Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda
Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725
Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.
Rising, C.J.; Bol, N.; Burke-Garcia, A.; Rains, S.; Wright, K.B.
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate
van der Schuur, Winneke A; Baumgartner, Susanne E; Sumter, Sindy R
There are concerns that social media (SM) use and SM stress may disrupt sleep. However, evidence on both the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships is limited. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to address this gap in the literature by examining the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between SM use, SM stress, and sleep (i.e., sleep latency and daytime sleepiness) in adolescents. In total, 1,441 adolescents 11-15 years, 51% boys) filled out a survey in at least one of three waves that were three to four months apart (NWave1 = 1,241; NWave2 = 1,216; NWave3 = 1,103). Cross-sectionally, we found that SM use and SM stress were positively related to sleep latency and daytime sleepiness. However, when examined together, SM use was not a significant predictor of sleep latency and daytime sleepiness above the effects of SM stress. The longitudinal findings showed that SM stress was positively related to subsequent sleep latency and daytime sleepiness, but only among girls. Our findings stress that it is important to focus on how adolescents perceive and cope with their SM use, instead of focusing on the mere frequency of SM use.
Smith, Tara; Renk, Kimberly
This study examined potential predictors of the academic-related stress experienced by college students. In particular, the relationships among the coping strategies used by college students, social support, the parenting style used by college students' mothers and fathers, college students' experience of anxiety, and academic-related stress were…
Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M
Previous work on social support and stress tolerance using laboratory-based cardiovascular stress response paradigms has suggested that perceived social support may be effective in building resilience in recipients. However, such paradigms are often socially de-contextualized insofar as they fail to take account of the social aspects of stress itself. Using 90 healthy college women, the present study sought to examine the association between self-reported perceived social support and cardiovascular stress tolerance. Participants underwent two consecutive exposures to a mental arithmetic task. On second exposure to the stressor, participants completed the task under either social threat or control conditions. Social threat was manipulated using socially salient instructions, to create a high social context. Adaptation to stress was established in terms of comparisons between cardiovascular responses to successive exposures. Results showed that cardiovascular responses tended to habituate across time, with perceived social support associated with the degree of habituation, but only under certain contextual conditions; high perceived support was associated with effective habituation under control conditions only. This response pattern is consistent with the view that high perceived social support buffers against stress in healthful ways, but only in asocial contexts.
Etingen, Bella; Locatelli, Sara M; Miskevics, Scott; LaVela, Sherri L
The objectives of this study were to examine differences in social participation among Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders with and without post-traumatic stress disorder, and determine if lower social participation was independently associated with having post-traumatic stress disorder. A cross-sectional mailed national survey was sent to a national sample of Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders who received prior-year Veterans Affairs healthcare. Surveys provided data on: demographics, health conditions, injury characteristics, and social participation. Analyses included bivariate comparisons, and multivariate logistic regression to determine if lower social participation was independently associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Veterans with (vs. without) post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 896) reported lower social participation (40.2 vs. 43.9, p post-traumatic stress disorder, while a greater number of health conditions (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98, p = 0.003). Results indicate post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders, independent of other factors that may impact participation. Efforts to screen for and treat post-traumatic stress disorder among persons with spinal cord injuries/disorders, regardless of injury-specific factors, are needed to improve participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with spinal cord injuries/disorders often have post-traumatic stress disorder; in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders this may be compounded by trauma incurred through military experiences. Social participation, an important aspect of rehabilitation and community integration following spinal cord injury or disorder, may be hindered by symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Our data show that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower
Full Text Available Background. Work-related stress is a major problem for mental health. The occupational physician has the opportunity to gather information on the perception of stress from workers in the course of regular medical examinations. Method. 1,231 subjects, engaged in 6 different occupations, were invited to compile the Demand/Control/Support and the Effort/Reward/Imbalance questionnaires. Results. A specific profile of work-related stress emerged for each group of workers. Radiology physicians reported high control over work, but also exceedingly high demand and effort, high overcommitment, low social support, and low rewards from work. Health care workers were often overcommitted but had high levels of reward and social support. Low levels of social support and reward were recorded for mature workers, while special force policemen engaged in law enforcement during the G8 meeting had high levels of social support and regards, so that their resulting stress levels were closer to the reference group of employees in an insurance company with no front-office. Conclusion. The practice of administering questionnaires to groups of workers who are subject to medical surveillance is useful for monitoring mental health and well-being.
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
Kecmanovic, Jelena; Alloy, Lauren B.
This research examined an integration of cognitive and interpersonal theories of depression by investigating the prospective contribution of depressive rumination to perceptions of social support, the generation of interpersonal stress, and depressive symptoms. It was hypothesized that depressive ruminators would generate stress in their relationships, and that social support discontent would account for this association. Further, depressive rumination and dependent interpersonal stress were examined as joint and unique predictors of depressive symptoms over time. Participants included 122 undergraduate students (M age = 19.78 years, SD = 3.54) who completed assessments of depressive rumination, perceptions of social support, life stress, and depressive symptoms across three waves, each spaced 9 months apart. Results revealed that social support discontent accounted for the prospective association between depressive rumination and dependent interpersonal stress, and that both depressive rumination and dependent interpersonal stress contributed to elevations in depressive symptoms over time. These findings highlight the complex interplay between cognitive and interpersonal processes that confer vulnerability to depression, and have implications for the development of integrated depression-focused intervention endeavors. PMID:25429169
Wang, Xingmin; Cai, Lin; Qian, Jing; Peng, Jiaxi
This study examined the moderator effect of social support on the relationship between stress and depression of university students. A total of 632 undergraduate students completed the measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, and depression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that social support moderated the association between stress and depression. Undergraduate students with high stress reported higher scores in depression than those with low stress with low social sup...
Fogelman, Nia; Canli, Turhan
'Purpose in Life' (Purpose) is associated with healthy aging, but it is unknown whether this association is causal. Conceptualizing Purpose as a form of psychosocial resource, one mechanism promoting health could be the regulation of stress hormones. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 44 older community-dwelling adults to examine the association between Purpose and cortisol at baseline, in response to, and recovery from, an acute social laboratory stressor. Purpose did not predict cortisol baseline or reactivity, but did predict a faster recovery to pre-stress baseline levels. The health benefits of Purpose in aging may therefore reflect the combination of a normal stress response, which serves an adaptive benefit of allostasis, with an accelerated stress recovery, which reduces the burden of allostatic load. This model should be tested in future studies using larger samples, multiple related constructs, and longitudinal designs that include participants' health records.
... ward off loneliness. Whether it's other new parents, dog lovers, fishing buddies or siblings, just knowing you' ... for health policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. ... In: The Mayo Clinic Guide to Stress-Free Living. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo ...
The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…
Krans, Julie; Peeters, Manon; Näring, Gérard; Brown, Adam D; de Bree, June; van Minnen, Agnes
The self is a multi-faceted and temporally dynamic construct reflecting representations and beliefs about identity in the past, present, and future. Clinical studies have shown that individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) exhibit alterations in self-related processing but these studies have focused primarily on memory. Few studies in PTSD and SAD have examined self-related processing for the present and future, and no studies have directly compared these processes across these two disorders. Individuals diagnosed with PTSD (n=21), SAD (n=21), and healthy controls (n=21) completed cognitive tasks related to the past, present, and future. Disorder congruent temporal alterations were found across both disorders. Further, regression analyses revealed that trauma-related memories were significantly predicted by future goals related to the trauma, whereas social anxiety-related recall was predicted by current socially anxious self-views. Thus, although self-related processing may be common in PTSD and SAD, those aspects of the self most strongly associated with disorder-congruent recall differ by disorder. Self-alterations may be modifiable and developing a better understanding of past, present, and future self-processing might aid in the development of interventions that target these process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lewis, Richard S; Nikolova, Ani; Chang, Dennis J; Weekes, Nicole Y
Previous research suggests that stress can influence a broad range of memory functions. In this study we investigated the effect of a naturalistic stressor, examination stress, on working memory in young adults. In order to accomplish this aim, participants were tested on psychological and hormonal measures of stress and on Digit Span, once during a low stress period and once during a high stress period. The high examination stress condition was associated with an increase in cortisol and subjective impressions of stress. Although Digits Forward performance did not vary with examination stress, Digits Backward performance improved. These findings suggest that mild increases in stress are associated with improvement in the manipulation component of working memory. However, no correlations were found between working memory and either cortisol or psychological stress. Thus the mechanism by which mild naturalistic stressors improve the manipulation component of working memory needs further investigation.
Sivonová, Monika; Zitnanová, Ingrid; Hlincíková, Lucia; Skodácek, Igor; Trebatická, Jana; Duracková, Zdenka
Mental stress in psychiatric disease and in daily life contributes to oxidative stress in the body. In this study we investigated a connection between possible psychological stress caused by university undergraduate examinations and oxidative stress experienced by our test subjects. Some parameters of oxidative stress (single strand breaks of DNA in lymphocytes, sensitivity to lipid oxidation and antioxidant status) were studied in medical students on the day of the examination (stress condition) and compared with the same parameters obtained from the same students during the term between two examination periods (non-stress condition). The results show that in the stress condition oxidative damage to DNA and sensitivity to lipid oxidation were significantly increased (pstress" conditions. A significant decrease in plasma antioxidant activity (pstress was observed. These results suggest that during university examinations students are under increased oxidative stress.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social emotional learning and educational stress. Participants were 321 elementary students. Social emotional learning and educational stress scale were used as measures. The relationships between social emotional learning and educational stress were examined using correlation…
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E.
Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants’ characteristic risk factors for stressful social interactions were also identified. Minor and unintentional negative actions of others had high frequency but...
Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...
Ironson, Gail; Henry, Sarah M; Gonzalez, Brian D
This study examined the impact of a stressful death/divorce on psychological and immune outcomes in people with HIV. People with HIV with stressful death/divorce were examined from before the event to up to 12 months later ( n = 45); controls were assessed at similar intervals ( n = 112). Stressful deaths/divorces were associated with increased viral load and anxiety over time ( ps ≤ .014), but not CD4+ or depression. Increased use of religious coping after the stressful death/divorce was associated with slower increases in viral load ( p = .010). These data suggest people with HIV should consider the potentially elevated risk of transmission after such events and seek appropriate monitoring and care.
Mallinckrodt, Brent; Leong, Frederick T. L.
Examined level of stressors and stress symptoms in lives of international graduate students, as well as sources of social support that might be most useful in coping with stressors. Findings from 272 international students revealed that support from their families had positive direct effect on stress symptoms, and support from academic programs…
Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens
The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and ... can be critical to help you through the stress of tough times, whether you've had a ...
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…
Full Text Available Background: Much of the research on anxiety disorders has focused on associated risk factors with less attention paid to factors such as resilience that may mitigate risk or offer protection in the face of psychopathology.Objective: This study sought to compare resilience in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and social anxiety disorder (SAD relative to age-, gender- and education- matched individuals with no psychiatric disorder. We further assessed the correlation of resilience scores with childhood trauma severity and type.Method: The sample comprised of 93 participants, 40 with SAD with childhood trauma, 22 with PTSD with childhood trauma, and 31 with no psychiatric disorder (i.e., healthy matched controls. Participants were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form (CTQ-SF, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. The mean age of participants was 34 years (SD = 11. 52 Participants were female (55.9% and 54 Caucasian (58.1%. Analysis of variance was used to assess for significant group differences in resilience scores. Non-parametric correlation analyses were conducted for resilience and different types of childhood trauma.Results: There were significant differences in resilience between the SAD and PTSD groups with childhood trauma, and controls. Both disorder groups had significantly lower levels of resilience than healthy controls. No significant correlation was found between total resilience scores and childhood trauma scores in the childhood trauma (SAD and PTSD groups. However, in the combined dataset (SAD, PTSD, healthy controls, significant negative correlations were found between resilience scores and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and total childhood trauma scores.Conclusions: Patients who have PTSD and SAD with childhood trauma appear to be
Boersma, Gretha J.; Smeltzer, Michael D.; Scott, Karen A.; Scheurink, Anton J.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.; Sakai, Randall R.
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their “stress coping style”, may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status an...
Carter, Michael J.
This study advances identity theory, a prominent sociological social psychological theory, by investigating how the moral identity, moral behavior, and emotions operate in different social contexts, specifically when the moral identity is activated (or not activated) and when individuals are alone or in different types of groups. This extends identity theory by including key processes in social identity theory (identity activation and group membership) which have not been examined in the exis...
Minority status stress, which is the stress Black college students experience at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) as a result of their racial minority status, has been found to negatively impact their persistence in college. Two manuscripts were developed for this dissertation. The first is a critical literature review which establishes the…
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Lee, Bo Ra
Although a substantial literature is developing regarding the effects of stress on decision-making (cf. Mather & Lighthall, 2012), the literature on stress and social decision-making is still in the beginning stage. The present research extends this new literature by examining the mediating and moderating factors of the effect of stress on social decision-making. Furthermore, a novel aspect of the research is its effort to connect the information-processing and functional perspectives, with r...
Full Text Available As important as it is to fully comprehend the relationship between stress and depression among university students, it is also vital to ascertain the role of perceived social support as an essential psychosocial factor for effectively delimiting the deleterious impact of stress exposure. As such, the current study aimed to examine whether perceived social support functioned as a mediating factor in the relationship between stress and depression among university students. Data was collected from undergraduate students of a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. Information on demographics, depression, stress and perceived social support were collated through self-report questionnaires. Results revealed significant gender differences for perceived social support, wherein female students reported lower levels of social support compared to their counterparts. Mediation analysis portrayed that the association between stress and depression was partially accounted for, by the mediating role of perceived social support.
DeJonckheere, Melissa J.; Vaughn, Lisa M.; Jacquez, Farrah
Latino immigrant children represent the fastest-growing population in the United States and families are frequently residing outside of the traditional migration destinations. These cities lack the infrastructure and resources to provide culturally relevant services and bilingual education that supports these youth. Following a social-ecological…
Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…
Nicholas A Christakis; Fowler, James H.
Here, we review the research we have done on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) in order to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ...
Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental ...
The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...
Farmer, Antonina S.; Kashdan, Todd B.
Dominant theoretical models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that people who suffer from function-impairing social fears are likely to react more strongly to social stressors. Researchers have examined the reactivity of people with SAD to stressful laboratory tasks, but there is little knowledge about how stress affects their daily lives. We asked 79 adults from the community, 40 diagnosed with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls, to self-monitor their social interactions, social events, and emotional experiences over two weeks using electronic diaries. These data allowed us to examine associations of social events and emotional well-being both within-day and from one day to the next. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found all participants to report increases in negative affect and decreases in positive affect and self-esteem on days when they experienced more stressful social events. However, people with SAD displayed greater stress sensitivity, particularly in negative emotion reactions to stressful social events, compared to healthy controls. Groups also differed in how previous days’ events influenced sensitivity to current days’ events. Moreover, we found evidence of stress generation in that the SAD group reported more frequent interpersonal stress, though temporal analyses did not suggest greater likelihood of social stress on days following intense negative emotions. Our findings support the role of heightened social stress sensitivity in SAD, highlighting rigidity in reactions and occurrence of stressful experiences from one day to the next. These findings also shed light on theoretical models of emotions and self-esteem in SAD and present important clinical implications. PMID:25688437
Farmer, Antonina S; Kashdan, Todd B
Dominant theoretical models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that people who suffer from function-impairing social fears are likely to react more strongly to social stressors. Researchers have examined the reactivity of people with SAD to stressful laboratory tasks, but there is little knowledge about how stress affects their daily lives. We asked 79 adults from the community, 40 diagnosed with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls, to self-monitor their social interactions, social events, and emotional experiences over 2 weeks using electronic diaries. These data allowed us to examine associations of social events and emotional well-being both within-day and from one day to the next. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found all participants to report increases in negative affect and decreases in positive affect and self-esteem on days when they experienced more stressful social events. However, people with SAD displayed greater stress sensitivity, particularly in negative emotion reactions to stressful social events, compared to healthy controls. Groups also differed in how previous days' events influenced sensitivity to current days' events. Moreover, we found evidence of stress generation in that the SAD group reported more frequent interpersonal stress, though temporal analyses did not suggest greater likelihood of social stress on days following intense negative emotions. Our findings support the role of heightened social stress sensitivity in SAD, highlighting rigidity in reactions and occurrence of stressful experiences from one day to the next. These findings also shed light on theoretical models of emotions and self-esteem in SAD and present important clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Cairney, John; Boyle, Michael; Offord, David R; Racine, Yvonne
This study examined the effect of stress and social support on the relationship between single-parent status and depression. A secondary data analysis of the 1994-95 National Population Health Survey was conducted. Single and married mothers who participated in the survey were derived from the general sample (N = 2,921). Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the mediating and moderating effects of stress and social support on the relationship between family structure and depression. Bivariate analyses showed that, compared to married mothers, single mothers were more likely to have suffered an episode of depression (12-month prevalence), to report higher levels of chronic stress, more recent life events and a greater number of childhood adversities. Single mothers also reported lower levels of perceived social support, social involvement and frequency of contact with friends and family than married mothers. The results of the multivariate analyses showed that, together, stress and social support account for almost 40% of the relationship between single- parent status and depression. We also found a conditional effect of stress on depression by family structure. Life events were more strongly related to depression in married than in single mothers. A substantial part of the association between single-parent status and depression can be accounted for by differences in exposure to stress and social support. Our results suggest that it is important to examine multiple sources of stress, as exposure to both distal and proximal stressors were higher among single mothers. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Zhang, Niu; Rabatsky, Ali
The existence of test stress has been widely reported among professional students. To our knowledge, no studies exist that explore student stress response to objective structured clinical examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible correlations between stress and objective structured clinical examination performance in a sample of chiropractic students. A total of 116 students completed a 2-part questionnaire to assess test stress and the physiological symptoms and signs of stress. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic were measured during the physical examination laboratory class within the first 3 weeks and then again just prior to their objective structured clinical examination in week 5. Statistical tests were then performed for questionnaire data, heart rate and blood pressure differences, and correlation between the objective structured clinical examination grade and symptoms and signs. Questionnaire results showed that 5.1%-22.4% of students sometimes or often felt a certain degree of stress. More than 50% had 1 or more physiological symptoms and signs of stress. The objective structured clinical examination heart rate (75.23 ± 11.20 vs 68.16 ± 8.82, p examination grades and physiological symptoms and signs and between objective structured clinical examination grades and feeling statement score. The results support our hypothesis that chiropractic students experience stress when performing the objective structured clinical examination and that high levels of stress had a negative impact on performance.
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected
Roekel, G.H. van; Ha, P.T.; Verhagen, M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected
Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Scott E. Wilks
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...
Sung, Yao-Ting; Chao, Tzu-Yang
The tools used for measuring examination stress have three main limitations: sample selected, sample sizes, and measurement contents. In this study, we constructed the Examination Stress Scale (ExamSS), and 4,717 high school students participated in this research. The results indicate that ExamSS has satisfactory reliability, construct validity,…
Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S
The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turner, J; Bartlett, D; Andiappan, M; Cabot, L
To identify students' perceptions of barriers to effective study and the relationship between these and demographic characteristics, levels of perceived stress and examination performance. A questionnaire was distributed to first (BDS1) and final year (BDS5) King's College London dental undergraduates, during Spring 2013. Data were collected on students' social and working environment using a Likert scale from zero to four. Levels of perceived stress and end-of-year examination results were collected. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS® and Stata® software. A response rate of 83.0% (BDS1) and 82.9% (BDS5) was achieved. Social distractions were perceived to hinder study, with median scores of two and three for females and males respectively. The mean perceived stress score differed significantly (p=0.001) between males and females. Difficulties with journey was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p=0.03) as were family responsibilities (p=0.02). Social distractions were significantly related to examination performance (p=0.001). Social distractions were the barrier most highly rated as hindering effective study. Levels of perceived stress were high and were significantly associated with gender, a difficult journey to university and family responsibilities. Social distractions were significantly related to examination performance; students rating social distractions highly, performed less well.
Scott E. Wilks
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.
Pollard, T M; Steptoe, A; Canaan, L; Davies, G J; Wardle, J
The influence of academic examination stress on eating behavior and lipid profiles and the moderating effect of dietary restraint, trait anxiety, and social support availability was assessed in university students. One hundred and seventy-nine students were divided into exam-stress groups (51 women, 64 men) and control groups (48 women, 16 men) and were assessed at baseline and then within 2 weeks of exams or an equivalent point for the control group. Perceived stress, emotional well-being, and fasting lipid profiles were measured, and dietary information was collected by interview. The exam-stress group reported significant increases in perceived stress and deterioration in emotional well-being at the exam sessions compared with baseline sessions. No general effects of exam stress on food intake were observed, and there was no interaction between stress and dietary restraint. However, students in the exam-stress group with high trait anxiety and low social support showed significant increases in total energy intake between baseline and exam sessions, whereas individuals with low trait anxiety and high social support showed a reduction in energy intake. Students with high trait anxiety and low social support showed increases between baseline and exam sessions in the amount of fat and saturated fat consumed. Women in the exam-stress group taking oral contraceptives showed a significant increase in total cholesterol between baseline and exam sessions. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of naturally occurring episodic stress on health behavior and on lipid profiles.
María I Cordero
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.
Ferguson, Kristen; Mang, Colin; Frost, Lorraine
In this paper, we explore how the frequency of utilization of social supports is related to teacher demographics, stress factors, job satisfaction, career intent, career commitment, and the perception of a stigma attached to teacher stress. Using data from self-report questionnaires (N = 264) from teachers in northern Ontario, we found that…
Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.
Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika
Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.
Backström, Tobias; Winberg, Svante
Social interactions are a main source of stress in vertebrates. Social stressors, as well as other stressors, activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in glucocorticoid release. One of the main components of the HPA axis is corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). The neuropeptide CRF is part of a peptide family including CRF, urocortin 1-3, urotensin 1-3, and sauvagine. The actions of the CRF family are mediated by at least two different receptors with different anatomical distribution and affinities for the peptides. The CRF peptides affect several behavioral and physiological responses to stress including aggression, feeding, and locomotor activity. This review will summarize recent research in vertebrates concerning how social stress interacts with components of the CRF system. Consideration will be taken to the different models used for social stress ranging from social isolation, dyadic interactions, to group dominance hierarchies. Further, the temporal effect of social stressor from acute, intermittent, to chronic will be considered. Finally, strains selected for specific behavior or physiology linked to social stress will also be discussed.
Full Text Available Social interactions are a main source of stress in vertebrates. Social stressors, as well as other stressors, activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis resulting in glucocorticoid release. One of the main components of the HPA axis is corticotropin releasing factor (CRF. The neuropeptide CRF is part of a peptide family including CRF, urocortin 1-3, urotensin 1-3 and sauvagine. The actions of the CRF family are mediated by at least two different receptors with different anatomical distribution and affinities for the peptides. The CRF peptides affect several behavioral and physiological responses to stress including aggression, feeding and locomotor activity. This review will summarize recent research in vertebrates concerning how social stress interacts with components of the CRF system. Consideration will be taken to the different models used for social stress ranging from social isolation, dyadic interactions, to group dominance hierarchies. Further, the temporal effect of social stressor from acute, intermittent, to chronic will be considered. Finally, strains selected for specific behavior or physiology linked to social stress will also be discussed.
Menon, Chloe V; Harter, Stephanie L
This study investigated the impact of acculturative stress on psychological well-being and body image disturbance in a sample of female and male Hispanic individuals. The unique protective effects of differing social support sources, including family and peer support, were examined against acculturative stress and body image disturbance. A total of 399 participants of Hispanic origin were recruited from Texas Tech University in West Texas. Students completed a battery of measures of acculturative stress and internalization of the thin ideal, as well as perceived social support. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that acculturative stress is a significant positive predictor of body image disturbance among Hispanic college students. Thin ideal internalization was found to mediate this relationship such that acculturative stress was associated with heightened body image disturbance through its impact on thin ideal internalization. Social support significantly reduced acculturative stress as well as body image disturbance but did not moderate the relation between these 2 factors. Results highlight the importance of considering acculturative stress as a strong predictor of body image disturbance among college students of Hispanic origin. The mechanisms of influence of acculturative stress on body image disturbance are discussed in relation to thin ideal internalization. The protective role of social support on these negative psychological outcomes is also clarified. This study is the first to examine these issues in a sample of female and male Hispanic college students and provides avenues for clinical interventions and future trials with diverse populations.
Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael
Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.
Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J; de Vries, Brian; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory
Social stress resulting from stigma, prejudice, and discrimination-"minority stress"-negatively impacts sexual minority individuals' health and relational well-being. The present study examined how being in a same-sex couple can result in exposure to unique minority stressors not accounted for at the individual level. Relationship timeline interviews were conducted with 120 same-sex couples equally distributed across two study sites (Atlanta and San Francisco), gender (male and female), and relationship duration (at least six months but less than three years, at least three years but less than seven years, and seven or more years). Directed content analyses identified 17 unique couple-level minority stressors experienced within nine distinct social contexts. Analyses also revealed experiences of dyadic minority stress processes (stress discrepancies and stress contagion). These findings can be useful in future efforts to better understand and address the cumulative impact of minority stress on relational well-being and individual health.
Lürzel, Stephanie; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert
Adolescence is the transition from infancy to adulthood and encompasses major changes in the brain, the endocrine systems, and behavior. During late adolescence, male guinea pigs living in mixed-sex colonies exhibit a lower cortisol (C) response to novelty compared with animals in other ages and housing conditions. It was hypothesized that this reduction in stress responsiveness is induced by a high amount of social interactions in the colonies. In a previous study (Lürzel et al., 2010), late adolescent colony-housed males (CM) were compared with similarly aged males that were housed in heterosexual pairs (PM) as well as with males that were also housed in pairs, but regularly received additional social stimulation by allowing them ten times to interact with unfamiliar adult animals of both sexes for 10 min (SM). CM had a significantly lower stress response than PM, with SM being intermediate and not significantly different from either of the other groups. We assumed that the amount of social stimulation in SM was insufficient in order to achieve a significant reduction of stress responsiveness compared with PM. For the present study, we hypothesized that with a higher amount of social stimulation, a significant difference in stress responsiveness between PM and SM becomes apparent during late adolescence. Thus, PM were again compared with SM that, this time, had received twice as much social stimulation as in the previous study. As a result, stress responsiveness was indeed significantly lower in SM than in PM during late adolescence. Thus, a high amount of social interactions during the course of adolescence leads to a decreased stress responsiveness. Furthermore, SM showed an increase in testosterone (T) levels caused by social stimulation. We hypothesize that the reduction in stress responsiveness is brought about by high T levels that organize central neural structures over the course of adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; Ploeg, H.M. van der
This study examined both cross-sectionally and longitudinally the relationship between social support, coping strategies, additional stressful life events, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Dutch former peacekeeping soldiers. Two groups of peacekeepers were investigated: 311
Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Facebook remains the most widely used social media platform. Research suggests that Facebook may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being, and that it may impair physiological stress recovery. However, little is known about its influence on stress reactivity. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined how Facebook influences reactivity to an acute social stressor. Facebook users (n=104, 53 males, mean age 19.50, SD=1.73) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook account or sit quietly with the option of reading electronic magazines before experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers in response to the stressor. However, participants who used Facebook experienced lower levels of psychosocial stress, physiological stress, and rated the stressor as less threatening (p'sFacebook use may buffer stress-in particular psychosocial stress-if used before experiencing an acute social stressor. This study is among the first to incorporate both objective and subjective measures in investigating the complex relationship between Facebook use and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goodman, Elizabeth; McEwen, Bruce S; Dolan, Lawrence M; Schafer-Kalkhoff, Tara; Adler, Nancy E
..., defined in terms of both race/ethnicity and SES, influences adolescents' stress. This is a cross-sectional school-based study of 1209 non-Hispanic black and white 7th-12th graders from a single Midwestern metropolitan public school district...
Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhenhong
The present studies examined the influence of extraversion on physiological reactivity, recovery, and physiological habituation-sensitization to repeated social stressors. In Study 1, subjective and physiological data were collected from 97 college students who were categorized as high (n = 51) and low (n = 46) on extraversion (NEO-FFI) across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress 1, poststress 1, stress 2, and poststress 2. Results indicated high extraversion (HE) participants exhibited relative lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawals to, and more complete HR and RSA recovery after the first social stress, and also exhibited relative lesser HR reactivity to the second social stress. When repeatedly exposed to a social stressor, HE participants showed pronounced systolic blood pressure (SBP) adaptation, low extraversion (LE) participants displayed diastolic blood pressure (DBP) sensitization. In Study 2, data were collected from another 78 participants (HE: n = 40, LE: n = 38) across the same laboratory stages with speech performance videotaped. After controlling for the speech styles, Study 2 found the same HR response and SBP/DBP adaptation pattern across extraversion groups to social stress as Study 1 but not RSA reactivity. These findings suggest extraverts exhibit more adaptive physiological reactivity to recurrent social stressors, which thus might benefit their health. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Hiester, Marian; Sapp, Joan
This study examined the relationship between maternal stress, changes in stress, specific stressors, and social support and quality of mother-infant attachment. Life stress of 132 mothers was assessed prenatally and when the child was 13 months old. The mothers' social support and the quality of infant-mother attachment were also measured at the…
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…
Gibson, Donna M.; Myers, Jane E.
The experience of infertility often results in multiple stresses and needs for coping in these women. Study examines the relationship between the uses of social coping resources, growth-fostering relationships, and infertility stress. Results support the use of social coping resources for coping with infertility stress. (Contains 62 references and…
Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa; Whiteman, Valerie
The present study examined the relationship between concurrent measures of adolescent fathers' parenting stress, social support, and fathers' care-giving involvement with the 3-month-old infant, controlling for fathers' prenatal involvement. The study sample consisted of 50 teenage father-mother dyads. Findings from multivariate regression…
Hirayama, Kasumi K.; Hirayama, Hisashi
The relationship between stress and social support systems of Hmong refugees is examined. Hmong communities function in some ways like large extended families; thus, there is not much reliance on outside resources. Homesickness was a stressor for older Hmong. Others were limited because of their lack of English proficiency. (VM)
Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley
Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…
Pieritz K; Schäfer SJ; Strahler J; Rief W; Euteneuer F
... (ie, heat pain tolerance) and a sensory component of pain (ie, heat pain intensity). Whether a potential effect may be moderated by chronic life stress, social status, or social support was further examined...
Raffaelli, Marcela; Andrade, Flavia C. D.; Wiley, Angela R.; Sanchez-Armass, Omar; Edwards, Laura L.; Aradillas-Garcia, Celia
This study examined social support as a potential moderator between stress and depressive symptoms among Mexican university applicants aged 16--21 years ("N" = 6,715; "M" age = 17.9 years; 55% female). In bivariate analyses, perceived stress was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and social support with lower…
Svetlana N. Kostromina
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to clear up the influence of examination stress on the results of completing examination papers by students in the situation of trial General and Unified State Examinations, imitating the real-life environment of unified state certification of schoolchildren. The tasks of the research included determining the dynamics of psychophysiological stress indices at different examination stages, and evaluating additional factors (the subject in which the examination is held, the strategy of solving the variant, success of solving the task etc., influencing the quantity and quality of stress reactions at the examination.The novelty of the research is in the attempt to overcome the problem of confusing the notions of examination stress and examination anxiety, caused by metering the students’ state either before or after the examination. The technology of online monitoring the students’ psychophysiological state is used in the work, which makes it possible to eliminate a number of restrictions occurring during subjective evaluation of the state by the students themselves. Telemetric cardiorhythmography was chosen as the basic method. The method is based on a three-component model of extreme states with consequent domination of one of the three stress-reactive systems. A cardiointervalogramm was being registered in the research process in the online mode and underwent spectral analysis. The following indices of heart rate variability were recorded in order to determine stress reactions: the total power of the spectrum (TP, the spectrum power in low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF regions, and a vegetative balance index (relation of the spectrum powers in low-frequency and high-frequency regions (LF/HF. When the total power of the heart rate fell and, at the same time, the vegetative balance index rose, a conclusion was made of there being a stress reaction. Twenty-five students of an illustrious school were examined
Hence, firms should recognize and instill CSR initiatives into their corporate culture and business operations because increases in CSR investments can lead to higher CFP while balancing the needs of their internal and external stakeholders. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Financial Performance, ROA, ROE, ...
Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul
hazards model. RESULTS: Frequent worries/demands from partner or children were associated with 50-100% increased mortality risk. Frequent conflicts with any type of social relation were associated with 2-3 times increased mortality risk. Interaction between labour force participation and worries......-cause mortality in a large population-based study of middle-aged men and women. Further, to investigate the possible modification of this association by labour force participation and gender. METHODS: We used baseline data (2000) from The Danish Longitudinal Study on Work, Unemployment and Health, including 9875...... using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, cohabitation status, occupational social class, hospitalisation with chronic disorder 1980-baseline, depressive symptoms and perceived emotional support. Modification by gender and labour force participation was investigated by an additive...
Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten
From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Ana F; Liu, Jiayan; Auchus, Richard J; Rosenfield, David
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is known to vary with multiple endogenous and exogenous factors. Laboratory stress and depressive mood have been associated with altered FeNO levels, but little is known about the susceptibility of FeNO to longer-lasting states of psychological stress in asthma. We sought to study changes in FeNO, lung function, and endogenous cortisol levels in students in a low-stress period during the academic term and in high-stress periods of up to 5 days during final exams. One hundred nine participants (35 with asthma) enrolled in a final examination stress study were assessed during the academic term (low stress) and during final exams (high stress). FeNO, spirometric lung function (FEV1, peak flow), salivary cortisol, and negative affect were measured at three time points. Control variables were medication use, cold symptoms, sex, and age. FeNO decreased substantially from low-stress baseline to the high-stress examination periods, with more pronounced decreases occurring in subjects with asthma (-11.5 ppb) than control subjects (-1.2 ppb). FEV1 decreased in both groups. Negative affect and cortisol increased during final exams, but these increases were smaller in asthma. Greater initial depression and greater cortisol increases were related to larger FeNO decreases during the final exam period, the latter only in asthma. Inhaled corticosteroid use did not affect these changes. Psychological stress and depressive mood are accompanied by decreases in both FeNO and lung function in asthma. Fluctuations related to life stress and mood levels should be considered in FeNO monitoring for asthma.
Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of social stress, social skills and social acceptance were obtained. Participants with SLI reported experiencing significantly more social stress than did p...
Browne, Caroline A; Falcon, Edgardo; Robinson, Shivon A; Berton, Olivier; Lucki, Irwin
Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently report persistent problems with social interactions, emerging after a traumatic experience. Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is a widely used rodent model of stress that produces robust and sustained social avoidance behavior. The avoidance of other rodents can be reversed by 28 days of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the only pharmaceutical class approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration for treating PTSD. In this study, the sensitivity of social interaction deficits evoked by 10 days of CSDS to prospective treatments for PTSD was examined. The effects of acute and repeated treatment with a low dose of buprenorphine (0.25 mg/kg/day) on social interaction deficits in male C57BL/6 mice by CSDS were studied. Another cohort of mice was used to determine the effects of the SSRI fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day), the NMDA antagonist ketamine (10 mg/kg/day) and the selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist CERC-501 (1 mg/kg/day). Changes in mRNA expression of Oprm1 and Oprk1 were assessed in a separate cohort. Buprenorphine significantly reversed social interaction deficits produced by CSDS following 7 days of administration, but not after acute injection. Treatment with fluoxetine for 7 days, but not 24 h, also reinstated social interaction behavior in CSDS-stressed mice. In contrast, CERC-501 and ketamine failed to reverse social avoidance. Gene expression analysis identified reductions in Oprm1 and Oprk1 mRNA expression in the amygdala and hippocampus and increased expression in the frontal cortex in susceptible mice associated with social interaction deficits. Short-term treatment with buprenorphine and fluoxetine normalized social interaction after CSDS. In concert with the changes in opioid receptor expression produced by CSDS, we speculate that buprenorphine's efficacy in this model of PTSD may be associated with the ability of this compound to engage multiple
Develops procedures for the automatic generation and incorporation of graphics (both statistical and analytical) into mathematically oriented multiple choice examinations. Uses an integrated spreadsheet to create and associate tabular data, diagrams, questions, and answers. Illustrates the process of constructing multiple choice questions and…
Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Dockray, Samantha; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard
Researchers interested in the neurobiology of the acute stress response in humans require a valid and reliable acute stressor that can be used under experimental conditions. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) provides such a testing platform. It induces stress by requiring participants to make an interview-style presentation, followed by a surprise mental arithmetic test, in front of an interview panel who do not provide feedback or encouragement. In this review, we outline the methodology of the TSST, and discuss key findings under conditions of health and stress-related disorder. The TSST has unveiled differences in males and females, as well as different age groups, in their neurobiological response to acute stress. The TSST has also deepened our understanding of how genotype may moderate the cognitive neurobiology of acute stress, and exciting new inroads have been made in understanding epigenetic contributions to the biological regulation of the acute stress response using the TSST. A number of innovative adaptations have been developed which allow for the TSST to be used in group settings, with children, in combination with brain imaging, and with virtual committees. Future applications may incorporate the emerging links between the gut microbiome and the stress response. Future research should also maximise use of behavioural data generated by the TSST. Alternative acute stress paradigms may have utility over the TSST in certain situations, such as those that require repeat testing. Nonetheless, we expect that the TSST remains the gold standard for examining the cognitive neurobiology of acute stress in humans.
Beery, Annaliese K.; Kaufer, Daniela
The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different s...
Park, Kyung Hye; Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok Kyoung; Yi, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jiun; Hwang, Jiyeon; Roh, HyeRin
Objectives To examine the relationship between stress, social support, and empathy among medical students. Methods We evaluated the relationships between stress and empathy, and social support and empathy among medical students. The respondents completed a question-naire including demographic information, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Corre-lation and linear regression analyses were conducted, along with...
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J; Mazefsky, Carla A; Eack, Shaun M
This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between stress and social functioning as measured by the Social Adjustment Scale-II and the Waisman Activities of Daily Living scale. Results indicated that adults with ASD experienced significantly more stressful life events and perceived stress, and greater systolic blood pressure reactivity than typical community volunteers. Results also indicated that perceived stress and stressful life events were significantly associated with social disability. Interventions targeting stress management might improve social function in adults with ASD.
種市, 康太郎; 大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎
This study examined the effects of job event stressors and social support on psychological stress reactions. A total of 2,873 male employees in an industrial research institute completed a Job Events Check List (including job event stressors) and a Job Stress Scale (including social support and psychological stress reactions). Results showed that work support had buffering effects on 5 of the 14 relationships between job event stressors and psychological stress reactions. Non-work support had...
Rallis, Sofia; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette
Perinatal distress has largely been conceptualised as the experience of depression and/or anxiety. Recent research has shown that the affective state of stress is also present during the perinatal period and thus may add to a broader understanding of perinatal distress. The aims of the present study were to investigate the changes in depression, anxiety and stress symptoms across pregnancy, and to explore the prospective relationships between these symptoms. Two-hundred and fourteen pregnant women were recruited when they were less than 16 weeks gestation. Women completed depression, anxiety and stress measures on a monthly basis, from 16 weeks gestation through to 36 weeks gestation. The covariate measures of sleep quality and social support were assessed bi-monthly at 16, 24 and 32 weeks gestation. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were all shown to change over time, with women experiencing fewer symptoms during the middle of their pregnancy. Higher symptoms early in pregnancy predicted higher symptom levels throughout the rest of pregnancy. Higher depression scores early in pregnancy were also shown to predict higher anxiety and higher stress scores in late pregnancy. Increased stress scores during mid pregnancy also predicted higher anxiety scores in late pregnancy. Current findings indicate that symptom levels of depression, anxiety and stress vary over the course of pregnancy. Increased depression in early pregnancy seemed to be particularly pertinent as it not only predicted later depression symptoms, but also increased anxiety and stress in late pregnancy. Collectively, these results further highlight the importance of emotional health screening early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.
This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…
Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.
This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…
McLaughlin, Tara W; Snyder, Patricia A; Algina, James
To explore the use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) based profiles of children's functional abilities in relation to their social competence. Subgroups based on shared profiles of functional ability were investigated as an alternative or complement to subgroups defined by disability categories. Secondary analysis of a nationally representative data set of young children identified for special education services in the United States was used for the present study. Using five subgroups of children with shared profiles of functional ability, derived from latent class analysis in previous work, regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between social competence and functional abilities profile subgroup membership. Differences among the subgroups were examined using standardized effect sizes. R2 values were used to examine explained variance in social competence in relation to subgroup membership, disability category, and these variables in combination. Functional ability profile subgroup membership was moderately related to children's social competence outcomes: social skills and problem behaviors. Effect sizes showed significant differences between subgroups. Subgroup membership accounted for more variance in social competence outcomes than disability category. The results provide empirical support for the importance of functional ability profiles when examining social competence within a population of young children with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation The extent to which children with disabilities experience difficulty with social competence varies by their functional characteristics. Functional ability profiles can provide practitioners and researchers working young children with disabilities important tools to examine social competence and to inform interventions.
Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.
The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…
Salami, Samuel O.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of job stress, personality and social support to burnout among college of education lecturers. The second purpose was to examine the extent to which personality and social support can buffer the negative effects of stress on burnout. Design/methodology/approach--Survey methodology…
Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia
This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…
Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick
Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…
Adam S. Smith; Wang, Zuoxin
Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to m...
Bijlani, R L; Sud, S; Gandhi, B M; Tandon, B N
Although mental stress as well as hypercholesterolaemia have been individually linked with atherosclerosis, the relationship between mental stress and hypercholesterolaemia is poorly understood. Serum lipid profile was studied in eight male medical student volunteers before, near and after examinations. Identical observations were also made on seven well-matched control volunteers. As compared to pre-exam levels, total serum cholesterol (T-C) increased significantly (P less than 0.05) near exams, and so did low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The HDL-C/T-C and HDL-C/LDL-C ratios remained essentially constant throughout the study. Control subjects did not show any significant change in serum lipid profile. Further serial measurement in five of the subjects revealed that examination-related changes were transient. Moreover, a second examination after about 40 days did not evoke any change in the lipid profile. The response to examination stress may be related to the enhanced utilisation of cholesterol in the adrenal cortex for steroidogenesis.
Jemmott, J B; Magloire, K
We examined the relation of academic stress and social support to salivary concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), an antibody class that plays an important role in mucosal defense against acute upper respiratory tract infections. We assayed whole, unstimulated saliva samples collected from 15 healthy undergraduates 5 days before their final exam period, during their exam period, and 14 days after their last final exam for S-IgA concentrations by single radial immunodiffusion. The students rated the university's general psychological climate as being more stressful during the exam period compared with the two other periods. Paralleling this, their salivary concentrations of S-IgA were lower during the exam period. Students who reported more adequate social support at the preexam period had consistently higher S-IgA levels than did their peers reporting less adequate social support. This latter finding is consonant with the social support direct effects hypothesis, which states that social support enhances health outcomes irrespective of whether the individual is exposed to stressful experiences.
Hen, Meirav; Goroshit, Marina
Teachers' social-emotional competence is crucial for promoting a positive learning environment to the students. However, the research on teachers' social-emotional abilities is very limited. This study examined the relationship between emotional abilities and self-efficacies and empathy among teachers, hypothesizing that teachers' self-efficacy…
Droms, Courtney; Stephen, Sheryl-Ann K.
Individual and corporate social responsibility has been gaining more and more attention over the last several years. We examine the effectiveness of incorporating social responsibility courses into the curriculum in higher education, with a specific look at Butler University. In general, the results indicate that implementing this type of…
A crucial component of any education, dialogue is viewed by many social justice educators as their primary means towards rectifying social inequalities. Yet the extent to which the particular educational practices they recommend meet the needs or interests of their students who face systemic disadvantage remains unclear. This essay examines claims…
Beery, Annaliese K; Kaufer, Daniela
The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different social contexts. We consider variation between several different rodent species and make connections to research on humans and non-human primates.
BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; HEIJNEN, CJ; DEBOER, O
Social interactions as a consequence of the social position represent stressful conditions for the individual. Manipulation of social conditions or forming long-term social hierarchies by colony aggregation allow to investigate the regulation of immune defense mechanisms under seminatural
Tuchscherer, Margret; Kanitz, Ellen; Puppe, Birger; Hameister, Theresa; Tuchscherer, Armin
There is growing evidence that positive social interactions can attenuate the effects of stressful life experiences. However, little is known about the benefits of social partners on stress responses in farm animals. Therefore, in this study we examined the effects of social support on the endocrine and immune stress responses to a single 4h social deprivation in domestic piglets at 7, 21 or 35days of age. The piglets were socially deprived of their mother and littermates. They were left alone (DA) or in the presence of a familiar (DF) or unfamiliar (DU) age-matched piglet. Non-socially deprived piglets served as a control. DA piglets displayed elevated plasma cortisol levels, higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated proliferation of splenocytes and increased TNF-α and IL-6 production in splenocyte cultures than the control piglets. There were no significant buffering effects of social partners on stress-induced plasma cortisol levels and splenocyte proliferation in response to LPS. However, the presence of an age-matched conspecific diminished the IL-6 production by splenocytes in younger, socially deprived piglets, and it reduced the TNF-α release in the older piglets. Compared to the controls, LPS-stimulated splenocytes from DA piglets were more resistant to the inhibitory effects of cortisol, which was demonstrated by a higher proliferative response and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The dose-dependent cortisol resistance was attenuated by the presence of a familiar or an unfamiliar conspecific at each of the three age categories. Indeed, in the present study, the familiarity level of the social partners did not seem to play a role in the alleviation of social stress-induced inflammatory activity and splenocyte cortisol resistance. In addition, the buffering effect of social support provided by an age-matched conspecific was more pronounced in older piglets. Conclusively, these findings suggest that social support is an important factor
Kim, Dong-hee; Kim, Seok Kyoung; Yi, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jiun; Hwang, Jiyeon; Roh, HyeRin
Objectives To examine the relationship between stress, social support, and empathy among medical students. Methods We evaluated the relationships between stress and empathy, and social support and empathy among medical students. The respondents completed a question-naire including demographic information, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Corre-lation and linear regression analyses were conducted, along with sub-analyses according to gender, admission system, and study year. Results In total, 2,692 questionnaires were analysed. Empathy and social support positively correlated, and empathy and stress negatively correlated. Similar correla-tion patterns were detected in the sub-analyses; the correla-tion between empathy and stress among female students was negligible. In the regression model, stress and social support predicted empathy among all the samples. In the sub-analysis, stress was not a significant predictor among female and first-year students. Conclusions Stress and social support were significant predictors of empathy among all the students. Medical educators should provide means to foster resilience against stress or stress alleviation, and to ameliorate social support, so as to increase or maintain empathy in the long term. Furthermore, stress management should be emphasised, particularly among female and first-year students. PMID:26342190
Park, Kyung Hye; Kim, Dong-hee; Kim, Seok Kyoung; Yi, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jiun; Hwang, Jiyeon; Roh, HyeRin
To examine the relationship between stress, social support, and empathy among medical students. We evaluated the relationships between stress and empathy, and social support and empathy among medical students. The respondents completed a questionnaire including demographic information, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Correlation and linear regression analyses were conducted, along with sub-analyses according to gender, admission system, and study year. In total, 2,692 questionnaires were analysed. Empathy and social support positively correlated, and empathy and stress negatively correlated. Similar correlation patterns were detected in the sub-analyses; the correlation between empathy and stress among female students was negligible. In the regression model, stress and social support predicted empathy among all the samples. In the sub-analysis, stress was not a significant predictor among female and first-year students. Stress and social support were significant predictors of empathy among all the students. Medical educators should provide means to foster resilience against stress or stress alleviation, and to ameliorate social support, so as to increase or maintain empathy in the long term. Furthermore, stress management should be emphasised, particularly among female and first-year students.
Olson-Garriott, Amber N; Garriott, Patton O; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
Financial debt accrued by graduate psychology students has increased in recent years and is a chief concern among psychology trainees (El-Ghoroury, Galper, Sawaqdeh, & Bufka, 2012). This study examined debt stress among counseling psychology trainees using a complementary mixed methods research design. Qualitative analyses (N = 11) using the consensual qualitative research method (CQR; Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997; Hill et al., 2005) revealed six domains, 15 categories, and 34 subcategories. Domains included social class contributions, institutional contributions, long-term effects, coping mechanisms, personal relationships, and effect on well-being. The transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and social class worldview model (Liu, Soleck, Hopps, Dunston, & Pickett, 2004) guided quantitative analyses. Results of a path analysis (N = 285) indicated total debt and subjective social class were significant predictors of debt stress and that the relationship between debt stress and psychological distress was mediated by avoidant coping. Avoidant coping also moderated the association between debt stress and psychological distress. Results are discussed in relation to professional training and the career development of counseling psychology trainees. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Liu, Richard T; Alloy, Lauren B; Mastin, Becky M; Choi, James Y; Boland, Elaine M; Jenkins, Abigail
Although there is supporting evidence for the stress generation hypothesis (i.e., the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience more negative dependent events influenced by their behaviors and characteristics), additional research is required to advance current understanding of the specific types of dependent events relevant to this effect. The present study elaborated on the stress generation hypothesis, in which the content of negative dependent events experienced by individuals is contingent upon, and matches, the nature of their particular vulnerabilities. This extension was tested within the context of Cole's competency-based model of depression. Participants (n=185) were assessed at two time-points separated by a four-month interval. Self-perceived competence in academic, social, and appearance domains at the initial time-point were examined in relation to negative life events prospectively occurring over the four-month follow-up period, assessed using the "contextual threat" method. Partial support was obtained for vulnerability-specific stress generation. Stress-generation specificity was found for self-perceived competence in appearance and academic domains, but not for self-perceived social competence. The current findings are consistent with the possibility of a more complex relation between self-perceived social competence and domain-congruent stress generation. Individuals may be more likely to experience negative dependent events in domains matching their specific vulnerabilities.
Doucerain, Marina M.; Raheleh eShiri Varnaamkhaasti; Norman eSegalowitz; Ryder, Andrew G.
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The...
Andrew P. Allen
Full Text Available Researchers interested in the neurobiology of the acute stress response in humans require a valid and reliable acute stressor that can be used under experimental conditions. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST provides such a testing platform. It induces stress by requiring participants to make an interview-style presentation, followed by a surprise mental arithmetic test, in front of an interview panel who do not provide feedback or encouragement. In this review, we outline the methodology of the TSST, and discuss key findings under conditions of health and stress-related disorder. The TSST has unveiled differences in males and females, as well as different age groups, in their neurobiological response to acute stress. The TSST has also deepened our understanding of how genotype may moderate the cognitive neurobiology of acute stress, and exciting new inroads have been made in understanding epigenetic contributions to the biological regulation of the acute stress response using the TSST. A number of innovative adaptations have been developed which allow for the TSST to be used in group settings, with children, in combination with brain imaging, and with virtual committees. Future applications may incorporate the emerging links between the gut microbiome and the stress response. Future research should also maximise use of behavioural data generated by the TSST. Alternative acute stress paradigms may have utility over the TSST in certain situations, such as those that require repeat testing. Nonetheless, we expect that the TSST remains the gold standard for examining the cognitive neurobiology of acute stress in humans.
Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin
Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While positive social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, the social environment can also be a major source of stress when it includes social disruption, confrontation, isolation, or neglect. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to mental and physical health. In contrast, social support can ameliorate stress-induced physiological and immunological deficits, reducing the risk of subsequent psychological distress and improving an individual's overall well-being. For better clinical treatment of these physiological and mental pathologies, it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of stress-induced pathologies as well as determine the underlying biological mechanisms that regulate social buffering of the stress system. A number of ethologically relevant animal models of social stress and species that form strong adult social bonds have been utilized to study the etiology, treatment, and prevention of stress-related disorders. While undoubtedly a number of biological pathways contribute to the social buffering of the stress response, the convergence of evidence denotes the regulatory effects of oxytocin in facilitating social bond-promoting behaviors and their effect on the stress response. Thus, oxytocin may be perceived as a common regulatory element of the social environment, stress response, and stress-induced risks on mental and physical health. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Palan, B M; Chandwani, S
Fifty-six volunteer medical students participated in three groups balanced for number of subjects, performance at last examination, and hypnotizability. The hypnosis and waking groups attended eight group sessions once a week with general ego-strengthening and specific suggestions for study habits, with a ninth session of age progression and mental rehearsal. Subjects in these two groups practiced self-suggestions (in self-hypnosis or waking respectively) daily for the study period of 9 weeks. The control group experienced sessions of passive relaxation induced by light reading for the same period of time. The hypnosis group improved significantly in coping with examination stress, but there was no significant change in performance on examinations by any of the groups.
Pourseyyed SM; Motevalli MM; Pourseyyed SR; Barahimi Z
.... The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship of perceived stress, perfectionism and social support with academic burnout and academic performance in students. Instrument & Methods...
Koolhaas, J M; de Boer, S F; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P
Understanding the role of the social environment in the development of stress related diseases requires a more fundamental understanding of stress. Stress includes not only the stimulus and the response but also the individual appraisal of the situation. The social environment is not only essential
Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H
Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gevonden, Martin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke; Booij, Jan; van den Brinkf, Wim; van Winkel, Ruud; Selten, Jean-Paul
Repeated exposures to social exclusion, through a process of sensitization, may result in larger responses to experiences of social stress. The current study tested the hypothesis that healthy Moroccan-Dutch men respond stronger to social stress than Dutch controls 1) in daily life, and 2) in an
van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo
Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-stress period, defined by the absence or presence of examinations, respectively. Inquiries were made regarding social support from parents, friends, and class supervisor. During both stress periods, academic stress was associated negatively with sleep quality and positively with sleep reduction. Social support increased sleep quality and lowered sleep reduction. In addition, social support moderated the effects of academic stress on sleep, thus improving sleep quality and lowering sleep reduction. Moderating effects were stronger during a period of high stress. The present study showed that adolescents can benefit from stress moderation through social support by improvements of sleep quality and sleep reduction. Such moderating effects should be taken into account when studying stress and sleep. Implications and recommendations based on these findings are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Allen, John J B
To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishment learning accuracy in highly punishment sensitive individuals, but these measures were inversely related in less sensitive individuals. Combined electrophysiological measurement, performance accuracy and computational estimations of learning parameters suggest that trait and state vulnerability to stress alter cortico-striatal functioning during reinforcement learning, possibly mediated via medio-frontal cortical systems.
Favoretto, Cristiane A; Macedo, Giovana C; Quadros, Isabel M H
In rodents, chronic social defeat stress promotes deficits in social interest and social interaction. We further explored these antisocial effects by comparing the consequences of two different defeat stress protocols (episodic vs. continuous stress) in a social investigation test. We expected that continuous, but not episodic, stress would induce social deficits in this model. Furthermore, we tested whether a potentially anxiolytic dose of ethanol reverses social deficits induced by defeat stress. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a 10-day social defeat protocol, using daily confrontations with an aggressive resident mouse. Episodic stress consisted of brief defeat episodes, after which the defeated mouse was returned to its home cage, until the next defeat 24 h later (n = 7-11/group). For continuous stress, similar defeat episodes were followed by cohabitation with the aggressive resident for 24 h, separated by a perforated divider, until the following defeat (n = 8-14/group). Eight days after stress termination, defeated and control mice were assessed in a social investigation test, after treatment with ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline. Considering the time spent investigating a social target, mice exposed to episodic or continuous social stress showed less social investigation than controls (p stress or ethanol. Thus, a history of social defeat stress, whether episodic or continuous, promotes deficits in social investigation that were not reversed by acute treatment with ethanol.
Mattocks, Nicole Olivia
Social work is a profession that seeks to enhance the well-being of all people and promote social justice and social change through a range of activities, such as direct practice, community organizing, social and political action, and policy development. However, the current literature suggests that the profession's focus on social justice and social action are weakening, replaced by individualism and therapeutic interventions. This article examines data derived from a survey of 188 National Association of Social Workers members from Maryland; Virginia; and Washington, DC, to explore levels of social action participation among social workers and determine whether identifying as a macro-level practitioner would predict higher levels of social action activity compared with being a micro-level practitioner. Findings indicate that social workers in this sample engage in only a moderate level of social action behavior. In addition, identifying oneself as a mezzo- or macro-level practitioner predicts increased frequency of social action behavior. Implications include emphasizing the importance of social action in schools of social work and practice settings and adequately preparing social work professionals to engage in social action. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Sandi Carmen; Haller József
Stress often affects our social lives. When undergoing high level or persistent stress individuals frequently retract from social interactions and become irritable and hostile. Predisposition to antisocial behaviours — including social detachment and violence — is also modulated by early life adversity; however the effects of early life stress depend on the timing of exposure and genetic factors. Research in animals and humans has revealed some of the structural functional and molecular chang...
rababah, Mahdi mohamme saied
Counsellors need to be able to understand students' social self-efficacy, in order to provide them appropriate counselling services. This study investigated social gender self-efficacy differences, and depression, anxiety and stress, and examined the relationship of social self-efficacy to depression, anxiety and stress among a sample of 573…
DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P
Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked to specific burnout dimensions. Social interactions and markers of stress and workload should be considered when seeking to understand ATs' experiences with burnout and to design workplace interventions.
Kriener, C; Schwertfeger, A; Deimel, D; Köhler, T
In this quantitative study, data on 746 students of social work were collected regarding their current sense of stress, experience of psychosocial drain as well as their use of specific coping strategies. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (TICS) were used. The results show that one out of 3 students suffer from a lot of to extreme stress. One-fourth of the students report feeling overworked and socially overburdened. More than half of the students are exposed to psychosocial drain as a consequence of past events in their biography (e. g. death or mental illness of a close relative). Despite these obvious burdens, only one-fourth made use of professional aid or counseling. Students who are primarily using functional coping strategies have a lower sensibility to stress and feel less overworked than students primarily using dysfunctional coping strategies. In the university setting, the theoretically and empirically sound knowledge based on this report can be used profitably: The increasing implementation of seminars on coping with stress at universities itself suggests that learning and utilizing functional coping strategies can contribute to a reduction of stress and strain among students. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sandi, Carmen; Haller, József
Stress often affects our social lives. When undergoing high-level or persistent stress, individuals frequently retract from social interactions and become irritable and hostile. Predisposition to antisocial behaviours - including social detachment and violence - is also modulated by early life adversity; however, the effects of early life stress depend on the timing of exposure and genetic factors. Research in animals and humans has revealed some of the structural, functional and molecular changes in the brain that underlie the effects of stress on social behaviour. Findings in this emerging field will have implications both for the clinic and for society.
Reid, Keshia M; Taylor, Miles G
A large body of literature documents the link between social support, stress, and women's mental health during pregnancy and the postpartum period; however, uncertainty remains as to whether a direct effect or stress mediating pathway best describes the relationship between these factors. Moreover, specific dimensions of social support that may be influential (family type, sources of support) have largely been neglected. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=4150), we examine the pathway between social support, stress exposure, and postpartum depression in greater detail. Findings reveal that social support is a significant, protective factor for postpartum depression, and the variety of support providers in a woman's social network is important, especially in the context of family type. Findings also reveal the importance of considering social support and stress exposure as part of a larger causal pathway to postpartum mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E
Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.
Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard G.
Utilizing data from the National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a multilevel model (Hierarchical Linear Model) was developed to examine the association of teacher/classroom and state level indicators on reported elementary social studies instructional time. Findings indicated that state testing policy was a…
Houston, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R
Religious congregations have potential to be mediating structures for social justice participation. However, research has yet to examine the specific social processes or leadership characteristics within congregations that may promote social justice participation. In this study, we use data from 176,901 participants nested within 1,938 congregations to test how social processes (i.e., religious attendance at worship services, extra-worship participation, bonding social capital, a congregational norm for justice) and leadership characteristics (i.e., leader modeling of justice, horizontal leadership style) predict personal social justice involvement through the congregation (i.e., participation in social justice activities sponsored by the congregation) as well as personal social justice involvement outside the congregation (i.e., participation in social justice activities not sponsored by the congregation). We use multilevel logistic regression to examine these social processes and leadership characteristics at both individual and congregational levels of analysis. Results showed distinct patterns of associations at individual and congregational levels of analysis and that different social processes and leadership characteristics predicted personal social justice participation through or outside the congregation. These findings reveal the importance of social processes and leadership characteristics in understanding how congregations may mediate social justice participation. Implications for community psychology research and practiced also are discussed.
Grindal, Matthew; Nieri, Tanya
The presence of parental socialization messages relevant to a child's race/ethnicity--ethnic-racial socialization (ERS)--have been found to be an important predictor of developmental outcomes. However, scholars have recently called for greater theoretical clarification, citing the need for better understanding of how the effects of ethnic-racial socialization messages differ by dimension and what causal mechanisms underlie this relationship. Using survey data from 269 Southern California high school students, this study tested a theoretical model examining how 3 dimensions of ERS differentially relate to adolescent substance use, and how much these links are mediated by peer substance use social learning (Akers, 2009). Using structural equation modeling, we cross-sectionally and longitudinally tested the pathways between ERS and peer substance use social learning and between peer social learning and substance use. We found that 2 of the 3 dimensions of ERS were related to substance use. Cultural socialization was associated with lower substance use, and promotion of mistrust was associated with greater substance use. Both effects were indirect and mediated by peer substance use social learning. These results were replicated in a separate analysis of the largest ethnic subsample (Latinos). Ethnic-racial socialization messages that stress pride in one's ethnic group and the development of one's ethnic identity (cultural socialization) may be a protective factor against future substance use by inhibiting the association with substance-using peers, whereas messages that stress distrust of other ethnic groups (promotion of mistrust) may be a risk factor against future substance use by promoting the association with substance-using peers.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H
Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Phibbs, Sandi; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Munoz, Elizabeth; Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J
Lack of social support and high levels of stress represent potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive aging. In this study we examined the relationships between these two risk factors and response time inconsistency (RTI), or trial-to-trial variability in choice response time tasks. RTI is an early indicator of declining cognitive health, and examining the influence of modifiable psychosocial risk factors on RTI is important for understanding and promoting cognitive health during adulthood and old age. Using data from a community sample study (n = 317; Mage = 49, range = 19-83), we examined the effects of social support, including size of network and satisfaction with support, global perceived stress, and their interactions on RTI. Neither size of network nor satisfaction with support was associated with RTI independent of perceived stress. Stress was positively associated with increased RTI on all tasks, independent of social support. Perceived stress did not interact with either dimension of social support to predict RTI, and perceived stress effects were invariant across age and sex. Perceived stress, but not social support, may be a unique and modifiable risk factor for normal and pathological cognitive aging. Discussion focuses on the importance of perceived stress and its impact on RTI in supporting cognitive health in adulthood and old age.
Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Qian; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen
It is debatable whether or not glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms moderate susceptibility to PTSD. Our objective was to examine the effects of stressful life events, social support, GR genotypes, and gene-environment interactions on the etiology of PTSD. Three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms, trauma events, stressful life events, and social support were assessed in 460 patients with PTSD and 1158 control subjects from a Chinese Han population. Gene-environment interactions were analyzed by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR). Variation in GR at rs41423247 and rs258747, stressful life events, social support, and the number of traumatic events were each separately associated with the risk for PTSD. A gene-environment interaction among the polymorphisms, rs41423247 and rs258747, the number of traumatic events, stressful life events, and social support resulted in an increased risk for PTSD. High-risk individuals (a large number of traumatic events, G allele of rs258747 and rs41423247, high level stressful life events, and low social support) had a 3.26-fold increased risk of developing PTSD compared to low-risk individuals. The association was statistically significant in the sub-groups with and without childhood trauma. Our data support the notion that stressful life events, the number of trauma events, and social support may play a contributing role in the risk for PTSD by interacting with GR gene polymorphisms.
Praharso, Nurul F; Tear, Morgan J; Cruwys, Tegan
The relationship between stressful life transitions and wellbeing is well established, however, the protective role of social connectedness has received mixed support. We test two theoretical models, the Stress Buffering Hypothesis and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change, to determine which best explains the relationship between social connectedness, stress, and wellbeing. Study 1 (N=165) was an experiment in which participants considered the impact of moving cities versus receiving a serious health diagnosis. Study 2 (N=79) was a longitudinal study that examined the adjustment of international students to university over the course of their first semester. Both studies found limited evidence for the buffering role of social support as predicted by the Stress Buffering Hypothesis; instead people who experienced a loss of social identities as a result of a stressor had a subsequent decline in wellbeing, consistent with the Social Identity Model of Identity Change. We conclude that stressful life events are best conceptualised as identity transitions. Such events are more likely to be perceived as stressful and compromise wellbeing when they entail identity loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rus, Holly M.; Tiemensma, Jitske
Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being. PMID:28974938
Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco
Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted
Dixon, L J; Witcraft, S M; McCowan, N K; Brodell, R T
Stress is an important factor in the onset, exacerbation, and reoccurrence of many skin diseases. Little is known about psychological risk factors that impact the association between stress and dermatologic conditions. One relevant factor that may modulate this link is anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns - the propensity to respond fearfully to anxiety-related sensations (e.g., sweating, flushing) due to perceived social consequences (e.g., rejection or humiliation). To gain insight into psychological factors affecting skin disease, we examined the moderating role of AS social concerns in the relation between stress and skin disease quality of life (QOL). Participants (N = 237; 161 female; Mage = 34.18, SDage = 9.57) with active skin disease symptoms were recruited online and completed questionnaires assessing stress, AS social concerns, skin disease QOL, and global skin disease symptom severity. AS social concerns moderated the association between stress and skin-related emotional and social functioning in adults with skin disease. Stress was a significant predictor of the impairment associated with skin disease. Stress was linked to skin disease-related emotional and functional impairment associated with skin disease among individuals with high AS social concerns. These results highlight the potential for AS reduction interventions to break the vicious cycle of stress and skin disease symptoms and to improve psychosocial well-being in dermatology patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
An Examination of Black Male First-Generation College Students' Reports of the Social Supports that Have Buffering Effects on Their School-Related Stress and Help Them Achieve Academic Success in College
Harrington, Anthony C.
The purpose of this exploratory, case study of Black male first-generation college students at Carthen College was three-fold. First, it was designed to elicit participants' descriptions of the stress they experienced related to school and being a student. Second, the study aimed to describe and then rate how important that source of support was…
Aghajani, Marjan; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili Najafabadi, Mohsen; Ghazanfari, Tooba
The current investigations on social stress primarily point to the negative health consequences of being in a stressful social hierarchy. The repetitive nature of such stressors seems to affect behavioral response to pain both in rodents and humans. Moreover, a large discrepancy in the possibility of social stresses affecting pain perception in the two genders exists. The present study examined the effect of chronic social stress on nociceptive responses of both sexes by implementing of food deprivation, food intake inequality and unstable social status (cage-mate change every 3 days) for a period of 14 days in 96 Balb/c mice. In this regard we injected 20 µl formalin 2% into the plantar surface of hind paw at the end of stress period and scored pain behaviors of all subjects, then serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Our results showed that there was significant difference in chronic phase of formalin test following implementation of food deprivation and inequality (Pgenders were well above control group (pmore than stressed females. These results revealed that although food deprivation and social inequality can induce hypoalgesia, some socioeconomic situations like social instability don't affect pain sensation, whereas there were similar increases of proinflammatory cytokines level in all socially stressed subjects. In addition, males display larger hypoalgesic responses to inequality as compared with females. PMID:23082150
Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.
African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B
African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.
Latha, K. S.; Reddy, Hanumanth
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the nature of stress, social support systems and coping styles among adolescents. Methods: 100 students in Pre University College (II year) of both genders in the age range of 16-19 years were assessed with the Adolescent Stress Scale, a semi-structured interview to elicit social support, and a self-report…
Gaudin, J M; Polansky, N A; Kilpatrick, A C; Shilton, P
Comparisons of neglectful with non-neglectful low-SES parents revealed that the neglectful parents reported more life stresses, greater depression and loneliness, and weaker informal social supports. In the neglectful families, loneliness was positively associated with life stresses and negatively associated with network supports, but not with caseworker-assessed social isolation.
Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.
Koolhaas, J M; de Boer, S F; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P
Understanding the role of the social environment in the development of stress related diseases requires a more fundamental understanding of stress. Stress includes not only the stimulus and the response but also the individual appraisal of the situation. The social environment is not only essential for survival it is at the same time an important source of stressors. This review discusses the social stress concept, how it has been studied in rodents in the course of time and some more recent insights into the appraisal process. In addition to the factors controllability and predictability, outcome expectancy and feedback of the victim's own actions during the social stress are suggested to be important factors in the development of stress related disease. It is hypothesized that individual differences in the way in which these factors are used in the appraisal of everyday life situations may explain individual vulnerability.
Background and objectives: The omnipresence of stress and depression among university students is a cause for concern, as it can have adverse consequences on all aspects of their life. Understanding the role of social support as a protective factor within this context, may well be vital to the enhancement of overall wellbeing among students. The main aim of the present study was to examine the moderating effect of perceived social support on the relationship between stress and depression. Met...
Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypo...
Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Jing; Hu, Weipeng
To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self-Consciousness Scale. 1. Social anxiety was the mediator variable between stress and mental health. 2. Female students were easily suffered from higher losing stress and human relationship stress in comparision with male. 3. Non-only child Students got a higher score in social anxiety and lower GHQ in comparision with only child. It may be helpful to improve the stress management and mental health of college students by testing and intervening their social anxiety perception.
Chan, David W.
Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…
Zarski, John J.; And Others
Examined the stress and illness paradigm by considering influences of social interest and coping styles on three measures of health status: overall health, somatic symptoms, and energy level. Subjects (N=109) included office workers, nurses, and graduate students. Found social interest and daily hassles explained significant amounts of variance on…
DeFreese, J. D.; Mihalik, Jason P.
Context Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. Objective To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Patients or Other Participants Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Main Outcome Measure(s) Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Results Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P burnout. Negative social interactions trended toward significance (β = .12, P = .055). Our findings suggest that stress perceptions and social support drive the dimensional AT burnout experience, whereas workload incongruence (emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked to specific burnout dimensions. Conclusions Social interactions and markers of stress and workload should be
Studies assessing the impact of stress on health outcomes are lacking in developing countries such as Botswana, in Southern Africa. This study examines the relationships between individual life stressors (stressful life events and chronic life stressors), social relationships and quality of life (QoL), for low-income urban residents in Francistown, Botswana. Although there are many studies of social support and quality of life, no studies have so far explored the relationship among the three variables. Selected concepts from stress theory are used as a conceptual framework. Using a cross-sectional quantitative design (both descriptive and explanatory), this study examined the associations among life stress (stressful life events and chronic life stressors), social relationships, and four indicators of health and QoL among a sample of 388 low-income urban dwellers in Francistown, Botswana. Using multiple regression models, the results of this study show that the availability of social relationships was associated with better physical and psychological health and level of independence. Controlling for the physical domain of QoL, social relationships buffered the effects of chronic life stressors on QoL and level of independence. Social relationships buffer the effects of stressful life events on quality, not on psychological well-being. Social relationships had no moderating effect on physical health, level of independence and on quality of life.
Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E
Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group.
Full Text Available Although social anxiety disorder (SAD is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16 and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14. Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches
Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity.
Torres-Sánchez, Alejandro; Vanegas, Juan M.; Arroyo, Marino
The microscopic stress field provides a unique connection between atomistic simulations and mechanics at the nanoscale. However, its definition remains ambiguous. Rather than a mere theoretical preoccupation, we show that this fact acutely manifests itself in local stress calculations of defective graphene, lipid bilayers, and fibrous proteins. We find that popular definitions of the microscopic stress violate the continuum statements of mechanical equilibrium, and we propose an unambiguous and physically sound definition.
Full Text Available Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with high social anxiety may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with high social anxiety and provide a new direction for clinical interventions.
Furnham, Adrian; Smyth, Nina; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Clow, Angela; Swami, Viren
Psychological stress and anxiety may be antecedents of belief in conspiracy theories, but tests of this hypothesis are piecemeal. Here, we examined the relationships between stress, anxiety, and belief in conspiracy theories in a sample of 420 U.S. adults. Participants completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories, perceived stress, stressful life events, trait and state anxiety, episodic tension, and demographic information. Regression analysis indicated that more stressful life events...
Meerlo, P; Pragt, Bertrand J.; Daan, S
We studied the effect of social stress on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in rats. Animals were subjected to a single social defeat by introducing them in the cage of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. The animals responded to the social conflict by a sharp increase in EEG slow-wave activity
Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of…
Dissing, Nete; Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Gerds, Thomas Alexander
Individuals reporting high stress are engaging in social interactions more frequently via calls and text messages, and they appear to spend shorter time in social interactions meeting face-to-face with fellow students. This pattern is also reflected in the self-reported social interactions where...
Muirhead, V; Locker, D
This study explored the relationship between dental school stress and social support reported by undergraduate students in a Canadian dental school. Students completed questionnaires comprised of Dental Environment Scale stress items, social support measures evaluating perceived contact and two proxy measures of social support (marital status and living arrangement). Sixty-two per cent of undergraduate students in all four academic years participated in the study conducted in March--April 2005. Second-year students living with parents had significantly higher adjusted total stress scores (P stress scores (P = 0.008). Social support systems utilised by students included teacher, parental, student and relationship support. Students who received more support from teachers and from students inside and outside dental school had lower adjusted total stress scores. Multiple regression analysis assessing the effect of social support on total adjusted stress scores identified two significant variables after adjustment: second-year students living with parents (P stress in Canadian dental students. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of social support and proxy measures as potential dental school stress alleviators.
Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Ana F; Liu, Jiayan; Auchus, Richard J; Rosenfield, David
.... We sought to study changes in FeNO, lung function, and endogenous cortisol levels in students in a low-stress period during the academic term and in high-stress periods of up to 5 days during final exams...
Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone
Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.
Darling, Katherine E; Fahrenkamp, Amy J; Wilson, Shana M; Karazsia, Bryan T; Sato, Amy F
This study sought to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between stress eating and body mass index (BMI) change over the freshman year in males and females. This longitudinal study included 70 college students (72.9% female; M age = 18.23) who completed self-reported measures of stress eating and perceived social support, with objective height and weight measurements collected. Among males, social support moderated the relationship between stress eating and BMI change. Among males, social support may serve as a buffer against the impact of stress eating on weight gain during the freshman year of college.
Jarvis, Patricia A.; Creasey, Gary L.
This investigation explored relationships between parenting stress, dyadic adjustment, and social support in families with normal healthy infants of 18 months of age. It was expected that parenting stress would be high when social support was absent and that this would be related to poor marital relationships. Participants were 34 families…
Vankim, Nicole A; Nelson, Toben F
To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions.
Henderson, Heather; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Spencer; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T
Limited research has explored how specific elements of physical and social environments influence mental health indicators such as perceived stress, or whether such associations are moderated by gender. This study examined the relationship between selected neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress levels within a primarily low-income, older, African-American population in a mid-sized city in the Southeastern U.S. Residents (n = 394; mean age=55.3 years, 70.9% female, 89.3% African American) from eight historically disadvantaged neighborhoods completed surveys measuring perceptions of neighborhood safety, social cohesion, aesthetics, and stress. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association between each of the three neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress. Greater perceived safety, improved neighborhood aesthetics, and social cohesion were significantly associated with lower perceived stress. These associations were not moderated by gender. These findings suggest that improving social attributes of neighborhoods may have positive impacts on stress and related benefits for population health. Future research should examine how neighborhood characteristics influence stress over time. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Kang, D H; Coe, C L; Karaszewski, J; McCarthy, D O
Although most clinicians believe that social support has beneficial effects on health, the mechanisms mediating this relationship have not been clearly established. We examined the direct effect of social support on several immune measures and its role in moderating the response to academic exams in healthy and asthmatic adolescents. Three types of students--healthy, mild asthma, and severe asthma--completed social support and stress questionnaires and gave blood samples during the midsemester and final exam periods. Social support and natural killer cell (NK) function showed a significant reduction during exams in both healthy and asthmatic adolescents. Social support, however, did not have a direct effect on immune responses. Nevertheless, high social support appeared to attenuate the magnitude of exam-induced reduction in NK activity, suggesting a role for social support in protecting against immune decrements during times of stress.
Peng eZhang; Peng eZhang; Yanhe eDeng; Xue eYu; Xin eZhao; Xiangping eLiu
Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with high social...
Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Shireen, Erum; Haider, Saida; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen
Examination stress is a psychological stress that activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis to increase circulating levels of glucocorticoids. The fat derived hormone leptin is also released in response to stress-inducing condition. To workout the role of leptin and cortisol in response to perceived levels of examination stress and their effects on academic performance. The present study was designed to monitor the relationship of self reported perceived levels of examination stress on serum levels of cortisol and leptin in female students going to appear in university examination. Fifty-six female undergraduate students participated in the study. Examination stress, appetite levels were assessed by a questionnaire and blood samples were collected one hour before appearing in the examination. Performance was evaluated from the marks obtained in that particular examination. Serum cortisol levels increased with an increase in the intensity of perceived examination stress. Serum leptin levels increased only in the group under moderate stress while increases in mild and severe stress group were not significant. Mild to moderate stress enhanced performance but severe stress decreased it. The present study shows an inverted U-shaped relationship between self reported different levels of perceived examination stress and academic performance.
Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea
The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between
Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stednitz, Sarah Josephine; Simonson, Kevin; Shen, Tori; Gahtan, Ethan
Experiences of social exclusion elicit social pain responses. The current study examined the ability of social exclusion to activate physiological stress responses and adaptively modulate affect and empathy consistent with "defensive emotional analgesia." Measures of affect and empathy, and saliva samples for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) analysis, were collected before and after subjects participated in a computer game ("Cyberball") designed to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Contrary to our hypotheses, social exclusion was associated with a reduction in cortisol, and social inclusion with an increase in cortisol. Both Cyberball groups showed increases in sAA and decreases in both positive and negative affect, with the greatest drop in affect occurring after social exclusion. Empathy did not differ between the social exclusion and inclusion groups and was not correlated with cortisol or sAA levels. These results support the presence of a defensive response to social exclusion in which central stress pathways controlling cortisol release are inhibited. Cortisol and sAA were shown to have distinct patterns of responses to psychological stress, with sAA responding more rapidly. Related methodological concerns for the use of these physiological stress markers and of Cyberball in social neuroscience research are discussed.
Holly M. Rus
Full Text Available Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63 were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p < 0.05 when controlling for gender and emotional investment in the website compared to controls. Results suggest that social media use may delay or impair recovery after experiencing an acute social stressor. This novel study incorporated objective physiological markers with subjective psychosocial measures to show that Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.
Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users ( n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration ( p social media use may delay or impair recovery after experiencing an acute social stressor. This novel study incorporated objective physiological markers with subjective psychosocial measures to show that Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.
Aghajani, Marjan; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili Najafabadi, Mohsen; Ghazanfari, Tooba
The current investigations on social stress primarily point to the negative health consequences of being in a stressful social hierarchy. The repetitive nature of such stressors seems to affect behavioral response to pain both in rodents and humans. Moreover, a large discrepancy in the possibility of social stresses affecting pain perception in the two genders exists. The present study examined the effect of chronic social stress on nociceptive responses of both sexes by implementing of food deprivation, food intake inequality and unstable social status (cage-mate change every 3 days) for a period of 14 days in 96 Balb/c mice. In this regard we injected 20 µl formalin 2% into the plantar surface of hind paw at the end of stress period and scored pain behaviors of all subjects, then serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Our results showed that there was significant difference in chronic phase of formalin test following implementation of food deprivation and inequality (Pperception was decreased considerably and this decline in inequality exposed subjects was well above isolated ones (Psocial situation did not affect pain perception. Moreover, IL-1 and IL-6 concentrations in serum of stressed mice of both genders were well above control group (pperception in control and unstable male subjects was larger than females; the decrease of chronic pain perception in male stressed animals (poverty and inequality experienced subjects) was much more than stressed females. These results revealed that although food deprivation and social inequality can induce hypoalgesia, some socioeconomic situations like social instability don't affect pain sensation, whereas there were similar increases of proinflammatory cytokines level in all socially stressed subjects. In addition, males display larger hypoalgesic responses to inequality as compared with females.
Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino
Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Goldstein, Sara E
Social support protects individuals against adversity throughout the lifespan, and is especially salient during times of intense social change, such as during the transition to adulthood. Focusing on three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners), the current study examined the stress-buffering function of social support against loneliness and whether the association between social support and loneliness with stress held constant would vary by its source. The role of gender in these associations was also considered. The sample consisted of 636 ethnically diverse college youth (age range 18-25; 80 % female). The results suggest that the stress-buffering role of social support against loneliness varies by its source. Only support from friends buffered the association between stress and loneliness. Further, when stress was held constant, the association between social support and loneliness differed by the sources, in that support from friends or romantic partners (but not from family) was negatively associated with loneliness. Regarding gender differences, the adverse impact of lower levels of familial or friends' support on loneliness was greater in females than in males. This research advances our understanding of social support among college-aged youth; implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Yamada, Kosuke Chris; Ogawa, Namiko; Ouchi, Yuko; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nomura, Shinobu
The purpose of the present study was to examine Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in social anxiety. The present study used a standardized psychosocial stress protocol (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST; [Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K.M., Hellhammer, D.H., 1993. The 'Trier Social Stress Test'-a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology 28, 76-81.]) with 11 higher-social-anxiety and 11 lower-social-anxiety male college students. Psychological responses and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity and cortisol/DHEA ratio were assessed at seven different times. The results showed that there was a significantly lower cortisol responsiveness in the higher social anxiety group but there was no significant difference of DHEA responsiveness. Further analyses showed lower responses for the cortisol/DHEA ratio in the higher-social-anxiety group to the TSST. These results suggest that there may be reduced HPA axis reactivity to psychosocial stress in socially anxious people.
Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason
Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin
While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hour immobilization stress and then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized female voles recovering alone with oxytocin or vehicle and female voles recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (N = 98 total). We found that 1 hour immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in female prairie voles recovering alone but not the female prairie voles recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intra-paraventricular nucleus oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization, whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Together, our data demonstrate that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.
Schmidt, M V; Scharf, S H; Liebl, C; Harbich, D; Mayer, B; Holsboer, F; Müller, M B
Major depression is one of the most prevalent stress-related psychiatric diseases. Next to environmental influences such as chronic social stress, gender is among the strongest risk factors for major depression, with women having a twice as high risk to develop the disease compared to men. While there is abundant literature on the effects of chronic social stress in male rodents, there is a serious lack of information on gender-specific effects. Especially in mice, which due to the wide availability of transgenic lines offer a unique opportunity to study gene x environment interactions, there is no existing model of chronic social stress that is applicable to both sexes. We here describe the effects of chronic social stress based on the disruption of the social network in a group-housed situation in female mice, a model that was recently described and validated for male mice. In this model, the group composition of the mice is changed twice per week for a period of 7 weeks, covering the adolescent and early adulthood period. We observed that housing in an unpredictable social environment resulted in chronic stress in female mice. The observed effects, which included increased adrenal weight, decreased thymus weight, increased corticosterone levels, and increased anxiety-like behavior, were very similar to the described effects of this paradigm in male mice. In addition, we observed a distinct expression of stress system-related genes in female mice following chronic stress exposure. Our results validate this model as a suitable approach to study chronic social stress in female mice and open up the opportunity to use this model with transgenic or knockout mouse lines. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Georges, Eugenia; Wear, Mary L; Mueller, William H
A positive relationship between psychosocial stress and central body fat distribution has been hypothesized. To test this hypothesis, two indices derived from principal components analysis of four skinfold measurements were studied in relation to imputed job stress characteristics (decision latitude, skill discretion, decision authority, and psychological demands) in Mexican-American men of the U.S. Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). The two indices were fatness and central body fat distribution. Fatness was not significantly associated with any of the job stress characteristics before controlling for education. Once education was included in the equations, however, the relationship between fatness and two of the four job stress variables (decision authority and psychological demands) became statistically significant. Thus, for a given level of education, increasing job stress was associated with increasing fatness. Three of the four job stress characteristics were significantly associated with central body fat distribution before controlling for education. However, after education was entered into the regression equations as a proxy for social class, the relationships between central body fat distribution and the job stress variables were no longer significant. It thus appears that aspects of social class other than job stress are of equal or greater importance in predicting body fat distribution. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Snyder, Kevin P; Barry, Mark; Valentino, Rita J
Stress experience during adolescence has been linked to the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood, many of which are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortex function. The current study was designed to determine the immediate and enduring effects of repeated social stress on a prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive task. Early adolescent (P28), mid-adolescent (P42), and adult (P70) rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress for 5 days and tested in an operant strategy-shifting task (OSST) during the following week or several weeks later during adulthood. Engagement of prefrontal cortical neurons during the task was assessed by expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos. Social stress during adolescence had no immediate effects on task performance, but impaired strategy-shifting in adulthood, whereas social stress that occurred during adulthood had no effect. The cognitive impairment produced by adolescent social stress was most pronounced in rats with a passive coping strategy. Notably, strategy-shifting performance was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical c-fos in adulthood but not in adolescence, suggesting that the task engages different brain regions in adolescents compared to adults. Adolescent social stress produces a protracted impairment in prefrontal cortex-mediated cognition that is related to coping strategy. This impairment may be selectively expressed in adulthood because prefrontal cortical activity is integral to task performance at this age but not during adolescence.
Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D
Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Addonizio, Frank Patrick
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…
Brandt, P A
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social support and stress influence maternal discipline of the six-month to three-year-old child with a developmental delay. Ninety-one mothers completed self-administered measures of support, stress, and discipline. Results of multiple regression analyses revealed that the stress and support interaction variable showed a strong trend (p less than .09) in predicting restrictive discipline. The failure of the independent variables, social support and stress, to have significant main effects appeared to be due, in part, to the multicollinearity (r = -.51, p less than .001) of these variables. For subsequent analyses, stress was used as a categorization variable. The total number of subjects was categorized first into two subgroups using a median split--high or low maternal stress--and into two other subgroups based on number of developmental delays. Pearson correlations indicated that social support was inversely related to restrictive discipline for high-stress mothers, but not for low-stress mothers. The positive influence of social support was also found for mothers of children with three to five delays but not for mothers of children with one to two delays. A negative response style of maternal discipline was reduced when the mother felt supported.
PUPELYTĖ AGNĖ; BARKAUSKAITĖ AIDA; RAKICKAS JULIUS
The aim of this research is to determine the incidence of stress among Lithuanian citizens, and to find out the influence of salary and education on stress level. Stress is the one of most common totalities of organism reactions that influences personal life and career. It is very important to understand stressors, its origins and influence, to avoid unwanted reactions in social and economic being.
Marina M Doucerain
Full Text Available Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2 learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N=100 support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in communication-related acculturative stress but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Hughes, Brian M.
The issue of stress associated with higher education and its impact on markers of student health is explored in three experiments looking at blood pressure levels in college students. All participants were full-time undergraduate students of psychology. In Experiment 1, academic fear of failure, assessed using psychometric testing, was found to be…
Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T
This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Bentley, Eryn; Millman, Zachary B; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Kline, Emily; Pitts, Steven C; DeVylder, Jordan E; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason
Stress is related to symptom severity among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, although this relation may be influenced by protective factors. We explored whether the association of CHR diagnosis with social stress is moderated by the quality of parent-child relationships in a sample of 96 (36 CHR; 60 help-seeking controls) adolescents and young adults receiving mental health services. We examined self-reported social stress and parent-child relationships as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), and determined CHR status from the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS). The social stress subscale, part of the clinical domain of the BASC-2, assesses feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships and the relations with parents subscale, part of the adaptive domain of the BASC-2, assesses perceptions of importance in family and quality of parent-child relationship. There was a modest direct relation between risk diagnosis and social stress. Among those at CHR, however, there was a significant relation between parent-child relationships and social stress (b=-0.73, t=-3.77, pchild relationship may be a protective factor against social stress for those at risk for psychosis. Findings provide additional evidence to suggest that interventions that simultaneously target both social stress and parent-child relationships might be relevant for adolescents and young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Justicial proceeding is able to make any stress or anxiety for everyone that through on it, especially if the process happens on teenagers. The stressor which can make stress in justicial proceeding are the justicial proceeding that doesn’t go along with UU RI No. 3 tahun 1997, i. e. children justicial process, fearness of parents and friend lost, worried about his future, and new neighborhood that is not appropriate with the child’s psychology development. The presence of family is very important to give a social support to the arrested teenagers.The objective of this study was to know the correlation between family social support and post judegement stress in teenagers and the factors of stress in teenagers. Method: This study use Cross Sectional design. Population had taken from teenagers from 13 until 17 years old. Sample was comprised in to 12 individuals who fit with the inclusion criteria. The independent variable in this study was family social support and factors of stress in teenagers, and the dependent variable was post judgement stress in teenagers. Data was collected by measurement using Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (MFQ for stress, questionnaire of family social support, and interviewed. They were analyzed by Spearman’s test with significance level α<0.05 and content analysis for interview result. Result: The result showed that there is a correlation between family social support and post judgement stress in teenagers with significance level p=0.013. Analysis: It means, Content analysis’ results showed that the factors which related with stress in teenagers are environment, caring type, interfamily member’s relationship, bad event, and characteristic of children. Discussion: Higher family social support makes teenagers have higher self esteem and more optimistic view, so the teenagers will able to face their problem.
Makinson, Ryan; Lundgren, Kerstin H.; Seroogy, Kim B.; Herman, James P.
Chronic social subordination is a well-known precipitant of numerous psychiatric and physiological health concerns. In this study, we examine the effects of chronic social stress in the visible burrow system (VBS) on the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) mRNA in forebrain stress circuitry. Male rats in the VBS system form a dominance hierarchy, whereby subordinate males exhibit neuroendocrine and physiological profiles characteristic of chronic exposure to stress. We found that social subordination decreases GAD67 mRNA in the peri-paraventricular nucleus region of the hypothalamus and the interfascicular nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and increases in GAD67 mRNA in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsal medial hypothalamus. Expression of BDNF mRNA increased in the dorsal region of the BNST, but remained unchanged in all other regions examined. Results from this study indicate that social subordination is associated with several region-specific alterations in GAD67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits, whereas changes in the expression of BDNF mRNA are limited to the BNST. PMID:26066725
Full Text Available To experimentally examine if adolescents with excess weight are more sensitive to social stress and hence more sensitive to harmful effects of stress in cognition.We conducted an experimental study in 84 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old classified in two groups based on age adjusted Body Mass Index percentile: Normal weight (n=42 and Excess weight (n=42. Both groups were exposed to social stress as induced by the virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Task--participants were requested to give a public speech about positive and negative aspects of their personalities in front of a virtual audience. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels and performance in cognitive tests before and after the social stressor. Cognitive tests included the CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing Test (measuring attention response latency and discriminability and the Iowa Gambling Task (measuring decision-making.Adolescents with excess weight compared to healthy weight controls displayed increased cortisol response and less improvement of attentional performance after the social stressor. Decision-making performance decreased after the social stressor in both groups.Adolescents who are overweight or obese have increased sensitivity to social stress, which detrimentally impacts attentional skills.
Liviu George Crisan; Romana eVulturar; Mircea eMiclea; Miu, Andrei C.
Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...
Pieritz, Karoline; Schäfer, Sarina J; Strahler, Jana; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank
Experiences of social pain due to social exclusion may be processed in similar neural systems that process experiences of physical pain. The present study aimed to extend the findings on social exclusion and pain by examining the impact of social exclusion on an affective (ie, heat pain tolerance) and a sensory component of pain (ie, heat pain intensity). Whether a potential effect may be moderated by chronic life stress, social status, or social sup-port was further examined. A community-based sample of 59 women was studied. Social exclusion and inclusion were experimentally manipulated by using a virtual ball-tossing game called Cyberball in which participants were randomly assigned to either being excluded or being included by two other virtual players. Heat pain tolerance and intensity were assessed before and after the game. Potential psychosocial moderators were assessed via a questionnaire. The main finding of this study is that chronic stress moderates the impact of social exclusion on pain tolerance (psocially excluded participants showed a lower heat pain tolerance than participants who were socially included. Contrary to the authors' hypothesis, pain sensitivity was increased in socially included participants compared with socially excluded participants after the game (psocial exclusion.
Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping
Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions.
Jiang, Caihong; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick
Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the time course of 39 healthy novice drivers during a blocked working memory task (numerical N-back) under acute social stress or control conditions, which were induced by the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) or control procedure. Subjective measures were used to assess stress manipulation throughout the experiment. An elevated negative effect in response to a stress condition indicated a successful stress induction. The behavioral results showed that the stress group had a longer response time and larger differences in accuracy than the control group. On a neural level, the control group had larger P3 amplitude in the 1-back condition than in the 2-back condition; this load effect, however, disappeared in the stress group. These results revealed that acute social stress had a disruptive effect on both working memory behavioral performance and cognitive neural process. These findings provide us with a basis to understand the correlation between acute stress and cognitive processes of working memory at a cognitive neural level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping
Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA w...
Nabi, Robin L; Prestin, Abby; So, Jiyeon
There is clear evidence that interpersonal social support impacts stress levels and, in turn, degree of physical illness and psychological well-being. This study examines whether mediated social networks serve the same palliative function. A survey of 401 undergraduate Facebook users revealed that, as predicted, number of Facebook friends associated with stronger perceptions of social support, which in turn associated with reduced stress, and in turn less physical illness and greater well-being. This effect was minimized when interpersonal network size was taken into consideration. However, for those who have experienced many objective life stressors, the number of Facebook friends emerged as the stronger predictor of perceived social support. The "more-friends-the-better" heuristic is proposed as the most likely explanation for these findings.
García-Herrero, Susana; Mariscal, M A; Gutiérrez, J M; Ritzel, Dale O
Occupational stress is a major health hazard and a serious challenge to the effective operation of any company and represents a major problem for both individuals and organizations. Previous researches have shown that high demands (e.g. workload, emotional) combined with low resources (e.g. support, control, rewards) are associated with adverse health (e.g. psychological, physical) and organizational impacts (e.g. reduced job satisfaction, sickness absence). The objective of the present work is to create a model to analyze how social support reduces the occupational stress caused by work demands. This study used existing Spanish national data on working conditions collected by the Spanish Ministry of Labour and Immigration in 2007, where 11,054 workers were interviewed by questionnaire. A probabilistic model was built using Bayesian networks to explain the relationships between work demands and occupational stress. The model also explains how social support contributes positively to reducing stress levels. The variables studied were intellectually demanding work, overwork, workday, stress, and social support. The results show the importance of social support and of receiving help from supervisors and co-workers in preventing occupational stress. The study provides a new methodology that explains and quantifies the effects of intellectually demanding work, overwork, and workday in occupational stress. Also, the study quantifies the importance of social support to reduce occupational stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levin, Iris I; Zonana, David M; Fosdick, Bailey K; Song, Se Jin; Knight, Rob; Safran, Rebecca J
Theory predicts that social interactions are dynamically linked to phenotype. Yet because social interactions are difficult to quantify, little is known about the precise details on how interactivity is linked to phenotype. Here, we deployed proximity loggers on North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) to examine intercorrelations among social interactions, morphology and features of the phenotype that are sensitive to the social context: stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and gut microbial diversity. We analysed relationships at two spatial scales of interaction: (i) body contact and (ii) social interactions occurring between 0.1 and 5 m. Network analysis revealed that relationships between social interactions, morphology, CORT and gut microbial diversity varied depending on the sexes of the individuals interacting and the spatial scale of interaction proximity. We found evidence that body contact interactions were related to diversity of socially transmitted microbes and that looser social interactions were related to signalling traits and CORT. © 2016 The Author(s).
Yeung, Nelson C Y; Lu, Qian
Studies have shown that social support is positively associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) among white cancer survivors. Whether the same relationship holds among Asian American cancer survivors and through what mechanism social support may influence PTG is unclear. This study examined the association between social support and PTG among Chinese American breast cancer survivors and proposed perceived stress as a mediator. Chinese American breast cancer survivors (n = 118) were recruited from Southern California. Participants' social support, perceived stress, and PTG were measured in a questionnaire package. Social support was associated with lower perceived stress (r= -0.34, P<.001) and higher PTG (r=0.44, P<.001). Perceived stress was negatively associated with PTG (r=-0.36, P< .001). Results from structural equation modeling supported the mediation model, with satisfactory model fit indices (χ37= 65.55, comparative fit index= 0.98, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.08). Both the indirect effect from social support to PTG via perceived stress (β = .07, P< .05) and the direct effect from social support and PTG (β= .40, P< .001) were statistically significant, suggesting a partial mediation effect of perceived stress between social support and PTG. The positive association between social support and Chinese American breast cancer survivors' PTG was supported. Our findings also suggested that social support may facilitate PTG through reduction of perceived stress. Interventions that help to enhance Chinese American breast cancer survivors' social support may also facilitate their PTG.
Wilks, Scott E; Croom, Beth
The study examined whether social support functioned as a protective, resilience factor among Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers. Moderation and mediation models were used to test social support amid stress and resilience. A cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data was conducted. Measures of demographics, perceived stress, family support, friend support, overall social support, and resilience were administered to caregiver attendees (N=229) of two AD caregiver conferences. Hierarchical regression analysis showed the compounded impact of predictors on resilience. Odds ratios generated probability of high resilience given high stress and social supports. Social support moderation and mediation were tested via distinct series of regression equations. Path analyses illustrated effects on the models for significant moderation and/or mediation. Stress negatively influenced and accounted for most variation in resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience, and caregivers with high family support had the highest probability of elevated resilience. Moderation was observed among all support factors. No social support fulfilled the complete mediation criteria. Evidence of social support as a protective, moderating factor yields implications for health care practitioners who deliver services to assist AD caregivers, particularly the promotion of identification and utilization of supportive familial and peer relations.
Environmental risk factors have been implicated in the etiology of psychotic disorders, with growing evidence showing the adverse effects of migration, social marginalization, urbanicity, childhood trauma, social defeat, and other adverse experiences on mental health in vulnerable populations. Collectively, social stress may be one mechanism that could link these environmental risk factors. The exact mechanism(s) by which social stress can affect brain function, and in particular the molecular targets involved in psychosis (such as the dopaminergic (DA) system), is (are) not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss the interplay between social environmental risk factors and molecular changes in the human brain; in particular, we will highlight the impact of social stress on three specific neurochemical systems: DA, neuroinflammation/immune, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling. We have chosen the latter two molecular pathways based on emerging evidence linking schizophrenia to altered neuroinflammatory processes and cannabis use. We further identify key developmental periods in which social stress interacts with these pathways, suggesting window(s) of opportunities for novel interventions. Taken together, we suggest that they may have a key role in the pathogenesis and disease progression, possibly provide novel treatment options for schizophrenia, and perhaps even prevent it.
Background: Studies have shown that psychosocial factors such as stress at work and from marriage as well as lack of social support and depression may influence recovery following an acute coronary event. Rehabilitation programs after these events including stress management may improve both general health and prognosis. Women have been studied less often than men, and may also respond differently to psychosocial interventions. Aim: In study I we examine how marital and ...
Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive–affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain-behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation of negative self-beliefs in patients ...
Morrison, Kathleen E; Narasimhan, Sneha; Fein, Ethan; Bale, Tracy L
The peripubertal period of development is a sensitive window, during which adverse experiences can increase the risk for presentation of cognitive and affective dysfunction throughout the lifespan, especially in women. However, such experiences in the context of a supportive social environment can actually ameliorate this risk, suggesting that resilience can be programmed in early life. Affective disorders and cognitive deficits commonly emerge during aging, with many women reporting increased difficulty with prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive functions. We have developed a mouse model to examine the interaction between peripubertal experience and age-related changes in cognition and stress regulation. Female mice were exposed to peripubertal chronic stress, during which they were either individually housed or housed with social interaction. One year after this stress experience, mice were examined in tasks to access their cognitive ability and flexibility in stress reactive measures. In a test of spatial memory acquisition and reversal learning where aged females normally display a decreased performance, the females that had experienced stress with social interaction a year earlier showed improved performance in reversal learning, a measure of cognitive flexibility. Because peripuberty is a time of major PFC maturation, we performed transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of the aged PFC, in which long-term changes in microRNA expression and in myelin proteins were found. These data suggest that stress in the context of social support experienced over the pubertal window can promote epigenetic reprogramming in the brain to increase the resilience to age-related cognitive decline in females.
Beals, Christopher; Byl, Thomas
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is an aquatic plant that readily bioaccumulates heavy metals that may be found in contaminated aquatic systems. Toxic effects of contaminants on the physiological processes cause changes in oxidase enzymatic activity in watercress, which can be measured with a luminometer. The luminometer uses the reaction produced when peroxidases break down hydrogen peroxide into water and an oxygen radical. The resulting oxyradical binds to and oxidizes phenolic groups, producing a measureable luminescent reaction. Nasturtium officinale plants were exposed to 3 different concentrations of heavy metals, including lead, nickel, copper, and manganese for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Aquatic exposure to the 4 heavy metals caused a significant increase in oxidative enzyme production. Fluorometric and morphometric measurements were also conducted to compare plant stress with the oxidative enzyme analyses. Fluorometric measurements performed on plants stressed by exposure to heavy metals revealed no significant decreases in photosystem II efficiency. Morphometric measurements of root length showed decreased root growth resulting from exposures to Ni, Cu, and Mn. © 2013 SETAC.
Stephenson, Timar D.
The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…
Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.
Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…
Skye N. Leedahl; Rosemary K. Chapin; Little, Todd D.
Objectives. Testing a model based on past research and theory, this study assessed relationships between facility characteristics (i.e., culture change efforts, social workers) and residents’ social networks and social support across nursing homes; and examined relationships between multiple aspects of social integration (i.e., social networks, social capital, social engagement, social support) and mental and functional health for older adults in nursing homes.
Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay M; Spears, Stella L; Nephew, Benjamin C
Social stressors such as depressed maternal care and family conflict are robust challenges which can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on offspring and future generations. The current study investigates the transgenerational effects of an ethologically relevant chronic social stress on the behavior and endocrinology of juvenile and adult rats. Exposure to chronic social stress during lactation impairs maternal care in F0 lactating dams and the maternal care of the F1 offspring of those stressed F0 dams. The overall hypothesis was that the male and female F2 offspring of stressed F1 dams would display decreased social behavior as both juveniles and adults and that these behavioral effects would be accompanied by changes in plasma corticosterone, prolactin, and oxytocin. Both the female and male F2 offspring of dams exposed to chronic social stress displayed decreased social behavior as juveniles and adults, and these behavioral effects were accompanied by decreases in basal concentrations of corticosterone in both sexes, as well as elevated juvenile oxytocin and decreased adult prolactin in the female offspring. The data support the conclusion that social stress has transgenerational effects on the social behavior of the female and male offspring which are mediated by changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Social stress models are valuable resources in the study of the transgenerational effects of stress on the behavioral endocrinology of disorders such as depression, anxiety, autism, and other disorders involving disrupted social behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singh, Ruchi; Goyal, Manish; Tiwari, Sunita; Ghildiyal, Archana; Nattu, Shankar M; Das, Shobha
Stress produces definable mental and physiological reactions in the body. Mild stress is beneficial in cognitive tasks and performance but persistently high stress may lead to neuropsychiatric illnesses like anxiety and depression. Examinations act as stressor and activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis causing an increase in cortisol level, which is reflected in saliva. Present study was done on 35 medical students. Their mood parameters were assessed, using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scoring, and salivary cortisol levels using quantitative ELISA. Subjects were evaluated for mood parameters two times, one during relaxed state (with no examinations in preceding 2 weeks and in coming 2 weeks) and another during stressed state (on the day of viva voce examination). The levels of mood parameters and salivary cortisol were significantly raised during examination stress. The changes in stress level significantly correlated with change in levels of anxiety and salivary cortisol though there was no significant effect on the performance. Males and females showed similar changes in mood parameters. This study suggests that as examinations act as unavoidable stressors, the medical educators as well as students should be made aware of the negative consequences of stress faced during medical training. Efficient relaxation program as well as counseling services should be provided to stressed students so that they are able to cope better with examination stress.
Jong, Cindy; Jackson, Christa
Teaching for social justice is a critical pedagogy used to empower students to be social agents in the world they live. This critical pedagogy has extended to mathematics education. Over the last decade, mathematics education researchers have conceptualized what it means to teach mathematics for social justice, but little is known about preservice…
Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara
Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…
Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.W.; Branje, S.J.T.; Van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with
Nelemans, S. A.; Hale, W. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; van Lier, P. A. C.; Koot, H. M.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with
Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; van Lier, P. A C; Koot, H. M.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with
Hamilton, Christopher J.; Mahalik, James R.
The authors examined the contributions of the minority stress model, traditional masculine gender roles, and perceived social norms in accounting for gay men's use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and risky sexual practices. Three hundred fifteen gay men recruited from listserv communities completed measures assessing internalized homophobia,…
Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming
This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…
Sullivan, Christopher; Kashubeck-West, Susan
This study examined the relationship between acculturation modes (assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization), social support, and acculturative stress in undergraduate and graduate international students (N=104) at a medium-sized public university in the Midwestern United States. The study found that international students with…
Morrison, Julie Q.
The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model for crisis intervention was developed for use with emergency service personnel. Research regarding the use of the CISM model has been conducted among civilians and high-risk occupation groups with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine the social validity of the CISM model for…
Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.
The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…
Niyonsenga, Theophile; Blackson, Timothy C; De la Rosa, Mario; Rojas, Patria; Dillon, Frank; Ganapati, Emel N
This cross-sectional study examined three social determinants (sociodemographics, chronic stress, and social support) and the quality of attachment among a community-based sample of Latina mother-daughter dyads (N = 158 dyads) to document the relationship between those factors and their respective drug use. Hypotheses were: (a) the quality of mother-daughter attachment will mediate the relationship between their social support and drug use and (b) the effects of mothers' and daughters' chronic stress on their drug use is mediated by their social support which, in turn, is also mediated by the quality of their attachment after taking into account socio-demographic variables. Structural equation modeling was used with dyads as the units of analyses. Our preliminary results show: (a) transgenerational dyadic concordance among the variables, (b) mothers' higher quality of attachment scores mediated the relationship between their chronic stress and social support scores on their lower drug use scores, and (c) daughters' attachment scores mediated the relationship between their social support scores and their lower drug use scores. Limitations are discussed. Our preliminary results provide a useful first step towards understanding the processes linking stress, social support, and attachment with drug use behaviors among Latina mothers and daughters from a culturally relevant and transgenerational perspective. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Pollard, T M; Canaan, L; Davies, G J
The effects of academic examination stress on health behavior was assessed in university students. It was hypothesized that the anticipation of examinations would lead to increases in cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and to decreases in physical activity, and that effects would be particularly salient in students with low social supports. One hundred eighty students were divided into exam-stress (51 women, 64 men) and control (49 women, 16 men) groups, and were assessed at baseline and then within 2 weeks of exams, or an equivalent point for the control group. Perceived stress, emotional well-being and health behaviors were assessed by questionnaire and interview. The exam-stress group reported significant increases in perceived stress and emotional distress between baseline and exam sessions, but responses were not affected by social support availability. The controls showed no systematic changes in health behaviors. In the exam-stress group, smoking increased by an average of 54.7% between sessions in women with few social supports, but remained stable in men. There was a decrease in alcohol consumption of 17.5% in students with high social support between sessions, while those with low social supports showed an average increase of 18.5%. Physical activity decreased between baseline and exam sessions in the exam-stress group, but was not affected by social support. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of naturally occurring episodic stress on health behaviors, and the role of social support in moderating responses.
Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A
Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents.
Baghurst, Timothy; Kelley, Betty C
The purpose of this study was to determine whether differing stress reduction interventions could alter stress levels experienced by male and female college students from the beginning to the end of a semester. Components of stress examined included overall perceived stress, test anxiety, and personal burnout. Participants (N = 531) were part of courses that during the course of a 16-week semester focused specifically on cognitive-behavioral stress management, cardiovascular fitness, generalized physical activity, or a control with no intervention. In addition to gender differences, both the stress management and physical activity groups had significantly lower levels of perceived stress, test anxiety, and personal burnout at the end of the semester. The fitness group scored significantly lower on perceived stress and personal burnout, but there was no difference in scores for test anxiety. The important ramifications of reducing stress in college students are discussed, including the pros and cons of implementing differing physical and psychological intervention modalities.
McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S; Weerts, Elise M; Xu, Xiaoqiang
Although epidemiological research has shown an increase in drinking following stressors and trauma, limited paradigms have been validated to study the relationship between stress and drinking in the human laboratory. The current study developed a progressive ratio (PR) operant procedure to examine the effects of psychosocial stress on alcohol craving and several alcohol-motivated behaviors in persons with alcohol use disorder. Current heavy, nontreatment-seeking drinkers (N = 30) were media-recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment of recent drinking, mood and health. Participants were admitted to the clinical research unit and underwent 4-day, physician-monitored alcohol abstinence. On days 4 and 5, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test or a neutral session in random order followed by the alcohol-motivated response (AMR) procedure in which subjects worked for money or alcohol under a PR operant procedure. Subjects received earned money vouchers or alcohol at the conclusion of the session. The Trier Social Stress Test increased alcohol craving and rate of responding and decreased the number of changeovers between alcohol versus money reinforcers on the PR schedule. There was a positive relationship between alcohol craving and drinks earned during the stress session. This novel paradigm provides an experimental platform to examine motivation to drink without confounding by actual alcohol ingestion during the work session, thereby setting the stage for future studies of alcohol interventions. © 2017 The Authors.Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ
Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress
Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K
The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.
Dubreucq, Sarah; Matias, Isabelle; Cardinal, Pierre; Häring, Martin; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) tightly controls emotional responses to acute aversive stimuli. Repeated stress alters ECS activity but the role played by the ECS in the emotional consequences of repeated stress has not been investigated in detail. This study used social defeat stress, together with pharmacology and genetics to examine the role of cannabinoid type-1 (CB(1)) receptors on repeated stress-induced emotional alterations. Seven daily social defeat sessions increased water (but not food) intake, sucrose preference, anxiety, cued fear expression, and adrenal weight in C57BL/6N mice. The first and the last social stress sessions triggered immediate brain region-dependent changes in the concentrations of the principal endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Pretreatment before each of the seven stress sessions with the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant prolonged freezing responses of stressed mice during cued fear recall tests. Repeated social stress abolished the increased fear expression displayed by constitutive CB(1) receptor-deficient mice. The use of mutant mice lacking CB(1) receptors from cortical glutamatergic neurons or from GABAergic neurons indicated that it is the absence of the former CB(1) receptor population that is responsible for the fear responses in socially stressed CB(1) mutant mice. In addition, stress-induced hypolocomotor reactivity was amplified by the absence of CB(1) receptors from GABAergic neurons. Mutant mice lacking CB(1) receptors from serotonergic neurons displayed a higher anxiety but decreased cued fear expression than their wild-type controls. These mutant mice failed to show social stress-elicited increased sucrose preference. This study shows that (i) release of endocannabinoids during stress exposure impedes stress-elicited amplification of cued fear behavior, (ii) social stress opposes the increased fear expression and delayed between-session extinction because of the absence of CB(1) receptors
Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A; Muramatsu, Naoko
Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope more effectively to prevent burnout. However, little is known about what resources are effective for coping with what types of work stress. Thus, we examined how work stress and social and personal resources are associated with burnout for DCWs. We conducted a survey of DCWs (n = 323) from five community-based organizations that provide residential, vocational, and personal care services for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants completed a self-administered survey about their perceptions of work stress, work social support, locus of control, and burnout relative to their daily work routine. We conducted multiple regression analysis to test both the main and interaction effects of work stress and resources with respect to burnout. Work stress, specifically work overload, limited participation decision-making, and client disability care, was positively associated with burnout (p social support and burnout depended on the levels of work overload (p burnout depended on the levels of work overload (p social support and locus of control make a difference depends on the kinds and the levels of work stressors. The findings underscore the importance of strong work-based social support networks and stress management resources for DCWs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Thomas Kötter,1 Frank Niebuhr2 1Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, 2Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Introduction: The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item, anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument. In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis.Results: We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on
Full Text Available Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5 following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.
Udachina, A; Bentall, R P; Varese, F; Rowse, G
The attributional theory of paranoia suggests that paranoid beliefs may protect individuals from low self-esteem and distress (Bentall et al. 2001). The current study tested this theory by investigating a hypothesis that paranoid beliefs in combination with low perceived deservedness of persecution (poor-me beliefs) confer protection against the distress caused by social but not activity related stress. Paranoid symptoms, perceived deservedness of persecution, self-esteem, mood, and stress levels of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N = 91) and healthy controls (N = 52) were assessed in the context of daily life using the experience sampling method. Individuals holding poor-me beliefs (poor-me individuals) showed blunted sensitivity to social but not activity stress. In contrast, individuals holding paranoid beliefs in combination with high perceived deservedness of persecution (bad-me individuals) showed heightened sensitivity to social stress. No consistent differences in reactions to activity stress emerged. Although both poor-me and bad-me individuals reported low self-esteem, this disturbance was particularly characteristic of bad-me individuals. The results suggest that poor-me paranoid beliefs may protect individuals against the distress associated with unpleasant social situations. The specificity of reactions to social stress is discussed in the context of wider literature. Future directions for research are suggested.
Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Rudolph, Abby; Kim, BoRin; Lewis, Crystal M
Experiences of discrimination, or social marginalization and ostracism, may lead to the formation of social networks characterized by inequality. For example, those who experience discrimination may be more likely to develop drug use and sexual partnerships with others who are at increased risk for HIV compared to those without experiences of discrimination. This is critical as engaging in risk behaviors with others who are more likely to be HIV positive can increase one's risk of HIV. We used log-binomial regression models to examine the relationship between drug use, racial and incarceration discrimination with changes in the composition of one's risk network among 502 persons who use drugs. We examined both absolute and proportional changes with respect to sex partners, drug use partners, and injecting partners, after accounting for individual risk behaviors. At baseline, participants were predominately male (70%), black or Latino (91%), un-married (85%), and used crack (64%). Among those followed-up (67%), having experienced discrimination due to drug use was significantly related to increases in the absolute number of sex networks and drug networks over time. No types of discrimination were related to changes in the proportion of high-risk network members. Discrimination may increase one's risk of HIV acquisition by leading them to preferentially form risk relationships with higher-risk individuals, thereby perpetuating racial and ethnic inequities in HIV. Future social network studies and behavioral interventions should consider whether social discrimination plays a role in HIV transmission.
Dedovic, Katarina; Wadiwalla, Mehereen; Engert, Veronika; Pruessner, Jens C
Individual health is determined by a myriad of factors. Interestingly, simply being male or female is one such factor that carries profound implications for one's well-being. Intriguing differences between men and women have been observed with respect to vulnerability to and prevalence of particular illnesses. The activity of the major stress hormone axis in humans, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, is directly and indirectly associated with the onset and propagation of these conditions. Previous studies have shown differences between men and women at the level of stress hormone regulation, suggesting that the metabolic effects of stress may be related to susceptibility for stress-related disease. While the majority of studies have suggested that biological differences are responsible, few have also considered the role of gender socialization. In this selective review, the authors summarize evidence on sex differences and highlight some recent results from endocrinological, developmental, and neuroimaging studies that suggest an important role of gender socialization on the metabolic effects of stress. Finally, a model is proposed that integrates these specific findings, highlighting gender socialization and stress responsivity.
Waugh, Christian E; Hamilton, J Paul; Chen, Michael C; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H
Despite advances in neurobiological research on Major Depressive Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, little is known about the neural functioning of individuals with comorbid depression/social anxiety. We examined the timing of neural responses to social stress in individuals with major depression and/or social anxiety. We hypothesized that having social anxiety would be associated with earlier responses to stress, having major depression would be associated with sustained responses to stress, and that comorbid participants would exhibit both of these response patterns. Participants were females diagnosed with pure depression (n = 12), pure social anxiety (n = 16), comorbid depression/social anxiety (n = 17), or as never having had any Axis-I disorder (control; n = 17). Blood oxygenation-level dependent activity (BOLD) was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To induce social stress, participants prepared a speech that was ostensibly to be evaluated by a third party. Whereas being diagnosed with depression was associated with a resurgence of activation in the medial frontal cortex late in the stressor, having social anxiety was associated with a vigilance-avoidance activation pattern in the occipital cortex and insula. Comorbid participants exhibited activation patterns that generally overlapped with the non-comorbid groups, with the exception of an intermediate level of activation, between the level of activation of the pure depression and social anxiety groups, in the middle and posterior cingulate cortex. These findings advance our understanding of the neural underpinnings of major depression and social anxiety, and of their comorbidity. Future research should elucidate more precisely the behavioral correlates of these patterns of brain activation.
Baor, Liora; Soskolne, Varda
Twin pregnancies and births resulting from assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and maternal health complications leading to psychologically complex parenting. In the current study the authors assess the prevalence of clinical levels of maternal stress among mothers of twins resulting from in vitro fertilization and examine the association of social coping resources with three maternal stress sub-scales. During the years 2003-2005, 88 primiparous Israeli mothers of in vitro fertilization-conceived twins provided socio-demographic data during their third trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 months after birth provided data on delivery and medical condition of infants, coping resources (social support and marital quality), and a maternal stress scale. Forty-one percent of the mothers reached a clinically significant level of maternal stress. Social support and maternal employment were the most significant variables associated with experience of the stress in the early stages of adaptation to mothering in vitro fertilization twins. Primiparous mothers of in vitro fertilization twins are vulnerable to maternal stress in early stages of adaptation to the maternal role, some of whom reach clinical levels that may require professional interventions. Unemployed mothers with low social support were the most susceptible to the deleterious effects of in vitro fertilization treatment.
Johanna Ute Frisch; Häusser, Jan A.; Andreas eMojzisch
In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress r...
Reader, Arran T; Holmes, Nicholas P
Social interaction is an essential part of the human experience, and much work has been done to study it. However, several common approaches to examining social interactions in psychological research may inadvertently either unnaturally constrain the observed behaviour by causing it to deviate from naturalistic performance, or introduce unwanted sources of variance. In particular, these sources are the differences between naturalistic and experimental behaviour that occur from changes in visual fidelity (quality of the observed stimuli), gaze (whether it is controlled for in the stimuli), and social potential (potential for the stimuli to provide actual interaction). We expand on these possible sources of extraneous variance and why they may be important. We review the ways in which experimenters have developed novel designs to remove these sources of extraneous variance. New experimental designs using a 'two-person' approach are argued to be one of the most effective ways to develop more ecologically valid measures of social interaction, and we suggest that future work on social interaction should use these designs wherever possible.
Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants’ L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants’ L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants’ L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning. PMID:26300809
Doucerain, Marina M; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: The omnipresence of stress and depression among university students is a cause for concern, as it can have adverse consequences on all aspects of their life. Understanding the role of social support as a protective factor within this context, may well be vital to the enhancement of overall wellbeing among students. The main aim of the present study was to examine the moderating effect of perceived social support on the relationship between stress and depression. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to garner data from 254 university students for hierarchical multiple regression and structural equation modeling analysis. Results: Firstly, the present study replicated the frequently reported positive relationship between stress and depression. Secondly, an inverse association between social support and depression was also depicted. Finally, the results also supported an interaction between perceived social support and stress in predicting depression among students. Conclusion: In sum, the results of the current study may well augment our understanding of the role of perceived social support in combating stress and depression among students, and thereby convey important implications for intervention strategies tailored to this demographic.
Oliveira, Bruna Silva; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Quinlan, Jacklyn; Fahmi, Hassan; Tu, Mai Thanh; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira
Our aim was to examine whether chronic social stress is associated with telomere length throughout the life course, following our protocol published in 2014. Structured searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed interface), EMBASE (OVID interface), Cochrane Central (OVID interface) and grey from their start date onwards. Reference lists of retrieved citations were hand searched for relevant studies. Eighteen studies published until May 1, 2015 investigating the association between chronic social stress (as defined by poverty, exposure to violence, or family caregiving) and telomere length in healthy or diseased adults and children were independently selected by 2 reviewers. Sixteen of those studies were cross-sectional and two had a longitudinal design. Studies differed in type of stress exposure, method to measure telomere length and cell type. As meta-analysis could not be conducted, the data were synthesized as a narrative review. Based on this comprehensive review, chronic social stress accompanies telomere shortening in both early and adult exposures, with most eligible studies showing a significant relationship. We discuss the significance of chronic stress of social origin and the potential for social interventions through public policies and we recommend methodological improvements that would allow for future meta-analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Putwain, David William
High stakes examinations have been identified as a significant source of stress for secondary school students; however, there is little data accounting for, and explaining, the experiences of examination stress. This study aimed to further the understanding of examination stress in secondary school students by conducting interviews with 34…
Camacho, Daisy Estela
Given the size and rapid growth of Latinos—and that they tend to fall behind academically—it is important to understand factors that contribute to achievement. This dissertation seeks to contextualize parental academic behaviors by examining the role of stress and family dynamics in their involvement. The first study examines how stress may interfere with the academic involvement Mexican-origin parents provide for their adolescents. Parents of ninth and tenth grade students from two high scho...
Jastifer, James R; Jaykel, Matthew
In ankle fractures, the result of a gravity stress radiographic examination is clinically used to determine if a patient may need surgical intervention. The purpose of this study is to report the results of a gravity stress examination in the normal patient population. Fifty study participants were prospectively enrolled and complete ankle radiographs were obtained, including a nonweightbearing gravity stress examination. The mean medial clear space in the gravity stress view was 3.6 mm. This compared to a mean medial clear space of 3.3 mm, and 3.1 mm in the anteroposterior and mortise views. These values were statistically significantly different from the gravity stress view ( P = .006 and P < .001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the talar tilt as measured on the anteroposterior and gravity stress radiographs ( P = .22). No participant had medial clear space widening with gravity stress to more than 5.2 mm or an increase in their widening by more than 0.2 mm. In conclusion, this study helps guide surgeons by providing normative radiographic data for a gravity stress examination and supports the notion that measureable medial clear space widening or talar tilt on gravity stress examination represents an unstable injury. Level II: Prospective.
Laundra, Kenneth H.; Kiger, Gary; Bahr, Stephen J.
This study offers a critical review and analysis of the Social Development Model and social control theory in delinquency. Results show that attachment and commitment to parents, school, and peers is associated with delinquency for both boys and girls. Parental attachment and commitment play a stronger role in female delinquency, while alienation…
Over the past few years, social networking has exploded into a massive medium that has captured the attention of a large portion of the American population. The ever-growing social networking site(s) (SNS) movement has filled a networking gap and thus, has presented higher education institutions with unique opportunities (Reid 2009) to further…
Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006
Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6 = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6 = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6 = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.
Sapsaglam, Özkan; Ömeroglu, Esra
This study was conducted in an attempt to develop Social Values Education Program aimed at nursery school students and examine the effect of Social Values Education Program upon the social skill acquisition of nursery school students. The effect of the education program that was developed within the scope of the study upon the social skill…
Pradhan, Ganesh; Mendinca, Nishitha Linet; Kar, Manisha
Medical students experience stress at every phase of curriculum more so before examination. This stress may affect physiological, psychological and cognitive functions of the students. The present study aimed to evaluate stress status among first year MBBS students by recording pulse rate (PR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and using stress questionnaire; its effect on cognitive function by recording auditory reaction time (ART) and visual reaction time (VRT). It is a cross-sectional study. A total of 100 (49 males and 51 females) first year healthy MBBS students participated. Stress questionnaire was given and assessed. Cardiovascular parameters were also assessed. The ART and VRT were recorded before (pre examination setting) and after 3 month of examination (post-examination setting). The data were analysed by using SPSS 21.0 version. All parameters namely PR, SBP, DBP, ART, VRT and stress scores were increased in preexamination setting irrespective of gender. Increased PR was observed in female learners where as stress score and SBP were increased in males in pre-examination setting. ART and VRT were more in females as compared to males in both setting. It is concluded that examination in the form of stressor hampers cognitive function of first year medical students. The cognitive functions of the female learners were more affected as compared to males. Therefore, proper counselling of the students should be initiated at the earliest to decrease their stress level.
Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M
We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures.
Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V
Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Venzala, E; García-García, A L; Elizalde, N; Tordera, R M
Major depression is a mental disorder often preceded by exposure to chronic stress or stressful life events. Recently, animal models based on social conflict such as chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) are proposed to be more relevant to stress-induced human psychopathology compared to environmental models like the chronic mild stress (CMS). However, while CMS reproduces specifically core depressive symptoms such as anhedonia and helplessness, CSDS studies rely on the analysis of stress-induced social avoidance, addressing different neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we study comparatively the two models from a behavioural and neurochemical approach and their possible relevance to human depression. Mice (C57BL/6) were exposed to CMS or CSDS for six weeks and ten days. Anhedonia was periodically evaluated. A battery of test applied during the fourth week after the stress procedure included motor activity, memory, anxiety, social interaction and helplessness. Subsequently, we examined glutamate, GABA, 5-HT and dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and brainstem. CMS induced a clear depressive-like profile including anhedonia, helplessness and memory impairment. CSDS induced anhedonia, hyperactivity, anxiety and social avoidance, signs also common to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders. While both models disrupted the excitatory inhibitory balance in the prefrontal cortex, CMS altered importantly this balance in the brainstem. Moreover, CSDS decreased dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and brainstem. We suggests that while depressive-like behaviours might be associated to altered aminoacid neurotransmission in cortical and brain stem areas, CSDS induced anxiety behaviours might be linked to specific alteration of dopaminergic pathways involved in rewarding processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J
We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
O'Donovan, Aoife; Hughes, Brian
Socially supportive relationships at university may buffer against psychological stress in students, particularly in those experiencing loneliness. To examine the relation of social support at university and loneliness with pulse pressure (PP) reactivity to acute psychological stress in a sample of first-year undergraduate students. Sixty-five female, adolescent, first-year university students. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated as the arithmetic difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, which were measured during a resting baseline and during a stressful reading task. The difference between baseline and reading task PP represents PP reactivity. The Social Support at University Scale (SSUS) was used to assess social support availability in university, and the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess loneliness. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine main and interactive effects of SSUS and loneliness on PP change scores, and simple slopes were computed to assist in the interpretation of interaction effects. Social support at university was associated with lower PP reactivity in students reporting medium (t = -2.03, p = .04) or high levels of loneliness (t = -2.93, p = .004), but not in those reporting low levels of loneliness (t = -0.20, p = .83). Psychosocial interventions designed to increase social support available at university, and targeted at students experiencing loneliness may buffer against the harmful effects of acute stressors in lonely first-year students.
Barsy, Boglárka; Leveleki, Csilla; Zelena, Dóra; Haller, József
The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the anxiety-increasing effects of chronic psychosocial stress generalize to non-social (i.e. heterotypic) stressful situations. To investigate this issue, we repeatedly exposed rats to predictable or unpredictable psychosocial stress for 5 or 12 days and examined their anxiety in two markedly different contexts: the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Psychosocial stress and the social interaction test were administered under highly similar conditions, i.e. the two situations were homotypic. Psychosocial stress did not affect anxiety in the elevated plus-maze under any condition, but markedly increased anxiety in the social interaction test. In contrast, repeated restraint-a non-social stressor heterotypic to both the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests-increased plus-maze anxiety, demonstrating that anxiety in this test was sensitive to repeated restraint, and the effects were manifested in heterotypic situations. Thus, the anxiety-related effects of chronic psychosocial stress-unlike those of the chronic non-social stressor-were context-dependent. This is reminiscent of phobic anxiety, which manifests in specific situations only. In addition, behavior in the social interaction test showed changes that went beyond simple anxiogenesis. Socially stressed rats spent nearly 40% of total time in aggressive interactions. Based on recent data showing that social phobics are prone to violence under social pressure, and also based on the situation-dependent effects of the social stressor, we suggest that chronic psychosocial stress leads to a behavioral profile akin to social phobia.
Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Anthony, Bruno J.; Glanville, Denise N.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Waanders, Christine; Shaffer, Stephanie
Young children develop social and emotional competence through interactions with others in the two major contexts in which they spend time: home and preschool. This study examined whether parenting stress in the home context is related to the children's behaviour while in preschool. Previous research has suggested that parenting stress negatively…
The intention of this study was to better understand how certain aspects in a college student's life (i.e., perceived stress, styles of coping, and social support) or how combinations of these variables may contribute to higher levels of alcohol consumption. The present study examined the relationship between perceived stress, functional coping…
Guralnick, M. J.; Hammond, M. A.; Neville, B.; Connor, R. T.
Background: In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the sources and functions of social support and dimensions of child- and parent-related stress for mothers of young children with mild developmental delays. Methods: Sixty-three mothers completed assessments of stress and support at two time points. Results: Multiple…
Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P
The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health.
Yıldırım, N; Karaca, A; Cangur, S; Acıkgoz, F; Akkus, D
Nursing education can be a stressful experience. To fully benefit from this experience and develop a positive professional identity, it is essential for nursing students to effectively cope with education-related stress. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between nursing students' education-related stress and stress coping, self-esteem, social support, and health status. This study utilized a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational design. The sample consisted 517 nursing students from a bachelor program in Turkey during the 2014-2015 academic year. Participants provided data on sociodemographic characteristics as well as completing the following instruments: Nursing Education Stress Scale, Coping Behavior Inventory for Nursing Students, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Relationships were examined using multivariate structural equation modeling. Results indicated that nursing students' stress coping levels were affected by self-esteem and social support. Additionally, this interaction appears to affect general health status. Although the direct effect of stress on coping was non-significant, its overall effect was significant within the model. It is necessary to conduct further intervention studies examining the role of self-esteem and social support in facilitating nursing students' stress-related coping during their education. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction were significantly related. Moreover, social support both mediated and moderated the influence of parenting stress on life satisfaction. These findings imply that parenting stress and social support are critical indicators of life satisfaction and can serve as basic intervention strategies that promote life satisfaction among Chinese parents of children with ASD.
Cooper, M A; Clinard, C T; Morrison, K E
Humans and other animals show a remarkable capacity for resilience following traumatic, stressful events. Resilience is thought to be an active process related to coping with stress, although the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support active coping and stress resistance remain poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the neurobiological mechanisms by which environmental and social experiences promote stress resistance. In male Syrian hamsters, exposure to a brief social defeat stressor leads to increased avoidance of novel opponents, which we call conditioned defeat. Also, hamsters that have achieved dominant social status show reduced conditioned defeat as well as cellular and molecular changes in the neural circuits controlling the conditioned defeat response. We propose that experience-dependent neural plasticity occurs in the prelimbic (PL) cortex, infralimbic (IL) cortex, and ventral medial amygdala (vMeA) during the maintenance of dominance relationships, and that adaptations in these neural circuits support stress resistance in dominant individuals. Overall, behavioral treatments that promote success in competitive interactions may represent valuable interventions for instilling resilience. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Results showed among others that mentalhealth problems such as anxiety disorders, mood and substance related disorders, lack of social support, delayed promotion, family problems and job pressure are identified as major sources of stressful experiences among the participants. Secondly, the effects of the stressors on ...
Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E
The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cheryl M. McCormick
Full Text Available Studies in animal models generate and test hypotheses regarding developmental stage-specific vulnerability that might inform research questions about human development. In both rats and humans, peer relationships are qualitatively different in adolescence than at other stages of development, and social experiences in adolescence are considered important determinants of adult social function. This review describes our adolescent rat social instability stress model and the long-lasting effects social instability has on social behaviour in adulthood as well as the possible neural underpinnings. Effects of other adolescent social stress experiences in rats on social behaviours in adulthood also are reviewed. We discuss the role of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA function and glucocorticoid release in conferring differential susceptibility to social experiences in adolescents compared to adults. We propose that although differential perception of social experiences rather than immature HPA function may underlie the heightened vulnerability of adolescents to social instability, the changes in the trajectory of brain development and resultant social deficits likely are mediated by the heightened glucocorticoid release in response to repeated social stressors in adolescence compared to in adulthood.
McCormick, Cheryl M; Hodges, Travis E; Simone, Jonathan J
Studies in animal models generate and test hypotheses regarding developmental stage-specific vulnerability that might inform research questions about human development. In both rats and humans, peer relationships are qualitatively different in adolescence than at other stages of development, and social experiences in adolescence are considered important determinants of adult social function. This review describes our adolescent rat social instability stress model and the long-lasting effects social instability has on social behaviour in adulthood as well as the possible neural underpinnings. Effects of other adolescent social stress experiences in rats on social behaviours in adulthood also are reviewed. We discuss the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and glucocorticoid release in conferring differential susceptibility to social experiences in adolescents compared to adults. We propose that although differential perception of social experiences rather than immature HPA function may underlie the heightened vulnerability of adolescents to social instability, the changes in the trajectory of brain development and resultant social deficits likely are mediated by the heightened glucocorticoid release in response to repeated social stressors in adolescence compared to in adulthood. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Horita, Yuji; Otsuka, Yasumasa
In the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Model, social support is assumed to moderate the relationship between job stressors and stress responses. However, few studies have investigated how to enhance social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor among Japanese workers. A total of 240 workers in manufacturing companies returned a questionnaire regarding their interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor (response rate = 96.0%). After excluding 40 participants due to missing responses, data from a total of 200 participants (163 male and 37 female, mean age = 40.3 yr) were used in the final analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to measure job stressors, psychological stress responses, social support, and vigor. Structured equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor. Interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant negative effect on psychological stress response through increasing social support. However, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on psychological stress response through increasing the quantitative workload. Of these two effects, the former was stronger than the latter. In addition, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on vigor through increasing social support. Although interpersonal helping behavior, which helps other workers may increase quantitative workload, leading to high levels of psychological stress responses, that same behavior strengthens trust and team spirit among workers and may
Khan, Aqeel; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Ahmad, Roslee; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Mahalle, Salwa
This study examined whether productive coping styles and social support were significant mediators of the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. The survey was performed on a sample of 300 Malaysian and 300 Indian college students. The participants completed psychological assessments of productive coping styles, social support, academic stress, and suicidal ideation. Significant cultural and demographic differences emerged. Indian students reported higher suicidal ideation and academic stress than did Malaysian students, and Malaysian students received more social support and had better problem-solving coping styles than did Indian students. Overall, students who were male, non-religious, and from low-income families reported more academic stress and more suicidal ideation. Productive coping styles and overall social support strongly affected the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation among both countries' participants.
Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don
Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources. Thereby increasing the
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed. 2007 APA
Struharňanský, Jozef; Stančeková, Dana; Martikáň, Anton; Varga, Daniel; Kuždál, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef
In this article, unconventional kinematics of turning is examined with the aim on influence of cutting parameters on surface layers residual stress. The auto-rotary cutting tool prototype for turning was developed, designed and constructed at the University of Zilina. The tool is made of high speed steel. Residual stress examination of material 100Cr6 was performed by non-destructive measuring method of X-ray diffraction. This method is able to determine normal and shear stress conditions without damaging the examined sample.
Cunliffe, Vincent T
Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the processes through which social stressors erode health in humans and other animals. Here I review progress in elucidating the biological pathways underlying the social gradient in health, with particular emphasis on how behavioral stresses influence epigenomic variation linked to health. The evidence that epigenetic changes are involved in embedding of social status-linked chronic stress is reviewed in the context of current knowledge about behavior within animal dominance hierarchies and the impacts of social position on behaviors that affect health. The roles of epigenetic mechanisms in responses to trauma and the evidence for their involvement in intergenerational transmission of the biological impacts of traumatic stress are also considered. Taken together, the emerging insights have important implications for development of strategies to improve societal health and well-being.
Karatekin, Canan; Ahluwalia, Rohini
The goal of the study was to describe the nature of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) reported by undergraduates and to examine the effect of ACEs, perceived stress, and perceived social support on their health. Although respondents ( N = 321) had parents with relatively high levels of education and indicated generally high levels of social support, results nevertheless showed a relatively high level of mental health problems and rates of ACEs that were similar to those in the general population in the state. Those with higher levels of ACEs had greater levels of stress and lower levels of social support. ACEs, social support, and stress explained more than half the variance in mental health scores, with stress making the greatest contribution. Despite the fact that we used different measures and an independent sample, findings generally replicated a previous study. Results point to a need to increase awareness of the association between ACEs and health on college campuses, to examine the effects of ACEs in more detail, and to design ACE-informed programs for this population.
Polman, Remco; Borkoles, Erika; Nicholls, Adam R
This study investigated whether approach coping, avoidance coping, or perceptions of available social support mediated the relationship between Type D personality and perceived stress. Furthermore, this research also examined whether Type D moderated the relationship between perceived stress and symptoms of burnout. In this cross-sectional study, 334 (male N=180; female N=154) first-year undergraduate students completed the Type D Scale-14 (DS14), the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Cross-sectional. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that only resignation and withdrawal coping, but not social support partially mediated the relationship between Type D and perceived stress. A small moderation effect was found for the disengagement subscale of the burnout inventory, with Type D individuals experiencing higher levels of disengagement at low and average stress levels. The correlations between variables provided support for most of the prediction from the literature with regard to Type D. Of the participants in the present study, 24.9% were classified as Type D. These individuals tend to use more passive and maladaptive avoidance coping strategies such as resignation and withdrawal. This is associated with higher levels of perceived stress and linked to increased levels of burnout symptoms.
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Dik, Bryan J
This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms. Holding stress constant, only support from family was related to self-rated physical health and only support from friends or romantic partners was associated with depressive symptoms. There were no gender differences in the mean levels of self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms. However, gender moderations were found, in that the positive relationship between friends support and physical health was observed only in women, that the association between friends support and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women, and that family support buffered the negative relationship between stress and physical health only in men. Findings of this study suggest that the associations among stress, social support, and health vary by the sources of support, the health outcome, and gender. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K
Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (p<0.05 or 95% CI did not include 1.0) greater substance use among students who identified as lesbian/gay or bisexual than students who identified as heterosexual. APRs for injection drug use decreased substantially among lesbian/gay (PR=12.02 vs APR=2.14) and bisexual (PR=2.62 vs APR=1.18) students; the APR for bisexual students became nonsignificant. In addition, APRs among both lesbian/gay and bisexual students decreased substantially and were no longer statistically significant for cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin use. School-based substance use prevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark
The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.
Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth
Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…
Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.
The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.
Hamilton, Peter J; Burek, Dominika J; Lombroso, Sonia I; Neve, Rachael L; Robison, Alfred J; Nestler, Eric J; Heller, Elizabeth A
Chronic social defeat stress regulates the expression of Fosb in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to promote the cell-type-specific accumulation of ΔFosB in the two medium spiny neuron (MSN) subtypes in this region. ΔFosB is selectively induced in D1-MSNs in the NAc of resilient mice, and in D2-MSNs of susceptible mice. However, little is known about the consequences of such selective induction, particularly in D2-MSNs. This study examined how cell-type-specific control of the endogenous Fosb gene in NAc regulates susceptibility to social defeat stress. Histone post-translational modifications (HPTMs) were targeted specifically to Fosb using engineered zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs). Fosb-ZFPs were fused to either the transcriptional repressor, G9a, which promotes histone methylation or the transcriptional activator, p65, which promotes histone acetylation. These ZFPs were expressed in D1- vs D2-MSNs using Cre-dependent viral expression in the NAc of mice transgenic for Cre recombinase in these MSN subtypes. We found that stress susceptibility is oppositely regulated by the specific cell type and HPTM targeted. We report that Fosb-targeted histone acetylation in D2-MSNs or histone methylation in D1-MSNs promotes a stress-susceptible, depressive-like phenotype, while histone methylation in D2-MSNs or histone acetylation in D1-MSNs increases resilience to social stress as quantified by social interaction behavior and sucrose preference. This work presents the first demonstration of cell- and gene-specific targeting of histone modifications, which model naturally occurring transcriptional phenomena that control social defeat stress behavior. This epigenetic-editing approach, which recapitulates physiological changes in gene expression, reveals clear differences in the social defeat phenotype induced by Fosb gene manipulation in MSN subtypes.
Mothersill, O; Donohoe, G
Social environmental stress, including childhood abuse and deprivation, is associated with increased rates of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. However, the neural mechanisms mediating risk are not completely understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have reported effects of social environmental stress on a variety of brain regions, but interpretation of results is complicated by the variety of environmental risk factors examined and different methods employed. We examined brain regions consistently showing differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in individuals exposed to higher levels of environmental stress by performing a coordinate-based meta-analysis on 54 functional MRI studies using activation likelihood estimation (ALE), including an overall sample of 3044 participants. We performed separate ALE analyses on studies examining adults (mean age ⩾18 years) and children/adolescents (mean age environmental stress across multiple studies. These clusters incorporated several brain regions, among which the right amygdala was most frequently implicated. These findings suggest that a variety of social environmental stressors is associated with differences in the BOLD response of specific brain regions such as the right amygdala in both children/adolescents and adults. What remains unknown is whether these environmental stressors have differential effects on treatment response in these brain regions.
Nyklicek, I.; Irrmischer, M.
The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling forsociodemographicactors.Meditation-naïvearticipants from the general
Full Text Available Stress situations continue to represent an important factor of everyday life. The significance and role of stress are even greater in competitive sports. If not dealt with effectively, the pressure and demands of stress can reach proportions that seriously endanger the competitor. In the present study I examined the types of strategies chess players use in coping with stress situations during a single game aswell as through an entire tournament. In order to attain success, they need to overcome all stress factors. I further examined, to what extent and in what way chess players' coping strategies are effected by the support they have at hand in their social environment. Results obtained were compared with a group of non-chess players. The results have shown that chess players use a specific method of coping, which is, unexpectedly, directed more "away from the problem". The main reason for this may be that a loss of a chess game represents a situation, which is stressful and at the same time unalterable. Social support(emotional and practical attainable if need be, is perceived to a far greater extent by chess players than by non-chess players. The results attained from this study can be beneficial in the field of sport psychology, which frequently deals with similar performance patterns.
Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.
Cotter, Jack; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Papas, Alicia; Allott, Kelly; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison R; Thompson, Andrew
Social and role functioning are compromised for the majority of individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, and it is important to identify factors that contribute to this functional decline. This study aimed to investigate social cognitive abilities, which have previously been linked to functioning in schizophrenia, as potential factors that impact social, role and global functioning in ultra-high risk patients. A total of 30 ultra-high risk patients were recruited from an established at-risk clinical service in Melbourne, Australia, and completed a battery of social cognitive, neurocognitive, clinical and functioning measures. We examined the relationships between all four core domains of social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind, social perception and attributional style), neurocognitive, clinical and demographic variables with three measures of functioning (the Global Functioning Social and Role scales and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale) using correlational and multiple regression analyses. Performance on a visual theory of mind task (visual jokes task) was significantly correlated with both concurrent role ( r = 0.425, p = 0.019) and global functioning ( r = 0.540, p = 0.002). In multivariate analyses, it also accounted for unique variance in global, but not role functioning after adjusting for negative symptoms and stress. Social functioning was not associated with performance on any of the social cognition tasks. Among specific social cognitive abilities, only a test of theory of mind was associated with functioning in our ultra-high risk sample. Further longitudinal research is needed to examine the impact of social cognitive deficits on long-term functional outcome in the ultra-high risk group. Identifying social cognitive abilities that significantly impact functioning is important to inform the development of targeted intervention programmes for ultra-high risk individuals.
Bear, Stephen E.
Organic Delights is an experiential exercise designed to help undergraduate business students learn about corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this exercise, students assume the role of a senior manager of a fictional restaurant and caterer. The challenge for the managers is to evaluate and choose among six proposals to promote the company's…
It has become common practice for brands to seek endorsements from other parties, such as celebrities or experts. With the emergence of social media, brands’ portfolio of endorsers has been extended to the consumer. For instance, consumers engage into positive electronic word of mouth about their
Brooks, Stoney L.
This dissertation is concerned with investigating topics surrounding the phenomenon of social media usage. Essay One draws from the technology acceptance literature by utilizing concepts from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and the model of hedonic technology acceptance. The…
Full Text Available Social funds and large-scale community driven development (CDD programmes are a popular policy instrument in post-conflict situations. This is partly because they are seen to alleviate pressure on governments to deliver development and reconstruction outcomes by transferring resources and responsibilities to community actors. However, part of their popularity can also be explained by claims that social funds and CDD programmes have the (transformative potential to generate impacts beyond meeting basic needs, such as creating more peaceful societies at the local level and promoting trust in government. Drawing on a rigorous, evidence focused literature review, which began with researchers following a formal systematic review protocol, this practice note assesses the performance of 13 programmes against three distinct sets of impact indicators: (i incomes, enterprise and access to services; (ii social cohesion, stability and violence; and (iii state-society relations. It is concluded that, although our understanding of the effectiveness of social funds and CDD in conflict-affected environments is limited by a low number of rigorous evaluations across a diverse range of contexts, as well as by an insufficient investigation of the relevant causal mechanisms, the findings so far suggest cause for cautious optimism.
Adams, Amy; Lomax, Geoffrey; Santarini, Anthony
Research suggests that the representation of scientific and medical issues in the traditional media such as newspapers, TV and radio is an important determinant of public opinion and related public policy outcomes, particularly with regard to attitudes toward stem cell research. With the emergence of social media, the discursive space around public policy issues has expanded to include a new demographic of media consumer who is directly involved in political action. However, little is known about the influence of social media on scientific public policy conversations. We analyzed Twitter posts on two topics relating to stem cell science and policy according to the originator and tone of the tweet, and whether the tweet was intended to be neutral or to further a stated policy position. This analysis provides a means for clarifying the role of social media in influencing public opinion of policy issues such as stem cell research and offers organizations a better understanding of how to more effectively apply social media to advancing their stem cell policy positions.
Wells, Richard A.; And Others
Academic inbreeding--selecting former students of an institution to its faculty--was found to be prevalent in graduate schools of social work, but not related to an institution's ranking on measures of prestige, scholarly or professional productivity, and teaching quality. It was concluded that inbreeding is not predictive of institutional or…
Young adults represent the most avid users of social network sites, and they are also the most concerned with their online identity management, according to the Pew Internet and American Life Project. These practices represent important literate activity today, as individuals who are writing online learn to negotiate interfaces, user agreements,…
Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Toyoda, Atsushi
The chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model is a potentially useful system for understanding stress responses to social environments. We previously developed a mouse model of subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) that exhibits increased body weight gain and food intake following polydipsia-like features. sCSDS mice also show avoidance behavior in a social interaction test. In this study, we examined the effects of diet quality on susceptibility to sCSDS by feeding these mice semi- and non-purified diets. Male C57BL/6J (B6; n = 82) mice were exposed to sCSDS using male ICR mice. The B6 mice were divided into four test groups: semi-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, non-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, semi-purified diet + control (no sCSDS), and non-purified diet + control. Although increased body weight, and food and water intake following sCSDS exposure were consistently observed in the groups that were fed semi- and non-purified diets, social avoidance behavior was influenced by food type (i.e., sCSDS mice fed semi-purified diet showed the greatest social avoidance behavior). In addition, the rates of stress susceptibility were estimated at 73.9 and 34.8% in sCSDS mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively (P diets, respectively. These results suggest that diet quality affects the vulnerability of mice to social defeat stress.
Mackin, D M; Perlman, G; Davila, J; Kotov, R; Klein, D N
The effect of life stress on suicidal symptoms during adolescence is well documented. Stressful life events can trigger suicidality, but most adolescents are resilient and it is unclear which factors protect against the deleterious impact of stress. Social support is thought to be one such factor. Therefore, we investigated the buffering effect of specific sources of social support (parental and peer) on life stress (interpersonal and non-interpersonal) in predicting suicidal symptoms during adolescence. In order to test the specificity of this stress buffering, we also examined it with regard to dysphoric mood. Data come from the Adolescent Development of Emotions and Personality Traits (ADEPT) Project, a cohort of 550 adolescent females aged 13.5-15.5 recruited from Long Island. Self-reported social support, suicidality, and dysphoria were assessed at baseline and suicidality and dysphoria were assessed again at 9-month follow-up. Life stress was assessed by interview at the follow-up. High levels of parental support protected adolescent girls from developing suicidal symptoms following a stressor. This effect was less pronounced for peer support. Also, social support did not buffer the pathogenic effects of non-interpersonal stress. Finally, social support did not buffer the effect of life stress on dysphoric symptoms. Altogether, our results highlight a distinct developmental pathway for the development of suicidal symptoms involving parental support that differs from the development of dysphoria, and signifies the importance and specificity of social support in protecting against suicidality in adolescent girls.
Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy
Throughout the world people differ in the magnitude with which they value strong family ties or heightened religiosity. We propose that this cross-cultural variation is a result of a contingent psychological adaptation that facilitates in-group assortative sociality in the face of high levels of parasite-stress while devaluing in-group assortative sociality in areas with low levels of parasite-stress. This is because in-group assortative sociality is more important for the avoidance of infection from novel parasites and for the management of infection in regions with high levels of parasite-stress compared with regions of low infectious disease stress. We examined this hypothesis by testing the predictions that there would be a positive association between parasite-stress and strength of family ties or religiosity. We conducted this study by comparing among nations and among states in the United States of America. We found for both the international and the interstate analyses that in-group assortative sociality was positively associated with parasite-stress. This was true when controlling for potentially confounding factors such as human freedom and economic development. The findings support the parasite-stress theory of sociality, that is, the proposal that parasite-stress is central to the evolution of social life in humans and other animals.
Liviu George Crisan
Full Text Available Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD. This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that, in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples.
Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.
Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658
Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C
We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mühl, C.; Jeunet, Camille; Lotte, Fabien
Stress is a major societal issue with negative impacts on health and economy. Physiological computing offers a continuous, direct, and unobtrusive method for stress level assessment and computer-assisted stress management. However, stress is a complex construct and its physiology can vary depending on its source: cognitive workload or social evaluation. To study the feasibility of physiology-based load-invariant psychosocial stress-detection, we designed a stress-induction protocol able to in...
BUUNK, BP; HOORENS, [No Value
This paper first presents four different conceptualizations of social support: social integration, satisfying relationships, perceived helpfulness and enacted support. Then, classic and contemporary social comparison theory and social exchange theory are analysed as they are two theoretical
Mercer, Natalie; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and
Mercer, N.; Crocetti, E; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S
Background and Objectives: Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and
海老原, 修; 横山, 文人; 宮下, 充正
This study was designed to clarify reciprocal influences in sport socialization. Parent-effects were assessed by their sport involvement before their child participated in organized sport, whereas child-effects were measured by a parent's attitudinal and behavioral changes of sport involvement caused by a child's participation. Eight indicators of sport involvement were selected as follows: 3 types of interest in sport involvement such as activities, sport consumption, and sport activity in o...
Nagamine, M; Nakamura, N
The present study examined individual differences in psychological and physiological stress responses to the same stressor. In Study 1, psychological stress responses were assessed at three time periods: four weeks before, the day before, and the middle day of the semester-end examination period (N = 69). Both stress coping and MPI were assessed once during the study. In Study 2, 15 subjects were exposed to the same psychological stressor in an experiment to measure heart rate. The stressors were memorization of material relevant to the examination (Test 1), and mental calculation irrelevant to the examination (Test 2). Subjects were divided into 2 groups on the basis of their Study 1 psychological stress response scores: the low stress group (LS, N = 10) and the high stress group (HS, N = 5). The results of Study 1 and Test 1 of Study 2 suggested that there were significant differences between LS and HS in stress responses. These findings were discussed in light of cognitive appraisal and controllability of time. Further studies are needed to clarify the aspect of time span in cognitive appraisal.
Hall, Cristin M.
The present study examined the social network perceptions of fifth grade rejected students (N = 723). Rejected students were separated into low-, medium-, and high-social prominence subtypes. Cluster analysis was also used to create analytically-derived subtypes of rejected students including the following characteristics: social network…
Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A; Flack, John M; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan
According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol, and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lanni, Kimberly E.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the physiological stress and anxiety responses in children with autism following completion of a standardized, social-evaluative stressor (Trier Social Stress Test-Child version), document the relationship between verbal ability, stress, and anxiety, and determine the association between stress and anxiety in children with autism and typical development. Results demonstrated the Trier Social Stress Test-Child version to be a benign stressor for children...
Jacobson, Roi; Cohen, Hagit; Diamond, Gary M
Gender non-conforming behavior and a homosexual sexual orientation have both been linked to higher levels of anxiety. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of gender atypicality and sexual orientation on levels of state anxiety immediately following a stressful social interaction task among a sample of homosexual and heterosexual Israeli men (n = 36). Gender atypicality was measured via both self-report and observer ratings. State anxiety was measured via both self-report immediately subsequent to the stressful social interaction task and pre- to post task changes in salivary cortisol. Results showed that self-reported gender atypicality and heterosexual sexual orientation predicted higher levels of self-reported social interaction anxiety, but not changes in cortisol. There were no sexual orientation by gender behavior interactions and there were no significant effects for observer rated gender atypicality. These findings suggest that gender atypicality, not homosexuality, place individuals at risk for increased anxiety.
Henriques-Alves, Aron M; Queiroz, Claudio M
In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.
Aron Miranda Henriques-Alves
Full Text Available In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (> 150 s and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.
Maniaci, G.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Cannizzaro, C.; van Holst, R. J.
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)
Laohawattanakun, Janejira; Chearskul, Supornpim; Dumrongphol, Hattaya; Jutapakdeegul, Nuanchan; Yensukjai, Juntima; Khumphan, Nipaporn; Niltiean, Songwit; Thangnipon, Wipawan
Several pieces of evidence suggest that academic examinations fulfill the classical requirement of a psychological stressor. Academic examinations represent a stressful challenge to many students, but studies on examination-dependent corticosteroid response, a sensitive physiological indicator of a stress response, are inconsistent. In addition, several studies showed that music can decrease cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and other studies have found that music also may enhance a variety of cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, communication and memory. The present study investigated cortisol response in saliva of Thai adolescents taking academic examinations and analyzed the differences of the stress response between musician and control subjects. Also, we observed whether the academic examination-dependent corticosteroid response affected learning and memory in the test subjects, which comprised 30 musician and 30 control students, age ranging from 15 to 17 years. Mathematical examinations were used as the stressor. Pre- and post-academic examination saliva cortisol levels were measured including self-estimated stress levels. Results showed that the pre-academic examination saliva cortisol concentrations of the musician group are significantly lower than those of the control group, whereas there is no difference in the stress inventory scores. Interestingly, among students with grade point average (GPA) of >3.50, pre-academic examination cortisol levels are significantly lower in the musician compared with control group. This study suggests that under academic examination-induced stress condition, music training can reduce saliva cortisol level in Thai adolescents. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M
In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato
Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.
Woodhead, Erin L; Northrop, Lynn; Edelstein, Barry
Long-term care nursing staff are subject to considerable occupational stress and report high levels of burnout, yet little is known about how stress and social support are associated with burnout in this population. The present study utilized the job demands-resources model of burnout to examine relations between job demands (occupational and personal stress), job resources (sources and functions of social support), and burnout in a sample of nursing staff at a long-term care facility (N = 250). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that job demands (greater occupational stress) were associated with more emotional exhaustion, more depersonalization, and less personal accomplishment. Job resources (support from supervisors and friends or family members, reassurance of worth, opportunity for nurturing) were associated with less emotional exhaustion and higher levels of personal accomplishment. Interventions to reduce burnout that include a focus on stress and social support outside of work may be particularly beneficial for long-term care staff. © The Author(s) 2014.
Llerena, Katiah; Park, Stephanie G; Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J
Social anhedonia is a promising indicator for the vulnerability towards developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and is an important determinant of the social impairment associated with these disorders. It is unknown if social anhedonia is associated with true deficits in experiential reactions or if lower social functioning in social anhedonia reflects behavioral deficits in social skill or initiation of social contact. Using a novel social interaction task, the current study compared controls (n=60) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=49) on observer-rated social skill and facial affect and participant self-reports of their experiential reactions to an affiliative interaction. Compared to the control group, the social anhedonia group was rated as behaviorally less affiliative and less socially skilled during the affiliative interaction. In response to the social interaction, the social anhedonia group reported less change in positive affect, less willingness to engage in future social interactions with the interaction partner, and less positive reactions toward the interaction partner compared to controls. There were no group differences in facial displays of emotion. Using a standardized affiliative stimulus, it was demonstrated that individuals high in social anhedonia have alterations in both their social skill and in their self-reported experiential reactions during a social interaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lanni, Kimberly E.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the physiological stress and anxiety responses in children with autism following completion of a standardized, social-evaluative stressor (Trier Social Stress Test-Child version), document the relationship between verbal ability, stress, and anxiety, and determine the association between stress and anxiety…
Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.
This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…
Tyler, Kimberly; Melander, Lisa; Almazan, Elbert
Although self-mutilation has been studied from medical and individual perspectives, it has rarely been examined within a social stress context. As such, we use a social stress framework to examine risk factors for self-mutilation to determine whether status strains that are often associated with poorer health outcomes in the general population are also associated with self-mutilation among a sample of young adults in the United States who have a history of homelessness. Data are drawn from the Homeless Young Adult project which involved interviews with 199 young adults in 3 Midwestern United States cities. The results of our path analyses revealed that numerous stressors including running away, substance use, sexual victimization, and illegal subsistence strategies were associated with more self-mutilation. In addition, we found that certain social statuses exacerbate the risk for self-mutilation beyond the respondents’ current situation of homelessness. We discuss the implications of our findings for the social stress framework and offer suggestions for studying this unique population within this context. PMID:19879026
Hsu, I-Chen; Geist, Eugene A.
This article reports the findings of a study to examine the practicality and efficacy of using tablet computers in the Higher Education classroom. Students in a senior level teacher preparation class were provided with Apple iPads for 10 weeks to aid in their studies. The iPads were preloaded with selected software but students were encouraged to…
House, Emily Anne
This analysis presents the public costs of high school dropouts in Oregon. It examines how dropouts in the state dramatically impact state finances through reduced tax revenues, increased Medicaid costs, and high incarceration rates. This study describes how much high school dropouts cost Oregon's tax-payers each year, and how much could be saved…
Ms. Coral Barboza; Dr. Babu Thomas
The nature of work of professionals and their family life may very often expose them to high level of stress which has the potential of affecting their productive and earning capacity. Coping strategies have been the subject of many studies and various suggestions have been made regarding the most appropriate way to categorise them in terms of function and efficacy (Amble, 2006; Buys et al., 2010). The goal of the current study was to examine how social coping mechanisms are helpful to employ...
Pourseyyed SM; Motevalli MM; Pourseyyed SR; Barahimi Z
Aims: Academic burnout is of most important researchable issues in the universities and identifying its predictor variables is very important. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship of perceived stress, perfectionism and social support with academic burnout and academic performance in students. Instrument & Methods: In this inexperimental study with correlative design, 200 students of basic sciences of general medical of Ahvas Jundishapur Unive...
Maes, M; Van Der Planken, M; Van Gastel, A; Bruyland, K; Van Hunsel, F; Neels, H; Hendriks, D; Wauters, A; Demedts, P; Janca, A; Scharpé, S
Some recent reports showed that a brief exposure to a mental stressor during 3-20 min may induce hematological changes in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of academic examination stress on erythron variables, such as the number of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell Hb (MCH), mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC), RBC distribution width (RDW), and serum iron and transferrin (Tf). The above variables were determined in 41 students in three conditions, i.e. the stress condition (the day before a difficult oral exam) and two baseline conditions, i.e. a few weeks earlier and later. At the same occasions, subjects completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Academic examination stress significantly increased Ht, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC and significantly decreased RDW. There were significant relationships between the stress-induced changes in the PSS, STAI and POMS scores and those in Ht, Hb, MCV and MCH (allpositive) and RDW (negative). It is concluded that academic examination stress induces significant hematological changes indicative of an increased number of large RBC and increased hemoglobinisation, which cannot be explained by shifts of fluid out of the intravascular space, concentrating non-diffusible blood constituents.
Wong, Celia Ching Yee; Correa, Alma; Robinson, Kendall; Lu, Qian
Acculturative stress has been linked to psychological distress, but few studies have explored the moderating role of social constraints on this relationship. Social constraints are the perception that social networks are unsupportive to stressor-related discussions. In the present study, the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrants and the moderating role of social constraints in this relationship were examined. Participants were 306 college students (169 Hispanics/Latinos, 137 Asians; 33.9% first-generation immigrants, 66.1% second-generation immigrants) from two Texas universities. Correlation results showed that acculturative stress and social constraints were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. In addition, regression results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect among acculturative stress, social constraints, and racial/ethnic groups. Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Asians but not in Hispanics/Latinos. Significant association between acculturative stress and psychological distress was found in Asians with higher levels of social constraints but not in Asians with lower levels of social constraints. These findings suggested that the interaction effect of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress may be subject to cultural influences, and social constraints may have differential roles in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. Potential implications on the development of culturally adaptive interventions for different racial/ethnic minority groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ham, Lindsay S; Casner, Hilary G; Bacon, Amy K; Shaver, Jennifer A
According to the Stress Response Dampening model, problem drinking develops after learning that alcohol limits the stress response in anxiety-provoking situations. However, laboratory-based studies testing alcohol's effects on social anxiety have yielded mixed results. The current study was the first to examine stress response dampening across two contexts: a performance-based (a speech) and an interaction-based (a conversation) social situation. Undergraduates (N = 62; M(age) = 22.85; 31% women; 81% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to consume an alcoholic (target BAC = .08%; n = 22), placebo (n = 20), or nonalcoholic control (n = 20) beverage followed by the anxiety-inducing social tasks. Results revealed a 3 (alcohol condition) × 2 (social task condition) × 4 (measurement point) interaction, controlling for baseline subjective state anxiety and trait social anxiety. The pattern of scores over the course of the task varied across alcohol conditions for the speech, but not the conversation. Specifically, participants in the alcohol and placebo conditions evidenced increased subjective anxiety following the first measurement point prior to the speech and their anxiety remained elevated at all subsequent measurements. Participants in the nonalcoholic control condition evidenced stable subjective anxiety ratings for all speech measurement points. Results did not support stress response dampening for either type of social situation. Instead, the only between-group difference found was that the placebo group reported greater subjective anxiety than the nonalcoholic control group after the speech. Concerns about alcohol's negative effects on one's performance might have led to increased anxiety. Findings shed light on previous inconsistent findings and highlight the need to consider context and timing in understanding drinking to cope with social anxiety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willie, Tiara C; Powell, Adeya; Kershaw, Trace
Adolescent and young mothers transitioning from pregnancy to postpartum need to maintain an optimal quality of life. Stress and exposure to violence (e.g., intimate partner violence (IPV), nonpartner violence) are predictors of poor quality of life for adult women; however, these associations remain understudied among adolescent and young mothers in urban areas. Guided by the social ecological model, the current study created a latent variable, urban social stress, to examine the impact of the urban social environment (i.e., stressful life events, discrimination, family stress, and neighborhood problems) on the quality of life of adolescent and young mothers during both pregnancy and postpartum. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 296 expectant young mothers recruited at obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Results from structural equation and multigroup models found that higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life during pregnancy, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-exposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. In the postpartum period, higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-unexposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. Stress reduction programs need to help adolescent and young mothers in urban areas develop stress management skills specific to urban social stress. Pregnancy and parenting programs need to be tailored to the specific needs of young mothers in urban areas by becoming sensitive to the role of IPV and nonpartner violence in these young women's lives.
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
Mexican-origin adolescent mothers face numerous social challenges during dual-cultural adaptation that are theorized to contribute to greater depressive symptoms. Alongside challenges, there are familial resources that may offer protection. As such, the current study examined the trajectories of depressive symptoms among 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.80, SD = 1.00) across a 4-year period (3rd trimester of pregnancy, and 10, 24, and 36 months postpartum). Further, we examined the within-person relations of two unique sources of stress experienced during the dual-cultural adaptation process, acculturative and enculturative stress, and youths’ depressive symptoms; we also tested whether adolescent mothers’ perceptions of warmth from their own mothers emerged as protective. Adolescent mothers reported a decline in depressive symptoms after the transition to parenthood. Acculturative and enculturative stress emerged as significant positive within-person predictors of depressive symptoms. Maternal warmth emerged as a protective factor in the relation between enculturative stressors and depressive symptoms; however, for acculturative stressors, the protective effect of maternal warmth only emerged for U.S.-born youth. Findings illustrate the multi-dimensionality of stress experienced during the cultural adaptation process and a potential mechanism for resilience among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. PMID:25004391
Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B
Mexican-origin adolescent mothers face numerous social challenges during dual-cultural adaptation that are theorized to contribute to greater depressive symptoms. Alongside challenges, there are familial resources that may offer protection. As such, the current study examined the trajectories of depressive symptoms among 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (M age = 16.80, SD = 1.00) across a 4-year period (third trimester of pregnancy, and 10, 24, and 36 months postpartum). Further, we examined the within-person relations of two unique sources of stress experienced during dual-cultural adaptation, acculturative and enculturative stress, and youths' depressive symptoms; we also tested whether adolescent mothers' perceptions of warmth from their own mothers emerged as protective. Adolescent mothers reported a decline in depressive symptoms after the transition to parenthood. Acculturative and enculturative stress emerged as significant positive within-person predictors of depressive symptoms. Maternal warmth emerged as a protective factor in the relation between enculturative stressors and depressive symptoms; however, for acculturative stressors, the protective effect of maternal warmth only emerged for US-born youth. Findings illustrate the multidimensionality of stress experienced during the cultural adaptation process and a potential mechanism for resilience among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.
Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, María; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martín
Academic stress negatively affects students' performance. However, little is known of the processes that may be involved in this association. This study aimed to analyze how other variables such as coping strategies and exam-related self-efficacy could be related to academic stress and performance for dental students. An online survey, including measures of coping strategies, perceived stress, exam-related self-efficacy, and academic performance, was completed by undergraduate dental students in Madrid, Spain. Of the 275 students invited to take the survey, 201 participated (response rate 73.6%). Rational coping strategies (problem-solving, positive reappraisal, seeking social support) were negatively associated with perceived stress (β=-0.25, pacademic stress (β=0.34, pstress (β=-0.30, pstress during the examination period was found to be associated with poorer average grades (β=-0.21, pstress for dental students and, through their effect on exam-related self-efficacy appraisals, contribute to improved academic performance.
Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Smith, Isabel M; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabaggh, Mayada; Thompson, Ann
This study examined the longitudinal associations between child behavior problems, coping strategies, social resources, and parenting stress in mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants were 283 mothers who completed self- and child-report measures at the time of diagnosis and 2 years later. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to predict overall parenting stress. At diagnosis, the final model indicated that high levels of social support and mothers' use of active engaged coping strategies were associated with lower levels of parenting stress. Conversely, high levels of child externalizing behavior problems, family dysfunction, and mothers' use of disengaged coping strategies were associated with higher parenting stress. Two years later, high levels of parenting stress at diagnosis predicted increased parenting stress. In addition, high or increasing levels of social support predicted a decrease in parenting stress, while high or increasing levels of family dysfunction predicted increased stress. Finally, increased use of disengaged coping strategies and decreased use of active coping strategies over time predicted higher levels of parenting stress. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the provision of targeted supports that are designed to enhance the personal and social resources available to mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.
Allen, Mike; And Others
An article on interethnic communication by J. Martin, M. Hecht, and L. Larkey in "Communication Monographs" (1994) suggests some important issues for understanding the potential impact of culture on communication practices--researchers might examine such variations in communication in future research. "Culture" is an ambiguous…
Good, Robert A.
This dissertation reports on a qualitative investigation of two research questions: What experiences lead secondary social studies teachers to become passionate and committed to teaching toward social justice? How do these teachers conceptualize and practice teaching toward social justice in the social studies? The study, which employed a life…
Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic.
Pollard, Lawanda J; Bates, Larry W
To examine the relationship of religion and perceived stress, 97 undergraduate college students responded to the Perceived Stress Scale, the Spiritual Well-being Scale, and the Intrinsic/Extrinsic-Revised scale during a period of extreme national stressors during Fall 2001, namely, the September 11th terrorist attacks, anthrax scare, and war in Afghanistan, in addition to the local stressor of pending final college examinations. Scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were negatively correlated to scores on Existential Well-being (-.66), Religious Well-being (-.43), and Intrinsic Religious Orientation (-.44). Age was unrelated to all variables. Both the quality (well-being) of students' religious experience and the orientation of that experience were related to their perception of stress.
Castaldo, R; Xu, W; Melillo, P; Pecchia, L; Santamaria, L; James, C
Mental stress may cause cognitive dysfunctions, cardiovascular disorders and depression. Mental stress detection via short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis has been widely explored in the last years, while ultra-short term (less than 5 minutes) HRV has been not. This study aims to detect mental stress using linear and non-linear HRV features extracted from 3 minutes ECG excerpts recorded from 42 university students, during oral examination (stress) and at rest after a vacation. HRV features were then extracted and analyzed according to the literature using validated software tools. Statistical and data mining analysis were then performed on the extracted HRV features. The best performing machine learning method was the C4.5 tree algorithm, which discriminated between stress and rest with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of 78%, 80% and 79% respectively.
McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S
Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more
Ganesh, Gajalakshmi; U, Kavitha; B, Anandarajan; M, Chandrasekar
Introduction: Exam stress is a set of responses that includes excessive worry, depression, nervousness and irrelevant thinking to a class of stimuli from an individualâ€™s experience of assessment and outcome. The rationale of this study is to assess the examination related stress among the first year MBBS students by measuring BMI (body mass index) and VAS (VisualÂ analogue scale) as to determine the factors contributing to exam stress among first year medical students. Methods: The study w...
Loft, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Petrie, Keith J; Booth, Roger J; Miles, Jeremy; Vedhara, Kavita
The present study examined how cardiovascular and salivary cortisol responses varied in response to an acute challenge in medical students under exam stress versus those not under exam stress. One hundred and twenty-nine medical students were randomly assigned to undertake a CO2 inhalation test either prior to an examination period (exam group) or during a regular academic period (non-exam group). Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured for 5 min before and 5 min after the task, and salivary cortisol samples were collected 1 min before and 10 and 30 min after the CO2 inhalation test. Participants also completed a questionnaire measuring self-reported perceived stress. The exam group exhibited significantly higher HR reactivity following the CO2 inhalation test and slower systolic blood pressure (SBP) recovery compared with the non-exam group. The exam group also reported higher perceived stress and higher stress scores were related to higher HR reactivity following CO2 inhalation. Female students across both groups exhibited significantly lower SBP reactivity compared with male students. Salivary cortisol levels were consistently lower in the exam group. These findings indicate that ongoing natural stress alters cortisol secretion and cardiovascular responses in the face of an acute stress challenge.
Green, Matthew R; Barnes, Brittany; McCormick, Cheryl M
We investigated the effects of social instability stress (daily 1-hr isolation, change of cage partner, postnatal day 30-45) in adolescence in male rats on open field exploration and social behavior in adulthood. Social stressed rats had longer latencies to enter the center of an open field and then took longer to approach an object placed in the center of the field. When another rat was placed in the open field, stressed rats spent less time in social interaction than control rats, particularly when paired with another stressed, rather than a control, rat. The groups did not differ in social approach tests (when a stimulus rat was separated by wire mesh) nor in novel object exploration (when controlling for open field anxiety). The results suggest social stress in adolescence increases open field anxiety while maintaining exploratory behavior, and alters social interactions in adulthood. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wike, Traci L.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.; Grady, Melissa D.
Websites represent a visible medium for social work programs to communicate information about social work research, academics, and professional training priorities, including evidence-based practice (EBP). However, few studies have examined the content of social work program websites. This exploratory study aimed to answer the question: Are EBP…
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.
This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent
Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M
Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willey, Amanda R; Spear, Linda P
Adolescents drink largely in social situations, likely in an attempt to facilitate social interactions. This study sought to examine alterations in the incentive salience of a social stimulus following repeated stress exposure and acute ethanol administration in adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects were either exposed to 5days of restraint stress, chronic variable stress (CVS), which consisted of a different stressor every day, or non-stressed. On test day, the animals were injected with 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75g/kg ethanol and placed in a social approach test in which they could see, hear, and smell a social conspecific, but could not physically interact with it. All the animals showed an interest in the social stimulus, with adolescents engaging in more social investigation than adults. Restraint stressed adults showed ethanol-induced increases in social investigation, while ethanol effects were not seen in any other group. An ethanol-associated increase in 50kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) production was only evident in restraint stressed adolescents following 0.75g/kg ethanol. 50kHz USVs were not correlated with time spent investigating the social stimulus in any test condition. These results show that age differences in the facilitatory effects of ethanol on incentive salience of social stimuli are moderated by stress, with the facilitation of social approach by ethanol only evident in restraint stressed adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reich, Catherine M; Blackwell, Náthali; Simmons, Catherine A; Beck, J Gayle
Social factors are often associated with the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of interpersonal traumas. However, social problem solving strategies have received little attention. The current study explored the role of social problem solving styles (i.e., rational approaches, impulsive/careless strategies, or avoidance strategies) as intermediary variables between abuse exposure and PTSD severity among intimate partner violence survivors. Avoidance problem solving served as an intermediating variable for the relationship between three types of abuse and PTSD severity. Rational and impulsive/careless strategies were not associated with abuse exposure. These findings extend the current understanding of social problem solving among interpersonal trauma survivors and are consistent with more general avoidance coping research. Future research might examine whether avoidance problem solving tends to evolve in the aftermath of trauma or whether it represents a longstanding risk factor for PTSD development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lange, Claudia; Huber, Christian G; Fröhlich, Daniela; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Walter, Marc
HPA axis functioning plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). However, only few studies have examined HPA axis responsivity to psychosocial stress in SSD, and results are heterogeneous. Furthermore, childhood trauma is known to influence psychopathology and treatment outcome in SSD, but studies on the influence of childhood trauma on stress related HPA axis activity are missing. The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol response to a psychosocial stress challenge in SSD patients, and to examine its association with severity of childhood trauma. The present study included 25 subacutely ill patients with a current episode of a chronic SSD and 25 healthy controls. Participants underwent the modified Trier Social Stress Test, and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. The childhood trauma questionnaire was used to assess severity of adverse life events. Overall, cortisol response was blunted in the patient group compared to the control group (pchildhood trauma experience: responders had experienced more emotional abuse in their past (pchildhood trauma might influence stress-related HPA axis activity in SSD. Our data contribute to the hypothesis that severity of childhood trauma may be of pathophysiological relevance in schizophrenia. In addition, it may be an overlooked factor contributing to inconsistent findings regarding HPA axis response to psychosocial stress in SSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel
This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate academic stress, social support and their relationships with mental health and academic performance in university students. Three hundred and twenty one students from a technological university in Caracas, Venezuela, responded instruments on academic stress, social support and mental health during the most academically stressful period. The results indicate that favorable conditions of mental health were associated to more social support and less academic stress. In women, higher stress levels were associated to a lesser amount of social support from friends whereas in men stress was related to less social support coming from close people and general social support. Both displayed better performance when perceived higher levels of academic stress and the social support of the near people was moderate. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for academic life and mental health in university students.
Moral-Pumarega, M Teresa; Caserío-Carbonero, Sonia; De-La-Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Tejada-Palacios, Pilar; Lora-Pablos, David; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R
Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO), or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI) on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70) were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP) just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001). Median PIPP score (interquartile interval) at baseline was 4 (3-5). At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6-9) for BIO and 6 (5-7) for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006). The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. Methods The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70 were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Results Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001. Median PIPP score (interquartile interval at baseline was 4 (3–5. At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6–9 for BIO and 6 (5–7 for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006. The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p Conclusions A transient short-term pain and stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.
Loughead, Todd M.; Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Hoffmann, Matt; Boen, Filip
Two studies investigated the structure of different athlete leadership networks and its relationship to cohesion using Social Network Analysis. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between a general leadership network and measures of task and social cohesion using the Group Environment Questionnaire. In Study 2, we investigated the leadership networks for four different athlete leadership roles (task, motivational, social, and external) and their association with task and social cohesion....
Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Brownstone, Lisa M; Higgins, M K; Bardone-Cone, Anna M
Social physique anxiety has been found to be associated with disordered eating. However, what is not yet known is what behaviors college women may engage in that strengthen this relation. In the current study, we examined two possible moderating factors, social comparison and body surveillance. We examined whether these moderators might also generalize to trait anxiety, as well. Participants were 265 women attending a Southeastern university. Social comparison (both general and appearance-related) and body surveillance were tested as moderators of the relation between social physique anxiety and disordered eating. Results indicated that general social comparison, appearance-related social comparison, and body surveillance significantly moderated this relation. Individuals who were high in social physique anxiety and who reported high levels of general or appearance-related social comparison or body surveillance reported much higher levels of disordered eating than those with high social physique anxiety and low levels of these behaviors. Results indicated that only the trait anxiety×body surveillance interaction was significant in identifying elevated disordered eating. Results provide information regarding who may experience high levels of disordered eating in association with social physique anxiety, which has clinical implications including the conceptualization of social comparison and body surveillance as safety behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kattari, Shanna K.
In most societies, some social identity groups hold a disproportionate amount of social, cultural, and economic power, while other groups hold little. In contemporary U.S. society, examples of this power are evident around issues of ability/disability, with able-bodied individuals wielding social dominance and people with disabilities experiencing…
"Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…
Frisch, Johanna U; Häusser, Jan A; Mojzisch, Andreas
In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses.
Salgado, Hugo; Castañeda, Sheila F; Talavera, Gregory A; Lindsay, Suzanne P
There is evidence to suggest that Latino day laborers experience higher levels of acculturative stress than Latinos in employment sectors in the US. Given the stress-buffering role that social support plays in minimizing the negative physical and mental health outcomes of stress, this study examined this relationship in a sample of 70 Latino Day laborers in the northern San Diego area(100% male, mean age = 27.7, SD = 9.1). Results from multivariate regression analyses showed that there was a significant interaction effect between social support and acculturative stress (P = 0.025) on physical health, indicating that higher levels of social support buffered the negative effects of acculturative stress on physical health.Acculturative stress and social support were not associated with mental health status. Overall, these findings suggest that fostering social support may be an essential strategy for promoting health among Latino male day laborers.
Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A; Morenoff, Jeffrey D; Williams, David R; House, James S
Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts, may be the strength of social ties and social support among immigrants. We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study's Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed-effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition and our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants' length of time in the USA. After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their US-born counterparts for all the outcomes, except informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for US-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. US-born Latinos maintained a significant social ties advantage over immigrants - regardless of length of time in the USA - for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their US-born counterparts. Our study
Moeller, Christin; Chung-Yan, Greg A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how various types of workplace social support from different support sources interact with occupational stressors to predict the psychological well-being of university professors. Design/method/approach: A total of 99 full-time professors participated via an online or paper questionnaire. Findings:…
Costarelli, V; Patsai, A
It is well documented that stress and anxiety can affect eating behaviour and food intake in humans. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, restraint eating, body image, anxiety levels and self-esteem in a group of female university students. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. Sixty Greek female university students, 18-25 years old, have been recruited and completed, on two separate occasions: a) during an examination stress period, and b) during a control period, the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, the Body Image Pictorial Instrument Scale (COLLINS) and a specially designed General Background Questionnaire. Subjects reported significantly higher levels of disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26, p=0.01), higher levels of anxiety (p=0.000) and lower levels of self-esteem (p=0.016) during the examination stress period compared to the control period. Disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26) were significantly positively correlated with emotional eating (p=0.04) and restrained eating (p=0.010) and negatively correlated with levels of self-esteem (p=0.05) and perceived desired body image (p=0.008) during the exam stress period. Finally, EAT-26 was significantly positively correlated with levels of anxiety in both study periods. Academic examination stress seems to increase disordered eating symptomatology in female university students and is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, an important finding which warrants further investigation.
Makara Fuller, Kara
Students who have positive peer relations also tend to do better academically, and extensive research finds positive associations between students’ peer relations, motivation, and academic achievement. However, some adolescents may only be successful academically, or only socially, when at school. The current study expands upon previous research by examining the academic and social achievement goals of four groups of adolescent students: academic-social (high GPA and high number of peer nomin...
Chyi, Theresa; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Erica T.W.
Background Using Smith’s (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68) completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being. PMID:29302397
Full Text Available Background Using Smith’s (1986 cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68 completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980, and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001. Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being.
Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of our investigation is threefold. First, we assess the role of sustainable and social values as precursors of social innovation orientation, while taking into account interests as to financial returns. Second, we examine the role of social innovation orientation as an antecedent of a social entrepreneurship attitude. Third, we examine how attitude, subjective norms and entrepreneurship self-efficacy influence intentions of beginning a social entrepreneurship venture among Mexico residents. Design/methodology/approach – We conducted 745 surveys among low-income Mexico residents who expressed interest in initiating a social entrepreneurship venture. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized model. Findings – Results showed the positive influence of social values on social innovation orientation, while taking into account the influence of financial interests. Social innovation orientation, an attitude toward social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and subjective norms were identified as positive predictors of social entrepreneurial intentions. Originality/value – The paper provides useful information about the importance of values to understanding social innovation orientation and social entrepreneurship intentions.
Leedahl, Skye N; Chapin, Rosemary K; Little, Todd D
Testing a model based on past research and theory, this study assessed relationships between facility characteristics (i.e., culture change efforts, social workers) and residents' social networks and social support across nursing homes; and examined relationships between multiple aspects of social integration (i.e., social networks, social capital, social engagement, social support) and mental and functional health for older adults in nursing homes. Data were collected at nursing homes using a planned missing data design with random sampling techniques. Data collection occurred at the individual-level through in-person structured interviews with older adult nursing home residents (N = 140) and at the facility-level (N = 30) with nursing home staff. The best fitting multilevel structural equation model indicated that the culture change subscale for relationships significantly predicted differences in residents' social networks. Additionally, social networks had a positive indirect relationship with mental and functional health among residents primarily via social engagement. Social capital had a positive direct relationship with both health outcomes. To predict better social integration and mental and functional health outcomes for nursing homes residents, study findings support prioritizing that close relationships exist among staff, residents, and the community as well as increased resident social engagement and social trust. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Zhdanov, R I; Doinikova, A N; Zhdanova, S I; Chernokhvostov, Yu V; Gadzhieva, E S; Dvoenosov, V G
The work is aimed to an assessment of the correlation between of autonomic nervous system tone and the level of reactivity of the students' cardiovascular system and hemostasis system under examination stress. It was found that the students under exam stress are characterized with high values of respiration rate and with lower ones of tidal volume. The value of respiratory minute volume decreases in male students due to the bronchoconstrictor effects of stress at the tracheobronchial tree. This finding confirms a statistically significant reduction in the flow of small, medium and large bronchi, indicating an increased parasympathetic nervous system tone. A statistically significant increase in the power of fast waves as a result of determining heart rate variability in students of both hender during the exam also testifies the activation of the vagus nerve and can be used as a marker of exam stress. While exam stress, trombocrite value decreases and only femail students show a statistically significant reduction in the platelet number and increase of their volume. The tendency to increased thrombotic events under exam stress is demonstarated, being reached statistically significant differences in the case of female students--an increase in the initial thrombosis rate. In the case of mail students, an increase of prothrombin time value is testified under exam stress.
Sage E Hawn
Full Text Available Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST. The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress and objective (cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of heart rate (HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates.
Levy, Kira; Minnis, Alexandra M; Lahiff, Maureen; Schmittdiel, Julie; Dehlendorf, Christine
Although social networks are an increasingly recognized influence on contraceptive use, little is known about if and how social influences are discussed during women's contraceptive counseling visits. We performed a mixed-methods analysis of audio recordings of contraceptive counseling visits. We examined predictors of discussion of social influence arising in a contraceptive counseling visit and analyzed the content and process of social influence discussions. Social influences were mentioned in 42% of the 342 visits included in the sample, with these discussions most commonly initiated by patients. Younger patients were more likely to have social influence mentioned than older patients. The content of social influence focused on side effects and adverse events, with the sources of influence being predominantly patients' friends and the media, with little input from partners. Providers were more likely to engage around the content of the social influence than the social influence itself. The frequency with which social influence was mentioned in these visits supports the importance of women's social context on their contraceptive decision making. However, the fact that patients initiated the discussion in the majority of cases suggests that providers may not recognize the relevance of these influences or may not be comfortable engaging with them. Increasing providers' ability to elicit and engage patients about their social context with regard to contraception could enhance providers' ability to understand women's contraceptive preferences and provide appropriate counseling to address their specific concerns or questions. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robinaugh, Donald J; Marques, Luana; Traeger, Lara N; Marks, Elizabeth H; Sung, Sharon C; Gayle Beck, J; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M
Poor social support in the aftermath of a traumatic event is a well-established risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult trauma survivors. Yet, a great deal about the relationship between social support and PTSD remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed data from 102 survivors of a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA) at 4 weeks (Time 1) and 16 weeks (Time 2) post-MVA. We assessed the role of perceived dyadic social support, positive dyadic interaction, and negative dyadic interaction in the development and maintenance of PTSD. In addition, we examined how these social support constructs work together with negative post-trauma cognitions to affect the maintenance of PTSD. Neither perceived social support nor the quality of social interaction (i.e., positive or negative) was associated with PTSD symptom severity at Time 1. However, among those with elevated PTSD symptom severity at Time 1, greater social support and positive social interaction and lower negative social interaction were each associated with reductions in PTSD symptom severity from Time 1 to Time 2. For social support and negative social interaction, this association ceased to be significant when jointly assessed with negative post-trauma cognitions, suggesting that perceived social support and negative dyadic interaction were associated with maintenance of PTSD symptom severity because of their association with negative post-trauma cognitions. These results provide support to models and treatments of PTSD that emphasize the role of negative post-trauma cognitions in maintenance of PTSD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P
Alcohol consumption can be enhanced or moderated by sensitivity to its aversive and appetitive properties, including positive social outcomes. These differences emerge post-pubertally, suggesting a potential role of gonadal hormones. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in sensitivity to the social impairing and social context-related attenuations in the aversive effects of ethanol, prepubertal male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or sham (SH) operated on postnatal day (P) 25, or left non-manipulated (NM). In adulthood (P70), rats were restrained for 90 min prior to challenge with 0.0 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol and social interaction (SI) testing. At P77, groups of 4 same-sex littermates from the same surgical condition were given access to a supersaccharin (SS) solution (3% sucrose, 0.125% saccharin), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Intakes of SS were examined 24h later for expression of conditioned taste aversions. Acute stress prior to SI testing increased frequency of play fighting in both sexes, whereas there were no GX effects on this measure, social investigation nor contact. GX, however, decreased baseline social preference (a social anxiety-like effect) in males, while inducing anxiolytic-like increases in baseline social preference in females. The social drinking test revealed that females developed ethanol conditioned taste aversions at a lower dose relative to males, regardless of surgical condition. These findings suggest a potential role for gonadal hormones in moderating social-anxiety like behaviors but not sensitivity to the social impairing effects of ethanol or ethanol's aversive consequences in a social context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rizvi, Areeba Husain; Awaiz, Maha; Ghanghro, Zohra; Jafferi, Mehjabeen Ahmed; Aziz, Sina
Pre-examination Stress is a common condition faced by students prior to exams and is quite predominant among medical students. Many studies have been conducted to assess the impact of stress on students prior to examinations. This study however aims to determine the behavioural and physiological changes occurring in the second year medical students during the pre-examination period. Questionnaires were distributed among students to review the changes that occurred in medical students related to their behaviour, physical activities and functions just before exams. Duration of study was two months from October-November, 2009. The questionnaire was divided into two parts. The first part contained demographic information about the patient, the second part contained opinions of students experiencing pre-examination stress. SPSS was used for data management and approval from the Ethical Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences was obtained before starting the research. The data for this study was collected from 226 students of 2nd year MBBS, Dow Medical College, Karachi on specially designed questionnaires. Among the 226 students 22.1% were male while 77.9% were female with mean age 20 +/- 1 years. Changes observed in pre-examination period included anorexia, nausea, fatigue (54.87%), changed concentration span (80.09%), increased irritability (68.14%), mood swings (50.88%), disturbed menstrual cycle (15.91%), disturbed sleep cycle (80.97%), increased intake of caffeine/energy drinks (38.94%), disturbed metabolism (46.02%), aggravated skin problems such as acne (12.83%). Among the 226 students 42.04% did regular exercise and 76.12% prayed regularly. Both of these factors helped them in coping with stress. Majority included in our research experienced stress prior to exams but the signs and symptoms varied greatly. Irritability, increased intake of caffeine/energy drinks, and disturbed sleep cycle seemed to dominate physiological and behavioural changes in the
Meyer, Ilan H
Prejudice and stigma have been central to our understanding of the health and well-being of LGBT people using the minority stress perspective. Minority stress research has explained adverse health outcomes in LGBT populations and health disparities between LGBT and heterosexual cisgender populations. Recent shifts in the social environment of LGBT people in some regions of the world allow the experience a more accepting and inclusive society. These changes require that social scientist adapt their research agenda. The author calls for researchers to explore changes in stigma and prejudice toward sexual and gender minorities; assess the impact of changes in the social environment on the lived experiences of LGBT persons across generations and intersections of race/ethnicity, gender and gender expression, and socioeconomic status; describe changes in stress and coping of LGBT people; and examine whether social changes lead to reduction in health disparities by sexual orientation and gender diversity.
Jonel R. Alonzo
Full Text Available Many research studies have examined academic factors as predictors of success in licensure examination. The purpose of this descriptive discriminant analysis was to explore possible factors in passing social work licensure examination. Data were examined from academic records of 69 (37 passed and 32 failed Social Work graduates of the University of Mindanao who took Social Work Licensure Examination 2014. This can be used as a basis of Social Work program in planning and administering strategies to improve its national passing rates. Discriminant analysis was employed along five academic factors which are Human Behavior and Social Environment (HBSE, Social Work Programs and Policies (SWPP, Social Work Methods (SWM, Field Practice (FP and Grade Point Average (GPA. The analysis generated three significant predictors accounting for 76.22% of between group variability. The function had a hit ratio of 100%. Structure matrix revealed that three cluster subjects were identified as good factors of passing the social work licensure examination: HBSE, SWPP and SWM had a correlation value of 0.713, 0.768 and 0.840, respectively.
Jeans, Laurie M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Laxman, Daniel J.; McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative data set, we examined the extent to which mothers of preschool children with and without the diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) reported stress and depressive symptoms prior to and following diagnosis of ASD. At 4 years, approximately 100…
Winters, M.; Bakker, E. W. P.; Moen, M. H.; Barten, C. C.; Teeuwen, R.; Weir, A.
The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using
Guerry, J.D.; Prinstein, M.J.
Virtually no longitudinal research has examined psychological characteristics or events that may lead to adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This study tested a cognitive vulnerability-stress model as a predictor of NSSI trajectories. Clinically-referred adolescents (n = 143; 72% girls)
Erdiller, Z. B.; Dogan, Ö.
The purpose of this study is to examine the level of teacher stress experienced by Turkish early childhood education teachers working in public and private preschools serving children from three to six years of age. The participants of the study include 1119 early childhood education teachers gathered through simple random sampling. The data are…
Shin, HaeJin; Lee, Dong Hun; Yu, Kumlan; Ham, KyongAe
The purpose of the current study was to investigate a two-stage model in which parent-related stress and hopelessness each served as mediators of the relationship between perceived parental bonding and South Korean adolescent peer victimization. This study also examined whether the mediating relationships differed by the gender of parents and…
Risler, Ed; Kintzle, Sara; Nackerud, Larry
For approximately 35 seconds on January 10, 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck the small Caribbean nation of Haiti. This research used a preexperimental one-shot posttest to examine the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated trauma symptomatology from the earthquake experienced by a sample of…
Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Ishima, Tamaki; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Wagner, Karen M; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Yang, Chun; Yao, Wei; Dong, Chao; Han, Mei; Hammock, Bruce D; Hashimoto, Kenji
Depression is a severe and chronic psychiatric disease, affecting 350 million subjects worldwide. Although multiple antidepressants have been used in the treatment of depressive symptoms, their beneficial effects are limited. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the inflammation that is involved in depression. Thus, we examined here the role of sEH in depression. In both inflammation and social defeat stress models of depression, a potent sEH inhibitor, TPPU, displayed rapid antidepressant effects. Expression of sEH protein in the brain from chronically stressed (susceptible) mice was higher than of control mice. Furthermore, expression of sEH protein in postmortem brain samples of patients with psychiatric diseases, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, was higher than controls. This finding suggests that increased sEH levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain psychiatric diseases. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with TPPU prevented the onset of depression-like behaviors after inflammation or repeated social defeat stress. Moreover, sEH KO mice did not show depression-like behavior after repeated social defeat stress, suggesting stress resilience. The sEH KO mice showed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of its receptor TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, but not nucleus accumbens, suggesting that increased BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus confer stress resilience. All of these findings suggest that sEH plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression, and that epoxy fatty acids, their mimics, as well as sEH inhibitors could be potential therapeutic or prophylactic drugs for depression.
The popularization of “social media” has raised questions of how and why young people use these various technologies in their daily lives. This exploratory study proposes a classification system based on Rogers’ concept of technology clusters, which posits that likelihood of adoption is based around similar perceived characteristics of a technology or medium. Results from a survey administered to 401 undergraduates at a large southern university indicated that social and non-social technology...
Macrynikola, Natalia; Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella
Preventing self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is particularly challenging on commuter campuses, given lower social cohesion and higher levels of stress than among traditional college populations. The present study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk for different forms of SITBs, along with the potential buffering role of social connectedness, in a diverse sample of young adults from a commuter college. Participants were 1712 (81% female; 61% racial/ethnic minority; 20% sexual minority) undergraduate and graduate students from a public commuter college in New York City. Participants completed an anonymous survey that inquired about lifetime and recent (past 12months) history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with social connectedness and lifetime history of SLEs. Lower levels of social connectedness and exposure to a higher number of SLEs were associated with engaging in SITBs in the past year, particularly both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury. However, social connectedness did not buffer against the impact of SLEs on SITBs. Data are cross-sectional, limiting conclusions about directionality, and females were overrepresented. Identifying ways to increase social connectedness on diverse commuter campuses may help decrease risk of SITBs. However, it may not buffer against the impact of SLEs on risk of SITBs. Future studies should examine contextual variables (e.g., type and timing of social support) that may play a role in protecting against SITBs, particularly for those with a history of adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lemaire, V; Taylor, G T; Mormède, P
Stress in males via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may set into motion varied physiological alterations, including dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. However, the influence of the HPA on the HPG axis may not always be inhibitory. Presence or absence of stimuli of sexual significance that typically activates the HPG axis may alter the influence of the adrenal axis on gonadal axes. In this project, we used male rats and chronic social stimulation that included brief or extended periods with female rats to examine HPA-HPG axes interactions. In experiment 1, we used intact males and a 'chronic social stress' paradigm developed in our previous research that induces social instability by daily changing the membership of group-housed males with females. Thymus weight was reduced and corticosterone levels were marginally increased by chronic social stress, indicating a HPA axis hyperactivity. The HPG axis was also activated as shown by the increased weight of the androgen-sensitive sex structures. These results indicate that when these two axes are stimulated together, neither interferes with nor suppresses activities of the other. Implants of corticosterone pellets to adrenalectomized animals that maintained constant, high corticosterone levels failed to reverse the gonadal hyperactivity induced by sexual stimulation. In a second experiment, we studied the influence of different intensity of sexual stimulations on HPA-HPG axes interactions. Increased corticosterone levels and adrenal weight, indicating a HPA hyperactivity, failed to inhibit HPG hyperactivity as measured by the increased sexual organs weight, whatever the sexual intensity of the stimulation. This work demonstrates that the gonadal axis is freed from suppression when sexual stimulation occurs together with stress. The general conclusion is that the nature of complex social settings is important in determining interactions between the two neuroendocrine axes.
Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L.; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed
The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social…
Boeri, Miriam; Gardner, Megan; Gerken, Erin; Ross, Melissa; Wheeler, Jack
The purpose of this paper is to understand how people with problematic drug use access positive social capital. Social capital is defined as relations that provide valuable resources to individuals through participation in social networks. People with low socioeconomic status remain at a disadvantage for acquiring positive social capital, a component of recovery capital. The concept of social recovery emphasises the relational processes of recovery. In-depth life history data were collected from 29 individuals who used heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine for at least five years, have less than a high school education, and unstable employment and housing. Qualitative data were coded for social networks accessed throughout the life course, distinguished by bonding, bridging and linking social capital. Social networks included drug treatment programs; non-drug-using family and friends; religious/spiritual groups; workplace networks, and social clubs/activities. Bonding and/or bridging social capital were acquired through treatment, family and friends, religious/spiritual groups, workplaces, and social clubs. Linking social capital was not acquired through any social networks available, and many barriers to accessing mainstream social networks were found. This is a small study conducted in the US. A greater focus on social recovery is needed to achieve sustained recovery for individuals lacking access to and engagement in mainstream social networks. Social recovery is proposed as an analytical tool as well as for developing prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies.
Loughead, Todd M; Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Hoffmann, Matt D; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip
Two studies investigated the structure of different athlete leadership networks and its relationship to cohesion using social network analysis. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between a general leadership quality network and task and social cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). In Study 2, we investigated the leadership networks for four different athlete leadership roles (task, motivational, social and external) and their association with task and social cohesion networks. In Study 1, the results demonstrated that the general leadership quality network was positively related to task and social cohesion. The results from Study 2 indicated positive correlations between the four leadership networks and task and social cohesion networks. Further, the motivational leadership network emerged as the strongest predictor of the task cohesion network, while the social leadership network was the strongest predictor of the social cohesion network. The results complement a growing body of research indicating that athlete leadership has a positive association with cohesion.
Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie
Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2(-/-) mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2(-/-) mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2(-/-) mice behavioral rigidity.
A rapetiants, M G; Shkol'nik, T K; Lushchekina, E A
The influence of social deprivation on the level of trait anxiety and stress was studied in the group of 85 teenagers at the age of 15-17 years. Teenagers brought up in socially adverse conditions reveal higher scores of trait anxiety and greater stress, both at the psychological and physiological levels.
de Lima, A P N; Massoco, C O
This study reports that short-term social instability stress (SIS) in adolescence increases passive-coping in adulthood in male mice. Short-term SIS decreased the latency of immobility and increased the frequency and time of immobility in tail suspension test. These findings support the hypothesis that adolescent stress can induce a passive adaptation to stress in adulthood, even if it is a short period of stress.
Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R; Ginsburg, Golda S
While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention.
Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523
Yeung, Nelson C Y; Ramirez, Jeffrey; Lu, Qian
Previous studies primarily fo c used on how disease- and treatment-related variables affect cancer survivors' sleep quality. Little is known about the impact of the psychosocial factors on their sleep quality. Social constraints are perceived negative social interactions inhibiting one's disclosure. This study examined the association between social constraints and Chinese American breast cancer survivors' (BCS) sleep quality and tested perceived stress as a mediator explaining the association. Chinese American BCS (n = 94) were recruited from Southern California. Participants' social constraints, perceived stress, and sleep quality were measured in a questionnaire package. Social constraints were associated with higher perceived stress (r = 0.32, p = .002) and poorer sleep quality (r = 0.33, p constraints to poor sleep quality (indicated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) via perceived stress was significant (β = 0.20; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.06, 0.40). The path coefficient for direct effect from social constraints to PSQI significantly dropped from β = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.51) to β = 0.13 (95% CI = -0.12, 0.35) after considering perceived stress as a mediator, suggesting a mediation effect. This study implied that social constraints may worsen sleep quality among Chinese American BCS through increasing perceived stress. Interventions to reduce social constraints and perceived stress may improve sleep quality.
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
Lopez, Corina R; Antoni, Michael H; Fekete, Erin M; Penedo, Frank J
Ethnic minority women living with HIV (WLWH) face multiple stigmas that can contribute to overwhelming levels of stress, which could hamper their ability to manage their chronic disease. Little is known about whether having a greater sense of ethnic identity might insulate WLWH from stress. It is also possible that certain cognitive and interpersonal factors (i.e., coping self-efficacy and perceived social support) may act as mediators of this relationship. We hypothesized that WLWH with a greater sense of ethnic identity would report less stress because they access these cognitive and interpersonal resources to better manage stressors. The present study (1) related ethnic identity to perceived stress and (2) examined coping self-efficacy and social support as co-mediators of this relationship in a sample of low-income minority WLWH. Ninety-two minority women (89% African American) completed self-report psychosocial measures including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Cognitive Coping Self-efficacy Scale (CCSE), and Social Provision Scale (SPS). Greater ethnic identity was associated with less perceived stress, and this relationship was mediated by greater levels of both coping self-efficacy and social support. WLWH who identify more with their ethnic group may experience less stress via their access to more cognitive and interpersonal resources.
Findler, Liora; Klein Jacoby, Ayelet; Gabis, Lidia
Parenting a child with disabilities might affect the happiness of the mothers. Hence we adapted Wallander, Varni, Babani, Banis, and Wilcox's (1989) disability-stress-coping model to examine the impact of risk factors (specific stressors related to the child's disability) on the mother's adaptation (happiness). Intrapersonal factors (attachment) and social-ecological factors (social support) were hypothesized to predict adaptation. Both constitute 'risk-resistant' factors, which are mediated by the mother's perceived general stress and guilt. 191 mothers of a child with a developmental disability (ages 3-7) answered questionnaires on happiness, specific and general stress, attachment, guilt and social support. Attachment avoidance was directly and negatively associated with mothers' happiness. General stress was negatively associated with happiness, and mediated the association between anxious attachment, support, and specific stress with happiness. Guilt was negatively associated with happiness, and served as a mediator between attachment anxiety and support and happiness. The findings of the current research show direct and indirect associations of risk factors with happiness and the role of general stress and feelings of guilt as mediators. This study stresses the importance of attachment and social support to happiness and sheds light on the unique role of guilt in promoting or inhibiting happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Romero, Andrea J; Huang, Shi; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lizzi, Karina M; Soto, Daniel W; Oshri, Assaf; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
This study examined longitudinal effects of cultural stress (a latent factor comprised of bicultural stress, ethnic discrimination, and negative context of reception) on depressive symptoms and a range of externalizing behaviors among recently (≤5 years in the U.S. at baseline) immigrated Hispanic adolescents. A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) completed baseline measures of perceived ethnic discrimination, bicultural stress, and perceived negative context of reception; and outcome measures of depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, aggressive behavior, and rule-breaking behavior six months post-baseline. A path analysis indicated that higher cultural stress scores predicted higher levels of all outcomes. These effects were consistent across genders, but varied by study site. Specifically, higher cultural stress scores increased depressive symptoms among participants in Miami, but not in Los Angeles. Findings suggest that cultural stress is a clinically relevant predictor of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors among Hispanic immigrant adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bardeen, Joseph R; Fergus, Thomas A; Orcutt, Holly K
We examined five dimensions of distress tolerance (i.e. uncertainty, ambiguity, frustration, negative emotion, physical discomfort) as prospective predictors of perceived stress. Undergraduate students (N = 135) completed self-report questionnaires over the course of two assessment sessions (T1 and T2). Results of a linear regression in which the five dimensions of distress tolerance and covariates (i.e. T1 perceived stress, duration between T1 and T2) served as predictor variables and T2 perceived stress served as the outcome variable showed that intolerance of uncertainty was the only dimension of distress tolerance to predict T2 perceived stress. To better understand this prospective association, we conducted a post hoc analysis simultaneously regressing two subdimensions of intolerance of uncertainty on T2 perceived stress. The subdimension representing beliefs that "uncertainty has negative behavioral and self-referent implications" significantly predicted T2 perceived stress, while the subdimension indicating that "uncertainty is unfair and spoils everything" did not. Results support a growing body of research suggesting intolerance of uncertainty as a risk factor for a wide variety of maladaptive psychological outcomes. Clinical implications will be discussed.
Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T
The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E
The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.
Dzhebrailova, T D; Korobeĭnikova, I I; Rudneva, L P
EEG spectral power was calculated in 24 students (18-21 years) with different levels of motivation and anxiety (tested by Spielberger) in two experimental conditions: during the common educational process and the examination stress. Before examination tests, in subjects with high motivation and anxiety level the relative delta activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. In students with medium motivation immediately before an examination the relative beta2-activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. It is suggested that delta oscillati- ons reflect activity of the defensive motivational system, whereas beta2 oscillations may be associated with the achievement motivation.
Hill, Kevin J.; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Levitas, Valery I.
Pre-stressing aluminum (Al) particles by annealing and quenching Al powder alters particle mechanical properties and has also been linked to an increase in particle reactivity. Specifically, energy propagation in composites consisting of aluminum mixed with copper oxide (Al + CuO) exhibits a 24% increase in flame speed when using pre-stressed aluminum (PS Al) compared to Al of the same particle size. However, no data exist for the reactivity of PS Al powders under impact loading. In this study, a drop weight impact tester with pressure cell was designed and built to examine impact ignition sensitivity and combustion of PS Al when mixed with CuO. Both micron and nanometer scale powders (i.e., μAl and nAl, respectively) were pre-stressed, then combined with CuO and analyzed. Three types of ignition and combustion events were identified: ignition with complete combustion, ignition with incomplete combustion, and no ignition or combustion. The PS nAl + CuO demonstrated a lower impact ignition energy threshold for complete combustion, differing from nAl + CuO samples by more than 3.5 J/mg. The PS nAl + CuO also demonstrated significantly more complete combustion as evidenced by pressure history data during ignition and combustion. Additional material characterization provides insight on hot spot formation in the incomplete combustion samples. The most probable reasons for higher impact-induced reactivity of pre-stressed particles include (a) delayed but more intense fracture of the pre-stressed alumina shell due to release of energy of internal stresses during fracture and (b) detachment of the shell from the core during impact due to high tensile stresses in the Al core leading to much more pronounced fracture of unsupported shells and easy access of oxygen to the Al core. The μAl + CuO composites did not ignite, even under pre-stressed conditions.
Yayan, Emriye Hilal; Arikan, Duygu; Saban, Fatma; Gürarslan Baş, Nazan; Özel Özcan, Özlem
This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted with adolescents to examine the correlation between Internet addiction and social phobia. The population of the study consisted of 24,260 students aged between 11 and 15 years. Sampling method was used from population with known number, and 1,450 students were calculated as sample of the study. In this study, 13.7% of the adolescents had an Internet addiction, and 4.2% spent more than 5 hr on the computer every day. There was a positive correlation between Internet addiction and social phobia. The form of time spent on Internet was examined in terms of addiction and social phobia; although Internet addiction was related to games, dating sites, and web surfing, social phobia was related to homework, games, and web surfing. It was hypothesized that adolescents with social phobia were Internet addicts, and the participants used the Internet to spend time rather than socialize.
Pinto Júnior, Afrânio Gomes; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia; Roselli-Cruz, Amadeu
In order to analyze the practice of the social security medical examination starting from the introduction of the worker's health paradigms, data was gathered on the granting of social security disability benefits to assess worker illness based on notification of work-related accidents in the cement industries of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2009 there was only one notification, which involved a worker handling toxic waste instead of the energy matrix. However, the analysis revealed sources and mechanisms of illness overlooked in the social security medical examination, which is still focused on the one-cause-only logic of occupational medicine. To achieve the worker's health paradigms, changes are required to alter the way of conducting the social security medical examination, by re-establishing partnerships, training human resources, adopting epidemiological indicators, as well as setting and assessing social security goals that transcend the mere granting of disability benefits.
Cheung, Nicole W T
By comparing rural migrant and urban native adolescents in Guangzhou, the largest city in south China, this study investigated the relationships between social stress, social ties that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and to their rural home communities (trans-local ties), and the migrants׳ mental well-being. Non-migration social stress was more strongly related to poor psychological health than to weak self-efficacy in both migrant and urban native adolescents. This pattern also applied to the effect of migration-specific assimilation stress on psychological health and self-efficacy in migrants. Social ties directly enhanced these two well-being outcomes in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally potent among migrants. Trans-local ties were somewhat more useful for migrants in moderating the effects of non-migration social stress and assimilation stress, whereas the stress moderation function of social ties was less pronounced in urban natives. These findings extend the migration, network and social stress literature by identifying how local and trans-local ties protect mental health and mitigate stress in migrants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kugbey, Nuworza; Osei-Boadi, Samuel; Atefoe, Ethel Akpene
This study examined the impact of social support from family, friends and significant others on the levels depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students of University of Ghana. A total of one hundred and sixty-five (165) students were sampled from all the levels and were administered with standardized questionnaires measuring social…
Friedlander, Laura J.; Reid, Graham J.; Shupak, Naomi; Cribbie, Robert
The current study examined the joint effects of stress, social support, and self-esteem on adjustment to university. First-year undergraduate students (N = 115) were assessed during the first semester and again 10 weeks later, during the second semester of the academic year. Multiple regressions predicting adjustment to university from perceived…
LeGary, Robert A., Jr.
This exploratory case study examined the reports by advanced undergraduate students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of perceived social supports that buffer college-related stress and facilitate academic success. The sample for this study was comprised of 10 advanced undergraduate students who self-identified as having ASD. These participants…
Dunn, Marianne G.; O'Brien, Karen M.
This study examined the relative contributions of (a) gender, (b) perceived stress, (c) social support from family and significant other, and (d) positive and negative dimensions of religious coping to the prediction of the psychological health and meaning in life among 179 Central American immigrants from El Salvador and Guatemala. Findings…
Melhorn, Susan J; Krause, Eric G; Scott, Karen A; Mooney, Marie R; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Woods, Stephen C; Sakai, Randall R
In the present study, we examined meal patterns during and after exposure to the visible burrow system (VBS), a rodent model of chronic social stress, to determine how the microstructure of food intake relates to the metabolic consequences of social subordination. Male Long-Evans rats were housed in mixed-sex VBS colonies (4 male, 2 female) for 2 wk, during which time a dominance hierarchy formed [1 dominant male (DOM) and 3 subordinate males (SUB)], and then male rats were individually housed for a 3-wk recovery period. Controls were individually housed with females during the 2-wk VBS period and had no changes in ingestive behavior compared with a habituation period. During the hierarchy-formation phase of VBS housing, DOM and SUB had a reduced meal frequency, whereas SUB also had a reduced meal size. However, during the hierarchy-maintenance phase of VBS housing, DOM meal patterns did not differ from controls, whereas SUB continued to display a reduced food intake via less frequent meals. During recovery, DOM had comparable meal patterns to controls, whereas SUB had an increased meal size. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels were not different between these groups during the experimental period. Together, the results suggest that exposure to chronic social stress alters ingestive behavior both acutely and in the long term, which may influence the metabolic changes that accompany bouts of stress and recovery; however, these differences in meal patterns do not appear to be mediated by hypothalamic NPY.
Liu, Min; McKelroy, Emily; Kang, Jina; Harron, Jason; Liu, Sa
In this study, the researchers examined if and to what extent social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter can augment participants' learning experience in an xMOOC and offer an additional social space. Two research questions guided this inquiry: (1) What did MOOC participants consider the usefulness of the Facebook group and Twitter feed…
Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe
Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…
Karakus, Mehmet; Türkkan, Buket Turhan; Öztürk, Fikriye
The document review method, which is a qualitative research method, was used in this study that aims to examine the social studies curriculum and course books in terms of attainments, teaching-learning process and measurement-evaluation process in the context of global citizenship. Furthermore, opinions of social studies teachers on the curriculum…
This aim of this research was to examine the levels of motivation among high school social science students towards learning geography. The study group consisted of 397 students from different classes at Aksaray Ahmet Cevdet Pasa High School in the College of Social Science. The research was carried out with a scanning model, with data obtained…
Dowd, James J.; Bengston, Vern L.
This paper explores the relationships among ethnicity, age and inherent social dilemmas. The study examines selected dependent variables (economic and health indicators, social interaction, and life satisfaction items) in an effort to determine the extent to which different configurations of age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status produce varying…
Mercer, Natalie; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and delinquency in adolescence and the interplay between adolescent social anxiety and delinquency on perceived relationship quality in emerging adulthood. In a 10-year long prospective study (T1, n = 923; T2, n = 727; Mage T1 = 12; 49% female), we examined competing hypotheses using regression analyses: the protective perspective, which suggests social anxiety protects against delinquency; and the co-occurring perspective, which suggests social anxiety and delinquency co-occur leading to increased negative interpersonal outcomes. In adolescence, the relation between social anxiety and delinquency was consistent with the protective perspective. In emerging adulthood, consistent with the co-occurring perspective, ever-delinquents (but not delinquency abstainers) with higher social anxiety reported less perceived best friend, mother, and father support compared to delinquents with lower social anxiety. There was no interaction between anxiety and delinquency in predicting perceived conflict. This study highlights the importance of examining the relation between social anxiety and delinquency with regards to different interpersonal outcomes.
Dissing, Nete; Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lund, Rikke
Individuals reporting high stress are engaging in social interactions more frequently via calls and text messages, and they appear to spend shorter time in social interactions meeting face-to-face with fellow students. This pattern is also reflected in the self-reported social interactions where individuals reporting high stress had a higher contact frequency with parents and a lower contact frequency with friends.
Li, Jin; Li, Han-Xia; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Song, Tian-Jia; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng
Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task. Changes in anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the light-dark box test. The number of neurons expressing oxytocin and/or vasopressin in PVN and SON were examined by immunohistochemistry techniques. The results demonstrated that social approach was increased and anxiety was decreased following 10-day exposure to CHRS. Furthermore, the number of OXT-immunoreactive cells in PVN was increased significantly, whereas no change in SON was seen. The number of AVP immunoreactive cells either in PVN or SON was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that certain types of stress could be effective in the treatment of social dysfunction in persons with mental disorders such as autism, social anxiety disorder. The therapeutic effects may be mediated by changes in the function of OXT neurons in PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sheffler, Julia; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie
The current study examined racial differences in the relationship between late-life stress and health functioning and the moderating role of perceived social support (PSS) in older adults. A biracial sample of community-dwelling older adults (65+) from the first two waves of the Duke University's Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE; N = 2,952) was analyzed. Baseline levels of PSS and stress were obtained. Health status was assessed at baseline and follow-up. Analyses revealed a positive effect of PSS on health functioning. There was a three-way interaction among race, stress, and PSS on health functioning. Probing the interaction, for Caucasians, PSS was beneficial at low stress, but not high stress. For African Americans, PSS had a positive effect regardless of stress level. PSS is an important protective factor for preserving positive health in late-life; however, benefits may differ by race and intensity of stressor.
Paceley, Megan S; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Hardesty, Jennifer L
Little is known about involvement in LGBTQ organizations. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations were examined using logistic regression and survey data from 426 LGBTQ individuals residing in a nonmetropolitan region. Involvement was examined in five types of organizations (professional, social/recreational, religious, political, and community center/charity). The same model testing proximity, generativity, minority stress, and social location hypotheses was repeated for each organization type. Results demonstrate that the generativity hypothesis is most strongly supported. Indeed, emotional attachment to the LGBTQ community significantly increased the odds of involvement in every type of organization. However, the factors associated with involvement otherwise differed by organization type. Implications for organizational leaders are discussed.
Caldwell, Elizabeth E; Riccio, David C
Clinical evidence often points to stress as a cause or an antecedent to the development of drinking problems. Yet, animal models of alcohol drinking have yielded inconsistent evidence for a direct contribution of stress, and many studies have shown that stress suppresses alcohol consumption. The aim of the present study was to examine alcohol reward in animals exposed to repeated, mild social stress, and to determine whether alcohol drinking changes as a function of the temporal parameters of alcohol access relative to the stressor. Male Long-Evans rats, trained to self-administer a 6% (wt/vol) alcohol solution using a sucrose-fading procedure, were exposed to five brief (5min) episodes of contact with an aggressive male. Full contact with the resident was limited to a single episode of defeat, whereas the following four encounters occurred with the subjects behind a protective wire mesh cage. Alcohol self-administration was measured 1 week prior to stress (baseline), on each day of stress exposure, and 1 week following stress. Separate groups of animals were randomly assigned to self-administer alcohol immediately prior, immediately following, or 2h following defeat stress. Stress preferentially increased alcohol drinking on stress-exposure days, and further elevated the amount consumed 1 week following stress. Temporal parameters of alcohol access relative to the stressor were found to be important. Average alcohol consumption was greatest for animals drinking 2h postdefeat, whereas animals drinking immediately prior to or following the stressor did not show a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Results suggest that mild social defeat stress is sufficient to elicit increases in alcohol consumption in nonpreferring strains of rodents, provided alcohol access occurs at an optimal time interval after the social defeat experience. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kulikov, V V; Krasnikov, V N; Koval'skiĭ, O N; Tuaeva, L V; Iadchuk, V N; Kabalin, A P
In the article the main social privileges and guarantees stipulated by the laws of Russian Federation as well as the role and significance of military medical examination organs in the problems of social security of servicemen and persons underwent military service (military training) and members of their families are discussed. The authors emphasize legal significance of conclusions drawn by military medical commissions in examined persons for registration of invalidity, insurance payments, single-payment grants, compensation and privilege rights.
LYA FELDMAN; LILA GONCALVES; GRACE CHACÓN-PUIGNAU; JOANMIR ZARAGOZA; NURI BAGÉS; JOAN DE PABLO
The objective of the present study was to evaluate academic stress, social support and their relationships with mental health and academic performance in university students. Three hundred and twenty one students from a technological university in Caracas, Venezuela, responded instruments on academic stress, social support and mental health during the most academically stressful period. The results indicate that favorable conditions of mental health were associated to more social support and ...
Bo, H.; Li, T.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda
We apply the theory of corporate social responsibility to analyse social welfare investment undertaken by Chinese State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). We present a simple theoretical model to illustrate how the presence of social objectives in the firm's objective function changes its investment
Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Tamayo, Brittney A
A large and growing body of research demonstrates the impact of psychological stress on working memory. However, the typical study approach tests the effects of a single biological or psychological factor on changes in working memory. The current study attempted to move beyond the standard single-factor assessment by examining the impact of 2 possible factors in stress-related working memory impairments. To this end, 60 participants completed a working memory task before and after either a psychological stressor writing task or a control writing task and completed measures of both cortisol and mind wandering. We also included a measure of state anxiety to examine the direct and indirect effect on working memory. We found that mind wandering mediated the relationship between state anxiety and working memory at the baseline measurement. This indirect relationship was moderated by cortisol, such that the impact of mind wandering on working memory increased as cortisol levels increased. No overall working memory impairment was observed following the stress manipulation, but increases in state anxiety and mind wandering were observed. State anxiety and mind wandering independently mediated the relationship between change in working memory and threat perception. The indirect paths resulted in opposing effects on working memory. Combined, the findings from this study suggest that cortisol enhances the impact of mind wandering on working memory, that state anxiety may not always result in stress-related working memory impairments, and that high working memory performance can protect against mind wandering. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J L
.... Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables...
Full Text Available The presence of an affiliative conspecific may alleviate an individual's stress response in threatening conditions. However, the mechanisms and neural circuitry underlying the process of social buffering have not yet been elucidated. Using the domestic pig as an animal model, we examined the effect of a 4-h maternal and littermate deprivation on stress hormones and on mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD types 1 and 2 and the immediate early gene c-fos in various brain regions of 7-, 21- and 35-day old piglets. The deprivation occurred either alone or with a familiar or unfamiliar age-matched piglet. Compared to piglets deprived alone, the presence of a conspecific animal significantly reduced free plasma cortisol concentrations and altered the MR/GR balance and 11ß-HSD2 and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the hippocampus. The alterations in brain mRNA expression were particularly found in 21- or 35-day old piglets, which may reflect the species-specific postnatal ontogeny of the investigated brain regions. The buffering effects of social support were most pronounced in the amygdala, indicating its significance both for the assessment of social conspecifics as biologically relevant stimuli and for the processing of emotional states. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence for the importance of the cortico-limbic network underlying the abilities of individuals to cope with social stress and strongly emphasize the benefits of social partners in livestock with respect to positive welfare and health.
Park, Hyojung; Rodgers, Shelly; McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin
The authors examined the influence of social media involvement on health issues in sexual and gender minorities (SGMs). Demographic and technological characteristics of social media users and nonusers were identified, and the influence of social media involvement on these factors was assessed for its potential to influence health information needs and preferences. A survey of 2,274 SGM individuals revealed that age, sexual orientation, number of Internet access points, and use of smartphones predicted levels of social media involvement. Results suggest that a broader range of traditional and nontraditional communication channels is needed to meet a diversity of health information needs in SGMs.
Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed
The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social stress response has received scant attention in previous literature. In the present article, overtime stability of infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors was measured across 2 social stress (i.e., Face-to-Face Still-Face, FFSF) exposures, separated by 15 days. Moreover, infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors were simultaneously assessed as predictors of infants' social stress to both FFSF exposures. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads underwent the FFSF twice, at 6 months (Exposure 1: the first social stress) and at 6 months and 15 days (Exposure 2: repeated social stress). Infant and mother behavior and dyadic synchrony were microanalytically coded. Overall, individual behavioral stability emerged between FFSF exposures. Infants' response to the first stress was predicted by infant behavior during Exposure 1 Play. Infants' response to the repeated social stress was predicted by infants' response to the first exposure to the Still-Face and by infants' behavior and dyadic synchrony during Exposure 2 Play. Findings reveal stability for individual, but not for dyadic, behavior between 2 social stress exposures at 6 months. Infants' response to repeated social stress was predicted by infants' earlier stress response, infants' own behavior in play, and dyadic synchrony. No predictive effects of maternal behavior were found. Insights for research and clinical work are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mak, Hio Wa; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E
The quality of family relationships and youth friendships are intricately linked. Previous studies have examined different mechanisms of family-peer linkage, but few have examined social anxiety. The present study examined whether parental rejection and family climate predicted changes in youth social anxiety, which in turn predicted changes in friendship quality and loneliness. Possible bidirectional associations also were examined. Data for mothers, fathers, and youth (M age at Time 1 = 11.27; 52.3% were female) from 687 two-parent households over three time points are presented. Results from autoregressive, cross-lagged analyses revealed that father rejection (not mother rejection or family climate) at Time 1 (Fall of 6th Grade) predicted increased youth social anxiety at Time 2 (Spring of 7th Grade), which in turn, predicted increased loneliness at Time 3 (Spring of 8th Grade). The indirect effect of father rejection on loneliness was statistically significant. Mother rejection, father rejection, and a poor family climate were associated with decreased friendship quality and increased loneliness over time. Finally, there was some evidence of transactional associations between father rejection and youth social anxiety as well as between social anxiety and loneliness. This study's findings underscore the important role of fathers in youth social anxiety and subsequent social adjustment.
Richards, Elizabeth A; McDonough, Meghan; Fu, Rong
Physical activity behavior is influenced by numerous factors including motivation, social interactions, and the walkability of the environment. To examine how social contexts and environmental features affect physical activity motivational processes across time. Participants (N=104) completed 3 monthly online surveys assessing self-determination theory constructs, social partners in physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and weekly physical activity. Longitudinal path analysis examined the degree to which physical activity was predicted by individual goals, orientation, and autonomy support and whether these associations were meditated by motivation and moderated by the social and environmental contexts of physical activity. The effect of controlled exercise orientations on physical activity was mediated by autonomous motivation. This association was stronger among those who perceived less crime in their neighborhoods. To improve the ability to tailor physical activity counseling it is important to understand how each person views exercise situations and to understand his/her social and neighborhood environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janicki Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J
The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (Mage = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes the common cold and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection + objective signs of illness). Two 3-way interactions emerged-Support × Stress × PA and Support × Stress × NA. The nature of these effects was such that among persons with high trait PA or low trait NA, greater social support attenuated the risk of developing a cold when under high but not low perceived stress; this stress-buffering effect did not emerge among persons with low trait PA or high trait NA. Dispositional affect might be used to identify individuals who may be most responsive to social support and support-based interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carr, Bruce Henry
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified
Tzanoulinou, Stamatina; Sandi, Carmen
The quality and quantity of social experience is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Early life stress is known to be an important factor in the programming of the social brain that exerts detrimental effects on social behaviors. The peri-adolescent period, comprising late childhood and adolescence, represents a critical developmental window with regard to the programming effects of stress on the social brain. Here, we discuss social behavior and the physiological and neurobiological consequences of stress during peri-adolescence in the context of rodent paradigms that model human adversity, including social neglect and isolation, social abuse, and exposure to fearful experiences. Furthermore, we discuss peri-adolescent stress as a potent component that influences the social behaviors of individuals in close contact with stressed individuals and that can also influence future generations. We also discuss the temporal dynamics programmed by stress on the social brain and debate whether social behavior alterations are adaptive or maladaptive. By revising the existing literature and defining open questions, we aim to expand the framework in which interactions among peri-adolescent stress, the social brain, and behavior can be better conceptualized.
International Organization for Standardization. Geneva
This European Standard specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic examination of steel castings (with ferritic structure) for highly stressed components and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse echo technique. This European Standard applies to the ultrasonic examination of steel castings which have usually received a grain refining heat treatment and which have wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm. For greater wall thicknesses, special agreements apply with respect to test procedure and recording levels. This European Standard does not apply to austenitic steels and joint welds.
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P
This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.
Gary R Bortolotti
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extravagant ornaments used as social signals evolved to advertise their bearers' quality. The Immunocompetence Handicap Hypothesis proposes that testosterone-dependent ornaments reliably signal health and parasite resistance; however, empirical studies have shown mixed support. Alternatively, immune function and parasite resistance may be indirectly or directly related to glucocorticoid stress hormones. We propose that an understanding of the interplay between the individual and its environment, particularly how they cope with stressors, is crucial for understanding the honesty of social signals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed corticosterone deposited in growing feathers as an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a wild territorial bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We manipulated two key, interrelated components, parasites and testosterone, which influence both ornamentation and fitness. Birds were initially purged of parasites, and later challenged with parasites or not, while at the same time being given testosterone or control implants, using a factorial experimental design. At the treatment level, testosterone enhanced ornamentation, while parasites reduced it, but only in males not implanted with testosterone. Among individuals, the degree to which both parasites and testosterone had an effect was strongly dependent on the amount of corticosterone in the feather grown during the experiment. The more stressors birds had experienced (i.e., higher corticosterone, the more parasites developed, and the less testosterone enhanced ornamentation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With this unique focus on the individual, and a novel, integrative, measure of response to stressors, we show that ornamentation is ultimately a product of the cumulative physiological response to environmental challenges. These findings lead toward a more realistic concept of honesty in signaling as well as a
International audience; Interest has recently surged in the use of social stress models, especially social defeat. Such interest lies both in the recognition that stressors of social origin play a major role in human psychopathologies and in the acknowledgement that natural and hence ethologically-based stress models have important translational value. The use of the most recent technology has allowed the recognition of the mechanisms through which social defeat might have enduring psychoneur...
宮城, 政也; 石垣, 愛一郎; Miyagi, Masaya; Ishigaki, Aiichirou
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the stress management education was effective to junior high school students facing the psychological stress prior to high school entrance examination. In this study, the single-issue focused approach of stress management education was applied as opposed to comprehensive approach. A total of 65 males and 44 females were randomly selected from 6 classes in this study, and the subjects were lectured what stress theories are, and to int...
Mayara Barbosa Sindeaux Lima
Full Text Available Abstract Stress and social support are relevant variables for understanding the impact of disability on the care relationship. Thus, this study investigates the association between the parental stress index, social support indicators, and the sociodemographic variables of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in a capital city of the Eastern Amazon. The following instruments were applied to 100 caregivers: the Sociodemographic Inventory, the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used, in addition to techniques of multivariate analysis. It was found that most participants had high parental stress and a high perception of social support. Specific aspects of the perception of social support and sociodemographic indicators were associated with stress. This knowledge favors the design of more assertive interventions because it outlines the aspects of these variables that appear to have a more effective impact on parental stress.
Kali B. Zammit
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the use and determine the preferred method of social media among 4-H alumni in Louisiana. Based on a review of literature, communicating with youth through social media has become a major trend and necessity, especially among 4-H Youth Development and Cooperative Extension Service professionals. A 24-item instrument was developed and administered online to Louisiana 4-H alumni who received the 2011 Louisiana 4-H Senior Honor Cord and provided usable e-mails. The overall preferred method of social media among Louisiana 4-H alumni was Facebook and text messaging. A majority of 4-H alumni use their smart phones or personal computers to utilize social media. Some of the primary reasons that 4-H alumni use social media are to communicate friends, view photographs, and become updated with current events. Overall, 100% of surveyed 4-H alumni use some form of social media.
Lee, Seungyoon; Chung, Jae Eun; Park, Namkee
Previous studies have demonstrated the role of social networks, social capital, and social support in individuals' well-being. However, the ways in which these related constructs simultaneously influence one's well-being outcomes and relate to one another have not been closely examined. This study pays particular attention to the structural characteristics of personal networks, distinction between offline and online social capital, and different indicators of well-being outcomes. Based on survey data collected from 574 college students, the study found that two dimensions of personal networks-density and gender homophily-and social capital in the form of offline bonding capital explained perceived social support. Further, perceived social support consistently predicted well-being outcomes and played a mediating role between personal network density and well-being, as well as between offline bonding capital and well-being. The results offer implications for a more nuanced understanding of the role of individuals' interpersonal and social environments in well-being outcomes.
Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.
No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…
The purpose of this paper is to look at the influences of social interaction and learning environment on children's creativity in dance. Data from two separate studies are examined in which a total of thirty-seven fifth grade students created nine dances. This examination aims to (1) identify crucial elements of the classroom environment, which…
Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L
Limited research has addressed how social support in the form of a pet can affect both sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity in response to a psychological challenge. The present study examined the effects of social support on salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three different conditions (human friend, novel dog, or control). All participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided cortisol, HR, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measures. For participants paired with a dog, overall cortisol levels were attenuated throughout the experimental procedure, and HR was attenuated during the Trier Social Stress Test. For all groups, state anxiety increased after the Trier Social Stress Test, and HR during the Trier Social Stress Test was a predictor of cortisol. These results suggest that short-term exposure to a novel dog in an unfamiliar setting can be beneficial. They also suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial effect associated with affiliation with pets.
Intan Hashimah Mohd. Hashim
Full Text Available This paper results from a study that was conducted on 209 Form Fourstudents from two schools in Penang. In this study, a semi-structuredinterview covering questions on demographics, a 12-item measure ofself-esteem, and a 20-item measure of well-being was conducted.Students were also asked to report their Penilaian Menengah Rendah(PMR results as an indicator of their academic performance. To assess stress, coping and social supports, respondents were given a list of possible stressors (e.g., problems with relationships at home and school and were asked to indicate whether or not they were bothered by these stressors, the type of coping that they had used in dealing with these stressors, and the type of social supports that they had received in relation to these stressors. A higher proportion of respondents (77% identified issues related to academics and lessons as a problem compared to other issues (relationships at home, 34%, and relationships at school, 31%. The number of stressors related to everyday life was significantly related to well-being, but not to self-esteem or academic performance. Respondents reported a variety of problem-specificcoping. Supports received were also problem-specific in nature. Thefindings have both applied and theoretical implications.
Jankowski, Kathryn F; Takahashi, Hidehiko
Social emotions are affective states elicited during social interactions and integral for promoting socially appropriate behaviors and discouraging socially inappropriate ones. Social emotion-processing deficits significantly impair interpersonal relationships, and play distinct roles in the manifestation and maintenance of clinical symptomatology. Elucidating the neural correlates of discrete social emotions can serve as a window to better understanding and treating neuropsychiatric disorders. Moral cognition and social emotion-processing broadly recruit a fronto-temporo-subcortical network, supporting empathy, perspective-taking, self-processing, and reward-processing. The present review specifically examines the neural correlates of embarrassment, guilt, envy, and schadenfreude. Embarrassment and guilt are self-conscious emotions, evoked during negative evaluation following norm violations and supported by a fronto-temporo-posterior network. Embarrassment is evoked by social transgressions and recruits greater anterior temporal regions, representing conceptual social knowledge. Guilt is evoked by moral transgressions and recruits greater prefrontal regions, representing perspective-taking and behavioral change demands. Envy and schadenfreude are fortune-of-other emotions, evoked during social comparison and supported by a prefronto-striatal network. Envy represents displeasure in others' fortunes, and recruits increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, representing cognitive dissonance, and decreased reward-related striatal regions. Schadenfreude represents pleasure in others' misfortunes, and recruits reduced empathy-related insular regions and increased reward-related striatal regions. Implications for psychopathology and treatment design are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Todd, Nathan R; Allen, Nicole E
Scholars in the field of community psychology have called for a closer examination of the mediating role that religious congregations serve in society, especially in relation to the promotion of social justice. The current study provides such an examination, offering a multilevel examination of religious individuals (n = 5,123) nested within religious congregations (n = 62) with a particular focus on how individual and congregational level variables (i.e. theological orientation, frequency of religious attendance, bonding and bridging social capital) predict individual prioritization of and participation in congregational social justice activities. Findings indicated that individual level theological orientation was associated with prioritization, and demographics and social capital bonding were associated with prioritization and participation. Furthermore, congregational bridging social capital was associated with the prioritization of justice, whereas congregational theological orientation moderated the associations between frequency of religious participation for both prioritization of and participation in congregational justice activities. These findings show that specific aspects of the congregational setting (i.e., congregational theological orientation) are important to the individual prioritization of and participation in social justice activities. These findings provide support for the role of religious congregations as mediating structures for social justice. Implications for future research are also discussed.
Shnaider, Philippe; Sijercic, Iris; Wanklyn, Sonya G; Suvak, Michael K; Monson, Candice M
The current study examined the effect of total, as well as different sources (i.e., family, friends, significant other) of, pretreatment/baseline social support on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and treatment response to cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for PTSD. Thirty-six patients were randomized to receive treatment immediately or to a waitlist condition. Those in the treatment condition were offered CBCT for PTSD, a couple-based therapy aimed at reducing PTSD symptoms and improving relationship functioning. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre-/baseline, mid-/4 weeks of waiting, and posttreatment/12 weeks of waiting using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and patients self-reported on their levels of pretreatment/baseline social support using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Total support, as well as social support from family and friends, was not associated with initial PTSD severity or treatment response. However, there was a significant positive association between social support from a significant other and initial PTSD severity (g = .92). Additionally, significant other social support moderated treatment outcomes, such that higher initial significant other support was associated with larger decreases in PTSD severity for those in the treatment condition (g = -1.14) but not the waitlist condition (g = -.04). Social support from a significant other may influence PTSD treatment outcomes within couple therapy for PTSD. The inclusion of intimate partners and other family members may be a fruitful avenue for improving PTSD treatment outcomes; however, future studies are needed to examine whether support can be increased with treatment and whether those improvements lead to greater PTSD symptom response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States. Performing secondary analyses on the data of a Dutch population study on sexual health, the present study examines the robustness of the minority stress model by explaining mental health problems among men and women with mostly or only same-sex sexual attraction, and men and women who are equally attracted to same-sex and opposite-sex partners in the "gay-friendly" Netherlands (N = 389; 118 gay men, 40 bisexual men, 184 lesbian women, and 54 bisexual women). Results showed that minority stress is also related to mental health of Dutch LGBs. Participants with a higher level of internalized homonegativity and those who more often encountered negative reactions from other people on their same-sex sexual attraction reported more mental health problems. Such negative reactions from others, however, had a stronger link with mental health among lesbian/gay than among bisexual participants. Openness about one's sexual orientation was related to better mental health among sexual minority women, but not among their male counterparts. Suggestions for future research, implications for counseling, and other societal interventions are discussed. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita
This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haferkamp, Nina; Krämer, Nicole C
Through their features--such as profile photographs or the personal vita--online profiles on social-networking sites offer a perfect basis for social comparison processes. By looking at the profile photograph, the user gains an impression of a person's physical attractiveness, and the user's vita shows which career path the person is pursuing. Against the background of Festinger's Social Comparison Theory, the focus of this research is on the effects of online profiles on their recipients. Therefore, qualitative interviews (N = 12) and two online experiments were conducted in which virtual online profiles of either physically attractive or unattractive persons (N = 93) and profiles of users with either high or low occupational attainment (N = 103) were presented to the participants. Although qualitative interviews did not initially give reason to expect online profiles to constitute a basis for comparison processes, results of the experiments proved otherwise. The first study indicates that recipients have a more negative body image after looking at beautiful users than persons who were shown the less attractive profile pictures. Male participants of the second study, who were confronted with profiles of successful males, showed a higher perceived discrepancy between their current career status and an ideal vita than male participants who looked at profiles of less successful persons.
The social skills deficit vulnerability model predicts that people with inadequate social skills are at risk for a range of psychosocial problems, especially when confronted with stress. People with poor social skills often experience stress and loneliness and these two constructs were tested as potential pathways by which the poor social skills confer a risk for compromised mental and physical health. An online survey was completed by 775 adults, aged 18-91. The sample matched national demographics for race/ethnicity and age, among those over 18. Structural equation modeling revealed indirect effects of social skills on both mental and physical health through both stress and loneliness. The models showed that poor social skills were associated with poor mental and physical health through elevated stress and increased loneliness. The findings reveal that social skills deficits are associated with physical as well as mental health problems.
Pinto, Ricardo J; Correia-Santos, Patrícia; Levendosky, Alytia; Jongenelen, Inês
Studies of the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on parenting have usually not examined the role of the maternal perceptions, either its stress or maternal satisfaction, on the mothers' and children's mental health functioning. The present study aimed to assess whether maternal satisfaction, parenting stress, and social support are significantly associated with women's psychological functioning. The study also assessed whether maternal perceptions of the role of parenting were significantly associated with children's emotional well-being and social behavior. The sample included 160 mothers, 79 (49.4%) who were living with the aggressors and 81 (50.6%) in shelters, and their children ( n = 61). The findings suggested that high levels of maternal satisfaction and perception of social support were significantly negatively associated with women's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress, whereas parenting stress was significantly positively associated with these outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was the only parenting variable that predicted both maternal mental health and children's emotional and behavioral problems, suggesting that it is a protective factor for both mothers and children. This study suggests that increasing maternal satisfaction with parenting and reducing parenting stress might promote better adjustment for both women and children victims of IPV.
Finnell, Julie E; Lombard, Calliandra M; Padi, Akhila R; Moffitt, Casey M; Wilson, L Britt; Wood, Christopher S; Wood, Susan K
Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular
Hipp, John R.; Corcoran, Jonathan; Wickes, Rebecca; Li, Tiebei
The local neighborhood forms an integral part of our lives. It provides the context through which social networks are nurtured and the foundation from which a sense of attachment and cohesion with fellow residents can be established. Whereas much of the previous research has examined the role of social and demographic characteristic in relation to the level of neighboring and cohesion, this paper explores whether particular environmental features in the neighborhood affect social porosity. We define social porosity as the degree to which social ties flow over the surface of a neighborhood. The focus of our paper is to examine the extent to which a neighborhood's environmental features impede the level of social porosity present among residents. To do this, we integrate data from the census, topographic databases and a 2010 survey of 4,351 residents from 146 neighborhoods in Australia. The study introduces the concepts of wedges and social holes. The presence of two sources of wedges is measured: rivers and highways. The presence of two sources of social holes is measured: parks and industrial areas. Borrowing from the geography literature, several measures are constructed to capture how these features collectively carve up the physical environment of neighborhoods. We then consider how this influences residents' neighboring behavior, their level of attachment to the neighborhood and their sense of neighborhood cohesion. We find that the distance of a neighborhood to one form of social hole–industrial areas–has a particularly strong negative effect on all three dependent variables. The presence of the other form of social hole–parks–has a weaker negative effect. Neighborhood wedges also impact social interaction. Both the length of a river and the number of highway fragments in a neighborhood has a consistent negative effect on neighboring, attachment and cohesion. PMID:24427288
John R Hipp
Full Text Available The local neighborhood forms an integral part of our lives. It provides the context through which social networks are nurtured and the foundation from which a sense of attachment and cohesion with fellow residents can be established. Whereas much of the previous research has examined the role of social and demographic characteristic in relation to the level of neighboring and cohesion, this paper explores whether particular environmental features in the neighborhood affect social porosity. We define social porosity as the degree to which social ties flow over the surface of a neighborhood. The focus of our paper is to examine the extent to which a neighborhood's environmental features impede the level of social porosity present among residents. To do this, we integrate data from the census, topographic databases and a 2010 survey of 4,351 residents from 146 neighborhoods in Australia. The study introduces the concepts of wedges and social holes. The presence of two sources of wedges is measured: rivers and highways. The presence of two sources of social holes is measured: parks and industrial areas. Borrowing from the geography literature, several measures are constructed to capture how these features collectively carve up the physical environment of neighborhoods. We then consider how this influences residents' neighboring behavior, their level of attachment to the neighborhood and their sense of neighborhood cohesion. We find that the distance of a neighborhood to one form of social hole-industrial areas-has a particularly strong negative effect on all three dependent variables. The presence of the other form of social hole-parks-has a weaker negative effect. Neighborhood wedges also impact social interaction. Both the length of a river and the number of highway fragments in a neighborhood has a consistent negative effect on neighboring, attachment and cohesion.
Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark
The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to environmental social stress as a mechanism of psychosis using Virtual Reality (VR) experiments. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis, and 53 controls walked 5 times in a virtual bar with different levels of environmental social stress. Virtual social stressors were population density, ethnic density and hostility. Paranoia about virtual humans and subjective distress in response to virtual social stress exposures were measured with State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) and self-rated momentary subjective distress (SUD), respectively. Pre-existing (subclinical) symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale (GPTS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Paranoia and subjective distress increased with degree of social stress in the environment. Psychosis liability and pre-existing symptoms, in particular negative affect, positively impacted the level of paranoia and distress in response to social stress. These results provide experimental evidence that heightened sensitivity to environmental social stress may play an important role in the onset and course of psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kamezaki, Yoshiko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Kuwano, Yuki; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Rokutan, Kazuhito
Stress-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain and periphery is associated with mental distress. In this study, we measured changes in levels of salivary cortisol and 50 circulating immune mediators in 28 4th-grade medical students (19 males and 9 females) 7 weeks before, 1 day before, immediately after, and 1 week after an authorized nationwide examination for promotion. Repeated measures ANOVA with multiple testing correction and post hoc tests revealed that the examination significantly increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and β-nerve growth factor in association with significant decreases in salivary cortisol levels and anxiety after the examination. These mediators may have a negative impact on the mental state of healthy young adults exposed to naturalistic stressors. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Hirsch, Jameson K; Chang, Edward C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L
The objective of this study was to examine the combined moderating effects of life stress and loneliness on the association between social problem solving ability (SPS) and suicidal behaviors. We assessed SPS, suicidal behavior, loneliness, and stressful life events in a sample of 385 ethnically diverse college students. Overall, only loneliness moderated the association between SPS and suicidal behaviors. Across ethnic groups, loneliness moderated the association between SPS and suicidal behavior for Blacks, Whites, and Asians; life stress was a moderator for Hispanics. For most individuals, loneliness increases the strength of the association between poor problem-solving and suicidal behaviors. For Hispanics, life stress exacerbates this relationship. Ethnically-specific prevention strategies targeting loneliness and life stress may promote effective problem-solving, reducing suicide risk.
Full Text Available In the necessity of dissimilar materials having different characteristic used on the same construction brings up some problems. With the developing of welding technology, dissimilar metals can be welded under certain conditions. In this study, the joining of cast iron with steel material has been examined. Nicel electrods are usually used in this materials joining. In this situation, the site of welding structure is not homogenious, because welding metal and parent metals are at different concentration. Because of the material discord, this different structure under load causes more concentration of stress at the welding site. Therefore, the concentration of stress has been determined by studying finite element method for V and X welding-edged joining.
Aranda, Maria P.; Castenada, Irma; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Sobel, Eugene
Investigates stress, coping responses, and social support variables as predictors of psychological distress among 171 Mexican American men and women. Data indicate that although men and women did not differ significantly in the rate of depressive symptoms, they did differ in the sources of stress and social support associated with depression.…
van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo
Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the
van Schalkwijk, F.J.; Blessinga, A.N.; Willemen, A.M.; van der Werf, Y.D.; Schuengel, C.
Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the
de Jong, IC; Sgoifo, A; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM
The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which
Jong, de I.C.; Sgoifo, A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.
The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which
Wingo, Aliza P; Briscione, Maria; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja; McCullough, S Ashley; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh
Patients with depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), common sequelae among individuals exposed to stressful or traumatic events, often report impairment in social functioning. Resilience is a multidimensional construct that enables adaptive coping with life adversity. Relationship between resilience and social functioning among veterans with depression and PTSD is not entirely clear and is the focus of this report. Resilience was assessed in 264 veterans using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, PTSD with the PTSD Symptom Scale, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory, and social functioning with the Short Form Health Survey. Higher resilience was associated with more intact social functioning after PTSD and depression severity, childhood maltreatment, physical health, gender, education, marital status, and employment were simultaneously adjusted for. Childhood maltreatment, gender, marital status, education, and employment did not predict social functioning; however, greater severity of PTSD, depression, or physical health problems was each significantly associated with more impaired social functioning. Our findings suggest that higher resilience was associated with more intact social functioning regardless of the severity of PTSD and depression. Given the importance of social functioning in depression and/or PTSD recovery, studies are needed to examine if enhancing resilience presents a complementary approach to alleviating impaired social functioning. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between secondary school students’ anxiety and attitude toward social science course and to determine whether students’ anxiety and attitude differed significantly according to perceived successes in social science course, gender, and classroom level. A total of 300 6, 7, and 8th grade students studying in secondary schools located in Karabuk city center in 2014-2014 education year and second term participated in the study. This stu...
Thompson, Janice L
This essay provides a critical exploration of discourses of social justice in nursing. It examines commitments to social justice in the work of international nursing scholars and in professional codes of ethics in international nursing organizations. The analysis touches on salient conversations in philosophy, relating these ways of knowing to social justice as an ethical pattern in nursing practice. On the basis of this analysis, the discussion explores questions of professional formation in nursing, noticing when commitments to social justice are taken up or evaded in different models of professionalism. In concluding comments, implications of democratic professionalism are explored for professional formation in nursing, arguing for teaching, learning, and knowledge projects that contribute to social justice in our democracy.
William P. McCarty
Full Text Available Guided by the systemic model of social disorganization, the purpose of this study was to explore the nature of social ties in mobile home communities and examine how that relates to rates of violent and property crime. Interviews with a small sample of mobile home residents, owners, and managers in Omaha, Nebraska, indicate a wide spectrum of communities, from those characterized by an atomized population to those with strong social ties. Fear of crime, ethnically heterogeneous populations, and lax management were cited by respondents as factors that undermined relationships. Proactive management and a desire to help neighbors were cited by respondents as factors that helped strengthen relationships. Violent and property crime rates for the mobile home communities were largely consistent with the interview data, providing support for the importance of social networks and a systemic model of social disorganization. The implications of these findings for research and policy are also explored.
Mahoney, Emery B; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Leone, Sarah L; Ghuman, Jaswinder Kaur
Deficits in the capacity to engage in social interactions are a core deficit associated with Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These deficits emerge at a young age, making screening for social interaction deficits and interventions targeted at improving capacity in this area important for early identification and intervention. Screening and early intervention efforts are particularly important given the poor short and long term outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) who experience social interaction deficits. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI) is a well-validated screening measure that examines a child's capacity for social interaction using a developmental approach. The present study identified four underlying factors measured by the SSI, namely, Connection with Caregiver, Interaction/Imagination, Social Approach/Interest, and Agreeable Nature. The resulting factors were utilized to compare social interaction profiles across groups of children with AD, PDD-NOS, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions and typically developing children. The results indicate that children with AD and those with PDD-NOS had similar social interaction profiles, but were able to be distinguished from typically developing children on every factor and were able to be distinguished from children with non-ASD psychiatric conditions on every factor except the Connection with Caregiver factor. In addition, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions could be distinguished from typically developing children on the Connection with Caregiver factor and the Social Approach/Interest factor. These findings have implications for screening and intervention for children with ASDs and non-ASD psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to assess changes during the pre-examination, examination and postexamination period investigation in the sinus arrhythmia parameters. Twelve female subjects, first year students of Psychology, matched by age and previous experience in taking exams, participated in the study. The state of anxiety, high activation and exam apprehension were assessed. The R-R cardiac intervals were continuously recorded by an eight-channel polygraph (Powerlab). The measurements were made four times in the pre-examination period (days-20, -10, -1 and immediately before the exam), and on two occasions after the exam (days 1 and 10 days of the exam). The recording of R-R intervals also began five minutes before the exam and continued during the exam and five minutes after the exam. The level of anxiety, exam apprehension and high activation changed in a similar way, showing almost linear increase with the approaching of the exam. The changes of R-R interval parameters showed that stress was highest during the exam. The measurements and analysis of results showed a decrease of stress in the postexamination period.
Solomon, Zahava; And Others
Studied combat intensity, social support, and related stress reactions among soldiers who fought in the 1982 Israeli-Lebanon War, comparing those who experienced combat stress reaction (N=382) and those who did not (N=344). Subjective indicators were found to be stronger predictors than were objective indicators. Combat stress reaction was clearly…
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…
T. M. Horid’ko; H. V. Kosiakova; A. G. Berdyshev; O. F. Meged; E. A. Gudz; O. V. Onopchenko; V. S. Asmolkova; V. M. Lozova; E. V. Tukalenko; O. V. Bondarenko; I. I. Tubalzeva; О. А. Kovalenko; M. Y. Makarchuk; N. M. Hula
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the number of biochemical parameters that are involved in the development of the stress response (corticosterone, catecholamines, testosterone, TBARS, nitric oxide, serotonin), memory state, exploratory activity and antinociceptive response in rats, using a model of chronic social stress. It has been demonstrated that administration of NSE (14 days , intragastrically, 50 mg/kg) after chronic social stress dev...
Results. Patients' estimates of their own social functioning were not significantly different from examiners' estimates. The impact of clinical variables on social functioning in PD revealed depression to be the strongest association of social functioning in PD on both the patient and the examiner version of the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. Conclusions. PD patients appear to be well aware of their social strengths and weaknesses. Depression and motor symptom severity are significant predictors of both self- and examiner reported social functioning in patients with PD. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with PD may improve social functioning and overall quality of life.
Davies, Daniel R; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L; Scholl, Jamie L; Watt, Michael J; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM), or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 h after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes.
Liu, Xiaohua; Liu, Chunqin; Tian, Xiaohong; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping
Sleep disturbance is often described as sleeping poorly, difficulty falling asleep and maintaining sleep, and waking early. Currently, most studies examining sleep disturbance have focused on negative psychological variables; however, few studies have combined both negative and positive psychosocial factors to assess sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbance and psychosocial correlates in Chinese community-dwelling adults. A total of 1471 adults, between 18 and 60 years old, from eight selected community settings in Jinan, China, were surveyed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Perceived Stress Scale, 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and provided sociodemographic information. We found that the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 33.9%. After adjusting for age, employment status and physical co-morbidity, perceived stress was significantly associated with sleep disturbance [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, p stress and resilience was significant (p stress on sleep disturbance. Given the close relationship between sleep disturbance and psychosocial correlates, the development of effective intervention programmes to improve sleep quality in this population should be considered. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul
Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.
Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others
This study investigated the relationship between the stressfulness of each state's social environment, smoking, and mortality rates for respiratory cancer. It was based on a health behavior model which assumed that under conditions of high stress some people fail to exercise normal prudence in either protecting their health or engage in practices…
Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J
The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Social media hold enormous potentials as a communication tool for health care due to its interactive nature. However, prior research mainly focused on contingency interactivity of social media, by examining messages sent from health care organizations to audiences, while little is known about functional interactivity, which refers to social media's presence of functions for facilitating communication between users and its interface. That is, how health care organizations use interactive features on social media to communicate with the public. Thus, with a general basis of the functional interactivity framework proposed by Waters et al. (Engaging stakeholders through social networking: how nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Pub Relat Rev 2009;35:102-106), the current study investigated three aspects of functional interactivity in microblogging, and its subsequent effects. Specifically, this study analyzed 500 Chinese hospitals' profiles on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblogging platform in China. The results showed that the most common functional interactivity feature was organization disclosure, followed by information dissemination, and audience involvement. These interactive features all positively predicted the number of followers. Also, Chinese private hospitals scored significantly higher than public hospitals to use interactive features offered by social media. The findings of this study provide important implications for health care organizations to understand new communicative functions available on social media, incorporate more functions into their profiles and thus provide audiences with greater opportunity to interact with them via social media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Hing, Nerilee
The overlap of gaming and gambling activities within online digital technologies is of growing relevance to the study of technological addictions. Social casino games are immensely popular 'free to play' games that offer realistic emulation of financial gambling activities. Their structural similarities might suggest that engagement in social casino games may be particularly risky for people with existing gambling problems. Currently it is not known whether social casino games are used problematically by individuals who also experience problematic gambling, the extent of this overlap, the characteristics of those who experience problems with both activities, and the symptoms of problematic social casino game use they experience. An online survey was administered to Internet users (N=1554) to assess social casino game use and associated problems. This study examined a subsample of 176 adults who played social casino games and reported self-identified gambling problems. The results indicated that a greater frequency and diversity of social casino game playing and more frequent and larger expenditure on social casino games was significantly positively associated with symptom severity of problematic social casino game use. Gamblers who were younger, less educated, spoke a non-English language, and with higher psychological distress, were more likely to report greater problems. Playing social casino games to escape or relieve a negative mood was the most commonly reported symptom. These findings suggest that some problem gamblers may also be at risk of problematic engagement in online gambling activities that lack financial incentives. Gamblers' concurrent engagement in social casino games therefore warrants further consideration in gambling research studies and clinical practice settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Westberg, Kate; Stavros, Constantino; Smith, Aaron C T; Munro, Geoff; Argus, Kevin
To examine how alcohol brands use sport in their communication activities on social media. Despite extensive research exploring alcohol advertising and sponsorship through sport, minimal attention has been given to digital platforms. This study undertakes a qualitative content analysis to examine the social media activity of alcohol brands sponsoring the three largest spectator sports in Australia: Australian rules football, rugby league and cricket. Four sport-related social media strategies are identified through which alcohol brands solicit interaction with consumers, often involving co-creation of content and social activation. These strategies act as 'calls to action' and through the association of sport and alcohol encourage consumers to engage in competition, collaboration, celebration and consumption. These strategies are further strengthened by communications which draw upon themes of identity and camaraderie to resonate with the consumer. Sport-linked social media strategies utilised by alcohol brands extend beyond just promoting their product. They seek higher levels of engagement with the consumer to amplify and augment the connection between alcohol and the sport spectator experience. The discussion highlights the powerful combination of sport and social media as a mechanism by which these brands seek to interact with consumers and encourage them to both create and promote content to their social networks. These strategies allow alcohol brands to extend their marketing efforts in a manner which can elude alcohol codes and prove difficult for regulators to identify and control. [Westberg K, Stavros C, Smith ACT, Munro G, Argus K. An examination of how alcohol brands use sport to engage consumers on social media. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:28-35]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Maduka, Ignatius C; Neboh, Emeka E; Ufelle, Silas A
Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile during examination stress. Two hundred and eight (208) apparently-healthy undergraduate students (aged, 24 ± 6 years) were involved in the study. Exactly 5 mls of venous blood was collected from each subject 1-3 hours before a major examination. A second assessment was done on the same students 3-4 weeks before any examination (control samples). Cortisol and adrenaline were assayed using ELISA techniques, FBG was assayed using enzymatic method while lipid parameters were assayed using standard enzymatic-spectrophotometric methods. There was statistically significant increase in serum cortisol, adrenaline, Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in students under examination stress compared to the non examination period (p=0.001, 0.013, 0.0001, 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). FBG showed no significant increase. There was also significant positive correlation (r=0.297, p=0.032) between serum cortisol and TC/HDL ratio (cardiac risk factor) before examination stress but not during the stress period. Significant positive correlation was observed between cortisol and TC/HDL ratio before examination stress.
Carlisle, McKenzie; Uchino, Bert N; Sanbonmatsu, David M; Smith, Timothy W; Cribbet, Matthew R; Birmingham, Wendy; Light, Kathleen C; Vaughn, Allison A
The quality of one's personal relationships has been reliably linked to important physical health outcomes, perhaps through the mechanism of physiological stress responses. Most studies of this mechanism have focused on whether more conscious interpersonal transactions influence cardiovascular reactivity. However, whether such relationships can be automatically activated in memory to influence physiological processes has not been determined. The primary aims of this study were to examine whether subliminal activation of relationships could influence health-relevant physiological processes and to examine this question in the context of a more general relationship model that incorporates both positive and negative dimensions. We randomly assigned participants to be subliminally primed with existing relationships that varied in their underlying positivity and negativity (i.e., indifferent, supportive, aversive, ambivalent). They then performed acute psychological stressors while cardiovascular and self-report measures were assessed. Priming negative relationships was associated with greater threat, lower feelings of control, and higher diastolic blood pressure reactivity during stress. Moreover, priming relationships high in positivity and negativity (ambivalent ties) was associated with the highest heart rate reactivity and greatest respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases during stress. Exploratory analyses during the priming task itself suggested that the effects of negative primes on biological measures were prevalent across tasks, whereas the links to ambivalent ties was specific to the subsequent stressor task. These data highlight novel mechanisms by which social ties may impact cardiovascular health, and further suggest the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of relationships and physical health.
Millman, Zachary B; Weintraub, Marc J; Bentley, Eryn; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason
Research suggests that perceived social stress influences illness presentation and course among youth in the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis. Little is known, however, about the social cognitive factors associated with social stress perception in this population, particularly relative to youth with non-CHR psychopathology. Individuals with psychosis tend to endorse an external locus of control (LOC), which is associated with the stress response in healthy individuals. LOC may therefore be related to perceived social stress in youth at CHR. We examined the differential relations of self-reported LOC and perceived social stress, as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, across 45 CHR and 65 help-seeking control (HSC) participants. Youth at CHR reported more social stress (F[1, 107]=6.28, p=0.01) and a more external LOC (F[1, 107]=4.98, p=0.03) than HSCs. Further, external LOC was more strongly associated with feelings of social stress in the CHR group relative to the HSC group (interaction: b=0.35, t=2.32, psocial stress, however, were nonsignificant at internal levels of LOC (b=-2.0, t=-0.72, p=0.48; f 2 =0.00). Results suggest that perceptions of uncontrollability over one's social environment may more often induce or exacerbate feelings of stress and tension in CHR youth relative to HSCs. A better understanding of the social cognition-stress relation may improve understanding of CHR phenomenology, etiology, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Hogan, Julianna; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J
The mediational role of negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies in the relation between perceived stress and (1) perceived barriers to cessation, (2) severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and (3) smoking-specific experiential avoidance (AIS) was examined. Data were drawn from a baseline assessment of a larger clinical trial. Participants included 332 adult treatment-seeking smokers (47.3% female; Mage=38.45; SD=.50; age range: 18-65 years). Results indicated that perceived stress was indirectly related to perceived barriers to smoking cessation, severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and AIS through negative reinforcement outcome expectancies. These results were evident after accounting for the variance explained by gender, negative affectivity, and alternative outcome expectancies for smoking. The present findings suggest that smokers with greater perceived stress experience greater negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, which in turn, may be related to numerous processes involved in the maintenance of smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L
In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J
Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fanous, Sanya; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Hammer, Ronald P; Nikulina, Ella M
Mesolimbic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in sustained behavioral changes following chronic social stress, and its depletion may reduce susceptibility to such behavioral alterations. Enhanced mesolimbic BDNF is proposed as pro-depressive and anhedonic, while depleting ventral tegmetal area (VTA) BDNF increases weight by enhancing hedonic eating. Here, we questioned whether depletion of VTA BDNF would alleviate social defeat stress-induced deficits in weight regulation, or affect social behavior in the presence or absence of social stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral intra-VTA infusions of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors containing shRNA against BDNF or a control virus. Three weeks later, rats underwent 4 episodes of social defeat stress involving exposure to an aggressive Long-Evans resident rat, or control handling every third day. Depleted VTA BDNF conferred resistance to the deficient weight regulation normally observed during intermittent social defeat stress, and enhanced long-term weight gain regardless of stress history. In addition, social approach and avoidance behavior towards a novel social target were measured 7 weeks after stress. Social defeat stress chronically reduced social behavior, whereas depletion of VTA BDNF chronically increased social behavior. Our results reveal that depletion of VTA BDNF alleviates some consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, enhances social behavior, and may contribute to weight gain. These data implicate VTA BDNF in protracted behavioral responses to stress, social stimuli, and weight regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.