WorldWideScience

Sample records for excavation program binder

  1. National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-15

    The second meeting of Federal agency representatives interested in the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program took place on June 15, 1993. The Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hosted the meeting at the Washington, D.C., offices of DOE. Representatives from the National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Bureau of Mines, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, and various offices within the Department of Energy attended. For a complete list of attendees see Attachment A. The purpose of the meeting was: (1) to cover the status of efforts to gain formal approval for NADET, (2) to brief participants on events since the last meeting, especially two recent workshops that explored research needs in drilling and excavation, (3) to review some recent technological advances, and (4) to solicit statements of the importance of improving drilling and excavation technologies to the missions of the various agencies. The meeting agenda is included as Attachment B.

  2. National advanced drilling and excavation technologies program: Summary of third meeting of interested Federal agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-12-07

    The purpose of the meeting was: (1) to discuss a proposal by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) outlining a National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Program, (2) to brief participants on events since the last meeting, and (3) to hear about drilling research activities funded by the Department of Energy. The meeting agenda is included as Attachment B.

  3. Crane and Excavator Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on crane and excavator operation is designed to enable the crane and excavator operator to perform his/her duties more proficiently. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide…

  4. Analysis of aggregates and binders used for the ODOT chip seal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    This project compared the results of laboratory characterization of chip seal aggregate samples for Oklahoma DOT Divisions 1,2,3,5 and 6 with performance data from the Pavement Management System (PMS) database. Binder evaluation was limited to identi...

  5. Binder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chummun, Shaheel; McLean, N R; Nugent, M; Anderson, P J; David, David J

    2012-07-01

    Patients with chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) usually present with Binder-type features, and often CDP is misdiagnosed as Binder syndrome. This study reviewed the management and outcome of patients with Binder syndrome and CDP in a multidisciplinary setting. The notes and radiographs of the patients managed at the Australian Craniofacial Unit with a multidisciplinary setting since 1976 were reviewed, and data were collected on patient demographics, associated medical and surgical problems, subsequent management, and complications. Seventy-seven patients were treated over the 30-year period (5 patients were lost to follow-up); of the remaining 72 patients, 60 (83%) had Binder syndrome, and 12 (17%) were patients with CDP. Forty were males, and 32 were females, with an age range of 6 months to 47 years. Thirteen patients (18%) had a strong family history, and 65 patients (90%) have so far undergone surgical correction, and of those, 35 (54%) have completed their treatment, the longest follow-up time being 18 years. The mean number of surgical procedures was 2.4, and 18 patients (28%) had postoperative complications, which included partial necrosis of the maxilla, osteomyelitis of the mandible, facial nerve and inferior alveolar nerve neuropraxia, nasal bone graft exposure, and cellulitis. Because of the phenotypic characteristics shared by both Binder syndrome and CDP, it is most likely that Binder syndrome is not a syndrome, nor is it an entity, but most likely to be an "association." We would advocate that these patients should be managed in a multidisciplinary setting.

  6. Lightweight Robotic Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robust, lightweight, power-efficient excavation robots are mission enablers for lunar outposts and surface systems. Lunar excavators of this type cost-effectively...

  7. Focal Choroidal Excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

    2016-12-01

    Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation.

  8. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  9. Vitelliform focal choroidal excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Chris; Forooghian, Farzin

    2014-05-30

    Focal choroidal excavations (FCE) are characterized by foveal or perifoveal choroid excavations seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT). The authors report a case of FCE associated with a vitelliform lesion within the excavation. A case of FCE associated with a small vitelliform lesion has been described previously, but the larger extent of the vitelliform lesion observed in the current case has not been previously reported. This may represent a novel category of FCE, vitelliform focal choroidal excavation, in which deposition of vitelliform material is associated with its development. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  11. Smart Calibration of Excavators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Marie; Døring, Kasper; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Excavators dig holes. But where is the bucket? The purpose of this report is to treat four different problems concerning calibrations of position indicators for excavators in operation at concrete construction sites. All four problems are related to the question of how to determine the precise...... geographic and/or site-relative position of a given excavator and its bucket. However, our presentations and solutions to the problems can, nevertheless, be read and studied in any order and independently of each other. This also implies and induces a gentle warning to the reader: The {\\em{notation}} need...

  12. Laboratory evaluation of asphalt binder rutting, fracture, and adhesion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The current performance grading (PG) specification for asphalt binders was developed based on the Strategic Highway : Research Program (SHRP) and is based primarily on the study of unmodified asphalt binders. Over the years, experience has : proven t...

  13. Lightweight Robotic Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight robotic excavators address the need for machines that dig, collect, transport and dump lunar soil. Robust and productive small robots enable mining rich...

  14. Lunar Excavator Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes to create a tool for simulation-based verification of lunar excavator designs. Energid will combine the best of 1) automatic control...

  15. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  16. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  17. Mobile continuous lunar excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A novel approach to the concept of lunar mining and the use of in situ oxygen, metallics, and ceramics is presented. The EVA time required to set up, relocate, and maintain equipment, as well as the cost per pound of shipping the mining and processing equipment to the moon are considered. The proposed soil fracturing/loading mechanisms are all based loosely on using the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Frame. All use motor driven tracks for mobility in the forward/reverse and left/right direction. All mechanisms employ the concept of rototillers which are attached to a gantry which, through the use of motor-driven lead screws, provide the rototillers with an up/down capability. A self-reactant excavator, a local mass enhanced excavator, and a soil reactant excavator are illustrated.

  18. Towards international excavation tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Over the last twenty years social opposition to mineral excavation has increased to such an extent in the densely populated Netherlands, that it is getting extremely difficult to discover new sites for quarrying coarse sand for concrete. While the Dutch government has attempted for many years to

  19. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  20. Excavator Design Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholsiri, Chalongrath; English, James; Seberino, Charles; Lim, Yi-Je

    2010-01-01

    The Excavator Design Validation tool verifies excavator designs by automatically generating control systems and modeling their performance in an accurate simulation of their expected environment. Part of this software design includes interfacing with human operations that can be included in simulation-based studies and validation. This is essential for assessing productivity, versatility, and reliability. This software combines automatic control system generation from CAD (computer-aided design) models, rapid validation of complex mechanism designs, and detailed models of the environment including soil, dust, temperature, remote supervision, and communication latency to create a system of high value. Unique algorithms have been created for controlling and simulating complex robotic mechanisms automatically from just a CAD description. These algorithms are implemented as a commercial cross-platform C++ software toolkit that is configurable using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The algorithms work with virtually any mobile robotic mechanisms using module descriptions that adhere to the XML standard. In addition, high-fidelity, real-time physics-based simulation algorithms have also been developed that include models of internal forces and the forces produced when a mechanism interacts with the outside world. This capability is combined with an innovative organization for simulation algorithms, new regolith simulation methods, and a unique control and study architecture to make powerful tools with the potential to transform the way NASA verifies and compares excavator designs. Energid's Actin software has been leveraged for this design validation. The architecture includes parametric and Monte Carlo studies tailored for validation of excavator designs and their control by remote human operators. It also includes the ability to interface with third-party software and human-input devices. Two types of simulation models have been adapted: high-fidelity discrete

  1. Elastomeric Cathode Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Soluble copolymer binder mixed with cathode material and solvent forms flexible porous cathode used in lithium and Ni/Cd batteries. Cathodes prepared by this process have lower density due to expanding rubbery binder and greater flexibility than conventional cathodes. Fabrication procedure readily adaptable to scaled-up processes.

  2. Safety excavation; Seguranca em escavacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Walter Manoel [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In the construction and maintenance services of buried pipelines, the excavation is the activity that contains larger risk, could cause serious accidents. Norms, procedures and technical articles, national and international goods, should be followed for legal and technical aspects. This paper - Safety in Excavations - has purpose to gather all the technical concepts and of safety in a document denominated Procedure of Safety Excavation, serving as instrument to systematize and control the execution of excavation services in construction civil, assembly and pipelines repairs, seeking the people, facilities and the environment's safety. (author)

  3. Qajaa Excavations 1981 and 1982

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Jensen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This report is an account of excavations conducted in 1981 and 1982 by Jørgen Meldgaard (1927-2007) The National Museum of Denmark at the Qajaa site in West Greenland. A total of 388 wooden objects, 255 bone artefacts, 696 lithic tools and more than 4000 flakes have been excavated and are presented...

  4. Selected aspects of designing deep excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrzud Rafał F.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two approaches to serviceability limit state (SLS verification for the deep excavation boundary value problem. The verification is carried out by means of the finite element (FE method with the aid of the commercial program ZSoil v2014. In numerical simulations, deep excavation in non-cohesive soil is supported with a diaphragm wall. In the first approach, the diaphragm wall is modeled with the Hookean material assuming reduced average stiffness and possible concrete cracking. The second approach is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the wall is modeled by defining its stiffness with the highest nominal Young’s modulus. The modulus makes it possible to find design bending moments which are used to compute the minimal design cross-section reinforcement for the retaining structure. The computed reinforcement is then used in a non-linear structural analysis which is viewed as the “actual” SLS verification.

  5. Research on Trajectory Planning and Autodig of Hydraulic Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the advances in computer control technology keep emerging, robotic hydraulic excavator becomes imperative. It can improve excavation accuracy and greatly reduce the operator’s labor intensity. The 12-ton backhoe bucket excavator has been utilized in this research work where this type of excavator is commonly used in engineering work. The kinematics model of operation device (boom, arm, bucket, and swing in excavator is established in both Denavit-Hartenberg coordinates for easy programming and geometric space for avoiding blind spot. The control approach is based on trajectory tracing method with displacements and velocities feedbacks. The trajectory planning and autodig program is written by Visual C++. By setting the bucket teeth’s trajectory, the program can automatically plan the velocity and acceleration of each hydraulic cylinder and motor. The results are displayed through a 3D entity simulation environment which can present real-time movements of excavator kinematics. Object-Oriented Graphics Rendering Engine and skeletal animation are used to give accurate parametric control and feedback. The simulation result shows that a stable linear autodig can be achieved. The errors between trajectory planning command and simulation model are analyzed.

  6. 18 CFR 1304.303 - Channel excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Channel excavation... Activities on TVA Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.303 Channel excavation. (a) Channel excavation of... encourage owners of flowage easement property to adopt the standards for channel excavation applicable to...

  7. Percussive Excavation of Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested using a percussive motion could improve the efficiency of excavation by up to 90%. If this is proven to be true it would be very beneficial to excavation projects on the Moon and Mars. The purpose of this study is to design, build and test a percussive tool which could dig a trench and then compare this data against that of a non-percussive tool of the same shape and size. The results of this test thus far have been inconclusive due to malfunctions in the testbed and percussive bucket; however, experimental results from small scale experiments confirm this higher efficiency and support further testing.

  8. Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC is developing an innovative Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) to excavate in situ regolith, ice-regolith mixes, and a variety of other geologic materials...

  9. Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop an innovative Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) to excavate in situ regolith, ice-regolith mixes, and a variety of other geologic...

  10. Binder-free Carbon Nanotube Flexible Solid State Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, Kofi; Ma, Danhao; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Lueking, Angela; Randell, Clive

    2015-03-01

    We present a post synthesis self-assemble protocol that transforms the trillions of CNTs in powder form into densely packed flexible, robust and binder-free macroscopic membranes with hierarchical pore structure. The binder-free CNT membranes could be as thin as 85°C and CV voltage ~ 3V with very low leakage current ~ 10nA. This Work is Supported by Penn State Altoona Undergraduate Research Sponsored Program and Penn State Materials Research Institute, University Park

  11. Aging of Rejuvenated Asphalt Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern that limits the RAP content in asphalt mixtures is the fact that the aged binder that is present in the RAP can cause premature cracking. Rejuvenators are frequently added to high RAP mixtures to enhance the properties of the binder. There is no existing method to predict the longevity of a rejuvenated asphalt. This study investigated the aging of rejuvenated binders and compared their durability with that of virgin asphalt. Various samples with different types and proportions of RAP, virgin binder, and rejuvenator were aged by RTFO and three cycles of PAV. DSR and BBR tests were conducted to examine the high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties of binders. Results indicated that the type and dosage of the rejuvenator have a great influence on the aging rate and durability of the binder. Some rejuvenators make the binder age slower, while others accelerate aging. These observations confirm the importance of evaluating the long-term aging of recycled binders. For this purpose, critical PAV time was proposed as a measure of binder’s longevity.

  12. Char binder for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  13. Reliability and Assessment Techniques on Ground Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanga Tangchawal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning and assessment on the excavation of the brittle materials (soil or rock can be done by using the machinery and/or explosives. The reliability assessment has been proposed to predict the failure of ground during excavation process. The stability planning on cutting soil (rock face by machinery can be compared between the deterministic and the statistical method. The risk of using explosives for rock excavation has to concern on the damage and environmental impacts after blasting events.

  14. Reasons for phosphate binder discontinuation vary by binder type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven; Anum, Emmanuel A; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Alfieri, Thomas; Braunhofer, Peter; Newsome, Britt

    2014-03-01

    Nonadherence to phosphate binder regimen is common among end-stage renal disease patients and contributes to elevated phosphorus levels. Pill burden, side effects, complex regimens, and cost all contribute to nonadherence. We retrospectively analyzed reasons for discontinuation in hemodialysis patients receiving treatment at a large U.S. dialysis organization to better understand the drivers of nonadherence for particular phosphate binders. Patient electronic medical records were reviewed to identify phosphate binder prescriptions and reasons for discontinuation. Reasons for discontinuation were categorized and the percentage of patients on each type of phosphate binder was calculated within categories. Medicare patients of age ≥18 years, receiving in-center hemodialysis treatment between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011, were included in the analysis. We classified 30,933 patient records with a stated reason for phosphate binder discontinuation for this study. Of these records, 50.1% cited that the patient discontinued the phosphate binder but contained no additional information; "lab results" were cited for 27.4% of the reasons for discontinuation and "patient-reported side effects" for 10.8%. Although patients on lanthanum carbonate accounted for 14% of the total number reasons for discontinuation assessed, they comprised 40% of the "patient-reported side effects" category and were similarly overrepresented in 4 of the 5 subcategories. The high percentage of patient-reported side effects resulting in discontinuation identifies an unmet need for improved phosphate binders. A disproportionate percentage of patients prescribed lanthanum carbonate reported side effects, however further work is needed to identify the relative tolerability of phosphate binders and potential explanations. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Method Of Characterizing An Electrode Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Coco, Isabelle; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1999-05-11

    In a method of characterizing a polymer binder for cell electrodes in contact with an electrolyte and including a current collector and a paste containing an electrochemically active material and said binder, a spreading coefficient of the binder on the active material is calculated from the measured angle of contact between standard liquids and the active material and the binder, respectively. An interaction energy of the binder with the electrolyte is calculated from the measured angle of contact between the electrolyte and the binder. The binder is selected such that the spreading coefficient is less than zero and the interaction energy is at least 60 mJ/m.sup.2.

  16. Testing of Binders Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, V.; Nelyubova, V.; Rykunova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the toxicological effect of binders with different compositions on the vital activity of plant and animal test-objects. The analysis of the effect on plant cultures was made on the basis of the phytotesting data. The study of the effect of binders on objects of animal origin was carried out using the method of short-term testing. Based on the data obtained, binders are ranked according to the degree of increase in the toxic effect: Gypsum → Portland cement → Slag Portland cement. Regardless of the test-object type, the influence of binders is due to the release of various elements (calcium ions or heavy metals) into the solution. In case of plant cultures, the saturation of the solution with elements has a positive effect (there is no inhibitory effect), and in case of animal specimens - an increase in the toxic effect.

  17. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation project quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%−90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  18. Slope excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation in hydraulic projects based on laser scanning technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slope excavation is one of the most crucial steps in the construction of a hydraulic project. Excavation project quality assessment and excavated volume calculation are critical in construction management. The positioning of excavation projects using traditional instruments is inefficient and may cause error. To improve the efficiency and precision of calculation and assessment, three-dimensional laser scanning technology was used for slope excavation quality assessment. An efficient data acquisition, processing, and management workflow was presented in this study. Based on the quality control indices, including the average gradient, slope toe elevation, and overbreak and underbreak, cross-sectional quality assessment and holistic quality assessment methods were proposed to assess the slope excavation quality with laser-scanned data. An algorithm was also presented to calculate the excavated volume with laser-scanned data. A field application and a laboratory experiment were carried out to verify the feasibility of these methods for excavation quality assessment and excavated volume calculation. The results show that the quality assessment indices can be obtained rapidly and accurately with design parameters and scanned data, and the results of holistic quality assessment are consistent with those of cross-sectional quality assessment. In addition, the time consumption in excavation quality assessment with the laser scanning technology can be reduced by 70%–90%, as compared with the traditional method. The excavated volume calculated with the scanned data only slightly differs from measured data, demonstrating the applicability of the excavated volume calculation method presented in this study.

  19. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  20. Excavation costs for lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III

    1979-01-01

    A lunar strip mining system is presented which is capable of excavating and transporting 3 million metric tons of ore per year to a central processing plant on the moon's surface. The mining system would grow from a single front-end loader in the first year, to a fleet of ten haulers in the 30th year. Lunar personnel requirements would consist of a single individual, whose primary function would be to perform maintenance. All of the mining equipment would either operate automatically or by remote control from earth. The projected cost for the lunar mining system is approximately $12 to $37 per ton of ore over the life of the mine, an important part of the overall economics of exploiting lunar resources.

  1. Excavations of Islamic Jarash, 2002-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary report on the excavations at Jarash's mosque by the Danish-Jordanian Islamic Jarash Project during four seasons between 2002 and 2005.......A preliminary report on the excavations at Jarash's mosque by the Danish-Jordanian Islamic Jarash Project during four seasons between 2002 and 2005....

  2. Polysiloxane binder for lithium ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-13

    An electrode includes a binder and an electroactive material, wherein the binder includes a polymer including a linear polysiloxane or a cyclic polysiloxane. The polymer may be generally represented by Formula I: ##STR00001##

  3. Alkali Activated Binders Based on Metakaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Sele, Laura; Bajare, Diana; Girts BUMANIS; Dembovska, Laura

    2015-01-01

    According to research conducted in last 25 years, alkali activated binders have been considered as one of the most progressive alternative binders, which can effectively replace Portland cement. Production of alkali activated binders differs from the Portland cement production and is associated with lower CO2 emissions. The use of recycled industrial by-products and wastes is also possible, what corresponds to the future guidelines and principles of sustainable binder production in the world....

  4. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  5. The huge ATLAS cavern now fully excavated

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Excavation of the ATLAS cavern is now complete! At the end of two years' work involving a tremendous technical challenge, the civil engineering contractors have succeeded in digging out one of the biggest experimental caverns in the world. Bravo!

  6. An in vitro comparison of fluorescence-aided caries excavation and conventional excavation by microhardness testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guangyun; Zhu, Laikuan; Xu, Xiaohui; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare fluorescence-aided caries excavation with conventional excavation based on the Martens and Vickers hardness of dentin at the cavity floor after caries removal. In total, 20 extracted human teeth with dentin caries were bisected through the lesion center into two halves, which were assigned to either the fluorescence-aided caries excavation group or the conventional excavation group. After the treatment, embedding, mounting, and polishing, a line of indentations from the dental pulp across the sound dentin to the cavity floor was made on each sample. The data were compared with Student's t and Mann-Whitney U tests. The calculated Vickers hardness of the sound dentin was 57 ± 10 kg/mm(2) in the fluorescence-aided caries excavation group and 59 ± 8 kg/mm(2) in the conventional excavation group, which is consistent with the previous studies. The absolute and relative Martens hardness measurements of the cavity floor were 224 ± 93 N/mm(2) and 46 ± 17%, respectively, in the fluorescence-aided caries excavation group and 412 ± 75 N/mm(2) and 81 ± 14%, respectively, in the conventional excavation group. Based on either the Martens or Vickers hardness, both the absolute and relative microhardness measurements of the cavity floor after fluorescence-aided caries excavation were significantly lower than the values obtained by conventional excavation. Fluorescence-aided caries excavation showed the tissue-preserving property and was more conservative than the conventional excavation in this in vitro study.

  7. Focal choroidal excavation complicated by choroidal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Zeng, Fanxing; Shi, Depeng; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiuli; Bai, Yao

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical findings of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Retrospective, observational case series. Twelve patients (15 eyes) with FCE and CNV. The medical records of the patients were reviewed. Clinical findings including age, sex, refraction, color photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) were analyzed. Fundus fluorescein angiography, ICGA, and OCT findings. The 12 patients included 6 women and 6 men. The mean age was 46.8±13.4 years (range, 26-64 years). One half of the patients were emmetropic, and the others were myopic (-0.5 to -3.0 diopters). All subjects were Chinese. Before CNV development, normal appearance or nonspecific pigment disturbance could be seen around the choroidal excavation. Corresponding to the excavation, window defects were observed by FFA, whereas hypofluorescence was found on ICGA images. Choroidal neovascularization in all eyes was classic as revealed by FFA. The OCT images showed that all eyes had a single choroidal excavation. In 7 of the 15 eyes, the choroidal excavation was located subfoveally, and in the other 8 eyes, it was eccentric. All CNV lesions grew from the bottom or slope of the excavation. Three patients had bilateral involvement. Choroidal neovascularization occurred in both conforming and nonconforming type FCEs, regardless of whether the excavation was shallow or deep, subfoveal or eccentric. All CNV lesions responded well to intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. After a single injection, CNV regressed in 13 of 15 eyes. Two eyes received an additional injection. Nonconforming FCE changed to the conforming type after successful treatment of CNV. Focal choroidal excavation is not always stable. Choroidal neovascularization commonly can be seen in patients with FCE and responds well to intravitreal anti-VEGF agents

  8. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.

  9. 7 CFR 30.15 - Cigar binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cigar binder. 30.15 Section 30.15 Agriculture... Cigar binder. A portion of a tobacco leaf rolled around the filler of a cigar to bind or hold it together and form the first covering. Cigar-binder tobacco is tobacco of the kind and quality commonly used...

  10. Sacred activity by the Method of Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Anjos Furtado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Excavation is a clinical and teaching methodology created by the first author of this article. It constitutes a way of helping subjects think, make and speak. This process occurs through the xcavation of making, unblinding and/or unveiling elements in search for the understanding of sacred activity. Through xcavation, subjects understand their thoughts, values and the society in which they live in as they excavate their life stories and their relations with making, including their daily, social and work activities. We applied a thoughtful analysis to approach the role of excavation and the concept of sacred activity. Sacred activity is the core activity of every human being, which is not necessarily the activity we perform in our everyday or work life. Sacred activity is that in which subjects are inserted and experience integrally, genuinely and with no masking. Through sacred activities, subjects surrender, not only to the activity itself, but also to the other, to himself and into himself, by quest. Seeking sacred activity is, therefore, a process of questioning, excavating the routine of subjects, watching and understanding the content of this excavation, replacing and adjusting what is being unveiled, and thus making this activity sacred. In this analysis, we concluded that, by the method of excavation, the sacralization of this action should allow subjects to have tender relationships, and thus be cured.

  11. Characteristics of Braced Excavation under Asymmetrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjie Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous excavation practices have shown that large discrepancies exist between field monitoring data and calculated results when the conventional symmetry-plane method (with half-width is used to design the retaining structure under asymmetrical loads. To examine the characteristics of a retaining structure under asymmetrical loads, we use the finite element method (FEM to simulate the excavation process under four different groups of asymmetrical loads and create an integrated model to tackle this problem. The effects of strut stiffness and wall length are also investigated. The results of numerical analysis clearly imply that the deformation and bending moment of diaphragm walls are distinct on different sides, indicating the need for different rebar arrangements when the excavation is subjected to asymmetrical loads. This study provides a practical approach to designing excavations under asymmetrical loads. We analyze and compare the monitoring and calculation data at different excavation stages and find some general trends. Several guidelines on excavation design under asymmetrical loads are drawn.

  12. The Influence of Wall Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the thermal bridge effects that occur in wall binders in masonry buildings. The effects are analyzed using a numerical calculation programme.The results are compared to the values given in the danish standard, DS418....

  13. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  14. A Review of Lunar Regolith Excavation Robotic Device Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Van Susante, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The excavation of lunar regolith is desirable for use as a feedstock for oxygen production processes as well as civil engineering purposes and for the fabrication of parts and structures. This is known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). More recently, there has been mounting evidence that water ice exists at the poles of the Moon, buried in the regolith where thermally stable conditions exist. This means that regolith excavation will be required to mine the water ice which is believed to be. mixed in with the regolith, or bonded to it. The mined water ice can then be electrolyzed to produce hydrogen and oxygen propellants which could form the basis of a cis-lunar transportation system using in-situ derived propellants. In 2007, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition as part of its Centennial Challenges program, The competition was not won and it was held again in 2008 and 2009, when it was won by a university team. A $500,000 prize was awarded to the winning team by NASA. In 2010, NASA continued the competition as a spinoff of the Centennial Challenges, which is restricted to university participation only. This competition is known as the "Lunabotics Mining Competition" and is hosted by NASA at Kennedy Space Center. Twenty three American university teams competed in the 2010 Lunabotics Mining Competition. The competition was held again in May 2011 with over 60 teams registered, including international participation. The competition will be held again in May 2012 at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. . This paper contains a thorough review of the various regolith eX,cavation robotic device prototypes that competed in these NASA competitions, and will. classify the machines and their methods of excavation to document the variety of ideas that were spawned and built to compete at these events. It is hoped that documentation of these robots will serve to help future robotic excavation designers and

  15. Calculation of the Chilling Requirement for Air Conditioning in the Excavation Roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueping Qin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively improve the climate conditions of the excavation roadway in coal mine, the calculation of the chilling requirement taking air conditioning measures is extremely necessary. The temperature field of the surrounding rock with moving boundary in the excavation roadway was numerically simulated by using finite volume method. The unstable heat transfer coefficient between the surrounding rock and air flow was obtained via the previous calculation. According to the coupling effects of the air flow inside and outside air duct, the differential calculation mathematical model of air flow temperature in the excavation roadway was established. The chilling requirement was calculated with the selfdeveloped computer program for forecasting the required cooling capacity of the excavation roadway. A good air conditioning effect had been observed after applying the calculated results to field trial, which indicated that the prediction method and calculation procedure were reliable.

  16. Clamshell excavation of a permeable reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfetta, Antonio Di; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2006-06-01

    Nowadays, permeable reactive barriers (PRB) are one of the most widespread techniques for the remediation of contaminated aquifers. Over the past 10 years, the use of iron-based PRBs has evolved from innovative to accepted standard practice for the treatment of a variety of groundwater contaminants (ITRC in: Permeable reactive barriers: lessons learned/new directions. The Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council, Permeable Reactive Barriers Team 2005). Although, a variety of excavation methods have been developed, backhoe excavators are often used for the construction of PRBs. The aim of this study is to describe the emplacement of a full-scale PRB and the benefits deriving from the use of a crawler crane equipped with a hydraulic grab (also known as clamshell excavator) in the excavation phases. The studied PRB was designed to remediate a chlorinated hydrocarbons plume at an old industrial landfill site, in Avigliana, near the city of Torino, in Italy. The continuous reactive barrier was designed to be 120 m long, 13 m deep, and 0.6 m thick. The installation of the barrier was accomplished using a clamshell for the excavation of the trench and a guar-gum slurry to support the walls. The performance of this technique was outstanding and allowed the installation of the PRB in 7 days. The degree of precision of the excavation was very high because of the intrinsic characteristics of this excavation tool and of the use of a concrete curb to guide the hydraulic grab. Moreover, the adopted technique permitted a saving of bioslurry thus minimizing the amount of biocide required.

  17. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Observation of asphalt binder microstructure with ESEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, P; Kadhim, H; Baaj, H; Tighe, S

    2017-09-01

    The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material. The magnification and ESEM settings conducive to observing the 3D microstructure were determined through a number of observations to be 1000×, although other magnifications could be considered. Both straight run binder (PG 58-28) and an air blown oxidised binder were analysed; their structures being compared for their relative size, abundance and other characteristics, showing a clear evolution in the fibril microstructure. The microstructure took longer to appear for the oxidised binder. It was confirmed that the fibril microstructure corresponded to actual characteristics in the asphalt binder. Additionally, a 'bee' micelle structure was found as a transitional structure in ESEM observation. The test methods in this study will be used for more comprehensive analysis of asphalt binder microstructure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. The expanded spectrum of focal choroidal excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Ron; Mukkamala, Sri Krishna; Jampol, Lee M; Spaide, Richard F; Ober, Michael D; Sorenson, John A; Gentile, Ronald C; Miller, Joel A; Sherman, Jerome; Freund, K Bailey

    2011-10-01

    To describe the clinical and imaging findings in patients with focal choroidal excavation. Retrospective observational case series. The medical records of 12 patients (13 eyes) with focal choroidal excavation were reviewed. Clinical histories and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography) were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 45 years (range, 22-62 years). Four patients were Asian. Mean visual acuity was 20/31 (range, 20/20 to 20/100). Mean refractive error was -3.54 diopters (D) (range, 6.00 to -8.00 D). One patient had bilateral involvement. All patients manifested varying degrees of foveal pigmentary changes that were usually hypoautofluorescent on fundus autofluorescence images. Fluorescein angiographic findings varied with degree of retinal pigment epithelial alterations. Indocyanine green angiography revealed relative hypofluorescence. In 7 eyes, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed outer retinal layers conforming to retinal pigment epithelial alterations within the excavation. In the other 6 eyes, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed a separation between the outer retina and the retinal pigment epithelium within the excavation. In 7 eyes studied with enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, there was no evidence of scleral ectasia. Mean choroidal thickness of the uninvolved choroid was thicker than normal at 319 μm (range, 244-439 μm). All lesions remained stable except for in 1 eye, which had findings of central serous chorioretinopathy and secondary type 2 (subretinal) neovascularization. Focal choroidal excavation is a newly described idiopathic entity in eyes having 1 or more focal areas of choroidal excavation. In some patients, there may be an association with central

  20. Stepwise excavation in a permanent molar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Fernanda Ferruzzi; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2010-01-01

    The current study presents a 17-year clinical report of stepwise excavation and indirect pulp capping in a lower right first molar, with great dentin destruction and a lack of dentin support of the cusps. At the first appointment, indirect pulp capping with calcium hydroxide and a temporary filling...... with zinc oxide cement were performed to minimize the risk of pulp exposure during excavation. After 45 days, the remaining carious tissue was removed and a restoration with glass-ionomer lining (Vitrebond) and resin composite (P-50) was performed. Satisfactory morphology and function of the restoration...

  1. Natural course of symptomatic focal choroidal excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Introini, Ugo; Gagliardi, Marco; Sergenti, Jessica; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old man was referred to the authors' department for nonspecified macular dystrophy with persistent metamorphopsia in the right eye diagnosed 10 years before and followed using optical coherence tomography. The patient underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, including multimodal imaging evaluation and electrofunctional testing. The diagnosis was consistent with nonconforming focal choroid excavation. Over 10 years, no complications occurred, visual acuity was stable, and optical coherence tomography showed no progression of the lesion during follow-up. In this case, nonconforming symptomatic focal choroid excavation was a nonprogressive condition with good long-term visual outcome. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Effect of asphalt rejuvenating agent on aged reclaimed asphalt pavement and binder properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabahfar, Nassim

    Hot in-place recycling (HIR) preserves distressed asphalt pavements while minimizing use of virgin binder and aggregates. The final quality of an HIR mixture depends on characteristics of the original binder, aging of the pavement surface during service, and whether or not new binder or rejuvenator was added to the mixture. An HIR mixture should maintain desired properties for additional service periods, making asphalt binder modification inevitable. Asphalt binder modifications in HIR are commonly done by adding an asphalt rejuvenating agent (ARA). However, ARA may adversely affect the qualities of new HIR and potentially fail to improve the quality of the final surface. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of rejuvenation on HIR performance characteristics by assessing critical performance indicators such as stiffness, permanent deformation, moisture susceptibility, and cracking resistance. A two-step experimental program was designed that included mechanical property measurements of the HIR mixture and rheological properties of the extracted binder. The level of mixing occurring between new and aged binder with ARA was also investigated. HIR Samples were obtained from three Kansas Department of Transportation projects, and Hamburg wheel-tracking device, dynamic modulus, flow number, Texas overlay, thermal stress restrained specimen, and moisture susceptibility tests were conducted on mixtures with and without ARA. Rheological studies on the extracted binder included dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer tests. The miscibility of new and aged binder was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and the exudation droplet test (EDT). Study results showed significant variability in the mechanical performance of HIR mixtures, which was attributed to the variability of binders as observed in EDT, SEM and EDXS studies. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) showed that HIR

  3. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT - DEMONSTRATION OF A TRIAL EXCAVATION AT THE MCCOLL SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Region IX Superfund Program, in cooperation with EPA’s Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL), and EPA’s Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program performed a trial excavation of approximatel...

  4. Dilmun revisited: excavations at Saar, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Crawford

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available About 2000 BC the island of Bahrain was at the centre of a prosperous trading community - the Early Dilmun civilization - that stretched from Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley. Excavations at the site of Saar have, since 1989, recovered much new information about the layout of the settlement and its local economy and social system.

  5. Excavated Documents Dealing with Chinese Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yuzhen

    The materials ancient Chinese scholars used to write on changed from bamboo strips, wooden tablets, and silk in early China to paper in the later dynasties. This chapter will focus on excavated documents dealing with ancient Chinese astronomy and explore some of the ways that scholars have made use of these archaeological resources.

  6. Archaeological Rescue Excavations at the Dejazmach Gebreslassie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archaeological rescue test excavations that were carried out by the Ethiopian Cultural Heritage Project Site Planning and Conservation sub-component at the Gebreslassie Bariya Gabir palace enclosure at the back of The Main Stelae Field in Aksum from the 5th of June to the 15th of July 2005 yielded at least four ...

  7. Wear model of an excavator bucket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychev, Vladimir D.; Granovskii, Alexey Yu.; Nevskii, Sergey A.; Konovalov, Sergey V.; Gromov, Victor E.

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model describing wear of the interior faces of the excavator bucket during the long-termed operation is proposed. The model is based on the Navier-Stocks equation and boundary conditions. The bucket was modeled as a rectangular parallelepiped; one of its faces is permeable for a granular material, whereas the others meet the conditions of impermeability and adhesion. In the approximation of viscous fluid, motion equations of a granular material in the excavator bucket were solved by the finite elements method. The velocity distribution curves of material particles along the bucket surface are obtained. A vortex structure is revealed at the bottom-back wall edge of the bucket, and it is thought to be the reason for high wear in these zones. As shown by the granular material pressure distributed along the bucket walls, its maximum is at the bottom-back wall edge of the excavator bucket. It is considered to be the reason for high wear in the operation process. Therefore, the bottom and back walls of the excavator bucket should be coated with a composite armouring mesh via arc surfacing.

  8. Heathrow Terminal 5 Excavation Archive (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Framework Archaeology

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Framework Archaeology is a Joint Venture agreement between Oxford Archaeology (OA and Wessex Archaeology (WA to provide archaeological services to BAA (formerly British Airports Authority, now Heathrow Airport Holdings Ltd. Given the potential scale of some of BAA's projects, the joint venture enables Framework Archaeology to draw on the full resources of both OA and WA, including site staff, specialist managers, administrative support, and technical facilities. In 1993, BAA plc and Heathrow Airport Limited submitted a joint planning application to develop an additional passenger terminal complex (Terminal 5, together with the provision of aircraft aprons and taxiways, and include the realignment of rivers and landscaping. The resulting archaeological excavations were undertaken as three main phases of work. Excavations in 1996 by the Museum of London Archaeology Service of approximately 4 ha of sludge stockpile areas (site code POK96. Between 1999-2000 Framework Archaeology excavated approximately 21 ha in the Perry Oaks sludge works and adjacent areas (WPR98. Framework Archaeology also undertook excavations between 2002-2007 as part of the construction of Terminal 5 (PSH02, TEC05 covering a further 50 hectares. Importantly the aim of the Terminal 5 archaeological programme was to move beyond the description and recovery of archaeological remains and to arrive at an understanding of the history of human inhabitation and the practical ways in which people established their presence in the material, social and political conditions of their day.

  9. National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies Institute. Status report, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.

    1997-12-31

    The National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) program is intended to pool support, talent, and technologies of the industries dependent upon drilling and excavation technologies to initiate, coordinate, and sustain programs capable of developing substantial technological advances. The NADET Institute has been funded by the DOE Office of Geothermal Technologies and is now supporting seven projects aimed at advanced geothermal drilling technologies. The Institute seeks to broaden its base of funding and technological support from both government and industry sources. Encouraging progress has been made with the support of dues-paying industrial members and industrial sponsorship of a substantial drilling research study.

  10. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  11. The possibilites of coal seam underground excavation in Republic of Macedonia with high productive excavation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Doneva, Nikolinka; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents mining and geology properties of coal deposits in R.Macedonia predetermined for underground exploitation. Also it will be shown the way of coal seams preparation and development for underground excavation with longwall mining methods. Based on mining and geology properties of coal and it’s caloric value it will be observed the possibilities for application on the longwall mining which is among excavation methods with highest production and capacity applied in the contemp...

  12. MicroCT-based comparison between fluorescence-aided caries excavation and conventional excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guangyun; Kaisarly, Dalia; Xu, Xiaohui; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate and compare the use of micro-computed tomography (microCT) to investigate the mineral concentration of the treated dentin surface after caries removal with fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE) and conventional excavation. 20 extracted human teeth with dentin caries were bisected through the lesion center into two halves which were distributed to a FACE and a conventional excavation group. Tungsten-carbide round burs were used for both groups. Each specimen was investigated with microCT after excavation. The obtained images of all the specimens were evaluated using Image J. Based on the grey values, the linear attenuation coefficients were calculated. Four resin-embedded solid hydroxyapatite phantoms with the gradually increased mineral concentration were used to obtain a calibration curve and equation. Finally, the mineral concentration values of the superficial dentin of each specimen after removal and sound dentin were calculated. The data were compared with the Student's t-test. The statistical results showed that the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) of the treated surface was significantly lower (P excavation group was 2.98 +/- 0.19 cm(-1). The LAC of sound dentin was 3.89 +/- 0.10 cm(-1). By using the calibration equation, the calculated mineral concentration of the superficial dentin after caries removal were 0.68 +/- 0.14 g/cm3 in the FACE group and 1.05 +/- 0.08 g/cm3 in the conventional excavation group. The mineral concentration of sound dentin was 1.44 +/- 0.04 g/cm3. The mineral concentration of the superficial dentin after caries removal in the FACE group was about 47% of that of sound dentin, while the value in the conventional excavation group was approximately 73% of that of sound dentin. Under the conditions of this in vitro study, the results of the microCT evaluation may imply that FACE was more conservative than conventional excavation.

  13. MPED: An ISRU Bucket Ladder Excavator Demonstrator System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: The Multi-Purpose Excavation Demonstrator (MPED) is a commercial effort and a third generation of technology, following Bucket Wheel Excavator and Bucket...

  14. A Comparison Between The NORCAT Rover Test Results and the ISRU Excavation System Model Predictions Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Agui, Juan H.; Creager, Colin M.; Oravec, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. The Northern Centre for Advanced Technology Inc. rovers were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Simulated Lunar Operations facility. This testing was in support of the In-Situ Resource Utilization program Innovative Partnership Program. Testing occurred in soils developed at the Glenn Research Center which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. This testing is part of an ongoing correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model. The results from this series of tests compared reasonably with the predicted values from the code.

  15. Fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE), caries detector, and conventional caries excavation in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Aine M; Attin, Thomas; Martens, Sabine; Buchalla, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the ability of fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE) to remove infected dentin in primary teeth with that of conventional methods. Sixty-six extracted carious primary teeth were divided according to lesion size into 3 groups of 22 teeth. Caries excavation was carried out with a slow-speed handpiece and round burs for all groups. In the first group, caries was excavated conventionally using visual tactile criteria. In the second group, a caries detector dye was used to detect carious dentin. In the FACE group, cavities were excited with violet light (370-420 nm) and observed through a 530 nm highpass filter. Orange-red fluorescing areas were removed. Undecalcified thin slices were prepared, stained with Giemsa, and examined for presence of infected dentin using light microscopy. Four samples were lost during processing. Histology showed infected dentin in significantly less FACE samples (3 of 22) compared to conventional excavation (9 of 20; P=.03), but not significantly less compared to caries detector (5 of 20; P=.35). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that fluorescence-aided caries excavation is more effective than conventional excavation in removal of infected primary dentin.

  16. 43 CFR 10.3 - Intentional archaeological excavations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands § 10.3 Intentional archaeological excavations. (a) General... objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony that are excavated intentionally from Federal or... excavation of human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony from Federal...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.651 - Specific excavation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific excavation requirements. 1926.651 Section 1926.651..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations § 1926.651 Specific excavation requirements. (a) Surface encumbrances. All surface encumbrances that are located so as...

  18. Binder effect on seashell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Hatta, Mohamed Nasrul Mohamed; Baba, Noor Wahida Ab; Hussin, Rosniza; Ismail, Al Emran

    2017-10-01

    Self-protection or known as defensive covering can be alluded to something that can secure body, building, or vehicles from harm or assault. As the evolution going on, the material utilized as a part of plate armour continue changing, from steel, Kevlar, ceramic and the materials that can give better impact and benefit to the user. A study has been led to distinguish either seashell can be one of the fundamental source to produce protective material due to the properties of seashell that consist of calcium chloride. Seashell is crushed and chipped using variable speed rotor mill and is compressed into specimen shape followed the ASTM C1211-13. Three different samples is tested made from seashells that mix with three different binder i.e. water, kaolin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) each. The specimens then were sintered at elevated controlled temperature 400°C before run for three point bending test to determine their mechanical properties results. Result shows that specimen with water gives highest value for Young's modulus and ultimate strength compared to sample with binder of kaolin and PEG. This proved that seashell powder remain intact even at higher temperature.

  19. SLOPE STABILITY EVALUATION AND EQUIPMENT SETBACK DISTANCES FOR BURIAL GROUND EXCAVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCSHANE DS

    2010-03-25

    After 1970 Transuranic (TRU) and suspect TRU waste was buried in the ground with the intention that at some later date the waste would be retrieved and processed into a configuration for long term storage. To retrieve this waste the soil must be removed (excavated). Sloping the bank of the excavation is the method used to keep the excavation from collapsing and to provide protection for workers retrieving the waste. The purpose of this paper is to document the minimum distance (setback) that equipment must stay from the edge of the excavation to maintain a stable slope. This evaluation examines the equipment setback distance by dividing the equipment into two categories, (1) equipment used for excavation and (2) equipment used for retrieval. The section on excavation equipment will also discuss techniques used for excavation including the process of benching. Calculations 122633-C-004, 'Slope Stability Analysis' (Attachment A), and 300013-C-001, 'Crane Stability Analysis' (Attachment B), have been prepared to support this evaluation. As shown in the calculations the soil has the following properties: Unit weight 110 pounds per cubic foot; and Friction Angle (natural angle of repose) 38{sup o} or 1.28 horizontal to 1 vertical. Setback distances are measured from the top edge of the slope to the wheels/tracks of the vehicles and heavy equipment being utilized. The computer program utilized in the calculation uses the center of the wheel or track load for the analysis and this difference is accounted for in this evaluation.

  20. Focal choroidal excavation associated with focal retinochoroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Tetsutaro; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To describe detailed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings for two patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) associated with focal retinochoroiditis. Three eyes from two patients with FCE associated with focal retinochoroiditis were evaluated by funduscopy, fluorescence angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain OCT during follow-up. Both patients with focal retinochoroiditis developed new FCE after oral steroid treatment and two eyes showed regression of the FCE during the follow-up. Both eyes from one patient transformed from the conforming to the nonconforming type and neither of the eyes were stable during the follow-up. Ultimately, all eyes exhibited the conforming-type FCE. Focal choroidal excavation can be seen as a tomographic phenotype after the treatment of focal retinochoroiditis. Spectral-domain OCT was useful for detecting the development of FCE after the treatment and for observing FCE regression.

  1. Excavating and loading equipment for peat mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Zhigulskaya, A. I.; Yakonovskaya, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the issues of sustainable development of Russian regions, related to ensuring energy security, are more urgent than ever. To achieve sustainable development, an integrated approach to the use of local natural resources is needed. Practically in all north regions of the Russian Federation, peat as a local natural resource is widespread, which has a practical application in the area of housing services. The paper presents the evaluation of technologies for open-pit peat mining, as well as analysis of technological equipment for peat production. Special attention is paid to a question of peat materials excavating and loading. The problem of equipment selection in a peat surface mine is complex. Many features, restrictions and criteria need to be considered. Use of low and ultra-low ground pressure excavators and low ground pressure front-end loaders with full-range tires to provide the necessary floatation in the peat bog environment is offered.

  2. Choroidal neovascularization associated with focal choroidal excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Won Ki

    2014-03-01

    To describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) accompanied by focal choroidal excavation. Retrospective, interventional case series. The medical records of 16 patients (16 eyes) were reviewed. Imaging findings including fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) were analyzed. CNV complexes were primarily located beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (type 1 CNV) in 9 eyes and in the subneurosensory retinal space (type 2 CNV) in 7 eyes, as assessed by SD OCT. Seven of 8 patients over 50 years old had type 1 CNV, and 6 of 8 patients under 50 had type 2 lesions. All 7 eyes with type 2 CNV exhibited classic CNV on FA. Additionally, 7 of 9 eyes with type 1 CNV had the classic pattern, and in these eyes, the CNV complexes were confined to the concavity of choroidal excavation. In 15 patients treated by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections, the mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/44 to 20/26 with a mean of 3.7 injections during a mean follow-up period of 14.5 months. The CNV growth pattern and extent seem to be determined by the degree of damage to the retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch membrane complex resulting from choroidal excavation, as well as age. Neovascular complexes tend to be located within the boundary of choroidal excavation and are revealed as classic patterns on FA, even in type 1 CNV. Anti-VEGF was notably effective for treating these lesions, with a low rate of recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lunar Regolith Excavation Student Competition Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nething, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Systems team is working to learn about lunar regolith and how we can use it as a source of air, water, and fuel for spacecrafts. However, excavation of this valuable regolith is difficult because the robot has to conform to many specifications (mass limit, efficiency level, etc.). NASA has therefore decided to include college students and companies in the search to create the best robot by making it into a competition.

  4. Contiguous Pile Wall as a Deep Excavation Supporting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramasubbarao GODAVARTHI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing space for parking, public amenities, etc in multi-storey buildings at town centres has created a need to go deep excavations into ground. Deep excavations are supported by systems like conventional retaining walls, sheet pile walls, braced walls, diaphragm walls and pile walls. This article describes various excavation supporting systems that are in vogue essentially contiguous pile wall and its advantages. A detailed design methodology of an excavation supporting system is furnished in this study. A case study on the Contiguous pile wall retaining system for supporting a deep excavation at a town centre is presented.

  5. Telerobotic excavation system for unexploded ordnance retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Rossi, R.A. [Office of the Project Manager for Ammunition Logistics, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the US Army for unexploded ordnance (UXO) retrieval and general utility excavation activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks a development and demonstration project was initiated to evaluate performance capabilities of the SEE under telerobotic control. A technology demonstration of the TSEE was conducted at McKinley Range, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama on 13--17 September, 1993. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of remote UXO retrieval. During the demonstration, explosive ordnance disposal specialists were instructed on telerobotic operation of the TSEE, and then were asked to complete a simulated UXO retrieval task. Participants then submitted an evaluation of the system including human factors performance data. This presentation will describe the TSEE, retrieval demonstration, and summarize results of the performance evaluations. Some examples of the results are given below. Seventy percent of the demonstration participants found the tasks were as easy or easier to accomplish utilizing the remote system than with an unmodified system. Similarly, eighty percent of the participants found the TSEE hand controller was as easy or easier to use than the normal manual controls.

  6. Discrete Element Modeling for Mobility and Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, M. A.; Hopkins, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The planning and completion of mobility and excavation efforts on the moon requires a thorough understanding of the planetary regolith. In this work, a discrete element method (DEM) model is created to replicate those activities in the laboratory and for planning mission activities in the future. The crux of this work is developing a particle bed that best replicates the regolith tool/wheel interaction seen in the laboratory. To do this, a DEM geotechnical triaxial strength cell was created allowing for comparison of laboratory JSC-1a triaxial tests to DEM simulated soils. This model relies on a triangular lattice membrane covered triaxial cell for determining the macroscopic properties of the modeled granular material as well as a fast and efficient contact detection algorithm for a variety of grain shapes. Multiple grain shapes with increasing complexity (ellipsoid, poly-ellipsoid and polyhedra) have been developed and tested. This comparison gives us a basis to begin scaling DEM grain size and shape to practical values for mobility and excavation modeling. Next steps include development of a DEM scoop for percussive excavation testing as well as continued analysis of rover wheel interactions using a wide assortment of grain shape and size distributions.

  7. Excavation of Regolith by Impinging Jets of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.; Vu, Bruce T.; Donahue, Carly M.

    2006-01-01

    There are many situations in nature and technology where particulate matter is excavated by a fluid jet. Such a process is often used to excavate soil or to dig wells. Air jets are often used to transport particulate matter such as powders in various industrial processes. Similar situations occur in nature, as when waterfalls scour holes in sand. In other cases, the excavation is unwanted such as when a rocket lands on the sandy or dusty surface of a planet or moon. Recent research into regolith excavation by gas jets has obtained new insights into the physical processes of that excavation, and these may lead to new advances in technology for more efficient fluid-jet excavation processes and for better control of the unwanted excavation effects of landing rockets. This talk will explain the new insights and point to future work supporting lunar exploration.

  8. Focal choroidal excavation in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabban, Abdallah A; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Ooto, Sotaro; Yamashiro, Kenji; Oishi, Akio; Nakata, Isao; Miyake, Masahiro; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Arichika, Shigeta; Yoshitake, Shin; Takahashi, Ayako; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2013-10-01

    To study the prevalence and 3-dimensional (3-D) tomographic features of focal choroidal excavations in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). Prospective, cross-sectional study. We examined 116 consecutive eyes with CSC with a prototype 3-D swept-source OCT. 3-D images of the shape of the macular area, covering 6 × 6 mm(2), were reconstructed by segmentation of the outer surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The 3-D swept-source OCT detected focal choroidal excavations in 9 eyes (7.8%). The 3-D scanning protocol, coupled with en face scans, allowed for clear visualization of the excavation morphology. In 5 eyes with focal excavations, unusual choroidal tissue was found beneath the excavation, bridging the bottom of the excavation and the outer choroidal boundary. Additionally, 3 of those 5 eyes showed a suprachoroidal space below the excavation, as if the outer choroidal boundary is pulled inward by this bridging tissue. The focal choroidal excavations were located within fluorescein leakage points and areas of choroidal hyperpermeability. Eyes with focal choroidal excavations were more myopic (-4.42 ± 2.92 diopters) than eyes without excavations (-0.27 ± 1.80 diopters, P = .001). Subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly thinner (301.3 ± 60.1 μm) in eyes with focal excavations than in eyes without the excavations (376.6 ± 104.8 μm, P = .036). Focal choroidal excavations were present in 7.8% of eyes with CSC. In these eyes, focal choroidal excavations may have formed from RPE retraction caused by focal scarring of choroidal connective tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Binder Jetting Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sanjay; Manogharan, Guha

    2017-03-01

    Among several additive manufacturing (AM) methods, binder-jetting has undergone a recent advancement in its ability to process metal powders through selective deposition of binders on a powder bed followed by curing, sintering, and infiltration. This study analyzes the impact of various process parameters in binder jetting on mechanical properties of sintered AM metal parts. The Taguchi optimization method has been employed to determine the optimum AM parameters to improve transverse rupture strength (TRS), specifically: binder saturation, layer thickness, roll speed, and feed-to-powder ratio. The effects of the selected process parameters on the TRS performance of sintered SS 316L samples are studied with the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standard test method. It was found that binder saturation and feed-to-powder ratio were the most critical parameters, which reflects the strong influence of binder powder interaction and density of powder bed on resulting mechanical properties. This article serves as an aid in understanding the optimum process parameters for binder jetting of SS 316L.

  10. Design of a novel system allowing the selection of an adequate binder for solidification/stabilization of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera, J.; Thevenin, G.; Chabannet, M. [INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-10-01

    Literature review shows that there is a lack of complete and consistent data on waste-binder interactions. Few links exist between research on the Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) mechanisms and the formulation of binders for immobilization. Therefore, a twofold program was developed allowing both to be done in parallel. This protocol had two targets: understanding the mechanisms involved in the S/S of heavy metals for each type of binder and rating the binder capacity for fixing heavy metals. The experimental procedure relies on two substrates: (1) the study of suspensions by means of conductimetry, XRD, FTIR, DTA, SEM-EDXA, ICP, ion chromatography, and colorimetry; and (2) the study of pure pastes for leaching tests and microstructural characterization (XRD, FTIR, DTA, SEM-EDXA). Results confirm whether the pollutant modifies the hydration or not, give access to the extent of binder stabilization without taking into account the solidification part, and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  11. 7 CFR 29.6126 - Binder (B Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Binder (B Group). 29.6126 Section 29.6126 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6126 Binder (B Group). Tobacco of this group is of cigar-binder quality from..., and tolerances B1 Fine Quality Binder. Thin, ripe, open, elastic, strong, spready, and 19 inches or...

  12. 46 CFR 309.101 - Amendment of interim binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment of interim binders. 309.101 Section 309.101... INSURANCE § 309.101 Amendment of interim binders. The interim binder for a vessel whose stated valuation is... after the attachment of the insurance under the interim binder to which such valuation applies...

  13. Airborne asbestos fibres monitoring in tunnel excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Sanguineti, Elisa; Yus González, Adrián; Militello, Gaia Maria; Scuderi, Alberto; Parisi, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    Tunnelling across ophiolitic formation with Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) can release fibres into the environment, exposing workers, and the population, if fibres spread outside the tunnel, leading to increased risk of developing asbestos-related disease. Therefore, a careful plan of environmental monitoring is carried out during Terzo Valico tunnel excavation. In the present study, data of 1571 samples of airborne dust, collected between 2014 and 2016 inside the tunnels, and analyzed by SEM-EDS for quantification of workers exposure, are discussed. In particular, the engineering and monitoring management of 100 m tunnelling excavation across a serpentinite lens (Cravasco adit), intercalated within calcschists, is reported. At this chrysotile occurrence, 84% of 128 analyzed samples (from the zone closer to the front rock) were above 2 ff/l. However, thanks to safety measures implemented and tunnel compartmentation in zones, the asbestos fibre concentration did not exceed the Italian standard of occupational exposure (100 ff/l) and 100% of samples collected in the outdoor square were below 1 ff/l. During excavation under normal working conditions, asbestos concentrations were below 2 ff/l in 97.4% of the 668 analyzed samples. Our results showed that air monitoring can objectively confirm the presence of asbestos minerals at a rock front in relative short time and provide information about the nature of the lithology at the front. The present dataset, the engineering measures described and the operative conclusions are liable to support the improvement of legislation on workers exposure to asbestos referred to the tunnelling sector, lacking at present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Focal choroidal excavation: Clinical findings and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Navarro, V; Montero Hernández, J; Navarro Palop, C; Palomares Fort, P; Cervera Taulet, E

    2016-01-01

    To describe the clinical findings and its complications in 2 patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE). A retrospective case-series including 4 eyes of 2 patients with FCE that underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological examination including slit-lamp examination, colour fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography. In the 2 patients, both the anterior and posterior segment evaluations were mostly normal despite the of presence yellowish spots in the macular area of the right eye of patient 1, and of a small yellowish elevated lesion with serous macular detachment in the macular area of the left eye in patient 2. At diagnosis, SD-OCT revealed a conforming FCE in patient 1, and in patient 2, an FCE with perilesional subretinal fluid and a neuroepithelium detachment, suspicious of FCE complicated with central serous retinopathy (CSCR). At one year of follow-up, patient 1 developed choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) over the focal choroidal excavation. FA and indocyanine green angiography examinations revealed areas with hypofluorescence in earlier frames, and a diffuse leakage in late frames. After ranibizumab injections, the SD-OCT of patient 1 revealed no active exudation, while patient 2 showed partial resolution of subretinal fluid. FCE is a newly described entity of unclear aetiology. It is characterised by a choroidal excavation in eyes, with absence of posterior staphyloma, scleral ectasia, trauma, or retinal disease. Although most lesions remain stable, there could be an association with CRSC or CNV. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, Frank M [Albuquerque, NM; Reinhardt, Frederick W [Albuquerque, NM; Odinek, Judy G [Rio Rancho, NM

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  16. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  17. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 and Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 is an excavation robot for mining regolith on a planet like Mars. The robot is programmed using the Robotic Operating System (ROS) and it also uses a physical simulation program called Gazebo. This internship focused on various functions of the program in order to make it a more professional and efficient robot. During the internship another project called the Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator was worked on. This is a robot that is designed to dig through sand and extract sample material. The intern worked on programming the Sand-Swimming robot, and designing the electrical system to power and control the robot.

  18. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the pro...

  19. A STRUCTURAL MODEL OF AN EXCAVATOR WORKFLOW CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gurko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthwork improving is connected with excavators automation. In this paper, on the basis of the analysis of problems that a hydraulic excavator control system have to solve, the hierarchical structure of a control system have been proposed. The decomposition of the control process had been executed that allowed to develop the structural model which reflects the characteristics of a multilevel space-distributed control system of an excavator workflow.

  20. Pneumatic Excavation Mechanism for Lunar Resource Utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics, in collaboration with Firestar Engineering, proposes to continue development of a pneumatic regolith excavating, moving and heating approach. With...

  1. Focal Choroidal Excavation in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Mohammad Riazi; Esfahani, Hamid Riazi; Mahmoudi, Alireza; Johari, Mohammad Karim; Hemati, Karim

    2015-05-01

    Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) was first reported as a choroidal posteriorly excavated zone without any scleral change. Choroidal excavation also divided into conforming and nonconforming type. Numerous reports demonstrated association between FCE and other disease such as choroidal neovascularization and central serous choroidoretinopathy. Here, we report a rare case of FCE in a patient with Best disease. The patient was diagnosed by spectoral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second report of choroidal excavation in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy.

  2. Theory and technology of rock excavation for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Dingxiang

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the technical advances in recent decades and the various theories on rock excavation raised by scholars from different countries, including China and Russia. It not only focuses on rock blasting but also illustrates a number of non-blasting methods, such as mechanical excavation in detail. The book consists of 3 parts: Basic Knowledge, Surface Excavation and Underground Excavation. It presents a variety of technical methods and data from diverse sources in the book, making it a valuable theoretical and practical reference resource for engineers, researchers and postgraduates alike.

  3. Focal Choroidal Excavation in Retinal Dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimah, Imoro Zeba; Rapole, Shruthi; Dumpala, Sunila; Chhablani, Jay

    2016-08-17

    To investigate the presence of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Stargardt's disease (STGD), and Best disease in the Indian population. This retrospective consecutive case series included 309 eyes of 157 patients with RP (183 eyes), STGD (93 eyes), and Best disease (33 eyes) with good-quality, enhanced-depth spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans. Comprehensive ophthalmic examination data were collected. Characteristics of FCE, including location of FCE, type (conforming and non-conforming), maximal width, and depth, were noted. FCE was found in 2 out of 33 (6%) eyes with Best disease and no FCE was found in eyes with RP or STGD. The location of the FCE was extrafoveal in both cases. The first case had non-conforming FCE while the second case had the conforming type and the FCE occurred in association with choroidal neovascularization in the second case. The first case maintained good visual acuity of 20/20 over the entire period of follow-up (14 months), while the second case had a visual acuity of 20/200 at the last follow-up (three years) due to scarred choroidal neovascular membranes. The FCE showed no change in both eyes over the entire duration of follow-up. Focal choroidal excavation was found in 6% of eyes with Best disease, which remained stable throughout follow up. Eyes with RP and STGD did not have any FCE. Further studies are required to determine the role of vitelliform material in FCE development in Best disease.

  4. Woodpecker Excavation and Use of Cavities in Polystyrene Snags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    1996-01-01

    We examined woodpecker excavation and use of artificial polystyrene snags in four forest types in eastern Texas for five years. Twenty-three of 47 artificial snags were used by Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) for cavity excavation and subsequent nocturnal roosting; they did not use the artificial snags for nesting. Although six ather species of woodpeckers...

  5. Preliminary results of excavations at Lincoln Cave, Sterkfontein, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reynolds, SC

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent excavations of undisturbed deposits within the Lincoln Cave, Sterkfontein, have conclusively demonstrated that at least one of the deposits is mid-late Pleistocene in age. The artefacts recovered from this excavation are in a datable context...

  6. Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Schuler, Jason M.; Smith, Jonathan Drew; Nick, Andrew J.; Lippitt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached at the end of the arm simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of movement. Impact energies from 13.6J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 BPM to 700 BPM were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 50% was achieved in this experimental investigation.

  7. Evaluation of new binders using newly developed fracture energy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated a total of seven asphalt binders with various additives : using the newly developed binder fracture energy test. The researchers prepared and : tested PAV-aged and RTFO-plus-PAV-aged specimens. This study confirmed previous : res...

  8. Texas cracking performance prediction, simulation, and binder recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies show some mixes with softer binders used outside of Texas (e.g., Minnesotas Cold Weather Road Research Facility mixes) have both good rutting and cracking performance. However, the current binder performance grading (PG) system fail...

  9. Improving the Selection of Virgin Binders for Recycled Hot Mixtures in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara A. Sanchez-Castillo, MASc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of Recycled Hot Mixtures (RHM in the United States is based on the guidelines provided by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP Report 452. However, the extreme climatic characteristics in Canada require a validation on the selection of the virgin binders especially for Superpave Surface layer mixtures. This paper shows the results of a laboratory characterization of twelve conventional Superpave 12.5 mm mixtures, four of them with high Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP content. Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST was conducted on triplicate samples for each mixture, and also the continuous grades for the binders were obtained. The findings were compared with the recent guidelines provided by the NCHRP Report 752. Dynamic modulus was performed and used to determine the critical temperatures of the blended binder without extraction. The analyses suggest that the virgin binder could be selected based on the critical temperature of the climate zone and the RAP content, and that the use of softer binders could not guaranty that the mixtures have the desired performance to low temperature cracking.

  10. BINDER DRAINAGE TEST FOR POROUS MIXTURES MADE BY VARYING THE MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiman Hardiman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Binder drainage occurs with mixes of small aggregate surface area particularly porous asphalt. The binder drainage test, developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, UK, is commonly used to set an upper limit on the acceptable binder content for a porous mix. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the effects of different binder types on the binder drainage characteristics of porous mix made of various maximum aggregate sizes 20, 14 and 10 mm. Two types of binder were used, conventional 60/70 pen bitumen, and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS modified bitumen. The amount of binder lost through drainage after three hours at the maximum mixing temperature were measured in duplicate for mixes of different maximum sizes and binder contents. The maximum mixing temperature adopted depends on the types of binder used. The retained binder is plotted against the initial mixed binder content, together with the line of equality where the retained binder equals the mixed binder content. The results indicate the significant contribution of using SBS modified bitumen to increase the target bitumen binder content. Their significance is discussed in terms of target binder content, the critical binder content, the maximum mixed binder content and the maximum retained binder content values obtained from the binder drainage test. It was concluded that increasing maximum aggregate sizes decrease the maximum retained binder content, critical binder content, target binder content, maximum mixed binder content, and mixed content for both binders, but however for all mixtures, SBS is the highest.

  11. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts... of the date of a casualty involving the subject vessel. Upon the attachment of this binder, the...

  12. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.232 Binder group management. (a) With the exception of loops..., segregating or reserving particular loops or binder groups for use solely by any particular advanced services...

  13. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544... Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form MA-315. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Binder, which may be obtained from the American War...

  14. Efficiency of Composite Binders with Antifreezing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurtsova, Y. N.; Zhernovsky, I. V.; Botsman, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    One of the non-heating methods of cold-weather concreting is using concretes hardening at negative temperatures. This method consists in using chemical additives which reduce the freezing temperature of the liquid phase and provide for concrete hardening at negative temperatures. The non-heating cold-weather concreting, due to antifreezing agents, allows saving heat and electric energy at the more flexible work performance technology. At selecting the antifreezing components, the possibility of concreting at temperatures up to minus 20 °C and combination with a plasticizer contained in the composite binder were taken into account. The optimal proportions of antifreezing and complex agents produced by MC-Bauchemie Russia for fine-grained concretes were determined. So, the introduction of antifreezing and complex agents allows obtaining a structure of composite characteristic for cement stone in the conditions of below zero temperatures at using different binders; the hydration of such composite proceeded naturally. Low-water-demand binders (LWDB) based composites are characterized by a higher density and homogeneity due to a high dispersity of a binder and its complicated surface providing for a lot of crystallization centers. LWDB contains small pores keeping water in a liquid form and promoting a more complete hydration process.

  15. Alkaline Activator Impact on the Geopolymer Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete structures are constantly moving in the direction of improving the durability. Durability depends on many factors, which are the composition of concrete mix, the usage of additives and admixtures and the place, where material will work and carry the load. The introduction of new geopolymer binders for geopolymer structures adds a new aspect that is type of used activator. This substance with strongly alkaline reaction is divided because of the physical state, the alkaline degree and above all the chemical composition. Taking into account, that at present the geopolymer binders are made essentially from waste materials or by-products from the combustion of coal or iron ore smelting, unambiguous determination of the effect of the activator on the properties of the geopolymer material requires a number of trials, researches and observation. This paper shows the influence of the most alkaline activators on the basic parameters of the durability of geopolymer binders. In this study there were used highly alkaline hydroxides, water glasses and granules, which are waste materials in a variety of processes taking place in chemical plants. As the substrate of geopolymer binders there were used fly ash which came from coal and high calcareous ash from the burning of lignite.

  16. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  17. Organic Binder Developments for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ken; Mobasher, Amir A.

    2003-01-01

    A number of rapid prototyping techniques are under development at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Rapid Prototyping Laboratory. Commercial binder developments in creating solid models for rapid prototyping include: 1) Fused Deposition Modeling; 2) Three Dimensional Printing; 3) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). This document describes these techniques developed by the private sector, as well as SLS undertaken by MSFC.

  18. FOCAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION AND CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION WITH ASSOCIATED PACHYCHOROID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Quraish; Dansingani, Kunal K; Freund, K Bailey

    2016-01-01

    To report a case of focal choroidal excavation and choroidal neovascularization in the setting of pachychoroid disease. Multimodal imaging, including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, indocyanine green angiography, and en face structural and angiographic optical coherence tomography. The authors describe a 39-year-old female with moderately high myopia presenting with focal choroidal excavation and associated choroidal neovascularization. Multimodal imaging demonstrated pachychoroid features with dilated choroidal vessels surrounding the lesion. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed Type 2 neovascularization. Some cases of focal choroidal excavation and associated neovascularization may be related to structural abnormalities of the associated choroidal vasculature.

  19. Chemomechanical Excavation is More Time-consuming Than Rotary, but not Necessarily Hand Excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk

    2015-12-01

    Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials on chemomechanical caries removal. Hamama, H., et al.Oper Dent 2015;40(4):E167-178. Falk Schwendicke, DDS, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: How valid were the methodologies of studies on chemomechnical caries removal, and is chemomechanical caries removal more time-consuming than conventional hand or rotary excavation? Information not available Systematic review with meta-analysis of data Level 3: Other evidence Grade C (no patient-centered/relevant outcomes). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantity of remaining bacteria and cavity size after excavation with FACE, caries detector dye and conventional excavation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Aine M; Attin, Thomas; Buchalla, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    In this in vitro study, quantitative confocal microscopy was used to show differences in the quantity of bacteria remaining in dentin after excavation with different methods. A further parameter was the cavity volume after excavation relative to the original lesion size. Teeth with dentin caries were divided into three groups of 20 each. The caries was removed by a single operator using a slow handpiece and a round bur. In the first group, Fluorescence Aided Caries Excavation (FACE) was carried out: violet light was used to illuminate the operating field and the operator observed the cavity through a high-pass filter and removed the orange-red fluorescing areas. The second group was excavated using Caries Detector, while the third group used conventional excavation. After excavation, cavity volume was measured; samples were stained for bacteria with ethidium bromide, and they were examined using confocal microscopy under standardized conditions. The bound stain was quantified in terms of fluorescence intensity on the confocal images. Total pixel intensity was significantly lower in the FACE Group than in the Caries Detector group (p = 0.046) and in the conventional excavation group (p = 0.021). Differences in cavity volume relative to original lesion size were not statistically significant (p = 0.86, 0.35 and 0.51). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that FACE is more effective in removing infected dentin without significantly increasing cavity size when compared to conventional excavation and excavation with the aid of caries detector dye.

  1. Alkali-metal silicate binders and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A paint binder is described which uses a potassium or sodium silicate dispersion having a silicon dioxide to alkali-metal oxide mol ratio of from 4.8:1 to 6.0:1. The binder exhibits stability during both manufacture and storage. The process of making the binder is predictable and repeatable and the binder may be made with inexpensive components. The high mol ratio is achieved with the inclusion of a silicon dioxide hydrogel. The binder, which also employs a silicone, is in the final form of a hydrogel sol.

  2. Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible, impact-actuated digging tool for the excavation of frozen and compacted regolith on the lunar surface and...

  3. MPED: An ISRU Bucket Ladder Excavator Demonstrator System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a planetary surface tool called the Multi Purpose Excavation Demonstrator (MPED), which is intended to both extract Lunar Soil to feed an...

  4. Telerobotic Excavator Designed to Compete in NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Rodney; Santin, Cara; Yousef, Ahmed; Nguyen, Thien; Helferty, John; Pillapakkam, Shriram

    2011-01-01

    The second annual NASA Lunabotics Mining competition is to be held in May 23-28, 2011. The goal of the competition is for teams of university level students to design, build, test and compete with a fully integrated lunar excavator on a simulated lunar surface. Our team, named Lunar Solutions I, will be representing Temple University's College of Engineering in the competition. The team's main goal was to build a robot which is able to compete with other teams, and ultimately win the competition. The main challenge of the competition was to build a wireless robot that can excavate and collect a minimum of 10 kilograms of the regolith material within 15 minutes. The robot must also be designed to operate in conditions similar to those found on the lunar surface. The design of the lunar excavator is constrained by a set of requirements determined by NASA and detailed in the competition's rulebook. The excavator must have the ability to communicate with the "main base" wirelessly, and over a Wi-Fi network. Human operators are located at a remote site approximately 60 meters away from the simulated lunar surface upon which the robot must excavate the lunar regolith surface. During the competition, the robot will operate in a separate area from the control room in an area referred to as the "Lunarena." From the control room, the operators will have to control the robot using visual feedback from cameras placed both within the arena and on the robot. Using this visual feedback the human operators control the robots movement using both keyboard and joystick commands. In order to place in the competition, a minimum of 10 kg of regolith material has to be excavated, collected, and dumped into a specific location. For that reason, the robot must be provided with an effective and powerful excavation system. Our excavator uses tracks for the drive system. After performing extensive research and trade studies, we concluded that tracks would be the most effective method for

  5. Use of nanoparticle binders for paper coatings: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Nazli Altay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a biopolymer that is used as a co-binder alongside synthetic petroleum based latex binders for paper coating applications, though it causes production downtimes due to the problems during cooking process, such as gelling; lack of full expansion of starch granules; increase in viscosity during cooling; bacteria growth in cooked starch and difficulties in viscosity control during storage. On the other hand, synthetic binders negatively affect paper recyclability and biodegradability. To overcome these problems, a new biopolymer binder has been introduced to the paper manufacturing, being used initially as a partial replacement for petroleum based synthetic latex polymers. This study reviews the recent developments of nanoparticle biopolymer binders, referred to as biolatex binders. These binders are shipped dry and can be dispersed in water without cooking requirement while improving paper quality and reducing costs of paper manufacturing. They also provide quality benefits, coater runnability improvements and new higher solids coating formulations for future product advancements.

  6. Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jak; Chu, Philip; Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris; Santoro, Chris

    2013-01-01

    NASA s plans for a lunar outpost require extensive excavation. The Lunar Surface Systems Project Office projects that thousands of tons of lunar soil will need to be moved. Conventional excavators dig through soil by brute force, and depend upon their substantial weight to react to the forces generated. This approach will not be feasible on the Moon for two reasons: (1) gravity is 1/6th that on Earth, which means that a kg on the Moon will supply 1/6 the down force that it does on Earth, and (2) transportation costs (at the time of this reporting) of $50K to $100K per kg make massive excavators economically unattractive. A percussive excavation system was developed for use in vacuum or nearvacuum environments. It reduces the down force needed for excavation by an order of magnitude by using percussion to assist in soil penetration and digging. The novelty of this excavator is that it incorporates a percussive mechanism suited to sustained operation in a vacuum environment. A percussive digger breadboard was designed, built, and successfully tested under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The breadboard was run in vacuum to more than 2..times the lifetime of the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill, throughout which the mechanism performed and held up well. The percussive digger was demonstrated to reduce the force necessary for digging in lunar soil simulant by an order of magnitude, providing reductions as high as 45:1. This is an enabling technology for lunar site preparation and ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) mining activities. At transportation costs of $50K to $100K per kg, reducing digging forces by an order of magnitude translates into billions of dollars saved by not launching heavier systems to accomplish excavation tasks necessary to the establishment of a lunar outpost. Applications on the lunar surface include excavation for habitats, construction of roads, landing pads, berms, foundations, habitat shielding, and ISRU.

  7. Dépistage de grandes excavations papillaires dans la population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Décrire les caractéristiques de l'excavation papillaire et déterminer la prévalence de grandes excavations papillaires dans une population jeune mélanoderme. Patients et Méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude de population conduite dans des agglomérations rurales du district de Bassar au Nord du Togo où la ...

  8. Choroidal Excavation in Eye with Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Asao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. Methods: This is an observational case report. Results: A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. Conclusions: The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field.

  9. Another Form of Focal Choroidal Excavation Based on Multimodality Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyuan; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-10-01

    To describe a peculiar choroidal entity using multimodality imaging and to further understand the relationship between focal choroidal excavation and central serous chorioretinopathy. A peculiar entity was detected in both eyes of a 20-year-old male patient who was followed for more than 4 years; one perifoveal focal choroidal excavation and two extrafoveal focal choroidal excavations were noted in each eye. The bilateral perifoveal focal choroidal excavations exhibited progressive development with repeated interconversion between the nonconforming and conforming types. Dilated choroid blood vessels were detected by en face spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Although the ellipsoid zone and retinal pigment epithelium layer defect also involved the fovea, a visual acuity of 20/20 was maintained in both eyes, with neither metamorphopsia by Amsler grid nor abnormalities noted by multifocal electroretinogram. However, pigment epithelium detachment finally appeared in the right eye. The microperimetry test revealed reduced threshold sensitivity corresponding to the lesions, and near-infrared autofluorescence revealed increased hyperfluorescence at the latest visit. Idiopathic focal choroidal excavation may convert to the structure of central serous chorioretinopathy alike, which likely indicates another rare condition of focal choroidal excavation or central serous chorioretinopathy. Wide- and deep-scanning modes should be routinely applied in OCT imaging to detect choroidal disorders.

  10. Choroidal excavation in vogt-koyanagi-harada disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Noriyasu; Fok, Andrew; Nishida, Kohji

    2014-05-01

    To report a case of choroidal excavation accompanied by Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH). A 54-year-old Japanese woman who was complaining of bilateral blurring of vision associated with headache underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography as well as a routine ophthalmological examination. Fundoscopy showed papilloedema and serous retinal detachment in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography detected bilateral multifocal leakage with pooling of dye in the subretinal space. Indocyanine green angiography showed patches of hyperfluorescence and hypofluorescent spots bilaterally. A diagnosis of VKH was reached soon afterwards. OCT of the left eye revealed the presence of a unilateral choroidal excavation under the fovea and subretinal fibrin over the site of the excavation. Treatment successfully resolved VKH symptoms with gradual resolution of subretinal fibrin and fluid; however, the choroidal excavation remained. This case is the first report of choroidal excavation associated with VKH. Our results suggest that choroidal excavation can be induced by choroidal inflammation caused by VKH.

  11. Choroidal excavation in eye with normal tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Kazunobu; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nakada, Atsuko; Kawasaki, Yoshimi

    2014-05-01

    To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. This is an observational case report. A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS) line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation

  14. Cratos: A Simple Low Power Excavation and Hauling System for Lunar Oxygen Production and General Excavation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; John, Wentworth T.; Spina, Dan C.; Krasowski, Mike J.; Abel, Phillip B.; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a robust excavating and hauling system for lunar and planetary excavation is critical to the NASA mission to the Moon and Mars. Cratos was developed as a low center of gravity, small (.75m x .75m x 0.3m), low power tracked test vehicle. The vehicle was modified to excavate and haul because it demonstrated good performance capabilities in a laboratory and field testing. Tested on loose sand in the SLOPE facility, the vehicle was able to pick up, carry, and dump sand, allowing it to accomplish the standard requirements delivery of material to a lunar oxygen production site. Cratos can pick up and deliver raw material to a production plant, as well as deliver spent tailings to a disposal site. The vehicle can complete many other In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) excavation chores and in conjunction with another vehicle or with additional attachments may be able to accomplish all needed ISRU tasks.

  15. Heart rot hotel: fungal communities in red-cockaded woodpecker excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2015-01-01

    Tree-cavity excavators such as woodpeckers are ecosystem engineers that have potentially complex but poorly documented associations with wood decay fungi. Fungi facilitate cavity excavation by preparing and modifying excavation sites for cavity excavators. Associations between fungi and endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCWs) are particularly interesting because...

  16. Composite binders for concrete with reduced permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-02-01

    Composite binder consisting of cement (55%), acid fly ash (40%) and limestone (5%) has been designed. It is obtained by co-milling to a specific surface of 550 kg/m2, it has an activity of 77.3 MPa and can produce a more dense cement stone structure. Integrated study revealed that the concrete on the composite binder basis provides an effective diffusion coefficient D. So we can conclude that the concrete layer protects buildings from toxic effects of expanded polystyrene. Low water absorption of the material (2.5% by weight) is due to the structure of its cement stone pore space. Besides lime powder prevents the penetration of moisture, reduces water saturation of the coverage that has a positive effect on useful life period. It also explains rather low water vapor permeability of the material - 0.021 mg/(m- hour-Pa).

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOAMING BEHAVIOR AND SURFACE ENERGY OF ASPHALT BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of insufficiency in microscopic performance of foamed asphalt binder, surface energy theory was utilized to analyze the foaming behavior and wettability of asphalt binder. Based on the surface energy theory, the Wilhelmy plate method and universal sorption device method were employed to measure the surface energy components of asphalt binders and aggregates, respectively. Combined with the traditional evaluation indictor for foamed asphalt, the relationship between the foaming property and surface energy of asphalt binder was analyzed. According to the surface energy components, the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregate was calculated to verify the performance of foamed asphalt mixture. Results indicate that the foaming behavior of asphalt will be influenced by surface energy, which will increase with the decline of surface energy. In addition, the surface energy of asphalt binder significantly influences the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregates. Meanwhile, there is an inversely proportional relationship between surface energy of asphalt binder and wettability. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that surface energy is a good indictor which can be used to evaluate the foaming behavior of the asphalt binder. And it is suggested to choose the asphalt binder with lower surface energy in the process of design of foamed asphalt mixture.

  18. The Adequacy of Phosphorus Binder Prescriptions Among American Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Because hemodialysis treatment has a limited ability to remove phosphorus, dialysis patients must restrict dietary phosphorus intake and use phosphorus binding medication. Among patients with restricted dietary phosphorus intake (1000 mg/d), phosphorus binders must bind about 250 mg of excess phosphorus per day and among patients with more typical phosphorus intake (1500 mg/d), binders must bind about 750 mg per day. To determine the phosphorus binding capacity of binder prescriptions among American hemodialysis patients, we undertook a cross-sectional study of a random sample of in-center chronic hemodialysis patients. We obtained data for one randomly selected patient from 244 facilities nationwide. About one-third of patients had hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus level > 5.5 mg/dL). Among the 224 patients prescribed binders, the mean phosphorus binding capacity was 256 mg/d (SD 143). 59% of prescriptions had insufficient binding capacity for restricted dietary phosphorus intake, and 100% had insufficient binding capacity for typical dietary phosphorus intake. Patients using two binders had a higher binding capacity than patients using one binder (451 vs. 236 mg/d, p phosphorus balance. Use of two binders results in higher binder capacity. Further work is needed to understand the impact of binder prescriptions on mineral balance and metabolism and to determine the value of substantially increasing binder prescriptions. PMID:23013171

  19. Polar and non-polar organic binder characterization in Pompeian wall paintings: comparison to a simulated painting mimicking an "a secco" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Gaetano; Gelzo, Monica; Sanges, Carmen; Chambery, Angela; Di Maro, Antimo; Severino, Valeria; Dello Russo, Antonio; Piccioli, Ciro; Arcari, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    The use of Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) allowed us to characterize the composition of polar and non-polar binders present in sporadic wall paint fragments taken from Pompeii's archaeological excavation. The analyses of the polar and non-polar binder components extracted from paint powder layer showed the presence of amino acids, sugars, and fatty acids but the absence of proteinaceous material. These results are consistent with a water tempera painting mixture composed of pigments, flours, gums, and oils and are in agreement with those obtained from a simulated wall paint sample made for mimicking an ancient "a secco" technique. Notably, for the first time, we report the capability to discriminate by tandem MS the presence of free amino acids in the paint layer.

  20. Collective workload organization in confined excavation of granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goodisman, Michael A.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    Many social insects collectively construct large nests in complex substrates; such structures are often composed of narrow tunnels. The benefits of collective construction, including reduced construction costs per worker come with challenges of navigation in crowded, confined spaces. Here we study the workforce organization of groups of S. invicta fire ants creating tunnels in wet granular media. We monitor the activity levels of marked (painted) workers-defined as a number of tunnel visits over 12 hours- during initiation of tunnels. The activity levels are described by a Lorenz curve with a Gini coefficient of ~ 0 . 7 indicating that a majority of the excavation is performed by a minority of workers. We hypothesize that this workload distribution is beneficial for excavation in crowded conditions, and use a 2D cellular automata (CA) model to reproduce behaviors of the excavating ants. CA simulations reveal that tunnel construction rates decrease in groups of equally active animals compared to groups with the natural workload distribution. We use predictions of the CA model to organize collective excavation of granular material by teams of digging robots, and use the robots to test hypotheses of crowded excavation in the physical world. We acknowledge support of National Science Foundation, Physics of Living Systems division.

  1. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p excavation. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  2. Binder phenotype in mothers affected with autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, E; Touraine, R; Levaillant, J M; Pasquier, L; Boussion, F; Ferry, M; Guichet, A; Barth, M; Mercier, A; Gérard-Blanluet, M; Odent, S; Bonneau, D

    2012-08-01

    To report four foetal cases of the Binder phenotype associated with maternal autoimmune disorders. In three mothers with autoimmune diseases, 2D and 3D ultrasonographic measurements were made on four foetuses with the Binder profile, and were compared with postnatal phenotypes. The Binder phenotype can be detected in early pregnancy (14.5 WG). All foetuses had verticalized nasal bones and midfacial hypoplasia. Punctuate calcifications were found in almost all the cases. No specific maternal auto-antibody has been associated with foetal Binder phenotype. Since the Binder phenotype can be diagnosed at ultrasound examination during pregnancy, it is important to establish the underlying cause so as to assess the foetal prognosis. This study stresses the importance of systematic checks for maternal autoimmune disease in cases of prenatally diagnosed Binder phenotypes.

  3. Application of Microwaves for Binder Content Assessment in Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in the sandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.

  4. Combustion characteristics of a solid propellant with a charring binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udlock, D. E.; Strand, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    A brief investigation of the combustion characteristics of a solid propellant containing a binder which chars, as opposed to melting or volatizing, has been made. The burning rate of the propellant with the charring binder was significantly higher than similar propellants containing non-charring binders. High speed motion pictures of the burning propellant showed that the aluminum burned on the regressing surface, rather than a short distance from it as is typical with composite propellants.

  5. Identification of proteinaceous binders used in artworks by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckova, Stepanka; Hynek, Radovan; Kodicek, Milan

    2007-05-01

    Proper identification of proteinaceous binders in artworks is essential for specification of the painting technique and thus also for selection of the restoration method; moreover, it might be helpful for the authentication of the artwork. This paper is concerned with the optimisation of analysis of the proteinaceous binders contained in the colour layers of artworks. Within this study, we worked out a method for the preparation and analysis of solid samples from artworks using tryptic cleavage and subsequent analysis of the acquired peptide mixture by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry. To make this approach rational and efficient, we created a database of commonly used binders (egg yolk, egg white, casein, milk, curd, whey, gelatine, and various types of animal glues); certain peaks in the mass spectra of these binders, formed by rich protein mixtures, were matched to amino acid sequences of the individual proteins that were found in the Internet database ExPASy; their cleavage was simulated by the program Mass-2.0-alpha4. The method developed was tested on model samples of ground layers prepared by an independent laboratory and then successfully applied to a real sample originating from a painting by Edvard Munch.

  6. Thermal Reactivity and Structure of Carbonized Binder Pitches

    OpenAIRE

    Madshus, Stian

    2005-01-01

    Pitches are used on a large scale in the manufacture of carbon anodes for the production of primary aluminium. The role of the pitch is to act as a binder between the petroleum coke grains. The structure of the carbonized pitch binder (pitch coke) has an important impact on the overall performance of the anode. Even though the binder pitch is the minor constituent in an anode, it is impossible to make a good quality anode without a good quality binder pitch. Pitch is an extremely complex ...

  7. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  8. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  9. Excavation Equipment Recognition Based on Novel Acoustic Statistical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiuwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jianzhong; Wang, Ruirong

    2017-12-01

    Excavation equipment recognition attracts increasing attentions in recent years due to its significance in underground pipeline network protection and civil construction management. In this paper, a novel classification algorithm based on acoustics processing is proposed for four representative excavation equipments. New acoustic statistical features, namely, the short frame energy ratio, concentration of spectrum amplitude ratio, truncated energy range, and interval of pulse are first developed to characterize acoustic signals. Then, probability density distributions of these acoustic features are analyzed and a novel classifier is presented. Experiments on real recorded acoustics of the four excavation devices are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Comparisons with two popular machine learning methods, support vector machine and extreme learning machine, combined with the popular linear prediction cepstral coefficients are provided to show the generalization capability of our method. A real surveillance system using our algorithm is developed and installed in a metro construction site for real-time recognition performance validation.

  10. Development of Force Reflecting Joystick for Hydraulic Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyoungkwan

    In teleoperation field robotic system such as hydraulically actuated robotic excavator, the maneuverability and convenience is the most important in the operation of robotic excavator. Particularly the force information is important in dealing with digging and leveling operation in the teleoperated excavator. This paper presents a new force reflecting joystick in a velocity-force type bilateral teleoperation system. The master system is electrical joystick and the slave system is hydraulic cylinder. Particularly pneumatic motor is used newly in the master joystick for force reflection and the information of the pressure of slave cylinder is measured and utilized as force feedback signal. This paper also proposes a novel force-reflection gain selecting algorithm based on artificial neural network. Finally a series of experiments are conducted under various load conditions using a laboratory-made one axis slave cylinder and load simulator.

  11. Support system, excavation arrangement, and process of supporting an object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Bill W.

    2017-08-01

    A support system, an excavation arrangement, and a process of supporting an object are disclosed. The support system includes a weight-bearing device and a camming mechanism positioned below the weight-bearing device. A downward force on the weight-bearing device at least partially secures the camming mechanism to opposing surfaces. The excavation arrangement includes a borehole, a support system positioned within and secured to the borehole, and an object positioned on and supported by the support system. The process includes positioning and securing the support system and positioning the object on the weight-bearing device.

  12. Asteroid Icy Regolith Excavation and Volatile Capture Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Mantovani, James; Swanger, Adam; Townsend, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Icy regolith simulants will be produced in a relevant vacuum environment using various minerals, including hydrated minerals, that are found in C-type meteorites and in other types of planetary regolith. This will allow us to characterize the mechanical strength of the icy regolith as a function of ice content using penetration, excavation, and sample capture devices. The results of this study will benefit engineers in designing efficient regolith excavators and ISRU processing systems for future exploration missions to asteroids and other planetary bodies.

  13. Rock Properties Determined Continuously from TBM Excavation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Lazarová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The computer monitoring system used at excavation of exploratory galleries of motorway tunnels Branisko and Višòové-Dubná skala (excavated by Wirth TB-II-330H/M and Voest Alpine ATB 35H, respectively brought an ample study material. Several characteristics of rock environment in the line of exploratory galleries were determined using developed mathematical models. The verification of the models was carried out based on the comparison of results of mathematical models with results of common procedures of detailed engineering-geological investigation. The description of the continuous method and the results of comparisons are subject of this paper.

  14. Sustainable binders for concrete: A structured approach from waste screening to binder composition development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinai, R.; Panagiotopoulou, C.; Soutsos, M.; Taxiarchou, M.; Zervaki, M.; Valcke, S.L.A.; Ligero, V.C.; Couto, S.; Gupta, A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Alvarez, I.L.; Coelho, D.; Branquinho, J.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the building sector requires the production of 4 billion tonnes of cement annually, consuming more than 40% of global energy. Alkali activated “cementless” binders have recently emerged as a novel eco-friendly construction material with a promising potential to replace ordinary Portland

  15. Solvolytic Degradation of Polymeric Propellant Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Ammonium bromide 3 1/-2 3 g Benzyl chloride 4 2 g Cobalt (II-)-caproate- -4 as per [13] 2 g Bismuth nitrate 3-1/4 2 g Zinc acetonylacetonate 2...hydrochloricacid, the solvolysis was complete within one hour, but-when 0.4 grams of sodium hydroxide was used- instead of the acid,.a white suspension... hydroxide ; no degradation was noted after one month. The catalysis studies were now extended -to the Polaris binder, IV. In a manner similar to that

  16. Fine-Grained Concrete of Composite Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Pak, A.; Kuzmin, D.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the application of industrial wastes for the production of high-quality concretes with specified characteristics. The composite binders with low water demand (BLW) have been developed. Their strength is approximately twice the strength of the initial cement, and dilute BLW with 50 - 70% of the ground slag or quartz sand in their composition provide the same strength as the original Portland cement. It was proved that the quartzite sand screening can be used as a filler in the preparation of fine-grained concretes.

  17. Influence of tectonic disturbances on the parameters of excavation support with rock anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyomin, V. F.; Yavorsky, V. V.; Demina, T. V.; Baidikova, N. V.; Protsenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The mechanism of deformation, movement and rockfalls in structurally disturbed nonuniform rock mass using analytical modeling operation for assessment of the strain-stress state (SSS) of the rock mass around mining has been investigated. The SSS research of the rock masses by means of the ANSYS program of the excavation in the “Saransk” mine of coal mining JSC “ArselorMittal Temirtau” in the Karaganda coal basin has been conducted. The parameters of the exploitation of the anchor support on the mines for fixing the rock bolts in the workings to ensure the safety of mining operations in the areas of geological disturbances have been determined.

  18. Fatigue and fracture properties of aged binders in the context of reclaimed asphalt mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Evidence in the literature indicates that the stiffness of the asphalt binder increases and ductility of the binder decreases : with oxidative aging. Typically for unmodified asphalt binders, increase in stiffness or decrease in ductility is regarded...

  19. Evolution of geopolymer binders: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, M. F.; Malkawi, A. B.; Fauzi, A.; Mohammed, B. S.; Almattarneh, H. M.

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to present the current state of research about the terminology, chemical reactions, mechanisms, and microstructure modelling of geopolymer binders. Modelling the structure of the geopolymerization products is essential for controlling the product properties. The currently available models have shown some limitations in determining the rate of geopolymerization and setting time of the gel. There is a need for deeper knowledge regarding the physicochemical analysis of geopolymer binders. Most of the available models have used pure material like metakaolin; however, the less pure materials are expected to have different mechanisms. The FTIR and MAS-NMR analysis are considered as effective tools in providing information on the molecular deviations during geopolymerization. However, XRD analysis is not effective because most of the changes take place in amorphous phases. Also, the role of the iron oxides and some of the other impurities still not clear where none of the previous method of investigation can be used to detect the molecular changes of the iron compounds. This issue is very relevant hence the iron oxides are existed in substantial amounts in most of the waste materials that are suitable to be used as geopolymer source materials.

  20. Detecting defects in diaphragm walls prior to excavation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.; Hopman, V.; Van Tol, A.F.; Broere, W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent incidents with leaking diaphragm walls during construction of subway lines in Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Netherlands) have led to reconsideration of the diaphragm wall as a retaining wall construction for deep excavations. In our opinion the joints between the panels are the weak spot. During

  1. Choroidal excavation with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Wataru; Abe, Toshiaki; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of a case of choroidal excavation accompanied by polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and retinal pigment epithelium detachment (PED). A 57-year-old Japanese woman who had begun complaining of metamorphopsia in her left eye 7 months earlier underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (IA), as well as a routine ophthalmological examination. The patient's intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and visual field were within normal range. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a serous macular detachment, soft drusen, exudates, and a reddish-orange elevated lesion in the macula of the left eye. The right eye was normal. SD-OCT revealed two lesions in the left eye. One was a PED accompanied by a notch sign, and the other was a choroidal excavation. Additionally, FA revealed a window defect in the PED, and IA showed typical PCV. Three monthly injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor preserved visual acuity, but failed to have any visible effect on the lesion during the 6-month follow up period. This is the first report of choroidal excavation accompanied by PED and PCV. The data suggest that choroidal excavation may be associated with various changes that have not been previously reported. Careful observation of such cases may therefore be necessary.

  2. Excavations at Wodoku and Lodoku and their implications for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finds from excavations at Wodoku and Ladoku, the original home of the Nungwa and La people respectively are described, and their implications for the archaeology of the Accra Plains, particularly as they relate to the pottery sequence, Ga-Dangme origins, chronology of settlements, economy and subsistence practices ...

  3. Complete excavation and mapping of a Texas leafcutting ant nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Moser

    2006-01-01

    A medium-sized nest of the Texas leafcutting ant, Atta texana (Buckley), in northern Louisiana was excavated completely, and a three-dimensional model of its external and subterranean features was constructed. In total, 97 fungus gardens, 27 dormancy cavities, and 45 detritus cavities were located. At the lower center of the funnel-shaped nest was a...

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ATTITUDE CONTROL BUCKET‐WHEEL EXCAVATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana ONDERKOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This lecture deals with the application problems of convertibility GPS system at paddle excavator K 800. The claims of the modern operating surface mining of the excavators requires a lot of information for monitoring of mining process, capacity mining, selective extraction etc. The utilization of monitoring the excavator setting by GPS system proved to be the only one proper because the receivers are resistant to the vibration, dust, temperature divergence and weather changeable. Only the direct contact with communications satellite is required. It means that they can´t be located in a metal construction space (shadow caused by construction elements, influence of electrical high voltage cables even they can´t be located close to the paddle wheel on the paddle boom (shadow possibility caused by cuttinng edge created during lower gangplanks mining. This is the reason that GPS receivers are set uppermost on the metal construction excavator and the mathematical formulation is required for determination of paddle wheel petting. The relations for calculation of the paddle wheel coordinate were defined mathematically and after that the mathematical model was composed.

  5. Telemanipulation and supervisory control of a backhoe excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, Oscar; Barrientos, Antonio

    1998-12-01

    The excavation tasks present one of the more challenging area in robotic research. The environment is highly unstructured, the forces that appear are very large it is very important the detection of underground obstacles to avoid any damage, and the modeling of the hydraulic actuators is highly nonlinear. In recent years, the remote control of the excavation has found applications in very dangerous environments for human beings, like nuclear power plants, nuclear and chemical waste facilities and terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining. Some kind of intelligence is required due to the presence of unexpected situations. The first approach to deal with the problem is to put a human being in the loop, that is: teleoperation. The next step towards the total automation of the excavation is the supervisory control of the task. In this scheme, the operator acts like a supervisor, providing high level commands, and checking the development and accomplishment of the task. The solutions that DISAM has developed are presented in this paper, as well as future work that will be very useful in the search for the total automation of excavation tasks.

  6. 21 CFR 880.5160 - Therapeutic medical binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5160 Therapeutic medical binder. (a) Identification. A therapeutic medical binder is a device, usually made of cloth, that is intended for medical purposes and that can be secured by ties so...

  7. PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ASA POLYMER MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDERS AND MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHABAN ISMAEL ALBRKA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is commonly used as a binder in the construction of highways and runways, due to its good viscoelastic properties, natural asphalt cement does not have sufficient strength to resist sudden stresses of excessive loading or stress from low and high temperatures. Therefore, modification of asphalt is necessary in order to improve its material temperature sensitivity, adhesion, durability, oxidation and aging resistance. The property of base asphalt and polymer modified asphalt binders and mixtures has been characterized using the conventional tests and dynamic creep tests. It has been found that, the addition of Acrylate Styrene Acrylonhrtilrei (ASA polymer content has magnificent influence on the properties of the asphalt binders and mixtures. The temperature susceptibility of modified asphalt binders was reduced compared with base asphalt binder as the penetration increase and softening point decrease. The reduction in penetration was up to 69%, while the improvement in softening point was up to 19%. Moreover, it was approved from the storage stability test that, the ASA polymer has a great compatibility with asphalt binder up to 5% ASA. In addition, it was observe reduction in permanent deformation of modified asphalt mixtures with increase of modifier up to 5% ASA, which lead to better resistance to rutting at high temperatures, and the reduction was up to 36%. As a result, the modification of asphalt binder and mixture with ASA polymer can be considered a proper alternative technique to improve the properties of asphalt binder and mixture and 5% ASA was the optimum content of the modifier.

  8. Sterilizable Binder Is Stable at 135 degrees C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Yovrouian, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Polyurethane binder for solid propellants endures heat sterilization without decomposition based on an ester diol. Binder resists oxidation under prolonged exposure to 135 degrees C temperature, low enough in viscosity to be handled easily during processing, and readily mixed with oxidizers, such as ammonium perchlorate. Polyurethane is also suitable material for encapsulants, potting compounds, and coatings that must be sterilized.

  9. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder. The...

  10. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts under interim binder. 308.103 Section 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a...

  11. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to formulate metronidazole tablets using starch from Xanthosoma sagittifolium as binder and disintegrant in metronidazole tablets. Metronidazole tablets were produced by wet granulation method using X. sagittifolium starch as binder at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w, and as disintegrant ...

  12. Development of binder test to determine fracture energy [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Asphalt binder makes up a relatively small percentage 4% to 8% of the hot mix asphalt used in pavements, but its performance as a binder is critical to the longevity of road surfaces. Asphalt is : a material whose flexibility changes with : t...

  13. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  14. Choroidal excavation with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wataru Kobayashi,1 Toshiaki Abe,2 Hiroshi Tamai,1 Toru Nakazawa11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Clinical Cell Therapy, Center for Advanced Medical Research and Development (ART, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medical Science, Sendai, JapanPurpose: This is a report of a case of choroidal excavation accompanied by polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV and retinal pigment epithelium detachment (PED.Methods: A 57-year-old Japanese woman who had begun complaining of metamorphopsia in her left eye 7 months earlier underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, fluorescein angiography (FA, and indocyanine green angiography (IA, as well as a routine ophthalmological examination.Results: The patient’s intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and visual field were within normal range. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a serous macular detachment, soft drusen, exudates, and a reddish-orange elevated lesion in the macula of the left eye. The right eye was normal. SD-OCT revealed two lesions in the left eye. One was a PED accompanied by a notch sign, and the other was a choroidal excavation. Additionally, FA revealed a window defect in the PED, and IA showed typical PCV. Three monthly injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor preserved visual acuity, but failed to have any visible effect on the lesion during the 6-month follow up period.Conclusions: This is the first report of choroidal excavation accompanied by PED and PCV. The data suggest that choroidal excavation may be associated with various changes that have not been previously reported. Careful observation of such cases may therefore be necessary.Keywords: choroidal excavation, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment

  15. Development of a green binder system for paper products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage and use. The binders must be strong but cost-effective. Although chemical binders are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, the public is demanding products with lower carbon footprints and that are derived from renewable sources. Results In this project, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were applied to air laid, pressed paper products in order to identify potential renewable green binders that are as strong as the current commercial binders, while being organic and renewable. Each potential green binder was applied to several filter paper strips and tested for strength in the direction perpendicular to the cellulose fibril orientation. Out of the twenty binders surveyed, soy protein, gelatin, zein protein, pectin and Salix lignin provided comparable strength results to a currently employed chemical binder. Conclusions These organic and renewable binders can be purchased in large quantities at low cost, require minimal reaction time and do not form viscous solutions that would clog sprayers, characteristics that make them attractive to the non-woven paper industry. As with any new process, a large-scale trial must be conducted along with an economic analysis of the procedure. However, because multiple examples of “green” binders were found that showed strong cross-linking activity, a candidate for commercial application will likely be found. PMID:23531016

  16. Development of a green binder system for paper products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Ashley R; Vicuna Requesens, Deborah; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Teoh, Keat Thomas; Mansfield, Shawn D; Hood, Elizabeth E

    2013-03-26

    It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage and use. The binders must be strong but cost-effective. Although chemical binders are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, the public is demanding products with lower carbon footprints and that are derived from renewable sources. In this project, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were applied to air laid, pressed paper products in order to identify potential renewable green binders that are as strong as the current commercial binders, while being organic and renewable. Each potential green binder was applied to several filter paper strips and tested for strength in the direction perpendicular to the cellulose fibril orientation. Out of the twenty binders surveyed, soy protein, gelatin, zein protein, pectin and Salix lignin provided comparable strength results to a currently employed chemical binder. These organic and renewable binders can be purchased in large quantities at low cost, require minimal reaction time and do not form viscous solutions that would clog sprayers, characteristics that make them attractive to the non-woven paper industry. As with any new process, a large-scale trial must be conducted along with an economic analysis of the procedure. However, because multiple examples of "green" binders were found that showed strong cross-linking activity, a candidate for commercial application will likely be found.

  17. Environmentally Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Production of Portland cement (PC), the ubiquitous binding material for construction works, is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nearly half of these emissions arise from the decomposition of calcareous raw materials, and the other half from kiln fuel combustion and cement clinker grinding operations. As such, PC production contributes significantly to global warming and climate change. Lately, there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower associated green house gas emissions. An important class of such binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders have very low CO2 emissions from grinding of the starting material, and some from the production of the activating chemical. The total CO2 emission from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/5th - 1/10th of those of Portland cement concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time makes their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Perlite is a volcanic aluminosilicate glass abundant in Turkey, China, Japan, the US and several EU countries. It has been used in its expanded form, for horticulture, for insulation, and for producing lightweight concrete. Turkish perlites contain more than 70 % SiO2, and have a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of ~5.5. This study shows that ground perlite can be mixed with alkaline activators like sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate to yield mortars with strengths comparable to those of portland cement mortars. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in 24 h or less. Since perlite is natural, perlite geopolymers can have environmental, energetic, and

  18. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. 1926.913... Use of Explosives § 1926.913 Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. (a) Detonators and... use in wet holes shall be water-resistant and shall be Fume Class 1. (g) When tunnel excavation in...

  19. 29 CFR 570.68 - Occupations in excavation operations (Order 17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations in excavation operations (Order 17). 570.68...-Being § 570.68 Occupations in excavation operations (Order 17). (a) Finding and declaration of fact. The following occupations in excavation operations are particularly hazardous for the employment of persons...

  20. Does the availability of artificial cavities affect cavity excavation rates in red-cockaded woodpeckers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Rates of cavity excavation by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were examined from 1983 to 1999 on the Angelina National Forest in east Texas. We compared the rare of natural cavity excavation between 1983 and 1990 (before artificial cavities were available) with the rate of cavity excavation between 1992 and 1993, a period when...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Channel excavation on... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS TVA-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.207 Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland. (a) Excavation of individual boat channels shall be...

  2. Literature review and binder and coal selection for research studies on coal agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Girimont, J.A.; peterson, C.A.; Saller, E.

    1982-02-26

    This report discusses the results of a literature survey on coal agglomeration and the approaches that were employed in selecting binders and coals to be studied in a process development program currently being performed for the Department of Energy. The survey is the first step toward the development of a useful process for the agglomeration of coal fines for use in a fixed-bed gasifier. Literature was found and reviewed on the effects of coal composition and physical properties, on agglomeration techniques and operating variables, on binders or additives to promote agglomeration, on pretreatment techniques on agglomerate feedstocks and post-treatment techniques on formed agglomerates, and on test results obtained by researchers in the past using various additives, treatments and agglomeration techniques. Much of this information did not deal directly with agglomerates for fixed-bed gasifiers, but the reported observations and results could be extrapolated to give useful guidelines for research plans. Conclusions and plans for further work are presented.

  3. Effect of binder liquid type on spherical crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodi, Maryam; Hajipour, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Spherical crystallization is a process of formation of agglomerates of crystals held together by binder liquid. This research focused on understanding the effect of type of solvents used as binder liquid on the agglomeration of crystals. Carbamazepine and ethanol/water were used respectively as a model drug and crystallization system. Eight solvents as binder liquid including chloroform, dichloromethane, isopropyl acetate, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dimethyl aniline, benzene and toluene were examined to better understand the relationship between the physical properties of the binder liquid and its ability to bring about the formation of the agglomerates. Moreover, the agglomerates obtained from effective solvents as binder liquid were evaluated in term of size, apparent particle density and compressive strength. In this study the clear trend was observed experimentally in the agglomerate formation as a function of physical properties of the binder liquid such as miscibility with crystallization system. Furthermore, the properties of obtained agglomerates such as size, apparent particle density and compressive strength were directly related to physical properties of effective binder liquids. RESULTS of this study offer a useful starting point for a conceptual framework to guide the selection of solvent systems for spherical crystallization.

  4. Multispectroscopic and Isotopic Ratio Analysis To Characterize the Inorganic Binder Used on Pompeian Pink and Purple Lake Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaida, Iker; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; García-Florentino, Cristina; Knuutinen, Ulla; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Pitarch Martı́, Africa; Castro, Kepa; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-06-21

    Because of the fact that pigments are not ubiquitous in the archeological record, the application of noninvasive analytical methods is a necessity. In this work, pink and purple lake pigments recovered from the excavations of the ancient city of Pompeii (Campania, Italy) and preserved in their original bowls at the Naples National Archaeological Museum (Italy) were analyzed to characterize the composition of their inorganic binders (mordants). In situ preliminary analyses using a hand-held energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (HH-ED-XRF) allowed us to determine the use of an aluminosilicate enriched in Cu and Pb. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and benchtop ED-XRF analyses confirmed these results, while inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) allowed one to determine the concentration of major, minor, and trace elements. The use of other techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman and infrared spectroscopies allowed one to characterize the pigments at the molecular level. The high concentration of Cu detected in the pigments (1228-12937 μg g(-1)) could be related to the addition of Cu salts to obtain the desired final hue. The concentrations of Pb (987-2083 μg g(-1)) was also remarkable. Lead isotopic ratio analysis ((206)Pb/(207)Pb) suggested a possible origin related to the leaching of the ancient lead pipes from Pompeii and the subsequent transfer to the buried pigments or to the inorganic binder. Molecular analysis also showed that the binder is composed of an allophane-like clay. Moreover, it was possible to determine that to obtain the final purple hue of a specific pigment, Pompeian blue pigment was also mixed into the dyed clay.

  5. Various Tunnel Excavation Methods used on the LHC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fielder, R

    2000-01-01

    Civil Engineering construction work for the LHC Project began in April 1998 and is now well underway. A major part of this work is the construction of the new tunnels, caverns and cavern enlargements for the LHC experiments and machine. Currently, this underground work is being carried out for the two injection tunnels, TI2 and TI8, and at Point 1 for the Atlas Experiment. There are three contractors involved in these tunnelling works and each contactor is using a different technique. This paper will outline the different methods used for excavation and the reasons for these differences. It will also examine the other operations involved in the construction of major underground structures such as supply of materials to the tunnel face, evacuation of excavated material and ventilation.

  6. Hierarchical stochastic model of terrain subsidence during tunnel excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Tomáš; Šejnoha, Jiří; Šejnoha, Michal

    2017-09-01

    In this contribution the Bayesian statistical method is applied to assess the expected probability distribution of the terrain subsidence in the course of tunnel excavation. The approach utilizes a number of simplifying assumptions regarding the system kinematics to arrive at a very simple model with just a few degrees of freedom. This deterministic model together with the intrinsic uncertainties of its parameters and measurement inaccuracies are used to formulate the stochastic model which defines a distribution of the predicted values of terrain subsidence. Assuming the measured data to be fixed, the stochastic model thus defines the likelihood function of the model parameters which is directly used for updating their prior distribution. This way the model parameters can be incrementally updated with each excavation step and the prediction of the model refined.

  7. The excavation stage of basin formation - A qualitative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most complex problems in planetary geology and geophysics is the determination of the nature of the impact cratering processes at scales of tens to thousands of kilometers that produce the complex morphological structures of multiring basins. The cratering process is frequently considered to be divided into three stages, including a short high-pressure stage of initial contact between the projectile and the planetary crust, a longer excavation or cratering flow stage culminating in the formation of a transient crater, and a still longer modification stage during which the transient crater is modified into the observed final geologic form. The transient crater may be considered as the initial boundary condition of the modification stage. In the present investigation, the nature of the transient crater is indicated by the cratering flow field determined from numerical simulations of the excavation stage. Attention is given to empirical and theoretical scaling.

  8. Real-Time Engineering Simulation of Lunar Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Damer, George Tompkins, Sheldon Freid, Dave Rasmussen, Peter Newman, Brad Blair

    2007-06-12

    DigitalSpace Corporation has been building an open source real-time three-dimensional (3-D) collaborative design engineering and training platform called Digital Spaces (DSS) in support of the Exploration Vision of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Real-time 3-D simulation has reached a level of maturity where it is capable of supporting engineering design and operations using off-the-shelf game chipsets and open source physics and rendering technologies. This paper will illustrate a state-of-the-art real-time engineering simulation utilizing DSS in support of NASA lunar excavation studies. During the project DigitalSpace building driveable 3-D models of lunar excavators and South Polar terrain, and added a soil mechanics physics model as well as a random failure generator to the repertoire of standard mobility platform physics in prior use for real-time engineering and operational analysis at NASA.

  9. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.M. Dobosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

  10. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Emergency Survey and Excavation in Southwestern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Period 90 * The Apache 90 The Spanish, Mexican, and American Occupations 90 ii *li APPENDIX B - BOTANICAL RIMAIS 92 Mollie Struever and Marcia Donaldson...probably the scene of seasonal mesquite-gathering and hunting expeditions. The Cochise Cul- ture is also known from Tularosa and Cordova Caves near the upper... Cordova Caves (Martin and Rinaldo 1952). Additional chronology was provided by excavations in Bat Cave (Dick 1965). Tentatively dated at 300 B.C., the

  12. Behavioral and mechanical determinants of collective subsurface nest excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Gravish, Nick; Rodriguez, Greggory; Kutner, Rachel; Goodisman, Michael A D; Goldman, Daniel I

    2015-05-01

    Collective construction of topologically complex structures is one of the triumphs of social behavior. For example, many ant species construct underground nests composed of networks of tunnels and chambers. Excavation by these 'superorganisms' depends on the biomechanics of substrate manipulation, the interaction of individuals, and media stability and cohesiveness. To discover principles of robust social excavation, we used X-ray computed tomography to monitor the growth in three dimensions of nests built by groups of fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) in laboratory substrates composed of silica particles, manipulating two substrate properties: particle size and gravimetric moisture content. Ants were capable of nest construction in all substrates tested other than completely dry or fully saturated; for a given particle size, nest volume was relatively insensitive to moisture content. Tunnels were deepest at intermediate moisture content and the maximum tunnel depth correlated with measured yield force on small rod-shaped intruders (a proxy for cohesive strength). This implies that increased cohesive strength allowed creation of tunnels that were resistant to perturbation but did not decrease individual excavation ability. Ants used two distinct behaviors to create pellets composed of wetted particles, depending on substrate composition. However, despite the ability to create larger stable pellets in more cohesive substrates, pellet sizes were similar across all conditions. We posit that this pellet size balances the individual's load-carrying ability with the need to carry this pellet through confined crowded tunnels. We conclude that effective excavation of similarly shaped nests can occur in a diversity of substrates through sophisticated digging behaviors by individuals which accommodate both differing substrate properties and the need to work within the collective. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Jin; Li Fei

    2015-01-01

    The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitori...

  14. Storage solutions for excavated textiles tending to their recalcitrant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Loukopoulou, Polytimi

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the selection of packaging and storage means that facilitate the preservation, protection andmanagerial needs for a group of excavated textiles where their physical and chemical properties have been unrecognisably altered as a result of the burial process (in this case minera...... foam, copolymer polyethylene and polypropylene board, non-woven polyethylene fabric and the antistatic type of polyester film. All materials and methods applied exhibit great versatility and are potentially useful for conservators in similar situations....

  15. Lunar Excavation Experiments in Simulant Soil Test Beds-Revisiting the Surveyor Geotechnical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2012-01-01

    (1) Establishing ISRU technologies on planetary bodies is an important long-term goal of NASA; (2) Excavation is a key component of these ISRU processes; (3) Lack of flight data relevant to lunar excavation; (4) Existing models of the excavation-cutting phenomenon give varying results; (5) The lack of predictive models of the dynamic behavior of soils in excavation implements is a major driver for these studies; and (6) Objective: Need to develop robust models of excavation cutting phenomena that generate predictive capabilities to aid the designer and engineer.

  16. Large choroidal excavation in a patient with rubella retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Romano, Francesco; Montagna, Marco; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-10-17

    To describe a case of rubella retinopathy complicated by bilateral choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and late development of large choroidal excavation (LCE). A 19-year-old woman with a diagnosis of rubella retinopathy underwent her annual ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity testing and slit-lamp biomicroscopy with dilated fundus examination. Color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans, and optical coherence tomography angiography were acquired to complete the investigation of her ocular condition. The main findings are described in this case report. This woman came to our attention in 2010 with a history of rubella retinopathy, complicated by bilateral CNV and treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) in 2006. After 6 years of annual follow-up examinations, her visual acuity remained stable in both eyes (20/100), whereas SD-OCT scans uncovered the development of a bilateral LCE in the macular area, associated with a macular hole in the right eye. Optical coherence tomography angiography revealed a vascular network surrounding the choroidal excavation. Large choroidal excavation is a rare finding that has been described in few chorioretinal diseases, e.g., North Carolina macular dystrophy and toxoplasmosis. We propose to include rubella retinopathy complicated by CNV in the differential diagnosis of LCE, although we recognize the possibility that PDT might have induced or facilitated its formation.

  17. Soil Lysimeter Excavation for Coupled Hydrological, Geochemical, and Microbiological Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Aditi; Wang, Yadi; Meira Neto, Antonio A; Matos, Katarena A; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Rob; Neilson, Julie W; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon; Troch, Peter A

    2016-09-11

    Studying co-evolution of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the subsurface of natural landscapes can enhance the understanding of coupled Earth-system processes. Such knowledge is imperative in improving predictions of hydro-biogeochemical cycles, especially under climate change scenarios. We present an experimental method, designed to capture sub-surface heterogeneity of an initially homogeneous soil system. This method is based on destructive sampling of a soil lysimeter designed to simulate a small-scale hillslope. A weighing lysimeter of one cubic meter capacity was divided into sections (voxels) and was excavated layer-by-layer, with sub samples being collected from each voxel. The excavation procedure was aimed at detecting the incipient heterogeneity of the system by focusing on the spatial assessment of hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological properties of the soil. Representative results of a few physicochemical variables tested show the development of heterogeneity. Additional work to test interactions between hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological signatures is planned to interpret the observed patterns. Our study also demonstrates the possibility of carrying out similar excavations in order to observe and quantify different aspects of soil-development under varying environmental conditions and scale.

  18. ROCK MASS DAMAGED ZONE CAUSED BY BLASTING DURING TUNNEL EXCAVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Antičević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concerning the design of deep geological repositories, requirements in terms of damaged rock are the same or more rigorous than for the design of tunnel. The aforementioned research is directed towards determining the depth of damage zone caused by blasting. The depth of the damage zone is determined by measuring the changes of physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass around the tunnel excavation profile. By this research the drilling and blasting parameters were correlated with the depth and size of the damage zone (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. 46 CFR 308.3 - Applications for insurance; warranties; supporting documents; payment of binder fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... documents; payment of binder fees. 308.3 Section 308.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; supporting documents; payment of binder fees. (a) Application, binder forms. A single application for War... form. An interim binder for war risk insurance coverage, of the types described in subparts B, C and D...

  20. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... registration binders. 198.15 Section 198.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...—payment of registration binders. (a) The binder for initial registration is $575 for each aircraft or insurable item. This binder is adjusted not more frequently than annually based on changes in the Consumer...

  1. 46 CFR 308.202 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. 308... binder; terms and conditions. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in form as set forth... forth in § 308.207) to the same extent as if such application and policy were made a part of the binder...

  2. Silica exposure to excavation workers during the excavation of a low level radiological waste pit and tritium disposal shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the task-length average (TLA) respirable dust and respirable silica airborne concentrations to which construction workers excavating volcanic tuff at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were exposed. These workers were excavating a low level radiological waste disposal pit of final dimensions 720 feet long, 132 feet wide and 60 feet deep. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) evaluate exposures; (2) determine if the type of machinery used affects the respirable dust concentration in the breathing zone of the worker; (3) evaluate the efficacy of wetting the pit to reduce the respirable dust exposure; and (4) determine if exposure increases with increasing depth of pit due to the walls of the pit blocking the cross wind ventilation.

  3. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  4. Development of a binder fracture test to determine fracture energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    It has been found that binder testing methods in current specifications do not accurately predict cracking performance at intermediate temperatures. Fracture energy has been determined to be strongly correlated to fracture resistance of asphalt mixtu...

  5. Fracture properties and fatigue cracking resistance of asphalt binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Several different types of modifiers are increasingly bring used to improve the performance of asphalt binders or to : achieve desired mixture production characteristics (e.g., Warm Mix Asphalt). However, current Superpave : performance specification...

  6. INTENSIFY HEAT-RESISTANT BINDER BASED ON PORTLAND CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Curbanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article presents the results of a study of heat-resistant binder based on Portland cement with the addition of a local mill ground minerals.Methods. Activation is carried out on a planetary mill "Activator - 4M". Activation of the binder increases the strength of heat-resistant concrete by increasing the reactivity bundles "Portland is the active fine additive" to the mechano-chemical additive.Results. It is determined that the mill ground additives result in the formation of low-melting and thereby reduce the temperature of the use of heat-resistant concrete with Portland cement binder.Conclusion. It is proved that high mechanochemical strength refractory concrete samples on activated binder is caused by the process of increasing the chemical activity of the materials included in a bundle of "Portland cement is the active fine additive" which creates favorable conditions for hardening of heat-resistant concrete.

  7. Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Gabriel; Stępniewski, Witold; Wójcik-Oliveira, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the results of a study on the effect of starch binder on the mechanical, physical and burning properties of charcoal briquettes. Two types of binders were repeatedly used to make briquettes of native wheat starch and modified wheat starch, at 8% of the whole. Briquetting was performed in a roller press unit, and pillow-shaped briquettes were made. The moisture of the mixed material ranged from 28 to 32%. The product, whether the former or the latter, was characterized by very good mechanical properties and satisfactory physical properties. Moreover, the type of starch binder had no effect on toughness, calorific heating value, volatiles, fixed carbon content and ash content. However, the combustion test showed quite different burning properties. As briquettes should have short firing up time and lower smokiness, as well as high maximum temperature and long burning time, we have concluded that briquettes with native wheat starch as a binder are more appropriate for burning in the grill.

  8. (Methacrylic Acid-Co-Divinylbenzene) Resin as Filler- Binder for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divinylbenzene) resin (PMD) as a new filler-binder for direct compression tablets. Methods: Powder properties of PMD and MCC were characterized. Tablets made from PMD and MCC with and without propranolol hydrochloride were evaluated for ...

  9. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, M.H.; Bulow, J.; Simonsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...... with or without the abdominal compression binder. The results show that the compression binder significantly increases the venous volume in the lower extremities as showed by a reduction in the venous capacitance in the lower extremities and a reduction in the stroke volume and cardiac output, while it does...... not influence the pulmonary volumes. It is concluded that the applied abdominal binder significantly affects peripheral and central haemodynamics. It should therefore be used with caution when in the supine position for longer periods, as the pooling of blood it induces in the lower extremities may have...

  10. New BioCo binders containing biopolymers for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of cross-linking of new polymer binders from the BioCo group, their hardening in moulding sands at the application of cross-linking agents both physical and chemical are presented. Their thermal stability was determined. It was proved, that moulding sands bound by the BioCo binders are characterised by the compression strength (Ruc of an order of 2 MPa, and the bending strength (Rug of 1 MPa, after 1 hour of a sample curing. The worked out BioCo binders are biodegradable and renewable in the part which was not completely burned. The investigated moulding sands with the BioCo binders are easily knocked out and have a good susceptibility for mechanical reclamation processes.

  11. BINDER DRAINAGE TEST FOR POROUS MIXTURES MADE BY VARYING THE MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZES

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman Hardiman; A. A. Mohammed; M.O. Hamzah

    2004-01-01

    Binder drainage occurs with mixes of small aggregate surface area particularly porous asphalt. The binder drainage test, developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, UK, is commonly used to set an upper limit on the acceptable binder content for a porous mix. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the effects of different binder types on the binder drainage characteristics of porous mix made of various maximum aggregate sizes 20, 14 and 10 mm. Two types ...

  12. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  13. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  15. A Granule Model for Evaluating Adhesion of Pharmaceutical Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Orafai

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Granule capability is defined in terms of the strength of individual granule and friability of granulation batch to withstand breaking, abrasion and compactibility. Binder(s are added to perform the above properties .The common methods to asses their capability are to test crushing strength of the granules directly and to make statistical analysis and /or testing the friability of bulk granulation. In this work four substrate models including polymethylmetacrylate beads(PMMA,glass powder, acetaminophen, and para-aminobebzoic acid were chosen. The binder models were corn starch, gelatin, methylcellulose (MC and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC. After massing the substrates with the binder solutions, discs were produced by the mean of the mold technique. The discs were dried and conditioned and then tested for tensile strength while the failed areas were scanned by SEM. Various granulations were made and the results of friability and crush strength were compared with the discs strength .The bond areas in the SEM showed the trend with the binder concentration .A comparison of the standard deviation shows that discs have much lower level of the strength than granules. The resulting discs showed a higher performance which is related to the stems for the discs shape .In conclusion, this method is a simple and is applicable to differentiate efficacy of binder under studies.

  16. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  17. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  18. Binder deformation in WC-(Co, Ni) cemented carbide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasel, C. H.; Krawitz, A. D.; Drake, E. F.; Kenik, E. A.

    1985-12-01

    The microstructural responses to monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of three WC-(Co,Ni) alloys have been characterized and measured by high voltage transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. A base alloy comprising WC-17 wt pct Co was prepared and evaluated, along with two alloys in which the binder composition was altered by replacing 15 pct and 30 pct of the total cobalt by nickel. Results are presented for strains of 0, 0.75, and 5.0 pct, and for two fatigue stress levels, both at 0.5 million cycles. Predominant binder-deformation mechanisms were observed to shift with increasing Ni content from the fcc-hcp martensitic transformation to slip plus twinning over the composition range studied. In the base alloy, 44.5 vol pct of the binder had transformed at the highest strain level, while only 11.4 pct transformation occurred at the same strain in the 30 pct Ni-binder alloy. The shift in binder plasticity mechanisms and the corresponding changes in composite stressstrain behavior have been discussed with respect to several theories on the role of binder deformation in cermet mechanical response.

  19. A method for producing a binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yefremova, A.S.; Aspel, N.B.; Barinov, Ye.N.; Belyanin, Yu.I.; Korenevskiy, G.V.; Popov, I.D.; Shulman, A.I.; Vinogradov, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the known method (Sp) for producing a binder for road construction through air oxidation of a hydrocarbon raw material from the processing of fuel shales at 130 to 220 degrees, in order to prevent environmental pollution, high ash wastes, heavy coal tar products (Fs), obtained in high temperature processing of fuel shales, and ground to 0.005 to 1.3 millimeters, are used as the hydrocarbon raw material. The oxidation of the heavy coal tar products is conducted to a viscosity (penetration) of 100 to 300 degrees. The proposed method is accomplished in the following manner. The total heavy coal tar products, which contain light (5 to 20 percent mechanical admixtures), medium (35 to 60 percent mechanical admixtures) and heavy (65 to 60 percent mechanical admixtures) heavy coal tar products, are loaded into a tank with a mixer and then with averaging are fed using an auger or scraper feeder to a ball and rod mill or desintegrator for fine grinding of the mineral part.

  20. Study of the Effect of Siliceous Species in the Formation of a Geopolymer Binder: Understanding the Reaction Mechanisms among the Binder, Wood, and Earth Brick.

    OpenAIRE

    Gouny, Fabrice; Fouchal, Fazia; Maillard, Pascal; Rossignol, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In building construction, geopolymer binder or mortar can interact with the structural materials and thus modify the binder formation mechanisms. In a geopolymer binder, the availability and amount of siliceous species is a preponderant parameter influencing the nature of networks formed after consolidation. In this study, the interactions between the binder and structural materials (wood and earth bricks) were investigated by 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic...

  1. Rock samples from LEP/LHC tunnel excavation

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Rock samples taken from 0 to 170 m below ground on the CERN site when the LEP (Large Electron Positron collider) pit number 6 was drilled in Bois-chatton (Versonnex). The challenges of LHC civil engineering: A mosaic of works, structures and workers of differents crafts and origins. Three consulting consortia for the engineering and the follow-up of the works. Four industrial consortia for doing the job. A young team of 25 CERN staff, 30 surface buildings, 32 caverns of all sizes, 170 000 m3 of concrete, 420 000 m3 excavated. 1998-2004 : six years of work and 340 millions Swiss Francs.

  2. Kirke Hyllinge and Snesere - Romanesque Twin Towers Recently Excavated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rensbro, Henriette; Vedsø, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Mirator, 2015. Co-author: Mogens Vedsø. Romanesque twin towers in Danish village churches have long tradition of research. Two recent excavations in Kirke Hyllinge and Snesere have revealed archaeological traces of rectangular towers which in this article are compared to other examples from Denmark....... Kirke Hyllinge church is an outstanding example of twin towers due to the length of the west-section of 16 meters. The only parallel is a planned three-aisled village church in the other end of the country. While for Snesere church the main question is the design of the top section, whether...... it was a twin tower or not....

  3. Upgrading mild gasification liquids to produce electrode binder pitch: Final technical report, September 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the production of electrode binder pitch, valued at $250--$300/ton, from mild gasification liquids. In the IGT MILDGAS process, the 400 C+ distillation residue (crude pitch) comprises up to 20 wt% of maf feed coal. The largest market for pitch made from coal liquids is the aluminum industry, which uses it to make carbon anodes for electrolytic furnaces. In this project, crude MILDGAS pitch is being modified by flash thermocracking to achieve binder pitch specifications. A 1-kg/h continuous unit has been built for operation up to 900 C at 2.5 atm, and parametric tests were conducted in N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and 50% H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}. In general, thermocracking at 750--850 C in N{sub 2} resulted in a pitch which meets binder pitch requirements for QI, TI, softening point, and C:H ratio. Further improvements in density and sulfur content are required. Test anodes were prepared by Alcoa using the upgraded mild gasification pitch. All of the key anode properties (density, strength, resistivity, thermal properties, permeability, and reactivity) compared very favorably with those of electrodes made from a standard pitch binder.

  4. Environmental problems caused by Istanbul subway excavation and suggestions for remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Ibrahim

    2009-10-01

    Many environmental problems caused by subway excavations have inevitably become an important point in city life. These problems can be categorized as transporting and stocking of excavated material, traffic jams, noise, vibrations, piles of dust mud and lack of supplies. Although these problems cause many difficulties, the most pressing for a big city like Istanbul is excavation, since other listed difficulties result from it. Moreover, these problems are environmentally and regionally restricted to the period over which construction projects are underway and disappear when construction is finished. Currently, in Istanbul, there are nine subway construction projects in operation, covering approximately 73 km in length; over 200 km to be constructed in the near future. The amount of material excavated from ongoing construction projects covers approximately 12 million m3. In this study, problems—primarily, the problem with excavation waste (EW)—caused by subway excavation are analyzed and suggestions for remediation are offered.

  5. Discrete element analysis of the excavation effect of cross-river tunnel on the surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-river tunnel as one of the underground constructions is complicated during its construction. For stability of tunnel excavation, it is emergency to analyze the dynamic characteristics of tunnel deformation under high water pressure. Therefore, a cross-river tunnel model is proposed based on DEM in this paper. Stiffness of particles decreases during excavation process which is as one of excavation methods. Porosity ratio of original porosity over its value at different excavation time has been considered. Radial displacements of particles at different angle around the tunnel are detected during excavation process. It shows that large deformation occurs at the vault of the excavation zone which accompanies with large radial displacement. The upper half of the tunnel performs larger deformation than the lower half part which results in many cracks in the concrete lining, the high water pressure may play an crucial role in it.

  6. Evaluation of bending moment and deflection of cantilever supported excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Yasrebi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In many conditions, because of several restrictions, cantilever walls are the only way to stabilize the excavations. It is no doubt that one of the most important parameters in design of such walls is wall stiffness. Therefore, in this study, a large number of case histories are collected and the most commonly used range of wall thickness and stiffness are determined based on this database. In addition, validation of limit equilibrium method (LEM in granular soils showed that this method can only estimate bending moment of rigid walls. Therefore, for more accurate estimating, a new equation is presented for the most commonly used range of wall stiffness and various types of granular soils. Moreover, LEM based equation is replaced with a modified version. The new equation was successfully validated using 70 numerical models and results lied in range of 85% to 115% times the predicted values obtained from FEM. According to the results, in loose and very loose soils, the common cantilever walls can only stabilize the excavations with depth less than 10 m. While if depth is more than 15 m, soil type should be dense or very dense with “E” more than about 70 MPa. The results also show that the effect of wall stiffness is negligible in bending moments less than 2000 kN.m.

  7. Target and Projectile: Material Effects on Crater Excavation and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Burleson, T.; Cintala, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Scaling relationships allow the initial conditions of an impact to be related to the excavation flow and final crater size and have proven useful in understanding the various processes that lead to the formation of a planetary-scale crater. In addition, they can be examined and tested through laboratory experiments in which the initial conditions of the impact are known and ejecta kinematics and final crater morphometry are measured directly. Current scaling relationships are based on a point-source assumption and treat the target material as a continuous medium; however, in planetary-scale impacts, this may not always be the case. Fragments buried in a megaregolith, for instance, could easily approach or exceed the dimensions of the impactor; rubble-pile asteroids could present similar, if not greater, structural complexity. Experiments allow exploration into the effects of target material properties and projectile deformation style on crater excavation and dimensions. This contribution examines two of these properties: (1) the deformation style of the projectile, ductile (aluminum) or brittle (soda-lime glass) and (2) the grain size of the target material, 0.5-1 mm vs. 1-3 mm sand.

  8. Reduction of excavation face collapse risk in tunnelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Filippo; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Muller, Alessandro; Biffino, Marco; Matteucci, Alessandro

    2017-12-14

    Two large road tunnels, recently developed near Florence, showed instabilities of the excavation face which subsequently caused sixteen collapses. Due to the risk for workers' safety, the public authority for occupational health and safety (ASL) has monitored the failure rate and other background variables in order to assess the possible correlations between risk reductions, its own actions, and those of the various safety actors involved. To evaluate if the interventions carried out by the design team were able to reduce the risks of collapse and which of the ASL actions and/or which other factors were more effective in changing the attitudes of the parties involved, leading to a more expensive but safer project variant. After adoption of the second of two project variants, no more collapses were observed. No correlation was found between trend of ASL inspections and observed variation of collapse rate. Conversely, the adoption of strongly coercive measures and investigation reporting by local media coincided with periods of risk reduction, even if the low number of events does not allow for statistical evaluation. These findings appear to be coherent with the ratio of the cost of penalties related to health and safety infringements (thousands of euros) to the overall cost of the safer project variant (a hundred times greater).  The safer variant required 7% more labour but avoided forced interruptions caused by the collapses, allowing a 13% faster excavation rate.

  9. Evaluation of excavation experience: Pierre shale. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, J.F. Jr.; Gentry, D.W.

    1975-06-27

    Pierre shale and its stratigraphic equivalents represent a potentially favorable geologic environment for underground storage of hazardous waste products. These rock formations cover great areal and vertical extents, and represent some of the least permeable rock formations within the continental United States. There are, however, several engineering problems associated with constructing underground openings in Pierre shale. This formation is relatively weak and tends to deteriorate rather rapidly if not protected from the mine environment. It will be necessary to place all underground openings below the surficially weathered upper 50 to 70 feet of Pierre shale which contains groundwater moving on fracture permeability. The optimum site for disposal of hazardous waste in Pierre shale, or its stratigraphic equivalents, would be a seismically stable platform bounded on all sides by faults. The optimum size of individual openings would be the minimum necessary for access, storage, and retrieval of waste components. Underground excavations in Pierre shale must be made with care, must be of limited dimensions, must be widely spaced, must be protected from prolonged contact with the mine environment, must be supported immediately after excavation, and must be sited to avoid areas of faulting and(or) intense jointing. Underground openings constructed with boring machines and supported with wet shotcrete are recommended.

  10. From Excavations to Web: a GIS for Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, M. G.; Corsi, E.; Nemeti, S.; Germani, M.

    2017-05-01

    The study and the protection of Cultural Heritage in recent years have undergone a revolution about the search tools and the reference disciplines. The technological approach to the problem of the collection, organization and publication of archaeological data using GIS software has completely changed the essence of the traditional methods of investigation, paving the way to the development of several application areas, up to the Cultural Resource Management. A relatively recent specific sector of development for archaeological GIS development sector is dedicated to the intra - site analyses aimed to recording, processing and display information obtained during the excavations. The case - study of the archaeological site located in the south - east of San Pietro Vetere plateau in Aquino, in the Southern Lazio, is concerned with the illustration of a procedure describing the complete digital workflow relative to an intra-site analysis of an archaeological dig. The GIS project implementation and its publication on the web, thanks to several softwares, particularly the FOSS (Free Open Source Software) Quantum - GIS, are an opportunity to reflect on the strengths and the critical nature of this particular application of the GIS technology. For future developments in research it is of fundamental importance the identification of a digital protocol for processing of excavations (from the acquisition, cataloguing, up data insertion), also on account of a possible future Open Project on medieval Aquino.

  11. A CASE OF FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLE IN EYE WITH FOCAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, Omar Faisal; Al-Hashimi, Mustafa Raad; Fayyad, Faisal Tawfeeq

    2016-12-09

    To report an association between a Stage 4 full-thickness macular hole and focal choroidal excavation. Case report. A 46-year-old male patient with high myopia was referred for macular hole surgery and found to have an associated focal choroidal excavation. The patient underwent uneventful combined procedure with closure of macular hole. Successful macular hole surgery can be achieved even in the presence of focal choroidal excavation.

  12. ARBOLITCONCRETE ON SILICATESODIUM COMPOSITE BINDER AND SCRAPS OF VINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Manturov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The results of experimental studies produce siliсatеsodium composite binder of calcareous stone sawing waste, anhydrous sodium silicate, and based on them wood concrete using as an organic filler vine cuttings for the production of heat-insulating, heat-insulating, structural and structural wall material.Methods.The main technological operations of the developed arbalitconcrete are given : preparation of a composite binder; production of organic filler from the vine; preparation of arbolit concrete mass; formation of arbolit concrete mass; low-temperature treatment (drying.Results. It is found that the composite binder derived from waste stone sawing and anhydrous sodium silicate at their joint fine grinding (Ssp = 3000 cm2 / g, acquires binding properties and with the appropriate seal and heat treatment hardens and gains strength characteristics sufficient for making arbolitconcrete using crushed vine.Conclusion. It was determined that arbolitobeton obtained on the basis of the crushed vine and silikatnatrievogo composite binder strength exceeds arbolitobetona from other types of binders and organic fillers of vegetable origin.

  13. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

    2004-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of acidic heap-leach facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of other agglomeration applications, particularly advanced primary ironmaking.

  14. Binders for Energetics - Modelling and Synthesis in Harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Licia; Cleaver, Doug; Gould, Peter; Dunnett, Jim; Cavaye, Hamish; Ellison, Laurence; Luppi, Federico; Hollands, Ron; Bradley, Mark

    The Binders by Design UK programme develop new polymeric materials for energetic applications that can overcome problems related to chemico-physical properties, aging, additives, environmental and performance of energetic compositions. Combined multi-scale modelling and experiment is used for the development of a new modelling tool and with the aim to produce novel materials with great confidence and fast turnaround. New synthesised binders with attractive properties for energetic applications used to provide a high level of confidence in the results of developed models. Molecular dynamics simulations investigate the thermal behaviour and the results directly feed into a Group Interaction Model (GIM). A viscoelastic constitutive model has been developed examining stress development in energetic/binder configurations. GIM data has been used as the basis for developing hydrocode equations of state, which then applied in run-to-detonation type investigations to examine the effect of the shock properties of a binder on the reactivity of a typical Polymer Bonded Explosive in a high-velocity impact type scenario. The Binders by Design UK programme is funded through the Weapons Science and Technology Centre by DSTL.

  15. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not breakdown during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of many facilities see large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching.

  16. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  17. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  18. Performance Modification of Asphalt Binders using Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to improve the performance of asphalt binders to minimize stress cracking that occurs at low temperatures and plastic deformation at high temperatures. Importation of used asphalt-polymers from abroad, leads to an increase in the total construction cost as compared to the cost if the used polymers were of local origin. The main objective of this research was to modify locally produced asphalt. Ten polymers were identified as potential asphalt modifiers based on their physical properties and chemical composition. After preliminary laboratory evaluation for the melting point of these polymers, five polymers were selected for local asphalt modification. In the initial stage, required mixing time was decided based on the relation between shear loss modulus and mixing time .The optimum polymer content was selected based on Superpave binder performance grade specifications.The suitability of improvement was verified through the evaluation of permanent deformation and fatigue behavior of laboratory prepared asphalt concrete mixes. The results indicated that the rheological properties of the modified binders improved significantly with sufficient polymer content (3%. The aging properties of the modified binders were found to be dependent on the type of polymer.The fatigue life and resistance to permanent deformation were significantly improved due to enhanced binder rheological properties.  Thus, local asphalts can be modified using thermoplastic polymers.

  19. Parametric Optimization and Prediction Tool for Excavation and Prospecting Tasks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics therefore proposed to develop a software tool for facilitating prospecting and excavation system trades in support of selecting an optimal...

  20. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  1. Advancements in Binder Systems for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Paper will present recent developments in advanced material binder systems for solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technologies. The advantage of SFF is the capability to custom fabricate complex geometries directly from computer aided design data in layer- by-layer fashion, eliminated the need for traditional fixturing and tooling. Binders allow for the low temperature processing of 'green' structural materials, either metal, ceramic or composite, in traditional rapid prototyping machines. The greatest obstacle comes when green parts must then go through a sintering or burnout process to remove the binders and fully densify the parent material, without damaging or distorting the original part geometry. Critical issues and up-to-date assessments will be delivered on various material systems.

  2. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  3. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  4. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...... behavior of copper and iron based binder for diamond cutting wheels is investigated experimentally and numerically. Computational micromechanical studies were carried out to clarify the mechanisms of the MWCNT material strengthening. It is demonstrated that the adding of MWCNTs leads to the decrease...

  5. Influencing of foundry bentonite mixtures by binder activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beňo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although new moulding processes for manufacture of high quality castings have been developed and introduced into foundry practice in recent years, the green-sand moulding in bentonite mixture still remains the most widely used technology. Higher utility properties of bentonite binders are achieved through their activation. This contribution is aimed at finding a suitable activating agent. A number of sodium salts and MgO based agents has been chosen. In the framework of the experiment the swelling volume of chosen agents was tested and technological parameters of a bentonite mixture with a binder activated with the studied agents were determined.

  6. Properies of binder systems containing cement, fly ash, and limestone powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittiya Kaewmanee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash and limestone powder are two major widely available cement replacing materials in Thailand. However, the current utilization of these materials is still not optimized due to limited information on properties of multi-binder systems. This paper reports on the mechanical and durability properties of mixtures containing cement, fly ash, and limestone powder as single, binary, and ternary binder systems. The results showed that a single binder system consisting of only cement gave the best carbonation resistance. A binary binder system with fly ash exhibited superior performances in long-term compressive strength and many durability properties except carbonation and magnesium sulfate resistances, while early compressive strength of a binary binder system with limestone powder was excellent. The ternary binder system, taking the most benefit of selective cement replacing materials, yielded, though not the best, satisfactory performances in almost all properties. Thus, the optimization of binders can be achieved through a multi-binder system.

  7. Evaluation of new binders using newly developed fracture energy test : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The flexibility and cohesion that give asphalt concrete its performance characteristics largely derive from the properties of binders. The durability of binders affects the function and lifetime of paving, and considering how extensive Floridas ro...

  8. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  9. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  10. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery test for LADOTD asphalt binder specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to characterize the elastic response of various binders used by LADOTD to determine the feasibility of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test to be included in the LADOTD asphalt binder specification and to...

  11. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : final report 564.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that G*/Sin, the high temperature specification parameter for current Performance Graded (PG) asphalt binder is not adequate to reflect the rutting characteristics of polymer-modified binders. Consequently, many state De...

  12. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  13. Long-term aging effect on rheological properties of combined binders from various polymers with ground tire rubber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han, Sen; Xu, Ouming; Amirkhanian, Serji N; Liu, Yamin; Xiao, Feipeng

    2016-01-01

    .... The test results indicated that both base binder and polymer type affect the fatigue resistance, creep and creep recovery, viscoelastic property, and relaxation characteristic of each modified binder...

  14. Shaft Excavation in Frozen Ground at Point 5

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J

    2000-01-01

    Construction work on the 112 MCHF civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. The two shafts are to be sunk through approximately 50 m of water-bearing moraine to the underlying molasse rock. From a number of possible construction methods, ground freezing of the moraine was considered to be most appropriate. The ground freezing is used to control the groundwater and to support temporarily the moraine during excavation and lining of the shafts. The aim of this paper is to present the ground-freezing technique and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the system in the light of its first few months of running on the Point 5 site.

  15. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Laxemar. The inflow calculations were accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handled the impact of different deposition hole rejection criteria. The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled

  16. Theoretical study of short pile effect in tunnel excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-yan; Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiao-mei; Li, Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The Misaki Sato Go ideal elastoplastic model is adopted and the two stage analysis theory is used to study the effect of tunnel excavation on short pile effect in this paper. In the first stage, the free field vertical displacement of the soil at the corresponding pile location is obtained by using empirical formula. In the second stage, the displacement is applied to the corresponding pile location. The equilibrium condition of micro physical differential equation settlement of piles. Then through logical deduction and the boundary condition expressions of the settlement calculation, obtain the pile side friction resistance and axial force of the week. Finally, an engineering example is used to analyze the influence of the change of main parameters on their effects.

  17. Stability assessment for underground excavations and key construction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Zhao, Yu; Niu, Fusheng

    2017-01-01

    This book examines how the state of underground structures can be determined with the assistance of force, deformation and energy. It then analyzes mechanized shield methods, the New Austrian tunneling method (NATM) and conventional methods from this new perspective. The book gathers a wealth of cases reflecting the experiences of practitioners and administrators alike. Based on statistical and engineering studies of these cases, as well as lab and field experiments, it develops a stability assessment approach incorporating a stable equilibrium, which enables engineers to keep the structure and surrounding rocks safe as long as the stable equilibrium and deformation compliance are maintained. The book illustrates the implementation of the method in various tunneling contexts, including soil-rock mixed strata, tunneling beneath operating roads, underwater tunnels, and tunnel pit excavation. It offers a valuable guide for researchers, designers and engineers, especially those who are seeking to understand the u...

  18. Pajarito Plateau archaeological survey and excavations. [Los Alamos Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C.R.

    1977-05-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory lands were surveyed to locate pre-Columbian Indian ruins. The survey results will permit future construction to be planned so that most of the ancient sites in the area can be preserved. Indian occupation of the area occurred principally from late Pueblo III times (late 13th century) until early Pueblo V (about the middle of the 16th century). There are evidences of sporadic Indian use of the area for some 10,000 years. One Folsom point has been found, as well as many other archaic varieties of projectile points. Continued use of the region well into the historic period is indicated by pictographic art that portrays horses. In addition to an account of the survey, the report contains summaries of excavations made on Laboratory lands between 1950 and 1975.

  19. THE EXPANDING CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN MACULAR DYSTROPHIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Casalino, Giuseppe; Iacono, Pierluigi; Introini, Ugo; Adamyan, Tatevik; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-08-09

    To assess the prevalence and the clinical course of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in patients affected by macular dystrophies. Prospective case series. All the patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was assessed on the basis of the leakage detected on fluorescein angiography. A total of 162 eyes from 81 patients with macular dystrophy were included in the study. FCE was diagnosed in seven eyes (4.3% of the eyes), including four eyes with Best vitelliform dystrophy, two eyes with pattern dystrophy associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, and one case of Stargardt disease. In eyes with FCE and macular dystrophy, the mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.4 ± 0.1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (approximately corresponding to 20/50 Snellen equivalent) at baseline and was stable to 0.41 ± 0.1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (approximately corresponding to 20/50 Snellen equivalent) at the final visit. In four of these seven eyes, FCE was associated with a subfoveal CNV. The CNV was managed with one intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection, achieving the complete anatomical stabilization of the CNV and recovery of the best-corrected visual acuity. Focal choroidal excavation can be infrequently encountered in patients with macular dystrophies. The presence of CNV may complicate FCE in these patients, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor seems to be an effective treatment with no progression of FCE over time.

  20. Full-face excavation of large tunnels in difficult conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Barla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a few preliminary remarks on the tunneling methods at the beginning of the 20th century, the successful applications of the full-face method also in difficult conditions are underlined. The attention is posed on the use of a systematic reinforcement of the face and of the ground, by means of fiber-glass elements. A selection of tunnels where this method was used successfully is reported with the purpose of illustrating the wide spectrum of ground conditions where it has been applied. Then, following a description of the main concepts behind the method, the attention moves from the so-called “heavy method”, where deformations are restrained, to the “light method”, where deformations are allowed with the intention to decrease the stresses acting on the primary and final linings. The progress in the application of the “light method” is underlined, up to the development of a novel technique, which relies on the use of a yielding support composed of top head steel sets with sliding joints and special deformable elements inserted in the primary lining. The well-known case study of the Saint Martin La Porte access adit, along the Lyon-Turin Base Tunnel, is described. In this tunnel, a yield-control support system combined with full-face excavation has been adopted successfully in order to cope with the large deformations experienced during face advance through the Carboniferous formation. The monitoring results obtained during excavation are illustrated, together with the modeling studies performed when paying attention to the rock mass time-dependent behavior.

  1. The excavating sponges of the Santa Marta area, Colombia, with description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Caroline C.; Kielman, Margriet

    1992-01-01

    From June till December 1987 an inventory of the excavating sponges of the Santa Marta area, Colombian Caribbean, was made by scuba diving to depths not exceeding 18 m. Sixteen species were recorded and compared morphologically, using spicule sizes, papillae shapes, and excavation characteristics.

  2. The role of wood hardness in limiting nest site selection in avian cavity excavators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Timothy R. Johnson; Philip C. Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Woodpeckers and other primary cavity excavators (PCEs) are important worldwide for excavating cavities in trees, and a large number of studies have examined their nesting preferences. However, quantitative measures of wood hardness have been omitted from most studies, and ecologists have focused on the effects of external tree- and habitat-level features on nesting....

  3. Deformations and damage to buildings adjacent to deep excavations in soft soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korff, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into mechanisms of soil-structure interaction for buildings adjacent to deep excavations and to find a reliable method to design and monitor deep excavations in urban areas with soft soil conditions. The research focuses on typical Dutch conditions. The

  4. Drill, baby, drill: the influence of woodpeckers on post-fire vertebrate communities through cavity excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina L. Tarbill; Patricia N. Manley; Angela M. White

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the importance of woodpeckers as ecological engineers in forests due to their excavation of cavities. Although research in green, unburned forests has identified the influence of different excavators on secondary use by cavity-dependent species, little is known about the relative importance of cavities created by woodpeckers in recently...

  5. Excavation of Precious-Metal-Based Alloy Nanoparticles for Efficient Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Franklin Feng

    2016-12-05

    Methods have recently been developed for the synthesis of excavated alloy nanoparticles. However, various challenges still need to be overcome for a broad range of excavated nanoparticles with different sizes, surface structures, compositions, and constituent elements to be available for chemical and energy transformations through thermal catalysis and electrocatalysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Relevant risk factors associated with the construction of excavated tunnel cross-passages in soft soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of risk factors associated with the construction of excavated tunnel cross-passages in soft soils. The investigation focused on excavations where freezing technologies are used to provide temporary support. The relevant risk factors and their associated

  7. Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Johnson, Christian D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2012-11-16

    Deep excavation of soil has been conducted at the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 waste sites within the 100-BC Operable Unit at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) contamination with the excavations reaching to near the water table. Soil sampling showed that Cr(VI) contamination was still present at the bottom of the 100-C-7:1 excavation. In addition, Cr(VI) concentrations in a downgradient monitoring well have shown a transient spike of increased Cr(VI) concentration following initiation of excavation. Potentially, the increased Cr(VI) concentrations in the downgradient monitoring well are due to Cr(VI) from the excavation site. However, data were needed to evaluate this possibility and to quantify the overall impact of the 100-C-7:1 excavation site on groundwater. Data collected from a network of aquifer tubes installed across the floor of the 100-C-7:1 excavation and from temporary wells installed at the bottom of the entrance ramp to the excavation were used to evaluate Cr(VI) releases into the aquifer and to estimate local-scale hydraulic properties and groundwater flow velocity.

  8. Evaluation of bitumen-rubber asphalt manufactured from modified binder at lower viscosity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connell, Johannes S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available ', the viscosity of the bitumen-rubber binder inevitably falls below the minimum specification, and such binder is contractually unacceptable for use. A bitumen rubber asphalt mix was manufactured using a single aggregate grading and bitumen-rubber binder...

  9. 46 CFR 308.302 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.302 Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in form as set forth in § 308.3...

  10. 46 CFR 308.102 - Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions; fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions; fees... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.102 Issuance of interim binder; terms and conditions; fees. Upon acceptance of an application, an interim binder in the form set forth...

  11. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  12. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  13. 40 CFR 63.10886 - What are my management practices for binder formulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... binder formulations? 63.10886 Section 63.10886 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... What are my management practices for binder formulations? For each furfuryl alcohol warm box mold or core making line at a new or existing iron and steel foundry, you must use a binder chemical...

  14. PHOSPHATE BINDER THERAPY AND SERUM PHOSPHATE CONTROL FOLLOWING INITIATION OF HAEMODIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Farrand

    2012-06-01

    Serum P can be difficult to control following initiation of HD. Patients with elevated serum P were younger, and most had higher P binder use than the reference group. Overall, binder use was lower than in other studies of HD patients. Dietary education and higher doses of the most effective P binders may be needed to improve P management.

  15. CLINICAL COURSE OF INFLAMMATORY CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION ASSOCIATED WITH FOCAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Eleonora; Sacconi, Riccardo; Querques, Lea; Carnevali, Adriano; Giuffrè, Chiara; Rabiolo, Alessandro; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-10-23

    To report the clinical course of focal choroidal excavation associated with choroidal neovascularization in a case of choroidal inflammation. Case report. A 41-year-old man presented with blurred vision and metamorphopsia in his left eye. Multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography angiography showed nonconforming focal choroidal excavation in the setting of choroidal inflammation and the presence of choroidal neovascularization at the border of the excavation, nicely visualized by optical coherence tomography angiography. Pattern alteration from nonconforming to conforming focal choroidal excavation and choroidal neovascularization involution were observed after treatment with oral steroids. Multimodal imaging, including optical coherence tomography angiography, allowed to detect and monitor pattern focal choroidal excavation transformation and choroidal neovascularization reduction after treatment with oral steroids.

  16. Dam geology and basic treatment(2). Adit substitution technique and measures against landslide involved in excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kin' ichi (Kinki Geological Center, Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan (JP))

    1988-12-25

    This paper discusses the adit substitution technique which is a method for special treatment of dams and measures against landslide involved in excavation. The adit substitution technique consists of excavating an adit in the natural ground, excavating another adit which is in contact with the first adit and is at a level higher than the first adit, placing concrete from the upper adit to the lower adit to fill first adit completely with concrete, excavating a third adit, filling the second adit with concrete similarly, and proceeding with this process to construct a water barrier within the natural ground until the water barrier reaches the required height. The paper explains examples of this technique used on four dams. It also explains examples of measures against excavation-induced landslide adopted on three dams. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol .... in the range 200–5000 dynes/cm (e.g. oxides, nitride, silica and diamond) as this will greatly ...

  18. BINDER INFLUENCE ON KNITTING FABRICS TREATED WITH PCMs BY PADDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIRLIK UYSAL Çagla Dilara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Knitting fabrics are characterized by the confort they confer on the wearer. Textiles with mcirocpsules are bocoming more popular and nowadays Phase Change Materials (PCM are used for thermal control and to avoid temperature changes to be clearly noticeable. Consequently, they can control variations in temerpature and make the user feel more confortable. Washing durability and rigidity are very important when considering fabrics treated with microencapsules. In this study we first aimed to study what influence has the resin concentration with the durability of microencapsules on the fabric after having washed it and its confort. To observe the presence of microcapsules after washing procedure the scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used. SEM analysis showed different density of microcapsules with PCMs depending on the binder concentration used. It could be clearly noticieable that 5times washed fabric and 10times washed fabric still show microacapsules on it. On the other hand we used padding method for the application of PCMs into the fabris and this study put forth the binder effect on rigidity. We have demonstrated that when we increase the binder concentration for padding bath, after 10th laundry cycles for the same fabric, we still have microcalsules on it. On the other hand, density of binder effect negatively influences on rigidity of the fabric.

  19. Presentation for new binder tests and specification change workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-18

    The research team of the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) developed and taught a new asphalt binder test workshop, which was held at the Cedar Park branch of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) on June 18, 2014. The focus of the wo...

  20. Breakpoint or Binder : Religious Engagement in Dutch Civil Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Gürkan Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Civil society as a social sphere is constantly subjected to change. Using the Dutch context, this article addresses the question whether religiously inspired engagement is a binder or a breakpoint in modern societies. The author examines how religiously inspired people in the Netherlands involve

  1. Effects of Mineral Admixtures, Water Binder Ratio and Curing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the laboratory investigation on the effects of mineral admixtures and water binder ratio on compressive strength is discussed. The study was conducted for three different mineral admixtures namely; FA, SF and Mk with different water cement ratios of 0.32, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.5. The admixture proportion ...

  2. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  3. Multimodality and Immigrant Children (Response to Marni Binder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campano, Gerald; Low, David

    2011-01-01

    This response to Marni Binder reflects upon two examples of (im)migrant children's artwork and challenges the dominant notion that (im)migration experiences--and their subsequent portrayals--can be fit into neat slots. The authors position multimodal composing opportunities as affording children a vital instrument for deploying their full semiotic…

  4. Evaporation induced nanoparticle - binder interaction in electrode film formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Wood, David L; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2017-04-12

    Processing induced nanoparticle agglomeration and binder distribution affect the electrode microstructure formation and corresponding electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. In the present study, stochastic dynamics computations based on a morphologically detailed mesoscale model are performed to illustrate the microstructural variability of electrode films affected by the evaporation condition (drying temperature) and the binder length (molecular weight). Micropores are observed at the surface of the electrode film when dried at a lower temperature. The pore formation depth tends to increase as the binder length increases. The solvent chemical potential also affects the surface topography of the electrode film. The solvent with higher volatility (more negative chemical potential) tends to produce more micropores. A lower drying temperature is beneficial for improving the electronic conductivity of the porous electrode film due to the better distribution of the conductive additive nanoparticles on and around the active particles, thereby facilitating the electron transport network formation. Agglomeration between active material nanoparticles can also be mitigated at a lower drying temperature. Additionally, better adhesion of the porous electrode film can be achieved due to preferential localization of the binder on the substrate at relatively low-temperature evaporation.

  5. Effect of binder processing on feed quality | Suleiman | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of binder processing on the quality of feed, viz; pelletabilty, hardness, friability and water stability. Four different starch sources were investigated; yam starch, corn starch, rice starch and cassava starch. Each starch was formulated into two diets employing two processing ...

  6. Hyperscaling breakdown and Ising spin glasses: The Binder cumulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    Among the Renormalization Group Theory scaling rules relating critical exponents, there are hyperscaling rules involving the dimension of the system. It is well known that in Ising models hyperscaling breaks down above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by Schwartz (1991) that the standard Josephson hyperscaling rule can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions. A related Renormalization Group Theory hyperscaling rule links the critical exponents for the normalized Binder cumulant and the correlation length in the thermodynamic limit. An appropriate scaling approach for analyzing measurements from criticality to infinite temperature is first outlined. Numerical data on the scaling of the normalized correlation length and the normalized Binder cumulant are shown for the canonical Ising ferromagnet model in dimension three where hyperscaling holds, for the Ising ferromagnet in dimension five (so above the upper critical dimension) where hyperscaling breaks down, and then for Ising spin glass models in dimension three where the quenched interactions are random. For the Ising spin glasses there is a breakdown of the normalized Binder cumulant hyperscaling relation in the thermodynamic limit regime, with a return to size independent Binder cumulant values in the finite-size scaling regime around the critical region.

  7. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  8. Optimization of binder, disintegrant and compression pressure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was done by studying the contributions of variable factors of binder concentration, disintegrant concentration and compression pressure to tablet friability, hardness and disintegration time under factor combinations given by 23 factorial experimental designs. The effect of every factor was determined by finding the ...

  9. Binder Development for Metal Injection Moulding: A CSIR Perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the CSIR’s progress and challenges concerning the development of a wax-based binder system suitable for metal injection moulding (MIM). It reports on a consolidation study wherein different widely used wax-based feedstock...

  10. Interactions Of Binder, Disintegrant And Compression Pressure In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Binders, disintegrants and compression pressures play important roles in producing good tablets. The interactions between these three factors were analyzed to observe how they contribute to tablet properties. The concentration levels of the factors were determined using 23 factorial study designs by wet granulation ...

  11. Effect of Herbal Mycotoxin Binders in Amelioration of Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of herbal mycotoxin binders in ameliorating induced mycotoxicosis was evaluated in white leghorn laying hens. Birds were randomly divided into six groups containing 15 birds in each group. Group I was served as control fed with basal diet, group II birds were fed with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A at 100 ppb each.

  12. Effect of methionine and lactic acid bacteria as aflatoxin binder on broiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, Lusty; Damayanti, Ema; Julendra, Hardi; Suryani, Ade Erma; Sakti, Awistaros Angger; Anggraeni, Ayu Septi

    2017-06-01

    The use of aflatoxin binder product based amino acids, lacic acid bacteria, and natural product gived the opportunity to be an alternative biological decontamination of aflatoxins. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of aflatoxin binder administration (amino acid methionine and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum G7)) as feed additive on broiler performance. In this study, 75 Lohmann unsexed day old chicks were distributed randomly into 5 units of cages, each filled with 15 broilers. Five cages were assigned into 5 treatments groups and fed with feed contained aflatoxin. The treatments as follow: P1 (aflatoxin feed without aflatoxin binder), P3 (aflatoxin feed + 0.8% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P4 (aflatoxin feed + 1.2% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P5 (aflatoxin feed + 1% of LAB), and K0 (commercial feed). The measurement of aflatoxin content in feed was performed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method using AgraQuant® Total Aflatoxin Assay Romer Labs procedure. The experimental period was 35 days with feeding and drinking ad libitum. LAB was administered into drinking water, while methionine into feed. Vaccination program of Newcastle Disease (ND) was using active vaccine at 4 and 18 day old, while Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) was given at 8 day old. Parameter of body weight was observed weekly, while feed consumption noted daily. The result showed that aflatoxin in feed for 35 days period did not significantly affect the body weight gain and feed conversion. The lowest percentage of organ damage at 21 day old was found in P5 treatment (55%), while at 35day old was found in P4 treatment (64%). It could be concluded that technological process of detoxifying aflatoxin could be applied in an attempt to reduce the effect on the toxicity of aflatoxin in poultry feed.

  13. Association of focal choroidal excavation with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yoshimasa; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Ooto, Sotaro; Yamashiro, Kenji; Oishi, Akio; Nakanishi, Hideo; Kumagai, Kyoko; Hata, Masayuki; Arichika, Shigeta; Ellabban, Abdallah A; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-09-04

    To study the prevalence, tomographic features, and clinical characteristics of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We examined 243 consecutive eyes with exudative AMD with a prototype swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Three-dimensional images of the macular area, covering 6 × 6 mm(2), were reconstructed by segmentation of the outer surface of the retinal pigment epithelium. Three-dimensional swept-source OCT revealed 15 excavations in 12 eyes (4.9%); 10 had a single excavation and 2 had multiple excavations (2 and 3 excavations, respectively). In multiaveraged scans, unusual choroidal tissue was found beneath 5 excavations, bridging the excavation with the outer choroidal boundary. Additionally, the suprachoroidal space was observed beneath 7 excavations-the outer choroidal boundary appeared to be pulled inward by this bridging tissue. In 9 excavations, color fundus photographs showed pigmentary disturbance. Fourteen excavations (93.3%) were located within or adjacent to the choroidal neovascularization area. Compared with eyes without FCE, in eyes with FCE, the mean age was significantly higher (P = 0.040) and mean visual acuity was significantly better (P = 0.014). In addition, polypoidal lesions were observed in 8 of 12 eyes with FCE, but they appeared to have a limited effect on either the rate of FCE (P = 0.44) or the clinical characteristics of the eyes. While FCE may be partially related to the choroidal neovascularization associated with exudative AMD, other factors may also influence this association. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Clinical and optic coherence tomography findings of focal choroidal excavation in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Zhong, Lu; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Gezhi; Wang, Wenji; Wang, Yuliang

    2014-05-06

    To describe the clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of focal choroidal excavation in Chinese patients. Retrospectively, thirty-seven eyes (in 31 patients) that demonstrated focal choroidal excavation on spectral-domain OCT were collected. Their clinical characteristics and other features were also collected and analyzed. In total, 42 focal choroidal excavations were identified in 31 patients, including 25 unilateral and 6 bilateral (37 eyes). The abnormal changes in these eyes with choroidal excavation were more prominent at the outer part of the neuro-retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid. The average transverse diameter and depth of the excavations were 670.8 μm and 106.9 μm, respectively. In addition to the conforming and nonconforming types, the excavations could also be classified into 2 types according to their shape: type 1 - small with a sharp, cut-down contour; and type 2 - slightly larger with a gradual edge. The transverse diameter/depth ratio of the two types were significantly different (type1: 4.57 ± 1.65, type 2: 10.0 ± 5.2; p = 0.000). Four central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) cases were confirmed by fluorescein angiography; in these cases, the retinal detachment was larger than the area of excavation, and the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) and external limiting membrane (ELM) were above those of the normal part. Concomitant CNV was also found in another 2 cases. Focal choroidal excavation was not uncommon in Chinese patients. The choroid and the RPE at the excavation were impaired or vulnerable to other damage. Additionally, OCT might be useful in the differentiation between nonconforming excavations and ones with CSCR.

  15. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  16. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  17. 76 FR 19129 - Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection Systems); Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection Systems); Extension of... information collection requirements contained in the Standard on Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection... use protective systems to prevent cave-ins during excavation work; these systems include sloping the...

  18. Comparison of Management Oversight and Risk Tree and Tripod-Beta in Excavation Accident Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadfam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process. Objectives One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries. Materials and Methods MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one. Results The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis.

  19. Intelligent Risk Assessment for Dewatering of Metro-Tunnel Deep Excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Ye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, China has been undergoing a metro railway construction boom in order to alleviate the urban traffic congestion problem resulting from the rapid urbanization and population growth in many metropolises. In the construction of metro systems, deep excavations and continuous dewatering for construction of the metro tunnels and stations remain a challenging and high risk task in densely populated urban areas. Intelligent computational methods and techniques have exhibited the exceptional talent in dealing with the complicated problems inherent in the deep excavation and dewatering practice. In this paper, an intelligent risk assessment system for deep excavation dewatering is developed and has been applied in the project of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 which is the first metro line of the urban rapid rail transit system in Hangzhou, China. The specific characteristics and great challenges in deep excavation dewatering of the metro-tunnel airshaft of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are addressed. A novel design method based on the coupled three-dimensional flow theory for dewatering of the deep excavation is introduced. The modularly designed system for excavation dewatering risk assessment is described, and the field observations in dewatering risk assessment of the airshaft excavation of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are also presented.

  20. Two cases of focal choroidal excavation detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katome, Takashi; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Hotta, Fumika; Niki, Masanori; Naito, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical findings of 2 patients with focal choroidal excavation in the macula detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Three eyes of 2 patients with a focal macular choroidal excavation detected by SD-OCT were studied. The eyes were examined by fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography, fundus-related microperimetry, and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). In spite of a complaint of metamorphopsia, the visual acuity was normal in 2 eyes. SD-OCT demonstrated a choroidal excavation in the macula but the foveal contour was normal in 3 eyes. The excavation involved the outer retinal layers up to the external limiting membrane in all eyes, and a type 2 secondary choroidal neovascularization (CNV) developed in 1 of the 3 eyes. There were areas of hypoautofluorescence in the FAF images, and areas of decreased retinal sensitivity determined by microperimetry. These areas corresponded to the choroidal excavation in all eyes. The P1 amplitudes of the mfERGs were decreased in the fovea of 1 eye without a CNV. The choroidal excavation remained stable for 3 years in 2 eyes, a secondary CNV developed in 1 eye during the course of the disease. More cases and longer follow-up periods will be necessary to determine the etiology, clinical course, and visual prognosis of eyes with a choroidal excavation.

  1. The use of computer-assisted FACE for minimal-invasive caries excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Philip; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar; Altenburger, Markus Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Caries excavation is still a demanding procedure today. In the past years, methods using light-induced fluorescence have proven their ability to detect bacteria remaining in the tooth's hard tissues. However, methods to control the complete removal of infected dentine have not yet been validated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of dentine removal during caries excavation using a camera- and software-based device as a guide for fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE) in comparison to visual-tactile inspection and a dye-staining method. One hundred teeth with carious lesions (C3) were randomly allocated to four groups and excavated with the respective method as primary excavation control method. When the first method indicated complete caries excavation, a second method was used to affirm this. Subsequently, dentine samples were taken to determine residual contamination using PCR. After embedding and sectioning the teeth dentine, microhardness was measured perpendicular to the cavity floor. By using the camera- and software-based device, 94 % of the cavities tested were free of bacterial contamination. All cavities excavated with the dye-staining or visual-tactile control method were free of bacterial contamination but resulted in a significantly higher dentine removal. The camera- and software-assisted caries excavation seems to be an adequate method to remove contaminated dentine without removing affected dentine. Beside its original application to monitor carious, the device is safe, effective, and easy to use for guided caries excavation and is of worth for both everyday practice and undergraduate education.

  2. Dye staining and excavation of a lateral preferential flow network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Anderson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferential flow paths have been found to be important for runoff generation, solute transport, and slope stability in many areas around the world. Although many studies have identified the particular characteristics of individual features and measured the runoff generation and solute transport within hillslopes, very few studies have determined how individual features are hydraulically connected at a hillslope scale. In this study, we used dye staining and excavation to determine the morphology and spatial pattern of a preferential flow network over a large scale (30 m. We explore the feasibility of extending small-scale dye staining techniques to the hillslope scale. We determine the lateral preferential flow paths that are active during the steady-state flow conditions and their interaction with the surrounding soil matrix. We also calculate the velocities of the flow through each cross-section of the hillslope and compare them to hillslope scale applied tracer measurements. Finally, we investigate the relationship between the contributing area and the characteristics of the preferential flow paths. The experiment revealed that larger contributing areas coincided with highly developed and hydraulically connected preferential flow paths that had flow with little interaction with the surrounding soil matrix. We found evidence of subsurface erosion and deposition of soil and organic material laterally and vertically within the soil. These results are important because they add to the understanding of the runoff generation, solute transport, and slope stability of preferential flow-dominated hillslopes.

  3. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled.

  4. Does Avalanche Shovel Shape Affect Excavation Time: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Schindelwig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Europe and North America, approximately 150 fatalities occur as a result of avalanches every year. However, it is unclear whether certain shovel shapes are more effective than others in snow removal during avalanche victim recovery. The objective was to determine the performance parameters with a developed standardized test using different shovel shapes and to determine sex-specific differences. Hence, several parameters were determined for clearing the snow from a snow filled box (15 men, 14 women. A flat (F and a deep (D shovel blade with the shaft connected straight (S or in clearing mode (C were used for the investigation of the shovel shapes FS, DC and the subsequent use of DC&DS. Mean snow mass shifted per unit time increased significantly from 1.50 kg/s with FS to 1.71 kg/s (14% with DS and further to 1.79 kg/s (4% with DC&DS for all participants. Snow mass shifted per unit time was 44% higher (p < 0.05 for men than for women. In excavation operations, the sex-specific physical performance should be taken into account. The results were limited to barely binding snow, because only with this snow did the tests show a high reliability.

  5. Focal choroidal excavation in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, F O J; Fok, A C T; Lee, A; Liu, A T W; Lai, T Y Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in patients presenting with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods This is a retrospective consecutive case series of consecutive patients with CSC who were referred for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) between January 2010 and December 2011. Medical records were reviewed and clinical features including presence of FCE in SD-OCT, fluorescence angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were studied. Results Among the 116 CSC patients assessed, FCE was found in 11 eyes of 7 (6.0%) patients. FCE was associated with subretinal fluid in six eyes of six patients and serous pigment epithelial detachment in three eyes of two patients. The mean central subfield retinal thickness of CSC eyes with FCE was 283.7 μm, compared with 377.5 μm for CSC eyes without FCE (Mann–Whitney U-test, P=0.020). Five FCE eyes of five patients had focal leakage on FA. Choroidal hyperpermeability on ICGA was found in seven CSC eyes with FCE, with four eyes showing hypofluorescent spot corresponding to the FCE. After a mean follow-up of 16 months, visual acuity of all 11 eyes with FCE remained stable or improved at the last follow-up. Conclusion FCE is not an uncommon feature in patients with CSC and might be associated with choroidal hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:25853402

  6. Choroidal excavation in choroidal osteoma complicated by choroidal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, L; Marchese, A; Gagliardi, M; Introini, U; Battaglia Parodi, M; Casalino, G; Bandello, F

    2017-12-01

    PurposeTo describe multimodal imaging features of choroidal osteoma (CO) complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and focal choroidal excavation (FCE).MethodsPatients presenting with CO and CNV between January and October 2016 were considered for this study. Diagnosis of CO was confirmed by ultrasound examination. All patients underwent multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography (OCT), swept-source OCT angiography (DRI OCT Triton, Topcon, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) and fluorescein angiography (Spectralis HRA+OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany).ResultsTwo patients (one with bilateral CO) were included in the study. OCT showed a FCE in two eyes of two patients (one in correspondence of the CNV and the other adjacent to the CNV). OCT-A demonstrated presence of microvascular flow within neovascular network of the CNVs. Decalcification of the tumor was noted in correspondence of one eye with FCE.ConclusionsFCE may be found in eyes with choroidal osteoma and CNV. OCT-A was a valuable tool for detection of CNV complicating choroidal osteoma. Decalcification of choroidal osteoma may represent a common pathogenic pathway for development of FCE and CNV in choroidal osteoma.

  7. CHOROIDAL NEVI WITH FOCAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION AND POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhaee, Daniel; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Freund, K Bailey

    2017-08-10

    To report two cases of choroidal nevi associated with focal choroidal excavation (FCE) and polypoidal choroidal neovascularization (PCN). Report of two patients with choroidal nevi showing FCE and PCN who underwent multimodal imaging including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, swept-source optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. Two patients presented with choroidal nevi associated with FCE and PCN. In the first case, a 74-year-old woman, the nevus had sharp margins, a deep FCE, surrounding drusen, and subretinal exudation at its inferior edge due to PCN that responded well to intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. In the second case, a 64-year-old woman, the nevus had ill-defined margins, a shallow FCE, and angiographic evidence of PCN without associated exudation. There have been several reports showing an association of either choroidal nevi or FCE with PCN. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of FCE identified within choroidal nevi, with or without associated PCN. Since, in one of our cases, the FCE was not apparent on clinical examination, the prevalence of FCE within nevi may be underdiagnosed.

  8. EXCAVATION OF PITS (CHANNELS BY IMPACT OF PULSE POWER LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakhaev Koshkinbai Nazirovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an innovative hydromechanical solution of the problem of profiles development of pits and channels by impact of pulse (blasting power load on a surface of homogeneous soil mass, for example, when excavating solid rocks, frozen soil, etc. Thus, soil would be considered as an ideal heavy liquid (disregarding its mechanical strength and plastic properties. The solution of this problem is achieved by the method of consecutive conformal mappings of physical flow region (in the form of Kirchhoff complex on the region of complex potential (in the form of a rectangle. Thus, the new technique of geometrical image generation of the latter in the presence in the flow region of a fixed point with discontinuous variations of pressure head-flow function and the direction of speed of flow and representation of an elliptic sine of Jacobi by means of elementary functions are used. The received analytical functional dependencies allow to determine an outline of a funnel of the soil ejection and all the required hydromechanical characteristics of flow (head-flow function, function of flow, speed of flow, etc.. Thus, the soil ejection funnel outline (for a benchmark problem completely coincides with subproduct of the known rigorous solution of Lavrentyev-Kuznetsov.

  9. Research on Application of Regression Least Squares Support Vector Machine on Performance Prediction of Hydraulic Excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance prediction accuracy of hydraulic excavator, the regression least squares support vector machine is applied. First, the mathematical model of the regression least squares support vector machine is studied, and then the algorithm of the regression least squares support vector machine is designed. Finally, the performance prediction simulation of hydraulic excavator based on regression least squares support vector machine is carried out, and simulation results show that this method can predict the performance changing rules of hydraulic excavator correctly.

  10. Method of defining rational parameters for excavator buckets vibrating devices in order to reduce soil adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenkov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the method of defining rational parameters for excavator buckets vibrating devices in order to reduce soil adhesion under various operating conditions. The method includes limits formation, calculating geometric parameters of curved mold concentrator for excavator buckets with magnetostriction vibration exciters; calculating parameters of acoustic influence equipment; calculating power demand of equipment, defining adhesive forces of soil to buckets with given values of external factors; defining equipment operation mode (turn-on frequency, exposure time). Suggested method enables one to define required parameters of vibrating equipment to excavator buckets during the design phase.

  11. Binder-free Na-mordenite pellets for tritium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toci, F. [Safety Technology Inst., JRC, Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Cagliari Univ. (Italy); Edwards, R.A.H. [Safety Technology Inst., JRC, Ispra (Italy); Mencarelli, T. [Safety Technology Inst., JRC, Ispra (Italy); Brossa, P. [Safety Technology Inst., JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Gas separation systems based on adsorption on zeolites are used in various applications involving tritium: air and inert gas detritiation, purification of Q{sub 2} and Q{sub 2}O, and isotope separation. Differential adsorption processes are attractive because efficient separation can be combined with small plant dimensions, low energy consumption and a small tritium inventory. Zeolites are the usual choice for the adsorbate because they combine high adsorption capacity with high selectivity and stability. However, commercial pellets show appreciable tritium retention due to inappropriate activation procedures or the presence of a binder. In this paper we report a research study aimed at producing a pelletized zeolite without binder (self-bound) with low tritium retention. (orig.).

  12. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  13. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Mohsen, Q.; El-maghraby, A.

    2014-06-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  16. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  17. Application of a bio-binder as a rejuvenator for wet processed asphalt shingles in pavement construction

    OpenAIRE

    OLDHAM, Daniel J.; Ellie H. Fini; Chailleux, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the merits of application of bio-binder to enhance rheological properties of asphalt binder in the presence of wet processed recycled asphalt shingles (RAS). It will further examine the performance and workability of asphalt designed with and without a specified percentage of a bio-binder produced from swine manure and RAS. Bio-binder was introduced to liquid asphalt binder modified with four different percentages of RAS; the high and low temperature properties of each...

  18. Role of the Binder Phase in Cemented Refractory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-15

    which control tho phyaict,.l and machnnical proportion of the sintored parts, and to provide a basis for the proper soloction of tho best binder...the necossity of careful control of sintering atmosphero to prevent carburization or docarburi:ation. A very limited amount of work has boon done in...place during the sinterinC optiration. A high temperatura sintering dilatomotor was built, capable of following the changes in length of carbide

  19. Ising Spin Glasses and Renormalization Group Theory: the Binder cumulant

    OpenAIRE

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical data on scaling of the normalized Binder cumulant and the normalized correlation length are shown for the Thermodynamic limit regime, first for canonical Ising ferromagnet models and then for a range of Ising spin glass models. A fundamental Renormalization Group Theory rule linking the critical exponents for the two observables is well obeyed in the Ising models, but not for the Ising spin glasses in dimensions three and four. We conclude that there is a violation of a standard Jos...

  20. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Leon

    1991-01-01

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  1. Development of a green binder system for paper products

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Ashley R; Vicuna Requesens, Deborah; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Teoh, Keat Thomas; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Hood, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage ...

  2. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kaczmarska; B. Grabowska; D. Drożyński; A. Bobrowski; Ż. Kurleto; Ł. Szymański

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binde...

  3. Comparative evaluation of an experimental binder in hot-mix asphalt: correlating the predicted performance of the binder with asphalt testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connell, Johannes S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cape is a 70/100 penetration grade bitumen. This has resulted in numerous role players in the industry developing experimental binders (closer in stiffness to a 50/70 penetration grade binder) to provide an improved performance with regards to asphalt...

  4. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X...

  5. Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinskiy, L.; Ripetsky, A.; Sitnikov, S.; Solyaev, Y.; Kahramanov, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the binder jetting technology application for the processing of the Si3N4-based ceramics. The difference of the developed technology from analogues used for additive manufacturing of silicon nitride ceramics is a method of the separate deposition of the mineral powder and binder without direct injection of suspensions/slurries. It is assumed that such approach allows reducing the technology complexity and simplifying the process of the feedstock preparation, including the simplification of the composite materials production. The binders based on methyl ester of acrylic acid with polyurethane and modified starch were studied. At this stage of the investigations, the technology of green body's fabrication is implemented using a standard HP cartridge mounted on the robotic arm. For the coordinated operation of the cartridge and robot the specially developed software was used. Obtained green bodies of silicon powder were used to produce the ceramic samples via reaction sintering. The results of study of ceramics samples microstructure and composition are presented. Sintered ceramics are characterized by fibrous α-Si3N4 structure and porosity up to 70%.

  6. Comparative Assessment of Stabilised Polybutadiene Binder under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Cannaval Sbegue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polybutadiene elastomers are versatile materials, being employed at several applications from rocket propellant binder to adhesives and sealants. The elastomers derived from hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene are usually stabilised with antioxidants to prevent degradation. In this study, a comparative assessment among 2,2’-methylene-bis (4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol (AO2246, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, p-phenylenediamine (pPDA, and triphenylphosphine (TPP regarding stabilisation of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder under accelerated ageing (six months at 65 °C was carried out. Evaluation of antioxidants effectiveness was examined through Oxidation Induction time, sol/gel extraction, swelling and mechanical testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, and mass variation measurement. AO2246 yielded the best performance, meanwhile BHT was poorly protective. TPP acted as prooxidant, causing a severe degradation of the binder, and pPDA was not manageable to be assessed due to the lower curing degree of the resulted polyurethane.

  7. Polyaromatic polymers as binders in PEMFC catalyst layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peron, J.M.; Edwards, D.; Le Marquand, P.; Shi, Z.; Holdcroft, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2009-07-01

    The catalyst layers in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are typically composed of platinum as the catalyst and carbon as the electron conductor. The binder that ensures the ionic pathway between catalyst particles and the electrolyte membrane is a perfluorinated polymer that brings the electrolyte, gaseous reactants, electrocatalyst and current collector into close contact within a confined spatial region known as the triple-phase-boundary. New non-fluorinated polymers have been developed in an effort to lower the cost and improve the stability of fuel cells. Although polyaromatic polymers have been extensively presented in the literature for membrane preparation, these new materials have been mainly characterized in presence of Nafion as a binder in the catalyst layer. This paper discussed the incorporation of polyaromatic polymers, such as sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK), and its properties as a binder. sPEEK-based catalyst ink solutions, using different sPEEK/Pt ratios and preparation methods, have been deposited on membranes to form catalyst-coated-membranes (CCM). Initial catalyst ink were characterized using dynamic light scattering to determine agglomerate size. Catalyst layers were examined using SEM and TEM and their porosity was determined by Hg porosimetry. Various electrochemical techniques were used for in-situ characterization of prepared sPEEK CCMs.

  8. High performance polymer chemical hydrogel-based electrode binder materials for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Nurul A.; Ma, Jia; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    Novel, cost-effective, high-performance, and environment-friendly electrode binders, comprising polyvinyl alcohol chemical hydrogel (PCH) and chitosan chemical hydrogel (CCH), are reported for direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). PCH and CCH binders-based electrodes have been fabricated using a novel, simple, cost-effective, time-effective, and environmentally benign technique. Morphologies and electrochemical performance in DBFCs of the chemical hydrogel binder-based electrodes have been compared with those of Nafion ® binder-based electrodes. Relationships between the performance of binders in DBFCs with structural features of the polymers and the polymer-based chemical hydrogels are discussed. The CCH binder exhibited better performance than a Nafion ® binder whereas the PCH binder exhibited comparable performance to Nafion ® in DBFCs operating at elevated cell temperatures. The better performance of CCH binder at higher operating cell temperatures has been ascribed to the hydrophilic nature and water retention characteristics of chitosan. DBFCs employing CCH binder-based electrodes and a Nafion ®-117 membrane as an electrolyte exhibited a maximum peak power density of about 589 mW cm -2 at 70 °C.

  9. The value of 'binder-off' imaging to identify occult and unexpected pelvic ring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagg, James A C; Acharya, Mehool R; Chesser, Tim J S; Ward, Anthony J

    2017-11-21

    To determine the effectiveness of 'binder-off' plain pelvic radiographs in the assessment of pelvic ring injuries. All patients requiring operative intervention at our tertiary referral pelvic unit/major trauma centre for high-energy pelvic injuries between April 2012 and December 2014 were retrospectively identified. Pre-operative pelvic imaging with and without pelvic binder was reviewed with respect to fracture pattern and pelvic stability. The frequency with which the imaging without pelvic binder changed the opinion of the pelvic stability and need for operative intervention, when compared with the computed tomography (CT) scans and anteroposterior (AP) radiographs with the binder on, was assessed. Seventy-three percent (71 of 97) of patients had initial imaging with a pelvic binder in situ. Of these, 76% (54 of 71) went on to have 'binder-off' imaging. Seven percent (4 of 54) of patients had unexpected unstable pelvic ring injuries identified on 'binder-off' imaging that were not identified on CT imaging in binder. Trauma CT imaging of the pelvis with a pelvic binder in place is inadequate at excluding unstable pelvic ring injuries, and, based on the original findings in this paper, we recommend additional plain film 'binder-off' radiographs, when there is any clinical concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The antler finds at Bilzingsleben, excavations 1969-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Vollbrecht

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available 2820 antler remains from the Lower Palaeolithic site of Bilzingsleben, Thuringia, Germany (excavations 1969-1993 were the subject of detailed investigations. The two major goals were: 1.the consideration of taphonomic aspects 2.the critical evaluation of suggestions about artificial modifications to the antler material A detailed morphological description of the antler material provided the basis for the investigation. A prerequisite was the transfer of provenance data onto an x-y coordinate grid. Taphonomic aspects considered in this work include the relative frequencies of antler elements, estimates regarding the minimum number of individual deer, their age structure and seasonality, and, insofar as the condition of the antlers allowed, the classification of surface preservation, size classes and spatial distribution of the finds. The assemblage of antler finds, the majority of which seems to have come from red deer, is dominated by small fragments, mostly of tines. About one quarter of the finds are larger than 150 mm. Lower beams are more abundant than upper beams (e.g. crowns. Detailed counting, substantiated by systematic reconstruction, shows that in general the antlers are incomplete. After reconstruction of unshed antlers, it was possible to assess the minimum number of heads at 150 animals. Preliminary counting of postcranial and cranial (non antler cervid material points to about 70 cervids. Intentional accumulation of antlers by hominids can only be accepted as the reason for these disproportionate figures if other site formation processes can be ruled out. In fact, the correlation between sediment thickness and maximum antler densities, at least for finds smaller than 120mm, suggests that fluvial accumulation has to be taken into account as a probable element of the site formation history. Further, the mixture of unifacially abraded finds together with finds that exhibit bifacial abrasion points to a succession of changing fluvial

  11. Energy-saving analysis of hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  12. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2005-2006

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    As a part of the institutional project, 'Application of Geological and Geophysical methods in Marine Archaeology and Underwater Explorations, (OLP 0008)', exploration and excavation of shipwrecks have been carried out from 23 Jan 2006 to 21 Feb 2006...

  13. Method of Assessment of Hard Rock Workability using Bucket Wheel Excavators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machniak, Łukasz; Kozioł, Wiesław

    2017-03-01

    A new hypothesis concerning a process of the mining solid rocks using bucket wheel excavators (BWE). Destroying of the rock mass structure is a result of breaking and not, as so far accepted, of cutting. This approach excludes, for the description of solid rock workability using bucket wheel excavators, used classifications based on individual linear or surface resistances of cutting. The possibility of a replacement mechanism for determining of the workability by bucket wheel excavators using rippers was assumed. On this basis, an innovative method for assessing the workability of solid rocks was developed, which is a combination of an derived empirical energy relationship LSE of breaking by tractor rippers from a compressive strength, a seismic wave velocity, a density of solid rock, and the modified classification of workability by bucket wheel excavators according to Bulukbasi (1991). The proposed method allows for multi-parameter assessment of the workability class based on the parameters that are independent variables in the specified dependencies.

  14. Energy-Saving Analysis of Hydraulic Hybrid Excavator Based on Common Pressure Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  15. Parametric Optimization and Prediction Tool for Lunar Surface Systems Excavation Tasks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a software tool for facilitating lunar excavation system trades in support of selecting an optimal architecture. This will...

  16. EXCAVATOR: detecting copy number variants from whole-exome sequencing data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magi, Alberto; Tattini, Lorenzo; Cifola, Ingrid; D'Aurizio, Romina; Benelli, Matteo; Mangano, Eleonora; Battaglia, Cristina; Bonora, Elena; Kurg, Ants; Seri, Marco; Magini, Pamela; Giusti, Betti; Romeo, Giovanni; Pippucci, Tommaso; De Bellis, Gianluca; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2013-01-01

    ...) from whole-exome sequencing data. EXCAVATOR combines a three-step normalization procedure with a novel heterogeneous hidden Markov model algorithm and a calling method that classifies genomic regions into five copy number states...

  17. Time-dependent behaviour of deep level tabular excavations in hard rock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, DF

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Although hard rock is not usually associated with large creep deformation, significant time-dependent behaviour is observed in the tabular excavations of the South African gold mines. Time-dependent closure data was collected in stopes...

  18. Focal choroidal excavation-morphological features and clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C Y; Li, S H; Li, K K W

    2017-09-01

    PurposeTo describe and correlate the morphological and clinical features of focal choroidal excavation (FCE).MethodsThis is a consecutive case series from the review of the 4436 optical coherence tomography scans performed by Kowloon East Cluster Ophthalmic Service from 1 August 2014-31 January 2016. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). A significance level of P<0.05 was taken.ResultsAll 16 patients with FCE had unilateral involvement. The mean age of diagnosis was 52.56±14.00. The mean greatest linear dimension (GLD) of FCE was 636.25±265.11 μm. The mean choroidal thickness was 183.63±52.39 μm. Fourteen FCEs (87.5%) were conforming and two were non-conforming (12.5%). In the eyes with FCE, concurrent macular pathology was present in four cases (25.0%). Tractional pathologies of macular pucker and macular scar corresponded to the two non-conforming FCEs in the series. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and lacquer crack had a close topographic relationship with the FCE. The mean GLD was significantly larger in eyes with concurrent macular pathology than those without (878.00 vs 555.67 μm, P=0.029). In the fellow eyes, concurrent macular pathology was present in 5 cases (31.3%): PCV in 3 cases and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy in 2 cases.ConclusionAs a significant proportion of FCE is associated with concurrent macular pathology in the involved or fellow eye, angiography for both eyes is recommended even for asymptomatic cases. The GLD of FCE may have clinical value in risk stratification.

  19. 3D Modelling of a Tunnel Re-excavation in Soft Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the shallow tunnel at Brezno started using the Pre-Vault Method. The tunnel excavation, in complicated geological conditions, led to many difficulties which finally resulted in a collapse, when a significant part of the temporary tunnel lining collapsed. Various options for re-excavating the tunnel were evaluated prior to further construction. Finally a decision was made to separate the collapsed area into sections 9 m in length using 16 m-wide, transversally oriented pile walls, to improve the stability of the collapsed ground. The walls were constructed from the surface prior to excavation. It was also decided to re-excavate a collapsed area using the Sprayed Concrete Lining (SCL method. Due to problematic soft ground conditions, which had been made even worse by the collapse, some additional support measures had to be considered prior to re-excavation (ground improvement, micropile umbrellas embedded into the pile walls, etc.This paper describes numerical modelling of the tunnel re-excavation through the collapsed area. Initial calculations of the tunnel re-excavation were made using a 2D finite element method. Subsequently, further calculations to evaluate the rock mass behaviour in the collapsed area were provided in 3D. The 2D calculations were used to provide sensitivity studies, while 3D modelling was mainly used for evaluating the tunnel face stability (impact of the pile walls, impact of ground improvement together with other factors (length of advances, moment of the temporary invert closure, etc. The results of the modelling were compared with the monitoring results.The paper also briefly describes the construction experience (technical problems, performance of various support measures, etc. The excavation and the primary lining construction were completed in 2006, and the tunnel was opened for traffic in April 2007.

  20. Stability of Large Parallel Tunnels Excavated in Weak Rocks: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiuli; Weng, Yonghong; Zhang, Yuting; Xu, Tangjin; Wang, Tuanle; Rao, Zhiwen; Qi, Zufang

    2017-09-01

    Diversion tunnels are important structures for hydropower projects but are always placed in locations with less favorable geological conditions than those in which other structures are placed. Because diversion tunnels are usually large and closely spaced, the rock pillar between adjacent tunnels in weak rocks is affected on both sides, and conventional support measures may not be adequate to achieve the required stability. Thus, appropriate reinforcement support measures are needed, and the design philosophy regarding large parallel tunnels in weak rocks should be updated. This paper reports a recent case in which two large parallel diversion tunnels are excavated. The rock masses are thin- to ultra-thin-layered strata coated with phyllitic films, which significantly decrease the soundness and strength of the strata and weaken the rocks. The behaviors of the surrounding rock masses under original (and conventional) support measures are detailed in terms of rock mass deformation, anchor bolt stress, and the extent of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ), as obtained from safety monitoring and field testing. In situ observed phenomena and their interpretation are also included. The sidewall deformations exhibit significant time-dependent characteristics, and large magnitudes are recorded. The stresses in the anchor bolts are small, but the extents of the EDZs are large. The stability condition under the original support measures is evaluated as poor. To enhance rock mass stability, attempts are made to reinforce support design and improve safety monitoring programs. The main feature of these attempts is the use of prestressed cables that run through the rock pillar between the parallel tunnels. The efficacy of reinforcement support measures is verified by further safety monitoring data and field test results. Numerical analysis is constantly performed during the construction process to provide a useful reference for decision making. The calculated deformations are in

  1. Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile Aerosol and Trace-Species Emissions (EXCAVATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Branham, H.-S.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Miller, T. M.; Viggiano, A. A.; Blake, D. R.; Boudries, H.; Canagaratna, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) was conducted at Langley Research Center (LaRC) in January 2002 and focused upon assaying the production of aerosols and aerosol precursors by a modern commercial aircraft, the Langley B757, during ground-based operation. Remaining uncertainty in the postcombustion fate of jet fuel sulfur contaminants, the need for data to test new theories of particle formation and growth within engine exhaust plumes, and the need for observations to develop air quality models for predicting pollution levels in airport terminal areas were the primary factors motivating the experiment. NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) and the Ultra Effect Engine Technology (UEET) Program sponsored the experiment which had the specific objectives of determining ion densities; the fraction of fuel S converted from S(IV) to S(VI); the concentration and speciation of volatile aerosols and black carbon; and gas-phase concentrations of long-chain hydrocarbon and PAH species, all as functions of engine power, fuel composition, and plume age.

  2. Why is the electroanalytical performance of carbon paste electrodes involving an ionic liquid binder higher than paraffinic binders? A simulation investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatee, M H; Namvar, S; Zolghadr, A R; Moosavi, F

    2015-10-14

    Recently, carbon paste electrodes (CPE) fabricated using an ionic liquid (IL) binder have shown enhanced electroanalytical performance over conventional paraffinic binders. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of graphite mixed with ionic liquid and with paraffin binder can unravel the potential atomistic factors responsible for such enhancement. Based on an experimentally optimized binder/graphite mass ratio, which has been reported to be crucial for such a performance, comprehensive simulations (at 323 K) are performed with the ensembles involving an ionic liquid binder (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim]PF6) and a paraffin binder (n-C20H42) mixed with graphite comprising large-size hexagonal-shaped double graphene plates. Structural analysis indicates both binders form only a monolayer on the graphite surface, covering the surface locally by IL but all-encompassing by paraffin. With charged and uncharged graphite, the IL monolayer tends to cover mainly the graphite center without approaching the edge planes. On the contrary, a monolayer of the paraffin binder covers uniformly the center, near the center, and the edge planes. Cations and anions of the IL form well-defined two dimensional pentagonal matrixes with characteristic high adsorption energy, almost 2.4 times higher than paraffin adsorption. The cation and anion coordination ability of the IL is responsible for such a local distribution. The simulation of these phenomena under experimental conditions unravels strong two-dimensional coordination properties inherent to the ionic liquid when distributed over the graphite surface. This direct MD simulation comparison of the IL properties with an organic liquid counterpart, made for the first time, can be used to explain the high electroanalytical performance (electron transfer) of CPEs involving an IL binder over paraffin binders.

  3. Unilateral choroidal excavation in the macula detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yuka; Nishimura, Akira; Higashide, Tomomi; Ijiri, Shigeyuki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2010-05-01

    To report clinical findings of three patients with unilateral peculiar choroidal excavation in the macula detected by spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT). Three cases with unilateral choroidal excavation in the macula detected by SD OCT. Fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (IA), ultrasonography, visual field tests and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) were performed. Although all three patients complained of metamorphopsia, visual acuity and central visual field were normal in the affected eyes. SD OCT demonstrated choroidal excavation in the macula despite a normal foveal contour along the inner retinal surface. The excavation involved the outer retinal layers up to the external limiting membrane in cases 1 and 2, while only the retinal pigment epithelium was involved in case 3. The excavation corresponded to foveal pigment mottling in cases 1 and 2 and to a parafoveal yellowish fusiform lesion in case 3. The lesions appeared hypoautofluorescent and unremarkable in FA except for circumferential hyperfluorescence in case 3 and hypofluorescent in IA. B-scan ultrasonography was unremarkable. MfERG in cases 1 and 2 was normal. SD OCT demonstrated two types of choroidal excavation in the macula. More case accumulation and a longer follow-up will elucidate the pathogenesis and prognosis of the lesions.

  4. Excavated pulmonary nodules: an unusual clinical presentation of lung metastasis in two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalya Issam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excavated pulmonary metastasis are rare. We present two cases of excavated pulmonary nodules proved to be metastases from osteosarcoma and gallblader lymphoma. Case presentation The first one is 39-year-old man in whom cholecystectomy made the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gallbladder. He presented in chest CT scan excavated nodules that had been biopsied and confirmed the diagnosis of non hodgkin lymphoma. He underwent 8 courses of chemotherapy CHOP 21 with complete remission. The second one is an 21 years old man who presented a right leg osteoblastic osteosarcoma with only excavated pulmonary nodules in extension assessment. He had 3 courses of polychemotherapy API (doxorubicin, platinum, and ifosfamide with partial response. Unfortunately, he died following a septic shock. Review of the literature shows that excavated pulmonary nodules as metastasis are rare but we should consider this diagnosis every time we are in front of a cancer. Chest computed tomography is the best diagnosis imaging that could make this diagnosis. Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant bullous lesions is important because surgical excision affects survival in some malignancies. Conclusions Although pulmonary nodules are the most common cancer metastasis, a differential diagnosis of a concurrent primary malignancy should always be considered every time we have excavated lesions, even in patients with known malignant disease. Thorough chest evaluation is important, as multiple primary malignancies may occur concomitantly.

  5. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX.

  6. Power generation using adjustable Nafion/PTFE mixed binders in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Jia; Shi, Xinxin; Lee, He; Li, Nan; Ren, Nanqi

    2010-10-15

    Nafion, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polymers made of Nafion-PTFE mixture (Nafion and PTFE ratios of 1:2 and 2:1) were examined as catalyst binders in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFC tests showed that the maximum power density (from 549 to 1060 mW/m2) increased with the increase of Nafion percentage in binders (from 0% to 100%). Multi-cycle tests (25 cycles) showed that the maximum voltages decreased by 4-6% with simultaneous increase in Coulombic efficiency in all MFCs using various binders (from 20% to 29% with Nafion binder; from 17% to 26% with other binders), indicating that adjustable Nafion/PTFE mixed polymers were applicable in MFCs as catalyst binders when considering both cost and performance of cathodes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  8. Archaeological excavations at Gamzigrad - Romuliana in 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematical archaeological excavations at the site Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana continued in 2007-2008 in the south-eastern part of the fortified imperial palace, in the section of the thermae according to the plan of archaeological research for this site (2005-2009. In 2007, squares L'XXIV, M'XXIV, M'XXIH and M'XXII, which were investigated in 2005 to the horizon c, dated to the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries, were completely excavated to the level of the porch of the earlier fortification of Romuliana (Plan 1. The stratigraphy of the cultural layers in these squares is as follows (Fig. 1: Below horizon c there is a layer of construction rubble mixed with brownish-yellow, clay like, sandy soil, 50-75 cm thick, comprising the finds dated in the last quarter of the 4th-5th centuries, layer D; The level of layer D is horizon d, where a structure destroyed in a conflagration, house 1/07, was discovered in squares M'XXII and M'XXIII. It could be dated, on the basis of the preserved household (pottery, metal and antler items, coins, etc., from the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century; Horizon d 1 is a mortar floor discovered beneath horizon d, which presents the earlier phase of house 1/07; Horizon d 2 is the earliest mortar floor inside the house 1/07, covered with a later mortar floor (horizon d 1 and a levelling layer of yellow sand and gravel, which comprises the finds dating also to the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th centuries; Layer E, 15-40 cm thick, is below horizon d, comprising dark brown soil with rubble and lenses of soot at the bottom, together with finds dated to the second half of the 4th century; Horizon e is covered with layer E, and spread across all the squares which were investigated to the south and to the east of Galerius' bath, where 8 large postholes, which outlined a space 7 x 3 m large and probably some kind of porch, were found along with two furnaces and two pits

  9. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING: PART I: EFFECTS ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional bentonite binder is favorable in terms of mechanical and metallurgical pellet properties, however, because of its acid constituents bentonite is considered as impurity especially for iron ores with high acidic content. Therefore, alternative binders to bentonite have been tested. Organic binders are the most studied binders and they yield pellets with good wet strength; they fail in terms of preheated and fired pellet strengths. This study was conducted to investigate how insufficient pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a low-melting temperature and slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into iron oxide pellet was tested. Wet and thermally treated pellet physical-mechanical qualities (balling - moisture content - size - shape - drop number - compressive strengths - porosity - dustiness were determined. The results showed that good quality wet, dry, preheated and fired pellets can be produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound when compared with bentonite-bonded pellets. While organic binders provided sufficient wet and dry pellet strengths, the boron compounds provided the required preheated and fired pellet strengths at even lower firing temperature. Especially, the contribution of boron compound addition is most pronounced for hematite pellets which do not have strengthening mechanism through oxidation like magnetite pellets during firing. Therefore, addition of boron compound is beneficial to recover the low physical-mechanical qualities of pellets produced with organic binders through slag bonding mechanism. Furthermore, lowering the firing temperature thanks to low-melting boron compounds will be cost

  10. 7 CFR 30.40 - Class 5; cigar-binder types and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 5; cigar-binder types and groups. 30.40 Section... and Groups of Grades § 30.40 Class 5; cigar-binder types and groups. (a) Type 51. That type of cigar... Connecticut River Valley. Groups applicable to types 51 and 52: B—Binder. X—Nonbinder. N—Nondescript, as...

  11. The Behavior of Bentonite Binders for the Elevated and High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelínek P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite binders rank among the most widespread applied systems for the production of molds. Their resistance to high temperatures (thermal stability is mainly defined by genesis of binders, chemical composition and the content of Montmorillonite. The aim of this contribution is to compare selected bentonite binders commonly used in the foundries of the Central European region, in different ways of the thermostability determination as a result of changes of the mechanical strengths of the bentonite bonded sand mixture.

  12. Grinding-induced metallurgical alterations in the binder phase of WC-Co cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Roa Rovira, Joan Josep; Schwind, Martin; Odén, M.; Johansonn Joesaar, M. P.; Llanes Pitarch, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The metallic binder phase dictates the toughening behavior of WC-Co cemented carbides (hardmetals), even though it occupies a relative small fraction of the composite. Studies on deformation and phase transformation of the binder constituent are scarce. Grinding represents a key manufacturing step in machining of hardmetal tools, and is well-recognized to induce surface integrity alterations. In this work, metallurgical alterations of the binder phase in ground WC-Co cemented carbides have be...

  13. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  14. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m -2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m -2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m -2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m -2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmetally DurableThermal Control Material Systems. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase I proposal will develop new binder systems through the systematic investigations to tailor required unique performance properties and...

  16. The application of high resolution fluxgate gradiometery as an aid to excavation planning and strategy formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lyall

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Late Roman and Anglian settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, has been one of the largest excavations undertaken in England in the last twenty years. It has been the setting for a number of developments and experiments in the application of 'the new technology' to field archaeology. Parts of the site, which extended over c.20 Ha., proved to have high magnetic susceptibility and were ideally suited for magnetic prospection techniques. Feature visibility contrasts were, however, frequently low and therefore a series of experiments were undertaken using high resolution fluxgate gradiometer surveys following removal of the topsoil. The results of the high resolution surveys undertaken on the cleaned excavation surface proved highly successful in providing an enhanced pre-excavation plan, adding considerable detail to the surveys undertaken prior to the start of the excavation. The careful examination of the results, using G-Sys geographic data management software, which enabled the magnetic data, finds plots and digitised plans to be fully integrated, indicated areas where stratigraphic relationships could be tested and assisted in the development and re-definition of the excavation strategy as it progressed. Following initial small area tests in 1991, nearly two hectares were documented in this way during 1995 facilitating the completion of a targeted sampling operation which ensured the completion of the excavation within the limited budget available. The approach proved highly successful and offers great potential for use on sites which have a high magnetic susceptibility and are liable to large area destruction as occurs in the case of mineral extraction or subsoil ploughing operations.

  17. Modeling of excavation induced coupled hydraulic-mechanical processes in claystone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massmann, Jobst

    2009-07-01

    Concepts for the numerical modeling of excavation induced processes in claystone are investigated. The study has been motivated by the international discussion on the adequacy of claystone as a potential host rock for a final repository of radioactive waste. The processes, which could impact the safety of such a repository, are manifold and strongly interacting. Thus, a multiphysics approach is needed, regarding solid mechanics and fluid mechanics within a geological context. A coupled modeling concept is therefore indispensable. Based on observations and measurements at an argillaceous test site (the underground laboratory Tournemire, operated by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, France) the modeling concept is developed. Two main processes constitute the basis of the applied model: deformation (linear elasticity considering damage) and fluid flow (unsaturated one-phase flow). Several coupling phenomena are considered: Terzaghi 's effective stress concept, mass conservation of the liquid in a deformable porous media, drying induced shrinkage, and a permeability which depends on deformation and damage. In addition, transversely isotropic material behavior is considered. The numerical simulations are done with the finite element code RockFlow, which is extended to include: an orthotropic non-linear shrinkage model, a continuum damage model, and an orthotropic permeability model. For these new methods the theory and a literature review are presented, followed by applications, which illustrate the capability to model excavation induced processes in principle. In a comprehensive case study, the modeling concept is used to simulate the response of the Tournemire argillite to excavation. The results are compared with observations and measurements of three different excavations (century old tunnel, two galleries excavated in 1996 and 2003). In summary, it can be concluded that the developed model concept provides a prediction of the excavation

  18. Choice of rock excavation methods for the Swedish deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran [Conrox, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Lagerstedt, Leif [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Choice of rock excavation methods will or may have implications for a number of issues like repository layout, long term and operational safety, environmental impact, design of and operation of transport vehicles and methodology for backfilling the repository before closure as well as effects on costs and schedules. To fully analyse the issues at hand related to selection of excavation methods, SKB organized a project with the objectives: To investigate and compare principal technical solutions for rock excavation, both methods that are used at present but also methods that may be feasible 10 years from now; To assess how the selection of excavation method influences the design and operation of the deep repository; To present a definition of the Excavation Damaged/Disturbed Zone and practical methods for measurements of EDZ; To present advantages and disadvantages with different excavation methods for the various tunnels and underground openings as a basis for selection of preferred excavation methods; To present the Design Justification Statement for the selection of particular excavation methods for the different tunnels and openings in the deep repository to underpin a decision on excavation method; and To present background data that may be required for the evaluation of the long term safety of the deep repository. Main alternatives studied are very smooth blasting, excavation with a tunnel-boring machine (TBM) and excavation with horizontal pull-reaming using more or less conventional raise-boring equipment. The detailed studies were carried through in co-operation with major suppliers and end-users of the technology. An observation in this study is that all excavation technologies are mature; no major breakthroughs are foreseen within a 10 year period but it is likely that for any technology selected, SKB would specifically fine-tune the design of the equipment and work procedures in view of requirements and site specific conditions. Excavation methods have

  19. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  20. How to assess the efficacy of phosphate binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Azevedo, Lilia; Luna, Enrique

    The efficacy of phosphate binders is difficult to be estimated clinically. This study analyzes the changes in serum phosphate and urinary phosphate excretion after the prescription of phosphate binders (PB) in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4-5 pre-dialysis, and the usefulness of the ratio between total urinary phosphate and protein catabolic rate (Pu/PCR) for estimating the efficacy of PB. This retrospective observational cohort study included adult chronic kidney disease patients. Biochemical parameters were determined baseline and after 45-60 days on a low phosphate diet plus PB ("binder" subgroup=260 patients) or only with dietary advice ("control" subgroup=79 patients). Phosphate load (total urinary excretion) per unit of renal function (Pu/GFR) was the best parameter correlated with serum phosphate levels (R2=0.61). Mean±SD level of Pu/PCR was 8.2±2.3mg of urinary phosphate per each g of estimated protein intake. After treatment with PB, serum phosphate levels decreased by 11%, urinary phosphate 22%, protein catabolic rate 7%, and Pu/PCR 15%. In the control subgroup, Pu/PCR increased by 20%. Urinary phosphate and urea nitrogen excretion correlated strongly, both baseline and after PB or dietary advice. The proposed parameter Pu/PCR may reflect the rate of intestinal phosphate absorption, and therefore, its variations after PB prescription may be a useful tool for estimating the pharmacological efficacy of these drugs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Ternary binder based plasters with improved thermal insulating ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čáchová, M.; Koňáková, D.; Vejmelková, E.; Vyšvařil, M.

    2017-10-01

    New kind of plasters with improved thermal insulating ability are presented in this article. Improvement was reached by utilization of lightweight expanded perlite with high porosity. The second used aggregate was silica sand. Regarding the binder, three kind were combined for the reason of better plaster performance. Pure lime, Portland cement and pozzolanic ceramic powder were employed. Basic physical properties and thermal characteristics were determined. The porosity of plasters reached desired higher value about 50% and the thermal conductivity in dry state was lower than 0.16 Wm‑1K‑1.

  2. Changes of Properties of Bitumen Binders by Additives Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remišová, Eva; Holý, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Requirements for properties of bituminous binders are determined in the European standards. The physico-chemical behaviour of bitumen depends on its colloidal structure (asphaltenes dispersed into an oily matrix constituted by saturates, aromatics and resins) that depends primarily on its crude source and processing. Bitumen properties are evaluated by group composition, elementary analysis, but more often conventional or functional tests. Bitumen for road uses is assessed according to the physical characteristics. For the purpose of improving the qualitative properties of bitumen and asphalts the additives are applied e.g. to increase elasticity, improving the heat stability, improving adhesion to aggregate, to decrease viscosity, increasing the resistance to aging, to prevent binder drainage from the aggregate surface, etc. The objective of presented paper is to assess and compare effect of additives on properties of bitumen binders. In paper, the results of bitumen properties, penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity of two paving grade bitumen 35/50, 50/70 and polymer modified bitumen PmB 45/80-75 are analyzed and also the changes of these properties by the application of selected additives (Sasobit, Licomont BS100, Wetfix BE and CWM) to improve adhesion to aggregate and improve workability. Measurements of properties have been performed according to the relevant European standards. The laboratory tests showed significantly increasing the softening point of paving grade bitumen 50/70 and 35/50 by 13 to 45°C. The effect of various additives on bitumen softening point is different. Penetration varies according to type of bitumen and type of used additive. The penetration values of modified bitumen PmB 45/80-75 with additives Sasobit and Licomont BS100 show increase of bitumen stiffness of 16 0.1mm and a shift in the gradation. The changes in penetration and in softening point significantly shown when calculating on Penetration index as a parameter of

  3. Nanomodified compositions based on finely dispersed binders for soil reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov Lev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical prerequisites on the possibility of improvement of physical and mechanical properties of soils at underground space development, their stability at different aggressive actions by means of their structure impregnation with nanomodified suspensions on the basis of especially finely dispersed mineral binders are developed. The features of influence of plasticizers on penetration ability and sedimentation stability of suspensions are revealed. Soil body reinforcement after its impregnation may achieve considerable values, which is related to the features of interaction of components of impregnating composition with extended surface of soil pore space.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of caries excavations in different risk groups - a micro-simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Paris, Sebastian; Stolpe, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Whilst being the most prevalent disease worldwide, dental caries is increasingly concentrated in high-risk populations. New caries treatments should therefore be evaluated not only in terms of their cost-effectiveness in individuals, but also their effects on the distribution of costs and benefits across different populations. To treat deep caries, there are currently three strategies: selective (one-step incomplete), stepwise (two-step incomplete) and complete excavation. Building on prior research that found selective excavation generally cost-effective, we compared the costs-effectiveness of different excavations in low- and high-risk patients, hypothesizing that selective excavation had greater cost-effectiveness-advantages in patients with high compared with low risk. An average tooth-level Markov-model was constructed following the posterior teeth in an initially 18-year old male individual, either with low or high risk, over his lifetime. Risk was assumed to be predicted by several parameters (oral hygiene, social position, dental service utilization), with evidence-based transition probabilities or hazard functions being adjusted for different risk status where applicable. Total lifetime treatment costs were estimated for German healthcare, with both mixed public-private and only private out-of-pocket costs being calculated. For cost-effectiveness-analysis, micro-simulations were performed and joint parameter uncertainty introduced by random sampling of probabilities. Cohort analyses were used for assessing the underlying reasons for potential differences between strategies and populations. Selective excavation was more effective and less costly than both alternatives regardless of an individual's risk. All three strategies were less effective and more costly in patients with high compared with low risk, whilst the differences between risk groups were smallest for selective excavation. Thus, the cost-effectiveness-advantages of selective excavation were

  5. The curious case of zeolite-clay/binder interactions and their consequences for catalyst preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Gareth T; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Oord, Ramon; Paalanen, Pasi; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-07-04

    Zeolite-based catalyst bodies are commonly employed in a range of important industrial processes. Depending on the binder and shaping method chosen, vast differences in the reactivity, selectivity and stability are obtained. Here, three highly complementary micro-spectroscopic techniques were employed to study zeolite ZSM-5-binder interactions in SiO2-, Al2O3-, SiO2 : Al2O3- (2 : 1 mix) and kaolinite-bound catalyst pellets. We establish how their preparation influences the zeolite-clay/binder interactions. Using thiophene as an acid-catalyzed staining reaction, light absorbing oligomers produced in each sample were followed. To our surprise, kaolinite decreased the overall reactivity of the sample due to the phase change of the binder, creating a hard impenetrable outer layer. Aluminum migration to the zeolite was observed when Al2O3 was selected as a binder, creating additional Brønsted acid sites, which favored the formation of ring-opened thiophene oligomers compared to the larger oligomer species produced when SiO2 was used as a binder. In the latter case, the interaction of the Si-OH groups in the binder with thiophene was revealed to have a large impact in creating such large oligomer species. Furthermore, the combination of a SiO2 : Al2O3 mix as a binder enhanced the reactivity, possibly due to the creation of additional Brønsted acid sites between the two binder components during pellet preparation. It is evident that, independent of the shaping method, the intimate contact between the zeolite and binder heavily impacts the reactivity and product selectivity, with the type of binder playing a vital role.

  6. Mechanical analysis about the influence of tunnel excavation on vertical effect of adjacent bridge pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoyan

    2017-08-01

    Tunnel excavation will bring additional deformation and internal force of adjacent bridge piles, if the deformation is large, it will threat the upper structure safety of the bridge. According to the complexity of the existing three - dimensional numerical simulation modeling and the time - consuming calculation, a two - stage analysis method of tunnel excavation based on Winkler foundation model was proposed. Firstly, Loganathan and Polous solutions were used to obtain the vertical displacement of the soil free field at the pile position when tunnel excavated, and the corresponding polynomial fitting displacement curve was taken. Secondly, the differential equation was established by means of the equilibrium condition of micro - element physical force and considering the pile group effect. Then, through the logical derivation, the calculation expressions of the tunnel excavation on the effect of the adjacent bridge pile (settlement, axial force and friction resistance) were obtained. Finally, based on the background of the tunnel project of Yanxing Door Station ∼ Xianning Road Station in Xi’an Metro Line 3, the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method were proved by comparing the calculated values with the numerical simulation values. It provides theoretical guidance for the effective analysis about the influence of tunnel excavation on the adjacent pile foundation effect.

  7. In Appreciation of Claude Warren and Susan Rose's "William Pengelly's Techniques of Archaeological Excavation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The short (40 pages pamphlet by Warren and Rose (1994 provides the answer to a complex question regarding credit for an important archaeological methodology, stratigraphic excavation. Let me set the stage for this appreciation. Continuing research on the beginnings of stratigraphic excavations in North America (Browman and Givens 1996, I sought the origins of the idea of actually excavating by strata, rather than post-facto interpretation, seen in North American as early as 1895 in the work of Henry Chapman Mercer, but not really introduced into the repertoire of American techniques until the work of Gamio, Kidder and Nelson between 1911 and 1914. The roots of the latter three seemed to lie with individuals such as Reisner, Boas, Uhle, who in turn seemed to rely on Hugo Obennaier, Gabriel de Mortillet, Marcellin Boule, and perhaps Pitt-Rivers, while Mercer's work could be traced to Boule and Albert Gaudry. Doggedly following back the roots, I found that Chapman (1989 could make a reasonable case that Pitt-Rivers had actually learned of the idea of strati­graphic excavation from Evans, Prestwich, and Lubbock, from the British scientists working with the Upper and Middle Paleolithic excavations during 1858-1868.

  8. Hydraulic tests for the Excavation Disturbed Zone in NATM drift of North Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Eiken [Taisei Kiso Sekkei Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Investigation for characterization of rock properties of the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) were carried out in NATM drift of North Extension in the Tono Mine. As a part of this investigation, hydraulic tests were performed by means of the hydraulic measuring instrument, which had been developed by PNC Tono Geoscience Center. The purpose of this tests is to characterize the change in hydraulic properties of the EDZ caused by drift excavation using machine (boom header). The hydraulic tests were performed in the burials MH-1,2,3, in which hydraulic tests had been performed before the drift excavation in 1994. The test results indicate that the measured values of pore water pressure have decreased after excavation of the drift. The values ranged from -0.037 kgf/cm{sup 2} to 0.039 kgf/cm{sup 2}. The measured hydraulic conductivities ranged from 2.2*10{sup -11} cm/s to 9.1*10{sup -11} cm/s for mud stone and from 2.8*10{sup -9} cm/s to 2.4*10{sup -7} cm/s for conglomerate. The measured hydraulic conductivities for mud stone are below the lower limit of the instrument, and the change in the hydraulic conductivities for conglomerate is little. The hydraulic conductivities for conglomerate and mad stone (reference values) are interpreted. The change in hydraulic conductivities measured before and after excavation of the drift is insignificant. (author)

  9. Light induced fluorescence evaluation: A novel concept for caries diagnosis and excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, Neeraj; Pandit, Ik; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gupta, Monika; Gugnani, Shalini

    2011-10-01

    In the era of minimal invasive dentistry, every effort should be directed to preserve the maximum tooth structure during cavity preparation. However, while making cavities, clinicians usually get indecisive at what point caries excavation should be stopped, so as to involve only the infected dentin. Apparent lack of valid clinical markers, difficulties with the use of caries detector dyes and chemo mechanical caries removal systems carve out a need for an improved system, which would be helpful to differentiate between the healthy and infected dentin during caries excavation. Light induced fluorescence evaluation is a novel concept implicated for caries detection and for making decisions while cavity preparation. This paper describes a few cases that explain the clinical applicability of this concept, using the SoproLife camera that works on this principle. Autofluorescence masking effect was found to be helpful for caries detection and the red fluorescence in the treatment mode was found helpful in deciding 'when to stop the excavation process.' Light induced fluorescence evaluation - Diagnosis - Treatment concept concept can be used as a guide for caries detection and excavation. It also facilitates decision making for stopping the caries excavation so as to involve infected dentin only.

  10. Virtual taphonomy: A new method integrating excavation and postprocessing in an archaeological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmson, Helene; Dell'Unto, Nicoló

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to integrate excavation and post-processing of archaeological and osteological contexts and material to enhance the interpretation of these with specific focus on the taphonomical aspects. A method was designed, Virtual Taphonomy, based on the use and integration of image-based 3D modeling techniques into a 3D GIS platform, and tested on a case study. Merging the 3D models and a database directly in the same virtual environment allowed the authors to fully integrate excavation and post-processing in a complex spatial analysis reconnecting contexts excavated on different occasions in the field process. The case study further demonstrated that the method enabled a deeper understanding of the taphonomic agents at work and allowed the construction of a more detailed interpretation of the skeletal remains than possible with more traditional methods. The method also proved to add transparency to the entire research process from field to post-processing and interpretation. Other benefits were the timesaving aspects in documentation, not only in the excavation process but also in post-processing without creating additional costs in material, as the equipment used is available in most archaeological excavations. The authors conclude that this methodology could be employed on a variety of investigations from archaeological to forensic contexts and add significant value in many different respects (for example, detail, objectivity, complexity, time-efficiency) compared to methods currently used. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tomographic and angiographic characteristics of eyes with macular focal choroidal excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Ryo; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ueta, Takashi; Yuda, Kentaro; Kure, Kayo; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    To describe detailed clinical features of eyes with focal choroidal excavation. Twenty-one eyes of 17 patients with focal choroidal excavation were retrospectively studied. All eyes underwent thorough examination including funduscopy, visual field analysis, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and B-scan ultrasonography. Patients' age ranged between 25 years and 70 years. Four patients (24%) were affected bilaterally. Spherical equivalent of refractive error ranged from 0.5 diopters to -10.0 diopters (D). Funduscopic examination showed hypopigmentation (n = 12) and yellowish plaquelike appearances (n = 2). Indocyanine green angiography showed not only filling defects at the excavation (n = 16) but also choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (n = 7) and punctate hyperfluorescent spots (n = 7). Cicatrized subretinal neovascularization was seen in three eyes. The mean follow-up period was 37 months (6-66 months). There was no change in the appearance of excavation. Central serous chorioretinopathy (n = 1) and choroidal neovascularization (n = 1) developed during follow-up. Background factors and ophthalmic findings are similar to those that have been reported previously, including relatively stable findings even after a long observation and the occurrence of central serous chorioretinopathy and choroidal neovascularization. Bilateral cases are not rare in the current cohort, and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability is frequently observed in indocyanine green angiography, suggesting there were choroidal hemodynamic changes around the excavation.

  12. Numerical study on lateral wall displacement of deep excavation supported by IPS earth retention system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugen Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the 3D behavior characteristics of an excavation supported by an innovative prestressed support (IPS earth retention system. A numerical simulation was conducted in order to provide insight into the IPS system behavior by using the FLAC3D package. Prior to the parametric study, validation work was conducted by means of a comparison of the deformation between the field test data and numerical analysis results, and strong agreement was obtained. The reasonable excavation location, layered excavation thickness, and blocked excavation sequence are presented according to variable parameter analysis. In view of the previous findings, certain measurements are proposed in order to control the foundation pit deformation. The results indicate that prestress compensation has a significant effect on the IPS system behavior, while an optimized excavation sequence slightly improves its behavior. With the conclusion proposed based on the numerical results, the aim is to provide reference data for optimization design and the construction sequence.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using Composite Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Fediuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the creation of high-density impermeable concrete. The effect of the “cement, fly ash, and limestone” composite binders obtained by joint grinding with superplasticizer in the varioplanetary mill on the process of structure formation was studied. Compaction of structure on micro- and nanoscale levels was characterized by different techniques: X-ray diffraction, DTA-TGA, and electron microscopy. Results showed that the grinding of active mineral supplements allows crystallization centers to be created by ash particles as a result of the binding of Ca(OH2 during hardening alite, which intensifies the clinker minerals hydration process; the presence of fine grains limestone also leads to the hydrocarboaluminates calcium formation. The relation between cement stone neoplasms composition as well as fibrous concrete porosity and permeability of composite at nanoscale level for use of composite binders with polydispersed mineral supplements was revealed. The results are of potential importance in developing the wide range of fine-grained fiber-reinforced concrete with a compressive strength more than 100 MPa, with low permeability under actual operating conditions.

  14. Proteomic strategies for the identification of proteinaceous binders in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Gabriella; Cartechini, Laura; Pucci, Piero; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Marino, Gennaro; Birolo, Leila

    2009-12-01

    The identification of proteinaceous components in paintings remains a challenging task for several reasons. In addition to the minute amount of sample available, complex and variable chemical composition of the paints themselves, possible simultaneous presence of several binders and contaminants, and degradation of the original materials due to aging and pollution are complicating factors. We proposed proteomic strategies for the identification of proteins in binders of paintings that can be adapted to overcome the requirements and difficulties presented by specific samples. In particular, we worked on (1) the development of a minimally invasive method based on the direct tryptic cleavage of the sample without protein extraction; (2) the use of microwave to enhance the enzymatic digestion yield, followed by the analysis of the peptide mixtures by nanoLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI). Moreover, as an additional tool to tackle the problem of contaminating proteins, we exploited the possibility of generating an exclusion list of the mass signals that in a first run had been fragmented and that the mass spectrometer had to ignore for fragmentation in a subsequent run. The methods, tested on model samples, allowed the identification of milk proteins in a sample from paintings attributed to Cimabue and Giotto, thirteenth-century Italian masters, decorating the vaults of the upper church in the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi, Italy.

  15. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  16. Predictive cartography of metal binders using generative topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Igor I.; Solov'ev, Vitaly P.; Bagatur'yants, Alexander A.; Varnek, Alexandre

    2017-08-01

    Generative topographic mapping (GTM) approach is used to visualize the chemical space of organic molecules (L) with respect to binding a wide range of 41 different metal cations (M) and also to build predictive models for stability constants (log K) of 1:1 (M:L) complexes using "density maps," "activity landscapes," and "selectivity landscapes" techniques. A two-dimensional map describing the entire set of 2962 metal binders reveals the selectivity and promiscuity zones with respect to individual metals or groups of metals with similar chemical properties (lanthanides, transition metals, etc). The GTM-based global (for entire set) and local (for selected subsets) models demonstrate a good predictive performance in the cross-validation procedure. It is also shown that the data likelihood could be used as a definition of the applicability domain of GTM-based models. Thus, the GTM approach represents an efficient tool for the predictive cartography of metal binders, which can both visualize their chemical space and predict the affinity profile of metals for new ligands.

  17. Use of Phosphorus Binders among Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Mortality Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Simran K; Liu, In-Lu A; Kujubu, Dean A; Huynh, Trung; Behayaa, Hind; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J; Sim, John J

    2017-01-01

    Whether the benefits of phosphorus binders extend to those without end stage renal disease is uncertain. Among a large diverse non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population with hyperphosphatemia, we sought to evaluate phosphorus binder use and compare mortality risk between patients prescribed and not prescribed binders. A retrospective cohort study within an integrated health system (January 1, 1998 - December 31, 2012) among CKD patients (age ≥18) was performed. Non-dialysis CKD patients with 2 separate estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR) 180 days after index date revealed no difference in mortality between those with binders and with no binders. Our findings from a real-world clinical environment revealed that 27% of hyperphosphatemic non-dialysis CKD patients were prescribed binders. They also had lower risk of mortality compared to those not prescribed phosphorus binders. However, the lower mortality risk was not observed when we accounted for immortal time bias. Whether phosphorus binder use in CKD improves survival remains to be determined. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic : Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. : Asphalt binder testin...

  19. Development of a practical field method for the determination of elastic recovery of modified binders.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Airey, GD

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastic recovery of a binder is one of the properties which is used to control the quality of the binder in road construction. The laboratory equipment used to determine elastic recovery is generally too expensive and bulky for standard usage...

  20. Setup of Columellar Height with Costal Cartilage Graft Modification in a Patient with Binder Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Uygur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Binder syndrome is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the nose and maxilla and altered morphology of the associated soft tissue. We present a surgical technique for setting up the columellar height in a patient with Binder syndrome.

  1. Ductile Binder Phase For Use With Almgb14 And Other Hard Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce A.; Russell, Alan; Harringa, Joel

    2005-07-26

    This invention relates to a ductile binder phase for use with AlMgB14 and other hard materials. The ductile binder phase, a cobalt-manganese alloy, is used in appropriate quantities to tailor good hardness and reasonable fracture toughness for hard materials so they can be used suitably in industrial machining and grinding applications.

  2. Prenatally Diagnosed Cases of Binder Phenotype Complicated by Respiratory Distress in the Immediate Postnatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Yair J; Davis, Alexis S; Hintz, Susan R; Milan, Kristina; Messner, Anna H; Barth, Richard A; Hudgins, Louanne; Chueh, Jane; Homeyer, Margaret; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Enns, Gregory; Atwal, Paldeep; Manning, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Binder phenotype, or maxillonasal dysostosis, is a distinctive pattern of facial development characterized by a short nose with a flat nasal bridge, an acute nasolabial angle, a short columella, a convex upper lip, and class III malocclusion. We report 3 cases of prenatally diagnosed Binder phenotype associated with perinatal respiratory impairment. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Effects of binders on the electrochemical performance of rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; NuLi, Yanna; Su, Shuojian; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiulin

    2017-02-01

    A comparative study on the effects of different binders on the electrochemical performance of rechargeable magnesium batteries with Mo6S8 cathode is conducted for the first time. The selected binders are commercial organic-soluble polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), gelatin, sodium alginate (SA) and Beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The binders significantly affect the physical properties, thus the electrochemical performance of Mo6S8 cathode. Compared with those using traditional PVDF binder, Mo6S8 electrodes with PAA and PVA exhibit enhanced cycling stabilities and rate capabilities, which are attributed to the improved cohesion among the electrode constituents and adhesion between the electrode laminate and the current collector. In addition, the anodic stability of these binders is not only related to the chemical structure of binders, but also to the uniformity of electrode surface. SA binder shows low anodic stability duo to containing easily oxidized groups. Non-uniform electrode surface decreases the anodic stability of PVDF based Mo6S8 electrode. Gelatin can be used as a binder in the formulation of high voltage cathodes for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

  4. The influence of metakaolin substitution by slag in alkali-activated inorganic binders for civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Rieger, D.; Kovářík, T.; Novotný, P.; Franče, P.; Pola, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study the effect of metakaolin replacement by milled blast furnace slag in alkali-activated geopolymeric binder was investigated in accordance to their rheological and mechanical properties. It was demonstrated that slag addition into the metakaolin binder can improve mechanical properties of final products. Our investigation was focused on broad interval of metakaolin substitution in the range from 100 to 40 volume per cents of metakaolin so that the volume content of solids in final binder was maintained constant. Prepared binders were activated by alkaline solution of potassium silicate with silicate module of 1.61. The particle size analyses were performed for determination of particle size distribution. The rheological properties were determined in accordance to flow properties by measurements on Ford viscosity cup and by oscillatory measurements of hardening process. For the investigation of hardening process, the strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry was used in plane-plate geometry. For determination of applied mechanical properties were binders filled by ceramic grog in the granularity range 0-1 mm. The filling was maintained constant at 275 volume per cents in accordance to ratio of solids in dry binder. The mechanical properties were investigated after 1, 7 and 28 days and microstructure was documented by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that slag addition have beneficial effect not only on mechanical properties of hardened binder but also on flow properties of fresh geopolymer paste and subsequent hardening kinetics of alkali-activated binders.

  5. Parameters sensitivity analysis of underground excavation impacting on slope stability based on Vector Sum Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan

    2018-01-01

    The impact of underground excavation on slope stability is controlled by many parameters, including the shape of slope, the mechanical property of soil and rock, the relative position of excavation zone and slip surface, and so on. The factor of safety (FOS) base on limit equilibrium method (LEM) and strength reduction method (SRM) is not suitable to evaluate the impact. Vector sum method (VSM) and orthogonal experiment are used to evaluate the impact by doing parameters sensitivity analysis. The result shows that the VSM could be used to in this research field, and the gradient of a slope, the relative position between a excavation area and a slope, the cohesion are the top three factors which impact the stability significantly.

  6. Comparison of ISRU Excavation System Model Blade Force Methodology and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Mueller, Robert P.; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the Moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. A prototype lunar vehicle built at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tested with a bulldozer type blade developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) attached to the front. This is the initial correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model and the test data followed similar trends with the predicted values. This testing occurred in soils developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. Three separate analytical models are compared to the test data.

  7. Setting up excavators with growing cracks in their metal structures for repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonov, M. Y.; Lykov, Y. V.

    2017-10-01

    When determining the loads that arise on the working bodies of excavators, it is assumed that the developed soils and blown rock are homogeneous and are cut by a bucket in the form of shavings of a certain thickness. At the same time, it is considered that in metal structures of excavators there are no stress jumps from the bucket collision with individual pieces of rock, and cyclic loads are related only to the loading and unloading cycle of the bucket. Studies have shown that in cyclic loading of metal structures, the bucket collides with each piece of rock. The magnitude of voltage jump depends on the size of rock piece. Presently, theoretical calculation of stresses in metal structures of excavators is carried out without taking into account the concentration of stresses in zones of welding defects and this gives underestimated stresses. Studies have also shown that in zones with defects, the stresses can differ several times from nominal stresses.

  8. Control strategy of a novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the high fuel prices, the demands for energy saving and green emission of engineering machinery have been increased rapidly. Due to the complex working condition and frequent load changing, the efficiency of the hydraulic excavator is low. The aim of this article is to propose a control strategy for energy recovery system of hydraulic excavator driven by the parallel hybrid system. The mathematical models of the main components and the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built. Then, according to the load characteristic, a control strategy based on the working condition and state of charge of the battery is given. The co-simulation for the hybrid hydraulic excavator system is established. The results show that the proposed energy recovery system and control strategy can not only improve the energy recovery efficiency but also reduce fuel consumption and emission of the power system.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Bucket based Excavating, Loading and Transport (BELT) Equipment - An OEE Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mousa; Rai, Piyush; Gupta, Suprakash

    2017-03-01

    Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) has been used since last over two decades as a measure of performance in manufacturing industries. Unfortunately, enough, application of OEE in mining and excavation industry has not been duly adopted. In this paper an effort has been made to identify the OEE for performance evaluation of Bucket based Excavating, Loading and Transport (BELT) equipment. The conceptual model of OEE, as used in the manufacturing industries, has been revised to adapt to the BELT equipment. The revised and adapted model considered the operational time, speed and bucket capacity utilization losses as the key OEE components for evaluating the performance of BELT equipment. To illustrate the efficacy of the devised model on real-time basis, a case study was undertaken on the biggest single bucket excavating equipment - the dragline, in a large surface coal mine. One-year data was collected in order to evaluate the proposed OEE model.

  10. 0-6674 : improving fracture resistance measurement in asphalt binder specification with verification on asphalt mixture cracking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The current performance grading (PG) specification for asphalt binders is based primarily on the study of unmodified asphalt binders. Over the years, experience has proven that the PG grading system, while good for ensuring overall quality, fails in ...

  11. Hyperbranched β-cyclodextrin polymer as an effective multidimensional binder for silicon anodes in lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, You Kyeong; Kwon, Tae-woo; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Taek-Soo; Coskun, Ali; Choi, Jang Wook

    2014-02-12

    Polymeric binders play an important role in electrochemical performance of high-capacity silicon (Si) anodes that usually suffer from severe capacity fading due to unparalleled volume change of Si during cycling. In an effort to find efficient polymeric binders that could mitigate such capacity fading, herein, we introduce polymerized β-cyclodextrin (β-CDp) binder for Si nanoparticle anodes. Unlike one-dimensional binders, hyperbranched network structure of β-CDp presents multidimensional hydrogen-bonding interactions with Si particles and therefore offers robust contacts between both components. Even the Si nanoparticles that lost the original contacts with the binder during cycling recover within the multidimensional binder network, thus creating a self-healing effect. Utilizing these advantageous features, β-CDp-based Si electrode shows markedly improved cycling performance compared to those of other well-known binder cases, especially when combined with linear polymers at an appropriate ratio to form hybrid binders.

  12. Evaluation of binder aging and its influence in aging of hot mix asphalt concrete : literature review and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Binder oxidation in pavements and its impact on pavement performance has been addressed by : numerous laboratory studies of binder oxidation chemistry, reaction kinetics, and hardening and its impact on : mixture fatigue. Studies also have included s...

  13. Clinical and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in patients with focal choroidal excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Hwang, Duck Jin; Kang, Hae Min; Kim, Hyesun; Lee, Sung Chul

    2014-05-01

    To describe the clinical and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in patients with focal choroidal excavation (FCE). Retrospective case series. Forty-one eyes of 38 patients with FCE identified in 2 tertiary medical centers in Korea. Clinical features, SD-OCT findings, and associated macular disorders of FCE were analyzed and detailed. Statistical associations among clinical features, including lesion type, size, and choroidal thickness, and frequency of association with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Mean patient age was 50.1 years (range, 25-76 years). The mean spherical equivalent of refractive error was -3.7 diopters (range, -10.0 to +1.5 diopters). Three patients (8%) had bilateral lesions, and 1 patient (3%) had 2 distinct lesions in the same eye. The mean FCE width and depth were 757 μm and 107 μm, respectively, with a positive correlation between width and depth (P = 0.003). The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness of FCE eyes was 284 μm, which was not statistically different from that of age-, sex-, and refractive error-matched normal subjects. Choroidal thickness in FCE was less in eyes with hyperreflective choroidal tissue under the excavation that was present in 22 eyes (54%) versus eyes without excavation (128 vs. 190 μm, respectively; P = 0.009). Twelve FCEs (29%) were the nonconforming type, revealing separation between the photoreceptor tips and the retinal pigment epithelium on SD-OCT. Nonconforming FCE was associated with visual symptoms (P excavation, and the excavated area in 1 eye with PCV enlarged slightly during follow-up. Focal choroidal excavation is a relatively common entity and frequently associated with choroidal diseases, including CSC, CNV, and PCV. Although FCE is classically thought to be a congenital malformation, acquired FCE forms possibly exist. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by

  14. [Distribution and health risk of HCHs and DDTs in a contaminated site with excavation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Lei; Xue, Nan-Dong; Yang, Bing; Li, Fa-Sheng; Chen, Xuan-Yu; Liu, Bo; Meng, Lei

    2015-02-01

    Air samples were collected to analyze the distribution of HCHs and DDTs around a contaminated site during its excavation. The carcinogenic risks and non-carcinogenic risks through breath exposure were studied by health risk assessment modes. The results showed that, there was an obvious seasonal variation of HCHs and DDTs in air around the excavating area. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were higher in winter and autumn, lower in spring and summer. The Σ HCHs concentration ranged from 5.65 ng x m(-3) to 133 ng x m(-3), and the average value was 28.6 ng x m(-3); Σ DDTs concentration ranged from 4.48 ng x m(-3) to 2 800 ng x m(-3), and the average value was 457.3 ng x m(-3) in winter. However, the Σ HCHs concentration was between 6.23 ng x m(-3) and 26.4 ng x m(-3), and the average value was 15.1 ng x m(-3) in spring; the Σ DDTs concentration was between 3.17 ng x m(-3) and 8.1 ng x m(-3), and the average value was 6.1 ng x m(-3) in summer. So the pollution could be reduced by excavating in spring and summer. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in the residents area were negatively correlated to the height (P excavating area were lower than the acceptable level, while the excavating process caused carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to young residents to some extent. In order to decrease the risks, measures should be taken to restrain the pollutants in the excavation area diffusing into the air.

  15. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 1. Backing sand with the alkaline inorganic binder RUDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel casts in Z.N. POMET were produced in moulds made of the moulding sand Floster. This sand did not have good knocking outproperties, required a significant binder addition (4.5-5.0 parts by weight, and the casting surface quality gave rise to clients objections.Therefore a decision of implementing two-layer moulds, in which the facing sand would consist of the moulding sand with an alkalineorganic binder while the backing sand would be made of the moulding sand with an inorganic binder also of an alkaline character - wasundertaken. The fraction of this last binder in the moulding sand mass would be smaller than that of the binder used up to now (waterglass. The application of two moulding sands of the same chemical character (highly alkaline should facilitate the reclamation processand improve the obtained reclaimed material quality, due to which it would be possible to increase the reclaim fraction in the mouldingsand (up to now it was 50%. The results of the laboratory investigations of sands with the RUDAL binder are presented in the paper.

  16. On the interaction of water-soluble binders and nano silicon particles: alternative binder towards increased cycling stability at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamor, S; Schröder, M; Brunklaus, G; Niehoff, P; Berkemeier, F; Schappacher, F M; Winter, M

    2015-02-28

    Silicon based composites are among the most promising negative electrodes for lithium ion battery applications due to their high theoretical capacities. One major drawback of silicon based anodes are their large volume changes during lithiation and delithiation. Although many efforts have been made in view of new binder materials and improved electrolytes, the resulting battery cell suffers from severe capacity fading at ambient or elevated temperatures, respectively. The strong reactivity with the electrolyte is considered to be responsible for the reduced cycle life at elevated temperatures. In this work we introduce silicon composite anodes with a novel composition based on a gellan gum binder material that show an improved cycling performance at ambient temperature and at 60 °C. To elucidate the influence of the binder material, we investigated the structure of the silicon based composite anodes in order to understand the nature of the interaction of the gellan gum based binder polymers with the silicon particles in comparison with a common CMC binder. Also the influence of the choice of binder on the interactions at the interface between electrode surface and electrolyte were studied. A combination of powerful techniques including solid state NMR, TEM and EELS, XPS as well as FTIR were applied.

  17. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani,; Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang, E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  18. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani, Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  19. A review in geopolymer binder with dry mixing method (geopolymer cement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuaji, Ridho; Yasin, Abdul Karim; Susanto, Tri Eddy; Darmawan, M. Sigit

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews and explains the potential of more applicable geopolymer binder for use. This method is called: "Dry Mixing Method of Geopolymer Binder-Cement Geopolymer". The mean is that the geopolymer binder is presented in a dry form (like cement powder), which is contains some solid alkali activator and pozzolan materials. How to use it exactly the same as mixing portland cement in general. Through this dry mixing method, it is expected to create a new industry that produces geopolymer cement. With the presence of geopolymer cement, people no longer need to calculate the composition of molarity ratio of the chemicals in the form of the activator alkali solution and pozzolan materials commonly used (wet method of geopolymer binder). In this paper the author will briefly explain the concept in calculating the composition of dry mixing method of geopolymer binder

  20. Selection of Excavators for Earth Work on the Basis of their Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Voštová, Věra

    2017-10-01

    For the specific construction of the reconstruction of the railway section Ostrov nad Oslavou and Žďár nad Sázavou will be done removed the railway superstructure and the partial adjustment of the substructure including drainage. For the earthwork will be used excavators of the company Komatsu, with the possibility of adjustment of parameters of the working tool – the length of the bracket and the volume of the shovel. The determined value will be purely indicative, as it does not affect how the operator of the excavator handles the discharge of cargo means.

  1. Stepwise Excavation Allows Apexogenesis in Permanent Molars with Deep Carious Lesions and Incomplete Root Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandéz-Gatón, Patrícia; Serrano, César Ruiz; Nelson Filho, Paulo; De Castañeda, Esther Ruiz; Lucisano, Marília P; Silva, Raquel A B da; Silva, Léa A B da

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the stepwise excavation technique in 138 permanent molars with deep carious lesions and incomplete root formation within a 24-month clinical and radiographic follow-up period. In 96.7% of the cases, success was observed (no pain, integrity of restoration margins, absence of radiographic alterations and apexogenesis). The cases of failure (3.3%) were due to the loss of the temporary restoration. In conclusion, the stepwise excavation is a promising technique for permanent teeth with deep carious lesions and incomplete root formation as a minimally invasive approach because it allows the preservation of pulp vitality and occurrence of apexogenesis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Improved Concrete Cutting and Excavation Capabilities for Crater Repair Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    than the goal of 1 ft/min. The SW60 wheel saw was the only option tested for saw cutting 24-in.-thick PCC to full depth. • The Volvo EW180D...excavator with the Volvo HB1400 moil point hammer was the most efficient technology for breaking up the 18- and 24-in.-thick PCC and required far less...time than the goal of 16 min per repair slab. The Volvo EW180D excavator with the Volvo HB1400 chisel point hammer was also capable of requiring less

  3. Digging the termite way: crowding simple robots to excavate ramification structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardunias, Paul

    The complex ramification network that termites excavate in soil in search of resources has been shown to emerge from interactions between individuals during periodic crowding at the tips of tunnels. Excavation in these social insects is carried out by a rotation of termites removing soil from the tip of an expanding tunnel and depositing it back along the tunnel walls. Bristle bots, modified to either rock or turn on contact with soil in an artificial tunnel, were used to replicate this process. As in termites, congestion at tunnel tips leads to the widening and branching of tunnels.

  4. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. The effect of different types of abdominal binders on intra-abdominal pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of non-elastic/elastic abdominal binders on intra-vesical pressure (IVP, physiological functions, and clinical outcomes in laparotomy patients at the perioperative stage. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from May to October 2014 at the Trauma Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China. Laparotomy patients were randomly divided into non-elastic abdominal binder group (28 patients, and elastic abdominal binder group (29 patients. Binders were applied for 14 days following the operation, or until discharge. Demographic information, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II scores (prior to the operation, on the first day after operation, the day IVP measurement was stopped, and one day before discharge, and outcomes were recorded. The IVP was measured before the operation to postoperative day 7. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic information, outcomes, SOFA or APACHE-II scores between the 2 groups. Initial out-of-bed mobilization occurred earlier in the elastic binder group (3.2 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 3.7 days, p=0.028. A greater increase in IVP was observed in the non-elastic binder group than in the elastic binder group (2.9 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg, p=0.000. Conclusion: Elastic binders have relatively little effect on IVP and are more helpful at promoting postoperative recovery than non-elastic binders. Therefore, elastic binders are more suitable for clinical use.

  6. Practice patterns of phosphate binder use and their associations with mortality in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Sakhuja, Ankit; Arrigain, Susana; Sharp, John; Schold, Jesse D; Nally, Joseph V

    2014-07-01

    Higher serum phosphorus is associated with an increased mortality among those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the practice patterns of phosphate binder use to lower serum phosphorus levels and their associations with mortality in the non-dialysisdependent CKD population. We examined the factors associated with the use of calcium and non-calcium phosphate binders in those with stage 3 and 4 CKD (eGFR 15 - 59 mL/min/1.73 m2) using logistic regression models. The associations between phosphate binder use and mortality were studied using propensity based analysis. Out of 57,928 patients with eGFR 15 - 59 mL/min/1.73 m2, 13,325 (23%) patients had serum phosphorus levels measured. 945 patients were prescribed phosphate binders, with 238 (25%) of them prescribed non-calcium-based phosphate binders and the rest calcium-based phosphate binders. Higher BMI, higher serum phosphorus, and higher serum calcium were associated with higher odds of being prescribed a non-calcium-based binder. Phosphate binder use was not significantly associated with mortality in either the entire cohort or the matched cohort in the analysis limited to those who were treated for at least 6 months. In the matched cohort, those who were treated for 1 year with a phosphate binder had a non-significant lower mortality rate (hazard ratio (HR): 0.85, 95% CI 0.66, 1.10). Phosphate binder use for 6 months and 1 year was not associated with reduced mortality in those with stage 3 and stage 4 CKD.

  7. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  8. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  9. RELATIVE DOSING OF PHOSPHATE BINDERS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PHOSPHATE AND PROTEIN INTAKE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brian Copley

    2012-06-01

    The availability of binding capacity data for P binders, presents physicians with the possibility of tailoring doses of binder to a patient’s diet, facilitating sufficient intake of dietary protein while maintaining a neutral P balance. Use of high-capacity binders, such as lanthanum carbonate, would minimize the tablet burden faced by patients and this may also encourage adherence.

  10. Influence of hydroxyl content of binders on rheological properties of cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) screen printing inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Gadea, Christophe; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of hydroxyl content of binders on rheological properties of screen printing inks is investigated. The actual amount of hydroxyl groups is correlated to the level of hyper-entanglement that characterizes the binders in solution. Three of the most used binders (ethyl cellulose, and two...

  11. Fracture properties of concrete specimens made from alkali activated binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimonová, Hana; Kucharczyková, Barbara; Topolář, Libor; Bílek, Vlastimil, Jr.; Keršner, Zbyněk

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to quantify crack initiation and other fracture properties - effective fracture toughness and specific fracture energy - of two types of concrete with an alkali activated binder. The beam specimens with a stress concentrator were tested in a three-point bending test after 28, 90, and 365 days of maturing. Records of fracture tests in the form of load versus deflection (P-d) diagrams were evaluated using effective crack model and work-of-fracture method and load versus mouth crack opening displacement (P-CMOD) diagrams were evaluated using the Double-K fracture model. The initiation of cracks during the fracture tests for all ages was also monitored by the acoustic emission method. The higher value of monitored mechanical fracture parameters of concrete with alkali activated blast furnace slag were achieved with substitution blast furnace slag by low calcium fly ash in comparison with substitution by cement kiln dust.

  12. Strain-rate master curves for a PBX and binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drodge, Daniel; Williamson, David Martin; Palmer, Stewart; Proud, William

    2012-03-01

    Many studies have been performed, using several different experimental techniques, to characterise the mechanical response of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBX). Here we draw together a range of techniques, namely Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, quasi-static compression, Hopkinson Bar and ultrasonics, to produce a master curve. This was performed with a UK PBX and its binder, and the shift-factors required to produce a consistent master curve were consistent with previous findings, and furthermore implied that a simple linear conversion between strain-rate and frequency is acceptable, the constant of proportionality being 2π. This has been cited before as a consequence of the Cox Merz rule. The benefit of this approach is that a wider range of mechanical testing data can now be employed in code validation.

  13. Learning control of pipe cutting robot with magnetic binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Sungsoo; Lee, Sung-Whan; Kim, Gook-Hwan; Lee, Soon-Geul

    2005-12-01

    The tracking control of an automatic pipe cutting robot, called APCROM, with a magnetic binder was studied. Using magnetic force APCROM, a wheeled robot, binds itself to the pipe and executes unmanned cutting process. The gravity effect on the movement of APCROM varies as it rotates around the pipe laid in the gravitational field. In addition to the varying gravity effect other types of nonlinear disturbances including backlash in the driving system and the slip between the wheels of APCROM and the pipe also cause degradation in the cutting process. To maintain a constant velocity and consistent cutting performance, the authors adopted a repetitive learning controller (MRLC), which learns the required effort to cancel the tracking errors. An angular-position estimation method based on the MEMS-type accelerometer was also used in conjunction with MRLC to compensate the tracking error caused by slip at the wheels. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  14. Graphite fluoride as a solid lubricant in a polyimide binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    Polyimide resin (PI) was shown to be a suitable binder material for the solid lubricant graphite fluoride, (CF(1.1))n. Comparisons were made to similar tests using PI-bonded MOS2 films, graphite fluoride rubbed films, and MOS2 rubbed films. The results showed that, at any one specific temperature between 25 and 400 C, the wear life of PI-bonded graphite fluoride films exceeded those of the other three films by at least a factor of 2 and by as much as a factor of 60. Minimum friction coefficients for the PI-bonded films were 0.08 for graphite fluoride and 0.04 for MOS2. The rider wear rates for the two PI-bonded films at 25 C were nearly equal.

  15. Thermal Degradation Studies of A Polyurethane Propellant Binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assink, R.A.; Celina, M.; Gillen, K.T.; Graham, A.C.; Minier, L.M.

    1999-06-12

    The thermal oxidative aging of a crosslinked hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)/isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) based polyurethane rubber, used as a polymeric binder in solid propellant grain, was investigated at temperatures from 25 C to 125 C. The changes in tensile elongation, polymer network properties and chain dynamics, mechanical hardening and density were determined with a range of techniques including modulus profiling, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation and O{sub 2} permeability measurements. We critically evaluated the Arrhenius methodology that is commonly used with a linear extrapolation of high temperature aging data using extensive data superposition and highly sensitive oxygen consumption experiments. The effects of other constituents in the propellant formulation on aging were also investigated. We conclude that crosslinking is the dominant process at higher temperatures and that the degradation involves only limited hardening in the bulk of the material. Significant curvature in the Arrhenius diagram of the oxidation rates was observed. This is similar to results for other rubber materials.

  16. Rheological characterization of geopolymer binder modified by organic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekalová, M.; Kovárík, T.; Rieger, D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is going to investigate properties of alkali-activated powder (calcined kaoilinitic clay and granulated blast furnace slag) prepared as a geopolymer paste and modified by various amount of organic resin. Hybrid organic-inorganic binders were prepared as a mix of organic resin and geopolymer inorganic paste under vacuum conditions. The process of solidification was investigated by measurements of storage (G’) and loss modulus ( G’) in torsion. The measurement was conducted in oscillatory mode by constant strain of 0.01 %. This strain is set in linear visco-elastic region for minimization influence of paste structure. The effect of organic resin is presented and determined by changes of viscosity (‘n*), modules in torsion and tangent of loss angle (tan 8). Results indicate that addition of organic resin significantly affects the initial viscosity and hardening kinetics.

  17. Probabilistic analysis of soil : Diaphragm wall friction used for value engineering of deep excavation, north/south metro Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buykx, S.M.; Delfgaauw, S.; Bosch, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The excavation of deep building pits often requires a check against failure by uplift of low permeability ground layers below excavation level. Whenever the weight of these soil layers is less than the pore-water pressure underneath, measures to resist buoyancy are to be considered. The measures

  18. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Caries Excavation Techniques in reducing the Cariogenic Flora: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afrah Fatima; Yadav, Gunjan; Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Mehrotra, Mridul; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    Caries excavation is a noninvasive technique of caries removal with maximum preservation of healthy tooth structure. To compare the efficacy of three different caries excavation techniques in reducing the count of cariogenic flora. Sixty healthy primary molars were selected from 26 healthy children with occlusal carious lesions without pulpal involvement and divided into three groups in which caries excavation was done with the help of (1) carbide bur; (2) polymer bur using slow-speed handpiece; and (3) ultrasonic tip with ultrasonic machine. Samples were collected before and after caries excavation for microbiological analysis with the help of sterile sharp spoon excavator. Samples were inoculated on blood agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. After bacterial cultivation, the bacterial count of Streptococcus mutans was obtained. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13 statistical software version. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Wilcoxon matched pairs test, and Z test were performed to reveal the statistical significance. The decrease in bacterial count of S. mutans before and after caries excavation was significant (p excavation. Hassan AF, Yadav G, Tripathi AM, Mehrotra M, Saha S, Garg N. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Caries Excavation Techniques in reducing the Cariogenic Flora: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):214-217.

  19. Zeolite and bentonite as caesium binders in reindeer feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zeolite and bentonite on the accumulation and excretion of radiocaesium (Cs-137 in reindeer were studied in two feeding experiments. Six animals in each experiment were given lichens contaminated with radiocaesium from fallout after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In addition, they were fed pellets containing bentonite (Experiment I or zeolite (Experiment II. Two animals, controls, in each experiment received no caesium-binder. The activity concentration of radiocaesium in blood was used to evalute the radiocaesium level in the body. Faeces and urine were collected to measue the excration of radiocaesium. The animals in Experiment I were depleted of radiocaesium before the start of the experiment. After three weeks, with an intake of 17 - 18 kBq Cs-137/day, the controls had reached activity concentrations of radiocaesium in blood corresponding to 4 - 4.5 kBq Cs-137/kg in muscle. Reindeer fed 23 or 46 g of bentonite per day stabilized at values below 0.8 kfiq/kg in muscle. In Experiment II, the reindeer started with radiocaesium activity concentrations in blood corresponding to 2 - 4.5 kBq Cs-137/kg in muscle. After four weeks of feeding, with an intake at about 8.5 kBq Cs-137/day, controls had increased their radiocaesium values by an average of 40%. Reindeer receiving 25 or 50 g zeolite per day decreased with 18 and 45%, respectively. Net absorption of radiocaesium from the gastro-intestinal tract was calculated at 50 -70% in animals receiving no caesium-binder. Reindeer fed bentonite had an absorption below 10% while those fed zeolite absorbed around 35%.

  20. Pharmaceutical equivalence of metformin tablets with various binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Block

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Metformin hydrochloride is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. As it is highly crystalline and has poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop adequate metformin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product, Glucophage® (marketed as Glifage® in Brazil. Metformin 500mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with various binders (A = starch, B = starch 1500®, C = PVP K30®, D = PVP K90®. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution, content uniformity and dissolution profile (basket apparatus at 50 rpm, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The 4 formulations, F1 (5% A and 5% C, F2 (5% B and 5% C, F3 (10% C and F4 (5% D, demonstrated adequate uniformity of content, hardness, friability, disintegration and total drug dissolution after 30 minutes (F1, F2 and F4, and after 60 minutes (F3. The drug release time profiles fitted a Higuchi model (F1, F2 and F3, similarly to the pharmaceutical reference, or a zero order model (F4. The dissolution efficiency for all the formulations was 75%, except for F3 (45%. F1 and F2 were thus equivalent to Glifage®. Keywords: dissolution; metformin; tablet; binder; pharmaceutical equivalence

  1. Stability calculation method of slope reinforced by prestressed anchor in process of excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical.

  2. The Li(f)e of the Self: Missing Persons and Auto/Archeological Excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Jake

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and enacts a process of autobiographical inquiry, auto/archeology, which seeks to address problematic confluences of memory and identity in reconstructing one's historical narrative. Drawing on curriculum theory and Lacanian psychoanalysis, the author describes a process of excavation in which understandings of a prior…

  3. A new empiricism. Excavating at the start of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, J.C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the rationale for excavation against the background of a new trend in archaeology: the renewed interest in the values of experience and empiricism in both archaeological practice and interpretation. It is argued that we should seriously reconsider the principles of

  4. Identification of purple dye from molluscs on an excavated textile by non-destructive analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Protopapas, Stavros; Allen, Norman

    2013-01-01

    The inherent sensitivity of textile fibres to the aggressive process of burial accounts for the rarity and poor condition of excavated textile finds retrieved. However, the information contained within these finds is important and yielding it contributes to the longevity of the finds. Therefore...

  5. Excavation-drier method of energy-peat extraction reduces long-term climatic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, N.; Silvan, K.; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)], e-mail: niko.silvan@metla.fi; Vaisanen, S.; Soukka, R. [Lappeenranta Univ.of Techology (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    Climatic impacts of energy-peat extraction are of increasing concern due to EU emissions trading requirements. A new excavation-drier peat extraction method has been developed to reduce the climatic impact and increase the efficiency of peat extraction. To quantify and compare the soil GHG fluxes of the excavation drier and the traditional milling methods, as well as the areas from which the energy peat is planned to be extracted in the future (extraction reserve area types), soil CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured during 2006-2007 at three sites in Finland. Within each site, fluxes were measured from drained extraction reserve areas, extraction fields and stockpiles of both methods and additionally from the biomass driers of the excavation-drier method. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), described at a principal level in ISO Standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006, was used to assess the long-term (100 years) climatic impact from peatland utilisation with respect to land use and energy production chains where utilisation of coal was replaced with peat. Coal was used as a reference since in many cases peat and coal can replace each other in same power plants. According to this study, the peat extraction method used was of lesser significance than the extraction reserve area type in regards to the climatic impact. However, the excavation-drier method seems to cause a slightly reduced climatic impact as compared with the prevailing milling method. (orig.)

  6. Ways of enhancing pulp preservation by stepwise excavation--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mikako; Fujitani, Morioki; Yamaki, Chinami; Momoi, Yasuko

    2011-02-01

    The best possible methods and materials in stepwise excavation for deep caries in permanent teeth were investigated. The review considers the questions from many aspects including clinical success, effects of reducing cariogenic bacteria, possibility of hardening softened dentin, and likelihood of generating tertiary dentin. This systematic review includes the use of data from randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials as well as from case series in which pulp exposure resulted following the treatment and removal of deep caries. Only studies of caries in permanent teeth were considered. Those involving treatment of primary teeth were excluded. An electronic search was conducted in the databases of MEDLINE and Igaku Chuo Zasshi (Japanese) from 1970 to 2008. The electronic search was supplemented by a manual search of the references lists of all the relevant studies. The electronic and manual searches of journals retrieved a total of 266 English and 130 Japanese papers. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 English and 3 Japanese studies were finally identified. Our research suggests that stepwise excavation is effective for pulp preservation in extremely deep caries that do not show clinical symptoms of irreversible pulpitis. Calcium hydroxide, as well as antimicrobials and polycarboxylate cement combined with tannin-fluoride preparation, is effective in reducing bacteria and promoting remineralization of the carious dentin that remained after stepwise excavation. Further clinical trials with a high level of study design should be conducted to identify the best methods of removing carious dentin using stepwise excavation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The 2010-2011 excavation season at Al Zubarah, north-west Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; al-Naimi, Faisal; Yeomans, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the results of the 2010–2011 archaeological fieldwork at the late eighteenth–twentieth-century abandoned city of al-Zubarah in north-west Qatar. The excavations in five areas inside the town, covering courtyard houses, a suq, a palatial compound, and a midden...

  8. Nonconforming Deep Focal Choroidal Excavation in a Patient With Choroidal Osteoma: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rohan; Azad, Shorya Vardhan; Takkar, Brijesh; Sharma, Anu; Kashyap, Bibhuti

    2017-11-01

    Evolution of an osteoma may result in neurosensory detachment, deossification, and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The authors report a rare case of choroidal osteoma with CNV associated with a deep non-conforming focal choroidal excavation. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:944-947.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Myelinated nerve fiber-associated local scleral excavation and induced axial myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Baek-Lok; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Woo, Se Joon

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the association between the distributions of local scleral excavation and myelinated nerve fibers (MNF) and to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of axial myopia in eyes with MNF. In six eyes of six pediatric patients with MNF, the distribution of the MNF on fundus photography was compared with the regional excavation of the sclera on linear scans across the fovea and a peripapillary circular scan of spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The tilting of Bruch membrane on vertical scan of spectral domain optical coherence tomography was associated with the major distribution of MNF (κ = 1, Cohen's kappa coefficient). The area of MNF of 12 clock-hour segments and focal scleral excavation on circular scan of spectral domain optical coherence tomography were significantly correlated (P excavation was strongly associated with the distribution of the MNF. This result indicates that the retinal areas deprived of visual stimulation by the MNF contribute to the development of axial myopia through local effects on the underlying sclera in early life.

  10. Cup-shaped choroidal excavation detected by optical coherence tomography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sachi; Yamamoto, Teiko; Kirii, Eriko; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a case with a cup-shaped choroidal excavation in the fovea. This condition was detected only by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and seems to be rare. This was an observational case report. A 29-year-old man had a central scotoma in his right eye. Color photography showed a reddish lesion in the fovea of the right eye, which was shown as a window defect on fluorescein angiography. Tomography with time-domain OCT showed a retinal pigment epithelial and choroidal excavation corresponding to the reddish macular lesion in the right eye. By using spectral-domain OCT, the inner segment and outer segment junctions of photoreceptors line thickening was detected by tomography, and the retinal pigment epithelium line was observed in the area of choroidal excavation by segmentation analysis. The reddish lesion on ophthalmoscope corresponded to the excavation lesion, detected in the fovea only by OCT; this indicates a new clinical availability of OCT in clinical diagnosis.

  11. Endoscopic excavation for the treatment of small esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li-ping; Zhu, Lin-hong; Zhou, Xian-bin; Mao, Xin-li; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic excavation for esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria. Forty-five patients with esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria were treated with endoscopic excavation between January 2010 and June 2012. The key steps were: (1) making several dots around the tumor; (2) incising the mucosa along with the marker dots, and then seperating the tumor from the muscularis propria by using a hook knife or an insulated-tip knife; (3) closing the artificial ulcer with clips after the tumor was removed. The mean tumor diameter was 1.1 ± 0.6 cm. Endoscopic excavation was successfully performed in 43 out of 45 cases (95.6%), the other 2 cases were ligated with nylon rope. During the procedure perforation occurred in 4 (8.9%) patients, who recovered after conservative treatment. No massive bleeding or delayed bleeding occurred. Histologic diagnosis was obtained from 43 (95.6%) patients. Pathological diagnoses of these tumors were leiomyomas (38/43) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (5/43). Endoscopic excavation is a safe and effective method for the treatment of small esophageal subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria.

  12. Characteristics of H2S emission from aged refuse after excavation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when aged refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from aged refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial exposure to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in aged municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patients' preferences for selective versus complete excavation: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Mostajaboldave, Roxana; Otto, Isabella; Dörfer, Christof E; Burkert, Silke

    2016-03-01

    Despite increasing evidence supporting selective caries tissue removal, the technique is not adopted by most dentists, one possible reason being that patients might reject it. We aimed to assess patients' preferences for selective versus complete excavation, and to identify predictors of this preference. A sequential mixed-methods approach was taken. First, semi-structured focus group discussions on two convenience samples were performed. Verbatim transcripts were evaluated using content-analysis to inform quantitative study design. The subsequent survey employed convenience, snow-ball and deviant-case sampling, yielding 150 respondents. The relevance of treatment attributes (risks of nerve damage, root-canal treatment, recurrent caries, restorative complications, treatment costs, aesthetic consequences) on patients' treatment preferences was measured using case-vignettes. Dental experience and anxiety as well as patients' personality and socio-demographic details were recorded. Association of predictor variables (age, gender, education, partnership status, personality items, dental experience, anxiety) with treatment preference was assessed using regression analysis. Focus group participants perceived complete excavation as reliable, but feared endodontic treatment. The vast majority of survey respondents (82.7%) preferred complete over selective excavation. The preference for selective excavation was significantly increased in patients with an emotionally stable personality (pexcavation. Clinical decision-making regarding carious tissue removal might be affected by dentists on both an informative and an empathic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Content Literacy for the 21st Century: Excavation, Elevation, and Relational Cosmopolitanism in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, James S.; Baildon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the a case for conceptualizing content literacy, especially in social studies, as inquiry-based social practices for understanding and addressing complex, multifaceted problems. Two core practices especially needed for a Web-dominated 21st century are then described--excavation and elevation. Next, these two practices are…

  15. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  16. Improved Concrete Cutting and Excavation Capabilities for Crater Repair, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    required manpower, using Caterpillar SW45 and Sw60 wheel saws and Caterpillar and Volvo excavators, respectively, in 18-in.-thick PCC pavement did not...15 3.3 Husqvarna FS 6600D walk-behind saw ..................................................................... 17 3.4 Volvo ...FS 6600D. .............................................................................................................. 18 Figure 13. Volvo EW180D

  17. Onshore excavation at Bet Dwarka Island, in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    and bullock carts might reflect a past reality. Radiocarbon dates of the lowest level of BDK-II is 2040- 1860 years B.P. Excavation of the present Dwarka suggests that around the Christian Era the sea level was lower than the present (Sankalia 1966...

  18. Quarry Creek - Excavation, Analysis and Prospect of a Kansas City Hopewell Site, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    material, other than some debitage, burned earth and hearthstone debris, was associated with the burned wood on which this date was obtained, excavation of...throughout northeastern Kansas in uplands and valleys as glacial detritus. In addition to serving as hearthstones , they were used in a variety of

  19. Indicating street vitality in excavated towns : Spatial configurative analyses applied to Pompeii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to show how it is possible to indicate degrees of street life and economic attractiveness in excavated towns through micro- and macro-spatial configurative analyses. The space syntax method is able to calculate the spatial configuration of built environments and

  20. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, S. [Golder Associates, Maidenhead (United Kingdom); Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co., Figeholm (Sweden); Alheid, H.J. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Falls, S. [Queens Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations 68 refs, 92 figs, 31 tabs

  1. Stepwise excavation may enhance pulp preservation in permanent teeth affected by dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2011-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Ways of enhancing pulp preservation by stepwise excavation-a systematic review. Hayashi M, Fujitani M, Yamaki C, Momoi Y. J Dent 2011;39(2):95-107. Epub 2010 Dec 3. REVIEWER: Lars Bjørndal, DDS, PhD, Dr Odont PURPOSE/QUESTION: To determine the clinical...

  2. The Freeze-Drying of Wet and Waterlogged Materials from Archaeological Excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jacqui

    2004-01-01

    Large quantities of wood and leather have been found in the waterlogged layers on archaeological excavations. Centuries of burial, however, have left these materials in a very degraded and vulnerable state such that if they dry out they will fall apart. This paper discusses the physics behind the freeze-drying techniques that allow the…

  3. [Use of the aluminum phosphate-binders in hemodialysis in the ultrapure water era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Maria D; Malek, T; Gil, M T; Moledous, A; Núñez, C; Alvarez-Ude, F

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium binder has been ill-advised, but his use remain applicable in the clinique practice in very seleccionated and particular patients. The repercussion of prolonged treatment with low doses of aluminium phosphate-binders in haemodialysis was studied. The haemodialysis unit had a double osmosis inverse and the aluminium levels in haemodialysis liquid was less than 2 micrograms/liter. 41 patients of the 295 on haemodialysis received aluminium phosphate-binders since the 2005 January to the 2007 November. The mean time of treatment was 17.8 months, and the doses was 3.9 tablets day (mean of 463 grams in the studied period). The association of low doses of aluminium phosphate-binders permitted a better control of phosphorus (6.8 to 4.8 mg/dl; pphosphate-binders: sevelamer (10.4 a 8 tablets/day; pphosphate-binders (4.6 to 3.1 tablets/day; pphosphate-binders were effective, economical and, now, with an apparent better security profile than in a previous time, but it is very important to be careful with this use and to follow a vigilance strict on patients and haemodialysis liquid.

  4. The Influence of Phosphor and Binder Chemistry on the Aging Characteristics of Remote Phosphor Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Yaga, Robert; Lamvik, Michael; Mills, Karmann; Fletcher, B.

    2017-06-30

    The influence of phosphor and binder layer chemistries on the lumen maintenance and color stability of remote phosphor disks were examined using wet high-temperature operational lifetime testing (WHTOL). As part of the experimental matrix, two different correlated color temperature (CCT) values, 2700 K and 5000 K, were studied and each had a different binder chemistry. The 2700 K samples used a urethane binder whereas the 5000 K samples used an acrylate binder. Experimental conditions were chosen to enable study of the binder and phosphor chemistries and to minimize photo-oxidation of the polycarbonate substrate. Under the more severe WHTOL conditions of 85°C and 85% relative humidity (RH), absorption in the binder layer significantly reduced luminous flux and produced a blue color shift. The milder WHTOL conditions of 75°C and 75% RH, resulted in chemical changes in the binder layer that may alter its index of refraction. As a result, lumen maintenance remained high, but a slight yellow shift was found. The aging of remote phosphor products provides insights into the impact of materials on the performance of phosphors in an LED lighting system.

  5. Phosphate-Binder Use in US Dialysis Patients: Prevalence, Costs, Evidence, and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Peter, Wendy L; Wazny, Lori D; Weinhandl, Eric D

    2017-11-28

    Medicare costs for phosphate binders for US dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease enrolled in Medicare Part D exceeded $1.5 billion in 2015. Previous data have shown that Part D costs for mineral and bone disorder medications increased faster than costs for all Part D medications for dialysis patients. Despite extensive use of phosphate binders and escalating costs, conclusive evidence is lacking that they improve important clinical end points in dialysis patients or non-dialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease. Using dialysis patient data from the US Renal Data System and laboratory information from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) CROWNWeb data, we update information on trends in phosphate-binder use, calcium and phosphorus values, and costs for Medicare-covered dialysis patients. We discuss these results in the context of evidence from clinical trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies evaluating phosphate-binder efficacy, safety, comparative effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness. Based on our analysis, we note a need for US Food and Drug Administration guidance regarding clinical evaluation of new phosphate binders, and we suggest that it would be in CMS' best interest to fund a clinical trial to assess whether lower versus higher phosphate concentrations improve hard clinical outcomes, and if so, whether particular phosphate binders are superior to placebo or other binders in improving these outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An assessment of pelvic binder placement at a UK major trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, H; Nesbitt, P D; Sprott, D C; Clayson, A

    2017-09-15

    Introduction Pelvic binders are used to reduce the haemorrhage associated with pelvic ring injuries. Application at the level of the greater trochanters is required. We assessed the frequency of their use in patients with pelvic ring injuries and their positioning in patients presenting to a single major trauma centre. Methods A retrospective review of our trauma database was performed to randomly select 1000 patients for study from April 2012 to December 2016. Patients with a pelvic binder or a pelvic ring injury defined by the Young and Burgess classification were included. Computed tomography was used to identify and measure pelvic binder placement. Results 140 patients were identified: 110/140 had a binder placed. Of the total, 54 (49.1%) patients had satisfactory placement and 56 (50.9%) had unsatisfactory placement; 30/67 (44.8%) patients with a pelvic ring injury had no binder applied, of whom 6 (20%) had an unstable injury; 9/67 patients died. Discussion This is the first study assessing pelvic binder placement in patients at a UK major trauma centre. Unsatisfactory positioning of the pelvic binder is a common problem and it was not used in a large proportion of patients with pelvic ring injuries. This demonstrates that there is a need for continuing education for teams dealing with major trauma.

  7. Preparation of Fiber Based Binder Materials to Enhance the Gas Adsorption Efficiency of Carbon Air Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Jeong Rak; Lim, Dae Young; Lee, So Hee; Yeo, Sang Young

    2015-10-01

    Fiber binder adapted carbon air filter is prepared to increase gas adsorption efficiency and environmental stability. The filter prevents harmful gases, as well as particle dusts in the air from entering the body when a human inhales. The basic structure of carbon air filter is composed of spunbond/meltblown/activated carbon/bottom substrate. Activated carbons and meltblown layer are adapted to increase gas adsorption and dust filtration efficiency, respectively. Liquid type adhesive is used in the conventional carbon air filter as a binder material between activated carbons and other layers. However, it is thought that the liquid binder is not an ideal material with respect to its bonding strength and liquid flow behavior that reduce gas adsorption efficiency. To overcome these disadvantages, fiber type binder is introduced in our study. It is confirmed that fiber type binder adapted air filter media show higher strip strength, and their gas adsorption efficiencies are measured over 42% during 60 sec. These values are higher than those of conventional filter. Although the differential pressure of fiber binder adapted air filter is relatively high compared to the conventional one, short fibers have a good potential as a binder materials of activated carbon based air filter.

  8. SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM WASTE RUBBER PRODUCTS BY MODIFYING THE ROAD BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Beliaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article considers the problem of waste rubber industry through their recycling, compelling stakeholders to keep stocks of valuable raw rubber and improve our environment. The questions of the processes of thermal devulcanization of rubber crumb rubber products, and then use the resulting material (reclaimed rubber crumb as a modifier to improve the quality of road binder. The effect of technological parameters devulcanisation thermal (temperature and exposure time on the degree of devulcanization of crumb rubber. The question of the choice of environmentally friendly agents and emollients devulcanisation to speed the process flow. Researches modifications road binder Reclaimed rubber crumbs obtained under different conditions. The degree of influence of the content of reclaimed rubber crumb on the physico-mechanical properties of road binder bitumen BND 60/90. Studies have shown that the physical and mechanical properties of modified bitumen conform to standards of rubber bitumen binders in accordance with the recommendations of the firm "BITREK": introduction regeneration rata crumb rubber binder in the road leads to an increase in the softening temperature and the appearance of elasticity in the binder compared to the original bitumen and the values of penetration and elongation are within acceptable limits. Thus, the use of recycled materials, reduces the cost of producing a binder for pavement compared to peers.

  9. A systematic investigation of polymer binder flexibility on the electrode performance of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Neslihan; Zhao, Hui; Song, Xiangyun; Dogdu, Murat Ferhat; Yuan, Wen; Fu, Yanbao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao

    2014-10-08

    The mechanical failure at the electrode interfaces (laminate/current collector and binder/particle interfaces) leads to particle isolation and delamination, which has been regarded as one of the main reasons for the capacity decay and cell failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Polymer binder provides the key function for a good interface property and for maintaining the electrode integrity of LIBs. Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEG) moieties were incorporated into polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) to different extents at the molecular level. Microscratch tests of the graphite electrodes based on these binders indicate that the electrode is more flexible with 5 or 10% TEG in the polymer binders. Crack generation is inhibited by the flexible TEG-containing binder, compared to that of the unmodified PMAA-based electrode, leading to the better cycling performance of the flexible electrode. With a 10% TEG moiety in the binder, the graphite half-cell reaches a reversible capacity of >270 mAh/g at the 1C rate, compared to a value of ∼190 mAh/g for the unmodified PMAA binder.

  10. Application of Microbial Biopolymers as an Alternative Construction Binder for Earth Buildings in Underdeveloped Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth buildings are still a common type of residence for one-third of the world’s population. However, these buildings are not durable or resistant against earthquakes and floods, and this amplifies their potential harm to humans. Earthen construction without soil binders (e.g., cement is known to result in poor strength and durability performance of earth buildings. Failure to use construction binders is related to the imbalance in binder prices in different countries. In particular, the price of cement in Africa, Middle East, and Southwest Asia countries is extremely high relative to the global trend of consumer goods and accounts for the limited usage of cement in those regions. Moreover, environmental concerns regarding cement usage have recently risen due to high CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, biopolymers have been introduced as an alternative binder for soil strengthening. Previous studies and feasibility attempts in this area show that the mechanical properties (i.e., compressive strength of biopolymer mixed soil blocks (i.e, both 1% xanthan gum and 1% gellan gum satisfied the international criteria for binders used in earthen structures. Economic and market analyses have demonstrated that the biopolymer binder has high potential as a self-sufficient local construction binder for earth buildings where the usage of ordinary cement is restricted.

  11. Comparison of cathode catalyst binders for the hydrogen evolution reaction in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2017-06-02

    Nafion is commonly used as a catalyst binder in many types of electrochemical cells, but less expensive binders are needed for the cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) which are operated in neutral pH buffers, and reverse electrodialysis stacks (RED),which use thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate. Six different binders were examined based on differences in ion exchange properties (anionic: Nafion, BPSH20, BPSH40, S-Radel; cationic: Q-Radel; and neutral: Radel, BAEH) and hydrophobicity based on water uptake (0%, Radel; 17–56% for the other binders). BPSH40 had similar performance to Nafion based on steady-state polarization single electrode experiments in a neutral pH phosphate buffer, and slightly better performance in ammonium bicarbonate. Three different Mo-based catalysts were examined as alternatives to Pt, with MoB showing the best performance under steady-state polarization. In MECs, MoB/BPSH40 performed similarly to Pt with Nafion or Radel binders. The main distinguishing feature of the BPSH40 was that it is very hydrophilic, and thus it had a greater water content (56%) than the other binders (0–44%). These results suggest the binders for hydrogen evolution in MECs should be designed to have a high water content without sacrificing ionic or electronic conductivity in the electrode.

  12. A low-cost approach for the documentation and monitoring of an archaeological excavation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Orrin, Joel; Richter, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The documentation of archaeological excavations and in particular a constant monitoring is often time-consuming and depending on humańs capabilities. Thus, remote sensing methods, which allow an objective reproduction of the current state of an excavation and additional information are of interest. Therefore, a low-cost approach was tested on an open-air excavation site for two days in September 2015. The Magdalenian excavation site of Bad Kösen-Lengefeld, Germany is one important site in a system of about 100 sites in the area of the small rivers Saale and Unstrut. The whole site and the surrounding area (200 by 200 m) was first observed by a GoPro Hero 3+ mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 UAV. Ground control points were set-up in a regular grid covering the whole area. The achieved accuracy is 20 mm with a ground resolution of 45 mm. As a test, the GoPro Hero 3+ camera was additionally mounted on a small, extendable pole. With this second low-cost, easy to apply monitoring approach, pictures were automatically taken every second in a stop-and-go mode. In order to capture the excavation pit (7 by 4 m), two different angles were used for holding the pole, which focused on the middle and on the border of the pit. This procedure was repeated on the following day in order to document the excavation process. For the registration of the images, the already existing and measured excavation nails were used, which are equally distributed over the whole site in a 1 m grid. Thus, a high accurate registration of the images was possible (>10 mm). In order to approve the accuracy of the already derived data, the whole site was also observed by a Faro Focus 3D LS 120 laser scanner. The measurements of this device were registered by spherical targets, which were measured in the same reference system. The accuracy of the registration and the ground resolution for the image based approach for both days was about 4 mm. From these two measurements the process of the excavation was easily

  13. Development of an MgO-based binder for stabilizing fine sediments and storing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Seo, Jeong-Yun; Hwang, Inseong

    2015-12-01

    An MgO-based binder was developed that could stabilize fine dredged sediments for reuse and store CO2. Initially, a binder consisting of fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was developed by using alkaline activators such as KOH, NaOH, and lime. The FA0.4-BFS0.6 binder (mixed at a FA-to-BFS weight ratio of 4:6) showed the highest compressive strength of 10.7 MPa among FA/BFS binders when 5 M KOH was used. When lime (L) was tested as an alkaline activator, the strength was comparable with those obtained when KOH or NaOH was used. The L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder (10 % lime mixed with the FA/BFS binder) showed the highest strength of 11.0 MPa. Finally, by amending this L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder with MgO, a novel MgO-based binder (MgO0.5-(L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9) 0.5) was developed, which demonstrated the 28th day strength of 11.9 MPa. The MgO-based binder was successfully applied to stabilize a fine sediment to yield a compressive strength of 4.78 MPa in 365 days, which was higher than that obtained by the Portland cement (PC) system (3.22 MPa). Carbon dioxide sequestration was evidenced by three observations: (1) the decrease in pH of the treated sediment from 12.2 to 11.0; (2) the progress of the carbonation front inward the treated sediment; and (3) the presence of magnesium carbonates. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that 67.2 kg of CO2 per ton of the treated sediment could be stored under the atmospheric condition during 1 year.

  14. A Review of Phosphate Binders in Chronic Kidney Disease: Incremental Progress or Just Higher Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Wendy L St; Wazny, Lori D; Weinhandl, Eric; Cardone, Katie E; Hudson, Joanna Q

    2017-07-01

    As kidney disease progresses, phosphorus retention also increases, and phosphate binders are used to treat hyperphosphatemia. Clinicians prescribe phosphate binders thinking that reducing total body burden of phosphorus may decrease risks of mineral and bone disorder, fractures, cardiovascular disease, progression of kidney disease, and mortality. Recent meta-analyses suggest that sevelamer use results in lower mortality than use of calcium-containing phosphate binders. However, studies included in meta-analyses show significant heterogeneity, and exclusion or inclusion of specific studies alters results. Since no long-term studies have been conducted to determine whether treatment with any phosphate binder is better than placebo on any hard clinical endpoint (including mortality), it is unclear whether possible benefit with sevelamer represents net benefit of sevelamer, net harm with calcium-containing phosphate binders, or both. Although one meta-analysis suggested that calcium acetate may be more efficacious gram for gram than calcium carbonate as a binder, calcium acetate did not reduce hypercalcemia, and gastrointestinal intolerance was higher. Data are insufficient to determine whether calcium acetate provides lower risk of vascular calcification than calcium carbonate. Fears of lanthanum accumulation in the central nervous system or bone with long-term treatment do not appear to be warranted. Newer iron-containing phosphate binders have potential benefits, such as lower pill burden (sucroferric oxyhydroxide) and improved iron parameters (ferric citrate). The biggest challenge to phosphate binder efficacy is non-adherence. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding safety, effectiveness, and adherence with currently marketed phosphate binders and those in development.

  15. Improvement of the excavation damaged zone in saliferous formations. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Simo Kuate, E.; Borstel, L. von; Engelhardt, H.J.

    2016-01-15

    In Germany, salt formations are considered to be suitable to host a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. However, local stress changes adjacent to man-made openings lead to the evolution of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) during and after excavation. Such an EDZ can have a major impact on the operation of a radioactive waste repository since it represents a region where progressive failure occurs. This decreases the material strength and thus increases the permeability of the originally tight host rock. The objective of this investigation is determined by the need to develop a modeling strategy that can be applied to simulate the permeability increase due to mechanical deterioration of rock salt, in particular that occurring in the EDZ. The identification of material parameters is often conducted by back-calculation of laboratory experiments. However, standard laboratory tests, e.g. compression tests, are only applicable to provide information about the macroscopic deformation. For this purpose, further laboratory tests were conducted to derive material parameters used in the constitutive models. Combined acoustic emission and uniaxial compression tests as well as microstructural analyses were carried out to dissolve the macroscopic behavior micromechanically. The information obtained was then used for parameter identification utilizing optimization methods. The objective was to identify the best estimate of the micro-parameter values that can be applied to simulate the laboratory results performed. To make a qualitative comparison between the numerical analysis and the acoustic emission (AE) testing, the onset of failure at contacts was equated with events detected by AE testing. The onset of failure is identified at stress levels above 3 MPa. The number of tensile fractures increases continuously and the maximum is reached between 10 and 12 MPa axial stress. At the beginning of loading, tensile fractures appear more frequently than shear fractures

  16. Excavator energy-saving efficiency based on diesel engine cylinder deactivation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Quan, Long; Yang, Yang

    2012-09-01

    The hydraulic excavator energy-saving research mainly embodies the following three measures: to improve the performance of diesel engine and hydraulic component, to improve the hydraulic system, and to improve the power matching of diesel-hydraulic system-actuator. Although the above measures have certain energy-saving effect, but because the hydraulic excavator load changes frequently and fluctuates dramatically, so the diesel engine often works in high-speed and light load condition, and the fuel consumption is higher. Therefore, in order to improve the economy of diesel engine in light load, and reduce the fuel consumption of hydraulic excavator, energy management concept is proposed based on diesel engine cylinder deactivation technology. By comparing the universal characteristic under diesel normal and deactivated cylinder condition, the mechanism that fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by adopting cylinder deactivation technology under part of loads condition can be clarified. The simulation models for hydraulic system and diesel engine are established by using AMESim software, and fuel combustion consumption by using cylinder-deactivation-technology is studied through digital simulation approach. In this way, the zone of cylinder deactivation is specified. The testing system for the excavator with this technology is set up based on simulated results, and the results show that the diesel engine can still work at high efficiency with part of loads after adopting this technology; fuel consumption is dropped down to 11% and 13% under economic and heavy-load mode respectively under the condition of driving requirements. The research provides references to the energy-saving study of the hydraulic excavators.

  17. Endoscopic muscularis excavation for subepithelial tumors of the esophagogastric junction originating from the muscularis propria layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Ye, Li-ping; Zhu, Lin-hong; Zhou, Xian-bin; Mao, Xin-li; Ding, Jin-xiu

    2013-05-01

    Because of complicating anatomic factors, endoscopic submucosal dissection is seldom performed in subepithelial tumors of the esophagogastric junction originating from the muscularis propria layer. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic muscularis excavation for treating subepithelial tumors of the esophagogastric junction originating from the muscularis propria layer. Between December 2008 and December 2011, 68 patients with subepithelial tumors of the esophagogastric junction originating from the muscularis propria layer were treated with endoscopic muscularis excavation. Key steps of the procedure included the following: (1) injecting a mixture solution into the submucosal layer after making several dots around the tumor; (2) making a cross incision of the overlying mucosa, and excavating the tumor from the muscularis propria layer; (3) closing the artificial ulcer with clips after tumor removal. The mean tumor size was 16.2 mm (range 7-35 mm). Endoscopic muscularis excavation was successfully performed in 65 out of 68 cases (success rate 95.6 %). Pathological diagnosis of these tumors included leiomyoma (39 out of 68) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (29 out of 68). Perforation occurred in seven patients (10.3 %). No massive bleeding or delayed bleeding occurred. The median follow-up period after the procedure was 23 months (range 6-42 months). No residual or recurrent tumor was detected and no stricture occurred in patients during the follow-up period. Endoscopic muscularis excavation is a safe, effective and feasible procedure for providing accurate histopathologic evaluation and curative treatment for subepithelial tumors of the esophagogastric junction originating from the muscularis propria layer.

  18. Endoscopic excavation for gastric heterotopic pancreas: an analysis of 42 cases from a tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Qin; Zhu, Lin-hong; Zhou, Xian-bin; Ye, Li-ping; Mao, Xin-li

    2014-09-01

    Because of the difficulty associated with making an accurate diagnosis of gastric heterotopic pancreas (HP) before surgery, surgical resection is usually performed in suspected cases. However, this is an invasive procedure and prone to certain surgical complications. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic excavation for gastric HP, as well as the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in diagnosing gastric HP. Between January 2007 and January 2013, 42 consecutive patients with gastric HP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Key steps: (1) Injection of a solution (100 ml saline + 2 ml indigo carmine + 1 ml epinephrine) into the submucosal layer after making several dots around the lesion; (2) Incision of the mucosa outside the marker dots with a needle-knife, and then circumferential excavation until complete resection of the lesion; (3) Closure of the artificial ulcer with several clips after tumor removal. In this study, 18 cases (42.9%) were suspected as gastric HP (assessed by two experienced endoscopists before endoscopic excavation), 8 (19.0%) were suspected as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 7 (16.7%) as gastric polyp, and the remaining 9 cases (21.4%) were still unknown. The mean procedure duration was 28.6 min. En bloc resection by endoscopic excavation was achieved in 40 cases (95.2%), and no massive bleeding, delayed bleeding, perforation, or other severe complication occurred in these patients. Among the 42 lesions, a tube echo could be detected in 11 cases by EUS. Those 11 cases were diagnosed as gastric HP by histopathology. Endoscopic excavation appears to be a safe and feasible procedure for accurate histopathologic evaluation and curative treatment in gastric HP. Use of EUS has some value in the diagnosis of gastric HP before the procedure

  19. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, David W; Johnson, David W; Hawley, Carmel M; Campbell, Scott B; Isbel, Nicole M; van Eps, Carolyn L; Petrie, James J B

    2011-05-13

    Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer), which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more expensive binders and increasing concerns about the risks of

  20. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. Discussion The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer), which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. Summary This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more expensive binders and increasing

  1. Do aluminium-based phosphate binders continue to have a role in contemporary nephrology practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eps Carolyn L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Their safety became controversial in the early 1980's after reports of aluminium related neurological and bone disease began to appear. Available historical evidence however, suggests that neurological toxicity may have primarily been caused by excessive exposure to aluminium in dialysis fluid, rather than aluminium-containing oral phosphate binders. Limited evidence suggests that aluminium bone disease may also be on the decline in the era of aluminium removal from dialysis fluid, even with continued use of aluminium binders. Discussion The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines both suggest avoiding aluminium-containing binders. These guidelines will tend to promote the use of the newer, more expensive binders (lanthanum, sevelamer, which have limited evidence for benefit and, like aluminium, limited long-term safety data. Treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients continues to represent a major challenge, and there is a large body of evidence linking serum phosphate concentrations with mortality. Most nephrologists agree that phosphate binders have the potential to meaningfully reduce mortality in dialysis patients. Aluminium is one of the cheapest, most effective and well tolerated of the class, however there are no prospective or randomised trials examining the efficacy and safety of aluminium as a binder. Aluminium continues to be used as a binder in Australia as well as some other countries, despite concern about the potential for toxicity. There are some data from selected case series that aluminium bone disease may be declining in the era of reduced aluminium content in dialysis fluid, due to rigorous water testing. Summary This paper seeks to revisit the contemporary evidence for the safety record of aluminium-containing binders in dialysis patients. It puts their use into the context of the newer, more

  2. FTIR spectroscopy of water glass - the binder moulding modified by ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bobrowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the determination of the infl uence of the colloidal nanoparticles of zinc oxide on the structure of sodium water glass. Nanoparticles of zinc oxide in ethanol solvent were introduced into the water glass. The modification and structural changes were determined by means of the FT-IR absorption spectra. In order to determine the kind of infl uence: binder-modifier the spectroscopic FTIR analysis of samples of a fresh binder and of a binder hardened for 24 h in the air was performed by means of the spectrometer Digilab Excalibur with a standard DTGS detector.

  3. A Binder Viscosity Effect on the Wet-Wounded Composite Porosity in the Impregnating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Komkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to define experimentally an impregnation rate of VM-1 glass fibers and CBM aramid bundles with the epoxy binder EDB-10 using wet method of winding. During the impregnation process of the fibrous fillers by the liquid binder, air is displaced from the interfiber space of fiber and bundle. With the composite product winding a fiber impregnation process is short. That is why gas inclusions or pores are formed in the polymer-fiber compositeThe impregnation rate or porosity of wound material will depend directly on the binder viscosity. To reduce an epoxy binder viscosity temporarily is possible by two ways. The first is to heat a liquid epoxy composition EDB-10 to the maximum possible temperature during the winding process of the product. The second method is to dilute the binder by a solvent, such as acetone or alcohol. However, the solvent reduces its strength.The paper presents experimental data to show the volumetric content of pores in the wound composite affected only by the viscosity of the epoxy binder. Heating a binder allowed us to regulate a changing conditional viscosity of the binder in the impregnating bath for the normal conditions of impregnation. Other impacts on the impregnation and filament-winding processes, such as filler kinks, squeeze, vacuuming binder, highly tensioned winding, and others were not used.Experimentally obtained dependences of the porosity value of wound composite on the conditional viscosity of binder are nonlinear and can be used to design heaters for impregnating devices of winders. The research technique and results can be used in development of technological processes to manufacture composite structures by winding from the other reinforcing fibrous fillers and thermo-active binders.The results show that the volumetric content of pores can significantly vary within 8 - 14 % of material volume. Therefore, to reduce the number of pores in the wound composite to 1-2 %, auxiliary

  4. Analysis of blasting damage in adjacent mining excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Yugo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a small-scale wedge failure at Yukon Zinc's Wolverine Mine in Yukon, Canada, a vibration monitoring program was added to the existing rockbolt pull testing regime. The failure in the 1150 drift occurred after numerous successive blasts in an adjacent tunnel had loosened friction bolts passing through an unmapped fault. Analysis of blasting vibration revealed that support integrity is not compromised unless there is a geological structure to act as a failure plane. The peak particle velocity (PPV rarely exceeded 250 mm/s with a frequency larger than 50 Hz. As expected, blasting more competent rock resulted in higher PPVs. In such cases, reducing the round length from 3.5 m to 2.0 m was an effective means of limiting potential rock mass and support damage.

  5. The forecast of mining-induced seismicity and the consequent risk of damage to the excavation in the area of seismic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzewiecki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Mining Institute has developed a method for forecasting the amount of seismic energy created by tremors induced by mining operations. The results of geophysical measurements of S wave velocity anomalies in a rock mass or the results of analytic calculations of the values of pressure on the horizon of the elastic layers are used in the process of calculating the energy. The calculation program which has been developed and adopted has been modified over recent years and it now enables not only the prediction of the energy of dynamic phenomena induced by mining but also the forecasting of the devastating range of seismic shock. The results obtained from this calculation, usually presented in a more readable graphic form, are useful for the macroscopic evaluation of locations that are potential sources of seismic energy. Forecasting of the maximum energy of seismic shock without prior knowledge of the location of the shock's source, does not allow shock attenuation that results from, for example, a distance of tremor source from the excavation which will be affected by seismic energy, to be taken into consideration. The phenomena of energy dissipation, which is taken into account in the forecasts, create a new quality of assessment of threat to the excavation. The paper presents the principle of a method of forecasting the seismic energy of a shock and the risk of damage to the excavation as a result of the impact of its energy wave. The solution assumes that the source of the energy shock is a resilient layer in which the sum of the gravitational stresses, resulting from natural disturbances and those induced by the conducted or planned mining exploitation, is estimated. The proposed solution assumes a spherical model for the tremor source, for which seismic energy is forecasted as a function of the longwall advance and the elementary value of seismic energy destroying the excavation. Subsequently, the following are calculated for the

  6. Archaeological Excavation Report for Proposed Well 199-K-131 in Support of the 100-KR-4 Pump-and-Treat Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, Dave M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.

    2004-06-22

    An archaeological excavation was conducted at the site of proposed groundwater monitoring well 199-K-131 in support of the 100-KR-4 Pump-and-Treat Project between June 2 and 3, 2004. Excavations confirmed that there were no intact cultural deposits at the proposed well location. This report was prepared to document the findings of the test excavation.

  7. Investigation of Ageing Effects on Organic Binders used for Mineral Wool Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar

    analytical techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToFSIMS). XPS and ToF-SIMS characterization of the PUF binder coated mineral fibres showed that significant changes in the surface chemistry of the binder coated mineral fibres occurred...... for the same duration of ageing. The main purpose of the present work is to examine the chemical changes occurring in the phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder based mineral fibres due to ageing, which cause deterioration of the mechanical properties of mineral wool products. This has been done using surface...... mainly due to hydrolyzation of urea containing groups. On the other hand, XPS and ToF-SIMS characterization of alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres consistently showed that the surface chemical composition of the organic components of these samples did not change appreciably during...

  8. An Innovative Method for the Dehydration Hardening of Modified Inorganic Binders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I. Izdebska-Szanda; J. Kamińska; M. Angrecki; A. Palma; W. Madej

    2016-01-01

    The results of research on the possibility of using a gaseous medium (hot air) as a hardening agent for inorganic binders were discussed, and tests on the reclamation of waste moulding sands were carried...

  9. Diisocyanates as novel molecular binders for monolayer assembly of zeolite crystals on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yu Sung; Ha, Kwang; Lee, Yun-Jo; Lee, Jin Seok; Kim, Hyun Sung; Park, Yong Soo; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2002-09-07

    Isocyanate groups readily form urethane linkages with surface hydroxy groups on glass and zeolites and this phenomenon was utilized in the assembly of monolayers of zeolite microcrystals on glass by employing diisocyanates as novel molecular binders.

  10. Burning mechanism of aluminized solid rocket propellants based on energetic binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babuk, Valery A.; Dolotkazin, Ildar N.; Glebov, Andrey A. [Baltic State Technical University (BSTU), First Krasnoarmeyskaya Str. 1, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports results obtained from an experimental study of the combustion mechanism of aluminized propellants based on an energetic binder. The techniques used in this investigation include:. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  12. Facile Pyrolyzed N-Doped Binder Network for Stable Si Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenggang; Jiang, Yang; Peng, Zhe; Yang, Shanshan; Lin, Huan; Liu, Meng; Wang, Deyu

    2017-09-27

    Although nanoengineering provides improved stability of Si-based nanostructures, a facile and efficacious method to directly use raw Si practices is still absent. Herein, we report a pyrolyzed N-doped binder network to improve the cycling stability of raw Si particles. Such an N-doped binder network is formed at a conformal pyrolysis condition of the electrode binder using polyacrylonitrile and provides a tight encapsulation of the Si particles with significantly improved cycling stability. In contrast to the single Si particles that pulverize and lose the total capacity at the 20th cycle, the discharge capacity could be retained ∼1700 mA h g-1 at the 100th cycle for the Si particles imbedded in the pyrolyzed N-doped binder network. Our results demonstrate that such a facile remedy could significantly improve the cycling stability of raw Si particles for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Comparison of Two Different Grafts in Nasal Framework Reconstruction of Binder Syndrome: Cartilage and Silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Le; You, Jianjun; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yihao; Lu, Xiaona; Fan, Fei

    2017-09-01

    Binder syndrome is a rare congenital malformation with a flat facial profile especially a depressed nose. Rhinoplasty plays an important part in the multidisciplinary surgical protocol. Different materials have been proposed to reconstruct nasal framework. But fewer evidence concerns which graft can achieve more stable and appreciated nasal contour. In this article, the authors reported surgical details and experience of nasal framework reconstruction of Binder syndrome, compare the esthetic outcomes of 2 grafts: autologous costal cartilage and L-shaped silicone covered with auricular cartilage. A retrospective study of 25 Binder syndrome patients (9 with silicone and 16 with costal cartilage) was managed. Anthropometric method was used to evaluate nasal profiles preoperatively and postoperatively. Surgical techniques, complications were reviewed. Statistics analysis was managed. Probability (P) of Binder syndrome.

  14. The Binder Method: A Spatial, Conceptual Approach to Teaching Business Report Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Dean

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the binder method approach to teaching business report writing, explains its basic procedures, its organizational advantages, its time saving qualilty, and its adaptation to more than one user at different locations or different times. (EL)

  15. EFFECT OF BINDER ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BULK-DENSITY AND COMPACTIBILITY OF LACTOSE GRANULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZUURMAN, K; BOLHUIS, GK; VROMANS, H

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a binder on the relationship between the bulk density and compactibility of lactose granulations was studied by comparing binderless granules with granules containing hydroxypropylcellulose. Granulations were prepared from different grades of alpha-lactose monohydrate and anhydrous

  16. Binder-free V2O5 cathode for greener rechargeable aluminum battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huali; Bai, Ying; Chen, Shi; Luo, Xiangyi; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-14

    This letter reports on the investigation of a binder-free cathode material to be used in rechargeable aluminum batteries. This cathode is synthesized by directly depositing V2O5 on a Ni foam current collector. Rechargeable aluminum coin cells fabricated using the as-synthesized binder-free cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 239 mAh/g, which is much higher than that of batteries fabricated using a cathode composed of V2O5 nanowires and binder. An obvious discharge voltage plateau appeared at 0.6 V in the discharge curves of the Ni-V2O5 cathode, which is slightly higher than that of the V2O5 nanowire cathodes with common binders. This improvement is attributed to reduced electrochemical polarization.

  17. Chemical Characterization of Lime-Based Binders in Historic Buildings of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilovica, I.; Gulbe, L.; Vitina, I.; Igaune-Blumberga, S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the chemical composition of stone materials of several local historic buildings with a purpose of elaboration of restoration strategy, including the choice of restoration materials. Most of the examined mortars are lime- based hydraulic mortars, characteristic of the architecture of 19th/20th century. Pure aerial lime binders show reduced compatibility with historic materials, that is why lime binders with pozzolan additive (cement) are an appropriate choice for restoration. In order to examine the changes of hydraulicity (i.e. the property of binders to harden when exposed to water) of perspective restoration binders, a series of blended lime-cement mixtures were synthesized with growing content of cement (up to 10% by weight). A significant relationship between cement content and hydraulic properties has been shown.

  18. Testing a Novel Geopolymer Binder as a Refractory Material for Rocket Plume Environments at SSC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project involved the development and testing of a new alumina-silicate based multi-purpose, cost-effective, ‘green’ cementitious binder (geopolymer)...

  19. Study of Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders in Middle and High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remišová Eva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bitumen binders in road pavements are exposed traffic loading effect at different climatic conditions. A resistance to these stresses depends on bitumen properties as well. The paper presents rheological properties (G*, δ, ν* determined and compared for four bituminous binders (unmodified and polymer modified bitumen at temperature 46 – 60 (80 °C and dynamic viscosity at temperature 130 – 190 °C (Brookfield viscometer. On the basis of viscosity results it is possible to set optimal production and compaction temperatures. Elastic and viscous behavior of binder in the middle temperature is determined in rheometers. The higher value of complex modulus, the stiffer bitumen binder is able to resist deformation. The greater content of elastic components (e.g. polymer in bitumen varies mainly elastic-viscous properties of primary bitumen.

  20. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  1. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Marques, M?nica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, In?s; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2014-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of t...

  2. Novel oral phosphate binder with nanocrystalline maghemite-phosphate binding capacity and pH effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T M-H; Müller, R H; Taupitz, M; Schnorr, J; Hamm, B; Wagner, S

    2015-03-30

    Hyperphosphatemia is one of the main risk factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease. The demand for a new phosphate binder is continuously increasing since the number of patients suffering under hyperphosphatemia is growing. However, side effects and high pill burden of currently available phosphate binders are the main reasons for low compliance and uncontrolled serum phosphate levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a novel phosphate binder with a high phosphate binding capacity over the entire gastrointestinal (GI) pH range. This novel phosphate binder C-PAM-10 is based on d-mannose coated nanocrystalline maghemite and belongs to the new class of phosphate binders, called the "iron based agents". It was possible to obtain a phosphate binding product that showed very high phosphate binding capacities with the characteristic of being pH independent at relevant pH ranges. The simulation of a GI passage ranging from pH 1.2 to pH 7.5 showed a 2.5 times higher phosphate binding capacity compared to the commonly used phosphate binder sevelamer carbonate. The simulation of a pH sensitive coating that releases the iron based phosphate binder at pH values ≥4.5 still showed a very high phosphate binding capacity combined with very low iron release which might decrease iron related side effects in vivo. Therefore, C-PAM-10 and its variations may be very promising candidates as a superior phosphate binder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Berkovich nanoindentation and deformation mechanisms in a hardmetal binder-like cobalt alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Rovira, Joan Josep; Jiménez Piqué, Emilio; Tarragó Cifre, Jose María; Zivcec, Maria; Broeckmann, C.; Llanes Pitarch, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A cobalt-base solid solution is the most used binder for hardmetals (WC–Co cemented carbides) in a wide range of industrial applications. In the composite material such cobalt alloy is surrounded by hard carbides grains; thus, a direct evaluation of its intrinsic mechanical properties is not an easy task. In order to overcome this inconvenience, a model cobalt alloy with a composition similar to that exhibited by typical hardmetal binder (containing W and C in solid solution) was processed fo...

  4. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  5. The Effect of the Use of PTFE as a Covered-Electrode Binder on Metal Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Turani Vaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStudies have shown that when used as binders for basic covered electrodes, polymers produce a weld metal microstructure with a high acicular ferrite content. The reasons identified for this behavior include changes in the shielding atmosphere and metal transfer mode. To investigate the effect of polymers on metal transfer, voltage oscillograms and high-speed films were recorded during welding with standard-binder and polymer-binder E7018 electrodes using different welding currents. Electrodes tips collected after the arc had been abruptly interrupted were examined metallographically. For electrodes with a polymer binder, the short-circuit frequency was lower regardless of the welding current used and decreased as welding current increased. In many events characterized as short circuits in the voltage oscillograms for polymer-binder electrodes, metal transfer in fact occurred without any arc interruption. The angle between the outer edge of the metal drop and the inner edge of the coating crater showed that the polymer increased the intensity of the plasma jet, and the pinch effect observed during welding using the polymer-binder electrode indicated that there were changes in surface tension and electromagnetic force.

  6. Analysis of the binder yield energy test as an indicator of fatigue behaviour of asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Johan; Mturi, Georges A. J.; Komba, Julius; Du Plessis, Louw

    2017-09-01

    Empirical binder testing has increasingly failed to predict pavement performance in South Africa, with fatigue cracking being one of the major forms of premature pavement distress. In response, it has become a national aspiration to incorporate a performance related fatigue test into the binder specifications for South Africa. The Binder Yield Energy Test (BYET) was the first in a series of tests analysed for its potential to predict the fatigue performance of the binder. The test is performed with the dynamic shear rheometer, giving two key parameters, namely, yield energy and shear strain at maximum shear stress (γτmax). The objective of the investigation was to perform a rudimentary evaluation of the BYET; followed by a more in-depth investigation should the initial BYET results prove promising. The paper discusses the results generated from the BYET under eight different conditions, using six different binders. The results are then correlated with four point bending beam fatigue test results obtained from asphalt mix samples that were manufactured from the same binders. Final results indicate that the BYET is not ideal as an indicator of fatigue performance.

  7. Effects of replacement of binder content on bond strength of mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. C. Costa

    Full Text Available The reduction of binder content in cementitious systems is an effective way to mitigate environmental impacts without increasing costs. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of content binder on bond strength of mortar-brick interface. For thus, it was studied mortars produced with two limestone fines with different particle size distribution. The limestone fines were added at rates of 0% to 60% at increments of 15% as partial volume replacement of binder. Mortars were prepared in proportion of 1:3 (binder + limestone: sand in volume. The water content was kept constant and equal to 18% in relation to total weight of solids. The mechanical property of mortars was evaluated by tensile strength and the performance of interface by bond strength tests at 14 days. Results indicate that is possible make mortars with 45% less than binder without reducing bond strength. Thus, the use of appropriate particles of limestone can produce more environmentally friendly concrete and rendering mortars by reducing its binder factor without affecting its performance.

  8. Novel polymer Li-ion binder carboxymethyl cellulose derivative enhanced electrochemical performance for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Wang, Daxiong; Wang, Feijun; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jianquan

    2014-11-04

    Novel water-based binder lithium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Li) is synthesized by cotton as raw material. The mechanism of the CMC-Li as a binder is reported. Electrochemical properties of batteries' cathodes based on commercially available lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) and water-soluble binder are investigated. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na, CMC) and CMC-Li are used as the binder. After 200 cycles, compared with conventional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, the CMC-Li binder significantly improves cycling performance of the LFP cathode 96.7% of initial reversible capacity achieved at 175 mA h g(-1). Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrate that the LFP electrode using CMC-Li as the binder has the highest rate capability, followed closely by those using CMC and PVDF binders, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test results show that the electrode using CMC-Li as the binder has lower charge transfer resistance than the electrodes using CMC and PVDF as the binders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Randomized clinical trial on the postoperative use of an abdominal binder after laparoscopic umbilical and epigastric hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, M W; Olsen, B H; Rosenberg, J; Bisgaard, T

    2015-02-01

    Application of an abdominal binder is often part of a standard postoperative regimen after ventral hernia repair to reduce pain and seroma formation. However, there is lack of evidence of the clinical effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pain- and seroma-reducing effect of an abdominal binder in patients undergoing laparoscopic umbilical or epigastric hernia repair. Based on power analysis, a minimum of 54 patients undergoing laparoscopic umbilical and epigastric hernia repair were to be included. Patients were randomized to abdominal binders vs. no abdominal binders during the first postoperative week. Standardized surgical technique, anaesthesia, and analgesic regimens were used and study observers were blinded towards the intervention. Postoperative pain (visual analogue score) on day 1 was the primary outcome. In addition, ultrasonographic evaluation of seroma formation and several subjective patient-related parameters were registered. Furthermore, patients in the abdominal binder group were asked to rate benefits or discomforts of wearing the binder. Data from 56 patients (abdominal binder, n = 28; no binder, n = 28) were available for analysis. No significant intergroup differences in postoperative pain or any of the other surgical outcomes, including seroma formation, were found. However, the abdominal binder group reported subjective beneficial effect of wearing the binder in 24 of the 28 patients (86%). No adverse effects of the abdominal binder were found. There were no effects of an abdominal binder on pain, movement limitation, fatigue, seroma formation, general well-being, or quality of life. However, most patients claimed a subjective beneficial effect of using their abdominal binder.

  10. Recent developments in binder design for advanced media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. J.; Farkas, J.; Hasman, D.; Miller, T.; Zellia, J.; Jacobs, P.

    1999-03-01

    This study is aimed to examine the technical issue, the rheological requirements, in accomplishing successful processing of the dispersion made with wetting binders to produce tapes with excellent mechanical properties. The results indicate that the dispersions made with DTPU or NTPU (new dispersing TPU for metal pigments), can be characterized using RFS 8400 and Bolin CSM. For this type of dispersion, a higher strain is required to start flow or to break the primary structure, a wider range of shear rate is needed for the structural breakdown. It also shows that the recovery time is shorter with longer time to reach a steady state that is a lower recovery compliance level. G'/ G″ cross-over point was defining the needed strain level and the strain rate for the structural breakdown. It is expected that the results of the study could be applied to define the mechanical properties of the final tape affected by various operations such as mixing/agitation, high coating speed, drying/calendering, and curing and high speed duplicating process.

  11. Organically modified clays as binders of fumonisins in feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Andrea; Reyneri, Amedeo; Gennari, Mara; Nègre, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    This study reports an investigation on the ability of organically modified clays to bind mycotoxins, fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2). Organically modified clays are commercia materials prepared from natural clays, generally montmorillonite, by exchanging the inorganic cation with an ammonium organic cation. A screening experiment conducted on 13 organically modified clays and 3 nonmodified clays, used as controls, has confirmed that the presence of an organic cation in the clay interlayer promoted the adsorption of both fumonisins. On the basis of the results of the screening test, four modified clays and a Na-montmorillonite were selected for the determination of the adsorption kinetics and isotherms. On all the tested materials adsorption took place within one hour of contact with fumonisins solutions. Adsorption isotherms have pointed out that the modified clays exhibited a higher adsorptive capacity than the unmodified clay. It was also demonstrated that, notwithstanding the reduced structural difference between FB1 and FB2, they were differently adsorbed on the modified clays. Addition of 2% modified clays to contaminated maize allowed a reduction of more than 70% and 60% of the amount of FB1and FB2 released in solution. Although in vivo experiments are required to confirm the effectiveness of the organically modified clays, these preliminary results suggest that these materials are promising as fumonisins binders.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jae Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB, were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2% and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that although an increase dosage of filler and SBR decreased the flow value of the semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, an increase dosage of asphalt emulsion improved the flow value. The indirect tensile strength and liquid immersion residual stability for the condition with greatest Marshall stability were most outstanding with 0.95 MPa and 83.6%, respectively. Evaluation of the recycled cold asphalt abrasion durability revealed that for the case of mixing more than 4% NCB the mass loss rate was lower than 20%. The abrasion durability was found to improve when using modified emulsified asphalt and SBR substitution. From the test results, it was found that the optimal mixing proportion of semiplastic recycled cold asphalt satisfied mechanical properties and durability is NCB with 4%, emulsified asphalt with 3%, and SBR substitution with 20%.

  13. Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids' being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

  14. Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

    1992-05-01

    Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids` being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

  15. Quality of buffalo meat burger containing legume flours as binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V K; Mahendrakar, N S; Narasimha Rao, D; Sachindra, N M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of addition of different decorticated legume flours, viz., soya bean, bengal gram, green gram and black gram, on the quality of buffalo meat burger was studied. The burgers consisted of optimized quantities of roasted or unroasted legume flour, spices and common salt. Inclusion of roasted black gram flour registered the highest yield of 95.7%, lowest shrinkage of 5% and lowest fat absorption of 26.6% on frying. Protein content of 18-20% was highest in the soya flour formulation. Free fatty acid (FFA) values (as% oleic) increased from 14.3 to 17.3 in freshly prepared samples (before frying) to 16.0-19.4 in 4 m frozen (-16±2 °C) stored samples and fried samples had about 25% lower FFA values. Formulations with roasted flours registered lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.6-1.5 as against 0.6-2.1 for unroasted flours before frying. The burgers prepared with any of these binders were organoleptically acceptable even after storage at -16±2 °C for 4 months., However, the burger with black gram dhal (dehulled split legume) flour had better sensory quality attributes compared to other legumes.

  16. Stabilization of an expansive overconsolidated clay using hydraulic binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Mahamedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas of the wilaya of M’sila in Algeria nowadays experience a considerable development because of an unceasingly increasing demography, from where its extension toward virgin zones is often less favorable than those already urbanized. This wilaya is located in a zone classified as semi-arid, whose geology comprises clayey formations characterized by a high variation of volume when the conditions of their equilibrium are modified (natural climatic phenomena due to a prolonged dryness, human activity by modification of the ground water level because of excessive pumping, configuration of constructions in their environment. This paper presents and analyzes the results of a series of laboratory tests (identification, compaction, penetration and direct shear tests performed on an expansive overconsolidated clay obtained from an urban site situated in Sidi-Hadjrès city (wilaya of M’sila, Algeria, where significant damages frequently appear in the road infrastructures and in the light structures. Test results obtained show that the geotechnical parameteric values deduced from these tests are concordant and confirm the bearing capacity improvement of this natural clay treated with hydraulic binders (composed Portland cement and extinct lime and compacted under the optimum Proctor conditions, which is translated by a significant increase in soil strength and its durability.

  17. New Aqueous Binders for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Andrew N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Trask, Stephen E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Polzin, Bryant J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Lu, Wenquan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Kahvecioglu Feridun, Ozge [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Hellring, Stuart D. [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States); Stewart, Matthew [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    This final report summarizes the research effort of the CRADA between PPG Industries and Argonne National Laboratory (CRADA # C1400501 and Amendment 1 - ACK 85C11, Rev. 1), and completes the requirements of Task #5 in the CRADA. The results from Argonne represent a combined effort between the MERF and CAMP Facility (Materials Engineering Research Facility and the Cell Analysis, Modeling and Prototyping Facility). The key points of this report can be briefly summarized as: The multicomponent aqueous binder for NCM cathodes developed by PPG shows promising results when used on the CAMP Facility’s pilot-scale coater; NCM523 cathode electrodes exposed to water exhibit a voltage anomaly in the first two formation cycles that appears to have little effect on the material capacity, but needs to be explored further; the experimental LFP electrode produced by PPG does cycle electrochemically, but with reduced capacity and an uncharacteristic voltage profile; there is no obvious correlation between the pH and zeta-potential of materials that are commonly used in the lithium-ion battery; lithium ions are more readily dissolved out of NCM523 by water than the transition metals (by two orders of magnitude), and suggests that the plating bath may need to be spiked with a lithium salt; the approach of creating sub-micron size NCM523 particles via ball milling results in a cathode material with poor electrochemical performance.

  18. Application of supporting structure combining with basement slab in soft soil excavations engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rencheng; Liu, Le

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, based on the case of a soft soil excavations project in Zhongshan and the field measured data, the ABAQUS, a finite element software for engineering simulation, analyses the system which combines steel cement-soil pile and basement plate. Moreover it can simulate the deformation results and get the supporting stress model. The results show that the supporting effect of this system is remarkable. This simplified model calculation results are conservative. But there exists the problem of varying depth of excavations. As a result, the stress characteristics and design methods of the proposed scheme are less studied and need further research and discussion. The analysis method and the design scheme can provide useful reference for similar projects.

  19. Remediating Contaminant Plumes in Groundwater with Shallow Excavations Containing Coarse Reactive Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow and mass transport model tested the capability of shallow excavations filled with coarse, reactive media to remediate a hypothetical unconfined aquifer with a maximum saturated thickness of 5 m. Modeled as contaminant sinks, the rectangular excavations were 10 m downgradient of an initial contaminant plume originating from a source at the top of the aquifer. The initial plume was approximately 259 m long, 23 m wide, and 5 m thick, with a downgradient tip located approximately 100 m upgradient of the site boundary. The smallest trench capable of preventing offsite migration was 11 m long (measured perpendicular to groundwater flow), 4 m wide (measured parallel to groundwater flow), and 3 m deep. Results of this study suggest that shallow trenches filled with coarse filter media that partially penetrate unconfined aquifers may be a viable alternative for remediating contaminated groundwater at some sites.

  20. The Excavation of a Monastic Fishing Establishment at Oldstead Grange, North Yorkshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kemp (with a pottery report by Wendy Sherlock

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Excavations directed by the writer in 1982-3 for the University of York Archaeological Society uncovered the foundations of a small structure on the shores of a fishpond that belonged to Byland Abbey in the 14th century. The site's location, combined with a number of associated lead net weights, suggest that it was connected with organised, large-scale, fish farming.