimization of electro-hydraulic servo system and its application in engineering machinery is provided.

  13. Performance prediction of mechanical excavators from linear cutter tests on Yucca Mountain welded tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsch, R.; Ozdemir, L.

    1992-09-01

    The performances of mechanical excavators are predicted for excavations in welded tuff. Emphasis is given to tunnel boring machine evaluations based on linear cutting machine test data obtained on samples of Topopah Spring welded tuff. The tests involve measurement of forces as cutters are applied to the rock surface at certain spacing and penetrations. Two disc and two point-attack cutters representing currently available technology are thus evaluated. The performance predictions based on these direct experimental measurements are believed to be more accurate than any previous values for mechanical excavation of welded tuff. The calculations of performance are predicated on minimizing the amount of energy required to excavate the welded tuff. Specific energy decreases with increasing spacing and penetration, and reaches its lowest at the widest spacing and deepest penetration used in this test program. Using the force, spacing, and penetration data from this experimental program, the thrust, torque, power, and rate of penetration are calculated for several types of mechanical excavators. The results of this study show that the candidate excavators will require higher torque and power than heretofore estimated

  14. Excavated pulmonary nodules: an unusual clinical presentation of lung metastasis in two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalya Issam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excavated pulmonary metastasis are rare. We present two cases of excavated pulmonary nodules proved to be metastases from osteosarcoma and gallblader lymphoma. Case presentation The first one is 39-year-old man in whom cholecystectomy made the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gallbladder. He presented in chest CT scan excavated nodules that had been biopsied and confirmed the diagnosis of non hodgkin lymphoma. He underwent 8 courses of chemotherapy CHOP 21 with complete remission. The second one is an 21 years old man who presented a right leg osteoblastic osteosarcoma with only excavated pulmonary nodules in extension assessment. He had 3 courses of polychemotherapy API (doxorubicin, platinum, and ifosfamide with partial response. Unfortunately, he died following a septic shock. Review of the literature shows that excavated pulmonary nodules as metastasis are rare but we should consider this diagnosis every time we are in front of a cancer. Chest computed tomography is the best diagnosis imaging that could make this diagnosis. Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant bullous lesions is important because surgical excision affects survival in some malignancies. Conclusions Although pulmonary nodules are the most common cancer metastasis, a differential diagnosis of a concurrent primary malignancy should always be considered every time we have excavated lesions, even in patients with known malignant disease. Thorough chest evaluation is important, as multiple primary malignancies may occur concomitantly.

  15. The Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to extend the Results of Archaeological Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsi, E.

    2009-04-01

    The condition of the Romano-British archaeological site in Wortley, Gloucestershire, UK is typical of sites of the period in that it has been heavily robbed out since it first fell into disuse. Building materials taken from the site have been re-used over the centuries to construct other local buildings. This makes both preservation of the extant remains and interpretation of the excavation problematic. Following the accidental discovery of the site in the 1980s, a programme of excavation was set in place. This excavation was run as a practical archaeological training school and, as a result, a wide range of archaeological and geophysical techniques were applied to the site. This included the introduction of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The preliminary results of the first GPR used on site were not entirely satisfactory which led to the development of a new radar in the early 1990s, specifically developed for use on archaeological sites. The excavation and GPR results were published in a series of excavation reports [1] [2]. It was not possible to excavate fully for two reasons. Firstly the site crossed present day ownership boundaries and secondly the ownership of the excavation area changed. At this point the excavation was summarily terminated. In 2007, permission was given by the owner of an adjacent property to carry out a GPR survey over their land in order to derive additional information, if possible. An area survey was carried out in May 2007 with reduced transect spacing [3]. The radar data showed similar patterning to that of the original investigation i.e. substantial remains which had been subject to a high degree of post-occupational attrition. Time slices from the radar survey were matched to the principal excavation plans. It proved possible to deduce the full extent of certain partially excavated features, notably the courtyard and bath house. It was also possible to demonstrate that one part of the adjacent property did not contain similar

  16. Archaeological excavations at Gamzigrad - Romuliana in 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematical archaeological excavations at the site Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana continued in 2007-2008 in the south-eastern part of the fortified imperial palace, in the section of the thermae according to the plan of archaeological research for this site (2005-2009. In 2007, squares L'XXIV, M'XXIV, M'XXIH and M'XXII, which were investigated in 2005 to the horizon c, dated to the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries, were completely excavated to the level of the porch of the earlier fortification of Romuliana (Plan 1. The stratigraphy of the cultural layers in these squares is as follows (Fig. 1: Below horizon c there is a layer of construction rubble mixed with brownish-yellow, clay like, sandy soil, 50-75 cm thick, comprising the finds dated in the last quarter of the 4th-5th centuries, layer D; The level of layer D is horizon d, where a structure destroyed in a conflagration, house 1/07, was discovered in squares M'XXII and M'XXIII. It could be dated, on the basis of the preserved household (pottery, metal and antler items, coins, etc., from the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century; Horizon d 1 is a mortar floor discovered beneath horizon d, which presents the earlier phase of house 1/07; Horizon d 2 is the earliest mortar floor inside the house 1/07, covered with a later mortar floor (horizon d 1 and a levelling layer of yellow sand and gravel, which comprises the finds dating also to the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th centuries; Layer E, 15-40 cm thick, is below horizon d, comprising dark brown soil with rubble and lenses of soot at the bottom, together with finds dated to the second half of the 4th century; Horizon e is covered with layer E, and spread across all the squares which were investigated to the south and to the east of Galerius' bath, where 8 large postholes, which outlined a space 7 x 3 m large and probably some kind of porch, were found along with two furnaces and two pits

  17. Modeling of excavation induced coupled hydraulic-mechanical processes in claystone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massmann, Jobst

    2009-07-01

    Concepts for the numerical modeling of excavation induced processes in claystone are investigated. The study has been motivated by the international discussion on the adequacy of claystone as a potential host rock for a final repository of radioactive waste. The processes, which could impact the safety of such a repository, are manifold and strongly interacting. Thus, a multiphysics approach is needed, regarding solid mechanics and fluid mechanics within a geological context. A coupled modeling concept is therefore indispensable. Based on observations and measurements at an argillaceous test site (the underground laboratory Tournemire, operated by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, France) the modeling concept is developed. Two main processes constitute the basis of the applied model: deformation (linear elasticity considering damage) and fluid flow (unsaturated one-phase flow). Several coupling phenomena are considered: Terzaghi 's effective stress concept, mass conservation of the liquid in a deformable porous media, drying induced shrinkage, and a permeability which depends on deformation and damage. In addition, transversely isotropic material behavior is considered. The numerical simulations are done with the finite element code RockFlow, which is extended to include: an orthotropic non-linear shrinkage model, a continuum damage model, and an orthotropic permeability model. For these new methods the theory and a literature review are presented, followed by applications, which illustrate the capability to model excavation induced processes in principle. In a comprehensive case study, the modeling concept is used to simulate the response of the Tournemire argillite to excavation. The results are compared with observations and measurements of three different excavations (century old tunnel, two galleries excavated in 1996 and 2003). In summary, it can be concluded that the developed model concept provides a prediction of the excavation

  18. Modeling of excavation induced coupled hydraulic-mechanical processes in claystone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massmann, Jobst

    2009-07-01

    Concepts for the numerical modeling of excavation induced processes in claystone are investigated. The study has been motivated by the international discussion on the adequacy of claystone as a potential host rock for a final repository of radioactive waste. The processes, which could impact the safety of such a repository, are manifold and strongly interacting. Thus, a multiphysics approach is needed, regarding solid mechanics and fluid mechanics within a geological context. A coupled modeling concept is therefore indispensable. Based on observations and measurements at an argillaceous test site (the underground laboratory Tournemire, operated by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, France) the modeling concept is developed. Two main processes constitute the basis of the applied model: deformation (linear elasticity considering damage) and fluid flow (unsaturated one-phase flow). Several coupling phenomena are considered: Terzaghi 's effective stress concept, mass conservation of the liquid in a deformable porous media, drying induced shrinkage, and a permeability which depends on deformation and damage. In addition, transversely isotropic material behavior is considered. The numerical simulations are done with the finite element code RockFlow, which is extended to include: an orthotropic non-linear shrinkage model, a continuum damage model, and an orthotropic permeability model. For these new methods the theory and a literature review are presented, followed by applications, which illustrate the capability to model excavation induced processes in principle. In a comprehensive case study, the modeling concept is used to simulate the response of the Tournemire argillite to excavation. The results are compared with observations and measurements of three different excavations (century old tunnel, two galleries excavated in 1996 and 2003). In summary, it can be concluded that the developed model concept provides a prediction of the excavation induced

  19. Modeling of excavation induced coupled hydraulic-mechanical processes in claystone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massmann, Jobst

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for the numerical modeling of excavation induced processes in claystone are investigated. The study has been motivated by the international discussion on the adequacy of claystone as a potential host rock for a final repository of radioactive waste. The processes, which could impact the safety of such a repository, are manifold and strongly interacting. Thus, a multiphysics approach is needed, regarding solid mechanics and fluid mechanics within a geological context. A coupled modeling concept is therefore indispensable. Based on observations and measurements at an argillaceous test site (the underground laboratory Tournemire, operated by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, France) the modeling concept is developed. Two main processes constitute the basis of the applied model: deformation (linear elasticity considering damage) and fluid flow (unsaturated one-phase flow). Several coupling phenomena are considered: Terzaghi 's effective stress concept, mass conservation of the liquid in a deformable porous media, drying induced shrinkage, and a permeability which depends on deformation and damage. In addition, transversely isotropic material behavior is considered. The numerical simulations are done with the finite element code RockFlow, which is extended to include: an orthotropic non-linear shrinkage model, a continuum damage model, and an orthotropic permeability model. For these new methods the theory and a literature review are presented, followed by applications, which illustrate the capability to model excavation induced processes in principle. In a comprehensive case study, the modeling concept is used to simulate the response of the Tournemire argillite to excavation. The results are compared with observations and measurements of three different excavations (century old tunnel, two galleries excavated in 1996 and 2003). In summary, it can be concluded that the developed model concept provides a prediction of the excavation induced

  20. SLOPE STABILITY EVALUATION AND EQUIPMENT SETBACK DISTANCES FOR BURIAL GROUND EXCAVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCSHANE DS

    2010-03-25

    After 1970 Transuranic (TRU) and suspect TRU waste was buried in the ground with the intention that at some later date the waste would be retrieved and processed into a configuration for long term storage. To retrieve this waste the soil must be removed (excavated). Sloping the bank of the excavation is the method used to keep the excavation from collapsing and to provide protection for workers retrieving the waste. The purpose of this paper is to document the minimum distance (setback) that equipment must stay from the edge of the excavation to maintain a stable slope. This evaluation examines the equipment setback distance by dividing the equipment into two categories, (1) equipment used for excavation and (2) equipment used for retrieval. The section on excavation equipment will also discuss techniques used for excavation including the process of benching. Calculations 122633-C-004, 'Slope Stability Analysis' (Attachment A), and 300013-C-001, 'Crane Stability Analysis' (Attachment B), have been prepared to support this evaluation. As shown in the calculations the soil has the following properties: Unit weight 110 pounds per cubic foot; and Friction Angle (natural angle of repose) 38{sup o} or 1.28 horizontal to 1 vertical. Setback distances are measured from the top edge of the slope to the wheels/tracks of the vehicles and heavy equipment being utilized. The computer program utilized in the calculation uses the center of the wheel or track load for the analysis and this difference is accounted for in this evaluation.

  1. Energy substrate used by workers of leaf-cutting ants during nest excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy substrate used by workers of leaf-cutting ants during nest excavation. In this study we aimed to ascertain whether leaf-cutting ant workers lose body reserves (fat or sugars as a function of nest excavation. For each treatment, we isolated 10 workers of Atta sexdens into two experimental groups, Control (C- without excavation and Soil (S- with excavation, which were kept for different time intervals (0, 24, 48 or 72 hours, totaling 700 tested workers. We then determined the concentration of soluble carbohydrates and total lipid content in them. The total carbohydrates were determined colorimetrically, based on the reaction between carbohydrates and sulfuric acid-phenol. For determination of lipids, the insects were immersed in organic solvent until they reached a constant weight. Our results showed that carbohydrates are consumed during nest excavation activities. In the experimental groups S24, S48 and S72, there was an average reduction of 5.82 (20.42%, 14.31 (44.96% and 13.27 (43.96% µ.mg-1 in soluble sugar when compared with the experimental groups that did not excavate. Furthermore, the lipids were not used during this activity. With respect to dry mass of the workers, their values were C0 = 8%, C24 = 10.4%, C48 = 9.2%, C72 = 10%, S24 = 9.2%, S48 = 8.7% and S72 = 8.5%. Our results show experimentally that the source of energy for nest excavation is carbohydrates, whereas lipids are conserved for other activities.

  2. Choice of rock excavation methods for the Swedish deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran [Conrox, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Lagerstedt, Leif [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Choice of rock excavation methods will or may have implications for a number of issues like repository layout, long term and operational safety, environmental impact, design of and operation of transport vehicles and methodology for backfilling the repository before closure as well as effects on costs and schedules. To fully analyse the issues at hand related to selection of excavation methods, SKB organized a project with the objectives: To investigate and compare principal technical solutions for rock excavation, both methods that are used at present but also methods that may be feasible 10 years from now; To assess how the selection of excavation method influences the design and operation of the deep repository; To present a definition of the Excavation Damaged/Disturbed Zone and practical methods for measurements of EDZ; To present advantages and disadvantages with different excavation methods for the various tunnels and underground openings as a basis for selection of preferred excavation methods; To present the Design Justification Statement for the selection of particular excavation methods for the different tunnels and openings in the deep repository to underpin a decision on excavation method; and To present background data that may be required for the evaluation of the long term safety of the deep repository. Main alternatives studied are very smooth blasting, excavation with a tunnel-boring machine (TBM) and excavation with horizontal pull-reaming using more or less conventional raise-boring equipment. The detailed studies were carried through in co-operation with major suppliers and end-users of the technology. An observation in this study is that all excavation technologies are mature; no major breakthroughs are foreseen within a 10 year period but it is likely that for any technology selected, SKB would specifically fine-tune the design of the equipment and work procedures in view of requirements and site specific conditions. Excavation methods have

  3. Choice of rock excavation methods for the Swedish deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, Goeran; Christiansson, Rolf; Lagerstedt, Leif

    2004-09-01

    Choice of rock excavation methods will or may have implications for a number of issues like repository layout, long term and operational safety, environmental impact, design of and operation of transport vehicles and methodology for backfilling the repository before closure as well as effects on costs and schedules. To fully analyse the issues at hand related to selection of excavation methods, SKB organized a project with the objectives: To investigate and compare principal technical solutions for rock excavation, both methods that are used at present but also methods that may be feasible 10 years from now; To assess how the selection of excavation method influences the design and operation of the deep repository; To present a definition of the Excavation Damaged/Disturbed Zone and practical methods for measurements of EDZ; To present advantages and disadvantages with different excavation methods for the various tunnels and underground openings as a basis for selection of preferred excavation methods; To present the Design Justification Statement for the selection of particular excavation methods for the different tunnels and openings in the deep repository to underpin a decision on excavation method; and To present background data that may be required for the evaluation of the long term safety of the deep repository. Main alternatives studied are very smooth blasting, excavation with a tunnel-boring machine (TBM) and excavation with horizontal pull-reaming using more or less conventional raise-boring equipment. The detailed studies were carried through in co-operation with major suppliers and end-users of the technology. An observation in this study is that all excavation technologies are mature; no major breakthroughs are foreseen within a 10 year period but it is likely that for any technology selected, SKB would specifically fine-tune the design of the equipment and work procedures in view of requirements and site specific conditions. Excavation methods have

  4. Physical soil properties and slope treatments effects on hydraulic excavator productivity for forest road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsakho, Aidin; Hosseini, Seyed Ataollah; Jalilvand, Hamid; Lotfalian, Majid

    2008-06-01

    Effects of moisture, porosity and soil bulk density properties, grubbing time and terrain side slopes on pc 220 komatsu hydraulic excavator productivity were investigated in Miana forests road construction project which located in the northern forest of Iran. Soil moisture and porosity determined by samples were taken from undisturbed soil. The elements of daily works were measured with a digital stop watch and video camera in 14 observations (days). The road length and cross section profiles after each 20 m were selected to estimate earthworks volume. Results showed that the mean production rates for the pc 220 komatsu excavators were 60.13 m3 h(-1) and earthwork 14.76 m h(-1) when the mean depth of excavation or cutting was 4.27 m3 m(-1), respectively. There was no significant effects (p = 0.5288) from the slope classes' treatments on productivity, whereas grubbing time, soil moisture, bulk density and porosity had significantly affected on excavator earthworks volume (p < 0.0001). Clear difference was showed between the earthwork length by slope classes (p = 0.0060). Grubbing time (p = 0.2180), soil moisture (p = 0.1622), bulk density (p = 0.2490) and porosity (p = 0.2159) had no significant effect on the excavator earthworks length.

  5. Hydraulic tests for the Excavation Disturbed Zone in NATM drift of North Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Eiken

    1997-03-01

    Investigation for characterization of rock properties of the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) were carried out in NATM drift of North Extension in the Tono Mine. As a part of this investigation, hydraulic tests were performed by means of the hydraulic measuring instrument, which had been developed by PNC Tono Geoscience Center. The purpose of this tests is to characterize the change in hydraulic properties of the EDZ caused by drift excavation using machine (boom header). The hydraulic tests were performed in the burials MH-1,2,3, in which hydraulic tests had been performed before the drift excavation in 1994. The test results indicate that the measured values of pore water pressure have decreased after excavation of the drift. The values ranged from -0.037 kgf/cm 2 to 0.039 kgf/cm 2 . The measured hydraulic conductivities ranged from 2.2*10 -11 cm/s to 9.1*10 -11 cm/s for mud stone and from 2.8*10 -9 cm/s to 2.4*10 -7 cm/s for conglomerate. The measured hydraulic conductivities for mud stone are below the lower limit of the instrument, and the change in the hydraulic conductivities for conglomerate is little. The hydraulic conductivities for conglomerate and mad stone (reference values) are interpreted. The change in hydraulic conductivities measured before and after excavation of the drift is insignificant. (author)

  6. Design of the human computer interface on the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.H.; Killough, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Draper, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the U.S. Army for explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) and general utility excavation activities. This project resulted from a joint need in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for a remote controlled excavator for buried waste operations and the U.S. Department of Defense for remote EOD operations. To evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the SEE vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks, a development and demonstration project was initiated. Development of a telerobotic SEE (TSEE) was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a project funded jointly by the U.S. Army and the DOE. The TSEE features teleoperated driving, a telerobotic backhoe with four degrees of freedom, and a teleoperated front loader with two degrees of freedom on the bucket. Remote capabilities include driving (forward, reverse, brake, steering), power takeoff shifting to enable digging modes, deploying stabilizers, excavation, and computer system booting

  7. In Appreciation of Claude Warren and Susan Rose's "William Pengelly's Techniques of Archaeological Excavation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The short (40 pages pamphlet by Warren and Rose (1994 provides the answer to a complex question regarding credit for an important archaeological methodology, stratigraphic excavation. Let me set the stage for this appreciation. Continuing research on the beginnings of stratigraphic excavations in North America (Browman and Givens 1996, I sought the origins of the idea of actually excavating by strata, rather than post-facto interpretation, seen in North American as early as 1895 in the work of Henry Chapman Mercer, but not really introduced into the repertoire of American techniques until the work of Gamio, Kidder and Nelson between 1911 and 1914. The roots of the latter three seemed to lie with individuals such as Reisner, Boas, Uhle, who in turn seemed to rely on Hugo Obennaier, Gabriel de Mortillet, Marcellin Boule, and perhaps Pitt-Rivers, while Mercer's work could be traced to Boule and Albert Gaudry. Doggedly following back the roots, I found that Chapman (1989 could make a reasonable case that Pitt-Rivers had actually learned of the idea of strati­graphic excavation from Evans, Prestwich, and Lubbock, from the British scientists working with the Upper and Middle Paleolithic excavations during 1858-1868.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of excavated plastic from landfill mining and current recycling routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopoli, L; Fidalgo, B; Coulon, F; Wagland, S T

    2018-06-01

    In Europe over 5.25 billion tonnes of waste has been landfilled between 1995 and 2015. Among this large amount of waste, plastic represents typically 5-25 wt% which is significant and has the potential to be recycled and reintroduced into the circular economy. To date there is still however little information available of the opportunities and challenges in recovering plastics from landfill sites. In this review, the impacts of landfill chemistry on the degradation and/or contamination of excavated plastic waste are analysed. The feasibility of using excavated plastic waste as feedstock for upcycling to valuable chemicals or liquid fuels through thermochemical conversion is also critically discussed. The limited degradation that is experienced by many plastics in landfills (>20 years) which guarantee that large amount is still available is largely due to thermooxidative degradation and the anaerobic conditions. However, excavated plastic waste cannot be conventionally recycled due to high level of ash, impurities and heavy metals. Recent studies demonstrated that pyrolysis offers a cost effective alternative option to conventional recycling. The produced pyrolysis oil is expected to have similar characteristics to petroleum diesel oil. The production of valuable product from excavated plastic waste will also increase the feasibility of enhanced landfill mining projects. However, further studies are needed to investigate the uncertainties about the contamination level and degradation of excavated plastic waste and address their viability for being processed through pyrolysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Apparatus and method of measuring fluctuations of excavated mud amount in a slurry line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Kubota, R.; Uchida, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Seki, N.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring fluctuations in amount of soil in slurry or soil-containing fluid line is described. Each system of feeding the slurry typically to tunneling face and draining it therefrom in the slurry line is provided with gamma-ray densimeter and electromagnetic flow-meter to obtain respective amounts of soil only (dry-soil amounts) in the slurry flowing through each of said systems from respective outputs of these meters in each system, so that actually excavated amount through ground layer of a shielded excavator at the tunneling face can be measured by the difference between the respective dry-soil amounts. The excavator will be advanced depending on this measured amount

  10. Experimental research data on stress state of salt rock mass around an underground excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, VD; Baryshnikov, DV

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the experimental stress state data obtained in surrounding salt rock mass around an excavation in Mir Mine, ALROSA. The deformation characteristics and the values of stresses in the adjacent rock mass are determined. Using the method of drilling a pair of parallel holes in a stressed area, the authors construct linear relationship for the radial displacements of the stress measurement hole boundaries under the short-term loading of the perturbing hole. The resultant elasticity moduli of rocks are comparable with the laboratory core test data. Pre-estimates of actual stresses point at the presence of a plasticity zone in the vicinity of the underground excavation. The stress state behavior at a distance from the excavation boundary disagrees with the Dinnik–Geim hypothesis.

  11. The evolution of competitive settlement strategies in Fijian prehistory : results of excavations and radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    A series of excavations were completed between June 2001 and March 2002 in the Fiji Islands. The goal of this research was to investigate the evolution of competitive settlement strategies in Fijian prehistory from an archaeological and evolutionary ecological perspective. Twelve sites were excavated and mapped in the Sigatoka Valley, located in the southwestern corner of the main island of Viti Levu. Excavations were focused on determining the chronology of fortifications in the region, and the collected samples were compared to expectations based on GIS-based analyses of land productivity and historical documents pertaining to late-period warfare. Over four hundred archaeological sites have been identified in the Sigatoka Valley, and of these roughly one-third are purely defensive in configuration, with no immediate access to water or arable land. The Waikato Archaeological Dating Fund provided four radiometric dates for three defensive sites, and one site associated with a production area. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig

  12. Alternative cytoskeletal landscapes: cytoskeletal novelty and evolution in basal excavate protists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Scott C.; Paredez, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial eukaryotes encompass the majority of eukaryotic evolutionary and cytoskeletal diversity. The cytoskeletal complexity observed in multicellular organisms appears to be an expansion of components present in genomes of diverse microbial eukaryotes such as the basal lineage of flagellates, the Excavata. Excavate protists have complex and diverse cytoskeletal architectures and life cycles – essentially alternative cytoskeletal “landscapes” – yet still possess conserved microtubule- and actin-associated proteins. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed that a subset of excavates, however, lack many canonical actin-binding proteins central to actin cytoskeleton function in other eukaryotes. Overall, excavates possess numerous uncharacterized and “hypothetical” genes, and may represent an undiscovered reservoir of novel cytoskeletal genes and cytoskeletal mechanisms. The continued development of molecular genetic tools in these complex microbial eukaryotes will undoubtedly contribute to our overall understanding of cytoskeletal diversity and evolution. PMID:23312067

  13. The Method of Validity Evaluation of Hard Coal Excavation in Residual Seam Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, Krzysztof; Bijańska, Jolanta; Gumiński, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The excavation of residual seam parts should be justified by positive assessment of the purposefulness, technical feasibility and economic effectiveness. The results of the profitability evaluation are crucial in a decision making process. The excavation of residual seam parts, even if it is possible from a technical point of view, should not be implemented if it is economically inefficient or when accompanied by a very high risk of non-recovery of invested capital resources. The article presents the evaluation method of possibilities of excavating hard coal from residual seam parts, and the example of its use in one of collieries in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Working in line with the developed method, allows to indicate the variant of residual seam part exploitation, which is feasible to implement from a technical point of view, and which is characterized by the highest economic effectiveness and lowest risk.

  14. Apparatus and method for large tunnel excavation in soft and incompetent rock or ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Hanold, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A tunneling machine is described for producing large tunnels in soft rock or wet, clayey, unconsolidated or bouldery earth by simultaneously detaching the tunnel core by thermal melting a boundary kerf into the tunnel face and forming a supporting excavation wall liner by deflecting the molten materials against the excavation walls to provide, when solidified, a continuous wall supporting liner, and detaching the tunnel face circumscribed by the kerf with powered mechanical earth detachment means and in which the heat required for melting the kerf and liner material is provided by a compact nuclear reactor. (U.S.)

  15. Selection of Excavators for Earth Work on the Basis of their Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Voštová, Věra

    2017-10-01

    For the specific construction of the reconstruction of the railway section Ostrov nad Oslavou and Žďár nad Sázavou will be done removed the railway superstructure and the partial adjustment of the substructure including drainage. For the earthwork will be used excavators of the company Komatsu, with the possibility of adjustment of parameters of the working tool - the length of the bracket and the volume of the shovel. The determined value will be purely indicative, as it does not affect how the operator of the excavator handles the discharge of cargo means.

  16. Plan for the testing of radiation measurement instrumentation intended for use at an excavation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with ionizing radiation measurement instrumentation designed and built for in-field assay at an excavation site. One instrument measures gross gamma-ray and neutron fields and the other identifies gamma-ray emitting radionuclides and also is capable of assaying for selected hazardous materials. These instruments will be operationally tested to verify that original specifications have been met and performance tested to establish and verify that they have the potential to function as intended at an excavation site

  17. National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Institute. Status report, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.

    1997-12-31

    The National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) program is intended to pool support, talent, and technologies of the industries dependent upon drilling and excavation technologies to initiate, coordinate, and sustain programs capable of developing substantial technological advances. The NADET Institute has been funded by the DOE Office of Geothermal Technologies and is now supporting seven projects aimed at advanced geothermal drilling technologies. The Institute seeks to broaden its base of funding and technological support from both government and industry sources. Encouraging progress has been made with the support of dues-paying industrial members and industrial sponsorship of a substantial drilling research study.

  18. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  19. Probabilistic analysis of soil : Diaphragm wall friction used for value engineering of deep excavation, north/south metro Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buykx, S.M.; Delfgaauw, S.; Bosch, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The excavation of deep building pits often requires a check against failure by uplift of low permeability ground layers below excavation level. Whenever the weight of these soil layers is less than the pore-water pressure underneath, measures to resist buoyancy are to be considered. The measures

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Caries Excavation Techniques in reducing the Cariogenic Flora: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afrah Fatima; Yadav, Gunjan; Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Mehrotra, Mridul; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    Caries excavation is a noninvasive technique of caries removal with maximum preservation of healthy tooth structure. To compare the efficacy of three different caries excavation techniques in reducing the count of cariogenic flora. Sixty healthy primary molars were selected from 26 healthy children with occlusal carious lesions without pulpal involvement and divided into three groups in which caries excavation was done with the help of (1) carbide bur; (2) polymer bur using slow-speed handpiece; and (3) ultrasonic tip with ultrasonic machine. Samples were collected before and after caries excavation for microbiological analysis with the help of sterile sharp spoon excavator. Samples were inoculated on blood agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. After bacterial cultivation, the bacterial count of Streptococcus mutans was obtained. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13 statistical software version. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Wilcoxon matched pairs test, and Z test were performed to reveal the statistical significance. The decrease in bacterial count of S. mutans before and after caries excavation was significant (p flora, while ultrasonic tip showed almost comparable results, while polymer bur showed least reduction in cariogenic flora after caries excavation. Hassan AF, Yadav G, Tripathi AM, Mehrotra M, Saha S, Garg N. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Caries Excavation Techniques in reducing the Cariogenic Flora: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):214-217.

  1. Excavating Silences and Tensions of Agency|Passivity in Science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    I reflect on studies by Rodriguez and Carlone, Haun-Frank, and Kimmel to emphasize the ways in which they excavate silences in the science education literature related to linguistic and cultural diversity and situating the problem of reform in teachers rather than contextual factors, such as traditional schooling discourses and forces that serve…

  2. Assessment of exposure to manganese in welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, A; Baldwin, M; Savard, S; Kennedy, G; Mergler, D; Zayed, J

    2000-10-01

    Welder exposure to metals in various industrial sectors is poorly characterized. We had the opportunity to carry out an exploratory study to characterize manganese exposure in welding operations in a recently established Quebec factory that assembled accessories for heavy excavation machinery. Ten workers were sampled for total manganese for at least two consecutive days out of three followed by two consecutive days for respirable manganese (with a size selective sampler with a median cut-off of 4 microns), during a typical week in the summer of 1998. Parts being welded were characterized as large or small. Small parts were those being welded on tables during subassembly. Workers were divided into two groups according to the parts they were welding. Seventy-eight percent of the total manganese exposure levels of welding operations during the assembly of large accessories of heavy excavation machinery exceeded the manganese American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.20 mg/m3 (GM 0.24 mg/m3, n = 14) while none exceeded the TLV during the assembly of small pieces (GM 0.06 mg/m3, n = 8). Welding operations during the assembly of large heavy excavation machinery accessories may pose a significant health hazard. Considering the importance of task-related variables affecting exposure among workers, further studies are needed to better characterize exposure determinants of welding operations during the assembly of heavy excavation machinery accessories.

  3. Supplement analysis for paleontological excavation at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    On December 15, 1997, contractor workers supporting the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction uncovered bones suspected to be of paleontological importance. The NIF workers were excavating a utility trench near the southwest corner of the NIF footprint area, located at the northeast corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore Site, and were excavating at a depth of approximately 30 feet. Upon the discovery of bone fragments, the excavation in the immediate vicinity was halted and the LLNL archaeologist was notified. The archaeologist determined that there was no indication of cultural resources. Mark Goodwin, Senior Curator for the University of California Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley, was then contacted. Mr. Goodwin visited the site on December 16th and confirmed that the bones consisted of a section of the skull, a portion of the mandible, several teeth, upper palate, and possibly the vertebrae of a mammoth, genus Mammuthus columbi. This supplement analysis evaluates the potential for adverse impacts of excavating skeletal remains, an activity that was only generally assessed by the NIF Project-Specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic Environmental impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and its Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. This supplement analysis has been prepared pursuant to the DOE regulations implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (10 CFR 1021.314)

  4. Stepwise excavation may enhance pulp preservation in permanent teeth affected by dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2011-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Ways of enhancing pulp preservation by stepwise excavation-a systematic review. Hayashi M, Fujitani M, Yamaki C, Momoi Y. J Dent 2011;39(2):95-107. Epub 2010 Dec 3. REVIEWER: Lars Bjørndal, DDS, PhD, Dr Odont PURPOSE/QUESTION: To determine the clinical...

  5. Excavations at the Buller River Site (K29/8), January 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.; Tucker, B.; Walter, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Buller River Site (K29/8) is located on the south (true left) bank of the Buller, or Kawatiri, River directly across from Westport and approximately one kilometre from the present shoreline. This report describes the excavations at Buller River in February 2004, outlines the results to date and canvasses options for future research. 12 refs., 11 figs

  6. [Parasite eggs identified in material from archaeological excavations in Ribe (the viking age) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, P; Jorgensen, R J

    1977-06-01

    Eggs of Fasciola hepatica, Ascaris sp., Taenia sp., and Trichuris sp. have been demonstrated in archaeological excavations from the early viking period (750--800 A.D.) in Ribe, the oldest urban society of Denmark. The origin of the faecal material is discussed. The parasitological examinations are continued and extended.

  7. Endoscopic excavation for the treatment of small esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li-ping; Zhu, Lin-hong; Zhou, Xian-bin; Mao, Xin-li; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic excavation for esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria. Forty-five patients with esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria were treated with endoscopic excavation between January 2010 and June 2012. The key steps were: (1) making several dots around the tumor; (2) incising the mucosa along with the marker dots, and then seperating the tumor from the muscularis propria by using a hook knife or an insulated-tip knife; (3) closing the artificial ulcer with clips after the tumor was removed. The mean tumor diameter was 1.1 ± 0.6 cm. Endoscopic excavation was successfully performed in 43 out of 45 cases (95.6%), the other 2 cases were ligated with nylon rope. During the procedure perforation occurred in 4 (8.9%) patients, who recovered after conservative treatment. No massive bleeding or delayed bleeding occurred. Histologic diagnosis was obtained from 43 (95.6%) patients. Pathological diagnoses of these tumors were leiomyomas (38/43) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (5/43). Endoscopic excavation is a safe and effective method for the treatment of small esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria.

  8. The 2010-2011 excavation season at Al Zubarah, north-west Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; al-Naimi, Faisal; Yeomans, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the results of the 2010–2011 archaeological fieldwork at the late eighteenth–twentieth-century abandoned city of al-Zubarah in north-west Qatar. The excavations in five areas inside the town, covering courtyard houses, a suq, a palatial compound, and a midden...

  9. Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, N.; Silvan, K.; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)], e-mail: niko.silvan@metla.fi; Vaisanen, S.; Soukka, R. [Lappeenranta Univ.of Techology (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Climatic impacts of energy-peat extraction are of increasing concern due to EU emissions trading requirements. A new excavation-drier peat extraction method has been developed to reduce the climatic impact and increase the efficiency of peat extraction. To quantify and compare the soil GHG fluxes of the excavation drier and the traditional milling methods, as well as the areas from which the energy peat is planned to be extracted in the future (extraction reserve area types), soil CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured during 2006-2007 at three sites in Finland. Within each site, fluxes were measured from drained extraction reserve areas, extraction fields and stockpiles of both methods and additionally from the biomass driers of the excavation-drier method. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), described at a principal level in ISO Standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006, was used to assess the long-term (100 years) climatic impact from peatland utilisation with respect to land use and energy production chains where utilisation of coal was replaced with peat. Coal was used as a reference since in many cases peat and coal can replace each other in same power plants. According to this study, the peat extraction method used was of lesser significance than the extraction reserve area type in regards to the climatic impact. However, the excavation-drier method seems to cause a slightly reduced climatic impact as compared with the prevailing milling method. (orig.)

  10. Excavation damage and organic growth in a 1.2m diameter borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, R.A.; Gann, P.; Brown, D.A.; Boychuk, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.24m diameter borehole was drilled 5m into the floor of a typical drill-and-blast tunnel in unfractured granite, at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory. Three generations of excavation damage, characteristic of what may be encountered in boreholes excavated for in-hole emplacement of used fuel wastes was observed. These include: (1) damage related to the initial excavation of the room, (2) damage caused by the drilling of the borehole itself, and (3) damage due to subsequent stress-induced spalling of the borehole walls. A biofilm containing a variety of microorganisms has developed where seepage issues from the concrete-granite interface. The biota were introduced from surface water used for mining and drilling. Their growth has been stimulated by residues from blasting and drilling, which have concentrated iron and silicon by passive sorption and energy metabolism. Ferrous iron has been oxidized and precipitated as ferrihydrite/hematite to give an orange/brown colouration on the biofilm interface black. These observations, significant to the understanding and monitoring of excavation damage, highlight the importance of thorough, in situ, multi-disciplinary characterization for vault design

  11. The Li(f)e of the Self: Missing Persons and Auto/Archeological Excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Jake

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and enacts a process of autobiographical inquiry, auto/archeology, which seeks to address problematic confluences of memory and identity in reconstructing one's historical narrative. Drawing on curriculum theory and Lacanian psychoanalysis, the author describes a process of excavation in which understandings of a prior…

  12. Stability calculation method of slope reinforced by prestressed anchor in process of excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical.

  13. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emsley, S.; Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L.; Alheid, H.J.; Falls, S.

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations

  14. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, S [Golder Associates, Maidenhead (United Kingdom); Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co., Figeholm (Sweden); Alheid, H J [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Falls, S [Queens Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations 68 refs, 92 figs, 31 tabs

  15. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  16. Resisting English: Excavating English Ideologies of Young Boys through Chutkule at an Indian Orphanage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Usree

    2017-01-01

    The prevailing scholarship on Indians' beliefs about English has, with few exceptions, largely failed to capture ideological resistance. Given the supremacy of English within the hierarchically ordered and unequal linguistic landscape in India, this study intervenes within this limited area of research. This investigation excavates ideologies of…

  17. MBC model analysis for predicting the rock behavior in excavating the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takayuki; Iwano, Keita; Nakajima, Makoto; Morikawa, Seiji; Tabei, Kazuto

    2005-03-01

    As a Phase 1 of MIU project (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project), through the laboratory and borehole in-situ tests, JNC Tono Geoscience Center plans to constitute the comprehensive geological model and predicts the rock behaviors in excavating the shaft and gallery. These model and results leads to be reflected by the next step research projects. So far, the Phase 1 of MIU project is coming to final stage, and the Phase 2 will start at next year in which the in-situ researches are planned through the excavation. In this study, the comprehensive geometrical model was drawn out through the Phase 1 data, and MBC model analysis was carried out to predict the rock mass behavior around the shaft and gallery. The following results are obtained. 1. With MIZ-1 borehole core, artificial joints, which are assumed to be produced by rock blasting, were formed through the Brazilian test. And through the rock shear test for these joints, these mechanical properties were obtained. 2. By examining the MIZ-1 borehole research data, Mizunami site was classified by mechanical and joint properties and the Geomechanical model were made up. 3. Through the MBC model, the shaft and gallery cases were analyzed which depend on the rock mass classification, Excavation Damaged Zone, and the direction of the galleries. These results showed that in most cases, the joint opening were little because of the rock stiffness, but by the existence of high inclined joints, the side wall of the galleries were damaged by the excavation. (author)

  18. Field observations and failure analysis of an excavation damaged zone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Ishida, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In the construction of a deep underground facility, the hydromechanical properties of the rock mass around an underground opening are changed significantly due to stress redistribution. This zone is called an excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In high-level radioactive waste disposal, EDZs can provide a shortcut for the escape of radionuclides to the surface environment. Therefore, it is important to develop a method for predicting the detailed characteristics of EDZs. For prediction of the EDZ in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory of Japan, we conducted borehole televiewer surveys, rock core analyses, and repeated hydraulic conductivity measurements. We observed that niche excavation resulted in the formation of extension fractures within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall, i.e., the extent of the EDZ is within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall. These results are largely consistent with the results of a finite element analysis implemented with the failure criteria considering failure mode. The hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ was increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared with the outer zone. The hydraulic conductivity in and around the EDZ has not changed significantly in the two years following excavation of the niche. These results show that short-term unloading due to excavation of the niche created a highly permeable EDZ. (author)

  19. Aspects to improve cabin comfort of wheel loaders and excavators according to operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Krause, F.; Vink, P.

    2003-01-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in interior design of earth moving equipment. Although research has been conducted on vehicle interiors of wheel loaders and excavators, hardly any information is known about the operator's opinion. In this study a questionnaire was completed by machine

  20. The SNL/NM Classified Waste Landfill Excavation: Lessons Learned Moving from Planning to Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, Robert B; Slavin, Paula

    1999-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Environmental Restoration Project is halfway through excavating the Classified Waste Landfill in Technical Area II, a disposal area for weapon components for approximately 40 years. While the planning phase of any project is important, it is only a means of getting to the field implementation phase where reality quickly sinks in. Documents outlining the general processes are developed, heavy equipment, supply needs, requisite skills, and staffing levels are anticipated, and contingencies for waste management are put in place. However, the nature of landfill excavation dictates that even the most detailed plans will probably change. This project is proving that trying to account for undefined variables and predicting the total cost of landfill remediation is very difficult if the contents are not well known. In landfill excavation, contingency cannot be minimized. During development of the waste management plan, it was recognized that even the best forecasting could not formulate the perfect cradle-to-grave processes because waste streams are rarely definable before excavation begins. Typically, as excavation progresses and waste streams are generated, new characterization information allows further definition of disposal options which, in turn, modify the generation/management process. A general plan combined with close involvement of waste management personnel to resolve characterization and packaging questions during generation has worked very well. And, as expected, each new pit excavated creates new waste management challenges. The material excavated consists primarily of classified weapon assemblies and related components, so disposition must include demilitarization and sanitization. The demilitarization task at the start of the project was provided by an SNL/NM group that has since lost their funding and operational capability. This project is having to take on the task of disassembly, destruction, and

  1. A low-cost approach for the documentation and monitoring of an archaeological excavation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Orrin, Joel; Richter, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The documentation of archaeological excavations and in particular a constant monitoring is often time-consuming and depending on humańs capabilities. Thus, remote sensing methods, which allow an objective reproduction of the current state of an excavation and additional information are of interest. Therefore, a low-cost approach was tested on an open-air excavation site for two days in September 2015. The Magdalenian excavation site of Bad Kösen-Lengefeld, Germany is one important site in a system of about 100 sites in the area of the small rivers Saale and Unstrut. The whole site and the surrounding area (200 by 200 m) was first observed by a GoPro Hero 3+ mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 UAV. Ground control points were set-up in a regular grid covering the whole area. The achieved accuracy is 20 mm with a ground resolution of 45 mm. As a test, the GoPro Hero 3+ camera was additionally mounted on a small, extendable pole. With this second low-cost, easy to apply monitoring approach, pictures were automatically taken every second in a stop-and-go mode. In order to capture the excavation pit (7 by 4 m), two different angles were used for holding the pole, which focused on the middle and on the border of the pit. This procedure was repeated on the following day in order to document the excavation process. For the registration of the images, the already existing and measured excavation nails were used, which are equally distributed over the whole site in a 1 m grid. Thus, a high accurate registration of the images was possible (>10 mm). In order to approve the accuracy of the already derived data, the whole site was also observed by a Faro Focus 3D LS 120 laser scanner. The measurements of this device were registered by spherical targets, which were measured in the same reference system. The accuracy of the registration and the ground resolution for the image based approach for both days was about 4 mm. From these two measurements the process of the excavation was easily

  2. Technical summary of AECL's Mine-by Experiment phase I: Excavation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.; Martin, C.D.

    1996-02-01

    The first phase of the Mine-by Experiment was conducted at the 420 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) to investigate the response induced in the rock mass by excavating a 3.5-m-diameter circular tunnel using a non-explosive technique. The main objective of the experiment was to study the processes involved in progressive failure and the development of excavation-induced damage around underground openings. To this end, state-of-the-art geomechanical and geophysical instrumentation was used to monitor the excavation of the 46-m-long Mine-by Experiment test tunnel. The results from the experiment show that progressive failure in compressive regions around the tunnel initiates at stresses about 50% of the rock strength measured in uniaxial compression tests in the laboratory. The difference between the laboratory and in situ behaviour is attributed to complex stress changes that occur during excavation of the tunnel, especially in the vicinity of the advancing face. These effects are not simulated in standard laboratory tests. Numerical modelling and in situ characterization studies were conducted to establish the extent and characteristics of the damaged zone around the test tunnel. As part of this study, in situ stresses and material properties were established through back analysis of measured displacements and strains. Using these boundary conditions, it was shown that the damaged zone was limited to within 1 m of the original tunnel perimeter. The characteristics of the damaged zone, however, were found to be highly variable around the tunnel, and were dependent on the nature of the stress concentrations, geology, stress magnitudes and orientations and, to a lesser extent, the excavation method and sequence. (author) 136 refs., 14 tabs., 103 figs

  3. Endoscopic excavation for gastric heterotopic pancreas: an analysis of 42 cases from a tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Qin; Zhu, Lin-hong; Zhou, Xian-bin; Ye, Li-ping; Mao, Xin-li

    2014-09-01

    Because of the difficulty associated with making an accurate diagnosis of gastric heterotopic pancreas (HP) before surgery, surgical resection is usually performed in suspected cases. However, this is an invasive procedure and prone to certain surgical complications. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic excavation for gastric HP, as well as the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in diagnosing gastric HP. Between January 2007 and January 2013, 42 consecutive patients with gastric HP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Key steps: (1) Injection of a solution (100 ml saline + 2 ml indigo carmine + 1 ml epinephrine) into the submucosal layer after making several dots around the lesion; (2) Incision of the mucosa outside the marker dots with a needle-knife, and then circumferential excavation until complete resection of the lesion; (3) Closure of the artificial ulcer with several clips after tumor removal. In this study, 18 cases (42.9%) were suspected as gastric HP (assessed by two experienced endoscopists before endoscopic excavation), 8 (19.0%) were suspected as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 7 (16.7%) as gastric polyp, and the remaining 9 cases (21.4%) were still unknown. The mean procedure duration was 28.6 min. En bloc resection by endoscopic excavation was achieved in 40 cases (95.2%), and no massive bleeding, delayed bleeding, perforation, or other severe complication occurred in these patients. Among the 42 lesions, a tube echo could be detected in 11 cases by EUS. Those 11 cases were diagnosed as gastric HP by histopathology. Endoscopic excavation appears to be a safe and feasible procedure for accurate histopathologic evaluation and curative treatment in gastric HP. Use of EUS has some value in the diagnosis of gastric HP before the procedure

  4. A study of feasibility, design and cost of excavations for underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    A study conducted for the State Power Board on underground siting of nuclear power plants is presented. The report is divided into two chapters, both concerning the technical aspects of large underground openings. The first chapter gives a brief general survey of the problems involved, and the second outlines the technical aspects of a PWR project at a specific site. Details are given in 8 appendices and arrangement drawings. The project differs from conventional hydroelectric excavation schemes mainly in the fact that the spherical reactor containment requires a vault of 60m free span, and the turbine hall a cylindrical vault of 45m span, both of which exceed any span hitherto built for similar purposes. This requires a comparatively wide extrapolation of tested and available experience in underground excavations for permanent civil use. To what extent and under what circumstances such extrapolation is tenable must be tested in practice, preferably in a specially controlled prototype test. However the study indicates that conventional nuclear power plants can be sited underground when the topography and rock conditions are suitable. A 1000-2000 MW conventional plant adapted for underground siting will require large span caverns, tunnels and shafts, totalling about 1.0 mill. cubic metres of underground excavation. In addition access and cooling water tunnels, depending on the location, will require 0.2-0.5 mill. cubic metres of tunnel excavations. The excavations and support work can be completed within a construction time of about 2 1/2 years at an estimated total cost of 215 mill. Norwegian kroner (1975 value). (JIW)

  5. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic-velocity methods used to characterise the excavation disturbance associated with deep tunnels in hard rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Stephen D.; Young, R. Paul

    1998-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic-velocity monitoring studies have been undertaken at both the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) and at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Company (SKB) Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). At both locations the excavations were tunnels in granitic material at approximately 420 m depth. However, the stress regime was more severe at the URL Mine-by tunnel site than the HRL ZEDEX tunnel. Different parts of the ZEDEX tunnel were created using different excavation techniques. Using AE and ultrasonic techniques to study these tunnels we have been able to examine the nature of the excavation-disturbed zone around the tunnel, as well as examining the effects of different stress regimes and excavation techniques. Studies were undertaken both during and after the Mine-by tunnel excavation and during excavation in the ZEDEX tunnel. AE monitoring in the wall of the Mine-by tunnel during excavation showed that some activity occurred in the sidewall regions, but the spatial density of AE hypocentres increased toward the regions in the floor and roof of the tunnel where breakout notches formed. This sidewall activity was clustered primarily within 0.5 m of the tunnel wall. AE monitoring in the floor of the tunnel showed that small numbers of AE continued to occur in the notch region in the floor of the tunnel over 2 years after excavation was completed. This activity became more acute as the rock was heated, imposing thermally induced stresses on the volume. Ultrasonic-velocity studies both in the floor and the wall of the tunnel showed that the velocity is strongly anisotropic with the direction of slowest velocity orthogonal to the tunnel surface. The velocity increased with distance into the rock from the tunnel surface. In the floor, this effect was seen up to 2 m from the tunnel surface. Most of the change occurred within the first 0.5 m from the tunnel perimeter. At the lower-stress HRL, most of

  6. Excavation induced damage evolution during a mine-by experiment in Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietor, T.; Armand, G.; Nyonoya, S.; Schuster, K.; Wieczorek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In Switzerland Opalinus Clay, a potential host rock formation for a nuclear waste repository, is intensively studied in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) in North-Western Switzerland. During the 2008 extension of the URL, the construction works were repeatedly interrupted to implement monitoring systems for a mine-by experiment. The future position of a 24 m long tunnel was instrumented with 36 different monitoring systems comprising approximately 200 sensors. Key features of this tunnel were chosen similar to the current Swiss concept for emplacement tunnels for High Level Radioactive Waste: circular section, full-face excavation following the geological bedding, support by a thin layer of shotcrete and 6 anchors every 1.3 m. For a mine-by experiment 26 boreholes were equipped with 7 multipoint extensometers, two multi segment inclinometer chains and 26 pore pressure chambers. The data acquisition system recorded 12 data sets per hour. For seismic transmission and acoustic emission monitoring, 8 piezo-electric emitters and 15 piezo-electric receivers were installed in 5 boreholes. The excavation of the instrumented tunnel took place in October/November 2008. The activities on the site were monitored with a web cam to separate spontaneous and excavation induced rock mass reactions. Daily mappings of the tunnel face and the sidewalls revealed the fracture pattern that was generated ahead of the advancing excavation. Three sets of excavation activated discontinuities could be clearly identified. These three sets develop within the framework of the pre-existing tectonic micro-faults that generally have a half-meter spacing. Where their density is high the intensity of excavation induced new slip planes apparently drops. Despite the presence of micro-faults the deformation monitoring around the advancing tunnel face showed a remarkably homogenous response to the excavation. Inclinometer chain segments

  7. Air Quality and Microclimatic Parameters During Excavation of Mala Kapela Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Klanfar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During excavation of the Mala Kapela tunnel, measurements of harmful gases concentration, ventilation parameters and microclimatic parameters were performed. Measurements were done in 17 occasions during period of 16 months, along the advance of the tunnel excavation. Consequently, large amount of data was obtained, in different tunnel chainages, ventilation ducts length, and in different work operations during the excavation. Main sources of harmful gases during tunnel excavation are explosives and diesel equipment. The concentration of the same mainly depends on explosive charge and overall diesel equipment power, present at the excavation face of the tunnel. Continuous measurements of the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO and dioxide (CO2, and nitrogen oxide (NO and dioxide (NO2 was performed during drilling, blasting, and loading and haulage operations. Measurements were done in 45 cases in total. Recorded data was analysed, where peak concentrations were joined to corresponding operation and the tunnel chainage. Regulations on threshold limit values were used to determine if concentrations rise above the permissible ones. In case they do, the time required for dilution of gases below permissible concentration was noted. Typically, concentrations of all measured gases rise rapidly after blasting. Afterwards, ventilation system acts to dilute them and maintain them relatively constant until the end of loading and haulage. According to measurements in this research, highest concentrations and longest time of dilution were found after blasting. At the same time, concentration of all measured gases exceeds permissible values. Carbon monoxide is found to exceed permissible values during all work operations. It shows most frequent transgression above the limit (in 33 to 100% of cases and highest time of dilution (up to 40 min. Air supply to the excavation face was measured in 25 cases. It was correlated to the length of ventilation ducts, as

  8. Excavation damage and disturbance in crystalline rock - results from experiments and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, Goeran

    2008-11-01

    SKB plans to submit the application to site and construct the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2010. One important basis for the application is the results of the safety assessments, for which one particular dataset is the axial hydraulic properties along the underground openings used to calculate the transport resistance for radionuclide transport in the event that the canister is impaired. SKB initiated a project (Zuse) to be run over the period 2007-2009 to: - establish the current knowledge base on excavation damage and disturbance with particular focus on the axial hydraulic properties along the underground openings; - provide a basis for the requirements and compliance criteria for the excavation damaged and disturbed zone; - devise methods and instruments to infer or measure the excavation damage and disturbance at different times during the repository construction and operation before closure; - propose demonstration tests for which the methods are used in situ to qualify appropriate data for use in the safety reports. This report presents the results of the first stage of the Zuse project. Previous major experiments and studies in Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland on spalling, excavation damage and disturbance was compiled and evaluated to provide the SR-Site report with a defendable database on the properties for the excavation damage and disturbance. In preparation for the SR-Site report, a number of sensitivity studies were conducted in which reasonable ranges of values for spalling and damage were selected in combination with an impaired backfill. The report here describes the construction of the repository in eleven steps and for each of these steps, the potential evolution of THMCB (Thermal, Mechanical, Hydraulic and Chemical/ Biological) processes are reviewed. In this work it was found that descriptions of the chemical and microbiological evolution connected with excavation damage and disturbance was lacking. The preliminary

  9. Mine-by experiment committee report phase 1: excavation response summary and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Kaiser, P.K.

    1996-05-01

    The first phase of the Mine-by Experiment, i.e., excavation of a 3.5-m-diameter tunnel, was carried out at the 420 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory to investigate rock mass damage and progressive failure around a circular opening in brittle unfractitred Lac du Bonnet granite. The tunnel was excavated without explosives, and state-of-the-art instrumentation comprising both geomechanical and geophysical instruments was used to monitor the failure process. The experiment showed that rock mass damage begins once the deviatoric stress (0'1 - 0'3) near the advancing face of the tunnel exceeds a critical level. Crack propagation can lead to progressive failure around the tunnel; however, it is limited to a region, referred to as the excavation damaged zone, of less than one tunnel radius. Within the damaged zone, stabbing (a typical form of brittle failure) began at stress levels equivalent to about 50% of the short-term laboratory unconfined compressive strength. This reduction in strength between laboratory and in situ conditions occurs because the in situ loading path is far more complex than the monotonic loading path used to test laboratory samples. There is no evidence to suggest that the stabbing failure process would extend beyond the depth of damage defined by the deviatoric stress criterion. The stabbing process stops when the tunnel face has advanced sufficiently (approximately 2 tunnel diameters) such that the rock mass is no longer subjected to excavation-induced stress changes. The strength of the rock mass in the damaged zone must be back-calculated from in situ tests, because the loading path cannot be duplicated readily in the laboratory. Thus, the back-calculated damaged strength must be used to evaluate the stability of the excavation. Sealing systems to reduce the permeability in the axial direction of a tunnel must be keyed into the rock mass beyond the radial extent of the damaged zone. The shape of the seals must be designed so as to

  10. The effect of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of strip footing supported on reinforced sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa El Sawwaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests on the influence of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of a model strip footing adjacent to the excavation and supported on reinforced granular soil. Initially, the response of the strip footings supported on un-reinforced sand and subjected to vertical loads (which were constant during the test due to adjacent deep excavation-induced lateral soil movement were obtained. Then, the effects of the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in supporting soil on the model footing behavior under the same conditions were investigated. The studied factors include the value of the sustained footing loads, the location of footing relative to the excavation, the affected depth of soil due to deep excavation, and the relative density of sand. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the supporting sand significantly decreases both vertical settlements and the tilts of the footings due to the nearby excavation. However, the improvements in the footing behavior were found to be very dependent on the location of the footing relative to excavation. Based on the test results, the variation of the footing measured vertical settlements with different parameters are presented and discussed.

  11. Zedex - an in-situ study of the importance of the excavation disturbed zone to repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Slimane K.B.; Davies, N.

    1995-01-01

    The excavation of shafts and tunnels in a waste repository will cause a disturbance to the surrounding rock mass with possible alterations to rock mass stability and hydraulic properties. The properties and extent of the disturbed zone must be considered in the design of a repository and in the assessment of its long-term safety. In addition, the data collected in drifts, which will be used for detailed characterization of the repository, will be affected by excavation effects. ANDRA, UK Nirex, and SKB have jointly set up the ZEDEX Project at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden, in order to improve understanding of the properties and extent the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ). The main objective is to study the mechanical behavior of the EDZ with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent, and its dependence of excavation method. The project will also provide a test of equipment and methodology for quantifying the EDZ. The ZEDEX Project includes tests of open-quote normal close-quote excavation by drill and blast, a smooth blasting procedure based on low shock explosives, and excavation by tunnel boring. The ZEDEX Project is still in progress and results have not been fully analyzed. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates that the measurable changes in properties induced by tunnel excavation are comparatively small

  12. A Top Pilot Tunnel Preconditioning Method for the Prevention of Extremely Intense Rockbursts in Deep Tunnels Excavated by TBMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanqing; Feng, Xiating; Zhou, Hui; Qiu, Shili; Wu, Wenping

    2012-05-01

    The headrace tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station cross the Jinping Mountain with a maximum overburden depth of 2,525 m, where 80% of the strata along the tunnels consist of marble. A number of extremely intense rockbursts occurred during the excavation of the auxiliary tunnels and the drainage tunnel. In particular, a tunnel boring machine (TBM) was destroyed by an extremely intense rockburst in a 7.2-m-diameter drainage tunnel. Two of the four subsequent 12.4-m-diameter headrace tunnels will be excavated with larger size TBMs, where a high risk of extremely intense rockbursts exists. Herein, a top pilot tunnel preconditioning method is proposed to minimize this risk, in which a drilling and blasting method is first recommended for the top pilot tunnel excavation and support, and then the TBM excavation of the main tunnel is conducted. In order to evaluate the mechanical effectiveness of this method, numerical simulation analyses using the failure approaching index, energy release rate, and excess shear stress indices are carried out. Its construction feasibility is discussed as well. Moreover, a microseismic monitoring technique is used in the experimental tunnel section for the real-time monitoring of the microseismic activities of the rock mass in TBM excavation and for assessing the effect of the top pilot tunnel excavation in reducing the risk of rockbursts. This method is applied to two tunnel sections prone to extremely intense rockbursts and leads to a reduction in the risk of rockbursts in TBM excavation.

  13. Archaeological Excavation Report for Proposed Well 199-K-131 in Support of the 100-KR-4 Pump-and-Treat Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, Dave M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.

    2004-06-22

    An archaeological excavation was conducted at the site of proposed groundwater monitoring well 199-K-131 in support of the 100-KR-4 Pump-and-Treat Project between June 2 and 3, 2004. Excavations confirmed that there were no intact cultural deposits at the proposed well location. This report was prepared to document the findings of the test excavation.

  14. Excavating silences and tensions of agency|passivity in science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

    2010-12-01

    I reflect on studies by Rodriguez and Carlone, Haun-Frank, and Kimmel to emphasize the ways in which they excavate silences in the science education literature related to linguistic and cultural diversity and situating the problem of reform in teachers rather than contextual factors, such as traditional schooling discourses and forces that serve to marginalize science. I propose that the current push for top-down reform and accountability diminishes opportunities for receptivity, learning with and from students in order to transform teachers' practices and promote equity in science education. I discuss tensions of agency and passivity in science education reform and argue that attention to authentic caring constitutes another silence in the science education literature. I conclude that the current policy context positions teachers and science education researchers as tempered radicals struggling against opp(reg)ressive reforms and that there is a need for more studies to excavate these and other silences.

  15. Development of digital photogrammetry for measurements of displacements in underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Yuzo; Ohtsu, Hiroyasu; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Ono, Tetsu; Matsui, Hiroya

    2002-03-01

    Because deformations are important indicators of the degree of stability during construction of rock structures, monitoring of deformation is a key element of construction of tunnels and structures for the underground research laboratory. Especially in the construction and maintenance of underground excavation, monitoring of deformations is needed for obtaining useful information to control its stability. We have been developing the application of digital photogrammetry to monitoring techniques in rock structures. Photogrammetric process has undergone a remarkable evolution with its transformation into digital photogrammetry. Photogrammetry has the advantage of measuring deformation of an object by some photos with easy measurements and excellent cost performance. In this paper, we present that the digital photogrammetry can monitor the displacements of the underground excavation accurately along with a capability of real-time measurement. (author)

  16. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 and Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 is an excavation robot for mining regolith on a planet like Mars. The robot is programmed using the Robotic Operating System (ROS) and it also uses a physical simulation program called Gazebo. This internship focused on various functions of the program in order to make it a more professional and efficient robot. During the internship another project called the Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator was worked on. This is a robot that is designed to dig through sand and extract sample material. The intern worked on programming the Sand-Swimming robot, and designing the electrical system to power and control the robot.

  17. Relic excavated in western India is probably of Georgian Queen Ketevan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Niraj; Taher, Nizamuddin; Singh, Manvendra; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Jha, Aditya Nath; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2014-01-01

    History has well documented the execution of Queen Ketevan of Georgia by the Persian Emperor of modern day Iran. Based on historical records, in 1624 two Augustinian friars unearthed the queen's remains and one of them brought the relic to the St. Augustine convent in Goa, India. We carried out ancient DNA analysis on the human bone remains excavated from the St. Augustine convent by sequencing and genotyping of the mitochondrial DNA. The investigations of the remains revealed a unique mtDNA haplogroup U1b, which is absent in India, but present in Georgia and surrounding regions. Since our genetic analysis corroborates archaeological and literary evidence, it is likely that the excavated bone belongs to Queen Ketevan of Georgia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Limit values used in the European Union for managing excavated land and contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Diaz, E.; Rodriguez Abad, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, which is a summary of the minor thesis of the same title, a qualitative comparison is made between mean limit values applied in different member countries of the European Union (EU) for the proper management of excavated lands and contaminated soils. This management can be carried out as a byproduct through its reuse, recycling or previous treatment, or through its consideration as a waste and its subsequent admission to a particular type of landfill. Three types of comparisons of UE limit values are done in this paper: between those established in six member countries for the use of excavated lands as a byproduct, between those existing in 15 European countries for contaminated soils, and finally between those required in 12 EU countries for their land filling. (Author)

  19. Coupled hydrological-mechanical effects due to excavation of underground openings in unsaturated fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazer, P.

    1985-01-01

    One of the effects of excavating an underground opening in fractured rocks is a modification of the state of the stress in the rock mass in the vicinity of the opening. This effect causes changes in the geometry of the cross sections of the fracture planes, which in turn results in modification of the hydrologic properties of the fractures of the rock mass. The significance of the orientation of the fractures and their stiffness on the extent of the modification of the hydrologic properties as a result of excavation of underground openings is demonstrated. A conceptual model is presented to illustrate the complexity of the coupled hydrological-mechanical phenomena in the unsaturated zone. This conceptual model is used to develop an investigative program to assess the extent of the effect at a proposed repository site for storing high-level nuclear wastes

  20. Radiocarbon dating of a sutra container excavated at the Minagi Daibutsuyama site, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Toshio; Tsukamoto, Toshio

    2004-01-01

    The historical age of a sutra container (Kyozutsu) excavated at the Minagi Daibutsuyama site was estimated by the AMS method. Radiocarbon ages for samples of the charred sutra kept in the container range from 950 to 1000 BP, corresponding to the first half of the 11th or the middle of the 12th century in the calibrated ages. The radiocarbon ages of wood charcoal blocks excavated around the container range from 1000 to 1100 BP, corresponding to calibrated ages from the 10th to the early 11th century. Since the radiocarbon age of wood charcoal can be decades older than the age of production as a result of the old wood effect, the historical age of the sutra container formation is estimated at the first half of the 11th century

  1. Characteristics of the excavation response zone as applied to shaft sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubick, A.T.; Klein, R.; Gray, M.N.; Keil, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    Effective sealing of an underground repository requires high quality seals. Clay-based backfills in combination with cement plugs are the possible candidates. An important component of the shaft sealing program is the development of techniques to predict and monitor the flow in the excavation response zone (ERZ) and at the seal-rock interface. The mechanical and hydraulic performance of the seal and backfill and the flow characteristics of the ERZ under in situ conditions will be tested in three experimental shafts to be excavated in the URL. The use of the vacuum permeability technique for characterization of the hydraulic properties and of the permeability distribution in the ERZ under various geomechanical conditions is discussed

  2. Assessment of geomechanical properties, maximum depth and excavation damaged zone aspects - Expert report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, F.; Löw, S.; Perras, M.

    2015-11-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss National Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI discusses the expert report published on the need for the assessment of geomechanical properties and maximum depth of repositories for high, medium and low-activity nuclear wastes. Also, aspects concerning excavation damaged zones (EDZ) are considered. These are all criteria for the selection of sites as part of Phase 2 of the Swiss waste disposal project. Four questions are examined: are NAGRA’s documented basic considerations and calculations on Opalinus Clay comprehensive enough and correct, are the calculations on maximum depth correct, are the proposed storage perimeters correct with respect to depth and will NAGRA be able to take possible excavation damaged zones (EDZ) into account? Literature and references concerning the subject are quoted

  3. Excavations and chronology at the Redcliffs Flat site, Canterbury, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Redcliffs Flat site is one of a number of early Maori archaeological sites that cluster near the mouth of the estuary of the Avon and Heathcote rivers. Although several have been the subject of archaeological investigations, the chronology and extent of the Redcliffs Flat site remain poorly understood. Recent excavations associated with the redevelopment of a suburban section allow some progress to be made on both fronts. A small excavation here yielded a surprising amount of faunal, lithic and stratigraphic information. The site is shown to have extended to close to the edge of the estuary at the time of occupation and a radiocarbon date on a fragment of moa eggshell confirms the fourteenth to early fifteenth century status of the site. The radiocarbon chronology of the sites of the wider Redcliffs area is reviewed in light of this result. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Application of full-face round by the sequential blasting machine in tunnel excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.D.; Park, B.K.; Lee, S.E.; Lim, H.U.

    1995-12-31

    Many methods and techniques have been developed to reduce ground vibrations. Some of them are an adoption of electric millisecond detonators with a sequential blasting machine and an improvement of initiating system with an adequate number of delay intervals. To reduce the level of ground vibration in tunnel excavation, the sequential blasting machine (S.B.M.) with decisecond detonators was adopted. A total of 134 blasts was recorded at various sites and the results were analyzed. The distances blast-to-structures were ranged from 20.3 to 42.0 meter, where charge weights were varied from 0.25 to 0.75kg per delay. It is proved that the sequential blasting in tunnel excavation is very effective to control ground vibration.

  5. Energy Consumption in the Process of Excavator-Automobile Complexes Distribution at Kuzbass Open Pit Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panachev Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year worldwide coal mining companies seek to maintain the tendency of the mining machine fleet renewal. Various activities to maintain the service life of already operated mining equipment are implemented. In this regard, the urgent issue is the problem of efficient distribution of available machines in different geological conditions. The problem of “excavator-automobile” complex effective distribution occurs when heavy dump trucks are used in mining. For this reason, excavation and transportation of blasted rock mass are the most labor intensive and costly processes, considering the volume of transported overburden and coal, as well as diesel fuel, electricity, fuel and lubricants costs, consumables for repair works and downtime, etc. Currently, it is recommended to take the number of loading buckets in the range of 3 to 5, according to which the dump trucks are distributed to faces.

  6. Interaction Deep Excavation Adjacent Structure Numerical Two and Three Dimensional Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, M.; Chehade, F. H.; Chehade, W.; Fawaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Urban development often requires the construction of deep excavations near to buildings or other structures. We have to study complex material structure interactions where we should take into consideration several particularities. In this paper, we perform a numerical modeling with the finite element method, using PLAXIS software, of the interaction deep excavation-diaphragm wall-soil-structure in the case of non linear soil behavior. We focus our study on a comparison of the results given respectively by two and three dimensional modelings. This allows us to give some recommendations concerning the validity of twodimensional study. We perform a parametric study according to the initial loading on the structure and the struts number. (author)

  7. Remediating Contaminant Plumes in Groundwater with Shallow Excavations Containing Coarse Reactive Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow and mass transport model tested the capability of shallow excavations filled with coarse, reactive media to remediate a hypothetical unconfined aquifer with a maximum saturated thickness of 5 m. Modeled as contaminant sinks, the rectangular excavations were 10 m downgradient of an initial contaminant plume originating from a source at the top of the aquifer. The initial plume was approximately 259 m long, 23 m wide, and 5 m thick, with a downgradient tip located approximately 100 m upgradient of the site boundary. The smallest trench capable of preventing offsite migration was 11 m long (measured perpendicular to groundwater flow), 4 m wide (measured parallel to groundwater flow), and 3 m deep. Results of this study suggest that shallow trenches filled with coarse filter media that partially penetrate unconfined aquifers may be a viable alternative for remediating contaminated groundwater at some sites.

  8. The Avaldsnes Royal Manor Project’s Research Plan and Excavation Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Skre, Dagfinn

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an outline of the scholarly problems that the Avaldsnes Royal Manor Project was designed to address, the central theme explored being the political institutions and processes in the first millennium AD. The research plan was developed during the 2007–9 pilot project phase, and was adjusted and supplemented during the 2011–12 excavations and the research and publication phase in the subsequent years. The first of the research plan’s two sections, the results of which are ...

  9. Thermomechanical analysis of underground excavations in the vicinity of a nuclear waste isolation panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1987-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a series of analyses of excavations in the vicinity of waste emplacement panels. Specific consideration is given to the access drifts running between adjacent emplacement panels, the drift intersection at the entrance to the emplacement panels, and the waste emplacement excavations. Both horizontal and vertical emplacement models are considered, but greater emphasis is placed on the former. Three numerical modeling procedures were used in this study: a finite-element model was used for three-dimensional stress analysis of the tunnel intersection, a model based on the closed-form solution for point heat sources was used to predict temperatures and stresses in the vicinity of the emplacement panel, and simple two-dimensional boundary-element models were used to predict temperatures and stresses around excavations of various shapes. The results of two-dimensional stress analyses were postprocessed to determine the extent to which the strength of a rock mass, containing a set of vertical joints, was exceeded. The results presented in this report do not indicate that there will be any particular stability problems at the tunnel intersection investigated. Further, the effect of waste emplacement within the adjacent panels is to decrease the vertical rock stresses and increase the horizontal rock stresses at the intersection. These stress changes will tend to enhance the stability of larger-span excavations, including the tunnel intersection and the alcoves necessary for horizontal emplacement of waste canisters. The relatively high horizontal stresses experienced by the access were identified as a potential concern. However, evaluation of recent data on the thermomechanical properties of the rock mass modeled here has indicated that the stress changes will not be as severe as stated herein

  10. Robotic excavator trajectory control using an improved GA based PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Yin, Chen-Bo; Weng, Wen-wen; Ma, Wei; Zhou, Jun-jing; Jia, Wen-hua; Zhang, Zi-li

    2018-05-01

    In order to achieve excellent trajectory tracking performances, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA) is presented to search for the optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters for the robotic excavator. Firstly, the mathematical model of kinematic and electro-hydraulic proportional control system of the excavator are analyzed based on the mechanism modeling method. On this basis, the actual model of the electro-hydraulic proportional system are established by the identification experiment. Furthermore, the population, the fitness function, the crossover probability and mutation probability of the SGA are improved: the initial PID parameters are calculated by the Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) tuning method and the initial population is generated near it; the fitness function is transformed to maintain the diversity of the population; the probability of crossover and mutation are adjusted automatically to avoid premature convergence. Moreover, a simulation study is carried out to evaluate the time response performance of the proposed controller, i.e., IGA based PID against the SGA and Z-N based PID controllers with a step signal. It was shown from the simulation study that the proposed controller provides the least rise time and settling time of 1.23 s and 1.81 s, respectively against the other tested controllers. Finally, two types of trajectories are designed to validate the performances of the control algorithms, and experiments are performed on the excavator trajectory control experimental platform. It was demonstrated from the experimental work that the proposed IGA based PID controller improves the trajectory accuracy of the horizontal line and slope line trajectories by 23.98% and 23.64%, respectively in comparison to the SGA tuned PID controller. The results further indicate that the proposed IGA tuning based PID controller is effective for improving the tracking accuracy, which may be employed in the trajectory control of an actual excavator.

  11. Study on provenance of ancient pottery excavated from Huating Ruins, Xinyi County by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Anwu; Wang Changsui; Chi Jinqi; Satoshi Koshimizu; Kazai Manabu; Kushihara Koichi

    1997-01-01

    The ancient pottery excavated from Huating Ruins, Xinyi Country, Jiangsu Province, was measured and studied by INAA. The data were manipulated by multivariate statistic analysis, such as cluster and factor analysis. It has been shown that the specimens can be divided into two groups, which are related to Liangzhu Culture area and Dawenkou Culture area respectively. The result seems to support the viewpoint that the pottery specimens of Liangzhu Culture from Huating Ruins belong to war trophies

  12. Ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Yang, J.; Zhang, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the application of stochastic medium theory, it is assumed that ground movement process has the property of Markov Process. Based on superposition principle and rock consolidation principle, the ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation can be calculated. The comparison between the field measurements in Morwell Open Pit, Latrobe Valley (Victoria, Australia) and the calculated results shows the validity of the method in this paper. 5 refs

  13. Excavation and aggregation as organizing factors in de novo construction by mound-building termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Bardunias, Paul; Turner, J Scott; Nagpal, Radhika; Werfel, Justin

    2017-06-14

    Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a putative 'cement pheromone': a chemical added to deposited soil that stimulates further deposition in the same area, thus creating a positive feedback loop whereby coherent structures are built up. To investigate the detailed mechanisms and behaviours through which termites self-organize the early stages of mound construction, we tracked the motion and behaviour of major workers from two Macrotermes species in experimental arenas. Rather than a construction process focused on accumulation of depositions, as models based on cement pheromone would suggest, our results indicated that the primary organizing mechanisms were based on excavation. Digging activity was focused on a small number of excavation sites, which in turn provided templates for soil deposition. This behaviour was mediated by a mechanism of aggregation, with termites being more likely to join in the work at an excavation site as the number of termites presently working at that site increased. Statistical analyses showed that this aggregation mechanism was a response to active digging, distinct from and unrelated to putative chemical cues that stimulate deposition. Agent-based simulations quantitatively supported the interpretation that the early stage of de novo construction is primarily organized by excavation and aggregation activity rather than by stigmergic deposition. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Microseism Induced by Transient Release of In Situ Stress During Deep Rock Mass Excavation by Blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wenbo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2013-07-01

    During deep rock mass excavation with the method of drill and blast, accompanying the secession of rock fragments and the formation of a new free surface, in situ stress on this boundary is suddenly released within several milliseconds, which is termed the transient release of in situ stress. In this process, enormous strain energy around the excavation face is instantly released in the form of kinetic energy and it inevitably induces microseismic events in surrounding rock masses. Thus, blasting excavation-induced microseismic vibrations in high-stress rock masses are attributed to the combined action of explosion and the transient release of in situ stress. The intensity of stress release-induced microseisms, which depends mainly on the magnitude of the in situ stress and the dimension of the excavation face, is comparable to that of explosion-induced vibrations. With the methods of time-energy density analysis, amplitude spectrum analysis, and finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter, microseismic vibrations induced by the transient release of in situ stress were identified and separated from recorded microseismic signals during a blast of deep rock masses in the Pubugou Hydropower Station. The results show that the low-frequency component in the microseismic records results mainly from the transient release of in situ stress, while the high-frequency component originates primarily from explosion. In addition, a numerical simulation was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of microseismic events by the transient release of in situ stress, and the results seem to have confirmed fairly well the separated vibrations from microseismic records.

  15. Photogrammetric Recording in a Context of Preventive Archaeology : the "Place des Martyrs" Excavation (Algiers, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    SEGUIN, Maxime; Souq, François; Stiti, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The construction of the underground station called Place des Martyrs in Algiers required preventive excavation. The context led us to favour recording methods leading to the rapid and exhaustive acquisition of data. Indeed digital photogrammetry made it possible to measure complex elements simply and rapidly. The originality of the solution implemented resided in the use of a free and open-source applications suite dedicated to scientific usage and making it possible t...

  16. The marble head of a statuette from Mediana (excavations in 2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Plemić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    During the archaeological excavations in Mediana in 2001, the head of a marble statuette of exceptional beauty and craftsmanship was discovered. It was an isolated discovery, the sculpture probably having been imported from some Greek artistic centre or an eastern Mediterranean workshop, presenting a part of a larger ensemble of sculptures that had adorned an imperial villa with peristyle. Since the head was found in pieces and being just part of a sculptural representation with no reliable a...

  17. Hollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Bertrand; Labiouse, Vincent; Dizier, Arnaud; Marinelli, Ferdinando; Charlier, Robert; Collin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Boom Clay is extensively studied as a potential candidate to host underground nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. To guarantee the safety of such a disposal, the mechanical behaviour of the clay during gallery excavation must be properly predicted. In that purpose, a hollow cylinder experiment on Boom Clay has been designed to reproduce, in a small-scale test, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) as experienced during the excavation of a disposal gallery in the underground. In this article, the focus is made on the hydro-mechanical constitutive interpretation of the displacement (experimentally obtained by medium resolution X-ray tomography scanning). The coupled hydro-mechanical response of Boom Clay in this experiment is addressed through finite element computations with a constitutive model including strain hardening/softening, elastic and plastic cross-anisotropy and a regularization method for the modelling of strain localization processes. The obtained results evidence the directional dependency of the mechanical response of the clay. The softening behaviour induces transient strain localization processes, addressed through a hydro-mechanical second grade model. The shape of the obtained damaged zone is clearly affected by the anisotropy of the materials, evidencing an eye-shaped EDZ. The modelling results agree with experiments not only qualitatively (in terms of the shape of the induced damaged zone), but also quantitatively (for the obtained displacement in three particular radial directions).

  18. MARSAME Radiological Release Report for Archaeological Artifacts Excavated from Area L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gillis, Jessica Mcdonnel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-03

    In 1991 Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL’s) cultural resources team excavated archaeological site LA 4618 located at Technical Area 54, within Material Disposal Area L (MDA L). MDA L received non-radioactive chemical waste from the early 1960s until 1985. Further development of the MDA required excavation of several cultural sites under National Historic Preservation Act requirements; artifacts from these sites have been subsequently stored at LANL. The LANL cultural resources group would now like to release these artifacts to the Museum of Indian Arts and Culture in Santa Fe for curation. The history of disposal at Area L suggests that the artifact pool is unlikely to be chemically contaminated and LANL staff washed each artifact at least once following excavation. Thus, it is unlikely that the artifacts present a chemical hazard. LANL’s Environmental Stewardship group (EPC-ES) has evaluated the radiological survey results for the Area L artifact pool and found that the items described in this report meet the criteria for unrestricted radiological release under Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment and are candidates for release without restriction from LANL control. This conclusion is based on the known history of MDA L and on radiation survey data.

  19. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered. PMID:23112655

  20. The adoption of mechanized excavation techniques for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughton, C.; Nelson, P.; Lundin, T.

    1991-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the latest and largest in a line of high-energy physics accelerator projects. The five increasingly energetic accelerators which make up the physics laboratory complex are to be housed almost entirely in subsurface structures, which will include over 100 km of small-diameter tunnel. Among other reasons, the Texas SSC site was chosen from a set of state proposals because of the suitability of the host rock materials for the performance of rapid and efficient excavation work. This site bedrock units are relatively soft and homogeneous and should allow for a maximum use of mechanical excavation plant for the various underground openings. This paper will review the site conditions and describe the developed understanding of geologic material behavior. With completion of planned large-scale in-situ studies of the ground behavior to provide acquisition of early site-specific excavation data, final design and construction detail of critical structures can be undertaken with the necessary degree of confidence to satisfy the stringent performance requirements. 5 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Our experience with the full-profile excavation of exploratory for tunnel pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Lazarová

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Slovakia places an emphasis on increasing the quality of transport infrastructure, which requires its modernization residing in building the transport network of international level and improving its efficiency and travel speed. The development of transport in Slovakia has been passing major changes related to the economic and political processes in the country. Regarding the geographical character of the land, the tunnel excavation is an inseparable feature of the road communications modernization. Approximately thirty kilometres of highway tunnels are planned for construction in Slovakia until 2020 and road tunnels should be constructed as well. The first modern highway tunnel Branisko, the longest one (4975 m in Slovakia was put into operation in 2003 with a preceding excavation of the Branisko exploratory gallery in the course of designed tunnel pipe. The tunnelling works on the exploratory gallery of Višňové tunnel started in January 1999 and finished in the late summer of 2002 due to unfavorable geological conditions. The excavation of a final profile of the Višňové tunnel is planned for 2007. The Horelica tunnel (605 m near Čadca was finished and put into operation in 2004. The tunnels Lučivná (250 m, Bôrik (999 m and Sitina (1440 m are in construction at present.

  2. Excavation of the Surikamigawa dam diversion tunnel. Surikamigawa dam karihaisui tunnel kantsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T.; Konno, T. (Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    A bypass tunnel construction has been completed at the Surikamigawa dam (Japan). This paper describes the summary of the construction. The full-swing dam construction work is scheduled to begin in 1995. The soils distributed near the dam site consist of lapillus tuff containing andesite-based light stones and tuff-based conglomerates containing large gravels. Excavation of the dam diversion tunnel has used a blasting method, and the tunnel construction has adopted an automatic tunnel cross section marking system and a non-electric explosion method. This marking system is a system to irradiate a laser beam onto the facing to depict excavation lines that realizes labor saving and high-accuracy excavation. The error at the tunnel completion was found 20 mm. The non-electric explosion method ignites a coated explosive layer with an impact wave, which is electrostatically safe, and reduces blasting vibration. Electric detonators have also been used because of using ANFO explosives. The result obtained from measurements of inner space displacement necessary for the blasting process has indicated that the area near the dam site consists of stable mountains. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Excavation damage and disturbance in crystalline rock - results from experiments and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran (Conrox AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    SKB plans to submit the application to site and construct the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2010. One important basis for the application is the results of the safety assessments, for which one particular dataset is the axial hydraulic properties along the underground openings used to calculate the transport resistance for radionuclide transport in the event that the canister is impaired. SKB initiated a project (Zuse) to be run over the period 2007-2009 to: - establish the current knowledge base on excavation damage and disturbance with particular focus on the axial hydraulic properties along the underground openings; - provide a basis for the requirements and compliance criteria for the excavation damaged and disturbed zone; - devise methods and instruments to infer or measure the excavation damage and disturbance at different times during the repository construction and operation before closure; - propose demonstration tests for which the methods are used in situ to qualify appropriate data for use in the safety reports. This report presents the results of the first stage of the Zuse project. Previous major experiments and studies in Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland on spalling, excavation damage and disturbance was compiled and evaluated to provide the SR-Site report with a defendable database on the properties for the excavation damage and disturbance. In preparation for the SR-Site report, a number of sensitivity studies were conducted in which reasonable ranges of values for spalling and damage were selected in combination with an impaired backfill. The report here describes the construction of the repository in eleven steps and for each of these steps, the potential evolution of THMCB (Thermal, Mechanical, Hydraulic and Chemical/ Biological) processes are reviewed. In this work it was found that descriptions of the chemical and microbiological evolution connected with excavation damage and disturbance was lacking. The preliminary

  4. DEM modeling of failure mechanisms induced by excavations on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    jiang, mingjing; shen, zhifu; Utili, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    2D Discrete Element Method (DEM) analyses were performed for excavations supported by retaining walls in lunar environment. The lunar terrain is made of a layer of sand (regolith) which differs from terrestrial sands for two main features: the presence of adhesive attractive forces due to van der Waals interactions and grains being very irregular in shape leading to high interlocking. A simplified contact model based on linear elasticity and perfect plasticity was employed. The contact model includes a moment - relative rotation law to account for high interlocking among grains and a normal adhesion law to account for the van der Waals interactions. Analyses of the excavations were run under both lunar and terrestrial environments. Under lunar environment, gravity is approximately one sixth than the value on Earth and adhesion forces between grains of lunar regolith due to van der Waals interactions are not negligible. From the DEM simulations it emerged that van der Waals interactions may significantly increase the bending moment and deflection of the retaining wall, and the ground displacements. Hence this study indicates that an unsafe estimate of the wall response to an excavation on the Moon would be obtained from physical experiments performed in a terrestrial environment, i.e., considering the effect of gravity but neglecting the van der Waals interactions.

  5. Hydraulic tests for the Excavation Disturbed Zone in deep rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Eiken

    1998-03-01

    Investigation for characterization of rock properties of the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) were carried out in 250 m level drift of KAMAISHI Mine. As a part of this investigation, hydraulic tests in the two different sections which were excavated by normal and smooth blasting method respectively, were performed in the vicinity of a drift wall and floor. The test results are as follows, 1) The distribution of pore water pressure in two sections was different. 2) In this investigation, hydraulic test was performed at the different depth in the horizontal and vertical down hole. The variation of measured permeability with depth from the drift wall and floor showed different character. 3) The measured permeability in horizontal hole has no change with depth from drift wall, but in vertical down hole, the measured permeability in nearest part from the floor indicated the higher value compared to the permeability in deeper part. 4) In horizontal holes in two sections there was no difference of the measured permeabilities dependent on the excavation method. The higher permeability was obtained in the vertical hole in smooth blasting section compared to normal blasting section. (author)

  6. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foundation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D geomechanics model test and finite element analysis results indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  7. Endoscopic en bloc resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor with suction excavation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon-Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first successful endoscopic resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) using a novel perforation-free suction excavation technique. A 49-year-old woman presented for further management of a gastric subepithelial tumor on the lesser curvature of the lower body, originally detected via routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Abdominal computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound showed a 4-cm extraluminally protruding mass originating from the muscularis propria layer. The patient firmly refused surgical resection owing to potential cardiac problems, and informed consent was obtained for endoscopic removal. Careful dissection and suction of the tumor was repeated until successful extraction was achieved without serosal injury. We named this procedure the suction excavation technique. The tumor’s dimensions were 3.5 cm × 2.8 cm × 2.5 cm. The tumor was positive for C-KIT and CD34 by immunohistochemical staining. The mitotic count was 6/50 high-power fields. The patient was followed for 5 years without tumor recurrence. This case demonstrated the use of endoscopic resection of an exophytic GIST using the suction excavation technique as a potential therapy without surgical resection. PMID:27340363

  8. Methods to ensure the quality of excavated soil material from geogenically metalliferous sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhard, Peter; Sager, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Soils at geogenically metalliferous sites might exceed heavy metal threshold levels with respect to agricultural use, apart from anthropogenic contamination sources. As a fundamental substrate for green plants and green plant production, soil is not easily renewable, its formation needs long time (e.g. 500 years for 20 mm). In Austria, about 10ha of soil get sealed every day, resulting in complete loss of its biological functions. Excavated soil material has been classified as waste from a legal point of view, which made 33 mill. tons resp. 48% of total waste in Austria in 2010. Recycling of excavated soil material for agricultural use will be an important task to reduce future waste and to enlarge agricultural substrate volumes, but methods to ensure proper qualities are needed to improve regulations. Within this investigation, the transfer of various metals from geogenically metalliferous soils to various crop plants will be investigated, and correlated with various simple soil test methods. Four excavated soil materials from the metalliferous schist zone within the Austrian province of Styria (Kraubath/Mur, Übelbach) and a low-metal reference sample have been taken as substrates to grow raygrass (lolium multiflorum) as a green cover, salad (Lactuca sativa) as a vegetable food item, oats (Avena sativa), maize (Zea mais) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) as a hyperaccumulating species. Results and recommendations will be presented.

  9. Biofuel or excavation? - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of soil remediation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 58193 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    The environmental consequences of soil remediation through biofuel or through dig-and-dump were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Willow (Salix viminalis) was actually grown in-situ on a discontinued oil depot, as a phytoremediation treatment. These data were used for the biofuel remediation, while excavation-and-refill data were estimated from experience. The biofuel remediation had great environmental advantages compared to the ex situ excavation remediation. With the ReCiPe impact assessment method, which included biodiversity, the net environmental effect was even positive, in spite of the fact that the wood harvest was not utilised for biofuel production, but left on the contaminated site. Impact from the Salix viminalis cultivation was mainly through land use for the short rotation coppice, and through journeys of control personnel. The latter may be reduced when familiarity with biofuel as a soil treatment method increases. The excavation-and-refill remediation was dominated by the landfill and the transport of contaminated soil and backfill. (author)

  10. Modelling of excavation depth and fractures in rock caused by tool indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou Shaoquan; Tan Xiangchun; Lindqvist, P.A. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The hydraulic regime after excavation in the near-field rock around deposition holes and deposition tunnels in a spent nuclear fuel repository is of concern for prediction of the saturation process of bentonite buffer and tunnel backfill. The hydraulic condition of main interest in this context is a result of the fracture network that is caused by the excavation. Modelling of the excavation disturbed zone in hard rocks caused by mechanical excavation has been carried out in the Division of Mining Engineering since 1993. This report contains an overview of the work conducted. The mechanical excavation is reasonably simplified as an indentation process of the interaction between rigid indenters and rocks. A large number of experiments have been carried out in the laboratory, and the results used for identifying crushed zones and fracture systems in rock under indentation are presented based on these experiments. The indentation causes crushing and damage of the rock and results in a crushed zone and a cracked zone. The indenter penetrates the rock with a certain depth when the force is over a threshold value relevant to the rock and tool. Outside the cracked zone there are basically three systems of cracks: median cracks, radial cracks, and side cracks. Fully developed radial cracks on each side of the indented area can connect with each other and join with median crack. This forms the so-called radial/median crack system. The influence of the mechanical properties of the rock is discussed based on our conceptual model, and the main factors governing the indentation event are summarised. The cracked zone is dealt with by an analytical fracture model. The side crack is simulated by applying the boundary element method coupled with fracture mechanics. Functional relationships are established relating either the indentation depth or the length of radial/median cracks to the various quantities characterising the physical event, namely the shape and the size of the

  11. Modelling of excavation depth and fractures in rock caused by tool indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Shaoquan; Tan Xiangchun; Lindqvist, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    The hydraulic regime after excavation in the near-field rock around deposition holes and deposition tunnels in a spent nuclear fuel repository is of concern for prediction of the saturation process of bentonite buffer and tunnel backfill. The hydraulic condition of main interest in this context is a result of the fracture network that is caused by the excavation. Modelling of the excavation disturbed zone in hard rocks caused by mechanical excavation has been carried out in the Division of Mining Engineering since 1993. This report contains an overview of the work conducted. The mechanical excavation is reasonably simplified as an indentation process of the interaction between rigid indenters and rocks. A large number of experiments have been carried out in the laboratory, and the results used for identifying crushed zones and fracture systems in rock under indentation are presented based on these experiments. The indentation causes crushing and damage of the rock and results in a crushed zone and a cracked zone. The indenter penetrates the rock with a certain depth when the force is over a threshold value relevant to the rock and tool. Outside the cracked zone there are basically three systems of cracks: median cracks, radial cracks, and side cracks. Fully developed radial cracks on each side of the indented area can connect with each other and join with median crack. This forms the so-called radial/median crack system. The influence of the mechanical properties of the rock is discussed based on our conceptual model, and the main factors governing the indentation event are summarised. The cracked zone is dealt with by an analytical fracture model. The side crack is simulated by applying the boundary element method coupled with fracture mechanics. Functional relationships are established relating either the indentation depth or the length of radial/median cracks to the various quantities characterising the physical event, namely the shape and the size of the

  12. Evolution of mud-capped dredge pits following excavation: sediment trapping and slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelcz, J.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.; O'Connor, M. C.; Wang, J.

    2016-02-01

    Many fluvial channels incised the Northern Gulf of Mexico inner continental shelf during the late Quaternary. Mud-capped dredge pits (MCDPs), which are generally elongate and deep (8-10 m) excavations, target sandy fluvial channel deposits for coastal restoration projects. The morphological evolution of dredge excavations in noncohesive sandy substrate is well studied, but MCDPs have up to a several-meter-thick veneer of Holocene shelf mud overlying sandy channel deposits. This stratigraphy is hypothesized to result in more complex post-dredge morphology than pit walls simply slumping to the angle of repose shortly after excavation. Numerical modeling of MCDP post-dredge response conducted prior to excavation indicates pit walls may retrogressively fail, which is accounted for in pit design by assigning no-dredge setback buffers from pipelines or cultural and environmental resources. To validate model results and test effectiveness of setback buffers, a geophysical survey of the Sandy Point MCDP (20 km west of the Mississippi River Delta in 10m deep water), where 1.7 million m3 of sandy sediment was excavated in 2012, was conducted May 2015. A total of 84 line-km of high-resolution chirp subbottom and a 27 km2 grid of swath bathymetry and sidescan sonar were collected. The data indicate the dredge pit walls are differentially slumping, with the western pit wall in a more active state of failure than the eastern wall. The western failures morphologically resemble features observed along the muddy Mississippi River Delta Front at water depths of 20-100 m, including bowl-shaped collapse failures and retrogressive stair-stepped slumps; these failures may play a key role in evaluating the distance of setback buffer zone to pipelines. These features indicate the cohesive mud overlying the sandy infill has a prominent role in pit wall stability. A 0.5-1 m thick acoustically transparent package overlies the entire pit floor (interpreted as a possible fluid mud layer

  13. Review of excavation methods and their implications for the near-field barrier of a deep underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The report reviews excavation techniques for use in the construction of deep underground radioactive waste repositories, gives a summary of responses of the host rock to excavation and the means of measuring that response and discusses techniques for predicting that response. The review of excavation techniques included technical developments and current practice. To this end an extensive database was developed reviewing major excavations in rock types relevant to disposal and the techniques employed. Creation of an underground opening alters the properties of the rock mass around it. This study identifies stress, displacement, rock mass deformability and permeability as key parameters and reviews how they may be determined. Finally the report discusses the techniques available for predicting the behaviour of the near-field host rock. This concentrates on methods of numerical analysis since existing empirical or analytical methods are not considered suitable. (author)

  14. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KWIECINSKI, DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN, RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD, DONALD P.; YOUNG, SHARISSA G.

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during

  15. Use of chemical explosives for emergency solar flare shelter construction and other excavations on the Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R.D.; Blacic, J.D.; Pettitt, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to shelter people on the Martian surface from solar flare particles at short notice and the need for long-term habitats with thick cosmic ray shielding suggests that explosives could be used effectively for excavation of such structures. Modern insensitive high explosives are safe, efficient, and reliable for rock breakage and excavation. Extensive Earth-bound experience leads us to propose several strategies for explosively-constructed shelters based on tunneling, cratering, and rock casting techniques

  16. 3D Numerical Modeling of Pile Group Responses to Excavation-Induced Stress Release in Silty Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Soomro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of underground transportation systems consists of tunnels, basement construction excavations and cut and cover tunnels which may encounter existing pile groups during their construction. Since many previous studies mainly focus on the effects of excavations on single piles, settlement and load transfer mechanism of a pile group subjected to excavation-induced stress release are not well investigated and understood. To address these two issues, three-dimensional coupled-consolidation numerical analysis is conducted by using a hypoplastic model which takes small-strain stiffness into account. A non-linear pile group settlement was induced. This may be attributed to reduction of shaft resistance due to excavation induced stress release, the pile had to settle substantially to further mobilise end-bearing. Compared to the Sp of the pile group, induced settlement of the single pile is larger with similar settlement characteristics. Due to the additional settlement of the pile group, factor of safety for the pile group can be regarded as decreasing from 3.0 to 1.4, based on a displacement-based failure load criterion. Owing to non-uniform stress release, pile group tilted towards the excavation with value of 0.14%. Due to excavation-induced stress release and dragload, head load of rear piles was reduced and transferred to rear piles. This load transfer can increase the axial force in front piles by 94%.

  17. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  18. In situ measurements of rock salt permeability changes due to nearby excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormont, J.C.; Howard, C.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-07-01

    The Small-Scale Mine-By was an in situ experiment to measure changes in brine and gas permeability of rock salt as a result of nearby excavation. A series of small-volume pressurized brine- and gas-filled test intervals were established 8 m beneath the floor of Room L1 in the WIPP underground. The test intervals were isolated in the bottom of the 4.8-cm diameter monitoring boreholes with inflatable rubber packers, and are initially pressurized to about 2 MPa. Both brine- and gas-filled test intervals were located 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 r from the center of a planned large-diameter hole, where r is the radius of the large-diameter hole. Prior to the drilling of the large-diameter borehole, the responses of both the brine- and gas-filled test intervals were consistent with the formation modeled as a very low permeability, low porosity porous medium with a significant pore (brine) pressure and no measurable gas permeability. The drilling of the mine-by borehole created a zone of dilated, partially saturated rock out to about 1.5 r. The formation pressure increases from near zero at 1.5 r to the pre-excavation value at 4 r. Injection tests reveal a gradient of brine permeabilities from 5 x 10 -18 m 2 at 1.25 r to about the pre-excavation value (10 -21 m 2 ) by 3 r. Gas-injection tests reveal measurable gas permeability is limited to within 1.5 r. 17 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Excavation damage zone tracer experiment in the floor of the room 415 test tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.H.; Everitt, R.A.

    1997-03-01

    A 3.5-m-diameter test tunnel was constructed on the 420 Level of AECL's Underground Research Laboratory using a mechanical excavation technique. The orientation of the tunnel was chosen to maximize the stress ratio in the plane perpendicular to the tunnel axis in order to promote and study stress-induced excavation damage. The resulting excavation damage zone (EDZ) is characterized by a distinct breakout notch in both the floor and roof of the tunnel. In the floor of the tunnel, the main flow pathway within the EDZ is within a zone of intense grain-size fracturing (process zone) located at the tip of the breakout notch; virtually no flow occurs outside this region. A tracer experiment was performed within the EDZ in the floor of the tunnel to characterize the solute transport properties (permeability, transport porosity and dispersivity) within the process zone, as well as to develop and demonstrate methods for determining the transport properties within EDZs of underground tunnels. The experiment was performed as a constant head test by continuously injecting a constant concentration of iodide tracer into a region of the process zone, and by monitoring tracer breakthrough from the zone at a distance 1.5 m away. An equivalent-porous-media approach was taken in analysing fluid flow and solute transport through the process zone. Based on mass flux calculations, the hydraulic conductivity and transport porosity of the process zone are estimated to be 7.4 x 10 -7 m/s and 2.7 % respectively. Based on an analytic solution that represents tracer transport within the process zone as one-dimensional advective diffusive transport in a finite homogeneous porous medium, the longitudinal dispersivity and transport porosity of the zone are estimated to be 0.60 m and 3.3 % respectively. The transport porosity values estimated by both the mass flux and analytic calculations compare quite well. (author)

  20. Characterization and functional correlation of multiple imaging modalities with focal choroidal excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chen Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the clinical manifestations and imaging features of near-infrared autofluorescence (NIA, infrared reflectance (IR, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA and fluorescein angiography (FAG in the detection of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE identified by cross-sectional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 12 eyes of 10 Taiwanese patients with FCE diagnosed by SD-OCT. The areas and depths of FCE in serial cross-sectional and en-face OCT were compared in different imaging modalities. NIA, IR, FAF, ICGA and FAG images were obtained. Best corrected visual acuity, subjective distortion area in the Amsler grid and history of maculopathies were also recorded. Results: In areas where the choroid started to excavate as shown in SD-OCT, hypo-autofluorescence in NIA was noted. The area of hypo-fluorescence in NIA of all the FCE lesions showed good correlation with the size. The area of FCE was associated with complications such as choroidal neovascularization and central serous chorioretinopathy (p = 0.014, d.f = 1 and the volume (NIA area × Depth measured by SD-OCT × 1/3 was associated with subjective distortion strongly (p = 0.051, Spearman's correlation = 0.600. Conclusion: Among all image modalities, NIA was the most sensitive tool in area measurement of FCE and peripheral lesion detection. Also, the volume of FCE was associated with subjective distortion and the area was related to complications. Recording the area and volume of FCE could play an important role in monitoring complications. Keywords: Choroid-retina disease, Focal choroidal excavation, Near-infrared autofluorescence, Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

  1. Design of Intelligent Hydraulic Excavator Control System Based on PID Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Shengjie; Liao, Xiaoming; Yin, Penglong; Wang, Yulin; Si, Kuimao; Zhang, Yi; Gu, Hairong

    Most of the domestic designed hydraulic excavators adopt the constant power design method and set 85%~90% of engine power as the hydraulic system adoption power, it causes high energy loss due to mismatching of power between the engine and the pump. While the variation of the rotational speed of engine could sense the power shift of the load, it provides a new method to adjust the power matching between engine and pump through engine speed. Based on negative flux hydraulic system, an intelligent hydraulic excavator control system was designed based on rotational speed sensing method to improve energy efficiency. The control system was consisted of engine control module, pump power adjusted module, engine idle module and system fault diagnosis module. Special PLC with CAN bus was used to acquired the sensors and adjusts the pump absorption power according to load variation. Four energy saving control strategies with constant power method were employed to improve the fuel utilization. Three power modes (H, S and L mode) were designed to meet different working status; Auto idle function was employed to save energy through two work status detected pressure switches, 1300rpm was setting as the idle speed according to the engine consumption fuel curve. Transient overload function was designed for deep digging within short time without spending extra fuel. An increasing PID method was employed to realize power matching between engine and pump, the rotational speed's variation was taken as the PID algorithm's input; the current of proportional valve of variable displacement pump was the PID's output. The result indicated that the auto idle could decrease fuel consumption by 33.33% compared to work in maximum speed of H mode, the PID control method could take full use of maximum engine power at each power mode and keep the engine speed at stable range. Application of rotational speed sensing method provides a reliable method to improve the excavator's energy efficiency and

  2. Evaluation of focal choroidal excavation in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, F P M; Loh, B K; Cheung, C M G; Lim, L S; Chan, C M; Wong, D W K

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate imaging findings of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and correlate it clinically. Prospective observational case series. Eleven consecutive patients (12 eyes) with FCE were described. Data on demographics and clinical presentation were collected and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and SS-OCT) were analyzed. The primary diagnosis was epiretinal membrane (two eyes), choroidal neovascularization (one eye), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (three eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (one eye), and dry age-related macular degeneration (two eyes). Eleven out of 12 of the lesions were conforming. One presented with a non-conforming lesion that progressed to a conforming lesion. One eye had multiFCE and two had two overlapping choroidal excavations. Using the SS-OCT, we found the choroid to be thinned out at the area of FCE but sclera remained normal. The choroidal tissue beneath the FCE was abnormal, with high internal reflectivity and poor visualization of choroidal vessels. There was loss of contour of the outer choroidal boundary that appeared to be pulled inward by this abnormal choroidal tissue. A suprachoroidal space was noted beneath this choroidal tissue and the choroidal-scleral interface was smooth. Repeat SS-OCT 6 months after presentation showed the area of excavation to be stable in size. FCE can be associated with epiretinal membrane, central serous chorioretinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. The choroid was thinned out in the area of FCE.

  3. Numerical calculation of hydrodynamic characteristics of tidal currents for submarine excavation engineering in coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hua Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In coastal areas with complicated flow movement, deposition and scour readily occur in submarine excavation projects. In this study, a small-scale model, with a high resolution in the vertical direction, was used to simulate the tidal current around a submarine excavation project. The finite volume method was used to solve Navier-Stokes equations and the Reynolds stress transport equation, and the entire process of the tidal current was simulated with unstructured meshes, generated in the irregular shape area, and structured meshes, generated in other water areas. The meshes near the bottom and free surface were densified with a minimum layer thickness of 0.05 m. The volume of fluid method was used to track the free surface, the volume fraction of cells on the upstream boundary was obtained from the volume fraction of adjacent cells, and that on the downstream boundary was determined by the water level process. The numerical results agree with the observed data, and some conclusions can be drawn: after the foundation trench excavation, the flow velocity decreases quite a bit through the foundation trench, with reverse flow occurring on the lee slope in the foundation trench; the swirling flow impedes inflow, leading to the occurrence of dammed water above the foundation trench; the turbulent motion is stronger during ebbing than in other tidal stages, the range with the maximum value of turbulent viscosity, occurring on the south side of the foundation trench at maximum ebbing, is greater than those in other tidal stages in a tidal cycle, and the maximum value of Reynolds shear stress occurs on the south side of the foundation trench at maximum ebbing in a tidal cycle. The numerical calculation method shows a strong performance in simulation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of tidal currents in the foundation trench, providing a basis for submarine engineering construction in coastal areas.

  4. Evaluation of focal choroidal excavation in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, F P M; Loh, B K; Cheung, C M G; Lim, L S; Chan, C M; Wong, D W K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate imaging findings of patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and correlate it clinically. Methods Prospective observational case series. Eleven consecutive patients (12 eyes) with FCE were described. Data on demographics and clinical presentation were collected and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and SS-OCT) were analyzed. Results The primary diagnosis was epiretinal membrane (two eyes), choroidal neovascularization (one eye), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (three eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (one eye), and dry age-related macular degeneration (two eyes). Eleven out of 12 of the lesions were conforming. One presented with a non-conforming lesion that progressed to a conforming lesion. One eye had multiFCE and two had two overlapping choroidal excavations. Using the SS-OCT, we found the choroid to be thinned out at the area of FCE but sclera remained normal. The choroidal tissue beneath the FCE was abnormal, with high internal reflectivity and poor visualization of choroidal vessels. There was loss of contour of the outer choroidal boundary that appeared to be pulled inward by this abnormal choroidal tissue. A suprachoroidal space was noted beneath this choroidal tissue and the choroidal–scleral interface was smooth. Repeat SS-OCT 6 months after presentation showed the area of excavation to be stable in size. Conclusion FCE can be associated with epiretinal membrane, central serous chorioretinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. The choroid was thinned out in the area of FCE. PMID:24946847

  5. Archeological Excavations at Two Prehistoric Campsites Near Keystone Dam, El Paso, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-19

    Flotacion Microdebitate Analysis 246 Groundstone Artifacts 253 Slab Metates 253 Manos 253 PesLIes 253 Groundstone Fragments 263 Anvils 263 Polishing...important new information to our understanding of local prehistory. The bulk ot O’LaugnliLn’s (1980) work in the area was directed toward the excavation...contains or summarizes the bulk of L111 ptiiaisiitd( iaci on iitnic artiract frequenCies irom El Paso ’Ir’Ia Sites. fhese data, along with those from the

  6. Simulating the time-dependent behaviour of excavations in hard rock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, DF

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available (1993) estimated the rock disintegration of the roof of the Swedish repository at Forsmark where the excavation is intersected by a fracture zone. By generalising the structure to be one of regular layers of blocks and applying a log- time creep law, he... and secondary closure in squeezing tunnels. Tertiary movements can be considered by providing suitable laws relating the values of the mechanical parameters (such as viscosity) to the irreversible part of the time-dependent strain. These rheological models...

  7. Deformation and failure mechanism of excavation in clay subjected to hydraulic uplift

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest experimental and numerical analysis work in the field of ground deformation and base instability of deep excavations in soft clay subjected to hydraulic uplift. The authors’ latest research findings, based on dimensional analyses, well-instrumented full-scale field tests, systematic coupled-consolidation finite element analyses and centrifuge tests are reported. This book shows how to systematically approach a complex geotechnical problem, from identifying existing problems, reviewing literature, to dimensional and numerical analyses, validation through full-scale testing and centrifuge model testing. The methodologies are also introduced as major tools adopted in geotechnical research.

  8. New Design Concept for an Excavator Arms by Using Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzi, L.; Assi, A.; Ceresoli, F.

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to lightweight design an excavator arms, by using a different materials and in particular composite material. Specifically, the research is based on the study of a commercial excavator, by determining its geometry and analyzing the load conditions to which it is exposed. These are determined in relation to either the load diagram of the machine or the possible utilities of the excavator, such as the rotation of the machine. The materials used and implemented in the different analytical and numerical elaborations are classic construction steel S 355 (UNI EN 10025-3), high-resistance steel S 890 (UNI EN 10025-6), aluminum Al 6063 T6 (UNI EN 573-3) and the composite material made by carbon fiber and epoxy resin. The adopted constraints for the design of new arms with different materials, non-conventional for these applications, are numerous. The new solutions must present a safety factor either with respect to the yield tensile strength or to the critical load of buckling greater than or equal to the one determined for the excavator in its original geometrical conformation. Another criterion, which has heavily conditioned the geometry of the arms, was given by the fact that the developed solutions must present a very similar value of the maximum displacement in the different load conditions analyzed. A new geometry for arms made by composite material was developed. It was an elliptical conic section, instead of the classic rectangular section, in order to use the filament winding technological process. As for the adoption of the composite material, we focused on the study and the design of this material as long as the interaction with the extremities (made of aluminum) which are interfaced either with the link between the arms or with the elements of the hydraulic plant which serves for the arms movement. From the results developed, it emerges that the solution developed by adopting composite materials is the one that permits the

  9. Natural diet of coral-excavating sponges consists mainly of dissolved organic carbon (DOC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mueller

    Full Text Available Coral-excavating sponges are the most important bioeroders on Caribbean reefs and increase in abundance throughout the region. This increase is commonly attributed to a concomitant increase in food availability due to eutrophication and pollution. We therefore investigated the uptake of organic matter by the two coral-excavating sponges Siphonodictyon sp. and Cliona delitrix and tested whether they are capable of consuming dissolved organic carbon (DOC as part of their diet. A device for simultaneous sampling of water inhaled and exhaled by the sponges was used to directly measure the removal of DOC and bacteria in situ. During a single passage through their filtration system 14% and 13% respectively of the total organic carbon (TOC in the inhaled water was removed by the sponges. 82% (Siphonodictyon sp.; mean ± SD; 13 ± 17 μmol L(-1 and 76% (C. delitrix; 10 ± 12 μmol L(-1 of the carbon removed was taken up in form of DOC, whereas the remainder was taken up in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC; bacteria and phytoplankton despite high bacteria retention efficiency (72 ± 15% and 87 ± 10%. Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix removed DOC at a rate of 461 ± 773 and 354 ± 562 μmol C h(-1 respectively. Bacteria removal was 1.8 ± 0.9 × 10(10 and 1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(10 cells h(-1, which equals a carbon uptake of 46.0 ± 21.2 and 42.5 ± 14.0 μmol C h(-1 respectively. Therefore, DOC represents 83 and 81% of the TOC taken up by Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix per hour. These findings suggest that similar to various reef sponges coral-excavating sponges also mainly rely on DOC to meet their carbon demand. We hypothesize that excavating sponges may also benefit from an increasing production of more labile algal-derived DOC (as compared to coral-derived DOC on reefs as a result of the ongoing coral-algal phase shift.

  10. Natural diet of coral-excavating sponges consists mainly of dissolved organic carbon (DOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; de Goeij, Jasper M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Mulders, Yannick; van der Ent, Esther; Ribes, Marta; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2014-01-01

    Coral-excavating sponges are the most important bioeroders on Caribbean reefs and increase in abundance throughout the region. This increase is commonly attributed to a concomitant increase in food availability due to eutrophication and pollution. We therefore investigated the uptake of organic matter by the two coral-excavating sponges Siphonodictyon sp. and Cliona delitrix and tested whether they are capable of consuming dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as part of their diet. A device for simultaneous sampling of water inhaled and exhaled by the sponges was used to directly measure the removal of DOC and bacteria in situ. During a single passage through their filtration system 14% and 13% respectively of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the inhaled water was removed by the sponges. 82% (Siphonodictyon sp.; mean ± SD; 13 ± 17 μmol L(-1)) and 76% (C. delitrix; 10 ± 12 μmol L(-1)) of the carbon removed was taken up in form of DOC, whereas the remainder was taken up in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC; bacteria and phytoplankton) despite high bacteria retention efficiency (72 ± 15% and 87 ± 10%). Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix removed DOC at a rate of 461 ± 773 and 354 ± 562 μmol C h(-1) respectively. Bacteria removal was 1.8 ± 0.9 × 10(10) and 1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(10) cells h(-1), which equals a carbon uptake of 46.0 ± 21.2 and 42.5 ± 14.0 μmol C h(-1) respectively. Therefore, DOC represents 83 and 81% of the TOC taken up by Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix per hour. These findings suggest that similar to various reef sponges coral-excavating sponges also mainly rely on DOC to meet their carbon demand. We hypothesize that excavating sponges may also benefit from an increasing production of more labile algal-derived DOC (as compared to coral-derived DOC) on reefs as a result of the ongoing coral-algal phase shift.

  11. Detection of parasite eggs from archaeological excavations in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Taek Han

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Excavations at two sites dating from 2000 BC-1900 AD in southeastern areas of the Republic of Korea, revealed the remains of several structures. Examination of the contents suspected privies revealed the presence of eggs from 5 kinds of parasite: Ascaris, Trichuris, Clonorchis, and two species of unknown trematodes. Clonorchis sinensis eggs were found in a soil dating from around AD 668-935. This is the first record of C. sinensis eggs in archaeological materials in the Republic of Korea.

  12. Failure rate and reliability of the KOMATSU hydraulic excavator in surface limestone mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish Kumar N., S.; Choudhary, R. P.; Murthy, Ch. S. N.

    2018-04-01

    The model with failure rate function of bathtub-shaped is helpful in reliability analysis of any system and particularly in reliability associated privative maintenance. The usual Weibull distribution is, however, not capable to model the complete lifecycle of the any with a bathtub-shaped failure rate function. In this paper, failure rate and reliability analysis of the KOMATSU hydraulic excavator/shovel in surface mine is presented and also to improve the reliability and decrease the failure rate of each subsystem of the shovel based on the preventive maintenance. The model of the bathtub-shaped for shovel can also be seen as a simplification of the Weibull distribution.

  13. Ecology and economic estimate of using of the underground excavation space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umnov, V.A.; Tarasov, V.F.; Tret'yakov, I.O.; Sheloumov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Stages of ecological and economic estimates of utilizing underground space, including evaluation of underground space resources, selection of its utilization trends and substantiation of optimal parameters for selected trends, are considered. Certain directions of possible repeated utilization of mining excavations are shown, including underground hydropower stations, underground energy storages, underground nuclear stations. Underground waste disposal is one of the most available directions in utilization of the underground space presently. Evaluation of the underground space utilization at all stages envisages complete account of all economical, social and ecological results

  14. Excavations in 2014 at Wade Street, Bristol - a documentary and archaeological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Corcos; Kamal Badreshany; Alejandra Gutiérrez; Rachel Heaton; Lorrain Higbee; Sarah Newns; Rachel Tyson

    2017-01-01

    A staged programme of historical research and archaeological fieldwork, involving a desk-based assessment in 2000 (Smith and Erskine 2000), an evaluation in 2013 (Mason 2013), and an excavation followed by a watching brief in 2014, the latter two by Avon Archaeology Ltd, was undertaken in order to mitigate the archaeological impact of a proposed residential development on a site of 1,260m² at the corner and on the north-west side of Little Anne Street and Wade Street, St Jude’s, Bristol. The ...

  15. Study on dynamic behavior of a shaft excavation through a faulted crystalline rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shigeru; Matsui, Hiroya; Horiuchi, Yasuharu; Hata, Koji; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Sato, Shin; Shibata, Chihoko; Niunoya, Sumio; Noda, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The 'Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory' has been studying and developing engineering technology for deep underground applications. These applications are multifaceted and are categorized as development of design and construction planning technology, development construction technology, development of countermeasure technology, and development of technology for construction and operation security. In this report, the dynamic behavior of shaft and the surrounding rock mass has been studied with respect to rock mass displacement and stress, the effect of using a concrete liner and excavating through faulted crystalline rock. (author)

  16. Excavation effects on tuff - recent findings and plans for investigations at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, T.E.; Zimmerman, R.M.; Shephard, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Plans for site-characterization testing and constructing an exploratory shaft facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been influenced by the construction and monitoring of stable openings in G-Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site. G-Tunnel provides access for testing in a thin bed of unsaturated welded tuff that is similar to that at Yucca Mountain. The data from the experiments in the ESF will be used to validate analytical methods for predicting the response of underground openings to the excavation process and to the heat generated by the waste

  17. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subse...

  18. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  19. The influence of cathode excavation of cathodic arc evaporator on thickness uniformity and erosion products angle distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Duhopel'nikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathodic arc evaporators are used for coating with functional films. Prolonged or buttend evaporators may be used for this purposes. In butt-end evaporator the cathode spots move continuously on the cathode work surface and evaporate cathode material. High depth excavation profile forms on the cathode work surface while the thick coating precipitation (tens or hundreds of microns. The cathode excavation profile is shaped like a “cup” with high walls for electrostatic discharge stabilization systems with axial magnetic fields. Cathode spots move on the bottom of the “cup”. It is very likely that high “cup” walls are formed as a result of lasting work time influence on the uniformity of precipitated films.In the present work the influence of excavation profile walls height on the uniformity of precipitated coating was carried out. The high profile walls are formed due to lasting work of DC vacuum arc evaporator. The cathode material used for tests was 3003 aluminum alloy. The extended substrate was placed parallel to the cathode work surface. Thickness distribution along the substrate length with the new cathode was obtained after 6 hours and after 12 hours of continuous operation.The thickness distribution of precipitated coating showed that the cathode excavation has an influence on the angular distribution of the matter escaping the cathode. It can be clearly seen from the normalized dependence coating thickness vs the distance from the substrate center. Also the angular distribution of the matter flow from the cathode depending on the cathode working time was obtained. It was shown that matter flow from the cathode differs from the LambertKnudsen law. The more the cathode excavation the more this difference.So, cathode excavation profile has an influence on the uniformity of precipitated coating and it is necessary to take in account the cathode excavation profile while coating the thick films.

  20. A study on excavation of rock mass by lasers. Researching the possibility of utilizing low-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Fumio [Taisei Corporation, Technology Research Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The object of this research is to develop the techniques of rock-mass excavation by laser irradiation. This rock-mass excavation technique by lasers has a characteristic of extremely little effect to the surroundings of an excavation site no matter how the target rock mass is with regard to geological aspects and given physical property. Moreover, it could be utilized in excavation of waste dump facilities, which need to be re-buried, and applied to excavation of long piles and tunnels, which are drilled through different kinds of strata, and to improvement of rock mass and ground. Lasers have a characteristic of concentrating the energy into a limited point and not only discontinue or cut a large area with a small output like sharp scissors but also block up the cracks deep inside the rock mass by fusing vitrification for its improvement. It leads to restrain the loss of energy, minimization of the effected environment, effective utilization of resources and energy, environmental restoration, and improvement of the working environment. In the field of nuclear fuel, which includes excavating dump pits, dismantling a furnace, and taking appropriate steps of mine remains, excavating, cutting, and fusing could be required to do within a limited space of rock mass or concrete. Up to the present, those things have been done mainly by large machines, but it is too scarce in possibility for them to improve their large size, heavy weight, difficulty in unmanned operation, limited shapes of cutting, and stabilization of waste. In this research the concrete system images have been examined, doing the fundamental researches about higher-power lasers, smaller sizing, transmitting by fibers to find our the breakthrough to realization of laser excavation, This year, as the summary of examining the laser excavation techniques, utilizing a low-power laser, which is thought to be highly effective in rock-mass improvement, will be examined, considering application of the technique

  1. Excavation and internment of depleted uranium and thorium soils, AHMC Jonesboro, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Prewett, S.V.; Boddy, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the construction activities for the rockfilled berm and the excavation and disposal of contaminated soil, and the activities to certify the adequacy of the remedial activities. It focuses on the final closure. Mishu and Prewett in a paper in this proceeding provide additional information of the rockfilled wall. The final phase of the remedial program, referred to as the pond closure project, encompassed excavation of contaminated soil from the pond site and entombment of the waste in an encapsulating clay cell. The disposal cell was located at the pond site, and was situated above the level of the projected 100- and 500-year floods from Little Limestone Creek, which is adjacent to the site. The cell was built by completely enclosing the contaminated soil in a compacted clay liner and covering it with a compacted clay cap, each having a minimum thickness of four feet. Contaminated soil from the pond area and Aerojet Heavy Metals Company (AHMC) completed the remedial program for an inactive evaporation pond at its facility near Jonesboro, Tennessee during the summer of 1985. The pond had been used for process liquid wastes containing depleted uranium and thorium. Depleted uranium is a by-product of uranium richment, does not refer to use in a reactor, and does not contain Ra-226 or the associated decay products

  2. Fish Remains from Excavations near the Riverfront at Newcastle upon Tyne, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Nicholson

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The City of Newcastle, situated some 10 miles inland on the River Tyne in north-east England, is not now an important fishing port. Most of the fresh fish marketed in the city has been landed at the nearby coastal ports of North and South Shields. Excavations at two sites behind the present Quayside in Newcastle, however, have yielded quantities of fish bones, representing a wide variety of species. This is in contrast to excavations in other parts of the city, where few fish remains have been recovered, and suggests that the quayside in Newcastle was an important centre for the fishing industry during the medieval period. It seems likely that most of the fish remains represent waste from landing and processing fish on or near the quayside. Yet, when taphonomic factors are taken into account, the limitations of using even large bone assemblages to interpret processing activities is demonstrated. As always, the need for a programme of on-site sieving to obtain representative samples of fish bone is evident.

  3. A new technique in the excavation of ground-nest bee burrows (Hymenoptera: Apoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marinho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees have a diversified natural history, thus the methods applied to study such diversity are varied. When it comes to studies of nesting biology, bees which nest in pre-existing cavities have been reasonably well studied since researchers started using trap-nests. However, bees whose nests are built underground are poorly studied due to the difficulty of finding natural nesting areas and the absence of a method that facilitates bee nest excavation. The latter is evidenced by the lack of accurate descriptions in literature of how nests are excavated. In this study we tested cylindrical rubber refills of eraser pen as a new material to be used as a tracer of underground nest galleries in a natural nesting area of two species of Epicharis Klug, 1807 (Apidae. We compared this technique directly with plaster in powder form mixed with water and our results with other methodological studies describing alternative methods and materials. The rubber refill technique overcame the main issues presented by materials such as plaster, molten metal alloys and bioplastic, namely: death of the organisms by high temperatures and/or formation of plugs and materials unduly following the roots inside the galleries. Keywords: Apidae, Apoidea, Brood cells, Methodology, Solitary bees

  4. Excavation-caused extra deformation of existing masonry residence in soft soil region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Franceschelli, S.

    2017-04-01

    Growing need for construction of infrastructures and buildings in fast urbanization process creates challenges of interaction between buildings under construction and adjacent existing buildings. This paper presents the mitigation of contradiction between two parties who are involved the interaction using civil engineering techniques. Through the in-depth analysis of the results of monitoring surveys and enhanced accuracy and reliability of surveys, a better understanding of the behavior of deformable buildings is achieved. Combination with the original construction documents, the two parties agree that both of them are responsible for building damages and a better understanding for the rehabilitation of the existing buildings is focused on. Two cases studies are used to demonstrate and describe the importance of better understanding of the behavior of existing buildings and their rehabilitations. The objective of this study is to insight into mechanisms of soil-structure interaction for buildings adjacent to deep excavations, which can result in a damage in existing masonry residence, and to take the optimized measures to make deep excavations safety and economic and adjacent buildings keep good serviceability in urban areas with soft soil conditions.

  5. A research on the excavation, support, and environment control of large scale underground space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Jeong, So Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    With the growing necessity of the underground space due to the deficiency of above-ground space, the size and shape of underground structures tend to be complex and diverse. This complexity and variety force the development of new techniques for rock mass classification, excavation and supporting of underground space, monitoring and control of underground environment. All these techniques should be applied together to make the underground space comfortable. To achieve this, efforts have been made on 5 different areas; research on the underground space design and stability analysis, research on the techniques for excavation of rock by controlled blasting, research on the development of monitoring system to forecast the rock behaviour of underground space, research on the environment inspection system in closed space, and research on dynamic analysis of the airflow and environmental control in the large geos-spaces. The 5 main achievements are improvement of the existing structure analysis program(EXCRACK) to consider the deformation and failure characteristics of rock joints, development of new blasting design (SK-cut), prediction of ground vibration through the newly proposed wave propagation equation, development and In-Situ application of rock mass deformation monitoring system and data acquisition software, and trial manufacture of the environment inspection system in closed space. Should these techniques be applied to the development of underground space, prevention of industrial disaster, cut down of construction cost, domestication of monitoring system, improvement of tunnel stability, curtailment of royalty, upgrade of domestic technologies will be brought forth. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. On justification of efficient Energy-Force parameters of Hydraulic-excavator main mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarov, Anatoliy; Lagunova, Yuliya; Shestakov, Viktor; Lukashuk, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article formulates requirements for energy-efficient designs of the operational equipment of a hydraulic excavator (its boom, stick and bucket) and defines, for a mechanism of that equipment, a new term “performance characteristic”. The drives of main rotation mechanisms of the equipment are realized by hydraulic actuators (hydraulic cylinders) and transmission (leverage) mechanisms, with the actuators (the cylinders themselves, their pistons and piston rods) also acting as links of the leverage. Those drives are characterized by the complexity of translating mechanical-energy parameters of the actuators into energy parameters of the driven links (a boom, a stick and a bucket). Relations between those parameters depend as much on the types of mechanical characteristics of the hydraulic actuators as on the types of structural schematics of the transmission mechanisms. To assess how energy-force parameters of the driven links change when a typical operation is performed, it was proposed to calculate performance characteristics of the main mechanisms as represented by a set of values of transfer functions, i.e. by functional dependences between driven links and driving links (actuators). Another term “ideal performance characteristic” of a mechanism was introduced. Based on operation-emulating models for the main mechanisms of hydraulic excavators, analytical expressions were derived to calculate kinematic and force transfer functions of the main mechanisms.

  7. Dynamic simulation of cable shovel specific energy in oil sands excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awuah-Offei, K. [Missouri-Rolla Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). School of Materials, Energy and Earth Resources; Frimpong, S. [Missouri-Rolla Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering, Mining and Nuclear Engineering; Askari-Nasab, H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Oil sand excavation requires the use cable shovels which constitute one of the major costs in surface mining operations. Random occurrences of shales and limestones within the Athabasca oil sands formation result in varying shovel diggability and stress loading of the boom-crowd-dipper-teeth assembly which reduces digging efficiency. This inefficient use of cable shovels negatively affects the return on capital investment in these otherwise effective machines. In the Athabasca oil sands, varying stress loading has the potential to increase shovel downtime and increase maintenance costs. This paper presented a newly developed cable shovel simulator that uses shovel kinematics and dynamics, dynamic cutting resistance and payload models. It can model the specific energy needed to overcome the resistance to machine motion and material digging. The comprehensive model considers both machine motion and machine-formation interaction forces. It also provides a comprehensive theoretical assessment of shovel performance. The model is useful to mining engineers when examining both the machine operating parameters and material parameters that influence shovel performance. The study showed that bulk density is the most important material property influencing diggability. Operator preferences also influence the specific energy of excavation. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Time-dependent evolution of the excavation damaged zone in the argillaceous Tournemire site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejeb, A.; Cabrera, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DEI/SARG), Lab. d' Etude Hydrodynamique et Geotechnique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    The experimental Tournemire site enables the assessment of the Excavation Damaged Zones (EDZ) around three structures excavated in argilites: the century-old tunnel, the ten year-old east and west galleries, and the three year-old main gallery. This paper discusses the main experimental results concerning the EDZ characterisation and their interpretation. EDZ fracture analyses from the galleries (cartography) and the radial boreholes (core analyses) allow for accurate structural characterisation of the EDZs. The tunnel has an EDZ with dense, homogeneous fracturing parallel to the wall, resembling onion skins. However, the new galleries do not have an EDZ similar to that of the tunnel. Unsaturated micro-cracks, mainly parallel to the bedding planes are observed on the non covered walls of each gallery. The extent of the EDZ does not seem to be affected by the age of the structure. It is approximately 20 % of the mean radius of the structure. Based on the modelling and experimental characterisation work completed, it is considered that the EDZ in this argillaceous Tournemire site is due to a deferred failure. At first time, when the wall of the structures are not covered the desaturation/re-saturation phenomena induced a tensile failure around the new galleries. During the time, these desaturation/re-saturation phenomena cause a gradual weakening of the material. The EDZ tunnel fractures are explained by this possible hydric damage and a decreasing mechanical strength with the time. These assumptions remain to be confirmed through coupled numerical modelling in unsaturated medium. (authors)

  9. Model uncertainty of various settlement estimation methods in shallow tunnels excavation; case study: Qom subway tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademian, Amir; Abdollahipour, Hamed; Bagherpour, Raheb; Faramarzi, Lohrasb

    2017-10-01

    In addition to the numerous planning and executive challenges, underground excavation in urban areas is always followed by certain destructive effects especially on the ground surface; ground settlement is the most important of these effects for which estimation there exist different empirical, analytical and numerical methods. Since geotechnical models are associated with considerable model uncertainty, this study characterized the model uncertainty of settlement estimation models through a systematic comparison between model predictions and past performance data derived from instrumentation. To do so, the amount of surface settlement induced by excavation of the Qom subway tunnel was estimated via empirical (Peck), analytical (Loganathan and Poulos) and numerical (FDM) methods; the resulting maximum settlement value of each model were 1.86, 2.02 and 1.52 cm, respectively. The comparison of these predicted amounts with the actual data from instrumentation was employed to specify the uncertainty of each model. The numerical model outcomes, with a relative error of 3.8%, best matched the reality and the analytical method, with a relative error of 27.8%, yielded the highest level of model uncertainty.

  10. Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1888-1939, School of American Research Press, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Nash

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1 888-1939, is an "intentionally selective" account of eight major archaeological expeditions to the Southwest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It succeeds in achieving the goals set forth in the prologue. The reader is taken on an "armchair tour"  of early Southwestern excavations in the hope that the resulting "basic understanding of what the early archae­ologists did" will stimulate a desire to "learn more about the intriguing prehistory of the Southwest" (pp. xiii. As a student of the history of North American archaeology, I would be amiss to speak for Elion's "layperson" audience, but my suspicion is that her presentation will indeed stimulate those readers. As an archaeologist, I thoroughly enjoyed this book, and it may well be that Elliott's journalistic approach makes this book more enjoyable because she is able to remain above the level of detail that often burden archaeolo­gists' accounts of these expeditions. I must temper this statement by noting that Elliott's journalistic hyper­ bole and tendency to oversimplify complex research and analysis are at times discomforting.

  11. Hard rock excavation at the CSM/OCRD test site using Swedish blast design techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the third in a series describing research conducted by the Colorado School of Mines for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) to determine the extent of blast damage in rock surrounding an underground opening. A special room, called the CSM/OCRD room, was excavated at the CSM experimental mine for the purpose of assessing blast damage in the rock around the room. Even though this mine is not proposed as a nuclear waste repository site, the instrumentation and methods of blast damage assessment developed in this project are applicable to proposed repository sites. This report describes the application of Swedish blasting technology for the excavation of the test room. The design of the blasting patterns including the selection of explosives, hole sizes and location, explosive loading densities, and delay intervals is based upon the theories of Langefors and Kihlstrom in combination with methods used at the Swedish Detonic Research Foundation for minimizing unwanted rock damage. The practical application of the design procedures to seven rounds and the achieved results is discussed

  12. Bucket wheel rehabilitation of ERC 1400-30/7 high-capacity excavators from lignite quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The existence of bucket wheel equipment type ERC 1400-30/7 in lignite quarries with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to rehabilitation in order to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance but also the replacement (or modernization) of subassemblies that can increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption, reducing mechanical stresses. This paper proposes an analysis of constructive solution of using a part of the classical bucket wheel, on which are located 9 cutting cups and 9 chargers cups and adding a new part so that the new redesigned bucket-wheel will contain 18 cutting-chargers cups, compared to the classical model. On the CAD model of bucket wheel was performed a static and a dynamic FEA, the results being compared with the yield strength of the material of the entire structure, were checked mechanical stresses in the overall distribution map, and were verified the first 4 vibrating modes the structure compared to real loads. Thus was verified that the redesigned bucket-wheel can accomplish the proposed goals respectively increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption and reducing mechanical stresses.

  13. Theoretical Investigations on the Influence of Artificially Altered Rock Mass Properties on Mechanical Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlieb, Philipp; Bock, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a theoretical analysis of the influence of the rock mass rating on the cutting performance of roadheaders. Existing performance prediction models are assessed for their suitability for forecasting the influence of pre-damaging the rock mass with alternative methods like lasers or microwaves, prior to the mechanical excavation process. Finally, the RMCR model was chosen because it is the only reported model incorporating a range of rock mass properties into its calculations. The results show that even very tough rocks could be mechanically excavated if the occurrence, orientation and condition of joints are favourable for the cutting process. The calculated improvements in the cutting rate (m3/h) are up to 350% for the most favourable cases. In case of microwave irradiation of hard rocks with an UCS of 200 MPa, a reasonable improvement in the performance by 120% can be achieved with as little as an extra 0.7 kWh/m3 (= 1% more energy) compared to cutting only.

  14. Re-Excavation of Seti First Tomb, Kv17, Luxor, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman HAMED

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is discussing technical challenges within engineering works made during re-excavation of the 174 m long tunnel which was cut into bedrock of desert shale known as 'Esna shale'. Recent historical events, during the last decade, explained much of the tunnel deformations and dirt filling inside tunnel space "Debris", caused by multiple water runoff attack to king's valley. The author is also discussing the challenging work under severe financial regime; using non conventional solutions adopted with extraordinary actions in using junk yard equipment. Seti I tomb, is considered as the deepest opening in the valley, not mentioning the risk in re-excavation the tomb, harsh atmospheric conditions inside the tunnel, measured and monitored by author, needed a serious ventilation system to serve workers during removal of dirt. Through that, an interesting mathematical relation between atmospheric variables has been emphasized. Design of steel supporting system serving an inclined deep tunnel with irregular circumference, under strict condition of reversibility, has been performed as a remarkable topic, to solve and apply in such archaeological site. Finally, the article is considered as a scientific pattern for application of geo-engineering in conservation of underground archaeological sites.

  15. Time-dependent evolution of the excavation damaged zone in the argillaceous Tournemire site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejeb, A.; Cabrera, J.

    2006-01-01

    The experimental Tournemire site enables the assessment of the Excavation Damaged Zones (EDZ) around three structures excavated in argilites: the century-old tunnel, the ten year-old east and west galleries, and the three year-old main gallery. This paper discusses the main experimental results concerning the EDZ characterisation and their interpretation. EDZ fracture analyses from the galleries (cartography) and the radial boreholes (core analyses) allow for accurate structural characterisation of the EDZs. The tunnel has an EDZ with dense, homogeneous fracturing parallel to the wall, resembling onion skins. However, the new galleries do not have an EDZ similar to that of the tunnel. Unsaturated micro-cracks, mainly parallel to the bedding planes are observed on the non covered walls of each gallery. The extent of the EDZ does not seem to be affected by the age of the structure. It is approximately 20 % of the mean radius of the structure. Based on the modelling and experimental characterisation work completed, it is considered that the EDZ in this argillaceous Tournemire site is due to a deferred failure. At first time, when the wall of the structures are not covered the desaturation/re-saturation phenomena induced a tensile failure around the new galleries. During the time, these desaturation/re-saturation phenomena cause a gradual weakening of the material. The EDZ tunnel fractures are explained by this possible hydric damage and a decreasing mechanical strength with the time. These assumptions remain to be confirmed through coupled numerical modelling in unsaturated medium. (authors)

  16. A new technique in the excavation of ground-nest bee burrows (Hymenoptera: Apoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marinho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bees have a diversified natural history, thus the methods applied to study such diversity are varied. When it comes to studies of nesting biology, bees which nest in pre-existing cavities have been reasonably well studied since researchers started using trap-nests. However, bees whose nests are built underground are poorly studied due to the difficulty of finding natural nesting areas and the absence of a method that facilitates bee nest excavation. The latter is evidenced by the lack of accurate descriptions in literature of how nests are excavated. In this study we tested cylindrical rubber refills of eraser pen as a new material to be used as a tracer of underground nest galleries in a natural nesting area of two species of Epicharis Klug, 1807 (Apidae. We compared this technique directly with plaster in powder form mixed with water and our results with other methodological studies describing alternative methods and materials. The rubber refill technique overcame the main issues presented by materials such as plaster, molten metal alloys and bioplastic, namely: death of the organisms by high temperatures and/or formation of plugs and materials unduly following the roots inside the galleries.

  17. A Basic Robotic Excavator (the Glenn Digger): Description, Design, and Initial Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Steve; Newman, Paul; Izadnegahdar, Alain; Johnson, Kyle; Abel, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, commercial part selections, fabrication, assembly, installation, and initial operation of a two degree of freedom robotic excavator. Colloquially referred to as "the NASA Glenn Digger," it was designed specifically to be mounted onto, and to operate with, the then newly developed Centaur 2 robotic mobility base. The excavator, when mounted to Centaur 2, is designed to scoop loose regolith from the terrain, raise its loaded bucket up and dump the load into a hopper of at least a 1-m-height. The hopper represents the input to a machine that would process the raw material, such as to produce oxygen from lunar regolith as would be required for long-term lunar habitation. This equipment debuted at the annual Research and Technology Studies ("Desert RATS", Ref. 1) event held north of Flagstaff, Arizona, in September of 2010, when the Digger was successfully joined to Centaur 2 and the shoveling articulation was demonstrated. During 2011, the hardware was modified for added strength, strain gauges were added to measure loads, and the controls were improved in preparation for the 2011 Desert RATS event, where additional "field operations" experience was gained.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Blast Vibration and Crack Forming Effect of Rock-Anchored Beam Excavation in Deep Underground Caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinPing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at surrounding rock damage induced by dynamic disturbance from blasting excavation of rock-anchored beam in rock mass at moderate or far distance in underground cavern, numerical model of different linear charging density and crustal stress in underground cavern is established by adopting dynamic finite element software based on borehole layout, charging, and rock parameter of the actual situation of a certain hydropower station. Through comparison in vibration velocity, contour surface of rock mass excavation, and the crushing extent of excavated rock mass between calculation result and field monitoring, optimum linear charging density of blast hole is determined. Studies are also conducted on rock mass vibration in moderate or far distance to blasting source, the damage of surrounding rock in near-field to blasting source, and crushing degree of excavated rock mass under various in situ stress conditions. Results indicate that, within certain range of in situ stress, the blasting vibration is independent of in situ stress, while when in situ stress is increasing above certain value, the blasting vibration velocity will be increasing and the damage of surrounding rock and the crushing degree of excavated rock mass will be decreasing.

  19. Characterization of the emissions impacts of hybrid excavators with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tanfeng; Russell, Robert L; Durbin, Thomas D; Cocker, David R; Burnette, Andrew; Calavita, Joseph; Maldonado, Hector; Johnson, Kent C

    2018-04-13

    Hybrid engine technology is a potentially important strategy for reduction of tailpipe greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other pollutants that is now being implemented for off-road construction equipment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the emissions and fuel consumption impacts of electric-hybrid excavators using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS)-based methodology. In this study, three hybrid and four conventional excavators were studied for both real world activity patterns and tailpipe emissions. Activity data was obtained using engine control module (ECM) and global positioning system (GPS) logged data, coupled with interviews, historical records, and video. This activity data was used to develop a test cycle with seven modes representing different types of excavator work. Emissions data were collected over this test cycle using a PEMS. The results indicated the HB215 hybrid excavator provided a significant reduction in tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions (from -13 to -26%), but increased diesel particulate matter (PM) (+26 to +27%) when compared to a similar model conventional excavator over the same duty cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and construction of earth retaining walls with anchors employed in excavation works at Oi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saino, Susumu; Aoshima, Ken-ichiro; Kamide, Atsushi.

    1990-01-01

    In Oi Nuclear Power Station, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., No.3 and No.4 plants of each 1180 MWe output are additionally installed, neighboring existing No.1 and No.2 plants of each 1175 MWe output in operation. The start of operation is expected in December, 1991 in No.3 plant, and in February, 1993 in No.4 plant. The total quantity of earth excavated for this additional installation works is about 3.3 million m 3 . The main works are, subsequently to the preparation of the site, the excavation for the foundations of reactor buildings and others, and the construction of the foundations for the seawater system facilities for cooling condensers and reactor auxiliary machines, and the works were begun in May, 1987. The excavation by using anchors was carried out in seven places. The vertical excavation on large scale was carried out by using the earth retaining walls of concrete-sprayed anchor structure in drain pits. In this report, the outline of the geological features, the outline of the excavation works, the design of the earth retaining walls, the execution of concrete spraying, the planning and result of measurement are described. (K.I.)

  1. Historical photogrammetry: Bird's Paluxy River dinosaur chase sequence digitally reconstructed as it was prior to excavation 70 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Peter L; Bates, Karl T; Farlow, James O

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable that some important specimens will become lost or damaged over time, conservation is therefore of vital importance. The Paluxy River dinosaur tracksite is among the most famous in the world. In 1940, Roland T. Bird described and excavated a portion of the site containing associated theropod and sauropod trackways. This excavated trackway was split up and housed in different institutions, and during the process a portion was lost or destroyed. We applied photogrammetric techniques to photographs taken by Bird over 70 years ago, before the trackway was removed, to digitally reconstruct the site as it was prior to excavation. The 3D digital model offers the opportunity to corroborate maps drawn by R.T. Bird when the tracksite was first described. More broadly, this work demonstrates the exciting potential for digitally recreating palaeontological, geological, or archaeological specimens that have been lost to science, but for which photographic documentation exists.

  2. The Origin of the ‘Chicago Method’ Excavation Techniques: Contributions of William Nickerson and Frederick Starr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Browman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What were the origins of the ‘Chicago method’ of scientific excavation? What is it and how did it get that name? Does its origin predate its popular employment at excavations in the USA during the 1930s and 1940s, and go back to institutional competition between Frederic Ward Putnam of the Field Museum and Frederick Starr of the University of Chicago? Or was it the result of the fieldwork of avocational archaeologist and one of Putnam’s first students, William Baker Nickerson, who implemented it as the basis of his fieldwork, and proved its efficacy, for many years before he retired in 1921? Nickerson’s detailed notes on the results of his thorough stratigraphic excavation techniques, used at many archaeological sites in Iowa, Illinois, Ohio and Minnesota, were passed on to the first University of Chicago field party doing archaeological work in Illinois, that consequently became the foundations of the later ‘Chicago method’.

  3. Post-excavation analysis of a revised hydraulic model of the Room 209 fracture, URL, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, A.; Tin Chan; Griffiths, P.; Nakka, B.

    1989-10-01

    An excavation response test was conducted in the Room 209 on the 240 m level of the AECL Underground Research Laboratory. Model predictions prior to excavation were made of the geomechanical response of the rock mass and the hydraulic response of an intercepted fracture. The model results were compared with excavation response data collected in a comprehensive instrument array. The work performed has addressed discrepancies between calculated and in-situ measured hydraulic response as part of a post-test analysis. Already existing hydraulic conceptual models of the fracture were revised and any available information was included in the new model. The model reproduced the pre-excavation hydraulic head distribution and hydraulic test results in terms of normalized flow rate within 5% and 75%, respectively. It was also found that the model reproduced the results of cross-hole hydraulic interference tests at least from a qualitative standpoint. The next stage of the modelling addressed the response of the model to a simulation of the excavated pilot tunnel. The preliminary results suggested the presence of a skin of different permeability in a thin zone around the periphery of the tunnel. By altering the permeability in the floor and along the walls and roof of the periphery, a better correspondence between calculated and measured drawdown was obtained. The same also applied for measured groundwater inflow in quantity, though not for the actual distribution on inflow. As probable causes for the interpreted positive skin in the crown and wall, temporary partial unsaturation and propulsion of debris into the fracture were suggested. The negative skin in the floor was interpreted as an effect of the dense and high energy charges used in the excavation process. (authors)

  4. Numerical Simulation of Rock Mass Damage Evolution During Deep-Buried Tunnel Excavation by Drill and Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wenbo; Hu, Yingguo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Presence of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) around a tunnel perimeter is of significant concern with regard to safety, stability, costs and overall performance of the tunnel. For deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast, it is generally accepted that a combination of effects of stress redistribution and blasting is mainly responsible for development of the EDZ. However, few open literatures can be found to use numerical methods to investigate the behavior of rock damage induced by the combined effects, and it is still far from full understanding how, when and to what degree the blasting affects the behavior of the EDZ during excavation. By implementing a statistical damage evolution law based on stress criterion into the commercial software LS-DYNA through its user-subroutines, this paper presents a 3D numerical simulation of the rock damage evolution of a deep-buried tunnel excavation, with a special emphasis on the combined effects of the stress redistribution of surrounding rock masses and the blasting-induced damage. Influence of repeated blast loadings on the damage extension for practical millisecond delay blasting is investigated in the present analysis. Accompanying explosive detonation and secession of rock fragments from their initial locations, in situ stress in the immediate vicinity of the excavation face is suddenly released. The transient characteristics of the in situ stress release and induced dynamic responses in the surrounding rock masses are also highlighted. From the simulation results, some instructive conclusions are drawn with respect to the rock damage mechanism and evolution during deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast.

  5. Sequential Subterranean Transport of Excavated Sand and Foraged Seeds in Nests of the Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R Tschinkel

    Full Text Available During their approximately annual nest relocations, Florida harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex badius excavate large and architecturally-distinct subterranean nests. Aspects of this process were studied by planting a harvester ant colony in the field in a soil column composed of layers of 12 different colors of sand. Quantifying the colors of excavated sand dumped on the surface by the ants revealed the progress of nest deepening to 2 m and enlargement to 8 L in volume. Most of the excavation was completed within about 2 weeks, but the nest was doubled in volume after a winter lull. After 7 months, we excavated the nest and mapped its structure, revealing colored sand deposited in non-host colored layers, especially in the upper 30 to 40 cm of the nest. In all, about 2.5% of the excavated sediment was deposited below ground, a fact of importance to sediment dating by optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL. Upward transport of excavated sand is carried out in stages, probably by different groups of ants, through deposition, re-transport, incorporation into the nest walls and floors and remobilization from these. This results in considerable mixing of sand from different depths, as indicated in the multiple sand colors even within single sand pellets brought to the surface. Just as sand is transported upward by stages, incoming seeds are transported downward to seed chambers. Foragers collect seeds and deposit them only in the topmost nest chambers from which a separate group of workers rapidly transports them downward in increments detectable as a "wave" of seeds that eventually ends in the seed chambers, 20 to 80 cm below the surface. The upward and downward transport is an example of task-partitioning in a series-parallel organization of work carried out by a highly redundant work force in which each worker usually completes only part of a multi-step process.

  6. Joint ANDRA/Nirex/SKB zone of excavation disturbance experiment (ZEDEX) at the Aspo hard rock laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, A.J.; Olsson, O.

    1995-01-01

    The excavation of access shafts and tunnels and of the disposal areas of a waste repository will cause a disturbance in the surrounding rock mass with possible alterations to rock mass stability and hydraulic properties. For a number of disposal concepts this disturbance may be important for the operational and/or post-closure safety of the repository. Furthermore the disturbance may extend over time as a consequence of processes such as stress relaxation. The sponsors of ZEDEX, namely ANDRA, Nirex and SKB, are interested in developing the ability to produce reliable models of the disturbed zone that will develop around large cross-section excavations in fractured hard rock masses that are initially water saturated. Various models have been developed to calculate the important characteristics of the disturbed zone in such rock masses as a function of parameters related to the rock mass quality and the geometric description of the excavation. ZEDEX was initiated in the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory in April 1994 with drilling and instrumentation of boreholes running alongside the planned extension of the spiral access ramp and a planned parallel experimental tunnel. ZEDEX has been designed to generate information for alternative methods of excavation. The extension to the spiral ramp is to be made by tunnel boring whereas the parallel experimental tunnel will be excavated in part by ''normal'' basting and in part by smooth blasting. The objective is to build confidence in the modelling of the disturbed zone to support the selection of excavation methods for repository construction. (authors). 3 figs

  7. Geohydromechanical Processes in the Excavation Damaged Zone in Crystalline Rock, Rock Salt, and Indurated and Plastic Clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Bernier, Frederic; Davies, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    The creation of an excavation disturbed zone or excavation damaged zone is expected around all man-made openings in geologic formations. Macro- and micro-fracturing, and in general a redistribution of in situ stresses and rearrangement of rock structures, will occur in this zone, resulting in drastic changes of permeability to flow, mainly through the fractures and cracks induced by excavation. Such an EDZ may have significant implications for the operation and long-term performance of an underground nuclear waste repository. Various issues of concern need to be evaluated, such as processes creating fractures in the excavation damaged zone, the degree of permeability increase, and the potential for sealing or healing (with permeability reduction) in the zone. In recent years, efforts along these lines have been made for a potential repository in four rock types-crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay-and these efforts have involved field, laboratory, and theoretical studies. The present work involves a synthesis of the ideas and issues that emerged from presentations and discussions on EDZ in these four rock types at a CLUSTER Conference and Workshop held in Luxembourg in November, 2003. First, definitions of excavation disturbed and excavation damaged zones are proposed. Then, an approach is suggested for the synthesis and intercomparison of geohydromechanical processes in the EDZ for the four rock types (crystalline rock, salt, indurated clay, and plastic clay). Comparison tables of relevant processes, associated factors, and modeling and testing techniques are developed. A discussion of the general state-of-the-art and outstanding issues are also presented. A substantial bibliography of relevant papers on the subject is supplied at the end of the paper

  8. Archaeogeophysical Studies in the Ruins of Kars-Ani (Turkey) in the 2009 Excavation Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskan, Nihan; Ahmet Yuksel, Fethi; Gorucu, Ziya; Coruhlu, Yasar

    2010-05-01

    The Ani ancient city, which is at 48 km distance to Kars (Turkey), is founded at the banks of the Arpacay River flowing in the vicinity of Turkey - Armenia border and is in the borders of Mevcut Ocakli Village. Recent studies show that the first settlement in Ani ancient city could be in the 5th millenium B.C.(Chalcolithic Period) and moreover, there were some buildings built in the Iron and Bronze Period. In the early 9th century, Ashot Msaker, who was Bagratuni dynasty (806-827), declared their first capital city at Bagaran, some 40 km south of Ani, and then transferred it to Kars in the year 929. In 961, King Ashot III (953-977) transferred the capital city from Kars to Ani. Ani expanded during the reign of King Smbat II (977-989). Recent research shows that by the early 11th century the population of Ani was over 100,000. After capture of Ashot, Ani surrendered to Byzantine controlled in 1045. A Greek governor was installed in the city. In 1064 a Seljuk Turkish army, headed by Sultan Alparslan, attacked and captured Ani. Then the Georgians captured Ani in 1124, 1161 and 1174. By the 14th century Ani was ruled by the Turkish dynasties, namely Jalayrids and the Kara Koyunlu. After the Persian Safavids ruled Ani, it became part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1579. A small town remained within its walls until 1650 A.C. and it was completely abandoned by the middle of the 18th century. Examples of Sasani, Arabic, Armenian, and Seljuk architecture can be found among the Ani ruins. Ani is home to the first Turkish mosque built in Anatolia, namely Ebul Menucehr. The mosque was erected by the members of the Seljuk Dynasty in 1072. The first archaeological excavations were conducted at Ani in 1892. Since then, several archaeological excavations have been done in Ani. In the 2009 excavation season, magnetic methods were applied in Ani ruins to find the exact locations of the ruins. Magnetic Gradient Measurements were taken in front of Ebul Menucehr Mosque. After

  9. Feature Extraction for Digging Operation of Excavator Based on Data-Driven Skill-Based PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Koiwai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the work efficiency is demanded by aging and reducing of the working population in the construction field, so that some automation technologies are applied to construction equipment, such as bulldozers and excavators. However, not only the automation technologies but also expert skills are necessary to improve the work efficiency. In this paper, the human skill evaluation is proposed by the data-driven skill-based PID controller. The proposed method is applied to the excavator digging operation. As the result, the difference between the novice operation and the skilled operation is extracted. Moreover, the numerical difference is clarified based on the result.

  10. Modelling and Analysis of the Excavation Phase by the Theory of Blocks Method of Tunnel 4 Kherrata Gorge, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukarm, Riadh; Houam, Abdelkader; Fredj, Mohammed; Boucif, Rima

    2017-12-01

    The aim of our work is to check the stability during excavation tunnel work in the rock mass of Kherrata, connecting the cities of Bejaia to Setif. The characterization methods through the Q system (method of Barton), RMR (Bieniawski classification) allowed us to conclude that the quality of rock mass is average in limestone, and poor in fractured limestone. Then modelling of excavation phase using the theory of blocks method (Software UNWEDGE) with the parameters from the recommendations of classification allowed us to check stability and to finally conclude that the use of geomechanical classification and the theory of blocks can be considered reliable in preliminary design.

  11. E16 Sandvika-Wøyen - Analysis of tunnel excavation, achieved contour quality and influence of applied initiation system.

    OpenAIRE

    Sklodowska, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The drill and blast excavation method is the most commonly used method for tunnel construction in Norway. In D&B the results from blasting can be evaluated through several factors, such as pull percentage, vibration level and contour quality. The main goal of the thesis was to analyze excavation with a special focus on the quality of the achieved contour and the influence of the applied initiation system. The analysis was performed based on results from the Bjørnegård tunnel, which wa...

  12. Design aspects of the Alpha Repository. V. Suite selection and cost analysis of excavation/hauling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, T.J.; Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The various types of haulage and excavation equipment that may be suitable for use in the development and excavation of the Alpha repository are described with discussion of the advantages, disadvantages, expected costs, availability, and special features of each. The various equipment suites are delineated, and the costs of mining and transportation of the salt are presented and discussed. Individual manufacturers contacted and equipment considered are listed. Most of the equipment is ''off-the-shelf''; however, some manufactuers were contacted that do custom work because of their expertise in salt mining equipment. The costs of custom equipment are comparable to those for standard equipment

  13. Excavating a Silk Road City: the Medieval Citadel of Taraz, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Dawkes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The city of Taraz, located near the southern border with Uzbekistan, is one of the most significant historic settlements in Kazakhstan, and two seasons of fieldwork in the central market-place have revealed a substantial depth of medieval stratigraphy. Despite frequent mentions in Arabic and Chinese written sources, both the form and evolution of this important Silk Road city remain poorly understood. Evidence for a series of successive medieval buildings, including a bathhouse and a Zoroastrian flame shrine, was found in the area of the former citadel. These excavations, undertaken as a joint initiative between the Centre for Applied Archaeology and Kazakh archaeologists, were the first for 50 years in the city and form part of a wider public outreach programme.

  14. Archaeology Through Computational Linguistics: Inscription Statistics Predict Excavation Sites of Indus Valley Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gabriel L; Louwerse, Max M

    2016-11-01

    Computational techniques comparing co-occurrences of city names in texts allow the relative longitudes and latitudes of cities to be estimated algorithmically. However, these techniques have not been applied to estimate the provenance of artifacts with unknown origins. Here, we estimate the geographic origin of artifacts from the Indus Valley Civilization, applying methods commonly used in cognitive science to the Indus script. We show that these methods can accurately predict the relative locations of archeological sites on the basis of artifacts of known provenance, and we further apply these techniques to determine the most probable excavation sites of four sealings of unknown provenance. These findings suggest that inscription statistics reflect historical interactions among locations in the Indus Valley region, and they illustrate how computational methods can help localize inscribed archeological artifacts of unknown origin. The success of this method offers opportunities for the cognitive sciences in general and for computational anthropology specifically. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Study on the provenance of ancient porcelain excavated in Maojiawan ruin by WDXRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guoxi

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine the provenance of two different kinds of ancient celadons which were excavated in Maojiawan ruin located in Beijing of China and named FLQ (imitated celadon) and WLNQ which is celadon outside and blue-white inside, ten components of each sample's body and glaze were measured by the wave length dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) analysis. Multivariates statistical analysis was used to analyze and compare the experiment data with those of LQY (ancient celadon) made in Zhejiang and ancient Jingdezhen porcelain (JDZ) made in Jingdezhen. The results show that the two different kinds of ancient celadons have the same provenance as JDZ, that is, they were produced in Jingdezhen. (authors)

  16. Pilot-Scale Bio-Augmented Aerobic Composting of Excavated Foot-And-Mouth Disease Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we tested the validity of using novel, bio-augmented, aerobic composting with carcass-degrading microorganisms for the ex situ stabilization of carcasses at pilot scale with previously poorly decomposed carcasses excavated from a 3-year old burial site. The significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand (COD, 160,000 mg/kg to 40,000 mg/kg and inorganic nitrogen species (total nitrogen, 5000 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg indicated effective bio-stabilization of carcasses by bio-augmented composting. The subsequent germination assays and the quantitative characterization of potentially pathogenic bacteria using NGS (next-generation sequencing showed that the burial–composting sequential system with the carcass-degrading microorganisms and mechanical agitation successfully reduced plant toxicity as well as microbial risk to human health, suggesting that the composting by-product is suitable for farming or/and landfill use(s.

  17. Demolition, construction and excavation wastes in Copenhagen. Los residuos de demolicion, construccion y excavacion en Copenhague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, N.J.; Lauridsen, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Demolition Waste, Construction Waste and Excavation Waste will in a modern society represent a major part of the total amount of the industrial wastes. Implementation of the Regulation for Industrial Waste in Copenhagen has resulted insignificant changes in the transportation and processing of this type of waste was typically disposed of as mixed waste on landfill sites and open dumps. Today most of this waste is sorted at the source (see figure 1) and recycled namely as secondary raw materials. This change in the disposal of construction waste etc, is due to two main factors: implementation of the regulation of commercial wastes and a significant raise in the (governmental) waste tax on specially landfilling activities. (Author)

  18. Excavations at Vunavaung (SDI), Rakival Village, Watom Island, Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anson, D.

    1998-01-01

    At Vunavaung (SDI) in the coastal settlement of Ravikal, two of a series of four test pits just in front of the raised coral cliff at the rear of the present-day village revealed an undisturbed 1.4-m-deep cultural deposit, sealed by about 1.8 to 2.2 m of redeposited and primary volcanic ash. The excavations, although of limited extent, provided four securely dated pottery assemblages spaced over 1000 years from 800 BC to after AD 200. These document the stratigraphic relationship between highly decorated Lapita pottery at the beginning of the sequence and ceramics minimally decorated with applied-relief and nail incision at the end. (author)

  19. The marble head of a statuette from Mediana (excavations in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plemić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the archaeological excavations in Mediana in 2001, the head of a marble statuette of exceptional beauty and craftsmanship was discovered. It was an isolated discovery, the sculpture probably having been imported from some Greek artistic centre or an eastern Mediterranean workshop, presenting a part of a larger ensemble of sculptures that had adorned an imperial villa with peristyle. Since the head was found in pieces and being just part of a sculptural representation with no reliable attributes, the question of its identification is a difficult task. It was possible to determine, using stylistic traits' analysis that the statuette was made under the influence of Hellenistic cult sculpture, namely that it followed the rules of the school of Praxiteles. On the other hand, the iconographic elements, in particular that of the hairstyle, lead us to the conclusion that this statuette could represent one of two Roman goddesses, either Venus or Diana.

  20. Water table lowering to improve excavation performance and to reduce acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppe, J.C.; Costa, J.F.; Laurent, O. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyses the water table level fluctuations using wells located adjacent to the stripping cuts at the Butia-Leste coal mine, southernmost of Brazil. Piezometers monitored the water table fluctuations. Geological mapping provided additional information aiding the interpretation of the results. A contouring software was also used as tool to aid the interpretation of the data and the results visualisation. The parameters necessary in selecting the location of the wells and pumping volumes were calculated from the data obtained in the water table lowering tests. The results were used to minimise two main problems: the generation of acid mine drainage and the reduction of the excavation performance of the fleet used in overburden removal. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Determination of functions of controlling drives of main executive mechanisms of mining excavators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunova, Yu A.; Komissarov, A. P.; Lukashuk, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that a special shovel is a feature of the structure of the drives of the main mechanisms (mechanisms of lifting and pressure) of career excavators with working equipment, the presence in the transfer device of a two-crank-lever mechanism of working equipment that connects the main mechanisms with the working body (bucket). In this case, the transformation of the mechanical energy parameters of the motors into energy-force parameters realized at the cutting edge of the bucket (teeth) takes place depending on the type of the kinematic scheme of the two-link-lever mechanism. The concept of “control function” defining the relationship between the parameters characterizing the position of the bucket in the face (the coordinates of the tip of the cutting edge of the bucket, the digging speed) and the required control level are introduced. These are the values of the lifting and head speeds ensuring the bucket movement along a given trajectory.

  2. SHAPING AND REDESTINATION OF EXCAVATED AREAS IN THE COURSE OF THE EXPLOITATION OF CRUSHED STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerko Nuić

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of devastated and demolished country the want for crushed stone is ever more greater. The opening of new quarryes is subject to strict ecological norms. The location of activity as well as the concept of the mining works represent a matter of consideration. Excavated areas should be shaped in a way to be integrated into immediate and wider environment most conveniently and then be redestinated with the purpose of the economic, sporting-recreation or some other usage. On the existing model in nature (»Široki Čelac« quarry, Novalja on the island of Pag, the specific characteristics of the locality and region have been respected. There have been also given adequate solutions for a possible deposit of communal waste (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. A VR Based Interactive Genetic Algorithm Framework For Design of Support Schemes to Deep Excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Riyu; Wu, Heng

    2002-01-01

    An interactive genetic algorithm (IGA) framework for the design of support schemes to deep excavations is proposed in this paper, in which virtual reality (VR) is used as an aid to the evaluation of design schemes that is performed interactively. The fitness of a scheme individual is evaluated by two steps. Firstly a fitness value is automatically assigned to a scheme individual according to the the estimated construction cost of the individual. And the human evaluation is introduced to modify the fitness value by taking into account other factors, such as the feasibility factor. The design scheme is composed of four basic categories, i. e., cantilever walls, reinforced soil walls, tieback systems and bracing systems, each of which is encoded by a binary string. To assist human evaluation, 3D models of design schemes are created and visualized in a virtual reality environment, providing designers with a reality sense of various schemes

  4. Excavation and drilling at a spent-fuel test facility in granitic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C.; Mayr, M.C.

    1981-10-01

    Funding for a project to test the feasibility of safe and reliable storage and retrieval of spent fuel from a commercial nuclear reactor was approved by the Department of Energy on June 2, 1978. By May 28, 1980, 11 spent-fuel assemblies had been emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Design and construction of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax, including fuel emplacement, had taken less than two years, at a total cost of $18.4 million. Construction activities were preceded by geologic exploration using four cored holes and existing underground workings. The sinking of a 0.76-m-diam shaft to the 420-m level initiated construction at the site. Effective rates of sinking varied from 0.16 m/h with a rotary tricone drill to 0.5 m/h with a hammer drill. Underground excavation included a central canister-storage drift 4.6 x 6.1 x 64 m long, two parallel 3.4 x 3.4-m heater drifts, and a tail drift. About 6700 m{sup 3} were excavated at an average rate of 2 m{sup 3}/h, and 178 cored holes, with diameters from 38 to 152 mm, were drilled. A total length of nearly 1100 m was drilled at rates ranging from 0.4 m/h to 1 m/h, depending on hole size and drilling equipment. Eighteen 610-mm-diam canister emplacement holes were hammer-drilled at an average rate of 1.4 m/h. The use of the critical path method, integrated contractors, and close cooperation between project participants facilitated completion of the project on schedule.

  5. Measurement plan and observational construction program on drift excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Masanao; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Funaki, Hironori; Fujikawa, Daisuke; Tsusaka, Kimikazu

    2008-09-01

    The Horonobe URL Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D' on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. On the Horonobe URL Project, 'Phase 1' was finished in 2005FY and construction of the underground facility was started since then. Now, 'Phase 2' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) is on-going. On the 'Development of engineering techniques for use in the deep underground environment' in Phase 1, based on the various types of data acquired on investigations from the surface, the design of underground facility in advance was planned. At the inception of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe URL Project' (hereinafter referred to as 'Observational Construction Program') was published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes followings from the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety/reasonable construction, measurements for R and D on enhancement of shaft design/construction technology, and measurements for verification of the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation, and it is on-going. This report summarizes the measurement plan during construction of drifts based on the design in advance and the observational construction program for feedback measurements data into design and construction on subsequent steps. This report also describes about design and construction management program of underground facility and R and D program on

  6. BANGLES, BEADS AND BEDOUIN: EXCAVATING A LATE OTTOMAN CEMETERY IN JORDAN (ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany J. Walker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Transjordan witnessed significant social and economic changes in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. With the loss of agriculturally-rich territory in Europe, the Ottomans sought to make up for their economic losses by regaining control of their Arab provinces, some regions of which had been autonomous for nearly three hundred years. The application of Tanzimat legislation to the Transjordan was a success, to a large degree, in that it secured tax revenues and contributed to the general security of the region.The application of the 1858 Land Law, in which land was registered in a proprietor’s name for tax purposes, was particularly effective in transforming grazing land to productive agricultural properties. It, moreover, had a significant impact on Transjordanian society which was tribal and largely nomadic. The introduction of direct rule in the region by the Ottoman government transformed traditional tribal life, resulting in the settlement of formerly nomadic groups, the transition to an agrarian way of life, and the opening up of markets formerly inaccessible to indigenous tribal groups. A variety of urban, manufactured goods became readily available to all sectors of society throughout this frontier zone.“Bangles, Beads and Bedouin: Excavating a Late Ottoman Cemetery inJordan” considers the transformation of tribal funerary practices in the Belqa’ of central Jordan. The paper highlights the burial ground of one Transjordanian tribe, identified as the Adwan, excavated at Tall Hisban in 1998. Dated to the late nineteenth century on the basis of coins, this mass grave was one of the last of its kind, as permanent cemeteries replaced seasonal burial grounds by the early twentieth century. The composition of theburial goods indicates that members of the tribe participated in an exchange network that embraced the Red Sea, Greater Syria, and Europe.

  7. Experimental study on the artificial recharge of semiconfined aquifers involved in deep excavation engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, G.; Cao, J. R.; Cheng, X. S.; Ha, D.; Wang, F. J.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial recharge measures have been adopted to control the drawdown of confined aquifers and the ground subsidence caused by dewatering during deep excavation in Tianjin, Shanghai and other regions in China. However, research on recharge theory is still limited. Additionally, confined aquifers consisting of silt and silty sand in Tianjin have lower hydraulic conductivities than those consisting of sand or gravel, and the feasibility and effectiveness of recharge methods in these semiconfined aquifers urgently require investigation. A series of single-well and multiwell pumping and recharge tests was conducted at a metro station excavation site in Tianjin. The test results showed that it was feasible to recharge silt and silty sand semiconfined aquifers, and, to a certain extent, the hydrogeological parameters obtained from the pumping tests could be used to predict the water level rise during single-well recharge. However, the predicted results underestimated the water level rise near the recharge well (within 7 m) by approximately 10-25%, likely because the permeability coefficient around the well was reduced during the recharge process. Pressured recharge significantly improved the efficiency of the recharge process. Maintaining the recharge and pumping rates at a nearly equal level effectively controlled the surrounding surface and building settlement. However, the surrounding surface subsidence tended to rapidly develop when recharge stopped. Therefore, the recharge process should continue and gradually stop after the pumping stops. The twin-well combined recharge technique can be used to control the head loss of an aquifer when one of the recharge wells requires pumping to solve the associated clogging problems.

  8. Excavation and drilling at a spent-fuel test facility in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Mayr, M.C.

    1981-10-01

    Funding for a project to test the feasibility of safe and reliable storage and retrieval of spent fuel from a commercial nuclear reactor was approved by the Department of Energy on June 2, 1978. By May 28, 1980, 11 spent-fuel assemblies had been emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Design and construction of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax, including fuel emplacement, had taken less than two years, at a total cost of $18.4 million. Construction activities were preceded by geologic exploration using four cored holes and existing underground workings. The sinking of a 0.76-m-diam shaft to the 420-m level initiated construction at the site. Effective rates of sinking varied from 0.16 m/h with a rotary tricone drill to 0.5 m/h with a hammer drill. Underground excavation included a central canister-storage drift 4.6 x 6.1 x 64 m long, two parallel 3.4 x 3.4-m heater drifts, and a tail drift. About 6700 m 3 were excavated at an average rate of 2 m 3 /h, and 178 cored holes, with diameters from 38 to 152 mm, were drilled. A total length of nearly 1100 m was drilled at rates ranging from 0.4 m/h to 1 m/h, depending on hole size and drilling equipment. Eighteen 610-mm-diam canister emplacement holes were hammer-drilled at an average rate of 1.4 m/h. The use of the critical path method, integrated contractors, and close cooperation between project participants facilitated completion of the project on schedule

  9. Potential for leaching of arsenic from excavated rock after different drying treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jining; Kosugi, Tomoya; Riya, Shohei; Hashimoto, Yohey; Hou, Hong; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2016-07-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from excavated rock subjected to different drying methods is compared using sequential leaching tests and rapid small-scale column tests combined with a sequential extraction procedure. Although the total As content in the rock was low (8.81 mg kg(-1)), its resulting concentration in the leachate when leached at a liquid-to-solid ratio of 10 L kg(-1) exceeded the environmental standard (10 μg L(-1)). As existed mainly in dissolved forms in the leachates. All of the drying procedures applied in this study increased the leaching of As, with freeze-drying leading to the largest increase. Water extraction of As using the two tests showed different leaching behaviors as a function of the liquid-to-solid ratio, and achieved average extractions of up to 35.7% and 25.8% total As, respectively. Dissolution of As from the mineral surfaces and subsequent re-adsorption controlled the short-term release of As; dissolution of Fe, Al, and dissolved organic carbon played important roles in long-term As leaching. Results of the sequential extraction procedure showed that use of 0.05 M (NH4)2SO4 underestimates the readily soluble As. Long-term water extraction removed almost all of the non-specifically sorbed As and most of the specifically sorbed As. The concept of pollution potential indices, which are easily determined by the sequential leaching test, is proposed in this study and is considered for possible use in assessing efficacy of treatment of excavated rocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chinese and Venetian glass beads excavated from Fais Island in Micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intoh, Michiko

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over 830 glass beads were excavated from a late prehistoric cemetery site on Fais Island in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia In one of the 13 excavated burials a young woman had more that 310 glass beads around her wrist. Bone collagen from this burial was dated by AMS to 387 + 64 BP. The associated glass beads were classified into three groups based on colour and size. A sample from each group was examined for evidence of manufacturing technique. The chemical composition was determined using an X-ray microanalyser. The first group consisted of more than 300 pale green, transparent glass beads which are less than 2 mm in diameter. The chemical composition is high in PbO (75.22%) while low in MgO. Such a high lead content is characteristic of Chinese glass. The manufacturing technique could not be determined because the surfaces were too eroded. The second group contains several yellow, translucent glass beads. The chemical composition is also high in PbO (54.8%) and low in MgO. The beads were made by winding. The combination of winding and high lead strongly indicates that the beads were made in China. The third group had only one white, translucent glass bead. It has particular white stripes which suggest that it is a 'gooseberry' bead which was made in Venice between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. In conclusion, both Chinese and Venetian glass beads co-existed on Fais Island around the time of European contact. They are likely to have been brought in from an area which had access to both beads. Island South-East Asia is tentatively considered to be the source area

  11. Excavations in 2014 at Wade Street, Bristol - a documentary and archaeological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Corcos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A staged programme of historical research and archaeological fieldwork, involving a desk-based assessment in 2000 (Smith and Erskine 2000, an evaluation in 2013 (Mason 2013, and an excavation followed by a watching brief in 2014, the latter two by Avon Archaeology Ltd, was undertaken in order to mitigate the archaeological impact of a proposed residential development on a site of 1,260m² at the corner and on the north-west side of Little Anne Street and Wade Street, St Jude’s, Bristol. The site was formerly occupied by residential dwellings, originally established in the very early 18th century as part of a then newly planned development of artisans’ houses. In combination, the data from these studies indicate that the Wade Street site has a history of continuous occupation, from c. 1700 until the buildings on it were removed in the years on either side of the Second World War as part of a so-called 'slum clearance' project. A very small assemblage of medieval pottery recovered from the lower contexts of the site during the excavation hints at some level of activity in the vicinity during the medieval period. This publication offers an opportunity to link the results of the fieldwork to an outline study of a sample of the 19th-century census records, to give a picture of the social dynamics of a highly diverse community in the second half of that century, and which presents a surprisingly mixed picture of both long stability, and incessant change in terms of the movement of people into and out of this part of Wade Street.

  12. Drainage reorganization and divide migration induced by the excavation of the Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacherat, Arnaud; Bonnet, Stéphane; Mouthereau, Frédéric

    2018-05-01

    Intracontinental endorheic basins are key elements of source-to-sink systems as they preserve sediments eroded from the surrounding catchments. Drainage reorganization in such a basin in response to changing boundary conditions has strong implications on the sediment routing system and on landscape evolution. The Ebro and Duero basins represent two foreland basins, which developed in response to the growth of surrounding compressional orogens, the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian mountains to the north, the Iberian Ranges to the south, and the Catalan Coastal Range to the east. They were once connected as endorheic basins in the early Oligocene. By the end of the Miocene, new post-orogenic conditions led to the current setting in which the Ebro and Duero basins are flowing in opposite directions, towards the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although these two hydrographic basins recorded a similar history, they are characterized by very different morphologic features. The Ebro basin is highly excavated, whereas relicts of the endorheic stage are very well preserved in the Duero basin. The contrasting morphological preservation of the endorheic stage represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the drivers (internal and/or external) of post-orogenic drainage divide mobility, drainage network, and landscape evolution. To that aim, we use field and map observations and we apply the χ analysis of river profiles along the divide between the Ebro and Duero drainage basins. We show here that the contrasting excavation of the Ebro and Duero basins drives a reorganization of their drainage network through a series of captures, which resulted in the southwestward migration of their main drainage divide. Fluvial captures have a strong impact on drainage areas, fluxes, and their respective incision capacity. We conclude that drainage reorganization driven by the capture of the Duero basin rivers by the Ebro drainage system explains the first-order preservation of

  13. Nest relocation and excavation in the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R Tschinkel

    Full Text Available The Florida harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex badius excavates deep nests in the sandy soils of the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. Nest relocations of over 400 colonies in a north Florida coastal plains pine forest were tracked and mapped from 2010 to 2013. Individual colonies varied from one move in two years to four times a year, averaging about one per year. Almost all moves occurred between May and November peaking in July when more than 1% of the colonies moved per day. Move directions were random, and averaged 4 m, with few moves exceeding 10 m. Distance moved was not related to colony size. Over multiple moves, paths were random walks around the original nest location. Relocation is probably intrinsic to the life history of this species, and the causes of relocation remain obscure--the architecture of old and new nests was very similar, and neither the forest canopy nor the density or size of neighbors was correlated with relocation. Monitoring entire relocations (n = 20 showed that they were usually completed in 4 to 6 days. Moves were diurnal, peaking in the mornings and afternoons dipping during mid-day, and ceasing before sundown. Workers excavated the new nest continuously during the daytime throughout the move and beyond. A minority of workers carried seeds, charcoal and brood, with seeds being by far the most common burden. The proportion of burdened workers increased throughout the move. Measured from year to year, small colonies gained size and large ones lost it. Colonies moving more than once in two years lost more size than those moving less often, suggesting that moving may bear a fitness cost. Colony relocation is a dramatic and consistent feature of the life history of the Florida harvester ant, inviting inquiry into its proximal and ultimate causes.

  14. Long-term monitoring of rock mass properties in the underground excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    It is generally agreed today that hazardous waste should be placed in repositories hundreds of meters below the Earth's surface. In our research we deal with the long-term monitoring of the underground excavation by seismic and electrical resistivity measurements. Permanent measuring system was developed and installed at the Bedřichov gallery test site (northern Bohemia). The gallery was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) in granitic rocks. Realized repeated measurements include ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The seismic measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The main emphasis is devoted to P-waves; however, recording of full waveform enables analyzing of S- waves and other types of waves as well. The comparison of repeated measurements is used for an assessment of changes in seismic velocities with very high-accuracy. The repetition rate of measurements can be selected from seconds; however such fast changes in the rock mass are unexpected. The ERT measurement is performed on the same rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. The conductivity of undisturbed granitic rocks is extremely low. Therefore the observed local increase of conductivity can be associated with joints and fractures saturated with water, resulting in their ionic conductivity. Repeated ERT measurement can reveal some changes in the rock mass. Due to time requirements of ERT measurement the repetition rate can be about three hours. The data collected by measuring system is transferred by means of computer network and can be accessed via internet. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained so far during the testing of developed monitoring system. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA

  15. Archaeological Studies of the Ancient Turkestan Site: results of 2011-2012 excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smagulov Yerbulat A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the 2011-12 excavations on the Eski-Turkestan site conducted by the Turkestani archaeological expedition (Institute of archaeology named after A. Margulan are presented. The site contains the remains of the ancient town of Yasy (modern town of Turkestan, South Kazakhstan oblast. The aim of the excavations was to study the earliest layers of the settlement, the primary stages of the city formation, and to identify construction elements of the ancient citadel in particular. It has been established that the most ancient nucleus of the city was located under Kultobe hill on the eastern edge of the settlement. The oldest architectural object of the citadel is a cruciform construction with powerful rammed clay defensive walls having narrow loopholes, preserved to a height of over 3 m. The three rooms were connected by arched doorways. In the second construction horizon, a building with long narrow rooms around a small open courtyard had been added to this "castle". During this period, around the perimeter of the citadel powerful rammed clay and mud-brick defensive walls had been erected, with the space between them and the extended castle being just partially built up. These two periods can be dated to the 1st–3rd centuries AD. This stage comes to an end with defeat and a fire. In the fire layer, numerous ceramic vessels in disassembling have been found. Individual unique finds have been made, and alabaster idols are of special interest. The restoration of the fortification wall and a new stage of the citadel development refer to the 9th-11th centuries. At the base of the new wall, pots with sacrificial food have been discovered, one of them bearing a runic inscription.

  16. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    Detailed magnetic survey was performed for caves study in Israel (1995-1996) within the framework of the Beit Shemesh Regional Project (Judean Shephelah). The experience accumulated in Israel we applied later (2010) in two Georgian prehistoric cave sites: Cherula and Kotias-Klde. The magnetic method is based on the contrast in magnetic properties between a target object (e.g., buried archaeological feature) and the host medium (i.e, the surrounding bedrock and soil). The feasibility of the magnetic method for cave revealing was evaluated by magnetic susceptibility (κ) measurements of surrounding soil and rocks, and archaeological features: stones making up the walls, ceramic fragments and cave fill. According to data obtained, the κ of soil within caves (cave fill) is higher than that of surrounding soil. The enhancement of cave fill κ occurs because processes associated with human habitation: repeated heating and accumulation of organic debris. Both these processes provide good conditions for the conversion of the iron oxide found within the soil to a strongly ferromagnetic form (Mullins, 1977; Maher, 1986; Dalan and Banerjee, 1998, Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1999; Itkis, 2003) The presence of highly magnetic ceramics in caves also enhances magnetic contrast between practically non-magnetic bed rock (chalk in Ramat Beit Shemesh Site (Israel) and limestone (Georgian sites) and the cave fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method to reveal caves (Itkis, 2011). Based on magnetic survey results, an excavation revealed a cave with a large amount of well preserved pottery and finds typical of the Early Bronze Age. Both studied cave sites in Georgia were located in Chiatura region of Imeretia province. Cherula site is a karstic rockshelter with a single chamber, ca 100 sq. m. The site was briefly tested in 1970s'. The area excavated in 2010 went to the depth of 60 cm below the present day surface; the limestone bedrock was not reached. The excavation revealed

  17. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  18. A multi-method luminescence dating of the Palaeolithic sequence of La Ferrassie based on new excavations adjacent to the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Frouin, Marine; Talamo, Sahra

    2015-01-01

    A new interdisciplinary project was initiated to excavate a portion of the Palaeolithic site of La Ferrassie left intact by earlier excavations. One of the aims of this project was to provide chronological information on the succession of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic layers, as well as on the sk...

  19. Treatment of deep caries lesions in adults: randomized clinical trials comparing stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, and direct pulp capping vs. partial pulpotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars; Reit, Claes; Bruun, Gitte Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Less invasive excavation methods have been suggested for deep caries lesions. We tested the effects of stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, 1 yr after the procedure had been carried out, in 314 adults (from six centres) who had received treatment of a tooth with deep caries. The teeth had car...

  20. FREESURF: A three-dimensional finite-element model for simulating groundwater flow into and around an excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzman, Morley

    1992-07-15

    A three-dimensional finite-element code was developed and used to simulate the flow of groundwater towards an excavation in a saturated porous medium, allowing for seepage faces. An iterative procedure was used to predict the movement of the water table and the seepage flux. The numerical solution agreed well with experimental results from a sandbox experiment. (auth)

  1. Reconstruction of measurable three-dimensional point cloud model based on large-scene archaeological excavation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Wei-Xing

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a low-cost, user-friendly photogrammetric technique with nonmetric cameras to obtain excavation site digital sequence images, based on photogrammetry and computer vision. Digital camera calibration, automatic aerial triangulation, image feature extraction, image sequence matching, and dense digital differential rectification are used, combined with a certain number of global control points of the excavation site, to reconstruct the high precision of measured three-dimensional (3-D) models. Using the acrobatic figurines in the Qin Shi Huang mausoleum excavation as an example, our method solves the problems of little base-to-height ratio, high inclination, unstable altitudes, and significant ground elevation changes affecting image matching. Compared to 3-D laser scanning, the 3-D color point cloud obtained by this method can maintain the same visual result and has advantages of low project cost, simple data processing, and high accuracy. Structure-from-motion (SfM) is often used to reconstruct 3-D models of large scenes and has lower accuracy if it is a reconstructed 3-D model of a small scene at close range. Results indicate that this method quickly achieves 3-D reconstruction of large archaeological sites and produces heritage site distribution of orthophotos providing a scientific basis for accurate location of cultural relics, archaeological excavations, investigation, and site protection planning. This proposed method has a comprehensive application value.

  2. The early medieval tesserae from the St Servatius Church excavations in Maastricht - The Netherlands (1981-1989)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panhuysen, T.

    2016-01-01

    In the eighties of the last century a massive excavation was carried out in the Church of St Servatius in Maastricht in the context of an overall restoration of the church building which dates from the 11th to 15th century. The Servatius Church was originally a grave church that was founded in the

  3. Foraging plasticity by a keystone excavator, the white-headed woodpecker, in managed forests: Are there consequences for productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard

    2016-01-01

    Information on the foraging ecology of animals is important for conservation and management, particularly for keystone species whose presence affects ecosystem health. We examined foraging by an at-risk cavity excavator, the white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). The foraging needs of this species are used to inform management of...

  4. Investigative study of the underground excavations for a nuclear waste repository in tuff: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Numerical studies were conducted on the behavior of a tuff rock mass within which emplacement drifts for a nuclear waste repository are excavated. The first study evaluated the effects of rockbolting and excavation-induced damage on the behavior of the rock mass round typical drifts. The second study provided a simple means of assessing the significance of drift shape, drift size, and in-situ state of stress on the deformation and stress in the vicinity of drifts for vertical and horizontal emplacement of waste. Neither study considered the effect of heating of the rock mass after emplacement of the waste so the conclusions pertain only to the conditions immediately after excavation of the underground openings. The results of analyses of the rockbolted excavations indicated that rockbolts do not have a significant influence on the states of deformation or stress within the rock mass, and that the rockbolts are subjected to acceptable levels of stress even if installed as close to the face of the excavation as possible. Accordingly, rockbolts were not considered in the study of drift shape, drift size, and the in-situ state of stress. That study indicated that stable openings of the dimensions investigated can be constructed within a tuff rock mass with the properties assumed. Of the parameters investigated, the in-situ state of stress appeared to be most important. Potentially adverse conditions were predicted if the in-situ horizontal stress is very low, but current indications are that it lies within a range which is consistent with good conditions and a stable roof. 28 refs., 49 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Modeling of damage, permeability changes and pressure responses during excavation of the TSX tunnel in granitic rock at URL, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Börgesson, Lennart; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Hernelind, Jan; Jing, Lanru; Kobayashi, Akira; Nguyen, Son

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents numerical modeling of excavation-induced damage, permeability changes, and fluid-pressure responses during excavation of a test tunnel associated with the tunnel sealing experiment (TSX) at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada. Four different numerical models were applied using a wide range of approaches to model damage and permeability changes in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around the tunnel. Using in situ calibration of model parameters, the modeling could reproduce observed spatial distribution of damage and permeability changes around the tunnel as a combination of disturbance induced by stress redistribution around the tunnel and by the drill-and-blast operation. The modeling showed that stress-induced permeability increase above the tunnel is a result of micro and macrofracturing under high deviatoric (shear) stress, whereas permeability increase alongside the tunnel is a result of opening of existing microfractures under decreased mean stress. The remaining observed fracturing and permeability changes around the periphery of the tunnel were attributed to damage from the drill-and-blast operation. Moreover, a reasonably good agreement was achieved between simulated and observed excavation-induced pressure responses around the TSX tunnel for 1 year following its excavation. The simulations showed that these pressure responses are caused by poroelastic effects as a result of increasing or decreasing mean stress, with corresponding contraction or expansion of the pore volume. The simulation results for pressure evolution were consistent with previous studies, indicating that the observed pressure responses could be captured in a Biot model using a relatively low Biot-Willis’ coefficient, α ≈ 0.2, a porosity of n ≈ 0.007, and a relatively low permeability of k ≈ 2 × 10-22 m2, which is consistent with the very tight, unfractured granite at the site.

  6. Examination of the Excavation Damaged Zone in the TASS tunnel, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Mats (Swebrec, Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden)); Markstroem, Ingemar; Pettersson, Anders; Straeng, Malin (Golder Associates, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The question of an existing continuous Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) is very important for SKB. Is it possible to use drilling and blasting in the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel? Could fractures from blasting form a continuous EDZ? In order to increase the understanding of the EDZ and the possibility of an existing continuous EDZ along the deposition tunnel, SKB decided to examine the fracturing in a selected area of the TASS tunnel and to create a 3D model of the fractures in the investigated area. It was of special interest to study the transition zones between the blast rounds to examine if the EDZ from the bottom charges could form a continuous EDZ from one round to another. The TASS-tunnel is situated at the 450-m level in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The tunnel, with a cross-section area of 20 m2, was planned to be 90 m long. In a subproject called Excavation the purpose was to test different plans for drilling, charging and initiation in order to give recommendations on how the final repository of spent fuel should be excavated. The test methodology used in this investigation comprised the following steps: selecting test area, drilling and wire sawing of blocks, surveying the blocks, removal and transportation of the blocks to the surface, cutting the blocks into slabs, fracture identification with penetrants, positioning and photographing the slabs, digitizing and 3D modelling of the fractures. The test area for EDZ consisted of an 8 m long and 1.5 m high section in excavation sequence no 4. The selected section covered the end of round 9, the entire round 10 and the start of round 11. In the contour and the helpers small diameter charges for smooth blasting were used (decoupled charges). These charges also have a relatively low detonation velocity (VOD) and this, together with the decoupling, gives short fracture lengths i.e. a small EDZ. The contour holes and the helpers were initiated with electronic detonators to achieve a simultaneous

  7. Examination of the Excavation Damaged Zone in the TASS tunnel, Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mats; Markstroem, Ingemar; Pettersson, Anders; Straeng, Malin

    2009-10-01

    The question of an existing continuous Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) is very important for SKB. Is it possible to use drilling and blasting in the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel? Could fractures from blasting form a continuous EDZ? In order to increase the understanding of the EDZ and the possibility of an existing continuous EDZ along the deposition tunnel, SKB decided to examine the fracturing in a selected area of the TASS tunnel and to create a 3D model of the fractures in the investigated area. It was of special interest to study the transition zones between the blast rounds to examine if the EDZ from the bottom charges could form a continuous EDZ from one round to another. The TASS-tunnel is situated at the 450-m level in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The tunnel, with a cross-section area of 20 m 2 , was planned to be 90 m long. In a subproject called Excavation the purpose was to test different plans for drilling, charging and initiation in order to give recommendations on how the final repository of spent fuel should be excavated. The test methodology used in this investigation comprised the following steps: selecting test area, drilling and wire sawing of blocks, surveying the blocks, removal and transportation of the blocks to the surface, cutting the blocks into slabs, fracture identification with penetrants, positioning and photographing the slabs, digitizing and 3D modelling of the fractures. The test area for EDZ consisted of an 8 m long and 1.5 m high section in excavation sequence no 4. The selected section covered the end of round 9, the entire round 10 and the start of round 11. In the contour and the helpers small diameter charges for smooth blasting were used (decoupled charges). These charges also have a relatively low detonation velocity (VOD) and this, together with the decoupling, gives short fracture lengths i.e. a small EDZ. The contour holes and the helpers were initiated with electronic detonators to achieve a simultaneous

  8. Ultrasonic sounding and monitoring of the excavation damaged zone in a soft supported gallery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balland, Cyrille; Souley, Mountaka; Morel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Under high in situ stresses and high anisotropic stress ratios, the excavation of underground openings generally causes the creation of a disturbed (EdZ: Excavation disturbed Zone) and/or damaged (EDZ: Excavation Damaged Zone) zone, resulting from the initiation and growth of cracks and fractures and by a redistribution and rearrangement of the initial stresses. Due to the modifications of mechanical and hydro-mechanical properties in the EdZ/EDZ, the latter constitute a potential risk for the efficiency of the geologic and/or engineered barriers. To estimate the performance of a site of radioactive waste storage, it is essential to know the geometry, the extensions of the EdZ/EDZ, the density of cracks, their connectivity and the variations of permeability which can result from it. In particular, their extension depends on numerous factors among which the nature of the rock, the pre-existent fractures and their reactivation, the initial stress field (magnitudes and/or rate of anisotropy), the time, the geometry and the techniques of excavations etc.. In addition, the evolution of EdZ/EDZ properties in the medium term is little or poorly known, particularly under the influence of environmental conditions such as the re-confining by near field rock creep in contact with a rigid structural support or the evolution of hydric conditions (desaturation and re-saturation). Ultrasonic experimentation under the OHZ experiment has been implemented to characterize the EDZ extension and its evolution in time according to the structural support type (soft or rigid) and the environmental conditions present in the laboratory. This study consists of two experimental components: (1) the prior auscultation of the sole and face of the gallery by ultrasonic transmission tomography, (2) the monitoring the EDZ and the analysis of measurable changes in the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the medium term. Mechanical modelling of the

  9. a 3d Information System for the Documentation of Archaeologica L Excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardissone, P.; Bornaz, L.; Degattis, G.; Domaine, R.

    2013-07-01

    Documentation of archaeological and cultural heritage sites is at the heart of the archaeological process and an important component in cultural heritage research, presentation and restorations. In 2012 the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage of Aosta Valley - IT (Soprintendenza per i Beni e le Attività Culturali della Region e Autonoma Valle d'Aosta) carried out a complex archaeological excavation in a composite archaeological context, situated an urban background: the Aosta city centre. This archaeological excavation has been characterized by the classical urban archaeological issues: little space, short time, complex stratigraphy. Moreover the investigations have come out several structures and walls that required safety and conservation measures. Ad hoc 3D solutions carried out a complete 3D survey of the area in 10 different time/situations of the Archaeological digs, chosen in collaborations with the archaeological staff. In this way a multi temporal 3D description of the site has been provided for the archaeological analysis and for the project of the restorations activities. The 3D surveys has been carried out integrating GPS, laser scanner technology and photogrammetry. In order to meet the needs of the site, and its complex logistics and to obtain products that guarantee the high quality and detail required for archaeological analysis, we have developed different procedures and methodologies: hdr imaging for 3D model with correct, consistent and uniform colours, noise filtering and people filtering, for the removal of interference between laser instrument and object of the survey, Advanced laser scanner triangulation, in order to consider both artificial and natural tie points, for a correct registration of a huge amount of scans. Single image orientation on 3D data, in order to integrate the laser data with data coming from digital photogrammetry (faster on the field than the laser scanner survey, than used in certain situations). The results of all

  10. Forensic Excavation of Rock Masses: A Technique to Investigate Discontinuity Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, J.; Hencher, S. R.; West, L. J.; Handley, K.

    2017-11-01

    True persistence of rock discontinuities (areas with insignificant tensile strength) is an important factor controlling the engineering behaviour of fractured rock masses, but is extremely difficult to quantify using current geological survey methodologies, even where there is good rock exposure. Trace length as measured in the field or using remote measurement devices is actually only broadly indicative of persistence for rock engineering practice and numerical modelling. Visible traces of discontinuities are treated as if they were open fractures within rock mass classifications, despite many such traces being non-persistent and actually retaining considerable strength. The common assumption of 100% persistence, based on trace length, is generally extremely conservative in terms of strength and stiffness, but not always so and may lead to a wrong prediction of failure mechanism or of excavatability. Assuming full persistence would give hopelessly incorrect predictions of hydraulic conductivity. A new technique termed forensic excavation of rock masses is introduced, as a procedure for directly investigating discontinuity persistence. This technique involves non-explosive excavation of rock masses by injecting an expansive chemical splitter along incipient discontinuities. On expansion, the splitter causes the incipient traces to open as true joints. Experiments are described in which near-planar rock discontinuities, through siltstone and sandstone, were opened up by injecting the splitter into holes drilled along the lines of visible traces of the discontinuities in the laboratory and in the field. Once exposed the surfaces were examined to investigate the pre-existing persistence characteristics of the incipient discontinuities. One conclusion from this study is that visible trace length of a discontinuity can be a poor indicator of true persistence (defined for a fracture area with negligible tensile strength). An observation from this series of experiments

  11. Stability of Large Parallel Tunnels Excavated in Weak Rocks: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiuli; Weng, Yonghong; Zhang, Yuting; Xu, Tangjin; Wang, Tuanle; Rao, Zhiwen; Qi, Zufang

    2017-09-01

    Diversion tunnels are important structures for hydropower projects but are always placed in locations with less favorable geological conditions than those in which other structures are placed. Because diversion tunnels are usually large and closely spaced, the rock pillar between adjacent tunnels in weak rocks is affected on both sides, and conventional support measures may not be adequate to achieve the required stability. Thus, appropriate reinforcement support measures are needed, and the design philosophy regarding large parallel tunnels in weak rocks should be updated. This paper reports a recent case in which two large parallel diversion tunnels are excavated. The rock masses are thin- to ultra-thin-layered strata coated with phyllitic films, which significantly decrease the soundness and strength of the strata and weaken the rocks. The behaviors of the surrounding rock masses under original (and conventional) support measures are detailed in terms of rock mass deformation, anchor bolt stress, and the extent of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ), as obtained from safety monitoring and field testing. In situ observed phenomena and their interpretation are also included. The sidewall deformations exhibit significant time-dependent characteristics, and large magnitudes are recorded. The stresses in the anchor bolts are small, but the extents of the EDZs are large. The stability condition under the original support measures is evaluated as poor. To enhance rock mass stability, attempts are made to reinforce support design and improve safety monitoring programs. The main feature of these attempts is the use of prestressed cables that run through the rock pillar between the parallel tunnels. The efficacy of reinforcement support measures is verified by further safety monitoring data and field test results. Numerical analysis is constantly performed during the construction process to provide a useful reference for decision making. The calculated deformations are in

  12. Predictive hydro-mechanical excavation simulation of a mine-by test at the Mont Terri rock laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, St.; Shao, H.; Hesser, J.; Nowak, T.; Kunz, H.; Vietor, T.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Mont Terri rock laboratory was extended from mid October 2007 to end 2008 with the goal to allow the project partners to continue their cooperative research on the long term. The extension of the underground laboratory by the excavation of an additional 165 metres long access tunnel (Gallery 08) with four niches was taken as opportunity to conduct an instrumented mine-by test in one of the niches (Niche 2/Niche MB). The measurements during the bedding parallel excavation provided a large amount of data as a basis to understand the hydro-mechanical (HM) coupled behaviour of Opalinus Clay around the excavated niche. BGR was involved in the in-situ investigations (seismic measurements) as a member of the experiment team consisting of five organisations (incl. NAGRA, ANDRA, GRS, Obayashi). An important issue for BGR is the application of the numerical code RockFlow (RF) for HM coupled simulations in order to understand the behaviour of Opalinus Clay by the use of the gained measuring data for validation. Under the management of NAGRA a blind prediction was carried out for a group of modelers belonging to some of the experiment team organisations. After a first comparison between the numerical results of different HM coupled models during the prediction meeting of the teams in June 2009 the measurement data are provided by NAGRA in order to validate the numerical models. Basically the model predictions have already shown the correct tendencies and ranges of observed deformation and pore water pressure evolution besides some under- or overestimations. The future RF validation results after having done some slight parameter adjustments are intended to be presented in the paper. The excavation of Niche 2 was done from 13 October to 7 November 2008 with a constant excavation rate of 1.30 m per day. The orientation of the niche follows the bedding strike, which amounts 60 deg.. The bedding planes have an average dip of

  13. Application of acoustic emission technique and friction welding for excavator hose nipple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Yu Sik; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Friction welding is a very useful joining process to weld metals which have axially symmetric cross section. In this paper, the feasibility of industry application was determined by analyzing the mechanical properties of weld region for a specimen of tube-to-tube shape for excavator hose nipple with friction welding, and optimized welding variables were suggested. In order to accomplish this object, friction heating pressure and friction heating time were selected as the major process variables and the experiment was performed in three levels of each parameter. An acoustic emission(AE) technique was applied to evaluate the optimal friction welding conditions nondestructively. AE parameters of accumulative count and event were analyzed in terms of generating trend of AE signals across the full range of friction weld. The typical waveform and frequency spectrum of AE signals which is generated by friction weld were discussed. From this study the optimal welding variables could be suggested as rotating speed of 1300 rpm, friction heating pressure of 15 MPa, and friction heating time of 10 sec. AE event was a useful parameter to estimate the tensile strength of tube-to tube specimen with friction weld.

  14. Analysis of post-mining excavations as places for municipal waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górniak-Zimroz Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management planning is an interdisciplinary task covering a wide range of issues including costs, legal requirements, spatial planning, environmental protection, geography, demographics, and techniques used in collecting, transporting, processing and disposing of waste. Designing and analyzing this issue is difficult and requires the use of advanced analysis methods and tools available in GIS geographic information systems containing readily available graphical and descriptive databases, data analysis tools providing expert decision support while selecting the best-designed alternative, and simulation models that allow the user to simulate many variants of waste management together with graphical visualization of the results of performed analyzes. As part of the research study, there have been works undertaken concerning the use of multi-criteria data analysis in waste management in areas located in southwestern Poland. These works have proposed the inclusion in waste management of post-mining excavations as places for the final or temporary collection of waste assessed in terms of their suitability with the tools available in GIS systems.

  15. Analisis Perawatan Untuk Mendeteksi Risiko Kegagalan Komponen Pada Excavator 390D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Darmawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with maintenance on a heavy equipment excavator 390D series HE4019, one of the main tools used to support the process of nickel production. Major constraint in using this tool is an insufficiently planned maintenance such that the tool affected operational and production process of nickel. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA method is used to identify the risks of failure of critical components on the performance of the unit. Based on risk priority number (RPN, three critical components are found as leading causes of unit downtime. These are stick cylinder (RPN 288, fuel filter (RPN 280 and oil pan (RPN 240, respectively. Mean time between failure (MTBF scores of stick cylinder, fuel filter and oil pan are 1,288.91 hours, 334.04 hours and 1,455.77 hours, respectively. Each of making rod of the cylinder covered, periodically flushing the fuel tank and taking on a warning sign on the couplers and coating the gasket with an additional layer during installation, in the meantime, are proposed as preventive maintenance for each the three critical components.

  16. Impact of municipal wastewater effluent on seed bank response and soils excavated from a wetland impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, R.G.; Kremer, R.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive management of wetlands to improve wildlife habitat typically includes the manipulation of water depth, duration, and timing to promote desired vegetation communities. Increased societal, industrial, and agricultural demands for water may encourage the use of alternative sources such as wastewater effluents in managed wetlands. However, water quality is commonly overlooked as an influence on wetland soil seed banks and soils. In four separate greenhouse trials conducted over a 2-yr period, we examined the effects of municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) on vegetation of wetland seed banks and soils excavated from a wildlife management area in Missouri, USA. We used microcosms filled with one of two soil materials and irrigated with WWE, Missouri River water, or deionized water to simulate moist-soil conditions. Vegetation that germinated from the soil seed bank was allowed to grow in microcosms for approximately 100 d. Vegetative taxa richness, plant density, and biomass were significantly reduced in WWE-irrigated soil materials compared with other water sources. Salinity and sodicity rapidly increased in WWE-irrigated microcosms and probably was responsible for inhibiting germination or interfering with seedling development. Our results indicate that irrigation with WWE promoted saline-sodic soil conditions, which alters the vegetation community by inhibiting germination or seedling development. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  17. Characterization of Ancient Egyptian Wall Paintings, the Excavations of Cairo University at Saqqara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein MAREY MAHMOUD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at characterizing some Egyptian wall paintings discovered during the excavations of Cairo University (since 1988 and recently in 2005 at Saqqara area in the south of Cairo. There, a number of tombs dating back to the 19th dynasty (c.1293–1185 BC were discovered. The walls of these tombs are carved with bass and raised reliefs and painted with different colours. The characterization of the wall paintings was done by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (backscattered electron mode, BSE equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS, micro XRF spectrometry (µ-XRF, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The analysis of the examined samples indicated that the blue pigment is Egyptian blue (Cuprorivaite, the green pigment is Egyptian green, the red pigment is red ochre, and the yellow pigment is a blended layer of yellow ochre and orpiment (As2S3. The results will help in providing an image concerning some painting materials used during the new Kingdom in ancient Egypt

  18. Nukuleka as a founder colony for West Polynesian settlement : new insights from recent excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, D.V.; Barton, A.; Dickinson, W.R.; Connaughton, S.P.; Tache, K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous archaeological studies in the village of Nukuleka, Tongatapu, Kingdom of Tonga proposed it as a founder colony for Polynesia. Additional excavation and survey were undertaken in 2007 to evaluate this status further and to gain new insight into the nature of the occupation and its role in the subsequent peopling of west Polynesia. A review of this project and its findings are presented. Decorated ceramics of western Lapita style, the presence of tan paste ceramics foreign to Tonga, and new radiocarbon dates support Nukuleka as a site of first landfall in the interval 2850 to 2900 cal BP. The ceramic assemblage is distinct from west and central Fiji, and an independent origin for Fijian and Polynesian colonizers is argued. The settlement quickly expanded on the Nukuleka Peninsula to 20 ha or more in size, forming a central place for the eastern Lapita province in Tonga, Samoa and the Lau islands of Fiji. Nukuleka, we believe, provides insight into the cultural if not biological base from which ancestral Polynesian society emerged. (author). 35 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza García-Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  20. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Fernández-Muñiz, Zulima; García Nieto, Paulino José; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio; Menéndez Fernández, Marta

    2016-06-29

    The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine). The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  1. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  2. Hominin hand bone fossils from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa (1998-2003 excavations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Travis Rayne; Heaton, Jason L; Clarke, Ron J; Stratford, Dominic

    2018-05-01

    We describe eleven hominin metacarpals and phalanges recovered from Jacovec Cavern and Member 4 of the Sterkfontein Formation between 1998 and 2003. Collectively, the fossils date in excess of 2.0 Ma, and are probably attributable to Australopithecus africanus and/or Australopithecus prometheus. When combined with results of previous studies on Australopithecus postcranial functional morphology, the new data presented here suggest that at least some late Pliocene and/or early Pleistocene hominins from Sterkfontein were arboreally adept. This finding accords with the reconstruction of the site's >2.0 Ma catchment area as well-vegetated and containing significant woody components. In addition, most of the new specimens described here evince morphologies that indicate the hands from which they derived lacked complete modern humanlike manual dexterity, which is integral to the manufacture and use of intentionally shaped stone tools. The absence of lithic artifacts from both stratigraphic units from which the fossils were excavated is consistent with this conclusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Turbulent flow over craters on Mars: Vorticity dynamics reveal aeolian excavation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Day, Mackenzie

    2017-10-01

    Impact craters are scattered across Mars. These craters exhibit geometric self-similarity over a spectrum of diameters, ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers. The late Noachian-early Hesperian boundary marks a dramatic shift in the role of mid-latitude craters, from depocenter sedimentary basins to aeolian source areas. At present day, many craters contain prominent layered sedimentary mounds with maximum elevations comparable to the rim height. The mounds are remnants of Noachian deposition and are surrounded by a radial moat. Large-eddy simulation has been used to model turbulent flows over synthetic craterlike geometries. Geometric attributes of the craters and the aloft flow have been carefully matched to resemble ambient conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer of Mars. Vorticity dynamics analysis within the crater basin reveals the presence of counterrotating helical vortices, verifying the efficacy of deflationary models put forth recently by Bennett and Bell [K. Bennett and J. Bell, Icarus 264, 331 (2016)], 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.09.041 and Day et al. [M. Day et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 2473 (2016)], 10.1002/2016GL068011. We show how these helical counterrotating vortices spiral around the outer rim, gradually deflating the moat and carving the mound; excavation occurs faster on the upwind side, explaining the radial eccentricity of the mounds relative to the surrounding crater basin.

  4. Analysis of post-mining excavations as places for municipal waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Waste management planning is an interdisciplinary task covering a wide range of issues including costs, legal requirements, spatial planning, environmental protection, geography, demographics, and techniques used in collecting, transporting, processing and disposing of waste. Designing and analyzing this issue is difficult and requires the use of advanced analysis methods and tools available in GIS geographic information systems containing readily available graphical and descriptive databases, data analysis tools providing expert decision support while selecting the best-designed alternative, and simulation models that allow the user to simulate many variants of waste management together with graphical visualization of the results of performed analyzes. As part of the research study, there have been works undertaken concerning the use of multi-criteria data analysis in waste management in areas located in southwestern Poland. These works have proposed the inclusion in waste management of post-mining excavations as places for the final or temporary collection of waste assessed in terms of their suitability with the tools available in GIS systems.

  5. Investigations of excavated clay-stone as backfill/seal material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Crushed clay-stone produced by excavation activities of repository drifts has been investigated as backfill/seal material at the GRS laboratory. The raw aggregate with coarse grains is considered to be used for backfilling the repository openings and, in mixture with bentonite, for sealing the boreholes, drifts and shafts. The GRS research programme focused on characterizing the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of the excavated Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone (COX) and the clay-stone-bentonite mixtures, including mechanical compaction, gas and water permeability as function of porosity, water retention and saturation, swelling capacity, and thermal properties of the materials. The most important results are presented in this paper. Figure 1 shows the compaction and permeability behaviour of the excavated clay-stone with grains up to a size of 32 mm. The results were obtained on large samples of 280 mm diameter and 680 mm height under quasi-hydrostatic compression. The porosity and permeability decrease with increasing load. The porosity-mean stress relation is non-linear and may be expressed by an exponential function. The backfill becomes stiffer at low porosities and can sustain certain deviatoric loads. At porosity of ∼21 %, the strength is characterized by an inherent cohesion of 3.7 MPa and an internal friction angle of 12 deg.. Additionally, the compaction is also dependent on time or loading rate, water content, and temperature. The compaction of the porous backfill material leads to a reduction in permeability. The measured gas permeability decreases much faster at low porosities below ∼25 %. The gas permeability at porosity of ∼20 % becomes as low as that of 10 -20 - 10 -21 m 2 for the intact clay rock. This is probably due to disconnection of the pore network during the compaction. As sealing material, powdered COX clay-stone was mixed with MX80 bentonite powder in different ratios and compacted to

  6. Optimal design of hydraulic excavator working device based on multiple surrogate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingying Qiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal design of hydraulic excavator working device is often characterized by computationally expensive analysis methods such as finite element analysis. Significant difficulties also exist when using a sensitivity-based decomposition approach to such practical engineering problems because explicit mathematical formulas between the objective function and design variables are impossible to formulate. An effective alternative is known as the surrogate model. The purpose of this article is to provide a comparative study on multiple surrogate models, including the response surface methodology, Kriging, radial basis function, and support vector machine, and select the one that best fits the optimization of the working device. In this article, a new modeling strategy based on the combination of the dimension variables between hinge joints and the forces loaded on hinge joints of the working device is proposed. In addition, the extent to which the accuracy of the surrogate models depends on different design variables is presented. The bionic intelligent optimization algorithm is then used to obtain the optimal results, which demonstrate that the maximum stresses calculated by the predicted method and finite element analysis are quite similar, but the efficiency of the former is much higher than that of the latter.

  7. Iron Age Settlement at Blackstone, Worcestershire: Excavations 1972, 1973, and 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hurst

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photography in 1957 resulted in the discovery of a rectangular double-ditched enclosure overlooking the Severn floodplain near Bewdley, Worcestershire (UK. Excavation in the 1970s, in advance of gravel extraction, provided limited evidence of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age activity prior to occupation in the later Iron Age, when the enclosure was established. This comprised a ditch and bank, and later a palisade and ditch, with single and double portal gateways respectively, and with buildings internally. Pottery and briquetage indicate trading links with the wider region, respectively with west and north Worcestershire, and with Droitwich. The main Iron Age occupation is dated from the 2nd century into the 1st century BC. By the 3rd-4th centuries AD the site was apparently cultivated, as small quantities of Romano-British pottery were scattered across it, probably as a result of manuring arable fields associated with a nearby, but as yet unlocated, settlement. Similarly, in the medieval and post-medieval periods a thin scatter of finds in the overlying soils indicated further agricultural activity. Unusually, the 1979 Iron Age site structural analysis has been largely retained in the current report without full revision but accompanied by a separate modern commentary, allied with the updated finds and environmental reporting, and overall discussion.

  8. Comparison of Management Oversight and Risk Tree and Tripod-Beta in Excavation Accident Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadfam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process. Objectives One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries. Materials and Methods MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one. Results The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis.

  9. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  10. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  11. [Study on the excavated wooden carved acupuncture statue of the Western Han Dynasty in Laoguanshan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L X

    2017-05-28

    The painted red lines on the wooden carved acupuncture statue of Western Han Dynasty in Laoguanshan, illustrate the running courses of the"eleven meridians"on the body surface in the early meridian doctrine. The carved white lines show the body surface running courses of the"twelve meridians"in the meridian doctrine and the Sanjiao images in Sanjiao doctrine. The dots on the wooden carved acupuncture statue are of two categories, one of them is of regulatory, round and concave spots, which are carved before the process of lacquer undercoat. The other category is of different sizes and in irregular forms, which are carved simultaneously with those white lines. Altogether there are over one hundred dots in these two categories, representing the mai shu (transport point of vessels). The wooden carved acupuncture statue reflects the distinct characteristics on the running courses of meridians, Sanjiao doctrine, the nomenclature and localization of" mai shu "in Bianque medicine, which provides the most powerful evidence for the confirmation of the correlation between Laoguanshan excavated documents and Bianque medicine.

  12. Anisotropic modelling of Opalinus Clay behaviour: From triaxial tests to gallery excavation application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bertrand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep repository in geological formations is the preferential solution considered in many countries to manage high-level nuclear wastes. In Switzerland, the Opalinus Clay is a candidate host rock. In this context, in situ and laboratory tests are conducted on Opalinus Clay to demonstrate the feasibility of deep disposal in this argillaceous formation. This paper presents a constitutive model able to fit the experimental data obtained from some triaxial tests conducted by Jahns (2013 on cores from borehole Schlattingen SLA-1. The elasto-plastic behaviour of Opalinus Clay is reproduced thanks to a Drucker-Prager model, taking into account the anisotropy behaviour of this sedimentary rock. The objective is to employ a single set of parameters representative of the material. In a second version of the model, the stress-dependence of the elastic properties and damage are taken into account. Finally, the parameters calibrated with experimental tests are used to simulate the excavation of a gallery with a second gradient approach.

  13. D Modelling of Tunnel Excavation Using Pressurized Tunnel Boring Machine in Overconsolidated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demagh, Rafik; Emeriault, Fabrice

    2013-06-01

    The construction of shallow tunnels in urban areas requires a prior assessment of their effects on the existing structures. In the case of shield tunnel boring machines (TBM), the various construction stages carried out constitute a highly three-dimensional problem of soil/structure interaction and are not easy to represent in a complete numerical simulation. Consequently, the tunnelling- induced soil movements are quite difficult to evaluate. A 3D simulation procedure, using a finite differences code, namely FLAC3D, taking into account, in an explicit manner, the main sources of movements in the soil mass is proposed in this paper. It is illustrated by the particular case of Toulouse Subway Line B for which experimental data are available and where the soil is saturated and highly overconsolidated. A comparison made between the numerical simulation results and the insitu measurements shows that the 3D procedure of simulation proposed is relevant, in particular regarding the adopted representation of the different operations performed by the tunnel boring machine (excavation, confining pressure, shield advancement, installation of the tunnel lining, grouting of the annular void, etc). Furthermore, a parametric study enabled a better understanding of the singular behaviour origin observed on the ground surface and within the solid soil mass, till now not mentioned in the literature.

  14. 3D Documentation of Archaeological Excavations Using Image-Based Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Ovalı

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid progress in digital technology enables us to create three-dimensional models using digital images. Low cost, time efficiency and accurate results of this method put to question if this technique can be an alternative to conventional documentation techniques, which generally are 2D orthogonal drawings. Accurate and detailed 3D models of archaeological features have potential for many other purposes besides geometric documentation. This study presents a recent image-based three-dimensional registration technique employed in 2013 at one of the ancient city in Turkey, using “Structure from Motion” (SfM algorithms. A commercial software is applied to investigate whether this method can be used as an alternative to other techniques. Mesh model of the some section of the excavation section of the site were produced using point clouds were produced from the digital photographs. Accuracy assessment of the produced model was realized using the comparison of the directly measured coordinates of the ground control points with produced from model. Obtained results presented that the accuracy is around 1.3 cm.

  15. A Mobility-Aware Adaptive Duty Cycling Mechanism for Tracking Objects during Tunnel Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesik Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel construction workers face many dangers while working under dark conditions, with difficult access and egress, and many potential hazards. To enhance safety at tunnel construction sites, low latency tracking of mobile objects (e.g., heavy-duty equipment and construction workers is critical for managing the dangerous construction environment. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are the basis for a widely used technology for monitoring the environment because of their energy-efficiency and scalability. However, their use involves an inherent point-to-point delay caused by duty cycling mechanisms that can result in a significant rise in the delivery latency for tracking mobile objects. To overcome this issue, we proposed a mobility-aware adaptive duty cycling mechanism for the WSNs based on object mobility. For the evaluation, we tested this mechanism for mobile object tracking at a tunnel excavation site. The evaluation results showed that the proposed mechanism could track mobile objects with low latency while they were moving, and could reduce energy consumption by increasing sleep time while the objects were immobile.

  16. Turbulent flow over craters on Mars: Vorticity dynamics reveal aeolian excavation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Day, Mackenzie

    2017-10-01

    Impact craters are scattered across Mars. These craters exhibit geometric self-similarity over a spectrum of diameters, ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers. The late Noachian-early Hesperian boundary marks a dramatic shift in the role of mid-latitude craters, from depocenter sedimentary basins to aeolian source areas. At present day, many craters contain prominent layered sedimentary mounds with maximum elevations comparable to the rim height. The mounds are remnants of Noachian deposition and are surrounded by a radial moat. Large-eddy simulation has been used to model turbulent flows over synthetic craterlike geometries. Geometric attributes of the craters and the aloft flow have been carefully matched to resemble ambient conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer of Mars. Vorticity dynamics analysis within the crater basin reveals the presence of counterrotating helical vortices, verifying the efficacy of deflationary models put forth recently by Bennett and Bell [K. Bennett and J. Bell, Icarus 264, 331 (2016)]ICRSA50019-103510.1016/j.icarus.2015.09.041 and Day et al. [M. Day et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 2473 (2016)]GPRLAJ0094-827610.1002/2016GL068011. We show how these helical counterrotating vortices spiral around the outer rim, gradually deflating the moat and carving the mound; excavation occurs faster on the upwind side, explaining the radial eccentricity of the mounds relative to the surrounding crater basin.

  17. University of Otago 1998 field school excavations at Shag Point, North Otago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisler, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    During late 1997, discussions with Gerard O'Regan, representing Te Runanga O Moeraki, lead to combining the needs of cultural resource management, teaching and research at the Shag Point archaeological site, situated about an hour's drive north from the University of Otago. In late 1996, a car park (ca. 20 by 40 m) was bulldozed on Department of Conservation land just inland from Shag Point. Unfortunately, the north-east portion of the site, as well as cultural deposits along newly graded access roads, were destroyed. Te Runanga O Moeraki requested that I conduct archaeological survey and excavations at Shag Point to determine the extent of site destruction and to recover a sample of cultural material in the bulldozer spoil dirt. In addition to these cultural resource management objectives, it was necessary, from a research point of view, to determine: (1) the site area; (2) dates of site use; (3) the nature of occupation, subsistence practices and stone-tool technology; (4) evidence of interaction through analysis of imported artefacts; and (5) relationship of the Shag Point site to the major prehistoric village at Shag River mouth, located less than 1 km south. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  18. Novel, low-vibration excavation techniques for underground radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelmann, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to meet the construction specifications of the challenging Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, novel, low-vibration tunneling and shaft sinking techniques must be applied. Conventional roadheaders, even with reduced cutting speed, cannot be employed due to the high strength and widely varying physical properties of the rock formations. The Multi Tool Miner (MTM) concept utilizes both an impact hammer, for efficient hard rock mining, and a cutter head, tooled with drag-bits (picks), to profile tunnel walls down to the sound, undisturbed rock, in order to meet the 10,000-year stability requirement for underground structures. As the operational requirements and rock conditions at the Yucca Mountain site are not suitable for wide, transverse open-quotes ripperclose quotes cutting drums, a small diameter, in-line, open-quotes milling augerclose quotes cutter head was developed. The synergetic combination of high-production hammer excavation and precise milling will facilitate the construction of stable, long-life underground structures within the budget limitations mandated by Congress

  19. A minimalistic microbial food web in an excavated deep subsurface clay rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F; Diomidis, Nikitas; Leupin, Olivier X; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-01-01

    Clay rocks are being considered for radioactive waste disposal, but relatively little is known about the impact of microbes on the long-term safety of geological repositories. Thus, a more complete understanding of microbial community structure and function in these environments would provide further detail for the evaluation of the safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste in clay rocks. It would also provide a unique glimpse into a poorly studied deep subsurface microbial ecosystem. Previous studies concluded that microorganisms were present in pristine Opalinus Clay, but inactive. In this work, we describe the microbial community and assess the metabolic activities taking place within borehole water. Metagenomic sequencing and genome-binning of a porewater sample containing suspended clay particles revealed a remarkably simple heterotrophic microbial community, fueled by sedimentary organic carbon, mainly composed of two organisms: a Pseudomonas sp. fermenting bacterium growing on organic macromolecules and releasing organic acids and H2, and a sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae able to oxidize organic molecules to CO(2). In Opalinus Clay, this microbial system likely thrives where pore space allows it. In a repository, this may occur where the clay rock has been locally damaged by excavation or in engineered backfills. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An Overview on Measurement-While-Drilling Technique and its Scope in Excavation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Schunesson, H.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Kumar, U.

    2015-04-01

    Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) aims at collecting accurate, speedy and high resolution information from the production blast hole drills with a target of characterization of highly variable rock masses encountered in sub-surface excavations. The essence of the technique rests on combining the physical drill variables in a manner to yield a fairly accurate description of the sub-surface rock mass much ahead of following downstream operations. In this light, the current paper presents an overview of the MWD by explaining the technique and its set-up, the existing drill-rock mass relationships and numerous on-going researches highlighting the real-time applications. Although the paper acknowledges the importance of concepts of specific energy, rock quality index and a couple of other indices and techniques for rock mass characterization, it must be distinctly borne in mind that the technique of MWD is highly site-specific, which entails derivation of site-specific calibration with utmost care.

  1. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

  2. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    Full Text Available In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC, the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

  3. The effect of MTA application on the affected dentine remineralization after partial caries excavation (in vivo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, A. R.; Meidyawati, R.; Djauharie, N.

    2017-08-01

    On deep carious lesions, only thin dentine remains, causing a high risk of pulp exposure during the removal of all infected dentine. A minimally invasive technique is required, such as a partial caries excavation method in the infected dentine tissue and the use of bioactive material that can promote (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate) MTA remineralization. To compare the remineralization of deep carious lesion-affected dentine with the removal of some and all the infected dentine after the application of MTA. Subjects were divided into two groups: group I had only some parts of the infected dentine removed before MTA application, while group II had all the infected dentine removed before MTA application. Each group was measured on the pixel grey value before the treatment and again four weeks after the MTA application, and then the results were compared. Furthermore, the enhancement of both groups’ grey values were compared. Remineralization occurred in both groups after the MTA application. There was no significant difference in the remineralization level of the affected dentine in both groups I and II four weeks after the MTA application. Remineralization occurred in the affected dentine in both groups, either by removing only some parts or all the infected dentine in the deep carious lesion.

  4. Excavation of attractor modules for nasopharyngeal carcinoma via integrating systemic module inference with attract method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Jiang, C-Y; Shu, J-H; Xu, Y-J

    2017-07-10

    The molecular mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is poorly understood and effective therapeutic approaches are needed. This research aimed to excavate the attractor modules involved in the progression of NPC and provide further understanding of the underlying mechanism of NPC. Based on the gene expression data of NPC, two specific protein-protein interaction networks for NPC and control conditions were re-weighted using Pearson correlation coefficient. Then, a systematic tracking of candidate modules was conducted on the re-weighted networks via cliques algorithm, and a total of 19 and 38 modules were separately identified from NPC and control networks, respectively. Among them, 8 pairs of modules with similar gene composition were selected, and 2 attractor modules were identified via the attract method. Functional analysis indicated that these two attractor modules participate in one common bioprocess of cell division. Based on the strategy of integrating systemic module inference with the attract method, we successfully identified 2 attractor modules. These attractor modules might play important roles in the molecular pathogenesis of NPC via affecting the bioprocess of cell division in a conjunct way. Further research is needed to explore the correlations between cell division and NPC.

  5. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ``Pneumatic Excavator`` which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions.

  6. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ''Pneumatic Excavator'' which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions

  7. Application of the results of excavation response experiments at climax and the Colorado School of Mines to the development of an experiment for the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Large-scale underground experiment programs to examine excavation response have been performed at the Climax facility in Nevada and at the Colorado School of Mines. These two programs provided fundamental information on the behavior of rock and the effects of excavation; on instrument performance and configuration; and on the relationship between test geometry and test behavior. This information is being considered in the development of a major excavation response experiment to be carried out in the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory. 11 refs., 3 figs

  8. Obligatory inquiries concerning buried pipelines in case of intended excavations on private ground; Zur Erkundigungspflicht nach erdverlegten Versorgungsanlagen bei Tiefbauarbeiten auf privaten Grundstuecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, O.

    2006-09-15

    If inquiries concerning buried pipelines in case of intended excavations on private ground are neglected, this may have dramatic consequences. As an example, at Griselenghein near Ath, Belgium, excavations damaged the gas pipeline on 30 July 2004, and 18 were killed during the subsequent explosion. The contribution outlines cases in which inquiries concerning buried pipelines in case of intended excavations on private ground are obligatory. It points out regulations that come into force in case of neglect, and the potential contributory negligence of the utility if pipelines are not buried deep enough. (orig.)

  9. Further investigations at the Naigani Lapita site (VL 21/5), Fiji : excavation, radiocarbon dating and palaeofaunal extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, G.; Worthy, T.H.; Best, S.; Hawkins, S.; Carpenter, J.; Matararaba, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper brings up-to-date a report by S. Best of initial excavations at Naigani in 1981. The results of subsequent fieldwork in 2000 include the excavation and dating of Lapita-age ovens associated with early settlement and extinct palaeofauna. These include the giant megapode (Megavitiornis altirostris), a species of Ducula pigeon, the giant iguana (Lapitiguana impensa), and probably the endemic crocodile (Volia athollandersoni). The Lapita site of VL 21/5 dates from 900 BC and represents an initial colonising settlement within the Fiji Islands. The period of occupation ended around 750 BC. The significance of Naigani is considered in terms of chronology, ceramic history, economy, extinctions, origins and interactions. (author). 33 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Plans of investigations during shaft and drift excavation (Construction of underground facilities: Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned for over 20 years to establish the scientific and technical basis for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The investigations are conducted by JNC in three phases, from the surface (Phase I), during the construction of the underground facilities (Phase II), and using the facilities (Phase III). This report concerns the investigation plans for Phase II. During excavation of shafts and drifts, detailed geological and borehole investigation will be conducted and the geological model constructed in Phase I is evaluated and revised by newly acquired data of geophysical and geological environment. Detailed in-situ experiments, as well as the effects of shaft excavation, are also done to study long-term changes, rock properties, groundwater flow and chemistry to ensure the reliability of repository technology and establish safety assessment methodology. (S. Ohno)

  11. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  12. Investigations of Archaeological Glass Bracelets and Perfume Bottles Excavated in Ancient Ainos (Enez) by Multiple Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, S.; Akyuz, T.; Akyuz, S.; Ozel, A. E.; Kecel-Gunduz, S.; Basaran, S.

    2018-03-01

    Fragments of two perfume bottles belonging to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and five bracelets belonging to the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman periods, excavated in the archaeological site of Enez during the excavations in 2000, have been investigated. The samples were analyzed using micro-Raman, FTIR, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, in order to study the ancient technology of glass production and to determine chemical compositions of the basic components and coloring elements of the glassware. All the investigated glasses can be characterized as low-magnesia-soda-lime silicate glasses, whose colors are induced by metal ions. The melting points of the investigated glasses are estimated to be quite close to each other and around 1000°C.

  13. Elimination of the dirty crust of white alterated glaze from excavated ceramics using the laser cleaning alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Castro, Elvira; Saiz Mauleón, María Begoña; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The laser technique has been applied to the cleaning process of glazed decorated ceramics from excavation sites. The use of this method arises as the only possible alternative in the process of cleaning pieces with crusts of dirt that are extremely hard and strongly stuck over altered and friable white glaze layers. The study carried out has allowed to fix the optimal laser parameters in the elimination of the dark dirty layer found on several fragments from different periods. The study has b...

  14. Tool-use in excavation of underground food by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implication for wild chimpanzee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Majlesi, Parandis

    2014-01-01

    Extractive foraging of underground storage organs (USOs) is believed to have played an important role in human evolution. This behavior is also present in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), who sometimes use tools in the task. Despite the importance of studying this behavior in chimpanzees to model how early hominins may have used tools in the context of USO excavation, it remains to be directly observed due to the chimpanzees lack of habituation in the two study sites that yielded evidence...

  15. Excavation response in respect of the repository concept for the Konrad mine as seen by the mining authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehl, W.

    1989-01-01

    In connection with the securing technical check-up of the repository concept for the Konrad mine the Mining Authority of Lower Saxony was asked for a comment on the mining concern of the Konrad plan by the Ministry for Environmental Protection of Lower Saxony. Referring to excavation response the valuation of rock-mechanical data, efficiency of the dams, underground convergences and mining subsidence are important to the realisation of the repository concept

  16. Characterizing and modelling the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.; Backstrom, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Jing, L.; Backers, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Christiansson, R.; Feng, X.-T.; Kobayashi, A.; Koyama, T.; Lee, H.-S.; Neretnieks, I.; Pan, P.Z.; Rinne, M.; Shen, B.-T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In the first part of the paper, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained, together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. In the second part of the paper, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Avro granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. As discussed, all the computer models are well suited to sensitivity studies for evaluating the influence of their respective supporting parameters on the complete stress-strain curve for rock and for modelling the EDZ

  17. Introduction of microbial nutrients in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault as a result of excavation and operation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Gascoyne, M.; Onagi, D.; Thomas, D.A.; Hamon, C.J.; Watson, R.; Porth, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    A nuclear fuel waste disposal vault would not likely be a sterile environment. Bacterial activity would be expected in those areas of the vault conducive to bacterial life, i.e., where effects of heat, moisture content, radiation and compaction would not prevent or severely restrict bacterial life and where suitable and sufficient nutrients would be present. An inventory of bacterial nutrients that would be emplaced 'intentionally' with vault materials (fuel waste, waste containers, buffer and backfill materials) has been made previously. This report assesses bacterial nutrients that would be added 'inadvertently' to a vault in the form of residues of materials used to excavate and operate a vault. Measurements of blasting material residues in the various water supplies, excavated broken rock (muck) and in cores drilled in old and new tunnel walls were made at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory. Results show that the largest potential nutrient addition (both carbon and nitrogen) to a vault would result from using untreated excavated broken rock as part of the backfill. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  18. Numerical Evaluation on Dynamic Response of Existing Underlying Tunnel Induced by Blasting Excavation of a Subway Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixue Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Southwest China, most regions are mountainous, where traditional drill-and-blast method is adopted to excavate relatively harder rocks. However, blasting would cause vibration to adjacent structures and might result in damage or even failure. This paper considers a case where subway tunnel is overlying an existing railway tunnel, while the excavation requires blasting method. Vibration and stress distribution are calculated via Dynamic Finite Element Method (DFEM for both full-face excavation and CD method. Result shows that vibration induced by CD method is only 28% of that caused by full-face blasting with same distance. Peak vibration is located on the lining facing the blasting source, while peak tensile stress is on the other side of the contour due to the reflection of stress wave on strata boundary. And peak value of tensile stress induced by full-face blasting is capable of causing lining failure; thus full-face blasting is not suggested within 40 m beyond the underlying tunnel axis. However, CD method has shown much advantage, since blasting within 25 m is also considered safe to the underlying tunnel. But when the blasting source is as near as 12 m within the underlying tunnel, the CD method is no longer safe.

  19. Introduction of microbial nutrients in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault as a result of excavation and operation activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; Gascoyne, M; Onagi, D; Thomas, D A; Hamon, C J; Watson, R; Porth, R J

    1996-08-01

    A nuclear fuel waste disposal vault would not likely be a sterile environment. Bacterial activity would be expected in those areas of the vault conducive to bacterial life, i.e., where effects of heat, moisture content, radiation and compaction would not prevent or severely restrict bacterial life and where suitable and sufficient nutrients would be present. An inventory of bacterial nutrients that would be emplaced `intentionally` with vault materials (fuel waste, waste containers, buffer and backfill materials) has been made previously. This report assesses bacterial nutrients that would be added `inadvertently` to a vault in the form of residues of materials used to excavate and operate a vault. Measurements of blasting material residues in the various water supplies, excavated broken rock (muck) and in cores drilled in old and new tunnel walls were made at AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory. Results show that the largest potential nutrient addition (both carbon and nitrogen) to a vault would result from using untreated excavated broken rock as part of the backfill. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Underground Excavation Behaviour of the Queenston Formation: Tunnel Back Analysis for Application to Shaft Damage Dimension Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perras, Matthew A.; Wannenmacher, Helmut; Diederichs, Mark S.

    2015-07-01

    The Niagara Tunnel Project (NTP) is a 10.1 km long water-diversion tunnel in Niagara Falls, Ontario, which was excavated by a 7.2 m radius tunnel boring machine. Approximately half the tunnel length was excavated through the Queenston Formation, which locally is a shale to mudstone. Typical overbreak depths ranged between 2 and 4 m with a maximum of 6 m observed. Three modelling approaches were used to back analyse the brittle failure process at the NTP: damage initiation and spalling limit, laminated anisotropy modelling, and ubiquitous joint approaches. Analyses were conducted for three tunnel chainages: 3 + 000, 3 + 250, and 3 + 500 m because the overbreak depth increased from 2 to 4 m. All approaches produced similar geometries to those measured. The laminated anisotropy modelling approach was able to produced chord closures closest to those measured, using a joint normal to shear stiffness ratio between 1 and 2. This understanding was applied to a shaft excavation model in the Queenston Formation at the proposed Deep Geological Repository (DGR) site for low and intermediate level nuclear waste storage in Canada. The maximum damage depth was 1.9 m; with an average of 1.0 m. Important differences are discussed between the tunnel and shaft orientation with respect to bedding. The models show that the observed normalized depth of failure at the NTP would over-predict the depth of damage expected in the Queenston Formation at the DGR.

  1. Characterising and modelling the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J.A.; Backstrom, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Jing, L.; Backers, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Christiansson, R.; Feng, X.-T.; Kobayashi, A.; Koyama, T.; Lee, H.-S.; Neretnieks, I.; Pan, P.Z.; Rinne, M.; Shen, B.-T.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In the first part of the paper, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained, together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. In the second part of the paper, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Avro granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. As discussed, all the computer models are well suited to sensitivity studies for evaluating the influence of their respective supporting parameters on the complete stress-strain curve for rock and for modelling the EDZ.

  2. Analysis of foundation type alternative and deep-excavation on candidate site location of Panjang Island, Serang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heri Syaeful; June Mellawati

    2013-01-01

    Panjang Island is one of the alternatives location which is being studied as NPP site candidate. Its soil surface dominated by sand and eggshell deposit to the depth of tens of meter, beside that also the interlayer of sand and clay to the depth of 120 m. Purpose of the research is to analyze the alternative of foundation type and simulation of deep-excavation during foundation construction especially related to the slope stability aspect. The methods includes data collection of the analysis result of soil/rock mechanical laboratory, measurement of shear wave velocity by PS logging method, and analysis of alternative foundation type and deep-excavation. The analysis result of foundation type that can be applied on Panjang Island candidate site is combination of raft and pile foundation. Rock with Vs > 400 m/s in depth of 44 meter could be made as base of raft foundation construction. In the bottom it connected to pile foundation which is constructed to base rock in the depth of 120 m in Vs > 900 m/s. The result of slope stability analysis on deep-excavation with slope height of 44 m, vertical angle, on normal condition yield safety factor of 0,184 and on the condition of seismic load 0,138. Simulation of anchor installation with spacing 1.25 m as much as 15 pieces yield safety factor higher than 1.0 m. (author)

  3. Molecular evidence of cryptic speciation in the "cosmopolitan" excavating sponge Cliona celata (Porifera, Clionaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, J R; Rachello-Dolmen, P G; Parra-Velandia, F; Schönberg, C H L; Breeuwer, J A J; van Soest, R W M

    2010-07-01

    Over the past several decades molecular tools have shown an enormous potential to aid in the clarification of species boundaries in the marine realm, particularly in morphologically simple groups. In this paper we report a case of cryptic speciation in an allegedly cosmopolitan and ecologically important species-the excavating sponge Cliona celata (Clionaidae, Hadromerida). In the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean C. celata displays a discontinuous distribution of its putative growth stages (boring, encrusting, and massive) leading us to investigate its specific status. Phylogenetic reconstructions of mitochondrial (COI, Atp8) and nuclear (28S) gene fragments revealed levels of genetic diversity and divergence compatible with interspecific relationships. We therefore demonstrate C. celata as constituting a species complex comprised of at least four morphologically indistinct species, each showing a far more restricted distribution: two species on the Atlantic European coasts and two on the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coasts (Macaronesian islands). Our results provide further confirmation that the different morphotypes do indeed constitute either growth stages or ecologically adapted phenotypes as boring and massive forms were found in two of the four uncovered species. We additionally provide an overview of the cases of cryptic speciation which have been reported to date within the Porifera, and highlight how taxonomic crypsis may confound scientific interpretation and hamper biotechnological advancement. Our work together with previous studies suggests that overconservative systematic traditions but also morphological stasis have led to genetic complexity going undetected and that a DNA-assisted taxonomy may play a key role in uncovering the hidden diversity in this taxonomic group. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. INTEGRATED IMAGING APPROACHES SUPPORTING THE EXCAVATION ACTIVITIES. MULTI-SCALE GEOSPATIAL DOCUMENTATION IN HIERAPOLIS (TK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spanò

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the exploration of the suitability and the discretization of applicability issues about advanced surveying integrated techniques, mainly based on image-based approaches compared and integrated to range-based ones that have been developed with the use of the cutting-edge solutions tested on field. The investigated techniques integrate both technological devices for 3D data acquisition and thus editing and management systems to handle metric models and multi-dimensional data in a geospatial perspective, in order to innovate and speed up the extraction of information during the archaeological excavation activities. These factors, have been experienced in the outstanding site of the Hierapolis of Phrygia ancient city (Turkey, downstream the 2017 surveying missions, in order to produce high-scale metric deliverables in terms of high-detailed Digital Surface Models (DSM, 3D continuous surface models and high-resolution orthoimages products. In particular, the potentialities in the use of UAV platforms for low altitude acquisitions in aerial photogrammetric approach, together with terrestrial panoramic acquisitions (Trimble V10 imaging rover, have been investigated with a comparison toward consolidated Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS measurements. One of the main purposes of the paper is to evaluate the results offered by the technologies used independently and using integrated approaches. A section of the study in fact, is specifically dedicated to experimenting the union of different sensor dense clouds: both dense clouds derived from UAV have been integrated with terrestrial Lidar clouds, to evaluate their fusion. Different test cases have been considered, representing typical situations that can be encountered in archaeological sites.

  5. Measuring radon flux across active faults: Relevance of excavating and possibility of satellite discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richon, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.richon@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Equipe Geologie des Systemes Volcaniques, 4 place Jussieu, UMR-7154 CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Klinger, Yann; Tapponnier, Paul [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Equipe de Seismotectonique, 4 place Jussieu, UMR-7154 CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Li Chenxia [Institute of Geology, Chinese Earthquake Administration, P.O. Box 9803, 100029 Beijing (China); Van Der Woerd, Jerome [Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR-7516, INSU, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg I, 5 Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Perrier, Frederic [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Equipe de Geomagnetisme, 4 place Jussieu, UMR-7154 CNRS et Universite Paris 7 Denis-Diderot, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2010-02-15

    Searching for gas exhalation around major tectonic contacts raises important methodological issues such as the role of the superficial soil and the possible long distance transport. These effects have been studied on the Xidatan segment of the Kunlun Fault, Qinghai Province, China, using measurement of the radon-222 and carbon dioxide exhalation flux. A significant radon flux, reaching up to 538 +- 33 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} was observed in a 2-3 m deep trench excavated across the fault. On the soil surface, the radon flux varied from 7 to 38 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, including on the fault trace, with an average value of 14.1 +- 1.0 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, similar to the world average. The carbon dioxide flux on the soil surface, with an average value of 12.9 +- 3.3 g m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, also remained similar to regular background values. It showed no systematic spatial variation up to a distance of 1 km from the fault, and no clear enhancement in the trench. However, a high carbon dioxide flux of 421 +- 130 g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} was observed near subvertical fractured phyllite outcrops on a hill located about 3 km north of the fault, at the boundary of the large-scale pull-apart basin associated with the fault. This high carbon dioxide flux was associated with a high radon flux of 607 +- 35 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. These preliminary results indicate that, at the fault trace, it can be important to measure gas flux at the bottom of a trench to remove superficial soil layers. In addition, gas discharges need to be investigated also at some distance from the main fault, in zones where morphotectonics features support associated secondary fractures.

  6. Excavation and drying of compressed peat; Tiivistetyn turpeen nosto ja kuivaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Frilander, P.; Hillebrand, K.; Nurmi, H.

    1996-12-31

    The target of this three year (1993 - 1995) project was to improve the peat product-ion efficiency by developing an energy economical excavation method for compressed peat, by which it is possible to obtain best possible degree of compression and load from the DS-production point of view. It is possible to improve the degree of utilization of solar radiation in drying from 30 % to 40 %. The main research areas were drying of the compressed peat and peat compression. The third sub-task for 1995 was demonstration of the main parts of the method in laboratory scale. Experimental compressed peat (Compeat) drying models were made for peats Carex-peat H7, Carex-peat H5 and Carex-Sphagnum-peat H7. Compeat dried without turning in best circumstances in 34 % shorter time than milled layer made of the same peat turned twice, the initial moisture content being 4 kgH2OkgDS-1. In the tests carried out in 1995 with Carex-peat the compression had not corresponding effect on intensifying of the drying of peat. Compression of Carex-Sphagnum peat H7 increased the drying speed by about 10 % compared with the drying time of uncompressed milled layer. In the sprinkling test about 30-50 % of the sprinkled water was sucked into the compressed peat layer, while about 70 % of the rain is sucked into the corresponding uncompressed milled layer. Use of vibration decreased the energy consumption of the steel-surfaced nozzles about 20 % in the maximum, but the effect depend on the rotation speed of the macerator and the vibration power. In the new Compeat method (production method for compressed peat), developed in the research, the peat is loosened from the field surface by milling 3-5 cm thick layer of peat of moisture content 75-80 %

  7. Mechanics and Energetics of Excavation by Burrowing Wolf Spiders, Geolycosa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Robert B.; Stratton, Gail E.; Miller, Patricia R.

    2011-01-01

    Burrowing wolf spiders, Geolycosa sp. (Araneae:Lycosidae), excavate vertical burrows and inhabit them throughout their lives or, in the case of males, until they mature and wander in search of mates. Three species: G. fatifera Kurata, G. missouriensis Banks, and G. rogersi Wallace were studied to understand how and at what expense the burrowing is accomplished. Normal and high-speed videography coupled with scanning electron microscopy revealed (a) that the convex surfaces of the two fangs, together, constitute the digging tool, (b) that boluses of soil are transported to the burrow entrance on the anterior surfaces of the chelicerae held there by the pedipalps, and (c) that each bolus is either incorporated into the growing turret or flung away, propelled by the forelegs. To elucidate the energetics of burrow construction, burrow volumes were calculated and then the costs associated with dislodging, elevating, and throwing the known volumes of soil were measured. A typical Geolycosa burrow, at a volume of 23.6 ± 2.0 ml and a depth of 13.2 ± 0.7 cm, required the removal of 918 boluses each weighing about 34 mg. The aggregate dislodging cost was close to 1.9 Joules in sand/sandy loam and 5.6 J in clayey subsoil, the work against gravity necessary to raise all of the boluses to the surface was about 0.13 J, and the aggregate cost of flinging the boluses was close to 0.014 J. Assuming that the ratio of external work to metabolic cost of external work is between 0.20 and 0.25 in spiders, the real cost of burrow construction would be between 8 J and 29 J, depending primarily on soil type. This is a small but not negligible cost when placed in the context of reproductive effort: a single Geolycosa egg, dozens to hundreds of which are produced in a clutch, contains about 10 J. PMID:21529154

  8. Improvement of the excavation damaged zone in saliferous formations. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Simo Kuate, E.; Borstel, L. von; Engelhardt, H.J.

    2016-01-15

    In Germany, salt formations are considered to be suitable to host a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. However, local stress changes adjacent to man-made openings lead to the evolution of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) during and after excavation. Such an EDZ can have a major impact on the operation of a radioactive waste repository since it represents a region where progressive failure occurs. This decreases the material strength and thus increases the permeability of the originally tight host rock. The objective of this investigation is determined by the need to develop a modeling strategy that can be applied to simulate the permeability increase due to mechanical deterioration of rock salt, in particular that occurring in the EDZ. The identification of material parameters is often conducted by back-calculation of laboratory experiments. However, standard laboratory tests, e.g. compression tests, are only applicable to provide information about the macroscopic deformation. For this purpose, further laboratory tests were conducted to derive material parameters used in the constitutive models. Combined acoustic emission and uniaxial compression tests as well as microstructural analyses were carried out to dissolve the macroscopic behavior micromechanically. The information obtained was then used for parameter identification utilizing optimization methods. The objective was to identify the best estimate of the micro-parameter values that can be applied to simulate the laboratory results performed. To make a qualitative comparison between the numerical analysis and the acoustic emission (AE) testing, the onset of failure at contacts was equated with events detected by AE testing. The onset of failure is identified at stress levels above 3 MPa. The number of tensile fractures increases continuously and the maximum is reached between 10 and 12 MPa axial stress. At the beginning of loading, tensile fractures appear more frequently than shear fractures

  9. Excavation Induced Hydraulic Response of Opalinus Clay - Investigations of the FE-Experiment at the Mont Terri URL in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T.; Müller, H. R.; Garitte, B.; Sakaki, T.; Vietor, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) Experiment at the Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland is a full-scale heater test in a clay-rich formation (Opalinus Clay). Based on the Swiss disposal concept it simulates the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) evolution of a spent fuel / vitrified high-level waste (SF / HLW) repository tunnel in a realistic manner. The main aim of this experiment is to investigate SF / HLW repository-induced THM coupled effects mainly in the host rock but also in the engineered barrier system (EBS), which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks. A further aim is to gather experience with full-scale tunnel construction and associated hydro-mechanical (HM) processes in the host rock. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors (state-of-the-art sensors and measurement systems as well as fiber-optic sensors). The sensors are distributed in the host rock's near- and far-field, the tunnel lining, the EBS, and on the heaters. The heater emplacement and backfilling has not started yet, therefore only the host rock instrumentation is installed at the moment and is currently generating data. We will present the instrumentation concept and rationale as well as the first monitoring results of the excavation and ventilation phase. In particular, we investigated the excavation induced hydraulic response of the host rock. Therefore, the spatiotemporal evolution of porewater-pressure time series was analyzed to get a better understanding of HM coupled processes during and after the excavation phase as well as the impact of anisotropic geomechanic and hydraulic properties of the clay-rich formation on its hydraulic behavior. Excavation related investigations were completed by means of inclinometer data to characterize the non-elastic and time

  10. Self-healing of excavation-disturbed rocks in the near field of underground cavities - exemplary measurements in rock salt and interpretation of preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, K.; Schwarzianeck, P.; Rothfuchs, T.

    2001-01-01

    Excavation disturbed zones develop in all kinds of rock as a consequence of the opening of cavities. Such zones are characterized by a change in hydraulic behaviour which can form a problem with regard to the sealing of waste disposal areas. Rocks showing a plastic behaviour, like rock salt, have the potential of healing when the stress state which was disturbed by excavation returns to an advantageous state. If healing can reliably be predicted, the excavation disturbed zone may not form a long-term safety issue in rock salt. Investigations of permeability and stress state around lined and open excavations have been performed in order to relate hydraulic behaviour to stress state. First results which are presented here are promising. (authors)

  11. Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape Province, South Africa): the 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marean, C W; Goldberg, P; Avery, G; Grine, F E; Klein, R G

    2000-01-01

    Die Kelders Cave 1, first excavated under the direction of Franz Schweitzer in 1969-1973, was re-excavated between 1992 and 1995 by a combined team from the South African Museum, SUNY at Stony Brook, and Stanford University. These renewed excavations enlarged the artefactual and faunal samples from the inadequately sampled and less intensively excavated lower Middle Stone Age (MSA) layers, increased our understanding of the complex site formation processes within the cave, enlarged the hominid sample from the MSA deposits, and generated ESR, TL, and OSL dates for the MSA layers. Importantly, these new excavations dramatically improved our comprehension of the vertical and lateral characteristics of the MSA stratigraphy. Surface plotting of the MSA layers has led to the identification of at least two major zones of subsidence that significantly warped the layers, draping some along the eroding surface contours of major blocks of fallen limestone roof rock. A third zone of subsidence is probably present in the older excavations. Dramatic roof falls of very large limestone blocks occurred at least twice-once in the middle of Layer 4/5 where the roof blocks were only slightly weathered after collapse, and at the top of Layer 6 where the blocks weathered heavily after collapse, producing a zone of decomposed rock around the blocks. Many of the sandy strata are cut by small and localized faults and slippages. All of the strata documented by Schweitzer's excavations are present throughout the exposed area to the west of his excavated area, where many of them thicken and become more complex. Layer 6, the thickest MSA layer, becomes less diagenetically altered and compressed to the west. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Excavations at Schöningen and paradigm shifts in human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Nicholas J; Serangeli, Jordi; Böhner, Utz; Starkovich, Britt M; Miller, Christopher E; Urban, Brigitte; Van Kolfschoten, Thijs

    2015-12-01

    The exceptional preservation at Schöningen together with a mixture of perseverance, hard work, and sheer luck led to the recovery of unique finds in an exceptional context. The 1995 discovery of numerous wooden artifacts, most notably at least 10 carefully made spears together with the skeletons of at least 20 to 25 butchered horses, brought the debate about hunting versus scavenging among late archaic hominins and analogous arguments about the purportedly primitive behavior of Homo heidelbergensis and Neanderthals to an end. Work under H. Thieme's lead from 1992 to 2008 and results from the current team since 2008 demonstrate that late H. heidelbergensis or early Neanderthals used sophisticated artifacts made from floral and faunal materials, in addition to lithic artifacts more typically recovered at Lower Paleolithic sites. The finds from the famous Horse Butchery Site and two dozen other archaeological horizons from the edges of the open-cast mine at Schöningen provide many new insights into the technology and behavioral patterns of hominins about 300 ka BP during MIS 9 on the Northern European Plain. An analysis of the finds from Schöningen and their contexts shows that the inhabitants of the site were skilled hunters at the top of the food chain and exhibited a high level of planning depth. These hominins had command of effective means of communication about the here and now, and the past and the future, that allowed them to repeatedly execute well-coordinated and successful group activities that likely culminated in a division of labor and social and economic patterns radically different from those of all non-human primates. The unique preservation and high quality excavations have led to a major paradigm shift or "Schöningen Effect" that changed our views of human evolution during the late Lower Paleolithic. In this respect, we can view the behaviors documented at Schöningen as a plausible baseline for the behavioral sophistication of archaic hominins

  13. Risk of shear failure and extensional failure around over-stressed excavations in brittle rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Barton

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the failure modes surrounding over-stressed tunnels in rock. Three lines of investigation are employed: failure in over-stressed three-dimensional (3D models of tunnels bored under 3D stress, failure modes in two-dimensional (2D numerical simulations of 1000 m and 2000 m deep tunnels using FRACOD, both in intact rock and in rock masses with one or two joint sets, and finally, observations in TBM (tunnel boring machine tunnels in hard and medium hard massive rocks. The reason for ‘stress-induced’ failure to initiate, when the assumed maximum tangential stress is approximately (0.4–0.5σc (UCS, uniaxial compressive strength in massive rock, is now known to be due to exceedance of a critical extensional strain which is generated by a Poisson's ratio effect. However, because similar ‘stress/strength’ failure limits are found in mining, nuclear waste research excavations, and deep road tunnels in Norway, one is easily misled into thinking of compressive stress induced failure. Because of this, the empirical SRF (stress reduction factor in the Q-system is set to accelerate as the estimated ratio σθmax/σc >> 0.4. In mining, similar ‘stress/strength’ ratios are used to suggest depth of break-out. The reality behind the fracture initiation stress/strength ratio of ‘0.4’ is actually because of combinations of familiar tensile and compressive strength ratios (such as 10 with Poisson's ratio (say 0.25. We exceed the extensional strain limits and start to see acoustic emission (AE when tangential stress σθ ≈ 0.4σc, due to simple arithmetic. The combination of 2D theoretical FRACOD models and actual tunnelling suggests frequent initiation of failure by ‘stable’ extensional strain fracturing, but propagation in ‘unstable’ and therefore dynamic shearing. In the case of very deep tunnels (and 3D physical simulations, compressive stresses may be too high for extensional strain fracturing, and

  14. Deriving a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajalla, Nadim; Assaf, Eleni; Bashour, Issam; Talhouk, Salma

    2014-05-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which were locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been followed by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste problem. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Matiolla, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays, which is commonly known used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored

  15. Hydrogeologic characterization and evolution of the 'excavation damaged zone' by statistical analyses of pressure signals: application to galleries excavated at the clay-stone sites of Mont Terri (Ga98) and Tournemire (Ga03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmi, H.; Ababou, R.; Matray, J.M.; Joly, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This paper presents methods of statistical analysis and interpretation of hydrogeological signals in clayey formations, e.g., pore water pressure and atmospheric pressure. The purpose of these analyses is to characterize the hydraulic behaviour of this type of formation in the case of a deep repository of Mid- Level/High-Level and Long-lived radioactive wastes, and to study the evolution of the geologic formation and its EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone) during the excavation of galleries. We focus on galleries Ga98 and Ga03 in the sites of Mont Terri (Jura, Switzerland) and Tournemire (France, Aveyron), through data collected in the BPP- 1 and PH2 boreholes, respectively. The Mont Terri site, crossing the Aalenian Opalinus clay-stone, is an underground laboratory managed by an international consortium, namely the Mont Terri project (Switzerland). The Tournemire site, crossing the Toarcian clay-stone, is an Underground Research facility managed by IRSN (France). We have analysed pore water and atmospheric pressure signals at these sites, sometimes in correlation with other data. The methods of analysis are based on the theory of stationary random signals (correlation functions, Fourier spectra, transfer functions, envelopes), and on multi-resolution wavelet analysis (adapted to nonstationary and evolutionary signals). These methods are also combined with filtering techniques, and they can be used for single signals as well as pairs of signals (cross-analyses). The objective of this work is to exploit pressure measurements in selected boreholes from the two compacted clay sites, in order to: - evaluate phenomena affecting the measurements (earth tides, barometric pressures..); - estimate hydraulic properties (specific storage..) of the clay-stones prior to excavation works and compare them with those estimated by pulse or slug tests on shorter time scales; - analyze the effects of drift excavation on pore pressures

  16. Hydrogeochemical and microbiological effects on fractures in the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Gimeno, Maria; Auque, Luis F.; Gomez, Javier B.; Acero, Patricia (Univ. of Zaragoza, Earth Science Dept., Zaragoza (Spain)); Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    Due to the disturbances associated with the excavation, construction and closure of the repository for storage of spent nuclear fuel, the saturation state of the groundwaters at repository depth with respect to several mineral phases may change and mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions may take place. In addition, changing groundwater conditions may facilitate microbial growth on fracture walls. These processes are of importance since they may influence the stability and safety of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) because precipitation and microbial growth may seal the hydraulically conductive fractures caused by the repository construction. Different processes expected to occur in the EDZ during the open repository conditions and after repository closure have been evaluated based on data from Forsmark, Laxemar and Aespoe. Geochemical modelling by using PHREEQC was applied to simulate the following cases: - increase of temperature to 50 deg C and 100 deg C to simulate the thermal effects from spent nuclear fuel; - open repository conditions simulating atmospheric conditions (equilibrium with atmospheric partial pressures of CO{sub 2}(g) and O{sub 2}(g)); - mixing with deep saline water simulating up-coning; - mixing with shallow infiltration waters simulating down-coning; - mixing with different proportions of cement dissolution porewater. The effect of variable temperatures (up to 100 deg C) on most of the above modelled processes has also been assessed. A preliminary estimation of the effect of mineral precipitation on the hydraulic conductivity of the EDZ has been carried out. For most of the modelling cases, the estimated decrease of the hydraulic conductivity in ten years is smaller than 2%. Microbial evaluation was used to identify the potential for microbial calcite and iron hydroxide formation during various repository conditions. The most important groundwater parameters for microorganisms, are pH and carbonate, ferrous iron, methane and the

  17. Self-sealing of excavation induced fractures in clay host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Excavation of an underground repository for disposal of radioactive waste in clay formations generates fractures around the openings, which may act as pathways for water transport and radionuclides migration. Because of the favorable properties of the clay rocks such as the rheological deformability and swelling capability, a recovery process of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) can be expected due to the combined impact of rock compression, backfill resistance, and clay swelling during the post-closure phase. Another important issue is the impact of gases produced from anoxic corrosion of waste containers and other metallic components within the repository. The EDZ may act as a conduit for preferential gas flow, depending on the extent of the recovery process. For the safety assessment of a repository, the self-sealing behaviour and impact on water and gas transport through the EDZ have to be characterized, understood, and predicted. Recently, GRS has extensively investigated these important issues with various kinds of laboratory and in- situ experiments under relevant repository conditions. Test samples were taken from the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at Bure in France and the Opalinus clay (shaly facies) at Mont Terri in Switzerland. Major findings are summarized as follows. As observed in laboratory and in-situ, the gas permeabilities of the claystones increase with stress-induced damage by several orders of magnitude from the impermeable state up to high levels of 10{sup -12}-10{sup -13} m{sup 2}. When hydrostatic confining stress is applied and increased, the fractures in the claystones tend to close up, leading to a decrease in gas permeability down to different levels of 10{sup -16}-10{sup -21} m{sup 2} at stresses in a range of 10 to 20 MPa. As water enters and flows through fractures, the clay matrix can take up a great amount of the water and expand into the interstices. Consequently, the hydraulic conductivity decreases dramatically by several orders of

  18. Hydrogeochemical and microbiological effects on fractures in the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus; Gimeno, Maria; Auque, Luis F.; Gomez, Javier B.; Acero, Patricia; Pedersen, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Due to the disturbances associated with the excavation, construction and closure of the repository for storage of spent nuclear fuel, the saturation state of the groundwaters at repository depth with respect to several mineral phases may change and mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions may take place. In addition, changing groundwater conditions may facilitate microbial growth on fracture walls. These processes are of importance since they may influence the stability and safety of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) because precipitation and microbial growth may seal the hydraulically conductive fractures caused by the repository construction. Different processes expected to occur in the EDZ during the open repository conditions and after repository closure have been evaluated based on data from Forsmark, Laxemar and Aespoe. Geochemical modelling by using PHREEQC was applied to simulate the following cases: - increase of temperature to 50 deg C and 100 deg C to simulate the thermal effects from spent nuclear fuel; - open repository conditions simulating atmospheric conditions (equilibrium with atmospheric partial pressures of CO 2 (g) and O 2 (g)); - mixing with deep saline water simulating up-coning; - mixing with shallow infiltration waters simulating down-coning; - mixing with different proportions of cement dissolution porewater. The effect of variable temperatures (up to 100 deg C) on most of the above modelled processes has also been assessed. A preliminary estimation of the effect of mineral precipitation on the hydraulic conductivity of the EDZ has been carried out. For most of the modelling cases, the estimated decrease of the hydraulic conductivity in ten years is smaller than 2%. Microbial evaluation was used to identify the potential for microbial calcite and iron hydroxide formation during various repository conditions. The most important groundwater parameters for microorganisms, are pH and carbonate, ferrous iron, methane and the dissolved

  19. Pollution potential leaching index as a tool to assess water leaching risk of arsenic in excavated urban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jining; Kosugi, Tomoya; Riya, Shohei; Hashimoto, Yohey; Hou, Hong; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    Leaching of hazardous trace elements from excavated urban soils during construction of cities has received considerable attention in recent years in Japan. A new concept, the pollution potential leaching index (PPLI), was applied to assess the risk of arsenic (As) leaching from excavated soils. Sequential leaching tests (SLT) with two liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios (10 and 20Lkg -1 ) were conducted to determine the PPLI values, which represent the critical cumulative L/S ratios at which the average As concentrations in the cumulative leachates are reduced to critical values (10 or 5µgL -1 ). Two models (a logarithmic function model and an empirical two-site first-order leaching model) were compared to estimate the PPLI values. The fractionations of As before and after SLT were extracted according to a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Ten alkaline excavated soils were obtained from different construction projects in Japan. Although their total As contents were low (from 6.75 to 79.4mgkg -1 ), the As leaching was not negligible. Different L/S ratios at each step of the SLT had little influence on the cumulative As release or PPLI values. Experimentally determined PPLI values were in agreement with those from model estimations. A five-step SLT with an L/S of 10Lkg -1 at each step, combined with a logarithmic function fitting was suggested for the easy estimation of PPLI. Results of the sequential extraction procedure showed that large portions of more labile As fractions (non-specifically and specifically sorbed fractions) were removed during long-term leaching and so were small, but non-negligible, portions of strongly bound As fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogeologic data for existing excavations and the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Special Projects Section of Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc. is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Waste Management Division. Geologic description, in situ testing, and laboratory analyses of alluvium exposed in existing excavations are important subparts to the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the RWMS for disposal of low level waste mixed waste and transuranic waste. The primary purpose of the Existing Excavation Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important hydrologic properties of the near surface alluvium, thought to play an important role in the infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes through the upper unsaturated zone at the Area 5 RWMS; and second, to provide guidance for the design of future sampling and testing programs. The justification for this work comes from the state of Nevada review of the original DOE/NV Part B Permit application submitted in 1988 for disposal of mixed wastes at the RWMS. The state of Nevada determined that the permit was deficient in characterization data concerning the hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone. DOE/NV agreed with the state and proposed the study of alluvium exposed in existing excavations as one step toward satisfying these important site characterization data requirements. Other components of the site characterization process include the Science Trench Borehole and Pilot Well Projects

  1. CAD-based strength analysis of EK-18 excavator bucket construction for mounting of anti-adhesive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenkov, S. A.; Lobanov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    3D rigid-body model of a bucket of power shovel EK-18 was built using modern CAD-software. Tetrahedral grid with 10-node second-order elements was chosen, and the given model was imported to APM WinMachine - model preparation preprocessor for finite element analysis. The finite element model was based on the geometrical model, imported from KOMPAS-3D to APM Studio. Calculation of stressed-strained state of the bucket was carried out under the forces emerging while digging with “back hoe” equipment. Shift, deformation and tension charts were planned and the most and the least strained areas were pointed out. Wet coherent soil excavation deals with soil adhesion to working bodies of power shovels and leads to reduced performance. The performance decrease is caused by a reduction of useful bucket capacity and partial unloading, increased front resistance to cutting (digging) caused by wet soil adhesion to a working body, increased bucket entry resistance, increased idle time caused by necessity to clean working bodies. Also energy losses increase and quality of work drops because friction forces go up. Friction force occurs while digging and levelling account for 30…70 percent of total digging resistance while performance decreases 1.2…2 times and more. Vibrothermal exposure creates new technological effect which involves a wider humidity range of efficient application and a reduction of friction forces. Disintegrating adhesion bonds with heating requires less driving force from the vibrator. Vibration boosts up heating of the contact layer, which reduces thermal energy losses. However, the question of piezoelectric ceramic actuators location on the excavator bucket needs to be dealt with. The most suitable spots for mounting piezoelectric ceramic devices for reducing soil adhesion to the excavator bucket were defined. Their efficiency is derived from combined (vibrothermal) methods of exposure. Such devices eliminates soil adhesion to the bucket and increases

  2. Electrical tomography monitoring of the EDZ during the excavation of the gallery Ga08 in the Mont Terri URL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicollin, Florence; Gibert, Dominique; Lesparre, Nolwenn; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, the excavation of the new gallery Ga08 provided a unique opportunity to monitor the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in the Opalinus clay, at time scales ranging from hours to months. The excavation of the gallery Ga08 has started from the northern end of the URL and has progressed towards the South, ending by the junction with the end of the gallery Ga04. Several geophysical and geochemical methods were performed from the end face of the gallery Ga04, to observe the evolution of the rock mass located in the so-called EZ-G08 section during the progress of the excavation. Thus, electrical resistivity measurements were performed, with electrodes placed both on the Ga04 face and in boreholes perpendicular to the face. These experiments revealed a strong anisotropy of the electrical resistivity of the rock mass, and they allowed to study the temporal evolution of the electrical resistivity in the EDZ. An array of more than 700 electrodes was installed on the rough face according to a square mesh with a mean side of 30 cm. On each line of the mesh, the electrodes were equally spaced every 15 cm. 4 horizontal boreholes, 8 m long and 56 mm in diameter, were equipped with lines of 64 electrodes equally spaced every 5 cm. Finally, 2 groups of 4 boreholes, 1 m long and spaced about 20 cm, were equipped with lines of 16 electrodes equally spaced every 5 cm. Using the electrode array of the face, Wenner profiles were acquired along both the horizontal and the vertical lines, highlighting a strong anisotropy of electrical resistivity since the values depend on the direction in which they are measured. In order to characterize this anisotropy, other measurements were done using the array of the face and the lines of the short boreholes, with the so-called square array configuration where the electrodes are located at the corners of squares with different orientations. On the face

  3. Preliminary simulation of degassing of natural gases dissolved in groundwater during shaft excavation in Horonobe underground research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Shimo, Michito; Kunimaru, Takanori; Kurikami, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    In Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins, natural gases such as methane are often dissolved in groundwater significantly. In this paper, two-phase flow simulations incorporating the degassing of methane, and carbon dioxide, were performed for the shaft excavation in Horonobe underground research project. The results drawn from the simulations are summarized as follows. 1) As depth increases, degassing and gas inflow occurs significantly. 2) Degassing increases the compressibility of pore fluids, resulting in slow changes in groundwater pressures. 3) Although the occurrence of gas phase decreases water mobility, the influence of the dissolved gas on the groundwater inflow rate to the shaft was small. (author)

  4. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Rock mechanical investigations measurement of the rock strain and displacement during shaft excavation at GL.-200m level of research galley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Seno, Yasuhiro; Hikima, Ryoichi; Matsui, Hiroya

    2011-09-01

    In order to establish the scientific and technical basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is proceeding with the geoscientific research in the research galleries excavated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). One of the scientific and technical objectives of this project is to understand the change of geological environment due to excavation of research galleries. The investigation described herein is the measurement of the rock strain / displacement while pre-excavation grouting or excavating of the shaft around the GL.-200m level of research gallery. A brief summary is presented as follows. 1) Apparent strain with pre-excavation grouting: Injection pressure during pre-excavation grouting could explain the observed strain. Maximum principal strain 'E1' (extension) was oriented to NS direction. The measured fracture system at the site includes a fracture set perpendicular to E1. We infer that these fracture expanded due to grout injection pressure. 2) Apparent strain during excavation of the shaft: Rock behavior of stress release was observed when the bottom of shaft passed by and lining of shaft was constructed. The observed strain was very small and almost same scale as the expected strain for elastic material. But the observed strain of radial direction was compression whereas the expected strain was extension. Therefore it was estimated that rock behavior was affected by cracks. 3) Applicability of the FBG sensors for in situ displacement measurement near the shaft: FBG sensors were stable and reliable in comparison to strain meters or inclinometers. There was no electrical equipment trouble nor large drift in measurements. FBG results can lead to understand bending mode of borehole. But we cannot specify the displacement direction from these data in some cases. (author)

  5. Topological representation of the porous structure and its evolution of reservoir sandstone under excavation-induced loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous structure of a reservoir rock greatly influences its evolutive deformation and fracture behavior during excavation of natural resources reservoirs. Most numerical models for porous structures have been used to predict the quasi-static mechanical properties, but few are available to accurately characterize the evolution process of the porous structure and its influence on the macroscopic properties of reservoir rocks. This study reports a novel method to characterize the porous structure of sandstone using its topological parameters and to determine the laws that govern the evolutive deformation and failure of the topological structure under various uniaxial compressive loads. A numerical model of the porous sandstone was established based on the pore characteristics that were acquired using computed tomography imaging techniques. The analytical method that integrates the grassfire algorithm and the maximum inscribed sphere algorithm was proposed to create the 3-D topological model of the deformed porous structure, through which the topological parameters of the structure were measured and identified. The evolution processes of the porous structure under various loads were characterized using its equivalent topological model and parameters. This study opens a new way to characterize the dynamic evolution of the pore structure of reservoir sandstone under excavation disturbance.

  6. Assessment of rock mass characteristics and the excavation disturbed zone in the Lingxin Coal Mine beneath the Xitian river, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xingping Lai

    2006-01-01

    Safe production and induced hazard prevention in coal mines mainly concern problems in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ), but coal mining can also make a significant impact on the environment. Comprehensive techniques using a borehole TV viewer system, electrical logging, and monitoring of drilling fluid leakage offer the ability to identify changing geological conditions and the location of any nearby abandoned mining workings. The inner collapsed zone and the expanding height of the crack zone transmitting water plus their spatial distribution after excavating the superincumbent coal seam stratum are determined at no. L3414 workings, Lingxin Coal Mine beneath the Xitian river, China. An integrated system of GIS-based on a stochastic model, which has been developed for the prediction of dynamic subsidence coupling the time function and probabilistic integral method, is verified through practice at the Lingxin Coal Mine. This development has greatly expanded the ability of the mine operator to characterize previously inaccessible areas of the mine, providing a reliable basis for safe mining and prevention of induced-hazards to ensure high production mining underneath the river bed. (author)

  7. Ft-Ir Spectroscopic Analysis of Potsherds Excavated from the First Settlement Layer of Kuriki Mound, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Murat; Isik, Iskender; Cereci, Sedat; Issi, Ali; Genc, Elif

    The region covering Southeastern Anatolia takes place in upper Mesopotamia, so it has numerous cultural heritages due to its witness to various social movements of different civilizations in ancient times. Kuruki Mound is located on the junction point of Tigris River and Batman Creek, near Oymatas village which is almost 15 km to Batman, Turkey. The mound is dated back to Late Chalcolithic. Archaeological excavations are carried out on two hills named as “Kuriki Mound-1” and “Kuriki Mound-2” in which 4-layer and 2-layer settlements have been revealed, respectively. This region will be left under the water by the reservoir lake of Ilısu Dam when its construction is completed. Thus, characterization of ancient materials such as potsherds, metals and skeleton ruins should be rapidly done. In this study, 12 potsherds excavated from Layer-1 (the first settlement layer after the surface) in Kuriki Mound-2 were investigated by FT-IR spectrometry. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used as complementary techniques in order to expose chemical and mineralogical/phase contents, respectively. Obtained results showed that the potteries have been produced with calcareous clays and they include moderate amounts of MgO, K2O, Na2O and Fe2O3 in this context. Additionally, high temperature phases have also been detected with XRD analyses in some samples.

  8. Finite element implementation of strain-hardening Drucker–Prager plasticity model with application to tunnel excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a finite element implementation of a strain-hardening Drucker–Prager model and its application to tunnel excavation. The computational model was constructed based on the return mapping scheme, in which an elastic trial step was first executed, followed by plastic correction involving the Newton–Raphson method to return the predicted state of stresses to the supposed yield surface. By combining the plastic shear hardening rule and stress correction equations, the loading index for the strain-hardening Drucker–Prager model was solved. It is therefore possible to update the stresses, elastic and plastic strains, and slope of the yield locus at the end of each incremental step. As an illustrative example, an integration algorithm was incorporated into ABAQUS through the user subroutine UMAT to solve the tunnel excavation problem in strain-hardening Drucker–Prager rock formations. The obtained numerical results were found to be in excellent agreement with the available analytical solutions, thus indicating the validity and accuracy of the proposed UMAT code, as well as the finite element model.

  9. First Paleoparasitological Report on the Animal Feces of Bronze Age Excavated from Shahr-e Sukhteh, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Mahsasadat; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Sajjadi, Seyed Mansour Seyed; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Mobedi, Iraj; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2017-04-01

    Shahr-e Sukhteh (meaning burnt city in Persian) in Iran is an archeological site dated back to around 3,200-1,800 BC. It is located in Sistan and Baluchistan Province of Iran and known as the junction of Bronze Age trade routes crossing the Iranian plateau. It was appointed as current study area for paleoparasitological investigations. Excavations at this site have revealed various archeological materials since 1967. In the present study, sheep and carnivore coprolites excavated from this site were analyzed by means of rehydration technique using TSP solution for finding helminth eggs. Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Capillaria sp., and Taenia sp. eggs were identified, while some other objects similar to Anoplocephalidae and Toxocara spp. eggs were also retrieved from the samples but their measured parameters did not match those of these species. The present paper illustrates the first paleoparasitological findings of Bronze Age in eastern Iran supporting the economic activities, peopling, and communication as well as the appropriate condition for zoonotic helminthiasis life cycle in Shahr-e Sukhteh archeological site.

  10. Tikal, Guatemala, and Emergent Maya Civilization: Excavations reveal evidence of early complex-living at a prime Maya Indian site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, W R

    1965-03-19

    It would be extravagant to claim that these pages have outlined meaningfully the early evolution of Tikal. Data have been provided largely for one excavation locus at a site which, for all its importance, merely has symptomatic value. We cannot claim to have, at present, sufficient material to document satisfyingly the conditions and products of community-wide living at any point in these early times. Present knowledge of Eb and Tzec ceramics and of all the usual archeological correlates (architecture and so on) is disturbingly incomplete. While we do have a good many data on residence throughout much of Preclassic time, considerably more information is needed before a solid evaluation of Preclassic Tikal society can be achieved. One can only hope that pending excavation programs will provide it. Yet, experience shows that probably only a tiny percentage of early cultural remains, regardless of their grandeur and importance at the time, would have survived the constant quest for construction fills to satisfy a seemingly interminable need to build and revamp.

  11. Use of the 14C-PMMA and He-gas methods to characterise excavation disturbance in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.; Laajalahti, M.; Aaltonen, T.; Maaranen, J.

    1999-04-01

    Characterisation of the excavation disturbance caused by boring of experimental full-scale deposition holes in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto was carried out successfully by using two novel methods; the 14 C-PMMA and He-gas methods, which were modified and applied for the first time in this type of study. The experience obtained implies that the techniques are feasible and can be used to study similar types of rock excavation disturbance such as that caused by boring with mini discs, a technique which will be used in the underground Hard Rock Laboratory at Aespoe during late 1998 and early 1999. Both of the measurement methods have been in continuous use and the work has included development of both the measuring and interpretation techniques. Use of the 14 C-PMMA method is suggested for studies of rock structure and the spatial distribution of porosity. The 14 C-PMMA method also provides quantitative information about nanometer-range porosity which is beyond the scope of most standard methods of microscopic investigation. The use of He-gas methods are proposed for determining the diffusion coefficient, permeability and complementary porosity of rock samples taken from the disturbed zone. (orig.)

  12. Clinical e radiographic sucess of indirect pulp capping with partial excavation of demineralization dentin in primary posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Francisca Martins de Castro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the outcome of the indirect pulp capping technique after incomplete excavation of the demineralized dentin in primary molars of patients treated in the period from 2004 to 2006.Methods: Sample consisted of 81 teeth of 36 patients aged from 1-to-8 year-old. Clinical and radiographic inclusion criteria, as well as criteria of the success of the evaluated treatments were established.Results: There were four (4.9% failures and 77 (95.1% successful treatments. Treatment failure occurred in three girls and in one boy, and no statistically significant difference (p=0.341 was found. Twenty three teeth were treated with resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and 58 with composite resin, of which 22 and 55, respectively, showed successful results. There was no statistically significant difference between restorative materials used (p=0.877. As regards the studied age group, patients aged from 1 to 4 years showed a significantly lower success rate when compared with 5-8 year-old children (p = 0.0428. Conclusion: The results suggest that the indirect pulp capping technique after incomplete excavation of demineralized dentin is a reliable technique to be adopted in deep lesions of primary teeth.

  13. Fate of excavated polluted soils, treated off site. Regulations and field enforcement status in various European countries. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, P.

    2003-11-01

    Most industrialized countries have to cope with problems of polluted soils that have their roots in past or present anthropic activities. The treatment and the management of contaminated soils is a fast-moving domain, both from a technological point of view and at the level of regulations. In this respect the future European 'soil directive' should reinforce legislations within the Members States, while harmonizing practices. The fate of excavated soils depends on multiple parameters. In some cases, materials are disposed of at landfills. In other cases, they are recovered and re-used according to specific modes. RE.CO.R.D. wishes to learn more about situations in various European countries, concerning the disposal as well as the re-use/recycling of excavated polluted soils treated off site. This study is in the continuation of the former study number 99-0506/1A performed by Adit in 1999 and 2000. This work reports on the state of legislations as well as their respective implementations in five European States (France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany). The aim of this analysis is to establish a comparative study of the regulations in force through selected countries

  14. Countermeasures planned for reducing water inflow into deep shafts at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Research for post-excavation grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuji, Masayoshi; Matsui, Hiroya; Hara, Masato; Mikake, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Shinji; Asai, Hideaki; Minamide, Masashi; Sato, Toshinori

    2009-01-01

    A large amount of water inflow is frequently occurs during the excavation of an underground cavern, such as road and railway tunnels, and underground electric facilities etc. The reduction of water inflow is sometimes quite important for the cost reduction for the water treatment and pumping during the construction of an underground cavern. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. During its excavation, a large amount of water inflow into the shafts has been increasing and affecting the project progress. Therefore, a field experiment of post-excavation grouting around the Ventilation Shaft in a sedimentary formation carried out to confirm the effect of existing grouting technology for sedimentary formations in MIU project. The result shows that the applied methods in this field experiment are effective to prevent water inflow. This report describes the summary of the field experiment and the knowledge obtained through the experiment. (author)

  15. Influence of hole depth on output when excavating veins by small cuts to the course with the use of monorail stope equipment complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galchenko, Y.P.; Dadakuziev, B.M.; Saifutdinov, Y.N.

    1986-01-01

    A new comprehensive mechanization technology is discussed that uses monorail equipment installed along the course of the ore body. Trials of this machinery confirmed its efficiency, and a government commission has recommended the new technology for broad introduction in mines. The stope equipment complex with monorail advance has been recommended for mass production. It was noted that methods for determining the efficient parameters of the stope must be developed, especially a technique for estimating the breadth of the excavation cut as the principal indicator determining the cost-effectiveness and quality of stope excavation of veins worked to the course. An expression is presented that makes it possible to estimate the upper limit of the variation of hole depth that provides for the maximum excavation of the pay reserves

  16. Comparison of visual observation and excavation to quantify density of the endangered bivalve Unio crassus in rivers of north-eastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamand F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a rapid decline in several protected unionid species, government agencies urgently require a reliable method to estimate population size for the most endangered species. We used a dataset collected from 16 river stations in north-eastern France to compare the efficiency of visual estimation (bathyscope and a manual excavation to estimate numbers of the endangered bivalve Unio crassus. Our investigations indicated that, whereas a visual approach was sufficient to detect unionid presence, only 10% of all individuals were registered compared with manual excavation at the same site. In order to obtain an accurate density estimate (especially as regards the juvenile population, sediment excavation is necessary, despite it being time consuming and damaging to the mussel’s habitat.

  17. Ion-beam analysis of a medieval glass bottle excavated in Gyoer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzonyi, I.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertesz, Zs.; Simon, A.; Kiss, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. To the east of the historical downtown of Gyoer on the place of the former Wagon Factory an archaeological excavation lead by P. Tomka and E. Szoenyi was carried out in the years 2004-2005. At the site remnants from the Roman Period (1st-2nd c.), and from various periods of the Middle Ages (10th-15th c.) came to light. From a storage pit (feature Nr. 259.) pieces of a glass bottle were saved. The bottle was completely restored. It is 18 cm tall, transparent: the well preserved material has a greenish tint (see fig. 1.). Intact or complete pieces of medieval glass bottles are almost unknown in Hungary. Similar bottlenecks were unearthed in Buda not only on the territory of the former Royal Castle but also in the town. A depot-found, which could be a ware stock of a merchant perished in a fire, was saved in Fortuna Street, Buda. The sloping shoulder and biconical body of these bottles are different from the bottle from Gyoer. The 'goiter necked' glass bottles were spread in large areas of Southern and Central Europe. The closest parallels to the piece from Gyoer can be found in Austria (Vienna) in Moravia (Brno) and a piece with unknown provenience (Milano). Further analogies can be cited from the Balkan Peninsula (Panik in Bosnia, Korinthos in Greece), from Italy (Cividale), from Germany (Landshut and Baunschweig) and from Switzerland (Basel). The find spots suggest that producing centres lay in Central Europe, but one has to keep in mind that luxury goods were transported pretty far in medieval times. According to the latest theories the predominance of early Byzantine glasses can be questioned and Italian production seems to be more important. The find from Gyoer can be dated with great probability to the 2nd half or to the end of the 13th century. Analytical characterization of the glass bottle was performed in ATOMKI. For the determination of the elemental concentrations two non-destructive ion beam analytical (IBA

  18. 山西夏县东阴遗址调查试掘报告%A Report of the Excavation of Dongyin Site in Xiaxin,Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山西省考古研究所; 夏县博物馆

    2001-01-01

    Dongyin site of the Upper Erligang period(early Shang),locates at Dongyin village,about 7.5km south to Xiaxian town. For understanding the content and the nature of this site,especially for rescue purpose,we did a surveying and an excavation of 170m2 in Feb: 2000. Despite of various potteries and stones,a large of raw bone of the Upper Erligang period were found. These materials are important for our research on the procedure of bone artifact making and the nature of the site. The result of surveying of several time and one excavation of this site are reported in this paper.

  19. Key techniques and risk management for the application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method: a case study of the Zhongjie subway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-ping; Zhao, Wen; Li, Shen-gang; Zhang, Guo-bin

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area.

  20. [Textual research on relationship between traditional Chinese medicine and medical prescriptions in the Sanskrit formulary Bower Manuscript excavated in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyi

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces the Bower Manuscript in Sanskrit written on birch bark excavated in Xinjiang, which was bought in Kuqa by a British India army lieutenant Bower, hence its title. Then, it was researched, annotated, and published in 7 volumes by a German British lieutenant and orientalist Honer. The first three volumes are devoted to medical prescriptions. It is first verified that its "Dazi Xiangye San" is the "Dujuan Dachen San" in Tibetan medicine. By comparing it with other traditional medical systems, such as Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Uyghur medical systems, we found that Bower Manuscript is closer to Tibetan medicine and Mongolian medicine, while it has less relation with Chinese medicine and Uyghur medicine. However, it also exerts some influence on TCM.

  1. A new method for calculating energy release rate in tunnel excavation subjected to high in situ stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qinghua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy theory, energy release rate (EER and local energy release rate (LEER, a new index called FERR (Fractional Energy Release Rate is proposed, and this method can not only evaluate the risk of rock burst, but also can point out the location of high risk and the scale of rockburst. The FERR index is applied to the TBM assembling tunnel in Jinping Hydro Power Station II to evaluate the scale and intensity of rockburst, as well as the location where rockburst occurs. With FDM method adopted, the energy release rate of 3 excavation plans are calculated and the scale and risk of rockburst is evaluated, and the location of high risk of rockburst is also mapped. With FERR used in the evaluation, the rockburst is nicely controlled which ensured the safety and construction schedule of the project.

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Studies of factors that affect and controls the Excavation Damaged/Disturbed Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Martin; Baeckstroem, Ann; Quanhong Feng; Berglund, Johan; Johansson, Malin; Mas Ivars, Diego; Olsson, Mats

    2009-05-01

    A tunnel was developed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in 2003 purposely for a large in-situ rock mechanics experiment, the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel had a large height/width ratio with a circular floor, primarily to control the stress situation around the tunnel and concentrate the stresses under the floor. An extensive set of data for understanding the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) was collected within section 47 of the tunnel. It consist of the blast design, blast sequences, convergence measurements during excavation, geological mapping of tunnel and cores, 3D-laser scanning of the tunnel geometry etc. Furthermore, in 2006, ultrasonic measurements along eight boreholes were carried out in order to estimate the extent of the EDZ in the tunnel. The collection of all these different information provides an opportunity to evaluate the mechanical damages caused by the excavation work. The overall aim with this project is to give feed-back to future planning of tunnelling on issues of importance for requirements with respect to minimising the EDZ in crystalline rock from the drill and blast method. A combination of the mapped geological features (tunnel and cores) and the geometry of the blasted tunnel obtained from the 3D-laser scanning were used to build a 3D model of the geology with emphasis on the geometry of the natural fractures. The rock mechanic response to the tunnelling was evaluated in a numerical model including the as-built geometry in combination with the 3D model of the geology. The modelling of the rock mechanical processes of importance for the EDZ could be calibrated against actual measurements. From observed changes in the ultrasonic wave velocity along the boreholes it was found that the locations of the velocity changes corresponded well with the location of the mapped fractures in the drill cores. This indicates that EDZ can be detected using the ultrasonic method with high accuracy. Furthermore, the

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Studies of factors that affect and controls the Excavation Damaged/Disturbed Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Martin; Baeckstroem, Ann; Quanhong Feng (AaF - Berg och Maetteknik, Stockholm (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant, Stockholm (Sweden)); Johansson, Malin; Mas Ivars, Diego (Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden)); Olsson, Mats (SweBefo, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    A tunnel was developed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in 2003 purposely for a large in-situ rock mechanics experiment, the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel had a large height/width ratio with a circular floor, primarily to control the stress situation around the tunnel and concentrate the stresses under the floor. An extensive set of data for understanding the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) was collected within section 47 of the tunnel. It consist of the blast design, blast sequences, convergence measurements during excavation, geological mapping of tunnel and cores, 3D-laser scanning of the tunnel geometry etc. Furthermore, in 2006, ultrasonic measurements along eight boreholes were carried out in order to estimate the extent of the EDZ in the tunnel. The collection of all these different information provides an opportunity to evaluate the mechanical damages caused by the excavation work. The overall aim with this project is to give feed-back to future planning of tunnelling on issues of importance for requirements with respect to minimising the EDZ in crystalline rock from the drill and blast method. A combination of the mapped geological features (tunnel and cores) and the geometry of the blasted tunnel obtained from the 3D-laser scanning were used to build a 3D model of the geology with emphasis on the geometry of the natural fractures. The rock mechanic response to the tunnelling was evaluated in a numerical model including the as-built geometry in combination with the 3D model of the geology. The modelling of the rock mechanical processes of importance for the EDZ could be calibrated against actual measurements. From observed changes in the ultrasonic wave velocity along the boreholes it was found that the locations of the velocity changes corresponded well with the location of the mapped fractures in the drill cores. This indicates that EDZ can be detected using the ultrasonic method with high accuracy. Furthermore, the

  4. EZG08 project: acoustic experiments to monitor the EDZ during the gallery excavation process in the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gonidec, Y.; Kergosien, B.; Schubnel, A.; Gueguen, Y.; Wassermann, J.; Gibert, D.; Sarout, J.; Nussbaum, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Mont Terri, a new gallery G08 was planned to be excavated in 2008 following an original process: the excavation process allowed to monitor the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) from geophysical measurements designed and installed at the end of face of the EZ-G04 gallery during the excavation from the other side, i.e. the end face of the EZ-G08 gallery. The objectives of the project concern spatio-temporal changes of the EDZ: among the methodological developments adapted for the EZG08 project to provide complementary information, acoustic experiments have been prepared in horizontal boreholes to perform the continuous acoustic monitoring of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ). The acoustic measurements, performed on acoustic arrays of several receivers, have been recorded during one month, following two main steps: - Active acoustic surveys: a source is introduced in a central borehole (BEZG5) allowing tomography experiments in the far field and in the near field, i.e. close to and far from BEZG5, respectively. - Acoustic emissions: during the excavation process, numerous acoustic emissions can be detected and associated to micro-seismic events due to rapid crack propagation, generated by the rock relaxation, or simply associated to the excavation process. From the tomography measurements, the acoustic wave velocity field can be estimated, with P and S-wave velocities roughly equal to 2500 m/s-3500 m/s, and 1500 m/s, respectively. The acoustic setup does not show variations of P-wave velocity during the campaign, but spatial variations which could be associated to anisotropic elastic properties of the rock with the maximum P-wave velocities close to the bedding plane. An original method based on a multifrequency approach puts in evidence a frequency dependence of the velocity, with a striking phenomena since the wave velocity decreases with increasing frequency. This effect

  5. Characterization and monitoring of the excavation damaged zone in fractured gneisses of the Roselend tunnel, French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, J.; Sabroux, J. C.; Pontreau, S.; Bondiguel, S.; Guillon, S.; Richon, P.; Pili, E.

    2011-04-01

    The Roselend dead-end tunnel was excavated in the last fifties by blasting in the Méraillet crystalline rock mass located on the shore of an artificial reservoir lake in the French Alps. Successive emptying and filling of the reservoir lake induce mechanical deformation of the rock mass. Thus, this tunnel is an exceptional place to study the evolution of the damaged zone (due to the excavation, and named EDZ) under a periodic mechanical or hydraulic loading. From the perspective of radioactive waste isolation in deep geological strata, the EDZ transport properties, and their evolution with time, are of major importance. The purpose of this study is, on the one hand, to quantify the transport properties of the EDZ of the Roselend tunnel through permeability measurements and drill core observations; on the other hand, to monitor the response of the EDZ to external solicitations via borehole pressure measurements. The air permeability has been deduced from pneumatic tests performed along several boreholes. The permeability profiles and the observation of drill cores lead to an estimation of the extent of the EDZ, of about 1 m around the tunnel. The response of the EDZ to barometric pumping has been observed through borehole pressure monitoring. Time-lag and attenuation of the barometric signal that propagates into the EDZ have been measured at a metric scale. The identification of potential time-lag and attenuation variations needs further investigations, the long time series of borehole pressure monitoring shows pressure increase probably due to percolating water during successive snow cover and thawing periods as observed in the Roselend area during winter.

  6. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  7. Critical Damage Analysis of WC-Co Tip of Conical Pick due to Coal Excavation in Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dewangan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WC-Co based tools are widely used in the field of coal and rock excavation because of their unique combination of strength, hardness, and resistance to abrasive wear. Conical pick is one of the coal cutting tools. The tip of the pick is made of WC-Co material. As coal and rock are heterogeneous elements, they pose various constraints during excavation. As a result the tools wear out during the process. Other parameters like cutting techniques, tool orientation, and environmental conditions also affect the tool significantly. The wearing phenomenon greatly reduces the service life of the tools and thereby cuts down the production rate. To prevent such wearing process, it is important to investigate the different wear mechanisms in WC-Co. Simultaneously, there has to be an ongoing endeavour for the development of better quality WC-Co. This paper focuses on different wear mechanisms in a conical pick which has been used in a continuous miner machine for coal cutting. The worn out surface has been observed by using FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy and EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The mechanisms, namely, coal/rock intermixing, cracking and crushing of WC grains, and adhesion of rock particles, have been predominantly investigated in this study. A little indication of corrosive decay in the WC grain has also been reported. The EDS has detected material concentration in a selected area or point of the worn-out surface. The spectrograph confirms the presence of coal/rock materials. Elements such as W, C, Ca, K, O, and Co have been mainly found in different concentrations at different positions.

  8. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical experiment at Kamaishi mine. Technical note 08-96-01. Measurement data related to excavation of the test pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Sugita, Y.; Ishikawa, H.

    1997-07-01

    It is an important part of the near field performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal to evaluate coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena, e.g., thermal effects on groundwater flow through rock matrix and water seepage into the buffer material, the generation of swelling pressure of the buffer material, and thermal stresses potentially affecting porosity and fracture apertures of the rock. An in-situ T-H-M experiment named Engineered Barrier Experiment ' has been conducted at the Kamaishi Mine, of which host rock is granodiorite, in order to establish conceptual models of the coupled T-H-M processes and to build confidence in mathematical models and computer codes. In 1995, fourteen boreholes were excavated in order to install the various sensors. After the hydraulic tests, mechanical tests were carried out to obtain the rock properties. After that, a test pit, 1.7 m in diameter and 5.0 m in depth, was excavated. During the excavation, the change of pore pressure, displacement and temperature of rock mass were measured. Furthermore, pit convergence was measured. This note shows the results of mechanical tests and measurement data during the excavation of test pit. (author)

  9. Forecasting and prevention of water inrush during the excavation process of a diversion tunnel at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tian-Xing; Yang, Xing-Guo; Xing, Hui-Ge; Huang, Kang-Xin; Zhou, Jia-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Estimating groundwater inflow into a tunnel before and during the excavation process is an important task to ensure the safety and schedule during the underground construction process. Here we report a case of the forecasting and prevention of water inrush at the Jinping II Hydropower Station diversion tunnel groups during the excavation process. The diversion tunnel groups are located in mountains and valleys, and with high water pressure head. Three forecasting methods are used to predict the total water inflow of the #2 diversion tunnel. Furthermore, based on the accurate estimation of the water inrush around the tunnel working area, a theoretical method is presented to forecast the water inflow at the working area during the excavation process. The simulated results show that the total water flow is 1586.9, 1309.4 and 2070.2 m(3)/h using the Qshima method, Kostyakov method and Ochiai method, respectively. The Qshima method is the best one because it most closely matches the monitoring result. According to the huge water inflow into the #2 diversion tunnel, reasonable drainage measures are arranged to prevent the potential disaster of water inrush. The groundwater pressure head can be determined using the water flow velocity from the advancing holes; then, the groundwater pressure head can be used to predict the possible water inflow. The simulated results show that the groundwater pressure head and water inflow re stable and relatively small around the region of the intact rock mass, but there is a sudden change around the fault region with a large water inflow and groundwater pressure head. Different countermeasures are adopted to prevent water inrush disasters during the tunnel excavation process. Reasonable forecasting the characteristic parameters of water inrush is very useful for the formation of prevention and mitigation schemes during the tunnel excavation process.

  10. Archaeometrical analyses demonstrates that humans excavated clay from mardels on the Luxembourger Gutland plateau to produce ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmourik, Jan; Braekmans, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Mardels, small closed depressions, are distinctive landforms on the Luxembourger Gutland plateau. In the present landscape most mardels are shallow fens, filled with colluvial sediments. Slotboom (1963) investigated 108 mardels in the Luxembourger Gutland and ascribed the mardels in the Luxembourger Keuper marl formations to subsurface solution of gypsum inclusions, followed by collapse and subsidence of the overlying beds. The colluvial deposits in the mardels were palynologically dated as Post Roman. Schmalen (2001) published an actualized inventory of mardels in the Gutland. This inventory includes also mardels on the Lias marls, a formation without gypsum inclusions. Etienne et al. (2011) considered beside natural processes also anthropogenic factors as explanation for CD's in the Lorraine landscape. The sediments in the majority of the CD's were palynologically dated as Post Roman. Combined with the open character of the local vegetation this suggest that the majority of the mardels are probably abandoned Roman quarries. Slotboom and van Mourik (2015) showed that the fillings of the mardels on the Lias marls are Post-Roman, just as on the Keuper marls. To answer the question "are mardels natural subsidence basins or abandoned quarries" we need additional information from the soil archives. Firstly we must identify the process, responsible for the deposition of clay in the mardels. The majority of the mardels in the Gutland occur in clusters in deciduous forests. Earthworm activity in the forest soils promote lateral clay leaching and soil erosion and mardels function as sediment traps. Due to this process clay with the best properties for the production of ceramics occurred in mardels. This process was active during the whole Holocene. It is striking that we did not find Pre-Roman but only Post-Roman mardel fillings. Secondly we need information about the practice of clay, excavated from mardels. If mardels are really abandoned quarries, the excavated

  11. Backfilling techniques and materials in underground excavations: Potential alternative backfill materials in use in Posiva's spent fuel repository concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Keto, P.

    2009-05-01

    A variety of geologic media options have been proposed as being suitable for safely and permanently disposing of spent nuclear fuel or fuel reprocessing wastes. In Finland the concept selected is construction of a deep repository in crystalline rock (Posiva 1999, 2006; SKB 1999), likely at the Olkiluoto site (Posiva 2006). Should that site prove suitable, excavation of tunnels and several vertical shafts will be necessary. These excavations will need to be backfilled and sealed as emplacement operations are completed and eventually all of the openings will need to be backfilled and sealed. Clay-based materials were selected after extensive review of materials options and the potential for practical implementation in a repository and work over a 30+ year period has led to the development of a number of workable clay-based backfilling options, although discussion persists as to the most suitable clay materials and placement technologies to use. As part of the continuous process of re-evaluating backfilling options in order to provide the best options possible, placement methods and materials that have been given less attention have been revisited. Primary among options that were and continue to be evaluated as a potential backfill are cementitious materials. These materials were included in the list of candidate materials initially screened in the late 1970's for use in repository backfilling. Conventional cement-based materials were quickly identified as having some serious technical limitations with respect their ability to fulfil the identified requirements of backfill. Concerns related to their ability to achieve the performance criteria defined for backfill resulted in their exclusion from large-scale use as backfill in a repository. Development of new, less chemically aggressive cementitious materials and installation technologies has resulted in their re-evaluation. Concrete and cementitious materials have and are being developed that have chemical, durability

  12. Analysis of long-term closure in drifts excavated in Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone: roles of anisotropy and hydro-mechanical couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guayacan Carrillo, Lina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) began in 2000 the construction of an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) with the main goal of demonstrating the feasibility of a geological repository in Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone. Several research programs have taken place to improve the knowledge of the rock properties and its response to the excavation progress. A network of experimental drifts has been constructed with variations on: excavation method, structure geometry, supports system and orientations with respect to principal stresses' directions. In each drift different sections have been instrumented to monitor the hydro-mechanical behavior of the rock mass formation. Continuous monitoring of the excavated zone around the drifts in the main level (-490 m) revealed the development of a fractured zone (extensional and shear fractures) induced by the excavation. The extent of this fractured zone depends on the drift orientation regarding the in-situ stress field. Accordingly, the convergence measurements showed an anisotropic closure which depends also on the drifts' orientations. Moreover, marked overpressures and an anisotropic pore pressure field around the drifts have been also observed. The approach proposed in this work is mainly based on a direct analysis of the convergence measurements, for studying the anisotropic response of the rock formation during and after excavation. The convergence evolution is analyzed on the basis of the semi-empirical law proposed by Sulem et al. (1987) [Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 24: 145-154]. The monitoring and analysis of convergence data can provide a reliable approach of the interaction between rock mass and support. Therefore, the anisotropy and the variability of the closure are analyzed taking into account different field cases: drifts excavated in two different orientations (i.e. influence of the initial stress state), different methods, sizes and rates of excavation and

  13. For the benefit of the Greek “Great Idea ”: the excavations during the Asia Minor campaign (1919 - 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliope Pavli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available U pon the landing of t he Greek troops in Smyrna on May 1919 , that inaugura ted a 3 - years military campaign , the Greek Government sent archaeologists to excavate some of the most famous archaeological sites of the western coast , while the Greek Army also participated by gathering artifacts on its way to Ankara . The researches attempted to “ prove ” the “since ever pure ” and “solid” Greekness of Asia Minor by d iminish ing, on the other hand, the role of other ancient people into the creation of the Aegean and Anatolian civilization ; e ven the Islamic monuments were built by Greeks, according to Greek scholars and to the racial classification of people and their abilities. T he Greek campaign hadn’t been simply a matter of historical (misinterpretation ; t he Greek ruling class never hid e that their ultimate goal was the raw materials of Anatolia even if the ethno - historical myths history and the archeological interpretations added a widely accepted gloss in the war . T his paper aims to introduce the predetermined archaeological assessment s in relation to the necessity of the Greek government to become more effective ideologically, especially on realizing that the campaign was no more politically and militarily tenable .

  14. Investigations of Ancient Terra-cotta Sarcophagi, Excavated in Enez (Ainos Turkey, by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Akyuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten terra-cotta sarcophagi, together with a terra-cotta aryballos (perfume jar, excavated in Su Terazisi necropolis of Enez-Turkey (Ancient Ainos, were investigated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA, to determine the concentration of thirty two chemical elements: Na, K, Ca, Fe, Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The dataset was submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The classification was done by cluster analysis. The results demonstrated the occurrence of two different groups of terra-cotta samples. Group I contains nine sarcophagi and terra-cotta aryballos whereas group II contains only one sample (E09-ST5-M26. High correlations between La and Ce (r2 = 0.92, and U and Th (r2 = 0.91 indicated that local clay was used for manufacturing the terra-cotta sarcophagi and aryballos but probably the claybed used for E09-ST5-M26 was different from that of others.

  15. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th-16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, O.; Caluwe, D.; Wouters, H.; Janssens, K.; Verhaeghe, F.; Pieters, M.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Facon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) associated to excavating sponges (Cliona spp.) reveal an unexpected lineage in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, C; Camargo, C; Zea, S; Sánchez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellate lineages, distributed in all tropical and subtropical seas, suggest strategies for long distance dispersal but at the same time strong host specialization. Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium: Dinophyta), which are associated to diverse shallow-water cnidarians, also engage in symbioses with some sponge species of the genus Cliona. In the Caribbean, zooxanthellae-bearing Cliona has recently become abundant due to global warming, overfishing, and algae abundance. Using molecular techniques, the symbionts from five excavating species (Clionacaribbaea, C. tenuis, C. varians, C. aprica and C. laticavicola) from the southern and southwestern Caribbean were surveyed. Several DNA sequence regions were used in order to confirm zooxanthellae identity; 18S rDNA, domain V of chloroplast large subunit (cp23S), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and ITS2 secondary structure. Sequence analyses corroborated the presence of three zooxanthellae clades: A, B, and G. Presence of clades A and B in common boring sponges of the Caribbean fit with the general pattern of the province. The discovery of clade G for the first time in any organism of the Atlantic Ocean leads us to consider this unusual finding as a phylogenetic relict through common ancestors of sponge clades or an invasion of the sponge from the Indo-Pacific.

  17. Morphological Response of a Mud Capped Dredge Pit in Western Louisiana After Sand Excavation for Barrier Island Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux, P. A.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Sand resources play a crucial role in supporting tourism, maintaining coastal ecosystems, and protecting property and infrastructure. Mud capped dredge pits (MCDPs) are created when paleochannel sand, covered by muddy shelf overburden, is excavated for restoration purposes; such paleochannels are one significant sand resource for coastal barrier protection. However, our knowledge of MCDPs is limited. To improve understanding of their morphological behavior, a dredge pit called Peveto Channel (PC) offshore of Holly Beach, LA, was studied in 2016. Our study consisted of a survey using multiple geophysical methods, including multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, subbottom profiling, and magnetometry. Results indicate that PC has undergone 100% infilling since dredging occurred. Although the pit is filled up, analyses indicate the newly deposited material is unconsolidated and has yet to equilibrate to the ambient seafloor conditions. The surface of the pit area is pockmarked and uneven, likely caused by degassing processes and differential consolidation. Sidescan sonar images confirm that the pit walls have experienced little to no lateral erosion and are well preserved. The results from this survey and from historical surveys conducted in 2003 (a few months after dredging), 2004, 2006, and 2007 are compared to previously constructed numerical models used to predict the behavior of dredge pits. To our knowledge, PC is the only filled-up offshore dredge pit in coastal Louisiana. Thus the findings of this study provide new long-term information for regulatory policies and the feasibility of MCDPs as sand resources in the future.

  18. Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náfrádi, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sümegi, Pál

    2011-12-01

    The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

  19. Towards a Social History of Archaeology: The Case of the Excavators of Early Iron Age Burial Mounds in Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Müller-Scheessel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available While the general history of archaeology has received a growing interest lately1, these efforts still lack a common research-guiding agenda. Furthermore, most of the studies still concentrate on biographies and event history. The embedding of archaeology in the structures and conditions of its time is still a kind of terra incognita. The few well known publications (e. g. Hudson 1981; Kristiansen 1981; Patterson 1986; 1995 emphasize the gap only more. The lack of a significant amount of literature especially on the social history of archaeology is all the more surprising as the early interest in archaeology shows a clear social bias: archaeology was (and still is? a recreational activity for the educated and the well-off. While Hudson’s book in particular is very readable, it is clearly meant to provide only a very broad picture. Along with the other publications mentioned above it is now somewhat dated; the lack of recent works on this topic thus highlight the lack of interest in the social history of archaeology even more.2 However, this essay does not deal with this deplorable fact, but seeks to present some ‘hard’ data on only one, albeit important activity of early archaeological excavations, particularly those of burial mounds. Its focus is on Southern Germany and on graves from the early Iron Age.3

  20. Reassessment and comparison of natural radioactivity levels in relation to granulometric contents of recently excavated major river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasamy, V.; Suresh, G.; Rajkumar, P.; Murugesan, S.; Mullainathan, S.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    2012-01-01

    River sediment depositions on the bottom of rivers most frequently consist of sand and gravel particles, which make them particularly valuable for the building construction. Knowledge of radioactivity present in building material enables one to assess any possible radiological hazard to mankind by the use of such materials. The natural radionuclide ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) contents have been analyzed for the recently excavated sediment samples of Cauvery, Vellar, Ponnaiyar and Palaru rivers with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard nature. To know the radiological characteristics of the sediment, the different radiological parameters are calculated. Natural radioactivity level is higher in Palaru river and it is lower in Vellar river sediments. In all the rivers, concentration of 238 U is decreased, and concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K are increased towards the river mouth. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is the main constituent in all the river sediment samples. Content of sand is gradually decreased, and contents of silt and clay are gradually increased towards the river mouth. Cluster analysis was carried out to find the similarity level between the radioactivity and granulometric measurements. The radioactivity level of all the four river sediments mainly depends upon the contents of silt and clay. Averages of the all calculated radiation hazard indices are lower than recommended level in Cauvery, Vellar and Ponnaiyar river sediments. Therefore, the sediment of the above rivers does not pose any significant radiological threat to the population when it is used as a building construction material. (author)

  1. Investigation of Bucket Wheel Excavator Lattice Structure Internal Stress in Harsh Environment through a Remote Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risteiu, M.; Dobra, R.; Andras, I.; Roventa, M.; Lorincz, A.

    2017-06-01

    The paper shows the results of a lab model for strain gauges based measuring system for multiple measuring heads of the mechanical stress in lattice structures of the bucket wheel excavator for open pit mines-harsh environment. The system is designed around a microcontroller system. Because of specific working conditions, the measuring system sends data to a processing system (a PC with Matlab software), we have implemented a secure communication solution based on ISM standard, by using NRF24L01 module. The transceiver contains a fully integrated frequency synthesizer based on crystal oscillator, and a Enhanced ShockBurst™ protocol engine. The proposed solution has a current consumption around 9.0 mA at an output power of -6dBm and 12.3mA in RX mode. Built-in Power Down and Standby modes makes power saving easily realizable for our solution battery powered. The stress from structures is taken by specific strain gauges adapted to low frequency vibrations. We are using a precision 24-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) designed for weigh scales and industrial control applications to interface directly with a bridge sensor-instrumentation device, with low drift voltage, low noise, common mode rejection signal, frequency and temperature stability. As backup implementation for measurements a high speed storage implementation is used.

  2. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th-16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalm, O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: koen.janssens@ua.ac.be; Caluwe, D. [Department of Archaeology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 1, B-1040 Brussels (Belgium); Wouters, H. [Institute for the Archaeological Heritage of the Flemish Community, Doornveld Industrie Asse 3, nr. 11, bus 30, B-1731 Zellik (Belgium); Janssens, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Verhaeghe, F. [Department of Archaeology, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 1, B-1040 Brussels (Belgium); Pieters, M. [Institute for the Archaeological Heritage of the Flemish Community, Doornveld Industrie Asse 3, nr. 11, bus 30, B-1731 Zellik (Belgium)

    2004-10-08

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Facon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century.

  3. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th 16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalm, O.; Caluwé, D.; Wouters, H.; Janssens, K.; Verhaeghe, F.; Pieters, M.

    2004-10-01

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Façon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century.

  4. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction.

  5. FT-IR X-ray diffraction and porosimetry studies of archaeologic artifacts recently excavated from Rajakkamangalam in Tamilnadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Suresh; Velraj, Gothandapani

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fragmented pottery sample were collected from the recently excavated archaeologic site named Rajakkamangalam, India. The samples were collected at different depths. The samples were subjected to FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and also porosimetry study was done, The spectroscopic method Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been employed to find the mineralogical composition of the potteries. And the complementary technique to find the clay minerals present using XRD. The major primary minerals present in the samples are Kaolinite and the secondary mineral present is quartz and the accessory minerals present in the sample are hematite and magnetite. In addition to the used mineral the orthoclase and orthopyroxene are present in the sample of interest. The firing temperature of the samples at the time of manufacturing is also estimated from apparent porosity of the samples. The percentage of the potteries lies in the range of porosity is 17-42 percentages. The results obtained from Porosimetry techniques on pottery shreds provide information of the firing temperature might have been fired below 1000 deg C at the time of manufacturing the potteries. (author)

  6. Numerical simulation for excavation and long-term behavior of large-scale cavern in soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste is planned to be disposed at the depth of more than 50 m in Neogene tuff or tuffaceous sandstone. Generally there are few cracks in sedimentary soft rocks, thus it is considered to be easier to determine permeability of soft rocks than that of discontinuous rocks. On the other hand, sedimentary soft rocks show strong time-dependent behavior, and they are more sensitive to heat, groundwater, and their chemical effect. Numerical method for long-term behavior of underground facilities is necessary to their design and safety assessment. Numerical simulations for excavation of test cavern in disposal site are described in this report. Our creep model was applied to these simulations. Although it is able to reproduce the behavior of soft rock observed in laboratory creep test, simulation using parameters obtained from laboratory tests predicts much larger displacement than that of measurement. Simulation using parameters modified based on in-situ elastic wave measurement and back analysis reproduces measured displacements very well. Behavior of the surrounding rock mass during resaturation after setting of the waste and the engineered barrier system is also simulated. We have a plan to investigate chemical and mechanical interaction among soft rock, tunnel supports and engineered barriers, and to make their numerical models. (author)

  7. Recurrent focal choroidal excavation following multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) associated with acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hassanpour, Kiana; Soheilian, Masoud

    2018-04-01

    To present a recurrent case of conforming focal choroidal excavation (FCE) following multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) in a 25-year-old woman. Following spontaneous MEWDS sings resolution our patient noted a recurrent decrease in vision. Repeated OCT revealed elevation and mild disruption of RPE layer at fovea without previous angiographic MEWDS signs. At this time, short-term systemic steroid therapy was started and visual acuity became normal. Following quiescence of the new-onset phase, the conforming type of FCE located in inferior macula appeared in OCT. In the following next 2 years recurrence of presumptive focal subfoveal choriocapillaritis occurred for three times presenting with blurred vision. During every acute attack, above-mentioned FCE disappeared and returned back again after resolution of presumptive focal choriocapillaritis. This is the first and unique case of recurrent type of FCE following MEWDS. It seems to disappear during active phase of presumptive focal choriocapillaritis and then returns after the eye has become quiescent.

  8. Influence of various excavation techniques on the structure and physical properties of 'near-field' rock around large boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1989-12-01

    The procedure employed in the excavation of canister deposition holes affects the structure and physical properties of the 'near-field' rock. Except for smooth blasting, the generated damage appears to be less important than the increase in 'axial' hydraulic conductivity that is caused by stress release effects, but both combine to yield significant local flow passages. This is particularly obvious where the rock structure yield steep wedges, which is frequently occurring in granite. Percussion drilling is concluded to cause rich fine-fissuring to a distance of up to one centimeter from the borehole wall, and 'discing'. Richer fissuring and some generation of new fractures and growth of preexisting ones are produced within several decimeters from the borehole wall by full-face drilling. Core drilling has the least effect on the rock structure. Smooth blasting produces a particular form of regular fractures which appear to be determinants of the hydraulic conductivity of the near-field rock. Theoretically, its conductivity in the axial direction of blasted big holes or tunnels should be in the range of 10 -8 - 10 -6 m/s, which is in agreement with measurements in the Stripa mine. (orig.)

  9. Effects of statistical distribution of joint trace length on the stability of tunnel excavated in jointed rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Ghorbani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rock masses in a construction site of underground cavern are generally not continuous, due to the presence of discontinuities, such as bedding, joints, faults, and fractures. The performance of an underground cavern is principally ruled by the mechanical behaviors of the discontinuities in the vicinity of the cavern. During underground excavation, many surrounding rock failures have close relationship with joints. The stability study on tunnel in jointed rock mass is of importance to rock engineering, especially tunneling and underground space development. In this study, using the probability density distribution functions of negative exponential, log-normal and normal, we investigated the effect of joint trace length on the stability parameters such as stress and displacement of tunnel constructed in rock mass using UDEC (Universal Distinct Element Code. It was obtained that normal distribution function of joint trace length is more critical on the stability of tunnel, and exponential distribution function has less effect on the tunnel stability compared to the two other distribution functions.

  10. Research of Dust Field Optimization Distribution Based on Parameters Change of Air Duct Outlet in Fully Mechanized Excavation Face of Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Yan; Xia, Zhi-Xin; Wu, Yue; Mo, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yi

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the problem of dust accumulation and pollution risk rising sharply in fully mechanized excavation face, which caused by the unreasonable air duct outlet airflow under the long distance driving, this paper proposes a new idea to optimize the distribution of dust by changing the angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet. Taking the fully mechanized excavation face of Ningtiaota coal mine which located in Shaanxi province as the research object, the numerical simulation scheme of dust field was established, the safety hazard of the distribution of original dust field was simulated and analyzed, the numerical simulation and optimization analysis of the dust distribution by changing the angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet was carried out, and the adjustment scheme of the optimized dust distribution was obtained, which provides a theoretical basis for reducing the probability of dust explosion and the degree of pollution.

  11. Hydraulic Features of the Excavation Disturbed Zone - Laboratory investigations of samples taken from the Q- and S-tunnels at Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Lars O.; Brinkhoff, Petra; Gustafson, Gunnar; Kvartsberg, Sara (Div. of GeoEngineering, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    The general aim of the project has been to contribute to the SKB safety and assessment analysis with realistic figures of hydraulic properties in an excavation disturbed zone. The project had the following more detailed objectives: - Develop a laboratory method to determine fracture transmissivity under water-saturated conditions. - Provide magnitudes for realistic values for fracture transmissivity in the disturbed or damaged zone due to excavation. - Map micro cracks radially from the tunnel wall. - Map the spread of matrix porosity radially from the tunnel wall. - Develop single-hole hydraulic testing methodology in tunnel wall for saturated conditions. - Integration of fracture geometries and transmissivity investigations for conceptual hydraulic modelling of the bedrock along a tunnel wall

  12. Study of parameters for safety assessment of sub-surface disposal. Tunnel-excavating speed and thickness of additional soil in residential land development by filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitoya, Kimihide; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Funabashi, Hideyuki

    2012-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is making preparations for the sub-surface disposal of own low level radioactive wastes. In order to carry out the disposal, it is necessary to confirm the safety of the disposal. Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC) issued 'Policy of the Safety Assessment of Sub-surface Disposal after the Period for Active Control' (April 1, 2010). Then, we investigated the parameters for dose assessment in tunnel excavation scenario and large-scale land use scenario which were described in the 'Policy of the Safety Assessment', in order to perform the assessment based on actual conditions. To be concrete, we investigated the tunnel excavating speeds in Japan for the former scenario, and investigated technical standards of the filling for the latter scenario. We studied the realistic parameters for the dose assessment with the results of those investigations. (author)

  13. Key Techniques and Risk Management for the Application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA Excavation Method: A Case Study of the Zhongjie Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ping Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area.

  14. Rediscovering Antiquity: Karl Weber and the Excavation of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae, by C.C. Parslow. Cambridge University Press, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Snead

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Rediscovering Antiquity is an example of the genre of historical writing which seeks to recast the careers of little-known figures who have fallen into obscurity. This is typically intended to move them and their work into the proper "lineage," that is, the select group of ancestral figures from which modern practices are derived. Parslow is interested in the 18th century excavations of the Vesuvian cities, which, he argues, have been misunderstood by historians of archaeology. Indeed, common sources, such as Daniel (1981:55, describe the initial explorations of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae, sponsored by the Bourbon kings of Naples as "...treasure hunts and not serious excavations." While the Roman artifacts removed from the sites are credited with spurring interest in antiquity in Enlightenment Europe, modern scholars have until now devoted little attention to the means through which they were recovered.

  15. The sage who divided Java in 1052: Maclaine Pont’s excavation of Mpu Bharada's hermitage-cemetery at Lĕmah Tulis in 1925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Carey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Architect Henri Maclaine Pont’s personal papers indicate that he almost certainly excavated the medieval hermitage-cemetery of the eleventh-century sage, Empu Bharada, in 1925. Careful field study in the former royal capital of Majapahit, analysis of the relevant Old Javanese texts and interviews with local residents have enabled an accurate identification of Maclaine-Pont’s exacavation site at the former children’s cemetery of Lemah Tulis where Bharada lived as a hermit. The authors argue that the famous Joko Dolog (‘Fat Youth’ statue now in Surabaya depicts the Buddhist sage who divided Java between King Airlangga’s two sons in 1052, and conclude by urging a new excavation of this most significant historical site.

  16. Offsets of atmospheric radiocarbon concentration from IntCal09 in East Asia appeared in human bones excavated at Imdangdong tombs, Jingshan, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Minoru; Takada, Kanta; Lee, Chang-hee; Fujio, Shin'ichiro; Woo, Byoung-cheul; Park, Seung-kyu

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of human bones excavated from Imdangdong toms, Korea, was carried out. The preservation of bone collagen was poor, and even though the measurement was successful, their calibrated ages were not in good agreement with archaeological observations as well. However, in comparing to the radiocarbon offsets appeared in Japanese tree rings, the calibration age shifted to the proper age. This might show that the regional effects on calibration curve were coincident between Japanese archipelagos and Korean peninsula. (author)

  17. Site preparation and excavation works for the foundation of station main building among construction works for No. 1 unit in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Pwer Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyama, Koreyasu

    1982-01-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., is planning the nuclear power station of final capacity 8,000 MW (7 units) in the region spread over Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in Niigata Prefecture. For No. 1 unit (1100 MWe BWR), the reactor installation license was obtained in September, 1977, the site preparation and road construction started in April, 1978, and harbour construction works started in August, 1979. The construction works are now at the peak, and the overall progressing rate as of the end of June, 1982, is about 51 %. The site is a hilly region of dune along the coast of the Sea of Japan, and No. 1 unit is located in the southern part of the site. This paper reports on the outline of the project, site preparation and excavation works for the foundation of the station main building. For the site preparation and the excavation works for the foundation the main building, the shape of slope cutting, the design of landslide-preventing wall for the vertical excavation for the reactor complex building, and the construction plan and the result are reported. For underground water impermeable wall works, its outline, groundwater condition, groundwater simulation analysis, the investigation of wall installation, the wall structure and construction are described in detail. Also the outline of the control of slope face measurement, the control standards and the measured results are reported. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Analysis of 19th century ceramic fragments excavated from Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brazil) using FT-IR, Raman, XRF and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Coelho, Filipe A.; Felix, Valter S.; Pereira, Marcelo O.; de Souza, Marcos André Torres; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2018-03-01

    This study used Raman, FT-IR and XRF spectroscopy and SEM to analyze ceramic fragments dating from the 19th century, excavated from an old farm in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil. The results show that the samples were produced in an open oven at a firing temperature below 500 °C, using raw materials including kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, microcline, albite, anhydrite, calcite, illite, orthoclase and MnO2. Although the analyses showed similarities in the manufacturing process and the presence of many minerals was common in all samples, multivariate statistical methods (PCA) allowed a more detailed assessment of similarities and differences in the mineral composition of the samples. The results of the PCA showed that the samples excavated in one of the slave quarters (senzalas) group with those excavated at the farmhouse, where the landowner lived, which indicates a paternalistic attitude towards captives, including the sharing of ceramic materials of everyday use.

  19. Capability and management of excavation equipment in inner dug marine port%内挖式港口石方开挖设备性能与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐业清

    2014-01-01

    Through-analyzing-and-researching-on-the-latest-three-kinds-of-excavation-equipment,we-systematically-combed-the-basic-mechanical-capability-of-overall-equipment.-Based-on-its-application-in-excavation-of-port-basin-and-inner-breakwater-con-struction-of-New-Doha-Port,we-discussed-the-comprehensive-equipment-management-methods-and-modes,which-can-provide-important-references-to-the-equipment-excavation-in-the-inner-dug-marine-port.%文章通过对3种最新石方开挖设备性能的分析与研究,系统梳理了各设备基本机械性能,通过在多哈新港港口基础与防波堤施工项目石方开挖中的应用实践,研究探讨设备综合管理方法和管理模式,为内挖式港口设备开挖施工提供重要的参考借鉴。

  20. Site preparation and excavation works for the foundation of station main building among construction works for No. 1 unit in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueyama, Koreyasu [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1982-09-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., is planning the nuclear power station of final capacity 8,000 MW (7 units) in the region spread over Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in Niigata Prefecture. For No. 1 unit (1100 MWe BWR), the reactor installation license was obtained in September, 1977, the site preparation and road construction started in April, 1978, and harbour construction works started in August, 1979. The construction works are now at the peak, and the overall progressing rate as of the end of June, 1982, is about 51 %. The site is a hilly region of dune along the coast of the Sea of Japan, and No. 1 unit is located in the southern part of the site. This paper reports on the outline of the project, site preparation and excavation works for the foundation of the station main building. For the site preparation and the excavation works for the foundation the main building, the shape of slope cutting, the design of landslide-preventing wall for the vertical excavation for the reactor complex building, and the construction plan and the result are reported. For underground water impermeable wall works, its outline, groundwater condition, groundwater simulation analysis, the investigation of wall installation, the wall structure and construction are described in detail. Also the outline of the control of slope face measurement, the control standards and the measured results are reported.