Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda
Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725
Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.
Rising, C.J.; Bol, N.; Burke-Garcia, A.; Rains, S.; Wright, K.B.
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate
Etingen, Bella; Locatelli, Sara M; Miskevics, Scott; LaVela, Sherri L
The objectives of this study were to examine differences in social participation among Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders with and without post-traumatic stress disorder, and determine if lower social participation was independently associated with having post-traumatic stress disorder. A cross-sectional mailed national survey was sent to a national sample of Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders who received prior-year Veterans Affairs healthcare. Surveys provided data on: demographics, health conditions, injury characteristics, and social participation. Analyses included bivariate comparisons, and multivariate logistic regression to determine if lower social participation was independently associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Veterans with (vs. without) post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 896) reported lower social participation (40.2 vs. 43.9, p stress disorder, while a greater number of health conditions (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p stress disorder (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98, p = 0.003). Results indicate post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders, independent of other factors that may impact participation. Efforts to screen for and treat post-traumatic stress disorder among persons with spinal cord injuries/disorders, regardless of injury-specific factors, are needed to improve participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with spinal cord injuries/disorders often have post-traumatic stress disorder; in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders this may be compounded by trauma incurred through military experiences. Social participation, an important aspect of rehabilitation and community integration following spinal cord injury or disorder, may be hindered by symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Our data show that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans
Full Text Available Background. Work-related stress is a major problem for mental health. The occupational physician has the opportunity to gather information on the perception of stress from workers in the course of regular medical examinations. Method. 1,231 subjects, engaged in 6 different occupations, were invited to compile the Demand/Control/Support and the Effort/Reward/Imbalance questionnaires. Results. A specific profile of work-related stress emerged for each group of workers. Radiology physicians reported high control over work, but also exceedingly high demand and effort, high overcommitment, low social support, and low rewards from work. Health care workers were often overcommitted but had high levels of reward and social support. Low levels of social support and reward were recorded for mature workers, while special force policemen engaged in law enforcement during the G8 meeting had high levels of social support and regards, so that their resulting stress levels were closer to the reference group of employees in an insurance company with no front-office. Conclusion. The practice of administering questionnaires to groups of workers who are subject to medical surveillance is useful for monitoring mental health and well-being.
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
This study uses data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland 1997-1999 to examine the offender-victim overlap among police officers in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Specifically, the study examines the role of parental violence, child maltreatment, and job-related stress on perpetrating violence and victimization. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that one element of job-related stress (negative emotions) was positive and significant in predicting IPV perpetration, whereas parental violence, child maltreatment, and negative emotions were found to be positive and significant in predicting victimization. The study's limitations and future research are discussed.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Mariana; Trepka, Mary Jo; Dillon, Frank R; Sheehan, Diana M; Rojas, Patria; Kanamori, Mariano J; Huang, Hui; Auf, Rehab; De La Rosa, Mario
Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic immigrants is an increasingly significant public health concern. Although prior research has examined associations of cultural stressors with alcohol use among Hispanics, few studies have tested these associations among recent adult immigrants. As such, this study aimed to examine (a) the association of immigration stress on alcohol use severity among recently immigrated Hispanic adults (≤ 1 year in the United States) and (b) the moderating effects of gender, immigration status, and social support. A hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses were conducted on a sample of 527 participants in South Florida. Results indicated that, after controlling for demographic variables, preimmigration drinking behavior, and dimensions of social support, the association of higher immigration stress with higher alcohol use severity was statistically significant. Moderation analyses indicated that immigration stress had a statistically significant association with alcohol use severity among men, but not women. Also, dimensions of social support consistently reduced the deleterious effect of immigration stress on alcohol use severity. This study adds to the scarce literature on cultural stressors and alcohol use among recent Hispanic immigrants. Findings suggest that it may be important to design gender-specific interventions and that increasing levels of social support may offset the effects of immigration stress on alcohol use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between stressful social relations in private life and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between stressful social relations (with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively) and all...... men and women aged 36-52 years, linked to the Danish Cause of Death Registry for information on all-cause mortality until 31 December 2011. Associations between stressful social relations with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively, and all-cause mortality were examined....... CONCLUSIONS: Stressful social relations are associated with increased mortality risk among middle-aged men and women for a variety of different social roles. Those outside the labour force and men seem especially vulnerable to exposure....
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/social-support/art-20044445 . Mayo Clinic ...
The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…
Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M
Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social emotional learning and educational stress. Participants were 321 elementary students. Social emotional learning and educational stress scale were used as measures. The relationships between social emotional learning and educational stress were examined using correlation…
Rus, Holly Michelle
Social media has become a pervasive form of communication, yet little is known about how use relates to stress. Previous research suggests a link between social media use and psychosocial variables such as self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, and well-being. However, there is limited empirical knowledge concerning how social media use specifically influences and is influenced by stress, with a particular dearth of objective measurement. In a series of studies, this relationship was exp...
Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens
The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L
Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…
Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As important as it is to fully comprehend the relationship between stress and depression among university students, it is also vital to ascertain the role of perceived social support as an essential psychosocial factor for effectively delimiting the deleterious impact of stress exposure. As such, the current study aimed to examine whether perceived social support functioned as a mediating factor in the relationship between stress and depression among university students. Data was collected from undergraduate students of a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. Information on demographics, depression, stress and perceived social support were collated through self-report questionnaires. Results revealed significant gender differences for perceived social support, wherein female students reported lower levels of social support compared to their counterparts. Mediation analysis portrayed that the association between stress and depression was partially accounted for, by the mediating role of perceived social support.
Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…
Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.
Here, we review the research we have done on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) in order to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ...
Bowen, Marie Katherine; Taylor, Kathleen P; Marcus-Aiyeku, Ulanda; Krause-Parello, Cheryl A
Addiction rates in nurses are higher than in the general population. The relationship between stress, coping, and adaptation in nurses (N = 82) enrolled in a recovery and monitoring program in the state of New Jersey was examined. Social support, a variable tested as a mediator of this relationship, was also examined. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. Negative relationships were found between stress and social support and stress and well-being, and a positive relationship was found between social support and well-being (all ps prevent potential untoward consequences. Ultimately, methods to strengthen social support and social networks will enhance the probability of sustained recovery, relapse prevention, and safe reentry into nursing practice. Implications for behavioral health providers and health care practitioners are discussed.
Christopher Chabila Mapoma
Full Text Available This research paper examined social isolation and aging in Zambia by examining possible predictors. The paper produces evidence on risk factors likely to engender social isolation among the elderly population of Zambia. Snowball sampling was undertaken to select 690 adults aged 60 and over in communities as well as those living in homes for the aged. A structured questionnaire was used to solicit information from respondents. Results show that old people in Zambia experience forms of social isolation which exhibit themselves (but not limited to through such factors as loss of appetite, stress, moody, hopeless, useless, unhappy, and lonely. On balance, however, the direction of association and the number of statistically significant findings suggest that associations between variables examined and risk factors associated with social isolation amongst older people in this analysis could explain the overall situation occuring currently in Zambia and probably other developing countries. In view of this, this study recommends that further work is needed to identify and explain details of factors of social isolation using techniques such as focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with key informants. Such approaches may even help to explain why, for example, sex seems not to be significant in determining indicators of social isolation.
Boersma, Gretha; Schmeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Scheurink, Antonius; Tamashiro, Kelli; Sakai, Randall
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual
Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental ...
Prenatal stress (PNS) alters sex traits in rodents by androgenizing offspring resulting in reduced reproduction. In production, gestating sows are often exposed to social stress of mixing. This study examined if mixing gestating sows alters sexual development in piglets. At 34 ± 10 d of gestation, 6...
Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.; de Ruiter, A.J.H.; Meerlo, P; Sgoifo, A
This paper summarizes some of the highlights of our current social stress research in rodents as it was inspired by the work of Jim Henry. First, it is argued that social defeat can be considered as one of the most severe stressors among a number of laboratory stressful stimuli in terms of
Browne, Caroline A; Falcon, Edgardo; Robinson, Shivon A; Berton, Olivier; Lucki, Irwin
Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder frequently report persistent problems with social interactions, emerging after a traumatic experience. Chronic social defeat stress is a widely used rodent model of stress that produces robust and sustained social avoidance behavior. The avoidance of other rodents can be reversed by 28 days of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the only pharmaceutical class approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating post-traumatic stress disorder. In this study, the sensitivity of social interaction deficits evoked by 10 days of chronic social defeat stress to prospective treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder was examined. The effects of acute and repeated treatment with a low dose of buprenorphine (0.25 mg/kg/d) on social interaction deficits in male C57BL/6 mice by chronic social defeat stress were studied. Another cohort of mice was used to determine the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/d), the NMDA antagonist ketamine (10 mg/kg/d), and the selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist CERC-501 (1 mg/kg/d). Changes in mRNA expression of Oprm1 and Oprk1 were assessed in a separate cohort. Buprenorphine significantly reversed social interaction deficits produced by chronic social defeat stress following 7 days of administration, but not after acute injection. Treatment with fluoxetine for 7 days, but not 24 hours, also reinstated social interaction behavior in mice that were susceptible to chronic social defeat. In contrast, CERC-501 and ketamine failed to reverse social avoidance. Gene expression analysis found: (1) Oprm1 mRNA expression was reduced in the hippocampus and increased in the frontal cortex of susceptible mice and (2) Oprk1 mRNA expression was reduced in the amygdala and increased in the frontal cortex of susceptible mice compared to non-stressed controls and stress-resilient mice. Short-term treatment with buprenorphine and fluoxetine
Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Lotfi, Hamid; Moeeini, Reza; Moharreri, Ali-Reza; Roudaki, Shabnam; Hosseini, S Abedin; Olson, David M; Abdollahi, Ali-Akbar; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Mohajerani, Majid H; Metz, Gerlinde A S
Stress is a primary risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood why some stressed individuals are more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders than others. Here, we investigated whether multigenerational ancestral stress produces phenotypes that are sensitive to depression-like symptoms in rats. We also examined whether social isolation reveals potentially latent sensitivity to depression-like behaviours. F4 female rats born to a lineage of stressed mothers (F0-F3) received stress in adulthood while housed in pairs or alone. Social isolation during stress induced cognitive and psychomotor retardation only in rats exposed to ancestral stress. Social isolation also hampered the resilience of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to chronic stress and reduced hippocampal volume and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Thus, synergy between social isolation and stress may unmask a latent history of ancestral stress, and raises vulnerability to mental health conditions. The findings support the notion that social support critically promotes stress coping and resilience.
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected
Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Scott E. Wilks
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...
Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel
Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
DeFrank, R S; Stroup, C A
Stress in teaching derives from a variety of sources, and evidence exists linking such stress to physical and mental health concerns. Detailed examination of the linkages among personal factors, job stress, job satisfaction and symptomatology have not been done in this occupation, however, and the present study examines a model interrelating these variables. A survey of 245 predominantly female elementary school teachers in southeast Texas suggested that demographic factors and teaching background do not influence stress, satisfaction or health concerns. However, while job stress was the strongest predictor of job satisfaction, this stress had no direct relationship with health problems, an unexpected finding. Write-in responses by teachers indicated additional sources of stress, many of which were environmental or policy-based in nature. The implications of these findings for future research and stress management interventions for teachers are discussed.
Sung, Yao-Ting; Chao, Tzu-Yang
The tools used for measuring examination stress have three main limitations: sample selected, sample sizes, and measurement contents. In this study, we constructed the Examination Stress Scale (ExamSS), and 4,717 high school students participated in this research. The results indicate that ExamSS has satisfactory reliability, construct validity,…
Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen
Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between "specific" individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.
María I Cordero
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.
Recently the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is being ... recognize and instill CSR initiatives into their corporate culture and business ... Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Financial Performance, ROA, ROE, and ROS.
Scott E. Wilks
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.
Ferguson, Kristen; Mang, Colin; Frost, Lorraine
In this paper, we explore how the frequency of utilization of social supports is related to teacher demographics, stress factors, job satisfaction, career intent, career commitment, and the perception of a stigma attached to teacher stress. Using data from self-report questionnaires (N = 264) from teachers in northern Ontario, we found that…
Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.
Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika
Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.
Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael
Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.
Hendrix, A E; Acevedo, E O; Hebert, E
A growing body of knowledge indicates that too much stress can negatively influence psychological and physical health. A model proposed by Smith to explore personal and situational variables, stress appraisal, and burnout has led to significant understanding of burnout of individuals working in service professions. We examined the relationship of hardiness, social support, and work-related issues relevant to athletic trainers to perceived stress and the relationship of perceived stress to burnout. Correlational analyses were performed to examine the relationships predicted by Smith's model. In addition, we conducted stepwise multiple regression analyses to assess the relative contributions of the personal and situational variables to perceived stress and to examine the relative impact of perceived stress on 3 burnout factors (emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization). One hundred eighteen certified athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I-A intercollegiate settings that maintain a football program. We assessed personal and situational variables using the Hardiness Test, the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Athletic Training Issues Survey, adapted for this study. The Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess stress appraisal, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to assess 3 dimensions of burnout. Our results were in support of Smith's theoretical model of stress and burnout. Athletic trainers who scored lower on hardiness and social support and higher on athletic training issues tended to have higher levels of perceived stress. Furthermore, higher perceived stress scores were related to higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and lower levels of personal accomplishment. Our findings examining burnout in Division I athletic trainers were similar to those of other studies investigating coaches and coach-teachers and in support of Smith's theoretical model of stress and burnout.
this study, we explore and test the relationship between financial ... initiatives into their corporate culture and business operations because increases ... Corporate social responsibility (CSR for short and also called corporate social ..... with the inclusion criteria. ...... financial performance: Evidence from the banking industry.
Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J; de Vries, Brian; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory
Social stress resulting from stigma, prejudice, and discrimination-"minority stress"-negatively impacts sexual minority individuals' health and relational well-being. The present study examined how being in a same-sex couple can result in exposure to unique minority stressors not accounted for at the individual level. Relationship timeline interviews were conducted with 120 same-sex couples equally distributed across two study sites (Atlanta and San Francisco), gender (male and female), and relationship duration (at least six months but less than three years, at least three years but less than seven years, and seven or more years). Directed content analyses identified 17 unique couple-level minority stressors experienced within nine distinct social contexts. Analyses also revealed experiences of dyadic minority stress processes (stress discrepancies and stress contagion). These findings can be useful in future efforts to better understand and address the cumulative impact of minority stress on relational well-being and individual health.
Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Facebook remains the most widely used social media platform. Research suggests that Facebook may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being, and that it may impair physiological stress recovery. However, little is known about its influence on stress reactivity. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined how Facebook influences reactivity to an acute social stressor. Facebook users (n=104, 53 males, mean age 19.50, SD=1.73) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook account or sit quietly with the option of reading electronic magazines before experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers in response to the stressor. However, participants who used Facebook experienced lower levels of psychosocial stress, physiological stress, and rated the stressor as less threatening (p'sFacebook use may buffer stress-in particular psychosocial stress-if used before experiencing an acute social stressor. This study is among the first to incorporate both objective and subjective measures in investigating the complex relationship between Facebook use and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhenhong
The present studies examined the influence of extraversion on physiological reactivity, recovery, and physiological habituation-sensitization to repeated social stressors. In Study 1, subjective and physiological data were collected from 97 college students who were categorized as high (n = 51) and low (n = 46) on extraversion (NEO-FFI) across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress 1, poststress 1, stress 2, and poststress 2. Results indicated high extraversion (HE) participants exhibited relative lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawals to, and more complete HR and RSA recovery after the first social stress, and also exhibited relative lesser HR reactivity to the second social stress. When repeatedly exposed to a social stressor, HE participants showed pronounced systolic blood pressure (SBP) adaptation, low extraversion (LE) participants displayed diastolic blood pressure (DBP) sensitization. In Study 2, data were collected from another 78 participants (HE: n = 40, LE: n = 38) across the same laboratory stages with speech performance videotaped. After controlling for the speech styles, Study 2 found the same HR response and SBP/DBP adaptation pattern across extraversion groups to social stress as Study 1 but not RSA reactivity. These findings suggest extraverts exhibit more adaptive physiological reactivity to recurrent social stressors, which thus might benefit their health. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…
Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley
Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…
Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.
Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…
Raffaelli, Marcela; Andrade, Flavia C. D.; Wiley, Angela R.; Sanchez-Armass, Omar; Edwards, Laura L.; Aradillas-Garcia, Celia
This study examined social support as a potential moderator between stress and depressive symptoms among Mexican university applicants aged 16--21 years ("N" = 6,715; "M" age = 17.9 years; 55% female). In bivariate analyses, perceived stress was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and social support with lower…
which address organizational behavior: Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ), Expense Preference Approach (EPA), Resource Dependency Theory (RDT...i V *>V CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY : A CROSS SECTIONAL EXAMINATION OF INCENTIVIZATION THESIS Jennifer A. Block, B.S. First Lieutenant, USAF...Distribution/ Availability Codes Dist m Avail and/or Special \\&\\W 0\\1 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY : A CROSS SECTIONAL EXAMINATION OF
It has become common practice for brands to seek endorsements from other parties, such as celebrities or experts. With the emergence of social media, brands’ portfolio of endorsers has been extended to the consumer. For instance, consumers engage into positive electronic word of mouth about their
Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten
From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...
Svetlana N. Kostromina
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to clear up the influence of examination stress on the results of completing examination papers by students in the situation of trial General and Unified State Examinations, imitating the real-life environment of unified state certification of schoolchildren. The tasks of the research included determining the dynamics of psychophysiological stress indices at different examination stages, and evaluating additional factors (the subject in which the examination is held, the strategy of solving the variant, success of solving the task etc., influencing the quantity and quality of stress reactions at the examination.The novelty of the research is in the attempt to overcome the problem of confusing the notions of examination stress and examination anxiety, caused by metering the students’ state either before or after the examination. The technology of online monitoring the students’ psychophysiological state is used in the work, which makes it possible to eliminate a number of restrictions occurring during subjective evaluation of the state by the students themselves. Telemetric cardiorhythmography was chosen as the basic method. The method is based on a three-component model of extreme states with consequent domination of one of the three stress-reactive systems. A cardiointervalogramm was being registered in the research process in the online mode and underwent spectral analysis. The following indices of heart rate variability were recorded in order to determine stress reactions: the total power of the spectrum (TP, the spectrum power in low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF regions, and a vegetative balance index (relation of the spectrum powers in low-frequency and high-frequency regions (LF/HF. When the total power of the heart rate fell and, at the same time, the vegetative balance index rose, a conclusion was made of there being a stress reaction. Twenty-five students of an illustrious school were examined
van Roekel, Eeske; Ha, Thao; Verhagen, Maaike; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E
Adolescence is characterized by increased social stress due to changes in interpersonal relationships, but little is known about daily experiences of social stress. The aim of the present study was to examine daily life predictors of increases in social stress, how these increases affected adolescents' mood, and whether loneliness moderated these relations. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure positive and negative affect and increases in social stress in 278 early adolescents from the Netherlands. Results showed that adolescents were most likely to experience increases in social stress when they were with classmates, during week days, and in the morning. Lonely adolescents showed higher increases in social stress and responded more negatively to increases in social stress, compared to non-lonely adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of social stress, social skills and social acceptance were obtained. Participants with SLI reported experiencing significantly more social stress than did p...
Examining the social media in marketing success of the commercial companies. ... media, reality analysis and social media's direct impact on the marketing of commercial companies. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd
Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and
Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C.; Bunnell, Brian E.
Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adoles...
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.
This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…
Olini, Nadja; Rothfuchs, Iru; Azzinnari, Damiano; Pryce, Christopher R; Kurth, Salome; Huber, Reto
Disturbed sleep and altered sleep homeostasis are core features of many psychiatric disorders such as depression. Chronic uncontrollable stress is considered an important factor in the development of depression, but little is known on how chronic stress affects sleep regulation and sleep homeostasis. We therefore examined the effects of chronic social stress (CSS) on sleep regulation in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were implanted for electrocortical recordings (ECoG) and underwent either a 10-day CSS protocol or control handling (CON). Subsequently, ECoG was assessed across a 24-h post-stress baseline, followed by a 4-h sleep deprivation, and then a 20-h recovery period. After sleep deprivation, CSS mice showed a blunted increase in sleep pressure compared to CON mice, as measured using slow wave activity (SWA, electroencephalographic power between 1-4Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Vigilance states did not differ between CSS and CON mice during post-stress baseline, sleep deprivation or recovery, with the exception of CSS mice exhibiting increased REM sleep during recovery sleep. Behavior during sleep deprivation was not affected by CSS. Our data provide evidence that CSS alters the homeostatic regulation of sleep SWA in mice. In contrast to acute social stress, which results in a faster SWA build-up, CSS decelerates the homeostatic build up. These findings are discussed in relation to the causal contribution of stress-induced sleep disturbance to depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rallis, Sofia; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette
Perinatal distress has largely been conceptualised as the experience of depression and/or anxiety. Recent research has shown that the affective state of stress is also present during the perinatal period and thus may add to a broader understanding of perinatal distress. The aims of the present study were to investigate the changes in depression, anxiety and stress symptoms across pregnancy, and to explore the prospective relationships between these symptoms. Two-hundred and fourteen pregnant women were recruited when they were less than 16 weeks gestation. Women completed depression, anxiety and stress measures on a monthly basis, from 16 weeks gestation through to 36 weeks gestation. The covariate measures of sleep quality and social support were assessed bi-monthly at 16, 24 and 32 weeks gestation. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were all shown to change over time, with women experiencing fewer symptoms during the middle of their pregnancy. Higher symptoms early in pregnancy predicted higher symptom levels throughout the rest of pregnancy. Higher depression scores early in pregnancy were also shown to predict higher anxiety and higher stress scores in late pregnancy. Increased stress scores during mid pregnancy also predicted higher anxiety scores in late pregnancy. Current findings indicate that symptom levels of depression, anxiety and stress vary over the course of pregnancy. Increased depression in early pregnancy seemed to be particularly pertinent as it not only predicted later depression symptoms, but also increased anxiety and stress in late pregnancy. Collectively, these results further highlight the importance of emotional health screening early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bijen FİLİZ; Gıyasettin DEMİRHAN
In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S)” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 i...
Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin
Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to mental and physical health. In contrast, social support can ameliorate stress-induced physiological and immunological deficits, reducing the risk of subsequent psychological distress and improving an individual's overall well-being. For better clinical treatment of these physiological and mental pathologies, it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of stress-induced pathologies as well as determine the underlying biological mechanisms that regulate social buffering of the stress system. A number of ethologically relevant animal models of social stress and species that form strong adult social bonds have been utilized to study the etiology, treatment, and prevention of stress-related disorders. While undoubtedly a number of biological pathways contribute to the social buffering of the stress response, the convergence of evidence denotes the regulatory effects of oxytocin in facilitating social bond-promoting behaviors and their effect on the stress response. Thus, oxytocin may be perceived as a common regulatory element of the social environment, stress response, and stress-induced risks on mental and physical health. PMID:22178036
Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin
Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to m...
Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick
Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…
Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia
This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…
Auerbach, Randy Patrick; Bigda-Peyton, Joseph S.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Webb, Christian A.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo
The goal of the current study is to examine the relationship amongst social support, stress, and depressive symptoms within a transactional and diathesis-stress framework using a multi-wave, longitudinal design. At the initial assessment, adolescents (n = 258) completed self-report measures assessing social support (peer, classmate, parent, and…
Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.
The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…
Salami, Samuel O.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of job stress, personality and social support to burnout among college of education lecturers. The second purpose was to examine the extent to which personality and social support can buffer the negative effects of stress on burnout. Design/methodology/approach--Survey methodology…
Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven
This study examined relationships among daily stress (i.e., school- and family-related stress), social support seeking through Facebook, perceived social support through Facebook, and depressed mood among adolescents (N = 910). Structural equation modeling showed that daily stress positively predicted adolescents’ seeking of social support through Facebook. In addition, when social support was sought on Facebook and subsequently perceived, social support seeking through Facebook decreased a...
Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.
This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage = 11.84, SD = 0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these…
Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G
This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.
Allan, Nicholas P; Oglesby, Mary E; Short, Nicole A; Schmidt, Norman B
Panic attacks (PAs) are characterized by overwhelming surges of fear and discomfort and are one of the most frequently occurring symptoms in psychiatric populations. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e. DSM-5) allows for a panic attack (PA) specifier for all disorders, including social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, there is little research examining differences between individuals diagnosed with SAD with the PA specifier versus individuals diagnosed with SAD without the PA specifier. The current study examined social anxiety, mood, anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity social concerns, a risk factor for social anxiety in SAD-diagnosed individuals without (N = 52) and with (N = 14) the PA specifier. The groups differed only in somatic symptoms of anxiety. Result of the current study provides preliminary evidence that the presence of the PA specifier in social anxiety does not result in elevated levels of comorbidity or a more severe presentation of social anxiety.
Social stress is a population hypothesis that is invoked to explain the precipitous declines observed in population levels of such rodent species as Microtus pennsylvanicus. According to this hypothesis, stress is produced by the increase in aggressive contacts between animals in a growing population. Continued contacts produce profound hormonal and behavioral changes in these animals which lead to decreases in reproduction and viability. Several theoretical weaknesses of the hypothesis are raised. First, increases in density may not be positively correlated with the number of contacts. Animals may merely build more runways. Second, even if contacts do increase, they may not necessarily be aggressive in nature. Finally, confined populations which reach excessively high densities and for which contacts between animals must increase, fail to show a precipitous decline in numbers. In addition, a major methodological problem is revealed. Although researchers tend to causally connect social stress and precipitous population declines, most studies are correlational in nature. Of those studies that involve actual manipulations of populations, these manipulations are usually performed on confined populations that fail to exhibit the desired phenomonen. The difficulties associated with manipulating unconfined populations are discussed
Beery, Annaliese K.; Kaufer, Daniela
The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different social contexts. We consider variation between several different rodent species and make connections to research on humans and non-human primates. PMID:25562050
Lü, Wei; Xing, Wanying; Hughes, Brian M; Wang, Zhenhong
The present study sought to establish whether the effects of extraversion on cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress are contingent on stress intensity. A 2×5×1 mixed-factorial experiment was conducted, with social stress intensity as a between-subject variable, study phase as a within-subject variable, extraversion as a continuous independent variable, and cardiovascular parameter (HR, SBP, DBP, or RSA) as a dependent variable. Extraversion (NEO-FFI), subjective stress, and physiological stress were measured in 166 undergraduate students randomly assigned to undergo moderate (n=82) or high-intensity (n=84) social stress (a public speaking task with different levels of social evaluation). All participants underwent continuous physiological monitoring while facing two consecutive stress exposures distributed across five laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2, post-stress 2. Results indicated that under moderate-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited lesser HR reactivity to stress than participants lower on extraversion, while under high-intensity social stress, they exhibited greater HR, SBP, DBP and RSA reactivity. Under both moderate- and high-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited pronounced SBP and DBP response adaptation to repeated stress, and showed either better degree of HR recovery or greater amount of SBP and DBP recovery after stress. These findings suggest that individuals higher on extraversion exhibit physiological flexibility to cope with social challenges and benefit from adaptive cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Droms, Courtney; Stephen, Sheryl-Ann K.
Individual and corporate social responsibility has been gaining more and more attention over the last several years. We examine the effectiveness of incorporating social responsibility courses into the curriculum in higher education, with a specific look at Butler University. In general, the results indicate that implementing this type of…
Hen, Meirav; Goroshit, Marina
Teachers' social-emotional competence is crucial for promoting a positive learning environment to the students. However, the research on teachers' social-emotional abilities is very limited. This study examined the relationship between emotional abilities and self-efficacies and empathy among teachers, hypothesizing that teachers' self-efficacy…
This study was aimed to determine the social integration perceptions of undergraduate students and to examine them in terms of certain variables. It was a descriptive study with survey methodology. The data were obtained using the "Social Integration Scale." The study group consisted of 545 undergraduate students during the fall semester…
Bullis, Connie; Bach, Betsy Wackernagel
To examine perspectives of change in individual-organizational socialization, a study used the retrospective interview technique (RIT) to reconstruct the history and process of individuals' socialization experiences over an 8-month period. Using the RIT, researchers asked subjects, 28 entering graduate students enrolled in three communication…
Halldorsson, Brynjar; Draisey, Jenny; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy
It has been suggested that elevated maternal social anxiety may play a disorder-specific role in maintaining childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined whether mothers of children with SAD are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders (ANX). This study set out to examine whether symptoms of social anxiety were more severe amongst mothers of 7-12 year old children presenting for treatment with SAD (n = 260) compared to those presenting with ANX (n = 138). In addition, we examined whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of maternal and paternal general anxiety, depression, and stress. Parents of 7-12 year old children referred for treatment of SAD or ANX completed self-report questionnaire measures of emotional symptoms. Compared to mothers of children with ANX, mothers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. In addition, fathers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression than fathers of children with ANX. This study is one of the few existing studies that have examined mothers' and fathers' psychopathology across different childhood anxiety disorders. Compared to parents of children with ANX, parents of children with SAD may have poorer mental health which may inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes for children with SAD. Thus, targeting parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood SAD. Consideration of parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Mothers of children with social anxiety disorder are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders Fathers of children with social anxiety disorder are more anxious and depressed than fathers of children with other anxiety disorders Participants were predominantly of high
Marina M Doucerain; Raheleh eShiri Varnaamkhaasti; Norman eSegalowitz; Norman eSegalowitz; Andrew G Ryder; Andrew G Ryder
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The...
Klumbies, Elisabeth; Braeuer, David; Hoyer, Juergen; Kirschbaum, Clemens
Research on the biopsychological background of social phobia (SP) is scarce and inconsistent. We investigated endocrine and autonomic markers along with subjective responses to a standardized stress situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) in SP patients and healthy controls (HC). We examined 88 patients with the primary diagnosis of SP as well as 78 age and sex comparable HCs with the TSST. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after the TSST for the assessment of salivary cortisol, plasma cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and prolactin. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded continuously. Scalp-near hair samples were collected for the assessment of long-term cortisol secretion. The self-reported stress response was measured with different state and trait scales. While self-reported anxiety was elevated in SP before, during, immediately after, and one week after the TSST, no significant differences in biological stress responses were observed between SP and HC. There was a trend for SP to show higher baseline stress markers. Also long-term cortisol deposition in hair remained unaltered. Our results suggest that the excessive self-reported stress in SP is not reflected by a respective biological stress response. Patients with SP apparently show neither an extreme form of focused fear reactivity nor excessive defensive impairment.
Neece, C; Baker, B
Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.
Koolhaas, J M; de Boer, S F; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P
Understanding the role of the social environment in the development of stress related diseases requires a more fundamental understanding of stress. Stress includes not only the stimulus and the response but also the individual appraisal of the situation. The social environment is not only essential
Eacret, Darrell; Grafe, Laura A; Dobkin, Jane; Gotter, Anthony L; Rengerb, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Bhatnagar, Seema
Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Specifically, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to stimulate orexins prior to each of five consecutive days of social defeat stress in adult male rats. Additionally, we determined the role of the orexin 2 receptor in these behaviors by using a selective orexin 2 receptor antagonist (MK-1064) administered prior to each social defeat. Following the 5 day social defeat conditioning period, rats were evaluated in social interaction and novel object recognition paradigms to assess anxiety-like behavior and recognition memory, respectively. Activation of orexin neurons by DREADDs prior to each social defeat decreased the average latency to become defeated across 5 days, indicative of a passive coping strategy that we have previously linked to a stress vulnerable phenotype. Moreover, stimulation of orexin signaling during defeat conditioning decreased subsequent social interaction and performance in the novel object recognition test indicating increased subsequent anxiety-like behavior and reduced working memory. Blocking the orexin 2 receptor during repeated defeat did not alter these effects. Together, our results suggest that orexin neuron activation produces a passive coping phenotype during social defeat leading to subsequent anxiety-like behaviors and memory deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Basu, S; Yap, C; Mason, S
Previous work has established that health care staff, in particular emergency department (ED) personnel, experience significant occupational stress but the underlying stressors have not been well quantified. Such data inform interventions that can reduce cases of occupational mental illness, burnout, staff turnover and early retirement associated with cumulative stress. To develop, implement and evaluate a questionnaire examining the origins of occupational stress in the ED. A questionnaire co-designed by an occupational health practitioner and ED management administered to nursing, medical and support staff in the ED of a large English teaching hospital in 2015. The questionnaire assessed participants' demographic characteristics and perceptions of stress across three dimensions (demand-control-support, effort-reward and organizational justice). Work-related stressors in ED staff were compared with those of an unmatched control group from the acute ear, nose and throat (ENT) and neurology directorate. A total of 104 (59%) ED staff returned questionnaires compared to 72 staff (67%) from the acute ENT/neurology directorate. The ED respondents indicated lower levels of job autonomy, management support and involvement in organizational change, but not work demand. High levels of effort-reward imbalance and organizational injustice were reported by both groups. Our findings suggest that internal ED interventions to improve workers' job control, increase support from management and involvement in organizational change may reduce work stress. The high levels of effort-reward imbalance and organizational injustice reported by both groups may indicate that wider interventions beyond the ED are also needed to address these issues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gevonden, Martin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; van Winkel, Ruud; Selten, Jean-Paul
Repeated exposures to social exclusion, through a process of sensitization, may result in larger responses to experiences of social stress. The current study tested the hypothesis that healthy Moroccan-Dutch men respond stronger to social stress than Dutch controls 1) in daily life, and 2) in an
Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H
Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo
Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-stress period, defined by the absence or presence of examinations, respectively. Inquiries were made regarding social support from parents, friends, and class supervisor. During both stress periods, academic stress was associated negatively with sleep quality and positively with sleep reduction. Social support increased sleep quality and lowered sleep reduction. In addition, social support moderated the effects of academic stress on sleep, thus improving sleep quality and lowering sleep reduction. Moderating effects were stronger during a period of high stress. The present study showed that adolescents can benefit from stress moderation through social support by improvements of sleep quality and sleep reduction. Such moderating effects should be taken into account when studying stress and sleep. Implications and recommendations based on these findings are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Lackner, J M; Brasel, A M; Quigley, B M; Keefer, L; Krasner, S S; Powell, C; Katz, L A; Sitrin, M D
This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels.
Favoretto, Cristiane A; Macedo, Giovana C; Quadros, Isabel M H
In rodents, chronic social defeat stress promotes deficits in social interest and social interaction. We further explored these antisocial effects by comparing the consequences of two different defeat stress protocols (episodic vs. continuous stress) in a social investigation test. We expected that continuous, but not episodic, stress would induce social deficits in this model. Furthermore, we tested whether a potentially anxiolytic dose of ethanol reverses social deficits induced by defeat stress. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a 10-day social defeat protocol, using daily confrontations with an aggressive resident mouse. Episodic stress consisted of brief defeat episodes, after which the defeated mouse was returned to its home cage, until the next defeat 24 h later (n = 7-11/group). For continuous stress, similar defeat episodes were followed by cohabitation with the aggressive resident for 24 h, separated by a perforated divider, until the following defeat (n = 8-14/group). Eight days after stress termination, defeated and control mice were assessed in a social investigation test, after treatment with ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline. Considering the time spent investigating a social target, mice exposed to episodic or continuous social stress showed less social investigation than controls (p stress or ethanol. Thus, a history of social defeat stress, whether episodic or continuous, promotes deficits in social investigation that were not reversed by acute treatment with ethanol.
Ice, Gillian H; Sadruddin, Aalyia F A; Vagedes, Amy; Yogo, Jaja; Juma, Elizabeth
Globally, a growing number of grandparents are caring for their grandchildren. The impact and burden associated with increases in custodial grandparenting, however, may differ by culture. In the United States, the caregiving role has been shown to be a significant source of stress for older adults. In cultures in which grandparents are more commonly involved in the care of young children, however, increasing caregiving roles may not be viewed as stressful. This study examines the impact of caregiving on perceived and physiological measures of stress among 640 Luo elders (60+) in western Kenya, where high HIV prevalence among younger-to-middle aged adults has led to a heavy burden of orphan care. Perceived stress levels were measured using the Luo Perceived Stress Scale (LPSS). Salivary cortisol and casual blood pressure were used as biomarkers of stress. Results were analyzed using random mixed effects models. Overall this study showed that caregivers have higher levels of perceived stress than non-caregivers. For women, household composition, including the number of orphans and adults in the homestead impacted perceived stress. Among men, those who perceived caregiving as burdensome had higher perceived stress. Despite the association between caregiving and perceived stress, there was a minimal relationship between caregiving and the two biomarkers of stress. This may be because caregiving is superimposed onto other stressors and therefore has a minimal physiological impact. These results highlight the importance of local context in determining the impact of the caregiving role on older adult well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schweiger, Gottfried; Graf, Gunter
Das Buch behandelt Kinderarmut als Thema der sozialen Gerechtigkeit. Ausgehend von einer Konzeption der sozialen Gerechtigkeit für Kinder, die im Capability Approach beheimatet ist, legen die Autoren eine Kritik der Kinderarmut vor und entwickeln eine Theorie über die verantwortlichen Aktuere, die zur Linderung von Kinderarmut verpflichtet sind. This book examines child poverty as a topic of social justice. The authors develop a theory of social justice for children based within the capabi...
rababah, Mahdi mohamme saied
Counsellors need to be able to understand students' social self-efficacy, in order to provide them appropriate counselling services. This study investigated social gender self-efficacy differences, and depression, anxiety and stress, and examined the relationship of social self-efficacy to depression, anxiety and stress among a sample of 573…
Bierwiaczonek, Kinga; Waldzus, Sven; van der Zee, Karen
Living outside one's home country may be stressful, and having strong social ties should help deal with this stress. However, social ties may be protective or harmful depending on whether the social group they evoke belongs to the host- or the home country context. The current study examines how
Mattocks, Nicole Olivia
Social work is a profession that seeks to enhance the well-being of all people and promote social justice and social change through a range of activities, such as direct practice, community organizing, social and political action, and policy development. However, the current literature suggests that the profession's focus on social justice and social action are weakening, replaced by individualism and therapeutic interventions. This article examines data derived from a survey of 188 National Association of Social Workers members from Maryland; Virginia; and Washington, DC, to explore levels of social action participation among social workers and determine whether identifying as a macro-level practitioner would predict higher levels of social action activity compared with being a micro-level practitioner. Findings indicate that social workers in this sample engage in only a moderate level of social action behavior. In addition, identifying oneself as a mezzo- or macro-level practitioner predicts increased frequency of social action behavior. Implications include emphasizing the importance of social action in schools of social work and practice settings and adequately preparing social work professionals to engage in social action. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E
Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.
Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and masculinities in transnational space among foreign African male students at the University of ... finance and production as well as the on going processes of political and economic integration has led to an unprecedented increase in international migration.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H
Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Phibbs, Sandi; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Munoz, Elizabeth; Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J
Lack of social support and high levels of stress represent potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive aging. In this study we examined the relationships between these two risk factors and response time inconsistency (RTI), or trial-to-trial variability in choice response time tasks. RTI is an early indicator of declining cognitive health, and examining the influence of modifiable psychosocial risk factors on RTI is important for understanding and promoting cognitive health during adulthood and old age. Using data from a community sample study (n = 317; M age = 49, range = 19-83), we examined the effects of social support, including size of network and satisfaction with support, global perceived stress, and their interactions on RTI. Neither size of network nor satisfaction with support was associated with RTI independent of perceived stress. Stress was positively associated with increased RTI on all tasks, independent of social support. Perceived stress did not interact with either dimension of social support to predict RTI, and perceived stress effects were invariant across age and sex. Perceived stress, but not social support, may be a unique and modifiable risk factor for normal and pathological cognitive aging. Discussion focuses on the importance of perceived stress and its impact on RTI in supporting cognitive health in adulthood and old age.
Houston, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R
Religious congregations have potential to be mediating structures for social justice participation. However, research has yet to examine the specific social processes or leadership characteristics within congregations that may promote social justice participation. In this study, we use data from 176,901 participants nested within 1,938 congregations to test how social processes (i.e., religious attendance at worship services, extra-worship participation, bonding social capital, a congregational norm for justice) and leadership characteristics (i.e., leader modeling of justice, horizontal leadership style) predict personal social justice involvement through the congregation (i.e., participation in social justice activities sponsored by the congregation) as well as personal social justice involvement outside the congregation (i.e., participation in social justice activities not sponsored by the congregation). We use multilevel logistic regression to examine these social processes and leadership characteristics at both individual and congregational levels of analysis. Results showed distinct patterns of associations at individual and congregational levels of analysis and that different social processes and leadership characteristics predicted personal social justice participation through or outside the congregation. These findings reveal the importance of social processes and leadership characteristics in understanding how congregations may mediate social justice participation. Implications for community psychology research and practiced also are discussed.
Praharso, Nurul F; Tear, Morgan J; Cruwys, Tegan
The relationship between stressful life transitions and wellbeing is well established, however, the protective role of social connectedness has received mixed support. We test two theoretical models, the Stress Buffering Hypothesis and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change, to determine which best explains the relationship between social connectedness, stress, and wellbeing. Study 1 (N=165) was an experiment in which participants considered the impact of moving cities versus receiving a serious health diagnosis. Study 2 (N=79) was a longitudinal study that examined the adjustment of international students to university over the course of their first semester. Both studies found limited evidence for the buffering role of social support as predicted by the Stress Buffering Hypothesis; instead people who experienced a loss of social identities as a result of a stressor had a subsequent decline in wellbeing, consistent with the Social Identity Model of Identity Change. We conclude that stressful life events are best conceptualised as identity transitions. Such events are more likely to be perceived as stressful and compromise wellbeing when they entail identity loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco
Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted
Rus, Holly M.; Tiemensma, Jitske
Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being. PMID:28974938
Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users ( n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration ( p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.
Bentley, Eryn; Millman, Zachary B; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Kline, Emily; Pitts, Steven C; DeVylder, Jordan E; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason
Stress is related to symptom severity among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, although this relation may be influenced by protective factors. We explored whether the association of CHR diagnosis with social stress is moderated by the quality of parent-child relationships in a sample of 96 (36 CHR; 60 help-seeking controls) adolescents and young adults receiving mental health services. We examined self-reported social stress and parent-child relationships as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), and determined CHR status from the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS). The social stress subscale, part of the clinical domain of the BASC-2, assesses feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships and the relations with parents subscale, part of the adaptive domain of the BASC-2, assesses perceptions of importance in family and quality of parent-child relationship. There was a modest direct relation between risk diagnosis and social stress. Among those at CHR, however, there was a significant relation between parent-child relationships and social stress (b=-0.73, t=-3.77, psocial stress for those at risk for psychosis. Findings provide additional evidence to suggest that interventions that simultaneously target both social stress and parent-child relationships might be relevant for adolescents and young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dixon, L J; Witcraft, S M; McCowan, N K; Brodell, R T
Stress is an important factor in the onset, exacerbation and reoccurrence of many skin diseases. Little is known about psychological risk factors that affect the association between stress and dermatological conditions. One relevant factor that may modulate this link is anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns - the propensity to respond fearfully to anxiety-related sensations (e.g. sweating, flushing) owing to perceived social consequences (e.g. rejection or humiliation). To gain insight into psychological factors affecting skin disease, we examined the moderating role of AS social concerns in the relationship between stress and skin disease quality of life (QoL). Participants [n = 237 (161 female), mean ± SD age 34·18 ± 9·57 years] with active skin disease symptoms were recruited online and completed questionnaires assessing stress, AS social concerns, skin disease QoL and global skin disease symptom severity. AS social concerns moderated the association between stress and skin-related emotional and social functioning in adults with skin disease. Stress was a significant predictor of the impairment associated with skin disease. Stress was linked to skin disease-related emotional and functional impairment associated with skin disease among individuals with high AS social concerns. These results highlight the potential for AS reduction interventions to break the vicious cycle of stress and skin disease symptoms and to improve psychosocial well-being in dermatology patients. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.
Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.
Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Jing; Hu, Weipeng
To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self-Consciousness Scale. 1. Social anxiety was the mediator variable between stress and mental health. 2. Female students were easily suffered from higher losing stress and human relationship stress in comparision with male. 3. Non-only child Students got a higher score in social anxiety and lower GHQ in comparision with only child. It may be helpful to improve the stress management and mental health of college students by testing and intervening their social anxiety perception.
Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke
This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group.
Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypo...
Moore, Raeanne C.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Jeste, Dilip V.
Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA), and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the ro...
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.
African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B
African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Lapp, Hannah E; Ahmed, Sarah; Moore, Celia L; Hunter, Richard G
Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test. Additional measures included perceived status, social support, background activity of HPA axis, and genetic variants in aspects of the stress response system. Participants (n = 90) answered questions about historical and ongoing stress, provided a DNA sample to examine genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic marks, and underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) during which three saliva samples were collected to assess HPA function. Individuals who reported high levels of childhood adversity had a blunted salivary cortisol response to the TSST. Childhood adversity, discrimination experiences, and FKBP5 genotype were found to predict pretest cortisol levels. Following up on recent observations that the glucocorticoid receptor directly interacts with the mitochondrial genome, particularly the NADH dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) gene, individuals who reported high childhood adversity were also found to have higher percent methylation across six CpG sites upstream of MT-ND6. These findings suggest multiple contributions across psychological, genetic, epigenetic, and social domains to vulnerability and resilience in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Further study to examine how these multiple contributors affect developmental endpoints through integrated or independent pathways will be of use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Studies assessing the impact of stress on health outcomes are lacking in developing countries such as Botswana, in Southern Africa. This study examines the relationships between individual life stressors (stressful life events and chronic life stressors), social relationships and quality of life (QoL), for low-income urban residents in Francistown, Botswana. Although there are many studies of social support and quality of life, no studies have so far explored the relationship among the three variables. Selected concepts from stress theory are used as a conceptual framework. Using a cross-sectional quantitative design (both descriptive and explanatory), this study examined the associations among life stress (stressful life events and chronic life stressors), social relationships, and four indicators of health and QoL among a sample of 388 low-income urban dwellers in Francistown, Botswana. Using multiple regression models, the results of this study show that the availability of social relationships was associated with better physical and psychological health and level of independence. Controlling for the physical domain of QoL, social relationships buffered the effects of chronic life stressors on QoL and level of independence. Social relationships buffer the effects of stressful life events on quality, not on psychological well-being. Social relationships had no moderating effect on physical health, level of independence and on quality of life.
Immigrants depend on within-group social networks for social support during the acculturation process. Within-group social networks are linked to higher mutual concern and reciprocity, lower acculturative stress, and lower depression among immigrants Studies are limited, however, about immigrants' social support in the contexts of global connectedness and transnational connectivity. Grounded in social capital approach and immigrant health framework, this qualitative, community-based study examined the social networks of immigrant men from India to New York City. Drawing upon the participants' narratives, the author illustrates the ways that social capital influences social networking and acculturative stress in post-immigration sociocultural contexts along with its implications for community-based interventions.
Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277
Anacker, Allison M J; Reitz, Kara M; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Beery, Annaliese K
Affiliative social relationships are impacted by stressors and can shape responses to stress. However, the effects of stress on social relationships in different contexts are not well understood. Meadow voles provide an opportunity to study these effects on peer relationships outside of a reproductive context. In winter months, female meadow voles cohabit with peers of both sexes, and social huddling is facilitated by exposure to short, winter-like day lengths in the lab. We investigated the role of stress and corticosterone (cort) levels in social behavior in short day-housed female meadow voles. A brief forced swim elevated cort levels, and we assessed the effects of this stressor on new and established relationships between females. In pairs formed following exposure to swim stress, the stressor significantly reduced the fraction of huddling time subjects spent with a familiar partner. Swim stress did not affect partner preferences in pairs established prior to the stressor. Finally, we examined fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels via immunoassay in voles housed under short day (10h light) versus long day (14 h light) conditions and detected higher glucocorticoid levels in long day-housed voles. These findings support a role for stress regulation in the formation of social relationships in female meadow voles, and are consistent with a potential role for seasonal variation in cort in the behavioral transition from solitary to social. Together they highlight the importance of stress and possibly glucocorticoid signaling for social behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although social anxiety disorder (SAD is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16 and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14. Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches
Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E
Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group.
Dissing, Nete; Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Gerds, Thomas Alexander
Individuals reporting high stress are engaging in social interactions more frequently via calls and text messages, and they appear to spend shorter time in social interactions meeting face-to-face with fellow students. This pattern is also reflected in the self-reported social interactions where ...
Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of…
Meerlo, P; Pragt, Bertrand J.; Daan, S
We studied the effect of social stress on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in rats. Animals were subjected to a single social defeat by introducing them in the cage of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. The animals responded to the social conflict by a sharp increase in EEG slow-wave activity
Bowen, Kimberly S; Uchino, Bert N; Birmingham, Wendy; Carlisle, McKenzie; Smith, Timothy W; Light, Kathleen C
Social support is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular health. According to the buffering hypothesis, stress is 1 mechanism by which support is able to affect physiological processes. However, most of the experimental evidence for the hypothesis comes from laboratory studies. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) protocols examine participants in their natural environment, where they are more likely to encounter personally relevant real-world stressors. Furthermore, prior work shows that examining support by its specific functional components reveals additional independent links to health. The current study aimed to examine the stress-buffering effects of functional social support on ABP. One hundred eighty-eight participants completed a 1-day ABP assessment along with measures of functional social support and both global perceived stress and momentary stress at time of reading. RESULTS indicated main effects for both stress measures. Global support, emotional, tangible, and informational support only moderated the effects of momentary stress, but not global stress, in predicting ABP. Informational support was the most consistent stress-buffering predictor of ABP, predicting both ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The predicted values in ABP for informational support achieved health-relevant differences, emphasizing the value of examining functional support beyond global support alone. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P
Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P stress perceptions and social support drive the dimensional AT burnout experience, whereas workload incongruence (emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked to specific burnout dimensions. Social interactions and markers of stress and workload should be considered when seeking to understand ATs' experiences with burnout and to design workplace interventions.
Torres Sánchez, Alejandro; Vanegas, Juan Manuel; Arroyo Balaguer, Marino
The microscopic stress field provides a unique connection between atomistic simulations and mechanics at the nanoscale. However, its definition remains ambiguous. Rather than a mere theoretical preoccupation, we show that this fact acutely manifests itself in local stress calculations of defective graphene, lipid bilayers, and fibrous proteins. We find that popular definitions of the microscopic stress violate the continuum statements of mechanical equilibrium, and we propose an unambiguous a...
Johnston, Derek W; Jones, Martyn C; Charles, Kathryn; McCann, Sharon K; McKee, Lorna
Nurses are a stressed group and this may affect their health and work performance. The determinants of occupational stress in nurses and other occupational groups have almost invariably been examined in between subject studies. This study aimed to determine if the main determinants of occupation stress, i.e. demand, control, effort and reward, operate within nurses. A real time study using personal digital-assistant-based ecological momentary assessment to measure affect and its hypothesised determinants every 90 min in 254 nurses over three nursing shifts. The measures were negative affect, positive affect, demand/effort, control and reward. While the effects varied in magnitude between people, in general increased negative affect was predicted by high demand/effort, low control and low reward. Control and reward moderated the effects of demand/effort. High positive affect was predicted by high demand/effort, control and reward. The same factors are associated with variations in stress-related affect within nurses as between.
Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone
Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.
Henderson, Fiona; Vialou, Vincent; El Mestikawy, Salah; Fabre, Véronique
Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice tha...
Full Text Available In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 items and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA were applied to 330 high-school students. Items that did not apply as a result of the analysis were omitted from 52-item trial scale and the scale was reduced to 14 items. A final scale consisting of two factors was created. Obtained scale was applied to different 250 high-school students for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. It has been determined that EFA and CFA results of two-factor PSRB-S and reliability and validity of internal consistency coefficients are at an acceptable level. It was not detected a significance difference in total scores of athlete students’ responsibility behaviors in terms of gender and age variables while there were significant difference in their total scores of years of sport practice.
VanKim, Nicole A.; Nelson, Toben F.
Purpose To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. Design A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Setting Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. Subjects A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Measures Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Analysis Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Conclusion Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions. PMID:23470187
Vankim, Nicole A; Nelson, Toben F
To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions.
Henderson, Heather; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Spencer; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T
Limited research has explored how specific elements of physical and social environments influence mental health indicators such as perceived stress, or whether such associations are moderated by gender. This study examined the relationship between selected neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress levels within a primarily low-income, older, African-American population in a mid-sized city in the Southeastern U.S. Residents (n = 394; mean age=55.3 years, 70.9% female, 89.3% African American) from eight historically disadvantaged neighborhoods completed surveys measuring perceptions of neighborhood safety, social cohesion, aesthetics, and stress. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association between each of the three neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress. Greater perceived safety, improved neighborhood aesthetics, and social cohesion were significantly associated with lower perceived stress. These associations were not moderated by gender. These findings suggest that improving social attributes of neighborhoods may have positive impacts on stress and related benefits for population health. Future research should examine how neighborhood characteristics influence stress over time. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of social stress models, especially social defeat. Such an interest lies both on the recognition that stressors of social origin play a major role in human psychopathologies and on the acknowledgement that natural and hence ethologically-based stress models bear important translational value. The use of the most recent technology has allowed the recognition of the mechanisms through which social defeat may have enduring psychoneuroendocrine effects, especially social avoidance and anhedonia, two behaviours relevant to human depression. Taken with the sensitivity of these behavioural outcomes to repeated antidepressant treatments, it has been proposed that the social defeat model might be an animal model of depression. The present survey is aimed at examining the limits of such an interpretation, focusing on methodological aspects and on the relevance of social defeat to the study of anxiety-related pathologies. PMID:23532563
Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tehee, Melissa; Buchwald, Dedra; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Omidpanah, Adam; Manson, Spero M; Goins, R Turner
To estimate the prevalence of lifetime traumatic experiences, describe related symptoms of traumatic stress, and examine their association with perceived social support and physical and mental health among older American Indians. Analyses of existing interview data from the Native Elder Care Study, a random age-stratified sample of 505 tribal members ≥55 years of age conducted in partnership with a large Southeastern tribe. Interviews assessed trauma exposure, traumatic stress, measures of social support, and physical and mental health status. Overall, 31% of participants had experienced a traumatic event; of these, 43% reported traumatic stress at the time of the interview. Higher perceived social support was associated with a reduced prevalence of traumatic stress. Compared to their counterparts without traumatic stress, women participants reporting traumatic stress reported more symptoms of depression, and both symptomatic men and women had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic pain. Traumatic stress was associated with less perceived social support and poorer health. Social support was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stress and physical and mental health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea
The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between
Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino
Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.
Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Shireen, Erum; Haider, Saida; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen
Examination stress is a psychological stress that activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis to increase circulating levels of glucocorticoids. The fat derived hormone leptin is also released in response to stress-inducing condition. To workout the role of leptin and cortisol in response to perceived levels of examination stress and their effects on academic performance. The present study was designed to monitor the relationship of self reported perceived levels of examination stress on serum levels of cortisol and leptin in female students going to appear in university examination. Fifty-six female undergraduate students participated in the study. Examination stress, appetite levels were assessed by a questionnaire and blood samples were collected one hour before appearing in the examination. Performance was evaluated from the marks obtained in that particular examination. Serum cortisol levels increased with an increase in the intensity of perceived examination stress. Serum leptin levels increased only in the group under moderate stress while increases in mild and severe stress group were not significant. Mild to moderate stress enhanced performance but severe stress decreased it. The present study shows an inverted U-shaped relationship between self reported different levels of perceived examination stress and academic performance.
Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin
While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hour immobilization stress and then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized female voles recovering alone with oxytocin or vehicle and female voles recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (N = 98 total). We found that 1 hour immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in female prairie voles recovering alone but not the female prairie voles recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intra-paraventricular nucleus oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization, whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Together, our data demonstrate that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.
Masis-Calvo, Marianela; Schmidtner, Anna K; de Moura Oliveira, Vinícius E; Grossmann, Cindy P; de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D
Social stress occurs in all social species, including humans, and shape both mental health and future interactions with conspecifics. Animal models of social stress are used to unravel the precise role of the main stress system - the HPA axis - on the one hand, and the social behavior network on the other, as these are intricately interwoven. The present review aims to summarize the insights gained from three highly useful and clinically relevant animal models of psychosocial stress: the resident-intruder (RI) test, the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), and the social fear conditioning (SFC). Each model brings its own focus: the role of the HPA axis in shaping acute social confrontations (RI test), the physiological and behavioral impairments resulting from chronic exposure to negative social experiences (CSC), and the neurobiology underlying social fear and its effects on future social interactions (SFC). Moreover, these models are discussed with special attention to the HPA axis and the neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin, which are important messengers in the stress system, in emotion regulation, as well as in the social behavior network. It appears that both nonapeptides balance the relative strength of the stress response, and simultaneously predispose the animal to positive or negative social interactions.
Mouri, Akihiro; Ukai, Mayu; Uchida, Mizuki; Hasegawa, Sho; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ito, Takahiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Kunimoto, Shohko; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro
Adverse juvenile experiences, including physical abuse, often have negative health consequences later in life. We investigated the influence of social defeat stress exposure as juveniles on neuropsychological behaviors, and the causal role of glucocorticoids in abnormal behaviors and impairment of neurogenesis in mice exposed to the stress. The juvenile (24-day-old) and adult (70-day-old) male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress induced by an aggressive ICR mouse. Social defeat stress exposure as juveniles, even for 1 day, induced persistent social avoidance to the unfamiliar ICR mouse in the social interaction test, but that was not observed in mice exposed to the stress as adults. Social avoidance by the stress exposure as juveniles for 10 consecutive days was observed, when the target mouse was not only unfamiliar ICR but also another C57BL/J mouse, but not an absent or an anesthetized ICR mouse. The stress exposure did not induce anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus-maze test, marble-burying test, forced swimming test, or sucrose preference test. Serum corticosterone levels increased immediately after the stress exposure. The hippocampal neurogenesis was suppressed 1 day and 4 weeks after the stress exposure. Administration of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, prior to each stress exposure, blocked the persistent social avoidance and suppression of neurogenesis. In conclusion, social avoidance induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles are more persistent than that as adults. These social avoidances are associated with suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis via glucocorticoid receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason
Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Snyder, Kevin P; Barry, Mark; Valentino, Rita J
Stress experience during adolescence has been linked to the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood, many of which are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortex function. The current study was designed to determine the immediate and enduring effects of repeated social stress on a prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive task. Early adolescent (P28), mid-adolescent (P42), and adult (P70) rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress for 5 days and tested in an operant strategy-shifting task (OSST) during the following week or several weeks later during adulthood. Engagement of prefrontal cortical neurons during the task was assessed by expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos. Social stress during adolescence had no immediate effects on task performance, but impaired strategy-shifting in adulthood, whereas social stress that occurred during adulthood had no effect. The cognitive impairment produced by adolescent social stress was most pronounced in rats with a passive coping strategy. Notably, strategy-shifting performance was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical c-fos in adulthood but not in adolescence, suggesting that the task engages different brain regions in adolescents compared to adults. Adolescent social stress produces a protracted impairment in prefrontal cortex-mediated cognition that is related to coping strategy. This impairment may be selectively expressed in adulthood because prefrontal cortical activity is integral to task performance at this age but not during adolescence.
Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and
Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and
Cosio, Saharay E.
Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…
Full Text Available The article discusses two issues in Chinese education mobility: The emergence of the meritocracy ideal and its realization through the civil service examination. I propose that a theory of civilization contending a complex society must transcend the concentric model of kinship distance calculation in order to incorporate non-kin strangers into the enlarged social unit. The pre-Qin philosophers saw the problem when they argued against guanxi relationalism for it is ill-suited for organizing a complex society filled with strangers. In its stead, they proposed a ladder structure whereby strangers could be comparatively evaluated based on absolute standards and that one’s position on the ladder should be the basis for the distribution of political power and material wealth. However, the upward mobility assumed in meritocracy was a threat to the privileged position of the dominant class. I argue the threat was transformed into an asset to the Chinese emperors through the civil service examination. By recruiting commoners to supplant the old guards in the court, the examination consolidated the power of the ruler at the expense of the reigning bureaucrats. Moreover, by encouraging commoners to compete in the examination, it also provided a low-cost means for the -integration of local societies. Contrary to the view that education mobility is a façade to disguise class reproduction, I argue it was an integral part of the Chinese political system which shaped the Chinese understanding of education.
Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drescher, Larissa S.; Hasselbach, Johanna
It is a known fact that stress negatively affects food choices. Consequentially, this paper analyzes three different research questions using a sample of 330 international students in Germany. Firstly, it is observed if stress affects students’ motivations to eat, i.e. if it triggers changes in the motivation behind food choices. Results show that this is not the case. Secondly, it is tested if social support acts as a buffer on the relationship between stress and healthy eating, similarly to...
Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D
Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Lim, Lynette; Sleigh, Adrian
Social capital includes collective features such as social trust, norms, and networks. This paper examines social capital-related variables against demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of 87,134 adult distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. We have found economic stress to be higher in non-married groups, lower income groups, and those residing in rural areas. Social trust was higher among married, especially with higher income and those in rural areas. Those who were separated, divorced or widowed and those with lower socioeconomic status had the highest economic stress and the least social trust. These groups also reported high importance of religious belief, karma and spiritual belief, along with lower income groups. Despite having high economic stress, social interaction with and support from families were found to be high among those not-married, with lower income, and in rural areas. As Thailand urbanises and progresses economically, diverse patterns of social capital have emerged and some changes might have offset others. For example, we have shown that economic stress associated with low income tends to co-occur with high social interaction and family support. This observation should be reassuring to policymakers aiming to preserve and promote social capital as Thailand continues to urbanise and modernise. PMID:22003268
Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K
Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (pprevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Marina M Doucerain
Full Text Available Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2 learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N=100 support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in communication-related acculturative stress but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T
This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Sial, Omar K; Warren, Brandon L; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Parise, Eric M; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A
Animal models capable of differentiating the neurobiological intricacies between physical and emotional stress are scarce. Current models rely primarily on physical stressors (e.g., chronic unpredictable or mild stress, social defeat, learned helplessness), and neglect the impact of psychological stress alone. This is surprising given extensive evidence that a traumatic event needs not be directly experienced to produce enduring perturbations on an individual's health and psychological well-being. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a highly debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by intense fear of trauma-related stimuli, often occurs in individuals that have only witnessed a traumatic event. By modifying the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) paradigm to include a witness component (witnessing the social defeat of another mouse), we demonstrate a novel behavioral paradigm capable of inducing a robust behavioral syndrome reminiscent of PTSD in emotionally stressed adult mice. We describe the vicarious social defeat stress (VSDS) model that is capable of inducing a host of behavioral deficits that include social avoidance and other depressive- and anxiety-like phenotypes in adult male mice. VSDS exposure induces weight loss and spike in serum corticosterone (CORT) levels. A month after stress, these mice retain the social avoidant phenotype and have an increased CORT response when exposed to subsequent stress. The VSDS is a novel paradigm capable of inducing emotional stress by isolating physical stress/confrontation in mice. The VSDS model can be used to study the short- and long-term neurobiological consequences of exposure to emotional stress in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Morgan C. Tait
Full Text Available Daniel Bromley argues against Oran Young's FIT model as a basis for environmental governance, on the grounds that humans cannot manage nature and that attempts to do so are based on a scientistic, modernist conceit. At issue is the role of natural and social scientists in adjudicating questions about what we ought to do to close governance gaps and address unsustainable behaviors. If Bromley is right, then the lessons of the American pragmatist tradition recommend against attempts to "fit" social institutions to the natural world. The first objective of this paper is to argue that Bromley's view is not in keeping with the pragmatism of C. S. Peirce and John Dewey, which actually places a high value on natural and social scientific modes of inquiry in the service of social ends. I argue that Young's proposal is in fact a development of the pragmatist idea that social institutions must be fit in the sense of fitness, i.e., resilient and able to navigate uncertainty. Social institutions must also evolve to accommodate the emerging values of the agents who operate within them. The second objective of this paper is to examine the role of social science expertise in the design of social policies. Governance institutions typically rely on the testimony of natural scientists, at least in part, to understand the natural systems they operate within. However, natural systems are also social systems, so it seems pertinent to ask whether there is a role for social systems experts to play in helping to design environmental governance institutions. I argue that social scientists can make a unique contribution as experts on social institutions, and as such, are necessary to bring about a transformation of the unsustainable institutions that are preventing us from achieving stated sustainable development goals.
contends that social relationships influence health through the prevention or lessening of responses to stress. Cohen and Wills (1985) describe that...Sheffield, D., Jaumdally, R., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2010). Anger rumination , social support, and cardiac symptoms in patients undergoing angiography
Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.
Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...
Sadath, Anvar; Muralidhar, D; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N; Jose, Justin P
Caring for a person with first episode psychosis (FEP) is a challenging and distressing task for the carers. The carers' stress in the early stage of psychosis can increase their expressed emotion (EE) while social support is hypothesized to decrease EE. However, the influence of stress and social support on carers' EE is not well understood in FEP. To examine how the stress and social support shape expressed emotion in the carers of FEP. Seventy one carers of the patients with non-affective FEP were recruited from the inpatient psychiatry ward of a tertiary mental health care center in South India. The family questionnaire, perceived stress scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to measure their EE, stress and social support respectively. Carers experienced high level of perceived stress, EE and poor social support. Perceived stress significantly increased EE (β=0.834; psocial support did not significantly influence EE (β=-0.065; p>0.05). Perceived stress predicted 76 percent of the variance on EE (Adjusted R 2 =0.761). The results emphasize high level of stress and EE in carers of patients with FEP that implies the need for appropriate psychosocial interventions to manage their stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.
Yanovich, Chen; Kirby, Michael L; Michaelevski, Izhak; Yadid, Gal; Pinhasov, Albert
Studies of personality have suggested that dissimilarities in ability to cope with stressful situations results in differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors. The present study used selectively bred stress-resilient, socially-dominant (Dom) and stress-vulnerable, socially-submissive (Sub) mice to investigate the interaction between environmental stress and inbred predisposition to develop addictive behavior to cocaine. In a Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm using cocaine, Sub mice displayed an aversion to drug, whereas Dom mice displayed drug attraction. Following a 4-week regimen of Chronic Mild Stress (CMS), Sub mice in CPP displayed a marked increase (>400%) in cocaine attraction, whereas Dom mice did not differ in attraction from their non-stressed state. Examination of hippocampal gene expression revealed in Sub mice, exposure to external stimuli, stress or cocaine, increased CRH expression (>100%), which was evoked in Dom mice only by cocaine exposure. Further, stress-induced decreases in DRD1 (>60%) and DRD2 (>50%) expression in Sub mice differed markedly from a complete lack of change in Dom mice. From our findings, we propose that social stratification dictates vulnerability to stress-induced attraction that may lead to addiction via differential regulation of hippocampal response to dopaminergic input, which in turn may influence differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors.
Zhou, Y.; Bird, J.; Cox, A. L.; Brumby, D.
Social networks are increasingly popular and provide benefits such as easy peer group communication. However, there is evidence that they can have negative consequences, such as increased stress levels. For two weeks, we provided participants with an objective measure of their social network usage and also asked them for a daily estimate of their usage over the previous 24 hours. Although their social network usage did not significantly change, participants’ perception of this activity was tr...
Yang, Bangkun; Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Chen, Qian-Xue
Background: Current data on antidepressant action of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, (+)-MK-801, is inconsistent. This study was conducted to examine the effects of (+)-MK-801 and its less potent stereoisomer, (-)-MK-801, in the social defeat stress model of depression. Methods: The antidepressant effects of (+)-MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) and (-)-MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) in the social defeat stress model were examined. Results: In the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, both stereoisomers significantly attenuated increased immobility time in susceptible mice. In the sucrose preference test, (+)-MK-801, but not (-)-MK-801, significantly enhanced reduced sucrose consumption 2 or 4 days after a single dose. However, no antianhedonia effects were detected 7 days after a single dose of either stereoisomer. Conclusions: Both stereoisomers of MK-801 induced rapid antidepressant effects in the social defeat stress model, although neither produced a long-lasting effect (7 days). PMID:27608811
Nabi, Robin L; Prestin, Abby; So, Jiyeon
There is clear evidence that interpersonal social support impacts stress levels and, in turn, degree of physical illness and psychological well-being. This study examines whether mediated social networks serve the same palliative function. A survey of 401 undergraduate Facebook users revealed that, as predicted, number of Facebook friends associated with stronger perceptions of social support, which in turn associated with reduced stress, and in turn less physical illness and greater well-being. This effect was minimized when interpersonal network size was taken into consideration. However, for those who have experienced many objective life stressors, the number of Facebook friends emerged as the stronger predictor of perceived social support. The "more-friends-the-better" heuristic is proposed as the most likely explanation for these findings.
Wilks, Scott E; Croom, Beth
The study examined whether social support functioned as a protective, resilience factor among Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers. Moderation and mediation models were used to test social support amid stress and resilience. A cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data was conducted. Measures of demographics, perceived stress, family support, friend support, overall social support, and resilience were administered to caregiver attendees (N=229) of two AD caregiver conferences. Hierarchical regression analysis showed the compounded impact of predictors on resilience. Odds ratios generated probability of high resilience given high stress and social supports. Social support moderation and mediation were tested via distinct series of regression equations. Path analyses illustrated effects on the models for significant moderation and/or mediation. Stress negatively influenced and accounted for most variation in resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience, and caregivers with high family support had the highest probability of elevated resilience. Moderation was observed among all support factors. No social support fulfilled the complete mediation criteria. Evidence of social support as a protective, moderating factor yields implications for health care practitioners who deliver services to assist AD caregivers, particularly the promotion of identification and utilization of supportive familial and peer relations.
Hruschka, Daniel; Efferson, Charles; Jiang, Ting; Falletta-Cowden, Ashlan; Sigurdsson, Sveinn; McNamara, Rita; Sands, Madeline; Munira, Shirajum; Slingerland, Edward; Henrich, Joseph
Anthropologists have documented substantial cross-society variation in people's willingness to treat strangers with impartial, universal norms versus favoring members of their local community. Researchers have proposed several adaptive accounts for these differences. One variant of the pathogen stress hypothesis predicts that people will be more likely to favor local in-group members when they are under greater infectious disease threat. The material security hypothesis instead proposes that institutions that permit people to meet their basic needs through impartial interactions with strangers reinforce a tendency toward impartiality, whereas people lacking such institutions must rely on local community members to meet their basic needs. Some studies have examined these hypotheses using self-reported preferences, but not with behavioral measures. We conducted behavioral experiments in eight diverse societies that measure individuals' willingness to favor in-group members by ignoring an impartial rule. Consistent with the material security hypothesis, members of societies enjoying better-quality government services and food security show a stronger preference for following an impartial rule over investing in their local in-group. Our data show no support for the pathogen stress hypothesis as applied to favoring in-groups and instead suggest that favoring in-group members more closely reflects a general adaptive fit with social institutions that have arisen in each society.
Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hattori, Michihiro; Nagata, Masako; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Watanabe, Seiji; Mori, Koji
The stress check program has been part of annual employees' health screening since 2015. Employees are recommended, but not obliged, to undergo the stress check offered. This study was designed to examine the factors associated with stress check attendance. A total of 31,156 Japanese employees who underwent an annual health examination and a stress check service at an Occupational Health Service Center in 2016 participated in this study. Data from the annual health examination and stress check service included stress check attendance, date of attendance (if implemented), gender, age, workplace industry, number of employees at the workplace, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The mean rate of stress check attendance was 90.8%. A higher rate of stress check attendance was associated with a lower duration from the annual health examination, age ≥30 years, construction and transport industry, and 50-999 employees at the workplace. A lower rate of stress check attendance was associated with medical and welfare industry and ≥1,000 employees at the workplace. These findings provide insights into developing strategies for improving the rate of stress check attendance. In particular, stress check attendance may improve if the stress check service and annual health examination are conducted simultaneously.
Zniva, Richard; Pauli, Paul; Schulz, Stefan M
Self-determination theory suggests that autonomy-enhancing social support helps individuals to perceive stressors as challenging rather than stressing. Overprotective support may reduce stress in the short-run but undermines autonomy, thus hampering stress-coping in the long run, particularly when social support is terminated. Heartrate, blood-pressure and ratings were examined in N=44 undergraduate students receiving autonomy support (calculation steps) or overprotection (solutions) from a close friend or no support for solving arithmetic tasks as well as during a subsequent stress-challenge (solving arithmetic tasks alone). Overprotection resulted in increased heartrate, diastolic blood-pressure, stress ratings, and decreased subjective control during stress-challenge. Autonomy support did not lead to unfavorable stress responding. The current findings are in line with assumptions derived from self-determination theory and indicate that autonomy support can help to prevent stress. Overprotection does not buffer stress and is associated with increased stress when discontinued. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geisler, Martin; Allwood, Carl Martin
Peoples' decision-making competence, defined as tendency to follow normative rational principles in their decision making, is important as it may influence the extent that requirements are met and levels of perceived stress. In addition, perceived stress could be influenced by social orientation and time style; for example, decisions need to comply with given deadlines and the expectations of others. In two studies, with students ( n = 118) and professionals (police investigators, n = 90), we examined how the three individual difference features: decision-making competence, social orientation, and time approach relate to perceived stress. Results showed that social orientation and time approach were related to levels of perceived stress, but decision-making competence was not. These results indicate that social orientation and time approach are important to consider in relation to perceived stress, but the role of decision-making competence may be less important for perceived stress. However, the role of decision-making competence for perceived stress needs to be further researched.
Full Text Available Peoples’ decision-making competence, defined as tendency to follow normative rational principles in their decision making, is important as it may influence the extent that requirements are met and levels of perceived stress. In addition, perceived stress could be influenced by social orientation and time style; for example, decisions need to comply with given deadlines and the expectations of others. In two studies, with students (n = 118 and professionals (police investigators, n = 90, we examined how the three individual difference features: decision-making competence, social orientation, and time approach relate to perceived stress. Results showed that social orientation and time approach were related to levels of perceived stress, but decision-making competence was not. These results indicate that social orientation and time approach are important to consider in relation to perceived stress, but the role of decision-making competence may be less important for perceived stress. However, the role of decision-making competence for perceived stress needs to be further researched.
Geisler, Martin; Allwood, Carl Martin
Peoples’ decision-making competence, defined as tendency to follow normative rational principles in their decision making, is important as it may influence the extent that requirements are met and levels of perceived stress. In addition, perceived stress could be influenced by social orientation and time style; for example, decisions need to comply with given deadlines and the expectations of others. In two studies, with students (n = 118) and professionals (police investigators, n = 90), we examined how the three individual difference features: decision-making competence, social orientation, and time approach relate to perceived stress. Results showed that social orientation and time approach were related to levels of perceived stress, but decision-making competence was not. These results indicate that social orientation and time approach are important to consider in relation to perceived stress, but the role of decision-making competence may be less important for perceived stress. However, the role of decision-making competence for perceived stress needs to be further researched. PMID:29686634
Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M
Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation
Gunnar, Megan R.
This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed. The central developmental question in this area derives from attachment theory which argues that the infant's experience of stress and arousal regulation in the context of her early attachment relationships is not an immature form of social buffering experienced in adulthood, but rather the foundation out of which individual differences in the capacity to gain stress relief from social partners emerge. The emergence of social buffering in infancy, changes in social buffering throughout childhood and adolescence, the influence of early experience on later individual differences in social buffering, and critical gaps in our knowledge are described. PMID:28544861
Arch, Joanna J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kirk Warren
Arch et al. (2014) demonstrated that brief self-compassion meditation training (SCT) dampened sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase) and subjective anxiety responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), relative to attention and no-instruction control conditions. The present study examined baseline predictors and moderators of these SCT intervention effects. Baseline characteristics included two stress vulnerability traits (social anxiety and rumination) and two potential resiliency traits (non-attachment and self-compassion). We investigated how these traits moderated the effects of SCT on response to the TSST, relative to the control conditions. We also tested how these individual differences predicted TSST responses across conditions in order to uncover characteristics that confer increased vulnerability and resiliency to social stressors. Trait non-attachment, rumination (for sympathetic TSST response only), and social anxiety (for subjective TSST response only) interacted with training condition to moderate TSST responses such that following SCT, lower attachment and lower social anxiety predicted lower TSST stress responses, relative to those scoring higher on these traits. In contrast, trait self-compassion neither moderated nor predicted responses to the TSST. Thus, although SCT had robust effects on buffering stress across individuals with varying levels of trait self-compassion, other psychological traits enhanced or dampened the effect of SCT on TSST responses. These findings support the importance of examining the role of relevant baseline psychological traits to predict sympathetic and subjective responses to social evaluative threat, particularly in the context of resiliency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burton, C L; Bonanno, G A; Hatzenbuehler, M L
Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.
Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…
Stephenson, Timar D.
The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…
Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.P.
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study:
Sullivan, Christopher; Kashubeck-West, Susan
This study examined the relationship between acculturation modes (assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization), social support, and acculturative stress in undergraduate and graduate international students (N=104) at a medium-sized public university in the Midwestern United States. The study found that international students with…
Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming
This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…
Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara
Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…
Hamilton, Christopher J.; Mahalik, James R.
The authors examined the contributions of the minority stress model, traditional masculine gender roles, and perceived social norms in accounting for gay men's use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and risky sexual practices. Three hundred fifteen gay men recruited from listserv communities completed measures assessing internalized homophobia,…
Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords : Social media, Commercial Companies, Marketing,. Media, Marketing ..... motivation that pushed several commercial companies to use the social media .... Ministry of Tourism, April 2012, Egypt.  Dinesh Gupta ...
Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober
Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.
Jong, Cindy; Jackson, Christa
Teaching for social justice is a critical pedagogy used to empower students to be social agents in the world they live. This critical pedagogy has extended to mathematics education. Over the last decade, mathematics education researchers have conceptualized what it means to teach mathematics for social justice, but little is known about preservice…
BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ
Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress
Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K
The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.
It is well documented that exposure to chronic negative working conditions leads to stress. This subsequently impacts sickness absence and attrition, making it a key consideration for policymakers and academics alike. This study therefore seeks to investigate the influence of psychosocial working conditions on stress and related outcomes: sickness presenteeism, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions in UK social workers (SWs). A cross-sectional survey was used, in addition to a single open...
Henderson, Fiona; Vialou, Vincent; El Mestikawy, Salah; Fabre, Véronique
Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5) following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM) sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.
Full Text Available Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5 following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.
Ruijsbroek, A.; Mohnen, S.M.; Droomers, M.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Andrusaityte, S.; Helbich, M.; Maas, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Triguero-Mas, M.; Masterson, D.; Ellis, N.; Kempen, E. van; Hardyns, W.; Stronks, K.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.
Objectives: This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. Methods: The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain),
Baor, Liora; Soskolne, Varda
Twin pregnancies and births resulting from assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and maternal health complications leading to psychologically complex parenting. In the current study the authors assess the prevalence of clinical levels of maternal stress among mothers of twins resulting from in vitro fertilization and examine the association of social coping resources with three maternal stress sub-scales. During the years 2003-2005, 88 primiparous Israeli mothers of in vitro fertilization-conceived twins provided socio-demographic data during their third trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 months after birth provided data on delivery and medical condition of infants, coping resources (social support and marital quality), and a maternal stress scale. Forty-one percent of the mothers reached a clinically significant level of maternal stress. Social support and maternal employment were the most significant variables associated with experience of the stress in the early stages of adaptation to mothering in vitro fertilization twins. Primiparous mothers of in vitro fertilization twins are vulnerable to maternal stress in early stages of adaptation to the maternal role, some of whom reach clinical levels that may require professional interventions. Unemployed mothers with low social support were the most susceptible to the deleterious effects of in vitro fertilization treatment.
Full Text Available Thomas Kötter,1 Frank Niebuhr2 1Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, 2Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Introduction: The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item, anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument. In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis.Results: We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on
Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006
Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6 = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6 = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6 = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.
Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G M; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.
Crnic, K A; Greenberg, M T; Ragozin, A S; Robinson, N M; Basham, R B
This study examined the relationships of stress and social support to maternal attitudes and early mother-infant interactive behavior. 52 mother-premature infant pairs and 53 mother-full-term infant pairs were seen for structured home interviews at 1 month, and behavioral interactions at 4 months. Maternal life stress, social support, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with parenting were assessed at the 1-month home visit. Although no group differences were found, both stress and support significantly predicted maternal attitudes at 1 month and interactive behavior at 4 months when data were pooled. Mothers with greater stress were less positive in their attitudes and behavior, while mothers with greater support were significantly more positive. Intimate support proved to have the most general positive effects. Additionally, social support moderated the adverse effects of stress on mother's life satisfaction and on several behavioral variables. Maternal social support was further found to have several significant effects on infant interactive behavior. Results are discussed in terms of the ecological significance of social support to parenting and infants' early development.
Doucerain, Marina M; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: The omnipresence of stress and depression among university students is a cause for concern, as it can have adverse consequences on all aspects of their life. Understanding the role of social support as a protective factor within this context, may well be vital to the enhancement of overall wellbeing among students. The main aim of the present study was to examine the moderating effect of perceived social support on the relationship between stress and depression. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to garner data from 254 university students for hierarchical multiple regression and structural equation modeling analysis. Results: Firstly, the present study replicated the frequently reported positive relationship between stress and depression. Secondly, an inverse association between social support and depression was also depicted. Finally, the results also supported an interaction between perceived social support and stress in predicting depression among students. Conclusion: In sum, the results of the current study may well augment our understanding of the role of perceived social support in combating stress and depression among students, and thereby convey important implications for intervention strategies tailored to this demographic.
Belding, Jennifer N; Howard, Malcolm G; McGuire, Anne M; Schwartz, Amanda C; Wilson, Janie H
Social buffering is characterized by attenuation of stress in the presence of others, with supportive individuals providing superior buffering. We were interested in learning if the implied presence of a supportive entity, God, would reduce acute stress. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: prayer, encouraging self-talk, and control. They were subsequently placed in a stressful situation. Self ratings of stress were lower among the prayer and self-talk conditions relative to controls. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures only among those who prayed were lower than controls; however, prayer and self-talk did not differ. Prayer alone did not significantly reduce stress, perhaps because the majority of students in the prayer condition did not consider reading a prayer to constitute praying.
Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Rudolph, Abby; Kim, BoRin; Lewis, Crystal M
Experiences of discrimination, or social marginalization and ostracism, may lead to the formation of social networks characterized by inequality. For example, those who experience discrimination may be more likely to develop drug use and sexual partnerships with others who are at increased risk for HIV compared to those without experiences of discrimination. This is critical as engaging in risk behaviors with others who are more likely to be HIV positive can increase one's risk of HIV. We used log-binomial regression models to examine the relationship between drug use, racial and incarceration discrimination with changes in the composition of one's risk network among 502 persons who use drugs. We examined both absolute and proportional changes with respect to sex partners, drug use partners, and injecting partners, after accounting for individual risk behaviors. At baseline, participants were predominately male (70%), black or Latino (91%), un-married (85%), and used crack (64%). Among those followed-up (67%), having experienced discrimination due to drug use was significantly related to increases in the absolute number of sex networks and drug networks over time. No types of discrimination were related to changes in the proportion of high-risk network members. Discrimination may increase one's risk of HIV acquisition by leading them to preferentially form risk relationships with higher-risk individuals, thereby perpetuating racial and ethnic inequities in HIV. Future social network studies and behavioral interventions should consider whether social discrimination plays a role in HIV transmission.
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.
Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…
Full Text Available In today's internet technology social media platforms have become the most widely used mediums in interpersonal communication. Besides Social Media by leading to creation of new businesses, professions and production-consumption relationships, adds a new dimension to the communication sector. In other words it builds a new economy. In this article, it is aimed to investigate the changes in traditional consumption and production relationships which caused by social media economy.
Ergin UZGÖREN; İlhan KORKMAZ
In today's internet technology social media platforms have become the most widely used mediums in interpersonal communication. Besides Social Media by leading to creation of new businesses, professions and production-consumption relationships, adds a new dimension to the communication sector. In other words it builds a new economy. In this article, it is aimed to investigate the changes in traditional consumption and production relationships which caused by social media economy.
Reader, Arran T; Holmes, Nicholas P
Social interaction is an essential part of the human experience, and much work has been done to study it. However, several common approaches to examining social interactions in psychological research may inadvertently either unnaturally constrain the observed behaviour by causing it to deviate from naturalistic performance, or introduce unwanted sources of variance. In particular, these sources are the differences between naturalistic and experimental behaviour that occur from changes in visual fidelity (quality of the observed stimuli), gaze (whether it is controlled for in the stimuli), and social potential (potential for the stimuli to provide actual interaction). We expand on these possible sources of extraneous variance and why they may be important. We review the ways in which experimenters have developed novel designs to remove these sources of extraneous variance. New experimental designs using a 'two-person' approach are argued to be one of the most effective ways to develop more ecologically valid measures of social interaction, and we suggest that future work on social interaction should use these designs wherever possible.
Sajwau, T.; Chardos, S.
The NRC license for nuclear reactor operators requires periodic written examinations to demonstrate ongoing technical competency. Poor performance raises a competency question and can affect the individuals' careers. Accordingly, the exams can be highly stressful events. Stress has been demonstrated to affect memory, perception, other cognitive attitudes, and test performance. The phenomenon of test anxiety is well known. Instead of a generic, broadly focused stress management approach, a sharply focused, two-part program was developed for TVA operators scheduled to take the NRC examination. The first part was presented early in preparatory training, and the second part was given just prior to the examination. The first part consisted of a simple model of stress found in exams, early warning signs of test stress, and tactics of stress management that were practical to use during the NRC exam itself
Grafe, Laura A; Eacret, Darrell; Dobkin, Jane; Bhatnagar, Seema
Exposure to stress increases the risk of developing affective disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these disorders occur in only a subset of individuals, those that are more vulnerable to the effects of stress, whereas others remain resilient. The coping style adopted to deal with the stressor, either passive or active coping, is related to vulnerability or resilience, respectively. Important neural substrates that mediate responses to a stressor are the orexins. These neuropeptides are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stress-related illnesses such as depression and PTSD. The present experiments used a rodent social defeat model that generates actively coping rats and passively coping rats, which we have previously shown exhibit resilient and vulnerable profiles, respectively, to examine if orexins play a role in these stress-induced phenotypes. In situ radiolabeling and qPCR revealed that actively coping rats expressed significantly lower prepro-orexin mRNA compared with passively coping rats. This led to the hypothesis that lower levels of orexins contribute to resilience to repeated social stress. To test this hypothesis, rats first underwent 5 d of social defeat to establish active and passive coping phenotypes. Then, orexin neurons were inhibited before each social defeat for three additional days using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). Inhibition of orexins increased social interaction behavior and decreased depressive-like behavior in the vulnerable population of rats. Indeed, these data suggest that lowering orexins promoted resilience to social defeat and may be an important target for treatment of stress-related disorders.
Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V
Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Putwain, David William
High stakes examinations have been identified as a significant source of stress for secondary school students; however, there is little data accounting for, and explaining, the experiences of examination stress. This study aimed to further the understanding of examination stress in secondary school students by conducting interviews with 34…
Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A.; Flack, John M.; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan
Objective According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. Method A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. Results The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Conclusions Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. PMID:27018728
Over the past few years, social networking has exploded into a massive medium that has captured the attention of a large portion of the American population. The ever-growing social networking site(s) (SNS) movement has filled a networking gap and thus, has presented higher education institutions with unique opportunities (Reid 2009) to further…
O'Donovan, Aoife; Hughes, Brian
Socially supportive relationships at university may buffer against psychological stress in students, particularly in those experiencing loneliness. To examine the relation of social support at university and loneliness with pulse pressure (PP) reactivity to acute psychological stress in a sample of first-year undergraduate students. Sixty-five female, adolescent, first-year university students. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated as the arithmetic difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, which were measured during a resting baseline and during a stressful reading task. The difference between baseline and reading task PP represents PP reactivity. The Social Support at University Scale (SSUS) was used to assess social support availability in university, and the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess loneliness. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine main and interactive effects of SSUS and loneliness on PP change scores, and simple slopes were computed to assist in the interpretation of interaction effects. Social support at university was associated with lower PP reactivity in students reporting medium (t = -2.03, p = .04) or high levels of loneliness (t = -2.93, p = .004), but not in those reporting low levels of loneliness (t = -0.20, p = .83). Psychosocial interventions designed to increase social support available at university, and targeted at students experiencing loneliness may buffer against the harmful effects of acute stressors in lonely first-year students.
Sapsaglam, Özkan; Ömeroglu, Esra
This study was conducted in an attempt to develop Social Values Education Program aimed at nursery school students and examine the effect of Social Values Education Program upon the social skill acquisition of nursery school students. The effect of the education program that was developed within the scope of the study upon the social skill…
Sharpley, Christopher; Hussain, Rafat; Wark, Stuart; Mcevoy, Mark; Attia, John
Social support is proposed as a coping mechanism against anxiety and depression amongst older persons, but few data have examined how this occurs. This study assessed the contributions of two sub-components of social support as mediators against psychological distress-broadly defined as anxiety and depression. 1,560 men and 1,758 women from the Hunter Community Study (Australia) completed the Duke Social Support Scale and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The Duke Social Support Scale examined the amount of social interaction and satisfaction with social interactions. Significant mediating effects of social support were found in the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale items measuring depression but not anxiety. Satisfaction with social support was a significant predictor of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale total score and Sadness items, but the amount of social support was not a predictor of stress. Social support may assist with symptoms of depression, i.e., specific sadness/depressed mood, but not necessarily with anxiety. Implications for policy and service delivery were discussed.
Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J
We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health.
Wickham, Sophie; Taylor, Peter; Shevlin, Mark; Bentall, Richard P
The negative implications of living in a socially unequal society are now well documented. However, there is poor understanding of the pathways from specific environmental risk to symptoms. Here we examine the associations between social deprivation, depression, and psychotic symptoms using the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional dataset including 7,353 individuals. In addition we looked at the mediating role of stress, discrimination, trust and lack of social support. We found that the participants' neighbourhood index of multiple deprivation (IMD) significantly predicted psychosis and depression. On inspection of specific psychotic symptoms, IMD predicted paranoia, but not hallucinations or hypomania. Stress and trust partially mediated the relationship between IMD and paranoid ideation. Stress, trust and a lack of social support fully mediated the relationship between IMD and depression. Future research should focus on the role deprivation and social inequalities plays in specific manifestations of psychopathology and investigate mechanisms to explain those associations that occur. Targeting the mediating mechanisms through appropriate psychological intervention may go some way to dampen the negative consequences of living in an unjust society; ameliorating economic injustice may improve population mental health.
Bride, Brian E.
Social workers are increasingly being called on to assist survivors of childhood abuse, domestic violence, violent crime, disasters, and war and terrorism. It has become increasingly apparent that the psychological effects of traumatic events extend beyond those directly affected. Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is becoming viewed as an…
Cheryl M. McCormick
Full Text Available Studies in animal models generate and test hypotheses regarding developmental stage-specific vulnerability that might inform research questions about human development. In both rats and humans, peer relationships are qualitatively different in adolescence than at other stages of development, and social experiences in adolescence are considered important determinants of adult social function. This review describes our adolescent rat social instability stress model and the long-lasting effects social instability has on social behaviour in adulthood as well as the possible neural underpinnings. Effects of other adolescent social stress experiences in rats on social behaviours in adulthood also are reviewed. We discuss the role of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA function and glucocorticoid release in conferring differential susceptibility to social experiences in adolescents compared to adults. We propose that although differential perception of social experiences rather than immature HPA function may underlie the heightened vulnerability of adolescents to social instability, the changes in the trajectory of brain development and resultant social deficits likely are mediated by the heightened glucocorticoid release in response to repeated social stressors in adolescence compared to in adulthood.
The intention of this study was to better understand how certain aspects in a college student's life (i.e., perceived stress, styles of coping, and social support) or how combinations of these variables may contribute to higher levels of alcohol consumption. The present study examined the relationship between perceived stress, functional coping…
Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Anthony, Bruno J.; Glanville, Denise N.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Waanders, Christine; Shaffer, Stephanie
Young children develop social and emotional competence through interactions with others in the two major contexts in which they spend time: home and preschool. This study examined whether parenting stress in the home context is related to the children's behaviour while in preschool. Previous research has suggested that parenting stress negatively…
Yıldırım, N; Karaca, A; Cangur, S; Acıkgoz, F; Akkus, D
Nursing education can be a stressful experience. To fully benefit from this experience and develop a positive professional identity, it is essential for nursing students to effectively cope with education-related stress. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between nursing students' education-related stress and stress coping, self-esteem, social support, and health status. This study utilized a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational design. The sample consisted 517 nursing students from a bachelor program in Turkey during the 2014-2015 academic year. Participants provided data on sociodemographic characteristics as well as completing the following instruments: Nursing Education Stress Scale, Coping Behavior Inventory for Nursing Students, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Relationships were examined using multivariate structural equation modeling. Results indicated that nursing students' stress coping levels were affected by self-esteem and social support. Additionally, this interaction appears to affect general health status. Although the direct effect of stress on coping was non-significant, its overall effect was significant within the model. It is necessary to conduct further intervention studies examining the role of self-esteem and social support in facilitating nursing students' stress-related coping during their education. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction were significantly related. Moreover, social support both mediated and moderated the influence of parenting stress on life satisfaction. These findings imply that parenting stress and social support are critical indicators of life satisfaction and can serve as basic intervention strategies that promote life satisfaction among Chinese parents of children with ASD.
Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Allam, Farida; Salim, Samina
In the present study, we have examined the behavioral and biochemical effect of induction of psychological stress using a modified version of the resident-intruder model for social stress (social defeat). At the end of the social defeat protocol, body weights, food and water intake were recorded, depression and anxiety-like behaviors as well as memory function was examined. Biochemical analysis including oxidative stress measurement, inflammatory markers and other molecular parameters, critical to behavioral effects were examined. We observed a significant decrease in the body weight in the socially defeated rats as compared to the controls. Furthermore, social defeat increased anxiety-like behavior and caused memory impairment in rats (PSocially defeated rats made significantly more errors in long term memory tests (Psocially defeated rats, when compared to control rats. We suggest that social defeat stress alters ERK1/2, IL-6, GLO1, GSR1, CAMKIV, CREB, and BDNF levels in specific brain areas, leading to oxidative stress-induced anxiety-depression-like behaviors and as well as memory impairment in rats. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Urban, Kimberly R; Valentino, Rita J
Stress is implicated in psychiatric illnesses that are characterized by impairments in cognitive functions that are mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Because sex and age determine stress vulnerability, the effects of repeated social stress occurring during early adolescence, mid-adolescence, or adulthood on the cellular properties of male and female rat mPFC Layer V neurons in vitro were examined. Repeated resident-intruder stress produced age- and sex-specific effects on mPFC intrinsic and synaptic excitability. Mid-adolescents were particularly vulnerable to effects on intrinsic excitability. The maximum number of action potentials (APs) evoked by increasing current intensity was robustly decreased in stressed male and female mid-adolescent rats compared with age-matched controls. These effects were associated with stress-induced changes in AP half-width, amplitude, threshold, and input resistance. Social stress at all ages generally decreased synaptic excitability by decreasing the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials. The results suggest that whereas social stress throughout life can diminish the influence of afferents driving the mPFC, social stress during mid-adolescence additionally affects intrinsic characteristics of mPFC neurons that determine excitability. The depressant effects of social stress on intrinsic and synaptic mPFC neurons may underlie its ability to affect executive functions and emotional responses, particularly during adolescence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Klopp, Christine; Garcia, Carlos; Schulman, Allan H; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L
Spatial learning is shown to be influenced by acute stress in both human and other animals. However, the intricacies of this relationship are unclear. Based on prior findings we hypothesized that compared to a control condition, a social stress condition would not affect spatial learning performance despite elevated biochemical markers of stress. The present study tested the effects of social stress in human males and females on a subsequent spatial learning task. Social stress induction consisted of evaluative stress (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) compared to a placebo social stress. Compared to the placebo condition, the TSST resulted in significantly elevated cortisol and alpha amylase levels at multiple time points following stress induction. In accord, cognitive appraisal measures also showed that participants in the TSST group experienced greater perceived stress compared to the placebo group. However, there were no group differences in performance on a spatial learning task. Our findings suggest that unlike physiological stress, social stress does not result in alterations in spatial learning in humans. It is possible that moderate social evaluative stress in humans works to prevent acute stress-mediated alterations in hippocampal learning processes..
Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E
The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cunliffe, Vincent T
Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the processes through which social stressors erode health in humans and other animals. Here I review progress in elucidating the biological pathways underlying the social gradient in health, with particular emphasis on how behavioral stresses influence epigenomic variation linked to health. The evidence that epigenetic changes are involved in embedding of social status-linked chronic stress is reviewed in the context of current knowledge about behavior within animal dominance hierarchies and the impacts of social position on behaviors that affect health. The roles of epigenetic mechanisms in responses to trauma and the evidence for their involvement in intergenerational transmission of the biological impacts of traumatic stress are also considered. Taken together, the emerging insights have important implications for development of strategies to improve societal health and well-being. PMID:27869483
Abshire, Martha; Russell, Stuart D; Davidson, Patricia M; Budhathoki, Chakra; Han, Hae-Ra; Grady, Kathleen L; Desai, Shashank; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl
Living with a left ventricular assist device has significant psychosocial sequelae that affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this study was to (1) describe psychosocial indicators of stress including perceived stress, depression, fatigue, and coping; (2) examine relationships among stress indicators by level of perceived stress; (3) examine relationships among indicators of stress and clinical outcomes; and (4) test the moderation of social support on the relationship between stress and clinical outcomes. Participants were recruited from 2 outpatient clinics in a cross-sectional study design. Standardized measures were self-administered via survey. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted. The sample (N = 62) was mostly male (78%), black (47%), and married (66%), with a mean age of 56.5 ± 13 years. The overall sample had a moderate stress profile: moderate perceived stress (mean, 11.7 ± 7), few depressive symptoms (mean, 3.2 ± 3.9), and moderate fatigue (mean, 14.3 ± 9.1). Increased perceived stress was associated with fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maladaptive coping (P stress and fatigue were significant correlates of overall HRQOL (adj. R = 0.41, P relationship between perceived stress and HRQOL, controlling for fatigue (R = 0.49, P stress have worse depressive symptoms, fatigue, and coping. The influence of high social support to improve the relationship between stress and HRQOL underscores the importance of a comprehensive plan to address psychosocial factors.
Uliaszek, Amanda A; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G; Griffith, James W; Sutton, Jonathan M; Epstein, Alyssa; Hammen, Constance
The current study compared two competing theories of the stress generation model of depression (stress causation vs. stress continuation) using interview-based measures of episodic life stress, as well as interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress. We also expanded on past research by examining anxiety disorders as well as depressive disorders. In addition, we examined the role of neuroticism and extraversion in these relationships. Participants were 627 adolescents enrolled in a two-site, longitudinal study of risk factors for depressive and anxiety disorders. Baseline and follow-up assessments were approximately one year apart. Results supported the stress causation theory for episodic stress generation for anxiety disorders, with neuroticism partially accounting for this relationship. The stress causation theory was also supported for depression, but only for more moderate to severe stressors; neuroticism partially accounted for this relationship as well. Finally, we found evidence for interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress continuation in both depressive and anxiety disorders. The present findings have implications regarding the specificity of the stress generation model to depressive disorders, as well as variables involved in the stress generation process. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don
Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources. Thereby increasing the
The study was guided by Social Cognitive Theory, employed to examine the psycho-social environments of serving primary school teachers in Olugbo-Less City, Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. 100 rural active teachers currently undergoing in-service training in Ogun State Universal Basic Education ...
Cervantes, Richard C; Gattamorta, Karina A; Berger-Cardoso, Jodi
Little is known about the specific behavioral health impact of acculturation stressors that affect Hispanic/Latino immigrant sub-groups. These immigration-related stressors and traumatic events may have differential impact on depression depending on country/region of origin. Using a measure of immigration and acculturation stress, the current study sought to determine differences in the impact of stress on six sub-groups of Hispanic immigrants. Data on stress and depression were examined using a large, representative adult immigrant sample (N = 641). Controlling for age, gender and years in the US, factorial analysis of covariance revealed significant differences on total Hispanic Stress Inventory 2 (HSI2) stress appraisal scores based on country/region of origin. Pair wise comparisons between country/region of origin groups revealed that Mexicans had higher levels of stress compared to Cuban or Dominican immigrants. Several patterns of differential stress were also found within sub-domains of the HSI2. Using regression models, HSI2 stress appraisals and their interaction with country of origin proved to not be significant predictors of depression (PHQ9), while gender and age were significant. Differences in HSI2 stress that are based on nativity may be moderated by cultural resilience that ultimately serves a protective role to prevent the onset of depression.
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Dik, Bryan J
This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms. Holding stress constant, only support from family was related to self-rated physical health and only support from friends or romantic partners was associated with depressive symptoms. There were no gender differences in the mean levels of self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms. However, gender moderations were found, in that the positive relationship between friends support and physical health was observed only in women, that the association between friends support and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women, and that family support buffered the negative relationship between stress and physical health only in men. Findings of this study suggest that the associations among stress, social support, and health vary by the sources of support, the health outcome, and gender. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Casement, Melynda D; Goldstein, Tina R; Gratzmiller, Sarah M; Franzen, Peter L
Theoretical models posit that stressors contribute to the onset and maintenance of bipolar disorder in adolescence through disruptions in stress physiology, but physiological response to stressors has not been evaluated in adolescents with bipolar illness. The present study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with bipolar disorder will have greater reactivity to a laboratory social stress task than healthy adolescents. Adolescents with bipolar illness (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 28) completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Task. Stress response was assessed using high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), salivary cortisol, and subjective stress. Multilevel models were used to test for group differences in resting-state physiology, and stress reactivity and recovery. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had greater reactivity in HF-HRV (z = 3.32), but blunted reactivity in MAP (z = -3.08) and cortisol (z = -2.60), during the stressor compared to healthy adolescents. They also had lower resting HF-HRV (z = -3.49) and cortisol (z = -2.86), and higher resting HR (z = 3.56), than healthy adolescents. These results indicate that bipolar disorder is associated with disruptions in autonomic and endocrine response to stress during adolescence, including greater HF-HRV reactivity. Further research should evaluate whether these individual differences in stress physiology precede and predict the onset of mood episodes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.
The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.
I?iguez, Sergio D.; Aubry, Antonio; Riggs, Lace M.; Alipio, Jason B.; Zanca, Roseanna M.; Flores-Ramirez, Francisco J.; Hernandez, Mirella A.; Nieto, Steven J.; Musheyev, David; Serrano, Peter A.
Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes fo...
Gutierrez, Ian; Grubbs, Joshua; Bradley, David; Chapman, Heather; Milner, Lauren
Problem gambling and gambling disorder are associated with a range of mental health concerns that extend beyond gambling behaviors alone. Prior works have consistently linked gambling disorder with symptoms of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder, both cross-sectionally and over time. However, very little work has examined the specific relationships between these two disorders. The present work postulated that post-traumatic stress is likely associated with unique beliefs ...
Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.
Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark
The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.
Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth
Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…
Goto, Tatsuhiko; Kubota, Yoshifumi; Toyoda, Atsushi
The chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model is a potentially useful system for understanding stress responses to social environments. We previously developed a mouse model of subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) that exhibits increased body weight gain and food intake following polydipsia-like features. sCSDS mice also show avoidance behavior in a social interaction test. In this study, we examined the effects of diet quality on susceptibility to sCSDS by feeding these mice semi- and non-purified diets. Male C57BL/6J (B6; n = 82) mice were exposed to sCSDS using male ICR mice. The B6 mice were divided into four test groups: semi-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, non-purified pellet diet + sCSDS, semi-purified diet + control (no sCSDS), and non-purified diet + control. Although increased body weight, and food and water intake following sCSDS exposure were consistently observed in the groups that were fed semi- and non-purified diets, social avoidance behavior was influenced by food type (i.e., sCSDS mice fed semi-purified diet showed the greatest social avoidance behavior). In addition, the rates of stress susceptibility were estimated at 73.9 and 34.8% in sCSDS mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively (P healthy control mice fed semi-purified and non-purified diets, respectively. These results suggest that diet quality affects the vulnerability of mice to social defeat stress.
Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.
Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658
Mackin, D M; Perlman, G; Davila, J; Kotov, R; Klein, D N
The effect of life stress on suicidal symptoms during adolescence is well documented. Stressful life events can trigger suicidality, but most adolescents are resilient and it is unclear which factors protect against the deleterious impact of stress. Social support is thought to be one such factor. Therefore, we investigated the buffering effect of specific sources of social support (parental and peer) on life stress (interpersonal and non-interpersonal) in predicting suicidal symptoms during adolescence. In order to test the specificity of this stress buffering, we also examined it with regard to dysphoric mood. Data come from the Adolescent Development of Emotions and Personality Traits (ADEPT) Project, a cohort of 550 adolescent females aged 13.5-15.5 recruited from Long Island. Self-reported social support, suicidality, and dysphoria were assessed at baseline and suicidality and dysphoria were assessed again at 9-month follow-up. Life stress was assessed by interview at the follow-up. High levels of parental support protected adolescent girls from developing suicidal symptoms following a stressor. This effect was less pronounced for peer support. Also, social support did not buffer the pathogenic effects of non-interpersonal stress. Finally, social support did not buffer the effect of life stress on dysphoric symptoms. Altogether, our results highlight a distinct developmental pathway for the development of suicidal symptoms involving parental support that differs from the development of dysphoria, and signifies the importance and specificity of social support in protecting against suicidality in adolescent girls.
Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C
We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Nyklicek, I.; Irrmischer, M.
The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling forsociodemographicactors.Meditation-naïvearticipants from the general
BUUNK, BP; HOORENS, [No Value
This paper first presents four different conceptualizations of social support: social integration, satisfying relationships, perceived helpfulness and enacted support. Then, classic and contemporary social comparison theory and social exchange theory are analysed as they are two theoretical
Bear, Stephen E.
Organic Delights is an experiential exercise designed to help undergraduate business students learn about corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this exercise, students assume the role of a senior manager of a fictional restaurant and caterer. The challenge for the managers is to evaluate and choose among six proposals to promote the company's…
Briganti, Alicia M; Cohen, Leslie B
Infants watched a video of an adult pointing towards two different objects while hearing novel labels. Analyses indicated that 14- and 18-month-olds looked longer at the target object, but only 18-month-olds showed word learning. The results suggest that different types of social cues are available at different ages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adams, Amy; Lomax, Geoffrey; Santarini, Anthony
Research suggests that the representation of scientific and medical issues in the traditional media such as newspapers, TV and radio is an important determinant of public opinion and related public policy outcomes, particularly with regard to attitudes toward stem cell research. With the emergence of social media, the discursive space around public policy issues has expanded to include a new demographic of media consumer who is directly involved in political action. However, little is known about the influence of social media on scientific public policy conversations. We analyzed Twitter posts on two topics relating to stem cell science and policy according to the originator and tone of the tweet, and whether the tweet was intended to be neutral or to further a stated policy position. This analysis provides a means for clarifying the role of social media in influencing public opinion of policy issues such as stem cell research and offers organizations a better understanding of how to more effectively apply social media to advancing their stem cell policy positions.
Brooks, Stoney L.
This dissertation is concerned with investigating topics surrounding the phenomenon of social media usage. Essay One draws from the technology acceptance literature by utilizing concepts from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and the model of hedonic technology acceptance. The…
Goel, N; Bale, T L
Sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, are the major cause of disability in the developed world. Elevated stress sensitivity has been proposed as a key underlying factor in disease onset. Sex differences in stress sensitivity are associated with corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and serotonin neurotransmission, which are important central regulators of mood and coping responses. To elucidate the underlying neurobiology of stress-related disease predisposition, it is critical to develop appropriate animal models of stress pathway dysregulation. Furthermore, the inclusion of sex difference comparisons in stress responsive behaviours, physiology and central stress pathway maturation in these models is essential. Recent studies by our laboratory and others have begun to investigate the intersection of stress and sex where the development of mouse models of stress pathway dysregulation via prenatal stress experience or early-life manipulations has provided insight into points of developmental vulnerability. In addition, examination of the maturation of these pathways, including the functional importance of the organisational and activational effects of gonadal hormones on stress responsivity, is essential for determination of when sex differences in stress sensitivity may begin. In such studies, we have detected distinct sex differences in stress coping strategies where activational effects of testosterone produced females that displayed male-like strategies in tests of passive coping, but were similar to females in tests of active coping. In a second model of elevated stress sensitivity, male mice experiencing prenatal stress early in gestation showed feminised physiological and behavioural stress responses, and were highly sensitive to a low dose of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Analyses of expression and epigenetic patterns revealed changes in CRF and glucocorticoid receptor genes in these mice
Goel, Nirupa; Bale, Tracy L.
Sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, are the major cause of disability in the developed world. Elevated stress sensitivity has been proposed as a key underlying factor in disease onset. Sex differences in stress sensitivity are associated with CRF and serotonin neurotransmission, important central regulators of mood and coping responses. To elucidate the underlying neurobiology of stress-related disease predisposition, it is critical to develop appropriate animal models of stress pathway dysregulation. Further, the inclusion of sex difference comparisons in stress responsive behaviors, physiology, and central stress pathway maturation in these models is essential. Recent studies by our lab and others have begun to investigate the intersection of stress and sex where the development of mouse models of stress pathway dysregulation via prenatal stress experience or early life manipulations has provided insight into points of developmental vulnerability. In addition, examination of the maturation of these pathways including the functional importance of the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones on stress responsivity is essential for determination of when sex differences in stress sensitivity may begin. In such studies, we have detected distinct sex differences in stress coping strategies where activational effects of testosterone produced females that displayed male-like strategies in tests of passive coping, but were similar to females in tests of active coping. In a second model of elevated stress sensitivity, male mice experiencing prenatal stress early in gestation showed feminized physiological and behavioral stress responses, and were highly sensitive to a low dose of SSRI. Analyses of expression and epigenetic patterns revealed changes in CRF and glucocorticoid receptor genes in these mice. Mechanistically, stress early in pregnancy produced a significant sex-dependent effect on
Henriques-Alves, Aron M; Queiroz, Claudio M
In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.
Henriques-Alves, Aron M.; Queiroz, Claudio M.
In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress. PMID:26869895
Aron Miranda Henriques-Alves
Full Text Available In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (> 150 s and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.
Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Mastin, Becky M.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Boland, Elaine M.; Jenkins, Abby L.
Although there is substantial evidence documenting the stress generation effect in depression (i.e., the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience higher rates of life stress to which they contribute), additional research is required to advance current understanding of the specific types of dependent stress (i.e., events influenced by characteristics and attendant behaviors of the individual) relevant to this effect. The present study tested an extension of the stress generation hypothesis, in which the content of dependent stress that is produced by depression-prone individuals is contingent upon, and matches, the nature of their particular vulnerabilities. This extension was tested within the context of two cognitive models (i.e., hopelessness theory [Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989] and Cole’s [1990, 1991] competency-based model) and two interpersonal models (i.e., Swann’s  self-verification theory and Coyne’s  interpersonal theory) of depression. Overall, support was obtained for vulnerability-specific stress generation. Specifically, in analyses across vulnerability domains, evidence of stress-generation specificity was found for all domain-specific cognitive vulnerabilities except self-perceived social competence. The within-domain analyses for cognitive vulnerabilities produced more mixed results, but were largely supportive. Additionally, excessive reassurance-seeking was specifically predictive of dependent stress in the social domain, and moderated, but did not mediate, the relation between negative inferential styles overall and in the interpersonal domain and their corresponding generated stress. Finally, no evidence was found for a stress generation effect with negative feedback-seeking. PMID:24679143
Maniaci, G.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Cannizzaro, C.; van Holst, R. J.
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)
海老原, 修; 横山, 文人; 宮下, 充正
This study was designed to clarify reciprocal influences in sport socialization. Parent-effects were assessed by their sport involvement before their child participated in organized sport, whereas child-effects were measured by a parent's attitudinal and behavioral changes of sport involvement caused by a child's participation. Eight indicators of sport involvement were selected as follows: 3 types of interest in sport involvement such as activities, sport consumption, and sport activity in o...
Emlet, Charles A.
This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…
Mercer, N.; Crocetti, E; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S
Background and Objectives: Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and
Mercer, Natalie; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and
Yeung, Nelson C Y; Lu, Qian
Studies have shown that social support is positively associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) among white cancer survivors. Whether the same relationship holds among Asian American cancer survivors and through what mechanism social support may influence PTG is unclear. This study examined the association between social support and PTG among Chinese American breast cancer survivors and proposed perceived stress as a mediator. Chinese American breast cancer survivors (n = 118) were recruited from Southern California. Participants' social support, perceived stress, and PTG were measured in a questionnaire package. Social support was associated with lower perceived stress (r= -0.34, Pstress was negatively associated with PTG (r=-0.36, Psocial support to PTG via perceived stress (β = .07, Psocial support and PTG (β= .40, Pstress between social support and PTG. The positive association between social support and Chinese American breast cancer survivors' PTG was supported. Our findings also suggested that social support may facilitate PTG through reduction of perceived stress. Interventions that help to enhance Chinese American breast cancer survivors' social support may also facilitate their PTG.
Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Woodhead, Erin L; Northrop, Lynn; Edelstein, Barry
Long-term care nursing staff are subject to considerable occupational stress and report high levels of burnout, yet little is known about how stress and social support are associated with burnout in this population. The present study utilized the job demands-resources model of burnout to examine relations between job demands (occupational and personal stress), job resources (sources and functions of social support), and burnout in a sample of nursing staff at a long-term care facility (N = 250). Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that job demands (greater occupational stress) were associated with more emotional exhaustion, more depersonalization, and less personal accomplishment. Job resources (support from supervisors and friends or family members, reassurance of worth, opportunity for nurturing) were associated with less emotional exhaustion and higher levels of personal accomplishment. Interventions to reduce burnout that include a focus on stress and social support outside of work may be particularly beneficial for long-term care staff. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A; Flack, John M; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan
According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol, and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato
Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.
Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; De Los Santos, Janet Alexis A; Edet, Olaide B
Stress is a perennial problem in nursing education and Saudi student nurses are not immune. Despite the growing literature examining stress in Saudi student nurses, a broader perspective on this concept has not been explored. This paper is a report of a review systematically appraising and synthesizing existing scientific articles reporting stress perceptions and coping styles in Saudi student nurses. A systematic review method guided this review. Four (SCOPUS, CINAHL, PubMed, Ovid) bibliographic databases were searched to locate relevant articles. An electronic database search was performed in August 2017 to locate studies published from 2010 onwards. The search words included: "stress" OR "psychological stress", "coping" OR "psychological adaptation", "Saudi Arabia", "student", and "nurse". Eleven (11) articles met the inclusion criteria. Review of the findings showed moderate to high stress levels in Saudi student nurses that originated mainly from heavy workloads and taking care of patients. However, when the students' demographic characteristics were taken into account, inconclusive results were found, although some evidence showed higher stress levels in higher level students. Both active and passive coping styles were used by nursing students when dealing with stress. Consistent with international studies, Saudi student nurses experience a considerable levels of stress from various sources. Findings may provide a direction for nursing faculty in formulating stress interventions that are empirically tested and culturally appropriate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lanni, Kimberly E.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the physiological stress and anxiety responses in children with autism following completion of a standardized, social-evaluative stressor (Trier Social Stress Test-Child version), document the relationship between verbal ability, stress, and anxiety, and determine the association between stress and anxiety…
Laohawattanakun, Janejira; Chearskul, Supornpim; Dumrongphol, Hattaya; Jutapakdeegul, Nuanchan; Yensukjai, Juntima; Khumphan, Nipaporn; Niltiean, Songwit; Thangnipon, Wipawan
Several pieces of evidence suggest that academic examinations fulfill the classical requirement of a psychological stressor. Academic examinations represent a stressful challenge to many students, but studies on examination-dependent corticosteroid response, a sensitive physiological indicator of a stress response, are inconsistent. In addition, several studies showed that music can decrease cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and other studies have found that music also may enhance a variety of cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, communication and memory. The present study investigated cortisol response in saliva of Thai adolescents taking academic examinations and analyzed the differences of the stress response between musician and control subjects. Also, we observed whether the academic examination-dependent corticosteroid response affected learning and memory in the test subjects, which comprised 30 musician and 30 control students, age ranging from 15 to 17 years. Mathematical examinations were used as the stressor. Pre- and post-academic examination saliva cortisol levels were measured including self-estimated stress levels. Results showed that the pre-academic examination saliva cortisol concentrations of the musician group are significantly lower than those of the control group, whereas there is no difference in the stress inventory scores. Interestingly, among students with grade point average (GPA) of >3.50, pre-academic examination cortisol levels are significantly lower in the musician compared with control group. This study suggests that under academic examination-induced stress condition, music training can reduce saliva cortisol level in Thai adolescents. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; McCormick, Cheryl M
Adolescence is an important phase of development of social behaviors, which may be disrupted by the experience of stressors. We previously reported that exposure to social instability stress in adolescence (SS; postnatal day [PND] 30-45) in rats reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). In experiment 1, we replicated the effect of SS on social interaction and found that the pattern of neural activations based on Fos immunohistochemistry in brain regions during social interactions differed for SS and CTL rats. In experiment 2, we found that individual differences in novelty-seeking behavior on PND 30 and SS exposure were unique predictors of anxiety in the elevated plus maze on PND 46, and interacted to predict social interaction on PND 47; among high novelty-seeking rats, SS and CTL rats do not differ, whereas among low-novelty seeking rats, SS rats engaged in less social interaction than did CTL rats. Thus, high novelty-seeking may be a resilience factor against the effects of social stressors in adolescence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Iñiguez, Sergio D; Riggs, Lace M; Nieto, Steven J; Dayrit, Genesis; Zamora, Norma N; Shawhan, Kristi L; Cruz, Bryan; Warren, Brandon L
Abstract Exposure to stress is highly correlated with the emergence of mood-related illnesses. Because major depressive disorder often emerges in adolescence, we assessed the effects of social defeat stress on responses to depressive-like behaviors in juvenile mice. To do this, postnatal day (PD) 35 male c57BL/6 mice were exposed to 10 days of social defeat stress (PD35-44), while control mice were handled daily. Twenty-four hours after the last episode of defeat (PD45), separate groups of mice were tested in the social interaction, forced swimming, sucrose preference, and elevated plus-maze behavioral assays (n = 7-12 per group). Also, we examined body weight gain across days of social defeat and levels of blood serum corticosterone 40 min after the last episode of defeat stress. Our data indicates that defeated mice exhibited a depressive-like phenotype as inferred from increased social avoidance, increased immobility in the forced swim test, and reduced sucrose preference (a measure of anhedonia), when compared to non-defeated controls. Defeated mice also displayed an anxiogenic-like phenotype when tested on the elevated plus-maze. Lastly, stressed mice displayed lower body weight gain, along with increased blood serum corticosterone levels, when compared to non-stressed controls. Overall, we show that in adolescent male c57BL/6 mice, social defeat stress induces a depression- and anxiety-like phenotype 24 h after the last episode of stress. These data suggest that the social defeat paradigm may be used to examine the etiology of stress-induced mood-related disorders during adolescence.
Lai, Betty S; Osborne, Melissa C; Piscitello, Jennifer; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou
Background : Children are a vulnerable population following a natural disaster, due to their age and dependence on adults. The primary presenting problem children report after disasters is posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Prior research suggests that PTSS is inversely related to social support, which is often disrupted after a disaster. Objective : This study examined the relationship between social support (from parents, teachers, and peers) and PTSS in children affected by Hurricane Katrina. The research contributes to the literature by examining the mechanisms that drive this relationship over time. Methods : In this study, 426 children were followed over four timepoints, beginning 3-7 months after Hurricane Katrina and concluding 25-27 months post-hurricane. Three path models analysed the relationship between social support (from parents, teachers, and peers, measured by the Social Support Scale for Children) and PTSS (measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index). Covariates included child age, minority status, gender, perceived life threat, and actual life threat. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed from the final models. Global fit indices were examined to determine model fit. Results : In the parent and peer social support models, PTSS exhibited statistically significant effects on social support from one wave to the next. In the teacher model, this was only true between Waves 2 and 3. Social support showed a statistically significant effect on PTSS between Wave 2 and Wave 3 in the peer model (standardized estimate = -0.26, p social support to PTSS were significant in the parent and teacher models. Conclusion : Findings support a social selection model in which PTSS undermine social support, particularly in the first two years post-disaster. If these findings are replicated, this suggests that, in cases of limited funding, PTSS should be prioritized, given their cascading effects on social support.
Wong, Celia Ching Yee; Correa, Alma; Robinson, Kendall; Lu, Qian
Acculturative stress has been linked to psychological distress, but few studies have explored the moderating role of social constraints on this relationship. Social constraints are the perception that social networks are unsupportive to stressor-related discussions. In the present study, the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrants and the moderating role of social constraints in this relationship were examined. Participants were 306 college students (169 Hispanics/Latinos, 137 Asians; 33.9% first-generation immigrants, 66.1% second-generation immigrants) from two Texas universities. Correlation results showed that acculturative stress and social constraints were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. In addition, regression results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect among acculturative stress, social constraints, and racial/ethnic groups. Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Asians but not in Hispanics/Latinos. Significant association between acculturative stress and psychological distress was found in Asians with higher levels of social constraints but not in Asians with lower levels of social constraints. These findings suggested that the interaction effect of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress may be subject to cultural influences, and social constraints may have differential roles in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. Potential implications on the development of culturally adaptive interventions for different racial/ethnic minority groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Vânia Lúcia Pereira de Andrade
Full Text Available Occupational stress and coping strategies have increasingly become the focus of research for their applied feature. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support has helped people deal with stressful situations in the workplace. In order to reach this aim an exploratory mixed method embedded research design was conducted. Study 1, quantitative, described the level of satisfaction with social support and perceived organizational support by employing a scale that summarized factors of the perceived organizational support. Study 2, a qualitative one, sought to describe the stressors in the workplace environment, to whom the workers resorted to, and the kind of perceived social support. The group interview script was based on the dimensions proposed by Folkman e Lazarus (1985 model. Fifty-one volunteer workers participated in the study. Results showed a lack of social support in the workplace: incivility of colleagues and managers, psychological contract breach and conflict of values. Investments in personal development that stimulate urbanity in organizations and a listening space for employees are suggested actions that can benefit affective dimensions of work.
Willie, Tiara C; Powell, Adeya; Kershaw, Trace
Adolescent and young mothers transitioning from pregnancy to postpartum need to maintain an optimal quality of life. Stress and exposure to violence (e.g., intimate partner violence (IPV), nonpartner violence) are predictors of poor quality of life for adult women; however, these associations remain understudied among adolescent and young mothers in urban areas. Guided by the social ecological model, the current study created a latent variable, urban social stress, to examine the impact of the urban social environment (i.e., stressful life events, discrimination, family stress, and neighborhood problems) on the quality of life of adolescent and young mothers during both pregnancy and postpartum. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 296 expectant young mothers recruited at obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Results from structural equation and multigroup models found that higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life during pregnancy, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-exposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. In the postpartum period, higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-unexposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. Stress reduction programs need to help adolescent and young mothers in urban areas develop stress management skills specific to urban social stress. Pregnancy and parenting programs need to be tailored to the specific needs of young mothers in urban areas by becoming sensitive to the role of IPV and nonpartner violence in these young women's lives.
von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald
Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.
Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.
This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…
Kosmala-Anderson, Joanna; Wallace, Louise M.
Introduction: The study investigated pre-examination anxiety and emotional control strategies as possible mediators of gender differences in self reported intensity and type of psychosomatic reactions to examination stress. Method: Sample comprised 150 male and 150 female high school senior students and university students who voluntarily…
McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S
Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
Mexican-origin adolescent mothers face numerous social challenges during dual-cultural adaptation that are theorized to contribute to greater depressive symptoms. Alongside challenges, there are familial resources that may offer protection. As such, the current study examined the trajectories of depressive symptoms among 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (Mage = 16.80, SD = 1.00) across a 4-year period (3rd trimester of pregnancy, and 10, 24, and 36 months postpartum). Further, we examined the within-person relations of two unique sources of stress experienced during the dual-cultural adaptation process, acculturative and enculturative stress, and youths’ depressive symptoms; we also tested whether adolescent mothers’ perceptions of warmth from their own mothers emerged as protective. Adolescent mothers reported a decline in depressive symptoms after the transition to parenthood. Acculturative and enculturative stress emerged as significant positive within-person predictors of depressive symptoms. Maternal warmth emerged as a protective factor in the relation between enculturative stressors and depressive symptoms; however, for acculturative stressors, the protective effect of maternal warmth only emerged for U.S.-born youth. Findings illustrate the multi-dimensionality of stress experienced during the cultural adaptation process and a potential mechanism for resilience among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. PMID:25004391
Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro
This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.
Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M
Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yeung, Nelson C Y; Ramirez, Jeffrey; Lu, Qian
Previous studies primarily fo c used on how disease- and treatment-related variables affect cancer survivors' sleep quality. Little is known about the impact of the psychosocial factors on their sleep quality. Social constraints are perceived negative social interactions inhibiting one's disclosure. This study examined the association between social constraints and Chinese American breast cancer survivors' (BCS) sleep quality and tested perceived stress as a mediator explaining the association. Chinese American BCS (n = 94) were recruited from Southern California. Participants' social constraints, perceived stress, and sleep quality were measured in a questionnaire package. Social constraints were associated with higher perceived stress (r = 0.32, p = .002) and poorer sleep quality (r = 0.33, p stress was associated with poorer sleep quality (r = 0.47, p social constraints to poor sleep quality (indicated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) via perceived stress was significant (β = 0.20; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.06, 0.40). The path coefficient for direct effect from social constraints to PSQI significantly dropped from β = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.51) to β = 0.13 (95% CI = -0.12, 0.35) after considering perceived stress as a mediator, suggesting a mediation effect. This study implied that social constraints may worsen sleep quality among Chinese American BCS through increasing perceived stress. Interventions to reduce social constraints and perceived stress may improve sleep quality.
Reich, Catherine M; Blackwell, Náthali; Simmons, Catherine A; Beck, J Gayle
Social factors are often associated with the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of interpersonal traumas. However, social problem solving strategies have received little attention. The current study explored the role of social problem solving styles (i.e., rational approaches, impulsive/careless strategies, or avoidance strategies) as intermediary variables between abuse exposure and PTSD severity among intimate partner violence survivors. Avoidance problem solving served as an intermediating variable for the relationship between three types of abuse and PTSD severity. Rational and impulsive/careless strategies were not associated with abuse exposure. These findings extend the current understanding of social problem solving among interpersonal trauma survivors and are consistent with more general avoidance coping research. Future research might examine whether avoidance problem solving tends to evolve in the aftermath of trauma or whether it represents a longstanding risk factor for PTSD development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lange, Claudia; Huber, Christian G; Fröhlich, Daniela; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Walter, Marc
HPA axis functioning plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). However, only few studies have examined HPA axis responsivity to psychosocial stress in SSD, and results are heterogeneous. Furthermore, childhood trauma is known to influence psychopathology and treatment outcome in SSD, but studies on the influence of childhood trauma on stress related HPA axis activity are missing. The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol response to a psychosocial stress challenge in SSD patients, and to examine its association with severity of childhood trauma. The present study included 25 subacutely ill patients with a current episode of a chronic SSD and 25 healthy controls. Participants underwent the modified Trier Social Stress Test, and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. The childhood trauma questionnaire was used to assess severity of adverse life events. Overall, cortisol response was blunted in the patient group compared to the control group (pchildhood trauma experience: responders had experienced more emotional abuse in their past (pchildhood trauma might influence stress-related HPA axis activity in SSD. Our data contribute to the hypothesis that severity of childhood trauma may be of pathophysiological relevance in schizophrenia. In addition, it may be an overlooked factor contributing to inconsistent findings regarding HPA axis response to psychosocial stress in SSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Stanley, Ian H; Boffa, Joseph W; Smith, Lia J; Tran, Jana K; Schmidt, N Brad; Joiner, Thomas E; Vujanovic, Anka A
Past research indicates that firefighters are at increased risk for suicide. Firefighter-specific occupational stress may contribute to elevated suicidality. Among a large sample of firefighters, this study examined if occupational stress is associated with multiple indicators of suicide risk, and whether distress tolerance, the perceived and/or actual ability to endure negative emotional or physical states, attenuates these associations. A total of 831 firefighters participated (mean [SD] age = 38.37y[8.53y]; 94.5% male; 75.2% White). The Sources of Occupational Stress-14 (SOOS-14), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were utilized to examine firefighter-specific occupational stress, distress tolerance, and suicidality, respectively. Consistent with predictions, occupational stress interacted with distress tolerance, such that the effects of occupational stress on suicide risk, broadly, as well as lifetime suicide threats and current suicidal intent, specifically, were attenuated at high levels of distress tolerance. Distress tolerance may buffer the effects of occupational stress on suicidality among firefighters. Pending replication, findings suggest that distress tolerance may be a viable target for suicide prevention initiatives within the fire service. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.
This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent
Farmer, Antoinette Y.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Identify as a Professional Social Worker Subscale, which assessed the Council on Social Work Education--prescribed competency "identify as a professional social worker and conduct oneself accordingly." The results of confirmatory factory analysis indicated that…
Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy
Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.
Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard
Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kingston, Rody C; Smith, Michael; Lacey, Tiara; Edwards, Malcolm; Best, Janae N; Markham, Chris M
Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects. Although several studies have investigated the resilience-inducing effects of voluntary exercise after exposure to physical stressors, such as restraint and electric shock, few studies have examined whether exercise can impart resilience in response to ethologically-based stressors, such as social defeat. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise can have anxiolytic-like effects in socially defeated hamsters. In the elevated plus maze, the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in risk assessment, a commonly used index of anxiety, compared to the no-exercise group. In the open-field test, animals in the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in locomotor behavior and rearing, also an indication of an anxiolytic-like effect of exercise. In Experiment 2, we examined whether exercise can reverse the defeat-induced potentiation of defensive behaviors using the CD model. Socially defeated hamsters in the exercise group exhibited significantly lower levels of defensive/submissive behaviors compared to the no-exercise group upon exposure to the resident aggressor. Taken together, these results are among the first to suggest that voluntary exercise may promote resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas
In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987
Moeller, Christin; Chung-Yan, Greg A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how various types of workplace social support from different support sources interact with occupational stressors to predict the psychological well-being of university professors. Design/method/approach: A total of 99 full-time professors participated via an online or paper questionnaire. Findings:…
Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel
This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. Methods The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70 were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Results Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001. Median PIPP score (interquartile interval at baseline was 4 (3–5. At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6–9 for BIO and 6 (5–7 for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006. The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p Conclusions A transient short-term pain and stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.
used were not sophisticated enough to elucidate the pattern. Using a more advanced statistical approach (e.g., Canonical discriminitive analysis...corticotrophin-releasing factor in stress-induced relapse to alcohol- seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 150:317-324. Lex BW (1991) Some gender ...Prunell M, Dimitsantos V, Nadal R, Escorihuela RM (2006) Environmental enrichment effects in social investigation in rats are gender dependent
Kattari, Shanna K.
In most societies, some social identity groups hold a disproportionate amount of social, cultural, and economic power, while other groups hold little. In contemporary U.S. society, examples of this power are evident around issues of ability/disability, with able-bodied individuals wielding social dominance and people with disabilities experiencing…
"Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…
Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Fr?d?ric; Granon, Sylvie
International audience; Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2(-/-) mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads...
Pow, Jessie; King, David B; Stephenson, Ellen; DeLongis, Anita
Given evidence suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational stress on sleep, it is important to identify protective factors that may ameliorate this effect. We followed 87 paramedics upon waking and after work over 1 week using a daily diary methodology. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether the detrimental effects of daily occupational stress on sleep quality were buffered by perceived social support availability. Paramedics who reported more support availability tended to report better quality sleep over the week. Additionally, perceived support availability buffered postworkday sleep from average occupational stress and days of especially high occupational stress. Perceived support availability also buffered off-workday sleep from the cumulative amount of occupational stress experienced over the previous workweek. Those with low levels of support displayed poor sleep quality in the face of high occupational stress; those high in support did not show significant effects of occupational stress on sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sage E Hawn
Full Text Available Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST. The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress and objective (cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of heart rate (HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates.
Amit, N; Ibrahim, N; Aga Mohd Jaladin, R; Che Din, N
This research examined the predicting roles of reasons for living and social support on depression, anxiety and stress in Malaysia. This research was carried out on a sample of 263 participants (age range 12-24 years old), from Klang Valley, Selangor. The survey package comprises demographic information, a measure of reasons for living, social support, depression, anxiety and stress. To analyse the data, correlation analysis and a series of linear multiple regression analysis were carried out. Findings showed that there were low negative relationships between all subdomains and the total score of reasons for living and depression. There were also low negative relationships between domain-specific of social support (family and friends) and total social support and depression. In terms of the family alliance, self-acceptance and total score of reasons for living, they were negatively associated with anxiety, whereas family social support was negatively associated with stress. The linear regression analysis showed that only future optimism and family social support found to be the significant predictors for depression. Family alliance and total reasons for living were significant in predicting anxiety, whereas family social support was significant in predicting stress. These findings have the potential to promote awareness related to depression, anxiety, and stress among youth in Malaysia.
Costarelli, V; Patsai, A
It is well documented that stress and anxiety can affect eating behaviour and food intake in humans. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, restraint eating, body image, anxiety levels and self-esteem in a group of female university students. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. Sixty Greek female university students, 18-25 years old, have been recruited and completed, on two separate occasions: a) during an examination stress period, and b) during a control period, the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, the Body Image Pictorial Instrument Scale (COLLINS) and a specially designed General Background Questionnaire. Subjects reported significantly higher levels of disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26, p=0.01), higher levels of anxiety (p=0.000) and lower levels of self-esteem (p=0.016) during the examination stress period compared to the control period. Disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26) were significantly positively correlated with emotional eating (p=0.04) and restrained eating (p=0.010) and negatively correlated with levels of self-esteem (p=0.05) and perceived desired body image (p=0.008) during the exam stress period. Finally, EAT-26 was significantly positively correlated with levels of anxiety in both study periods. Academic examination stress seems to increase disordered eating symptomatology in female university students and is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, an important finding which warrants further investigation.
Chang, Ko-Hsin; Lu, Frank J H; Chyi, Theresa; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Erica T W
Using Smith's (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes' stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, M age = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68) completed the College Student Athlete's Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. We concluded that an athlete's negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes' stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes' motivation and psychological well-being.
Chyi, Theresa; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Erica T.W.
Background Using Smith’s (1986) cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68) completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being. PMID:29302397
Full Text Available Background Using Smith’s (1986 cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ stress in life, negative thoughts, and the mediating role of negative thoughts on the stress-burnout relationship. Methods A total of 300 college student-athletes (males = 174; females = 126, Mage = 20.43 y, SD = 1.68 completed the College Student Athlete’s Life Stress Scale (CSALSS; Lu et al., 2012, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ; Hollon & Kendall, 1980, and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001. Results Correlational analyses found that two types of life stress and four types of negative thoughts correlated with burnout. Additionally, hierarchical regression analyses found that four types of negative thoughts partially mediated the stress-burnout relationship. Discussion We concluded that an athlete’s negative thoughts play a pivotal role in predicting athletes’ stress-burnout relationship. Future study may examine how irrational cognition influences athletes’ motivation and psychological well-being.
Marks, Susan; Lamb, Robyn; Tzioumi, Dimitra
Currently, there is some controversy that the medical examination following allegations of child sexual abuse may further traumatise the child. Access for children to appropriate care may be hindered if decisions about referral are influenced by personal beliefs, rather than by recognition of the potential health and psychological benefits of the assessment. We aimed to study the expectations and emotional responses of children and their parents to the medical examination. We conducted a prospective quantitative and qualitative study at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Participants completed questionnaires pre-examination and post-examination, including Children's Anxiety and Pain Scales. Clinicians recorded a Genital Examination Distress Scale and a questionnaire about potentially prognostic variables. Parents found the medical examination significantly less stressful than they had anticipated. They highlighted the importance of being involved in the process, the child's reaction, staff attitudes and the doctor's explanations. Although most parents expected that the medical would be stressful for their child, this did not correlate with the children's reports of feeling scared beforehand. Increased parental and child distress were significantly associated with the child being 12 years or older. The type of abuse was not significantly linked to any of the parent or child self-reports. Our findings indicate that the medical examination is not as stressful as expected and support the recommendation that timely medical assessment by appropriately trained professionals should be offered for all children following allegations of sexual abuse.
Leedahl, Skye N; Chapin, Rosemary K; Little, Todd D
Testing a model based on past research and theory, this study assessed relationships between facility characteristics (i.e., culture change efforts, social workers) and residents' social networks and social support across nursing homes; and examined relationships between multiple aspects of social integration (i.e., social networks, social capital, social engagement, social support) and mental and functional health for older adults in nursing homes. Data were collected at nursing homes using a planned missing data design with random sampling techniques. Data collection occurred at the individual-level through in-person structured interviews with older adult nursing home residents (N = 140) and at the facility-level (N = 30) with nursing home staff. The best fitting multilevel structural equation model indicated that the culture change subscale for relationships significantly predicted differences in residents' social networks. Additionally, social networks had a positive indirect relationship with mental and functional health among residents primarily via social engagement. Social capital had a positive direct relationship with both health outcomes. To predict better social integration and mental and functional health outcomes for nursing homes residents, study findings support prioritizing that close relationships exist among staff, residents, and the community as well as increased resident social engagement and social trust. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Levy, Kira; Minnis, Alexandra M; Lahiff, Maureen; Schmittdiel, Julie; Dehlendorf, Christine
Although social networks are an increasingly recognized influence on contraceptive use, little is known about if and how social influences are discussed during women's contraceptive counseling visits. We performed a mixed-methods analysis of audio recordings of contraceptive counseling visits. We examined predictors of discussion of social influence arising in a contraceptive counseling visit and analyzed the content and process of social influence discussions. Social influences were mentioned in 42% of the 342 visits included in the sample, with these discussions most commonly initiated by patients. Younger patients were more likely to have social influence mentioned than older patients. The content of social influence focused on side effects and adverse events, with the sources of influence being predominantly patients' friends and the media, with little input from partners. Providers were more likely to engage around the content of the social influence than the social influence itself. The frequency with which social influence was mentioned in these visits supports the importance of women's social context on their contraceptive decision making. However, the fact that patients initiated the discussion in the majority of cases suggests that providers may not recognize the relevance of these influences or may not be comfortable engaging with them. Increasing providers' ability to elicit and engage patients about their social context with regard to contraception could enhance providers' ability to understand women's contraceptive preferences and provide appropriate counseling to address their specific concerns or questions. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guralnick, M J; Hammond, M A; Neville, B; Connor, R T
In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the sources and functions of social support and dimensions of child- and parent-related stress for mothers of young children with mild developmental delays. Sixty-three mothers completed assessments of stress and support at two time points. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parenting support during the early childhood period (i.e. advice on problems specific to their child and assistance with child care responsibilities), irrespective of source, consistently predicted most dimensions of parent stress assessed during the early elementary years and contributed unique variance. General support (i.e. primarily emotional support and validation) from various sources had other, less widespread effects on parental stress. The multidimensional perspective of the construct of social support that emerged suggested mechanisms mediating the relationship between support and stress and provided a framework for intervention.
Macrynikola, Natalia; Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella
Preventing self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is particularly challenging on commuter campuses, given lower social cohesion and higher levels of stress than among traditional college populations. The present study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk for different forms of SITBs, along with the potential buffering role of social connectedness, in a diverse sample of young adults from a commuter college. Participants were 1712 (81% female; 61% racial/ethnic minority; 20% sexual minority) undergraduate and graduate students from a public commuter college in New York City. Participants completed an anonymous survey that inquired about lifetime and recent (past 12months) history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with social connectedness and lifetime history of SLEs. Lower levels of social connectedness and exposure to a higher number of SLEs were associated with engaging in SITBs in the past year, particularly both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury. However, social connectedness did not buffer against the impact of SLEs on SITBs. Data are cross-sectional, limiting conclusions about directionality, and females were overrepresented. Identifying ways to increase social connectedness on diverse commuter campuses may help decrease risk of SITBs. However, it may not buffer against the impact of SLEs on risk of SITBs. Future studies should examine contextual variables (e.g., type and timing of social support) that may play a role in protecting against SITBs, particularly for those with a history of adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L.; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed
The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social…
Jonel R. Alonzo
Full Text Available Many research studies have examined academic factors as predictors of success in licensure examination. The purpose of this descriptive discriminant analysis was to explore possible factors in passing social work licensure examination. Data were examined from academic records of 69 (37 passed and 32 failed Social Work graduates of the University of Mindanao who took Social Work Licensure Examination 2014. This can be used as a basis of Social Work program in planning and administering strategies to improve its national passing rates. Discriminant analysis was employed along five academic factors which are Human Behavior and Social Environment (HBSE, Social Work Programs and Policies (SWPP, Social Work Methods (SWM, Field Practice (FP and Grade Point Average (GPA. The analysis generated three significant predictors accounting for 76.22% of between group variability. The function had a hit ratio of 100%. Structure matrix revealed that three cluster subjects were identified as good factors of passing the social work licensure examination: HBSE, SWPP and SWM had a correlation value of 0.713, 0.768 and 0.840, respectively.
The popularization of “social media” has raised questions of how and why young people use these various technologies in their daily lives. This exploratory study proposes a classification system based on Rogers’ concept of technology clusters, which posits that likelihood of adoption is based around similar perceived characteristics of a technology or medium. Results from a survey administered to 401 undergraduates at a large southern university indicated that social and non-social technology...
Full Text Available Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2-/- mice present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2-/- mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2-/- mice behavioral rigidity.
Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie
Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2(-/-) mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2(-/-) mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2(-/-) mice behavioral rigidity.
Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie
Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2−/− mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2−/− mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2−/− mice behavioral rigidity. PMID:25610381
de Lima, A P N; Massoco, C O
This study reports that short-term social instability stress (SIS) in adolescence increases passive-coping in adulthood in male mice. Short-term SIS decreased the latency of immobility and increased the frequency and time of immobility in tail suspension test. These findings support the hypothesis that adolescent stress can induce a passive adaptation to stress in adulthood, even if it is a short period of stress.
Boeri, Miriam; Gardner, Megan; Gerken, Erin; Ross, Melissa; Wheeler, Jack
The purpose of this paper is to understand how people with problematic drug use access positive social capital. Social capital is defined as relations that provide valuable resources to individuals through participation in social networks. People with low socioeconomic status remain at a disadvantage for acquiring positive social capital, a component of recovery capital. The concept of social recovery emphasises the relational processes of recovery. In-depth life history data were collected from 29 individuals who used heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine for at least five years, have less than a high school education, and unstable employment and housing. Qualitative data were coded for social networks accessed throughout the life course, distinguished by bonding, bridging and linking social capital. Social networks included drug treatment programs; non-drug-using family and friends; religious/spiritual groups; workplace networks, and social clubs/activities. Bonding and/or bridging social capital were acquired through treatment, family and friends, religious/spiritual groups, workplaces, and social clubs. Linking social capital was not acquired through any social networks available, and many barriers to accessing mainstream social networks were found. This is a small study conducted in the US. A greater focus on social recovery is needed to achieve sustained recovery for individuals lacking access to and engagement in mainstream social networks. Social recovery is proposed as an analytical tool as well as for developing prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies.
Shin, HaeJin; Lee, Dong Hun; Yu, Kumlan; Ham, KyongAe
The purpose of the current study was to investigate a two-stage model in which parent-related stress and hopelessness each served as mediators of the relationship between perceived parental bonding and South Korean adolescent peer victimization. This study also examined whether the mediating relationships differed by the gender of parents and…
Risler, Ed; Kintzle, Sara; Nackerud, Larry
For approximately 35 seconds on January 10, 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck the small Caribbean nation of Haiti. This research used a preexperimental one-shot posttest to examine the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated trauma symptomatology from the earthquake experienced by a sample of…
Jeans, Laurie M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Laxman, Daniel J.; McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative data set, we examined the extent to which mothers of preschool children with and without the diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) reported stress and depressive symptoms prior to and following diagnosis of ASD. At 4 years, approximately 100…
Winters, M.; Bakker, E. W. P.; Moen, M. H.; Barten, C. C.; Teeuwen, R.; Weir, A.
The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
Findler, Liora; Klein Jacoby, Ayelet; Gabis, Lidia
Parenting a child with disabilities might affect the happiness of the mothers. Hence we adapted Wallander, Varni, Babani, Banis, and Wilcox's (1989) disability-stress-coping model to examine the impact of risk factors (specific stressors related to the child's disability) on the mother's adaptation (happiness). Intrapersonal factors (attachment) and social-ecological factors (social support) were hypothesized to predict adaptation. Both constitute 'risk-resistant' factors, which are mediated by the mother's perceived general stress and guilt. 191 mothers of a child with a developmental disability (ages 3-7) answered questionnaires on happiness, specific and general stress, attachment, guilt and social support. Attachment avoidance was directly and negatively associated with mothers' happiness. General stress was negatively associated with happiness, and mediated the association between anxious attachment, support, and specific stress with happiness. Guilt was negatively associated with happiness, and served as a mediator between attachment anxiety and support and happiness. The findings of the current research show direct and indirect associations of risk factors with happiness and the role of general stress and feelings of guilt as mediators. This study stresses the importance of attachment and social support to happiness and sheds light on the unique role of guilt in promoting or inhibiting happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loughead, Todd M; Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Hoffmann, Matt D; De Cuyper, Bert; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip
Two studies investigated the structure of different athlete leadership networks and its relationship to cohesion using social network analysis. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between a general leadership quality network and task and social cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). In Study 2, we investigated the leadership networks for four different athlete leadership roles (task, motivational, social and external) and their association with task and social cohesion networks. In Study 1, the results demonstrated that the general leadership quality network was positively related to task and social cohesion. The results from Study 2 indicated positive correlations between the four leadership networks and task and social cohesion networks. Further, the motivational leadership network emerged as the strongest predictor of the task cohesion network, while the social leadership network was the strongest predictor of the social cohesion network. The results complement a growing body of research indicating that athlete leadership has a positive association with cohesion.
Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E
The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.
Piferi, Rachel L; Lawler, Kathleen A
The relationship between the social network and physical health has been studied extensively and it has consistently been shown that individuals live longer, have fewer physical symptoms of illness, and have lower blood pressure when they are a member of a social network than when they are isolated. Much of the research has focused on the benefits of receiving social support from the network and the effects of giving to others within the network have been neglected. The goal of the present research was to systematically investigate the relationship between giving and ambulatory blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded every 30 min during the day and every 60 min at night during a 24-h period. Linear mixed models analyses revealed that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were related to giving social support. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed that participants with a higher tendency to give social support reported greater received social support, greater self-efficacy, greater self-esteem, less depression, and less stress than participants with a lower tendency to give social support to others. Structural equation modeling was also used to test a proposed model that giving and receiving social support represent separate pathways predicting blood pressure and health. From this study, it appears that giving social support may represent a unique construct from receiving social support and may exert a unique effect on health.
Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523
Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T
The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ishibashi, Ryo; Hato, Hisamitsu; Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Yoshikubo, Fujio
Our goal for this study was to understand the cause of the differences in surface properties between surfaces processed using water jet peening (WJP) and shot peening (SP) and to examine the compressive residual stress introduction process with low plastic strain using SP. The dynamic behaviors of stress and strain in surfaces during these processes were analyzed through elasto-plastic calculations using a finite-element method program, and the calculated results were compared with measured results obtained through experiments. Media impacting a surface results in a difference in the hardness and microstructure of the processed surface. During SP, a shot deforms the surface locally with stress concentration in the early stages of the impact, while shock waves deform the surface evenly throughout the wave passage across the surface during WJP. A shot with a larger diameter creates a larger impact area on the surface during shot impact. Thus, SP with a large-diameter shot suppresses the stress concentration under the same kinetic energy condition. As the shot diameter increases, the equivalent plastic strain decreases. On the other hand, the shot is subject to size restriction since the calculated results indicate the compressive residual stress at the surface decreased and occasionally became almost zero as the shot diameter increased. Thus, compressive residual stress introduction with low plastic strain by using SP is considered achievable by using shots with a large diameter and choosing the appropriate peening conditions. (author)
Bardeen, Joseph R; Fergus, Thomas A; Orcutt, Holly K
We examined five dimensions of distress tolerance (i.e. uncertainty, ambiguity, frustration, negative emotion, physical discomfort) as prospective predictors of perceived stress. Undergraduate students (N = 135) completed self-report questionnaires over the course of two assessment sessions (T1 and T2). Results of a linear regression in which the five dimensions of distress tolerance and covariates (i.e. T1 perceived stress, duration between T1 and T2) served as predictor variables and T2 perceived stress served as the outcome variable showed that intolerance of uncertainty was the only dimension of distress tolerance to predict T2 perceived stress. To better understand this prospective association, we conducted a post hoc analysis simultaneously regressing two subdimensions of intolerance of uncertainty on T2 perceived stress. The subdimension representing beliefs that "uncertainty has negative behavioral and self-referent implications" significantly predicted T2 perceived stress, while the subdimension indicating that "uncertainty is unfair and spoils everything" did not. Results support a growing body of research suggesting intolerance of uncertainty as a risk factor for a wide variety of maladaptive psychological outcomes. Clinical implications will be discussed.
Ismail, Azman; Suhaimi, Fara Farihana; Bakar, Rizal Abu; Alam, Syed Shah
Purpose: The primary objective of this study is to examine the influence of supervisor’s social support in the correlation between job stress and work intrusion on family conflict.Design/methodology/approach: A survey method was employed to gather survey questionnaires from academic staff in a Malaysian government university in Borneo. Findings: The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed three major findings: first, supervisor’s social support does act as an important moderating variable in t...
Dzhebrailova, T D; Korobeĭnikova, I I; Rudneva, L P
EEG spectral power was calculated in 24 students (18-21 years) with different levels of motivation and anxiety (tested by Spielberger) in two experimental conditions: during the common educational process and the examination stress. Before examination tests, in subjects with high motivation and anxiety level the relative delta activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. In students with medium motivation immediately before an examination the relative beta2-activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. It is suggested that delta oscillati- ons reflect activity of the defensive motivational system, whereas beta2 oscillations may be associated with the achievement motivation.
Kugbey, Nuworza; Osei-Boadi, Samuel; Atefoe, Ethel Akpene
This study examined the impact of social support from family, friends and significant others on the levels depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students of University of Ghana. A total of one hundred and sixty-five (165) students were sampled from all the levels and were administered with standardized questionnaires measuring social…
LeGary, Robert A., Jr.
This exploratory case study examined the reports by advanced undergraduate students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of perceived social supports that buffer college-related stress and facilitate academic success. The sample for this study was comprised of 10 advanced undergraduate students who self-identified as having ASD. These participants…
Dunn, Marianne G.; O'Brien, Karen M.
This study examined the relative contributions of (a) gender, (b) perceived stress, (c) social support from family and significant other, and (d) positive and negative dimensions of religious coping to the prediction of the psychological health and meaning in life among 179 Central American immigrants from El Salvador and Guatemala. Findings…
Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique
Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety...
Hill, Kevin J.; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Levitas, Valery I.
Pre-stressing aluminum (Al) particles by annealing and quenching Al powder alters particle mechanical properties and has also been linked to an increase in particle reactivity. Specifically, energy propagation in composites consisting of aluminum mixed with copper oxide (Al + CuO) exhibits a 24% increase in flame speed when using pre-stressed aluminum (PS Al) compared to Al of the same particle size. However, no data exist for the reactivity of PS Al powders under impact loading. In this study, a drop weight impact tester with pressure cell was designed and built to examine impact ignition sensitivity and combustion of PS Al when mixed with CuO. Both micron and nanometer scale powders (i.e., μAl and nAl, respectively) were pre-stressed, then combined with CuO and analyzed. Three types of ignition and combustion events were identified: ignition with complete combustion, ignition with incomplete combustion, and no ignition or combustion. The PS nAl + CuO demonstrated a lower impact ignition energy threshold for complete combustion, differing from nAl + CuO samples by more than 3.5 J/mg. The PS nAl + CuO also demonstrated significantly more complete combustion as evidenced by pressure history data during ignition and combustion. Additional material characterization provides insight on hot spot formation in the incomplete combustion samples. The most probable reasons for higher impact-induced reactivity of pre-stressed particles include (a) delayed but more intense fracture of the pre-stressed alumina shell due to release of energy of internal stresses during fracture and (b) detachment of the shell from the core during impact due to high tensile stresses in the Al core leading to much more pronounced fracture of unsupported shells and easy access of oxygen to the Al core. The μAl + CuO composites did not ignite, even under pre-stressed conditions.
Yayan, Emriye Hilal; Arikan, Duygu; Saban, Fatma; Gürarslan Baş, Nazan; Özel Özcan, Özlem
This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted with adolescents to examine the correlation between Internet addiction and social phobia. The population of the study consisted of 24,260 students aged between 11 and 15 years. Sampling method was used from population with known number, and 1,450 students were calculated as sample of the study. In this study, 13.7% of the adolescents had an Internet addiction, and 4.2% spent more than 5 hr on the computer every day. There was a positive correlation between Internet addiction and social phobia. The form of time spent on Internet was examined in terms of addiction and social phobia; although Internet addiction was related to games, dating sites, and web surfing, social phobia was related to homework, games, and web surfing. It was hypothesized that adolescents with social phobia were Internet addicts, and the participants used the Internet to spend time rather than socialize.
Pinto Júnior, Afrânio Gomes; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia; Roselli-Cruz, Amadeu
In order to analyze the practice of the social security medical examination starting from the introduction of the worker's health paradigms, data was gathered on the granting of social security disability benefits to assess worker illness based on notification of work-related accidents in the cement industries of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2009 there was only one notification, which involved a worker handling toxic waste instead of the energy matrix. However, the analysis revealed sources and mechanisms of illness overlooked in the social security medical examination, which is still focused on the one-cause-only logic of occupational medicine. To achieve the worker's health paradigms, changes are required to alter the way of conducting the social security medical examination, by re-establishing partnerships, training human resources, adopting epidemiological indicators, as well as setting and assessing social security goals that transcend the mere granting of disability benefits.
Paceley, Megan S; Oswald, Ramona Faith; Hardesty, Jennifer L
Little is known about involvement in LGBTQ organizations. Factors associated with involvement in nonmetropolitan LGBTQ organizations were examined using logistic regression and survey data from 426 LGBTQ individuals residing in a nonmetropolitan region. Involvement was examined in five types of organizations (professional, social/recreational, religious, political, and community center/charity). The same model testing proximity, generativity, minority stress, and social location hypotheses was repeated for each organization type. Results demonstrate that the generativity hypothesis is most strongly supported. Indeed, emotional attachment to the LGBTQ community significantly increased the odds of involvement in every type of organization. However, the factors associated with involvement otherwise differed by organization type. Implications for organizational leaders are discussed.
Li, Jin; Li, Han-Xia; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Song, Tian-Jia; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng
Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task. Changes in anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the light-dark box test. The number of neurons expressing oxytocin and/or vasopressin in PVN and SON were examined by immunohistochemistry techniques. The results demonstrated that social approach was increased and anxiety was decreased following 10-day exposure to CHRS. Furthermore, the number of OXT-immunoreactive cells in PVN was increased significantly, whereas no change in SON was seen. The number of AVP immunoreactive cells either in PVN or SON was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that certain types of stress could be effective in the treatment of social dysfunction in persons with mental disorders such as autism, social anxiety disorder. The therapeutic effects may be mediated by changes in the function of OXT neurons in PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jia, Xuji; Ying, Liuhua; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Lin, Chongde
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Six hundred thirty-eight participants were selected from the survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires, including the Extraversion Subscale, the Social Support Scale, the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. A bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth. Extraversion had significant indirect effects on posttraumatic stress disorder (β = -.037, p posttraumatic growth (β = .077, p posttraumatic growth and a nonsignificant direct effect on posttraumatic stress disorder. Social support fully mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic stress disorder and partially mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic growth. Psychological interventions and care for survivors of the earthquake should include the various functions and sources of social support and how they serve to benefit individuals.
van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo
Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-str...
This aim of this research was to examine the levels of motivation among high school social science students towards learning geography. The study group consisted of 397 students from different classes at Aksaray Ahmet Cevdet Pasa High School in the College of Social Science. The research was carried out with a scanning model, with data obtained…
Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe
Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…
Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn
The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…
Dogan, Pinar Karacan
The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between social values perceptions and moral maturity levels of folk dancers, and evaluate this relation in terms of some variables. The relational screening model was used in the study. The "Multi-dimensional Social Values Scale," which was developed by Bolat (2013), and the…
Mercer, Natalie; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and delinquency in adolescence and the interplay between adolescent social anxiety and delinquency on perceived relationship quality in emerging adulthood. In a 10-year long prospective study (T1, n = 923; T2, n = 727; Mage T1 = 12; 49% female), we examined competing hypotheses using regression analyses: the protective perspective, which suggests social anxiety protects against delinquency; and the co-occurring perspective, which suggests social anxiety and delinquency co-occur leading to increased negative interpersonal outcomes. In adolescence, the relation between social anxiety and delinquency was consistent with the protective perspective. In emerging adulthood, consistent with the co-occurring perspective, ever-delinquents (but not delinquency abstainers) with higher social anxiety reported less perceived best friend, mother, and father support compared to delinquents with lower social anxiety. There was no interaction between anxiety and delinquency in predicting perceived conflict. This study highlights the importance of examining the relation between social anxiety and delinquency with regards to different interpersonal outcomes.
Watson, Noreen L; VanderVeen, Joseph W; Cohen, Lee M; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Morrell, Holly E R
Smokers with symptoms of social anxiety often report smoking as a way to cope with negative affect. These individuals have lower success rates when attempting cessation compared with the general population. However, there is a paucity of research examining the role of social anxiety in nicotine dependence. The present study explored the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, smoking to cope with these symptoms during social situations (STC), and cigarette craving. Thirty-eight participants completed measures of social anxiety and STC at baseline. Cigarette craving was subsequently assessed pre and post exposure to smoking-related images during periods of nicotine satiation and deprivation. Regression analyses revealed that greater symptoms of social anxiety predicted the frequency of STC behaviors and the number of cigarettes participants thought they would need in order to feel more comfortable in social situations. Symptoms of social anxiety and several behaviors associated with STC (e.g., avoiding social situations in which smoking is not permitted) predicted increases in craving during nicotine deprivation, but not satiation. These findings suggest that symptoms of social anxiety and STC behaviors may play a role in the maintenance of smoking behaviors. Further, targeting symptoms of social anxiety within the context of smoking cessation treatment may be particularly helpful and may improve the rates of smoking cessation among individuals with symptoms of social anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bo, H.; Li, T.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda
We apply the theory of corporate social responsibility to analyse social welfare investment undertaken by Chinese State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). We present a simple theoretical model to illustrate how the presence of social objectives in the firm's objective function changes its investment
Gary R Bortolotti
Full Text Available Extravagant ornaments used as social signals evolved to advertise their bearers' quality. The Immunocompetence Handicap Hypothesis proposes that testosterone-dependent ornaments reliably signal health and parasite resistance; however, empirical studies have shown mixed support. Alternatively, immune function and parasite resistance may be indirectly or directly related to glucocorticoid stress hormones. We propose that an understanding of the interplay between the individual and its environment, particularly how they cope with stressors, is crucial for understanding the honesty of social signals.We analyzed corticosterone deposited in growing feathers as an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a wild territorial bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We manipulated two key, interrelated components, parasites and testosterone, which influence both ornamentation and fitness. Birds were initially purged of parasites, and later challenged with parasites or not, while at the same time being given testosterone or control implants, using a factorial experimental design. At the treatment level, testosterone enhanced ornamentation, while parasites reduced it, but only in males not implanted with testosterone. Among individuals, the degree to which both parasites and testosterone had an effect was strongly dependent on the amount of corticosterone in the feather grown during the experiment. The more stressors birds had experienced (i.e., higher corticosterone, the more parasites developed, and the less testosterone enhanced ornamentation.With this unique focus on the individual, and a novel, integrative, measure of response to stressors, we show that ornamentation is ultimately a product of the cumulative physiological response to environmental challenges. These findings lead toward a more realistic concept of honesty in signaling as well as a broader discussion of the concept of stress.
Kazak, A E; Barakat, L P; Meeske, K; Christakis, D; Meadows, A T; Casey, R; Penati, B; Stuber, M L
Psychological sequelae are examined in 130 former childhood leukemia patients and 155 comparison participants and their parents. The major dependent variables are symptoms of anxiety and posttraumatic stress, family functioning, and social support. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated significantly more posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers and fathers of childhood leukemia survivors (p impact of childhood cancer treatment on parents. The lack of significant differences for survivors argues for further attention to the relevance of posttraumatic stress disorder for childhood cancer survivors. The clinical implications are that psychological interventions are needed during and after cancer treatment.
Tzanoulinou, Stamatina; Sandi, Carmen
The quality and quantity of social experience is fundamental to an individual's health and well-being. Early life stress is known to be an important factor in the programming of the social brain that exerts detrimental effects on social behaviors. The peri-adolescent period, comprising late childhood and adolescence, represents a critical developmental window with regard to the programming effects of stress on the social brain. Here, we discuss social behavior and the physiological and neurobiological consequences of stress during peri-adolescence in the context of rodent paradigms that model human adversity, including social neglect and isolation, social abuse, and exposure to fearful experiences. Furthermore, we discuss peri-adolescent stress as a potent component that influences the social behaviors of individuals in close contact with stressed individuals and that can also influence future generations. We also discuss the temporal dynamics programmed by stress on the social brain and debate whether social behavior alterations are adaptive or maladaptive. By revising the existing literature and defining open questions, we aim to expand the framework in which interactions among peri-adolescent stress, the social brain, and behavior can be better conceptualized.
Janicki Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J
The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (M age = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self-report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes the common cold and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection + objective signs of illness). Two 3-way interactions emerged-Support × Stress × PA and Support × Stress × NA. The nature of these effects was such that among persons with high trait PA or low trait NA, greater social support attenuated the risk of developing a cold when under high but not low perceived stress; this stress-buffering effect did not emerge among persons with low trait PA or high trait NA. Dispositional affect might be used to identify individuals who may be most responsive to social support and support-based interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chan, Y C
Thirty-seven identified abusive mothers were matched on demographic and socioeconomic parameters with a known nonabusive comparison sample in order to examine the role of parenting stress and maternal social support. The mothers were assessed using a personal (demographic) questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and the Maternal Support Index (MSSI). Demographic data showed that the two groups were comparable on all variables except abusive mothers had significantly more children (p = .01). Abusive mothers showed significantly more stress on total PSI scores (p = .005), as well as in all three of the subjects: Child Domain (p = .007) Parent Domain (p = .02), and Life Stress (p = .016). Abusive mothers scored lower in all seven items on the MSSI. The difference was significant on the MSSI as a whole (p = .007) and on four subsets: number of people to count on in time of need (p = .02), perceived neighborhood support (p = .04), satisfaction with spousal relationship (p = .01), and degree of community involvement (p = .03). The greatest percentage (74.32%) of correct predictions of child abuse was achieved by combining the number of children, the Life Stress Scale and the MSSI. Implications for future research are discussed.
Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco
Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted of two separate studies in which a total of 12 team athletes participated. First, six field hockey players (two males, four females) aged 18-29 years (M = 23.0 years) participated in a diary study. Second, six team athletes of different sports (two males, four females) aged 24-29 years (M = 25.8 years) were interviewed. The results showed that in particular teammates are important for the appraisal of stress and coping in team sports. For over half (i.e., 51.5%) of the reported stressors in the diary study the participants felt that others were of influence on their coping. Team athletes experienced the highest stress intensity during competition, or when they appraised the situation as a threat. When others were of influence the team athletes were most likely to appraise the situation as a challenge and use problem- or emotion-focused coping strategies. These finding might provide a new portal for intervention to enhance coping with stress in sport and enhance performance and satisfaction.
Chen, Ivy Y; Jarrin, Denise C; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M
Stress and hyperarousal both contribute to insomnia. Elevated stress-related sleep reactivity is associated with hyperarousal, and might constitute a vulnerability to future insomnia. The present study examined acute stress-induced arousal and its association with nocturnal sleep. Participants were 30 healthy adults (66.7% female, M age = 26.7 years): 10 with insomnia (INS) and 20 good sleepers with high vulnerability (HV) or low vulnerability (LV) to insomnia. They underwent two consecutive nights of polysomnography. During the evening preceding the second night, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered, and psychological and physiological arousal indices were assessed. The TSST elicited an increase in psychological and physiological arousal in all three groups. The INS group showed greater acute cortisol response (p stress reactivity and bedtime hyperarousal might represent a trait-like vulnerability in certain good sleepers. More research is warranted to validate and expand these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Canetta, Elisabetta; Montiel, Kimberley; Adya, Ashok K
The ability of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the nanoscopic morphological changes in the surfaces of fabrics was examined for the first time. This study focussed on two natural (cotton and wool), and a regenerated cellulose (viscose) textile fibres exposed to various environmental stresses for different lengths of times. Analyses of the AFM images allowed us to measure quantitatively the surface texture parameters of the environmentally stressed fabrics as a function of the exposure time. It was also possible to visualise at the nanoscale the finest details of the surfaces of three weathered fabrics and clearly distinguish between the detrimental effects of the imposed environmental conditions. This study confirmed that the AFM could become a very powerful tool in forensic examination of textile fibres to provide significant fibre evidence due to its capability of distinguishing between different environmental exposures or forced damages to fibres.
Park, Hyojung; Rodgers, Shelly; McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin
The authors examined the influence of social media involvement on health issues in sexual and gender minorities (SGMs). Demographic and technological characteristics of social media users and nonusers were identified, and the influence of social media involvement on these factors was assessed for its potential to influence health information needs and preferences. A survey of 2,274 SGM individuals revealed that age, sexual orientation, number of Internet access points, and use of smartphones predicted levels of social media involvement. Results suggest that a broader range of traditional and nontraditional communication channels is needed to meet a diversity of health information needs in SGMs.
Mayara Barbosa Sindeaux Lima
Full Text Available Abstract Stress and social support are relevant variables for understanding the impact of disability on the care relationship. Thus, this study investigates the association between the parental stress index, social support indicators, and the sociodemographic variables of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in a capital city of the Eastern Amazon. The following instruments were applied to 100 caregivers: the Sociodemographic Inventory, the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used, in addition to techniques of multivariate analysis. It was found that most participants had high parental stress and a high perception of social support. Specific aspects of the perception of social support and sociodemographic indicators were associated with stress. This knowledge favors the design of more assertive interventions because it outlines the aspects of these variables that appear to have a more effective impact on parental stress.
Mak, Hio Wa; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E
The quality of family relationships and youth friendships are intricately linked. Previous studies have examined different mechanisms of family-peer linkage, but few have examined social anxiety. The present study examined whether parental rejection and family climate predicted changes in youth social anxiety, which in turn predicted changes in friendship quality and loneliness. Possible bidirectional associations also were examined. Data for mothers, fathers, and youth (M age at Time 1 = 11.27; 52.3% were female) from 687 two-parent households over three time points are presented. Results from autoregressive, cross-lagged analyses revealed that father rejection (not mother rejection or family climate) at Time 1 (Fall of 6th Grade) predicted increased youth social anxiety at Time 2 (Spring of 7th Grade), which in turn, predicted increased loneliness at Time 3 (Spring of 8th Grade). The indirect effect of father rejection on loneliness was statistically significant. Mother rejection, father rejection, and a poor family climate were associated with decreased friendship quality and increased loneliness over time. Finally, there was some evidence of transactional associations between father rejection and youth social anxiety as well as between social anxiety and loneliness. This study's findings underscore the important role of fathers in youth social anxiety and subsequent social adjustment.
Richards, Elizabeth A; McDonough, Meghan; Fu, Rong
Physical activity behavior is influenced by numerous factors including motivation, social interactions, and the walkability of the environment. To examine how social contexts and environmental features affect physical activity motivational processes across time. Participants (N=104) completed 3 monthly online surveys assessing self-determination theory constructs, social partners in physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and weekly physical activity. Longitudinal path analysis examined the degree to which physical activity was predicted by individual goals, orientation, and autonomy support and whether these associations were meditated by motivation and moderated by the social and environmental contexts of physical activity. The effect of controlled exercise orientations on physical activity was mediated by autonomous motivation. This association was stronger among those who perceived less crime in their neighborhoods. To improve the ability to tailor physical activity counseling it is important to understand how each person views exercise situations and to understand his/her social and neighborhood environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeon, Yeongju; Yoo, Rankyung; Jung, Hee-Yeon
Increases in unemployment and suicide in the young Korean population have recently become major social concerns in the country. The purpose of this study was to examine mental health status in young job seekers and identify sociodemographic factors related to job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We also explored the mediating effect of depression on the relationship between job-seeking stress and suicidal ideation and examined whether social support moderated this effect. In total, 124 university graduates completed the Job-Seeking Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Descriptive statistics were calculated for participants' general characteristics, and t-tests or analyses of variance, correlation analysis, simple mediation analysis, and mediated moderation analysis were performed. Of the 124 participants, 39.5% and 15.3% exhibited clinical levels of depression and suicidal ideation, respectively. Sociodemographic factors (i.e., sex, academic major, educational expenses loan, and willingness to accept irregular employment) were associated with job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Women and graduates who were willing to accept irregular employment exhibited high levels of job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Job-seeking stress affected suicidal ideation via depression, and perceived social support moderated the effect of job-seeking stress on depression and the effect of depression on suicidal ideation. The results suggest that depression management and interventions are urgently required for young job seekers, and social support should be provided to assist them both emotionally and economically.
Intan Hashimah Mohd. Hashim
Full Text Available This paper results from a study that was conducted on 209 Form Fourstudents from two schools in Penang. In this study, a semi-structuredinterview covering questions on demographics, a 12-item measure ofself-esteem, and a 20-item measure of well-being was conducted.Students were also asked to report their Penilaian Menengah Rendah(PMR results as an indicator of their academic performance. To assess stress, coping and social supports, respondents were given a list of possible stressors (e.g., problems with relationships at home and school and were asked to indicate whether or not they were bothered by these stressors, the type of coping that they had used in dealing with these stressors, and the type of social supports that they had received in relation to these stressors. A higher proportion of respondents (77% identified issues related to academics and lessons as a problem compared to other issues (relationships at home, 34%, and relationships at school, 31%. The number of stressors related to everyday life was significantly related to well-being, but not to self-esteem or academic performance. Respondents reported a variety of problem-specificcoping. Supports received were also problem-specific in nature. Thefindings have both applied and theoretical implications.
Elklit, Ask; Østergård Kjær, Kamilla; Lasgaard, Mathias; Palic, Sabina
Young refugees from the former Yugoslavia commonly testify to having been exposed to multiple, traumatic experiences, which may contribute to the development of serious mental health problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Using selfreport scales the present study investigated the prevalence of PTSD as well as factors associated with PTSD in a group of 119 Bosnian refugee youths (mean age 18.5). The group was special in that they had no right to seek asylum in the host country for the first couple of years of their stay. It is suspected that this circumstance had an effect on their wellbeing. Between 35-43% of the youth were found to be in the clinical range for a PTSD diagnosis. Female gender, problem-focused, and avoidant coping strategies, were significant predictors of PTSD. The protective effects of social support were, however, not observed for this group. There is a need for more studies, which address the factors that mediate and moderate effects of social support and effectiveness of different coping strategies in refugee youth dealing with different circumstances of the refugee experience.
Carr, Bruce Henry
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P
This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.
Muller, A; Gal, N; Betlehem, J; Fuller, N; Acs, P; Kovacs, G L; Fusz, K; Jozsa, R; Olah, A
We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light-dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light-dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p animals.
Kali B. Zammit
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the use and determine the preferred method of social media among 4-H alumni in Louisiana. Based on a review of literature, communicating with youth through social media has become a major trend and necessity, especially among 4-H Youth Development and Cooperative Extension Service professionals. A 24-item instrument was developed and administered online to Louisiana 4-H alumni who received the 2011 Louisiana 4-H Senior Honor Cord and provided usable e-mails. The overall preferred method of social media among Louisiana 4-H alumni was Facebook and text messaging. A majority of 4-H alumni use their smart phones or personal computers to utilize social media. Some of the primary reasons that 4-H alumni use social media are to communicate friends, view photographs, and become updated with current events. Overall, 100% of surveyed 4-H alumni use some form of social media.
Alhaythami, Hassan; Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul; Bolden, Edward
This study examined the psychometric properties of a social-networking site (SNS) activities scale (SNSAS) using Rasch Analysis. Items were also examined with Rasch Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across groups of university students (i.e., males and females from the United States [US] and Europe; N =…
Maddox, Richard S.
This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…
The social skills deficit vulnerability model predicts that people with inadequate social skills are at risk for a range of psychosocial problems, especially when confronted with stress. People with poor social skills often experience stress and loneliness and these two constructs were tested as potential pathways by which the poor social skills confer a risk for compromised mental and physical health. An online survey was completed by 775 adults, aged 18-91. The sample matched national demographics for race/ethnicity and age, among those over 18. Structural equation modeling revealed indirect effects of social skills on both mental and physical health through both stress and loneliness. The models showed that poor social skills were associated with poor mental and physical health through elevated stress and increased loneliness. The findings reveal that social skills deficits are associated with physical as well as mental health problems.
Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.
Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular
Pinto, Ricardo J; Correia-Santos, Patrícia; Levendosky, Alytia; Jongenelen, Inês
Studies of the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on parenting have usually not examined the role of the maternal perceptions, either its stress or maternal satisfaction, on the mothers' and children's mental health functioning. The present study aimed to assess whether maternal satisfaction, parenting stress, and social support are significantly associated with women's psychological functioning. The study also assessed whether maternal perceptions of the role of parenting were significantly associated with children's emotional well-being and social behavior. The sample included 160 mothers, 79 (49.4%) who were living with the aggressors and 81 (50.6%) in shelters, and their children ( n = 61). The findings suggested that high levels of maternal satisfaction and perception of social support were significantly negatively associated with women's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress, whereas parenting stress was significantly positively associated with these outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was the only parenting variable that predicted both maternal mental health and children's emotional and behavioral problems, suggesting that it is a protective factor for both mothers and children. This study suggests that increasing maternal satisfaction with parenting and reducing parenting stress might promote better adjustment for both women and children victims of IPV.
Çek, Demet; Sánchez, Alvaro; Timpano, Kiara R
Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP). We tested a mediational model where social anxiety level indirectly predicted subsequent PEP via its association with AB-disgust and immediate subjective emotional reactivity to social stress. Fifty-five undergraduates (45% female) completed a passive viewing task. Eye movements were tracked during the presentation of social stimuli (e.g., disgust faces) and used to calculate AB-disgust. Next, participants gave an impromptu speech in front of a video camera and watched a neutral video, followed by the completion of a PEP measure. Although there was no association between AB-disgust and physiological reactivity to the stressor, AB-disgust was significantly associated with greater subjective emotional reactivity from baseline to the speech. Analyses supported a partial mediation model where AB-disgust and subjective emotional reactivity to a social stressor partially accounted for the link between social anxiety levels and PEP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Feenstra, Sanne; Jordan, Jennifer; Walter, Frank; Yan, Jin; Stoker, Janka I.
This study examines the roles of power, stability, and social dominance orientation (SDO) for work stress. Initial laboratory research has demonstrated that power and the stability of one's power position interact to influence stress. Using a sample of Chinese managers, we replicate and extend this
Zwissler, Bastian; Koessler, Susanne; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kissler, Johanna
It has been shown that stress affects episodic memory in general, but knowledge about stress effects on memory control processes such as directed forgetting is sparse. Whereas in previous studies item-method directed forgetting was found to be altered in post-traumatic stress disorder patients and abolished for highly arousing negative pictorial stimuli in students, no study so far has investigated the effects of experimentally induced psycho-social stress on this task or examined the role of positive picture stimuli. In the present study, 41 participants performed an item-method directed forgetting experiment while being exposed either to a psychosocial laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), or a cognitively challenging but non-stressful control condition. Neutral and positive pictures were presented as stimuli. As predicted, salivary cortisol level as a biological marker of the human stress response increased only in the TSST group. Still, both groups showed directed forgetting. However, emotional content of the employed stimuli affected memory control: Directed forgetting was intact for neutral pictures whereas it was attenuated for positive ones. This attenuation was primarily due to selective rehearsal improving discrimination accuracy for neutral, but not positive, to-be-remembered items. Results suggest that acute experimentally induced stress does not alter item-method directed forgetting while emotional stimulus content does. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark
The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to environmental social stress as a mechanism of psychosis using Virtual Reality (VR) experiments. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis, and 53 controls walked 5 times in a virtual bar with different levels of environmental social stress. Virtual social stressors were population density, ethnic density and hostility. Paranoia about virtual humans and subjective distress in response to virtual social stress exposures were measured with State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) and self-rated momentary subjective distress (SUD), respectively. Pre-existing (subclinical) symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale (GPTS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Paranoia and subjective distress increased with degree of social stress in the environment. Psychosis liability and pre-existing symptoms, in particular negative affect, positively impacted the level of paranoia and distress in response to social stress. These results provide experimental evidence that heightened sensitivity to environmental social stress may play an important role in the onset and course of psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Haferkamp, Nina; Krämer, Nicole C
Through their features--such as profile photographs or the personal vita--online profiles on social-networking sites offer a perfect basis for social comparison processes. By looking at the profile photograph, the user gains an impression of a person's physical attractiveness, and the user's vita shows which career path the person is pursuing. Against the background of Festinger's Social Comparison Theory, the focus of this research is on the effects of online profiles on their recipients. Therefore, qualitative interviews (N = 12) and two online experiments were conducted in which virtual online profiles of either physically attractive or unattractive persons (N = 93) and profiles of users with either high or low occupational attainment (N = 103) were presented to the participants. Although qualitative interviews did not initially give reason to expect online profiles to constitute a basis for comparison processes, results of the experiments proved otherwise. The first study indicates that recipients have a more negative body image after looking at beautiful users than persons who were shown the less attractive profile pictures. Male participants of the second study, who were confronted with profiles of successful males, showed a higher perceived discrepancy between their current career status and an ideal vita than male participants who looked at profiles of less successful persons.
Okamoto, Janet; Johnson, C. Anderson; Leventhal, Adam; Milam, Joel; Pentz, Mary Ann; Schwartz, David; Valente, Thomas W.
Despite the well established influence of peer experiences on adolescent attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors, surprisingly little research has examined the importance of peer context and the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms accompanying the transition into adolescence. Examination of social networks may provide some insight into the role of peers in the vulnerability of some adolescents to depression. To address this issue, we leveraged an existing sample of 5,563 Chinese 10th grade...
McCaul, Mary E.; Hutton, Heidi E.; Stephens, Mary Ann C.; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S.
Background Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol?related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self?report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, al...
Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong-Ku
Despite the fact that the lifetime and yearly prevalence rates of mental illness continue rising, such diseases have only been acknowledged as involved in workplace health issue since the 2000s. Additionally, while the number of recognized cases of mental illnesses is rather low compared to their prevalence, they have a high likelihood of causing significant problems, including fatalities. Many workers are terrified of losing their jobs due to mental illness and therefore attempt to hide their mental health problems. For this reason, clinicians involved in occupational and environmental medicine should focus on interviews or screenings to identify such hidden mental health problems. More specifically, it would be helpful to evaluate job stress and depression in workplaces to ensure appropriate preventive actions and thereby reduce the prevalence of mental illness. Job stress not only causes mental illness and dissatisfaction with work, but also can increase the prevalence and morbidity of medical diseases, as well as other physical health problems. Depression is a major contributor to work loss and absence with effects surpassing almost all of the chronic medical disorder. These facts show why measure of job stress and depression should be highlighted in the occupational settings. This article introduces a variety of assessment tools to examine mental health, particularly stress and depression, in workplaces. These tools can be used by clinicians or professionals involved in the mental health, occupational safety, or health service fields for running diagnostics or screening tests.
Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita
This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DePasquale, Nicole; Zarit, Steven H; Mogle, Jacqueline; Moen, Phyllis; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M
Based on the stress process model of family caregiving, this study examined subjective stress appraisals and perceived schedule control among men employed in the long-term care industry (workplace-only caregivers) who concurrently occupied unpaid family caregiving roles for children (double-duty child caregivers), older adults (double-duty elder caregivers), and both children and older adults (triple-duty caregivers). Survey responses from 123 men working in nursing home facilities in the United States were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Results indicated that workplace-only and double- and triple-duty caregivers' appraised primary stress similarly. However, several differences emerged with respect to secondary role strains, specifically work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intentions. Schedule control also constituted a stress buffer for double- and triple-duty caregivers, particularly among double-duty elder caregivers. These findings contribute to the scarce literature on double- and triple-duty caregiving men and have practical implications for recruitment and retention strategies in the health care industry.
Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry
Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…
van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo
Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the
Gupta, Anubha; Verma, Suman
This study had three aims: (1) to identify stressful situations faced by Indian children and adolescents working on the streets; (2) to study their preference for social support when faced with stress; and (3) to identify gender differences in social support preferences. One hundred 8- to 18-year-olds, working as beggars, vendors, or ragpickers,…
Jong, de I.C.; Sgoifo, A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.
The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which
de Jong, IC; Sgoifo, A; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM
The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which
Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.
Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Stokes, Carmen; Galea, Sandro
As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health. Drawing on data from Detroit, Michigan, we examined contributions of neighborhood-level characteristics (e.g., poverty rate, racial and ethnic composition, residential stability) and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender) to perceived social and physical environmental stress. We found that neighborhood percent African American was positively associated with perceptions of both social and physical environmental stress; neighborhood percent poverty and percent Latino were positively associated with perceived physical environmental stress; and neighborhood residential stability was negatively associated with perceived social environmental stress. At the individual level, whites perceived higher levels of both social and physical environmental stress compared to African American residents of the same block groups, after accounting for other variables included in the models. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding and addressing contributions of neighborhood structural characteristics to perceptions of neighborhood stress. The consistency of the finding that neighborhood racial composition and individual-level race influence perceptions of both social and physical environments suggests the continuing importance of understanding the role played by structural conditions and by personal and collective histories that vary systematically by race and ethnicity within the United States.
John R Hipp
Full Text Available The local neighborhood forms an integral part of our lives. It provides the context through which social networks are nurtured and the foundation from which a sense of attachment and cohesion with fellow residents can be established. Whereas much of the previous research has examined the role of social and demographic characteristic in relation to the level of neighboring and cohesion, this paper explores whether particular environmental features in the neighborhood affect social porosity. We define social porosity as the degree to which social ties flow over the surface of a neighborhood. The focus of our paper is to examine the extent to which a neighborhood's environmental features impede the level of social porosity present among residents. To do this, we integrate data from the census, topographic databases and a 2010 survey of 4,351 residents from 146 neighborhoods in Australia. The study introduces the concepts of wedges and social holes. The presence of two sources of wedges is measured: rivers and highways. The presence of two sources of social holes is measured: parks and industrial areas. Borrowing from the geography literature, several measures are constructed to capture how these features collectively carve up the physical environment of neighborhoods. We then consider how this influences residents' neighboring behavior, their level of attachment to the neighborhood and their sense of neighborhood cohesion. We find that the distance of a neighborhood to one form of social hole-industrial areas-has a particularly strong negative effect on all three dependent variables. The presence of the other form of social hole-parks-has a weaker negative effect. Neighborhood wedges also impact social interaction. Both the length of a river and the number of highway fragments in a neighborhood has a consistent negative effect on neighboring, attachment and cohesion.
Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.
Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced...... by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians.Female laboratory technicians (n = 500......) replied to questions about stress (Cohens Perceived Stress Scale-10), musculoskeletal pain (0-10 visual analog scale), and social capital at the workplace (bonding [in teams], bridging [between teams], and linking [between teams and leaders]). Outcome variables were stress and musculoskeletal pain...
Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goodspeed, Jason; Grimes, Chelsea; Elegante, Marco; Suciu, Christopher; Elkhayat, Salem; Bartels, Brett; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Badani, Hussain; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Tan, Julia; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Kalueff, Allan V
Stress induced by social defeat is a strong modifier of animal anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Self-grooming is a common rodent behavior, and has an ordered cephalo-caudal progression from licking of the paws to head, body, genitals and tail. Acute stress is known to alter grooming activity levels and disrupt its patterning. Following 15-17 days of chronic social defeat stress, grooming behavior was analyzed in adult male C57BL/6J mice exhibiting either dominant or subordinate behavior. Our study showed that subordinate mice experience higher levels of anxiety and display disorganized patterning of their grooming behaviors, which emerges as a behavioral marker of chronic social stress. These findings indicate that chronic social stress modulates grooming behavior in mice, thus illustrating the importance of grooming phenotypes for neurobehavioral stress research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…
Könül Abasli; Yener Akman
The purpose of the study was to examine teachers’ perceptions of social capital and organizational creativity and to explore whether there is a significant relationship between these variables. The study adopted a correlational survey method in the study. The study group of research was composed of 297 teachers. The data were collected over the Internet and social capital and organizational creativity scales were used. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, multiple line...
Tanvi Gupta*1, Mamta Rani2 & Ravneet Singh Bhandari3
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose and examine a privacy behaviour model in the context of Social networking factors (Indian scenario). The effects of key elements of SNS factors on perceived values of privacy behaviour were empirically determined. Design/methodology/approach – SNS is conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct including emotional privacy, social privacy, personal privacy, and value. The investigated socio demographic factors included, age, gender, ethn...
Full Text Available Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition; the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37 were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks. Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.
Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato
Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to s...
Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato
Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.
Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato
Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants’ memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants’ reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups’ post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age. PMID:24349244
Thompson, Janice L
This essay provides a critical exploration of discourses of social justice in nursing. It examines commitments to social justice in the work of international nursing scholars and in professional codes of ethics in international nursing organizations. The analysis touches on salient conversations in philosophy, relating these ways of knowing to social justice as an ethical pattern in nursing practice. On the basis of this analysis, the discussion explores questions of professional formation in nursing, noticing when commitments to social justice are taken up or evaded in different models of professionalism. In concluding comments, implications of democratic professionalism are explored for professional formation in nursing, arguing for teaching, learning, and knowledge projects that contribute to social justice in our democracy.
William P. McCarty
Full Text Available Guided by the systemic model of social disorganization, the purpose of this study was to explore the nature of social ties in mobile home communities and examine how that relates to rates of violent and property crime. Interviews with a small sample of mobile home residents, owners, and managers in Omaha, Nebraska, indicate a wide spectrum of communities, from those characterized by an atomized population to those with strong social ties. Fear of crime, ethnically heterogeneous populations, and lax management were cited by respondents as factors that undermined relationships. Proactive management and a desire to help neighbors were cited by respondents as factors that helped strengthen relationships. Violent and property crime rates for the mobile home communities were largely consistent with the interview data, providing support for the importance of social networks and a systemic model of social disorganization. The implications of these findings for research and policy are also explored.
Lu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Guang-Hai; Lei, Hao; Shi, Meng-Liang; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Fan
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that…
Mahoney, Emery B; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Leone, Sarah L; Ghuman, Jaswinder Kaur
Deficits in the capacity to engage in social interactions are a core deficit associated with Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These deficits emerge at a young age, making screening for social interaction deficits and interventions targeted at improving capacity in this area important for early identification and intervention. Screening and early intervention efforts are particularly important given the poor short and long term outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) who experience social interaction deficits. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI) is a well-validated screening measure that examines a child's capacity for social interaction using a developmental approach. The present study identified four underlying factors measured by the SSI, namely, Connection with Caregiver, Interaction/Imagination, Social Approach/Interest, and Agreeable Nature. The resulting factors were utilized to compare social interaction profiles across groups of children with AD, PDD-NOS, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions and typically developing children. The results indicate that children with AD and those with PDD-NOS had similar social interaction profiles, but were able to be distinguished from typically developing children on every factor and were able to be distinguished from children with non-ASD psychiatric conditions on every factor except the Connection with Caregiver factor. In addition, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions could be distinguished from typically developing children on the Connection with Caregiver factor and the Social Approach/Interest factor. These findings have implications for screening and intervention for children with ASDs and non-ASD psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Kai; Dong, Chao; Fujita, Yuko; Fujita, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Kenji
Previous reports suggest that 5-hydroxytryptamine might play a role in the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine. However, its role in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine, which is more potent than (S)-ketamine, is unknown. This study was conducted to examine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion affects the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress model. An inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis, para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (300 mg/kg, twice daily for 3 consecutive days), or vehicle was administered to control and chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice. Levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, in mouse brain regions were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine (10 mg/kg) in the vehicle- and para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride-treated susceptible mice were assessed using tail suspension test and 1% sucrose preference test. para-Chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride treatment caused marked reductions of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the brain regions of control and chronic social defeat stress susceptible mice. In the tail suspension test, (R)-ketamine significantly attenuated the increased immobility time in the chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice with or without 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion. In the sucrose preference test (2 and 5 days after a single dose), (R)-ketamine significantly enhanced reduced sucrose consumption in the chronic social defeat stress-susceptible mice with or without 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion. These findings show that 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion did not affect the antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress model. Therefore, it is unlikely that 5-hydroxytryptamine plays a major role in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford
Hunt, Marcia G; Stein, Catherine H
The complexity of the concept of mental health recovery often makes it difficult to systematically examine recovery processes and outcomes. The concept of social role is inherent within many acknowledged dimensions of recovery such as community integration, family relationships, and peer support and can deepen our understanding of these dimensions when social roles are operationalized in ways that directly relate to recovery research and practice. This paper reviews seminal social role theories and operationalizes aspects of social roles: role investment, role perception, role loss, and role gain. The paper provides a critical analysis of the ability of social role concepts to inform mental health recovery research and practice. PubMed and PsychInfo databases were used for the literature review. A more thorough examination of social role aspects allows for a richer picture of recovery domains that are structured by the concept social roles. Increasing understanding of consumers' investment and changes in particular roles, perceptions of consumers' role performance relative to peers, and consumers' hopes for the future with regards to the different roles that they occupy could generate tangible, pragmatic approaches in addressing complex recovery domains. This deeper understanding allows a more nuanced approach to recovery-related movements in mental health system transformation.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between certain demographic variables and social skill levels of university students. Material and Methods: There were 100 participants (n=51 female, n=49 male in the study group who were the students at the department of Sport Sciences Faculty of Istanbul University in the 2015-2016 academic year. Of the study group 28 participants were between 18-20 years old, 27 participants were between 21-23 years old, 23 participants were between 24-26 years old and 22 participants were above 27 years old. After the demographic information of the participants was formed, the Social Skill Scale was applied which was developed by Matson, Rotarory and Hessel (1983 and adopted to Turkish. In order to measure their social skill levels, the reliability analysis of that scale was done. Cronbach Alpha value is 0.777; about the subscales, the results were found as such; positive social behaviour subscale 0.924, negative social behaviour subscale 0.904. Significance level was accepted as p<0.05. Results: Gender, age, class, whether or not to play sports with a licence, education level of parents, how many years they have been doing sports, and the level of social skills and subscales of their students were not significantly different. Conclusion: As a result; the demographic variables examined within our study did not make a difference in the level of social skills of the participants.
Hueston, Cara M; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M
Hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognitive behaviors are regulated by a number of factors including stress, inflammation, and exercise. However, the interplay between these factors remains relatively unexplored, especially across the lifespan. In the current study, the effect of social isolation stress during the adolescent period on neurogenesis and hippocampal-dependent cognitive behaviors was examined. This period of the lifespan has been demonstrated to be an important time for hippocampal growth and plasticity, during which changes to hippocampal neurogenesis may have long lasting effects. Additionally, we aimed to determine whether a 'dual-hit' of adolescent stress and adult chronic neuroinflammation would potentiate any negative effects of either insult alone. Lastly, the potential positive effects of exercise during adolescence was examined to determine whether exercise could attenuate any negative impacts of these insults on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior. The results from the current study demonstrate that social isolation stress during adolescence followed by intra-hippocampal exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in early adulthood produces deficits in both spontaneous alternations and novel object recognition. Exercise attenuated deficits in neurogenesis and novel object recognition in mice that had been exposed to the 'dual-hit' of stress and neuroinflammation. These findings indicate that adolescence represents a key period of the lifespan during which external factors such as stress and exercise can impact on hippocampal development, and may alter the response to challenges such as neuroinflammation in later life. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J
Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.
van der Kooij MA; Sandi C.
Intact social memory forms the basis of meaningful interactions between individuals. Many factors can modulate the quality of social memory, and these have been studied in detail in rodents. Social memory, however, cannot be considered a single entity. The term social memory reflects different processes, such as social recognition of a novel conspecific individual and social learning (or 'learning from others'). This review summarizes the findings obtained with behavioral paradigms that were ...
Results. Patients' estimates of their own social functioning were not significantly different from examiners' estimates. The impact of clinical variables on social functioning in PD revealed depression to be the strongest association of social functioning in PD on both the patient and the examiner version of the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. Conclusions. PD patients appear to be well aware of their social strengths and weaknesses. Depression and motor symptom severity are significant predictors of both self- and examiner reported social functioning in patients with PD. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with PD may improve social functioning and overall quality of life.
Millman, Zachary B; Weintraub, Marc J; Bentley, Eryn; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason
Research suggests that perceived social stress influences illness presentation and course among youth in the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis. Little is known, however, about the social cognitive factors associated with social stress perception in this population, particularly relative to youth with non-CHR psychopathology. Individuals with psychosis tend to endorse an external locus of control (LOC), which is associated with the stress response in healthy individuals. LOC may therefore be related to perceived social stress in youth at CHR. We examined the differential relations of self-reported LOC and perceived social stress, as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, across 45 CHR and 65 help-seeking control (HSC) participants. Youth at CHR reported more social stress (F[1, 107]=6.28, p=0.01) and a more external LOC (F[1, 107]=4.98, p=0.03) than HSCs. Further, external LOC was more strongly associated with feelings of social stress in the CHR group relative to the HSC group (interaction: b=0.35, t=2.32, psocial stress, however, were nonsignificant at internal levels of LOC (b=-2.0, t=-0.72, p=0.48; f 2 =0.00). Results suggest that perceptions of uncontrollability over one's social environment may more often induce or exacerbate feelings of stress and tension in CHR youth relative to HSCs. A better understanding of the social cognition-stress relation may improve understanding of CHR phenomenology, etiology, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Social media hold enormous potentials as a communication tool for health care due to its interactive nature. However, prior research mainly focused on contingency interactivity of social media, by examining messages sent from health care organizations to audiences, while little is known about functional interactivity, which refers to social media's presence of functions for facilitating communication between users and its interface. That is, how health care organizations use interactive features on social media to communicate with the public. Thus, with a general basis of the functional interactivity framework proposed by Waters et al. (Engaging stakeholders through social networking: how nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Pub Relat Rev 2009;35:102-106), the current study investigated three aspects of functional interactivity in microblogging, and its subsequent effects. Specifically, this study analyzed 500 Chinese hospitals' profiles on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblogging platform in China. The results showed that the most common functional interactivity feature was organization disclosure, followed by information dissemination, and audience involvement. These interactive features all positively predicted the number of followers. Also, Chinese private hospitals scored significantly higher than public hospitals to use interactive features offered by social media. The findings of this study provide important implications for health care organizations to understand new communicative functions available on social media, incorporate more functions into their profiles and thus provide audiences with greater opportunity to interact with them via social media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique
Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a 2-day study, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group’s RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. PMID:25465884
Richards, Jessica M; Patel, Nilam; Daniele-Zegarelli, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, Monique
Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15-18yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a study over two separate days, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group's RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
West, Jessica S
Hearing impairment is a growing physical disability affecting older adults and is an important physical health stressor, but few studies have examined it in relation to mental health outcomes and even fewer have considered the role of social support in buffering this relationship. The current study builds on the stress process framework and uses longitudinal data from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2006, 2010, 2014) to examine the relationship between hearing impairment and depressive symptoms among U.S. adults aged 50 and older (n = 6075). The analysis uses fixed-effects models to assess this relationship and examine the extent to which social support mediates (buffers) or moderates (interaction) the association. The results found that worse self-rated hearing was associated with a significant increase in depressive symptoms, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Social support did not buffer this relationship. Instead, social support interacted with hearing impairment: low levels of social support were associated with more depressive symptoms but only among people with poor self-rated hearing. Among those with excellent self-rated hearing, low levels of social support did not increase depressive symptoms. Moreover, high levels of social support reduced depressive symptoms for those with poor hearing. These findings suggest that hearing impairment is a chronic stressor in individuals' lives, and that responses to this stressor vary by the availability of social resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Hing, Nerilee
The overlap of gaming and gambling activities within online digital technologies is of growing relevance to the study of technological addictions. Social casino games are immensely popular 'free to play' games that offer realistic emulation of financial gambling activities. Their structural similarities might suggest that engagement in social casino games may be particularly risky for people with existing gambling problems. Currently it is not known whether social casino games are used problematically by individuals who also experience problematic gambling, the extent of this overlap, the characteristics of those who experience problems with both activities, and the symptoms of problematic social casino game use they experience. An online survey was administered to Internet users (N=1554) to assess social casino game use and associated problems. This study examined a subsample of 176 adults who played social casino games and reported self-identified gambling problems. The results indicated that a greater frequency and diversity of social casino game playing and more frequent and larger expenditure on social casino games was significantly positively associated with symptom severity of problematic social casino game use. Gamblers who were younger, less educated, spoke a non-English language, and with higher psychological distress, were more likely to report greater problems. Playing social casino games to escape or relieve a negative mood was the most commonly reported symptom. These findings suggest that some problem gamblers may also be at risk of problematic engagement in online gambling activities that lack financial incentives. Gamblers' concurrent engagement in social casino games therefore warrants further consideration in gambling research studies and clinical practice settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Westberg, Kate; Stavros, Constantino; Smith, Aaron C T; Munro, Geoff; Argus, Kevin
To examine how alcohol brands use sport in their communication activities on social media. Despite extensive research exploring alcohol advertising and sponsorship through sport, minimal attention has been given to digital platforms. This study undertakes a qualitative content analysis to examine the social media activity of alcohol brands sponsoring the three largest spectator sports in Australia: Australian rules football, rugby league and cricket. Four sport-related social media strategies are identified through which alcohol brands solicit interaction with consumers, often involving co-creation of content and social activation. These strategies act as 'calls to action' and through the association of sport and alcohol encourage consumers to engage in competition, collaboration, celebration and consumption. These strategies are further strengthened by communications which draw upon themes of identity and camaraderie to resonate with the consumer. Sport-linked social media strategies utilised by alcohol brands extend beyond just promoting their product. They seek higher levels of engagement with the consumer to amplify and augment the connection between alcohol and the sport spectator experience. The discussion highlights the powerful combination of sport and social media as a mechanism by which these brands seek to interact with consumers and encourage them to both create and promote content to their social networks. These strategies allow alcohol brands to extend their marketing efforts in a manner which can elude alcohol codes and prove difficult for regulators to identify and control. [Westberg K, Stavros C, Smith ACT, Munro G, Argus K. An examination of how alcohol brands use sport to engage consumers on social media. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:28-35]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Feinstein, Brian A; McConnell, Elizabeth; Dyar, Christina; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E
In different-sex couples, individual and partner stress can both have a negative impact on relationship functioning (actor and partner effects). Gay and bisexual men experience unique stress (sexual minority stress), but few studies have examined the effects of this stress on relationship functioning among young male couples. The current study examined (a) actor and partner effects of general and minority stress (internalized stigma, microaggressions, victimization, and outness) on relationship functioning (relationship quality and negative relationship interactions), (b) interactions between individual and partner stress as predictors of relationship functioning, and (c) dyadic coping and relationship length as moderators of actor and partner effects. Actor-partner interdependence models were tested using data from 153 young male couples. There was strong support for actor effects. Higher general stress and internalized stigma were associated with lower relationship quality, but only for those in longer relationships. Additionally, higher general stress, internalized stigma, and microaggressions, and lower outness, were associated with more negative relationship interactions. There was limited support for partner effects. Having a partner with higher internalized stigma was associated with more negative relationship interactions, but none of the other partner effects were significant. There was no support for individual and partner stress interacting to predict relationship functioning or for dyadic coping as a stress buffer. Findings highlight the influence of one's own experiences of general and minority stress on relationship functioning, but raise questions about how partner stress influences relationship functioning among young male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
The study reported in this article examined the relationship between psychosocial functioning and tendency to forgive, social support, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of terror survivors (N = 108). Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether PTSD symptoms mediated the association between tendency to forgive, social support, and psychosocial functioning. The findings demonstrated that the association between tendency to forgive and psychosocial functioning was mediated exclusively by PTSD symptoms, whereas the association between social support and psychosocial functioning was partially mediated by PTSD symptoms. The study reinforces the importance of addressing trauma survivors' psychosocial functioning as an emotional state associated with tendency to forgive, social support, and PTSD symptoms. In addition, the findings suggest that when treating trauma survivors, therapists should be aware of PTSD not only as an emotional consequence of trauma, but also as a mediator of numerous emotional and cognitive coping mechanisms.
Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L
In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Hogan, Julianna; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J
The mediational role of negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies in the relation between perceived stress and (1) perceived barriers to cessation, (2) severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and (3) smoking-specific experiential avoidance (AIS) was examined. Data were drawn from a baseline assessment of a larger clinical trial. Participants included 332 adult treatment-seeking smokers (47.3% female; Mage=38.45; SD=.50; age range: 18-65 years). Results indicated that perceived stress was indirectly related to perceived barriers to smoking cessation, severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and AIS through negative reinforcement outcome expectancies. These results were evident after accounting for the variance explained by gender, negative affectivity, and alternative outcome expectancies for smoking. The present findings suggest that smokers with greater perceived stress experience greater negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, which in turn, may be related to numerous processes involved in the maintenance of smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nation, Daniel A; Gonzales, Julie A; Mendez, Armando J; Zaias, Julia; Szeto, Angela; Brooks, Larry G; Paredes, Jamespaul; D'Angola, Alyssa; Schneiderman, Neil; McCabe, Philip M
Previous research demonstrated that social environment can influence progression of atherosclerosis in the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit. This study examined the effect of social environment on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation to clarify the physiological pathways potentially responsible for the influence of social environment on disease. WHHL rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 social groups: an unstable group, in which unfamiliar rabbits were paired daily, with the pairing switched each week; a stable group, in which littermates were paired daily; and an individually-caged group. The stable group engaged in more affiliative social behavior than the unstable group. The unstable group showed more agonistic behavior compared with the stable group and higher C-reactive protein levels than the individually caged group. The individually caged group was behaviorally sedentary, had higher 24-hour urinary catecholamine levels than the other groups, and exhibited higher NAD(P)H-oxidase activity in the aortic arch relative to the stable group. The results suggest that social environment creates distinct behavioral contexts that can affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress early in the development of atherosclerosis. Specifically, physical inactivity associated with individual caging affects indices of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological markers may help to explain behaviorally related differences in the extent of atherosclerosis observed in prior studies.
Liu, Yi-Yun; Zhou, Xin-Yu; Yang, Li-Ning; Wang, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Pu, Jun-Cai; Liu, Lan-Xiang; Gui, Si-Wen; Zeng, Li; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Chan-Juan; Xie, Peng
Major depressive disorder is a serious mental disorder with high morbidity and mortality. The role of social stress in the development of depression remains unclear. Here, we used the social defeat stress paradigm to induce depression-like behavior in rats, then evaluated the behavior of the rats and measured metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Within the first week after the social defeat procedure, the sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted to examine the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. For our metabolite analysis, multivariate statistics were applied to observe the distribution of all samples and to differentiate the socially defeated group from the control group. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to find the potential relationships among the differential metabolites. In the OFT and EPM, there were no significant differences between the two experimental groups. In the SPT and FST, socially defeated rats showed less sucrose intake and longer immobility time compared with control rats. Metabolic profiling identified 25 significant variables with good predictability. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed that "Hereditary Disorder, Neurological Disease, Lipid Metabolism" was the most significantly altered network. Stress-induced alterations of low molecular weight metabolites were observed in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Particularly, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and energy metabolism were significantly perturbed. The results of this study suggest that repeated social defeat can lead to metabolic changes and depression-like behavior in rats.
Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E
Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.
Colletti, Christina J M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Page, Melanie C; McNall-Knapp, René Y; Meyer, William H; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L
To examine the relationship of self-reported parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to parent-reported behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment of children currently on treatment for cancer. Parents of 62 children (34 boys, 28 girls) currently on treatment for cancer were recruited from an outpatient pediatric cancer clinic. Children ranged in age from 2 to 12 years; age at diagnosis ranged from 1.33 to 11.83 years. Higher levels of parenting stress, but not parental overprotection or perceived child vulnerability, were associated with poorer behavioral and social adjustment. Higher levels of perceived child vulnerability and parenting stress, but not parental overprotection, were independently associated with poorer emotional adjustment. Specific parenting variables appear to be related to specific adjustment outcomes in children with cancer. Longitudinal follow-up of these children is necessary to determine the developmental trajectory of parent variables and long-term child outcomes.
Jeremy D Coplan
Full Text Available Background: Chronic stress may conceivably require plasticity of maternal physiology and behavior to cope with the conflicting primary demands of infant rearing and foraging for food. In addition, social rank may play a pivotal role in mandating divergent homeostatic adaptations in cohesive social groups. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oxytocin (OT levels and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis regulation in the context of maternal social stress and assessed the contribution of social rank to dyadic-distance as reflective of distraction from normative maternal-infant interaction. Methods: Twelve socially-housed mother-infant bonnet macaque dyads were studied after variable foraging demand (VFD exposure compared to 11 unstressed dyads. Dyadic-distance was determined by behavioral observation. Social ranking was performed blindly by two observers. Post-VFD maternal plasma cortisol and CSF OT were compared to corresponding measures in non-VFD exposed mothers. Results: High social rank was associated with increased dyadic-distance only in VFD-exposed dyads and not in control dyads. In mothers unexposed to VFD, social rank was not related to maternal cortisol levels whereas VFD-exposed dominant versus subordinate mothers exhibited increased plasma cortisol. Maternal CSF OT directly predicted maternal cortisol only in VFD-exposed mothers. CSF OT was higher in dominant versus subordinate mothers. VFD-exposed mothers with high cortisol specifically exhibited CSF OT elevations in comparison to control groups. Conclusions: Pairing of maternal social rank to dyadic-distance in VFD presumably reduces maternal contingent responsivity, with ensuing long-term sequelae. VFD-exposure dichotomizes maternal HPA axis response as a function of social rank with relatively reduced cortisol in subordinates. OT may serve as a homeostatic buffer during maternal stress exposure.
Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A
We examined variation in glucocorticoid levels in the mandrill, a brightly coloured primate species, to identify major social influences on stress hormones, and investigate relationships among glucocorticoid levels, testosterone and secondary sexual ornamentation. We collected a total of 317 fecal samples for 16 adult male mandrills over 13 months, including mating and non-mating periods and periods of both dominance rank stability and instability, and compared fecal glucocorticoid levels with dominance rank, rank stability, presence of receptive females, gastro-intestinal parasite infection, fecal testosterone and facial red coloration. Glucocorticoid levels did not vary systematically with dominance rank, but increased when the dominance hierarchy was unstable, and increased in the presence of receptive females. The relationship between dominance rank and glucocorticoid levels changed direction according to the stability of the dominance hierarchy: glucocorticoid levels were higher in subordinate males under stable conditions, but under conditions of instability higher ranking males had higher glucocorticoid levels. The influence of dominance rank also interacted with the presence of receptive females: glucocorticoids were higher in dominant males than in subordinates, but only during mating periods, suggesting that dominant males are more stressed than subordinates during such periods. These findings support previous studies showing that the relationship between glucocorticoids and dominance rank in male baboons is dependent on the social environment. We also found that males with higher glucocorticoids suffered a higher diversity of gastrointestinal parasite infection, in line with evidence that glucocorticoids suppress the immune system in other species. However, we found no support for the stress-mediated immunocompetence handicap hypothesis for the evolution of condition-dependent ornaments: glucocorticoid and testosterone levels were positively related
Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Bellido-Esteban, Alberto; Ruisoto-Palomera, Pablo; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier
The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario. Autonomic modulation parameters do not correlate with academic performance of students.
Trainor, Brian C.; Pride, Michael C.; Villalon Landeros, Rosalina; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y.; Silva, Andrea L.; Crean, Katie K.
Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction) that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks). Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior. PMID:21364768
Brian C Trainor
Full Text Available Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks. Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior.
Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Jordhøy, Marit S; Kaasa, Stein
To examine the relationship between social support and emotional functioning and stress reactions. Our hypothesis is that patients who reported a high degree of social support will experience better emotional functioning and less serious stress reactions than patients with a low degree of social support. The sample was comprised of 434 patients at the Palliative Medicine Unit (PMU), University Hospital of Trondheim in Norway. The patients completed a questionnaire monthly including questions about social support from the MacAdam's Scale, subjective stress measured by the Impact of Event Scale (IES), and emotional functioning measured by the subscale in the EORTC QLQ-30. Although our hypothesis was not supported at the baseline assessment, it was supported at the second assessment, 2 months later. Patients with high social support reported better emotional functioning and less serious stress reactions, in terms of lower scores on the IES avoidance subscale, than patients with a low degree of social support. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS: The mixed findings may indicate that social support has only small effects on emotional functioning and stress reactions. Our results on the second assessment indicate, however, that social support might work as a buffer against reactions toward external stressful events such as terminal cancer.
Lischke, Alexander; Jacksteit, Robert; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Pahnke, Rike; Hamm, Alfons O; Weippert, Matthias
Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains. To test this hypothesis, resting state HRV and psychosocial stress was assessed in 83 healthy community-dwelling individuals (age: 18-35years). HRV was derived from heart rate recordings during spontaneous and instructed breathing to assess the robustness of possible associations between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress. Psychosocial stress was determined with a self-report questionnaire assessing stress in distinct social domains. A series of categorical and dimensional analyses revealed an association between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress: Individuals with high HRV reported less stress in social life, but not in family life, work life or everyday life, than individuals with low HRV. On basis of these findings, it may be assumed that individuals with high HRV experience less psychosocial stress than individuals with low HRV. Although such an assumption needs to be corroborated by further findings, it seems to be consistent with previous findings showing that individuals with high HRV suffer less from stress and stress-related disorders than individuals with low HRV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
"The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature and the structure of elderly women's dependency [in Taiwan] and the underlying socio-cultural-political forces. From the social constructive perspective, we focused on three constructive forces--the Chinese patriarchal/patrilocal family system, the gender role, and the state policy on elderly welfare. Three types of dependency--economic dependency, dependency for personal and health care, and living arrangement--were examined." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
Dai, W J; Chen, L; Tan, H Z; Lai, Z W; Hu, S M; Li, Y; Liu, A Z
To explore the long-term prognosis and influence of social support and coping style of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after suffering from floods. Patients suffered PTSD due to Dongting lake flood in 1998 were selected through cluster random sampling. PTSD scale civilian version (PCL-C) was used to examine and diagnose the participants in this study. PTSD was then evaluated by the social support rating scale (SSRS) and the simple coping style questionnaire (SCSQ). Among all the 120 subjects, 14(11.67%) of them were diagnosed as having PTSD. Compared with the rehabilitation group, scores on subjective support, objective support, total social support and positive coping, total of coping style from the non-rehabilitation group all appeared significant low (Pfloods while disaster experience (OR=1.626, 95%CI: 1.118-2.365) appeared as a risk factor. Chronic PTSD developed after the floods called for attention. Better social support, positive coping style could significantly improve the long-term prognosis of patients with PTSD after the floods.
Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan
Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.
This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…
Cărnuţă, Mihai; Crişan, Liviu G; Vulturar, Romana; Opre, Adrian; Miu, Andrei C
Early life stress (ELS) has been recently associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and emotion dysregulation, but no study until now examined whether these characteristics are related. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential mediator role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between ELS and cortisol reactivity to social threat. Only women who were free of psychiatric and endocrine disorders, had regular menstrual cycle and did not use oral contraceptives were selected for this study (N=62). After filling in ELS and multidimensional emotion dysregulation measures, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test during which cortisol and autonomic responses were assessed. Most participants (85.5%) reported one or more major stressful events (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, major parental conflicts, death of a family or close friend, severe illness) experienced before age 17. ELS was negatively associated with cortisol reactivity and positively associated with skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity, but it did not influence heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In addition, ELS was positively related to emotional non-acceptance (i.e., a tendency to develop secondary emotional responses to one's negative emotions), and the latter was negatively related to cortisol responses and positively related to SCL responses. Bootstrapping analyses indicated that emotional non-acceptance was a significant mediator in the relationships between ELS and both cortisol and SCL responses. Emotional non-acceptance is thus one of the psychological mechanisms underlying blunted cortisol and increased sympathetic reactivity in young healthy volunteers with a history of ELS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mordeno, Imelu G; Go, Geraldine P; Yangson-Serondo, April
Latent factor structure of Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) has been examined using Diagnostic Statistic Manual-IV (DSM-IV)'s Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) nomenclature. With the advent of Diagnostic Statistic Manual-5 (DSM-5), there is an impending need to reexamine STS using DSM-5 symptoms in light of the most updated PTSD models in the literature. The study investigated and determined the best fitted PTSD models using DSM-5 PTSD criteria symptoms. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine model fit using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale in 241 registered and practicing Filipino nurses (166 females and 75 males) who worked in the Philippines and gave direct nursing services to patients. Based on multiple fit indices, the results showed the 7-factor hybrid model, comprising of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behavior, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal factors has excellent fit to STS. This model asserts that: (1) hyperarousal criterion needs to be divided into anxious and dysphoric arousal factors; (2) symptoms characterizing negative and positive affect need to be separated to two separate factors, and; (3) a new factor would categorize externalized, self-initiated impulse and control-deficit behaviors. Comparison of nested and non-nested models showed Hybrid model to have superior fit over other models. The specificity of the symptom structure of STS based on DSM-5 PTSD criteria suggests having more specific interventions addressing the more elaborate symptom-groupings that would alleviate the condition of nurses exposed to STS on a daily basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Boxelaere, Michiel; Clements, Jason; Callaerts, Patrick; D'Hooge, Rudi; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.
Michiel van Boxelaere
Full Text Available Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD, anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.
Veling, W; Counotte, J; Pot-Kolder, R; van Os, J; van der Gaag, M
Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social stress, in interaction with psychosis liability and level of social stress exposure. Seventy-five individuals with higher psychosis liability (55 with recent onset psychotic disorder and 20 at ultra-high risk for psychosis) and 95 individuals with lower psychosis liability (42 siblings and 53 controls) were exposed to a virtual café in five experiments with 0-3 social stressors (crowded, other ethnicity and hostility). Paranoid ideation was measured after each experiment. Subjective distress was self-rated before and after experiments. Multilevel random regression analyses were used to test main effects of childhood trauma and interaction effects. Childhood trauma was more prevalent in individuals with higher psychosis liability, and was associated with higher level of (subclinical) psychotic and affective symptoms. Individuals with a history of childhood trauma responded with more subjective distress to virtual social stress exposures. The effects of childhood trauma on paranoia and subjective distress were significantly stronger when the number of virtual environmental stressors increased. Higher psychosis liability increased the effect of childhood trauma on peak subjective distress and stress reactivity during experiments. Childhood trauma is associated with heightened social stress sensitivity and may contribute to psychotic and affective dysregulation later in life, through a sensitized paranoid and stress response to social stressors.
Sundag, Johanna; Ascone, Leonie; Lincoln, Tania M
Social stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD). Patients with PD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 40) were assessed for EMSs with the Young Schema Questionnaire. They were then exposed to a social stress situation in which they were socially excluded in a Cyberball paradigm. Prior to and after the social stress induction, paranoid symptoms were assessed. Patients with PD responded with a stronger increase in paranoia and revealed a significantly higher EMS total score compared to the healthy controls. As expected, higher increases in paranoia following the social stress were accounted for by higher EMS total scores. Exploratory analyses showed that particularly the specific EMSs Defectiveness/Shame and Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self were associated with the increase in paranoia. EMSs are associated with stress-related symptom increases in patients with PD. It thus seems worthwhile to further investigate the relevance of specific schemas for paranoia. The findings also suggest that addressing EMSs in psychological treatment of patients with PD holds potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Legare, Cristine H; Sobel, David M; Callanan, Maureen
Causal learning in childhood is a dynamic and collaborative process of explanation and exploration within complex physical and social environments. Understanding how children learn causal knowledge requires examining how they update beliefs about the world given novel information and studying the processes by which children learn in collaboration with caregivers, educators, and peers. The objective of this article is to review evidence for how children learn causal knowledge by explaining and exploring in collaboration with others. We review three examples of causal learning in social contexts, which elucidate how interaction with others influences causal learning. First, we consider children's explanation-seeking behaviors in the form of "why" questions. Second, we examine parents' elaboration of meaning about causal relations. Finally, we consider parents' interactive styles with children during free play, which constrains how children explore. We propose that the best way to understand children's causal learning in social context is to combine results from laboratory and natural interactive informal learning environments.
Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.
Abstract Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians. Female laboratory technicians (n = 500) replied to questions about stress (Cohens Perceived Stress Scale-10), musculoskeletal pain (0–10 visual analog scale), and social capital at the workplace (bonding [in teams], bridging [between teams], and linking [between teams and leaders]). Outcome variables were stress and musculoskeletal pain and the predictor variable was social capital. General linear models tested the association of the 3 types of social capital (predictor variables) with stress and pain (mutually adjusted outcome variables). Analyses were controlled for age, lifestyle (body mass index, smoking), seniority, and working hours per week. For stress as outcome, moderate and high bonding social capital were different from low social capital with −2.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] −3.33 to −0.76) and −4.56 (95% CI −5.84 to −3.28) points on the Perceived Stress Scale of 0 to 42, respectively. Similarly, moderate and high bridging social capital were different from low social capital with −1.50 (95% CI −2.76 to −0.24) and −4.39 (95% CI −5.75 to −3.03), respectively. For linking, only high social was significantly different from low with −2.94 (95% CI −4.28 to −1.60). None of the 3 types of social capital was associated with musculoskeletal pain. Higher levels of social capital at the workplace appear to buffer against stress, but not against
Drucker, Nick; Campbell, Kenyth
This paper introduces an agent-based model that explores the relationships between education, social networks, and support for democratic ideals. This study examines two factors thai affect democratic support, education, and social networks. Current theory concerning these two variables suggests that positive relationships exist between education and democratic support and between social networks and the spread of ideas. The model contains multiple variables of democratic support, two of which are evaluated through experimentation. The model allows individual entities within the system to make "decisions" about their democratic support independent of one another. The agent based approach also allows entities to utilize their social networks to spread ideas. Current theory supports experimentation results. In addion , these results show the model is capable of reproducing real world outcomes. This paper addresses the model creation process and the experimentation procedure, as well as future research avenues and potential shortcomings of the model
Full Text Available This mixed method research examined instructors’ use of video feedback and its impact on instructor social presence in 12 blended sections of three preservice educational technology courses. An independent samples t-test was conducted and found no significant difference in perceptions of instructor social presence between students who received video feedback (M = 5.77, SD = 0.85 and those who received text (M = 5.62, SD = 0.75; t(178 = 1.23, p = 0.22. The analysis of 22 student and nine teacher interviews found that participants generally viewed video feedback to be more effective at establishing instructor social presence because instructors could better speak with emotions, talk in a conversational manner, and create a sense of closeness with students. Students also explained that the blended learning format lessened the impact of video feedback on instructor social presence, which may help to explain why statistical differences were not found.
Lansford, J E; Sherman, A M; Antonucci, T C
This study examines L. L. Carstensen's (1993, 1995) socioemotional selectivity theory within and across three cohorts spanning 4 decades. Socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that as individuals age, they narrow their social networks to devote more emotional resources to fewer relationships with close friends and family. Data from 3 cohorts of nationally representative samples were analyzed to determine whether respondents' satisfaction with the size of their social networks differed by age, cohort, or both. Results support socioemotional selectivity theory: More older adults than younger adults were satisfied with the current size of their social networks rather than wanting larger networks. These findings are consistent across all cohorts. Results are discussed with respect to social relationships across the life course.
Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul
Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.
Özdenk, Serhat; Karabulut, Ebru Olcay
In this study, it was aimed to examine of youth team athletes' social values according to some variables. The study was carried out by screening model and includes in range of 9-17 years 273 youth team athletes who take part in individual and team sports such as Taekwondo, Handball, Badminton, Wrestling, Volleyball and Football. "A Tool for…
Ozer, Ipek; Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.
Social-networking site (SNS) use, specifically Facebook®, has remained a controversial subject for many educators and media. Recent studies discuss the negative and positive impacts of SNSs on students’ academic performance. This qualitative study examines the impact of SNSs on students’ academic
Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cox, Anne E.; Cooper, Brittany Rhoades
Previous research has used cluster analysis to examine how social physique anxiety (SPA) combines with motivation in physical education. This study utilized a more advanced analytic approach, latent profile analysis (LPA), to identify profiles of SPA and motivation regulations. Students in grades 9-12 (N = 298) completed questionnaires at two time…
Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell
The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls…
Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne
The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…
Soria, Krista; Nobbe, June; Fink, Alex
This paper examined relationships between students' engagement in community service in different contexts through classes, student organizations, work study, and on their own as well as their development of socially responsible leadership at a large, public, research university in the Upper Midwest. Results from the Multi-Institutional Study of…
O'Reilly, M.F.; McNally, D.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Green, V.A.; Edrisinha, C.; Machalicek, W.A.; Sorrells, A.; Didden, H.C.M.
The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized
O'Reilly, Mark; McNally, Deirdre; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Machalicek, Wendy; Sorrells, Audrey; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert
The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to…
Isiklar, Abdullah; Sar, Ali Haydar; Celik, Aslihan
This research was carried out to examine perceived social support in adolescence and bullying. 112 females and 171 males (in total 283) attending different types of high schools were used in this research. The sample group includes students who were referred to guidance and counseling service as bullies. According to the research results; when…
de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.; Carlo, Gustavo; Edwards, Carolyn Pope
This study examines the role of immediate social companions in the prosocial behaviors of children from two cultural communities from the USA and the Philippines. Materials for this study comprised behavioral observations drawn from the Six Cultures Study--with 612 five-minute observations of 23 children (12 girls, 11 boys) from Orchard Town, MA…
McCurtis, Bridget R.
There has been an identifiable decline in moral decision making and socially responsible behaviors in society based on recent national events such as Enron and the Bernie Madoff scandal (Arvedlund, 2009; Doran, 2004). This study attempts to address this leadership crisis by examining college student involvement and leadership experiences that may…
Hunter, Leah J.; DiPerna, James C.; Hart, Susan Crandall; Crowley, Max
Although implementation of universal social-emotional learning programs is becoming more common in schools, few studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of such programs. As such, the purpose of this article is two fold. First, we provide an overview of cost-effectiveness methods for school-based programs, and second, we share results of a…
The purpose of the study was to examine a diverse range of research literature to provide a social-cognitive theoretical framework as a foundation for definition of identity construction in the music teacher education program. The review of literature may reveal a theoretical framework based around tenets of commonly studied constructs in the…
Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J
Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.
Trainor, Brian C; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y; Campi, Katharine L; Florez, Stefani A; Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A; Orr, Veronica N; Silva, Andrea L; Steinman, Michael Q
There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C
It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ramos, Stephen Daniel; Kelly, Morgan; Schepis, Ty
Research indicates healthcare workers' personal substance use may affect quality of care. Investigating factors that correlate with coping through substance use may provide insight into improving quality care. This study aims to examine potential correlates of coping through substance use among healthcare workers, with a particular focus on humor, social support, stress perception, and smoking temptation. Participants, recruited from healthcare facilities, anonymously completed a 30-minute questionnaire of psychometrically valid measurements. In a sample of primarily female (75.7%), age 20-39 (74.8%), floor staff (i.e., doctors, nurses, technicians/assistants; 61.2%), perceived stress [β = .036, t(98) = 2.55, p = .012], smoking temptation [β = .036, t(98) = 2.21, p = .030], and coping through humor [β = .163, t(98) = 2.033, p = .045] were significant correlates of the coping through substance use, with all relationships positively co-varying. Social support at work did not predict coping through substance use [β = -.032, t(98) = -.814, p > .05]. Furthermore, negative affect/situation smoking temptation was associated with increased coping through substance use [β = .246, t(99) = 2.859, p = .005] and habit/craving temptation was associated with decreased coping through substance use [β = -.260, t(99) = -2.201, p = .030; however, positive affect/social temptation was not [β = .054, t(99) = -.553, p > .05]. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest that coping with humor may relate to coping through substance use, while social support at work is either unrelated to coping through substance use in this sample or may not be adequately assessed with the measure used. Consistent with the literature, negative affect/situation was associated with increased coping through substance use. However, habit/craving was negatively predictive. Further research should explore the variables related to coping through substance use among healthcare workers.
Corbett, Blythe A; Newsom, Cassandra; Key, Alexandra P; Qualls, Lydia R; Edmiston, E Kale
Background Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impairment in reciprocal social communication, which includes deficits in social cognition and behavior. Since social cognition and social behavior are considered to be interdependent, it is valuable to examine social processes on multiple levels of analysis. Neuropsychological measures of face processing often reveal deficits in social cognition in ASD including the ability to identify and remember facial information. However, the ...
Young, Christopher; Majolo, Bonaventura; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia
In humans and obligatory social animals, individuals with weak social ties experience negative health and fitness consequences. The social buffering hypothesis conceptualizes one possible mediating mechanism: During stressful situations the presence of close social partners buffers against the adverse effects of increased physiological stress levels. We tested this hypothesis using data on social (rate of aggression received) and environmental (low temperatures) stressors in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Morocco. These males form strong, enduring, and equitable affiliative relationships similar to human friendships. We tested the effect of the strength of a male’s top three social bonds on his fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels as a function of the stressors’ intensity. The attenuating effect of stronger social bonds on physiological stress increased both with increasing rates of aggression received and with decreasing minimum daily temperature. Ruling out thermoregulatory and immediate effects of social interactions on fGCM levels, our results indicate that male Barbary macaques employ a tend-and-befriend coping strategy in the face of increased environmental as well as social day-to-day stressors. This evidence of a stress-ameliorating effect of social bonding among males under natural conditions and beyond the mother–offspring, kin or pair bond broadens the generality of the social buffering hypothesis. PMID:25489097
Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place
Bondar, Natalya; Bryzgalov, Leonid; Ershov, Nikita; Gusev, Fedor; Reshetnikov, Vasiliy; Avgustinovich, Damira; Tenditnik, Mikhail; Rogaev, Evgeny; Merkulova, Tatiana
Chronic stress is a risk factor for major depression. Social defeat stress is a well-validated murine model of depression. However, little is known about the gene activity dynamics during the development of a depression-like state. We analyzed the effects of social defeat stress of varying duration (10 and 30 days) on the behavioral patterns and prefrontal-cortex transcriptome of C57BL/6 mice. The 10-day exposure to social defeat stress resulted in a high level of social avoidance with no signs of depression-associated behavior. Most animals exposed to 30 days of social defeat stress demonstrated clear hallmarks of depression, including a higher level of social avoidance, increased immobility in the forced swimming test, and anhedonic behavior. The monitoring of transcriptome changes revealed widespread alterations in gene expression on the 10th day. Surprisingly, the expression of only a few genes were affected by the 30th day of stress, apparently due to a reversal of the majority of the early stress-induced changes to the original basal state. Moreover, we have found that glucocorticoid-sensitive genes are clearly stimulated targets on the 10th day of stress, but these genes stop responding to the elevated corticosterone level by the 30th day of stress. The majority of genes altered by the 30-day stress were downregulated, with the most relevant ones participating in chromatin modifications and neuroplasticity (e.g., guanine nucleotide exchange factors of the Rho-family of GTPases). Very different molecular responses occur during short-term and long-term social stress in mice. The early-stress response is associated with social avoidance and with upregulation and downregulation of many genes, including those related to signal transduction and cell adhesion pathways. Downregulation of a few genes, in particular, genes for histone-modifying methyltransferases, is a signature response to prolonged stress that induces symptoms of depression. Altogether, our data
Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: Implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Johnston, Caitlin E.; Herschel, Daniel; Lasek, Amy W.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.
Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676
Dulka, Brooke N; Koul-Tiwari, Richa; Grizzell, J Alex; Harvey, Marquinta L; Datta, Subimal; Cooper, Matthew A
Stress is a well-known risk factor for psychopathology and rodent models of social defeat have strong face, etiological, construct and predictive validity for these conditions. Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive and territorial, but after an acute social defeat experience they become submissive and no longer defend their home territory, even from a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. This defeat-induced change in social behavior is called conditioned defeat (CD). We have shown that dominant hamsters show increased neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) following social defeat stress and exhibit a reduced CD response at social interaction testing compared to subordinates. Although the vmPFC can inhibit the neuroendocrine stress response, it is unknown whether dominants and subordinates differ in stress-induced activity of the extended hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we show that, following acute social defeat, dominants exhibit decreased submissive and defensive behavior compared to subordinates but do not differ from subordinates or social status controls (SSCs) in defeat-induced cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, both dominants and SSCs show greater corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the basolateral/central amygdala compared to subordinates, while there was no effect of social status on CRH mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Overall, status-dependent differences in the CD response do not appear linked to changes in stress-induced cortisol concentrations or CRH gene expression, which is consistent with the view that stress resilience is not a lack of a physiological stress response but the addition of stress coping mechanisms. Lay summary Dominant hamsters show resistance to the behavioral effects of acute social defeat compared to subordinates, but it is unclear whether social status modulates the neuroendocrine stress response
During college years, which are known as a stressful time, students may often face stress personally, socially, academically, economically, and so forth in various areas of life. One of the important sources that students use to cope with stress is social support. Students can cope with stress easier via the support they receive from their friends…
Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam
While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present work is a study of the detection of negative emotional states that people have using social network sites (SNSs, and the effect that this negative state has on the repercussions of posted messages. We aim to discover in which grade a user having an affective state considered negative by an Analyzer can affect other users and generate bad repercussions. Those Analyzers that we propose are a Sentiment Analyzer, a Stress Analyzer and a novel combined Analyzer. We also want to discover what Analyzer is more suitable to predict a bad future situation, and in what context. We designed a Multi-Agent System (MAS that uses different Analyzers to protect or advise users. This MAS uses the trained and tested Analyzers to predict future bad situations in social media, which could be triggered by the actions of a user that has an emotional state considered negative. We conducted an experimentation with different datasets of text messages from Twitter.com to examine the ability of the system to predict bad repercussions, by comparing the polarity, stress level or combined value classification of the messages that are replies to the ones of the messages that originated them.
Kötter, Thomas; Niebuhr, Frank
The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students. We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item), anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale), as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument). In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis. We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on the development of perceived medical school stress. However, we could not differentiate between the effects of group coaching only and group coaching in combination with two sessions of individual
Murphy, Fiona; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma; Lau, Nicholas
In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not