WorldWideScience

Sample records for examining landscape factors

  1. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  2. Landscape-geochemical factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batulin, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of landscape-geochemical factors on hydrogenic formation of uranium ores is considered. The primary attention is paid to finding reasons for hydrogeochemical background increase in the regions of arid climate. Problems of uranium distribution in alluvial landscapes, hydrogeochemical regime of ground waters, reflecting the effect of waters of the zone of aeration are revealed. Chemical composition of porous solutions in the zone of aeration, as well as historical geochemindstry of landscape a its role from the view point of uranium solution formation in the arid zone are considered [ru

  3. URBAN LANDSCAPE QUALITY AND FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCE ON LANDSCAPE QUALITY IN LATGALE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Matisovs, Ivars

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with urban landscape individualities in the cities and towns of Latgale region. Also show facilities and methods of integrated assessment of urban landscape quality. Article provides information about specifics of urban landscape and factors, that have influence on landscape quality. The paper presents the results of Daugavpils and Rēzekne urban landscape quality complex assessment, that have been realised in 2003- 2005. This results don’t establish significant disparities bet...

  4. The Examination of Retaining Walls in Landscape Architecture: The Example of Trabzon City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Volkan Aksu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Number of problems about city order and its vision has been increasing rapidly. There is two main factors that causes visual pollution. The first factor is that cities are in an unplanned and dense urbanization process which has serious effects on appearance of a city. The second factor is retaining walls used densely in Trabzon city because of its open land structure. These walls which are set up for environmental construction security should be rebuilt with using some landscape plans so that the vision of dense concrete can be reduced. In this study, retaining walls are examined regarded landscape architecture. The continuous situation in Trabzon city is revealed with the help of an examination place, and also some suggestions for preventing the landscape problems which includes vegetal, structural and both vegetal-structural solutions are thrown out for consideration.

  5. Are interest groups different in the factors determining landscape preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.

  6. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  7. Scale-Free Relationships between Social and Landscape Factors in Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhu Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban planners and ecologists have long debated the relationship between the structure of urban landscapes and social activities. There have, however, been very few discussions as to whether any such relationships might depend on the scales of observation. This work applies a hierarchical zoning technique to data from the city of Quito, Ecuador, to examine how relationships between typical spatial landscape metrics and social indicators depend on zoning scales. Our results showed that the estimates of both landscape heterogeneity features and social indicators significantly depend on the zoning scale. The mean values of the typical landscape metrics and the social indicators all exhibited predictable responses to a changing zoning scale, suggesting a consistent and significant scaling relationship within the multiple zoning scales. Yet relationships between these pairs of variables remain notably invariant to scale. This quantitative demonstration of the scale-free nature of the relationship between landscape characteristics and social indicators furthers our understanding of the relationships between landscape structures and social aspects of urban spaces, including deprivation and public service accessibility. The relationships between social indicators and one typical landscape aggregation metric (represented as the percentage of like adjacencies were nevertheless significantly dependent on scale, suggesting the importance of zoning scale decisions for analyzing the relationships between the social indicators and the landscape characteristics related with landscape adjacency. Aside from this typical landscape aggregation metric, the general invariance to the zoning scale of relationships between landscape structures and socioeconomic indicators in Quito suggests the importance of applying these scale-free relationships in understanding complex socio-ecological systems in other cities, which are shaped by the conflated influences of both

  8. Examining alternative landscape metrics in ecological forest planning: a case for capercaillie in Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Palahi, M.; Pukkala, T.; Pascual, L.; Trasobares, A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the performance of four different landscape metrics in a landscape ecological forest planning situation in Catalonia: (1) proportion of suitable habitat (non-spatial) (%H); (2) spatial autocorrelation; (3) the proportion of habitat-habitat boundary of the total compartment boundary (H-H) and (4) the proportion of habitat-non-habitat boundary (H-nonH). They were analysed in a case study problem that aimed at the maintenance and improvement of capercaillie habitats in two si...

  9. Cellular Factors Shape 3D Genome Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, using novel large-scale imaging technology, have mapped the spatial location of individual genes in the nucleus of human cells and identified 50 cellular factors required for the proper 3D positioning of genes. These spatial locations play important roles in gene expression, DNA repair, genome stability, and other cellular activities.

  10. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Rohr, Jason R.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Koehler, Anson V.; Johnson, Catherine M.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Beasley, Val R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  11. Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors influencing behavioural intentions in retail purchase in Ghana. ... Journal of Business Research ... effects of age and gender differentials on values among retail consumers.

  12. Factors of Students Participating in Online Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugilar Sugilar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to discover determinant factors of students' participation in online examination based on expectancy-value theory. The method used was group comparison between the groups of participating and nonparticipating students. The results showed that the following factors differentiated the two groups, i.e.: (1 self efficacy in using computers (t=12.81, p<0.01, (2 perceived of easiness in operating an online examination (t=9.51, p<0.01, (3 perceived of the importance of online examination (t=5.58, t<0.01, (4 intrinsic value of online examination (t=10.58, p<001, and (5 cost of online examination (t=-2.05, p=0.029. In addition, the following students' personal factors were also compared and the results were (1 age (t=-2.01, p=0.46, (2 grade point average (t=-5.546, 0<0.01, (3 sex (x2=28.51, p<0.01, and (4 marital status (x2=6.50, p=0.011. The results concluded that the expectancy and value theory was useful for explaining and predicting students' participation in online examinations.

  13. Landscape and landscape ecology as factors in the process of integrated spatial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Congress on Landscape Ecology in Veldhoven in 1981 (Tjallingii and De Veer 1981).Natural landscapes and landscape aspects of nature conservation was certainly a theme on the conference, but the main focus was on man-made landscapes, including urban ecology and the relations between urban and rural...... were very eager to be engaged in practical landscape planning, their scientific responsibility forced them often to be more and more humble concerning the applicability, often confronted with the economic consequences of their advises. As a consequence especially many biologists moved again into pure...... told, that the local farm cooperative had got a loan from the Ministry of Agriculture to cover the expenditures. Due to the experimental character of the project the loan was very attractive: It was free of rent and payment. But one important condition was added: It had to be proved that the corridor...

  14. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  15. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  16. Factors Influencing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...

  17. The Examination of The Main Transportation Arteries of Konya In Terms of Landscape Architecture Design Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaç Güngör

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring comfort of use and security of pedestrians, which are the main users of urban green spaces, and the determination of their needs are important since local authorities are guiding for new pedestrian zone studies in the Konya city. Because of the problems caused by the upper structure, the necessary care is not given in terms of transportation comfort, pedestrian safety, vehicle security, plant design and ergonomic / antropemetric standards. The pedestrian way and refuge landscape designs have an important position and amount among open green areas on the scale of Konya. However, it was identified that the applications conducted were inadequate in terms of aesthetic and functional characteristics and were not suitable for the urban landscape design principles, in general, and the standards of urban afforestation of the streets. In this study, the current situation of 3 main streets of Konya used most intensely was examined in terms of landscape design criteria and some suggestions were made by attempting to identify the improvement works that should be performed by the public authorities.

  18. Identifying landscape factors affecting tiger decline in the Bangladesh Sundarbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Naser Mohsin Hossain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans Forest (∼10,000 km2 represents the only mangrove ecosystem inhabited by tigers Panthera tigris. However, in the Bangladesh portion of the Sundarbans (∼6,000 km2 tigers appear to have declined. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a range of environmental and landscape variables in possible changes in the relative abundance of tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans over a five-year period (2007–2011. In 2007, 2011 tiger relative abundance was assessed using sign surveys. Using regression models we investigated changes in relative abundance versus multiple landscape variables (human disturbance associated with villages and commercial shipping lanes, distance to the international border with India where there is enhanced patrolling, presence of forest guard stations, number of criminal prosecutions and forest protection status. Tiger relative abundance was higher in 2007 and declined by 2011 with changes best explained by the proximity to international boundaries. This result might have been affected by the high levels of security patrols at the India-Bangladesh border along with cross border tiger movement between India and Bangladesh. Neighboring tiger range countries could strengthen cross-border law enforcement, increasing protection of dispersing animals. Particularly alarming was the absence of a positive effect of protected areas relative to those outside the protected area system or forest guard stations, implying a lack of management effectiveness suggesting an urgent need for an improved strategy for managing tigers and their habitats. Keywords: Wildlife poaching, Population declines, Transboundary protection, Joint patrolling, Protected area effectiveness

  19. Examining different factors in effectiveness of advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four variables with encouraging people to purchase. Using creativity in advertisements, however dominate the effects on this issue. The marketing and advertisement environment are dynamic and the paper concentrates only on some of the more effective factors. Producers might be more successful in choosing the best way to promote their goods and services by following the proposed model. This paper puts four effective factors together and investigates their impact on advertisement, which was not done by any other previous papers. Unlike other studies, this paper examines the role of customer needs together with four other elements on advertisement effectiveness.

  20. In Preparation or Response: Examining Health Care Coalitions Amid a Changing Economic and Political Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornauer, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response within the US Department of Health and Human Services leads the nation in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the adverse health effects of public health emergencies, in part through formal collaborations between hospitals, health systems, community health centers, public health departments, and community organizations via health care coalitions (HCCs). HCCs endeavor to meet the medical surge demands inherent to disasters and to improve health outcomes before, during, and after public health emergencies. Nevertheless, significant changes in health economics and policy can impact the operations, capabilities, and scope of HCCs. Specifically, hospital consolidation and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are altering the national health care landscape, as well as the emergency preparedness sector, and are challenging HCCs to adapt to large-scale, industry-wide transformations. This article examines HCCs in the context of the developments of hospital consolidation and the ACA in order to facilitate future discourse regarding the strategy and policy of HCCs amid a changing economic and political landscape.

  1. Factors influencing non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2010-01-01

    Non-native species are presumed to be pervasive across the urban landscape. Yet, we actually know very little about their actual distribution. For this study, vegetation plot data from Syracuse, NY and Baltimore, MD were used to examine non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes. Data were collected from remnant and emergent forest patches on upland sites...

  2. Meteorological and urban landscape factors on severe air pollution in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Meshesha, Derege T; Li, Li; Zheng, Mingqing

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution gained special attention with the rapid development in Beijing. In January 2013, Beijing experienced extreme air pollution, which was not well examined. We thus examine the magnitude of air quality in the particular month by applying the air quality index (AQI), which is based on the newly upgraded Chinese environmental standard. Our finding revealed that (1) air quality has distinct spatial heterogeneity and relatively better air quality was observed in the northwest while worse quality happened in the southeast part of the city; (2) the wind speed is the main determinant of air quality in the city-when wind speed is greater than 4 m/sec, air quality can be significantly improved; and (3) urban impervious surface makes a contribution to the severity of air pollution-that is, with an increase in the fraction of impervious surface in a given area, air pollution is more severe. The results from our study demonstrated the severe pollution in Beijing and its meteorological and landscape factors. Also, the results of this work suggest that very strict air quality management should be conducted when wind speed less than 4 m/sec, especially at places with a large fraction of urban impervious surface. Prevention of air pollution is rare among methods with controls on meteorological and urban landscape conditions. We present research that utilizes the latest air quality index (AQI) to compare air pollution with meteorological and landscape conditions. We found that wind is the major meteorological factor that determines the air quality. For a given wind speed greater than 4 m/sec, the air quality improved significantly. Urban impervious surface also contributes to the severe air pollution: that is, when the fraction of impervious surface increases, there is more severe air pollution. These results suggest that air quality management should be conducted when wind speed is less than 4 m/sec, especially at places with a larger fraction of urban impervious surface.

  3. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hopfenmüller

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes. Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats. Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  4. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  5. Examining Factors Predicting Students’ Digital Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Edvard Hatlevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students’ digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what characterizes students’ digital competence. A sample of 852 ninth-grade Norwegian students from 38 schools participated in the study. The students answered a 26 item multiple-choice digital competence test and a self-report questionnaire about family background, motivation, and previous grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of the hypothesised relationship between family background, mastery orientation, previous achievements, and digital competence. The results indicate variation in digital competence among the ninth-graders. Further, analyses showed that students’ conditions at home, i.e., language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic achievements predict students digital competence. This study indicates that that there is evidence of digital diversity between lower secondary students. It does not seem like the development of digital competence among the students happens automatically. Students’ family background and school performance are the most important factors. Therefore, as this study shows, it is necessary to further investigate how schools can identify students’ level of competence and to develop plans and actions for how schools can help to try to equalize differences.

  6. Examining Cultural Drifts in Artworks through History and Development: Cultural Comparisons between Japanese and Western Landscape Paintings and Drawings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eNand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members’ landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008, and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014. However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1 17th to 20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2 cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial cultural drifts (Herskovits, 1948 where at certain time periods in history and in development, people’s expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed.

  7. Examining cultural drifts in artworks through history and development: cultural comparisons between Japanese and western landscape paintings and drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Kristina; Masuda, Takahiko; Senzaki, Sawa; Ishii, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members' landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008c), and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014b). However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1) 17–20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2) cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial “cultural drifts” (Herskovits, 1948) where at certain time periods in history and in development, people's expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed. PMID:25285085

  8. Functional responses of plant communities to management, landscape and historical factors in semi-natural grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandewalle, M.; Pursche, O.; de Bello, Francesco; Reitalu, T.; Prentice, H. C.; Lavorel, S.; Johansson, L. J.; Sykes, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2014), s. 750-759 ISSN 1100-9233 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity loss * grazing management * landscape history Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2014

  9. Sequence2Vec: A novel embedding approach for modeling transcription factor binding affinity landscape

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Hanjun; Umarov, Ramzan; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Li, Yu; Song, Le; Gao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: An accurate characterization of transcription factor (TF)-DNA affinity landscape is crucial to a quantitative understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning endogenous gene regulation. While recent advances in biotechnology have

  10. Land Tenure as a Factor Underlying Agricultural Landscape Changes in Europe: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krčílková Š.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land tenure is generally considered to be an important factor affecting farming, landscape, and rural development. This paper reviews selected case studies to identify how land tenure influences agricultural landscape changes in Europe. We identified how land tenure information was transformed into variables, grouping these variables into general thematic categories: (1 land rights variables based on references to the type of stakeholders and duration of land occupancy, (2 land structure variables describing general land structure, and (3 behavioural variables dependent on stakeholders’ attitudes, perceptions, and personal values. Each thematic category can be defined on three spatial levels: parcel or production block, stakeholder, and landscape. The results show that the tenure factor is not frequently included into landscape-change studies. When a land tenure factor was part of a given study, it either played a minor role among other drivers of landscape change or, if it influenced significant landscape changes, it had only locally specific effects. Moreover, there were studies with contradictory results and so it is difficult to generalize specific findings. Nevertheless, land tenure is frequently discussed within landscape-change research in relation to land abandonment as well as green services and their connection with the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy.

  11. Examining Vegetation of Built Landscapes and Their Relationship to Existing Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Livingston

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the various influences of urbanisation on plant communities is critical for planning a sustainable future for the planet. For example, landscape practices and sense of place driven by aesthetic influences often dominate in the design of built landscapes, resulting in strikingly different vegetation communities from that of the surrounding communities. Furthermore, these built landscapes in metropolitan areas often markedly influence an inhabitant's impressions of a region's biotic foundation and sense of place. Inhabitants may not consider or understand the ecological impacts of practices that are typically dominated by contemporary cultural aesthetics. Do these cultural aesthetic drivers result in relatively similar landscapes in terms of appearance, regardless of region? The purpose of this study was to document general trends in landscape structure and composition from two distinct, different regions. Specifically, we addressed the questions: how do these built landscapes deviate from their surrounding natural communities and are these built landscapes from the two regions similar in structure and composition? This paper characterised landscape vegetation patterns of typical residential areas in two cities with relatively diverse climatic regions, Tucson, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia. Comparisons were done on data for plant diversity, density, life form (tree, shrub, groundcover, and vines and species origin (native versus non-native from sites within typical residential subdivisions throughout the two cities. Results were compared with the composition of local typology in order to determine what differences and similarities existed in relation to native biotic communities. In both cities, residential landscapes converged on savannah-type landscapes, emphasising scattered overstory and minimal understory that were more compositionally diverse than the native biotic communities because of the introduction of non

  12. Landscape epidemiology: An emerging perspective in the mapping and modelling of disease and disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnadi Nnaemeka Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape epidemiology describes how the temporal dynamics of host, vector, and pathogen populations interact spatially within a permissive environment to enable transmission. It also aims at understanding the vegetation and geologic conditions that are necessary for the maintenance and transmission of a particular pathogen. The current review describes the evolution of landscape epidemiology. As a science, it also highlights the various methods of mapping and modeling diseases and disease risk factors. The key tool to characterize landscape is satellite remote sensing and these data are used as inputs to drive spatial models of transmission risk.

  13. Examining Success Factors for Sustainable Rural Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This collaborative project will examine the role the Integrated Co-operative ... are integrated, and if so, under what conditions this integration works best. ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  14. Factors Affecting Water Dynamics and Their Assessment in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakadevan, K.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The intensification and extension of agriculture have contributed significantly to the global food production in the last five decades. However, intensification without due attention to the ecosystem services and sustainability of soil and water resources contributed to land and water quality degradation such as soil erosion, decreased soil fertility and quality, salinization and nutrient discharge to surface and ground waters. Land use change from forests to crop lands altered the vegetation pattern and hydrology of landscapes with increased nutrient discharge from crop lands to riverine environment. Global climate change will increase the amount of water required for agriculture in addition to water needed for further irrigation development causing water scarcity in many dry, arid and semi-arid regions. The water and nutrient use efficiencies of agricultural production systems are still below 40% in many regions across the globe. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer use in agriculture have accelerated the cycling of these nutrients in the landscape and contributed to water quality degradation. Such nutrient pollution has a wide array of consequences including eutrophication of inland waters and marine ecosystems. While intensifying drought conditions, increasing water consumption and environmental pollution in many parts of the world threatens agricultural productivity and livelihood, these also provided opportunities for farmers to use improved land and water management technologies and practices to make agriculture resilient to external shocks

  15. Examining Success Factors for Sustainable Rural Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This collaborative project will examine the role the Integrated Co-operative Model can play in reducing poverty and promoting development in rural African communities. Specifically, it aims to add to the knowledge of how to improve livelihoods and reduce poverty in a sustainable way in rural communities. It will strive to: ...

  16. Predisposing factors towards examination malpractice among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    writing relevant information on parts of the body and pieces of paper etc. (Anan, 2005). ... selected as sample as the first year students were new in the faculty and the fourth ..... use of university facilities such as library, counselling centre, recreational ... All activities relating to examinations such as question paper production ...

  17. Postnatal depression - an examination of psychosocial factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children's perception of safety and danger on the road. ... mild depressive state usually associated with the onset and establishment of ... illness if there is a previous history of psychiatric disorder in the family ... The role of situational stress and social support factors in the aetiology of ..... Isolation and support (%). PND.

  18. Examining the Role of Cultural Landscape in Regional Development: Defining Criteria and Looking at Ephesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Şimşek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The link between regional development and cultural heritage has been at the center of theoretical discussions and practices in the field of preservation. Especially, varieties of practices and regional plans have been developed in different parts of the World such as Europe, Russia and South Africa in order to ensure regional development through cultural heritage. In this paper, it is accepted that a cultural landscape, as a sub-region of a particular region, is a relevant and meaningful unit that can contribute to the qualities of the region in terms of socio-cultural and economic aspects. In this context, the main goal of this paper is to develop a set of criteria that will act as a tool for identifying to which aspects of a cultural landscape has the potential to contribute regional development and to evaluate possible contributions of Ephesus and its cultural landscape to regional development. These criteria can be classified according to a framework implying a three-fold classification; improvements in the physical quality of the cultural landscape, economic dimension and socio-cultural dimension. As a result, this case indicates that cultural landscape has great potential to contribute to the social and economic development of a region. There is a great need to support community through tools such as awareness raising programmes, regional heritage planning, regional heritage institutions acting as regional agencies.

  19. Landscape factors and hydrology influence mercury concentrations in wading birds breeding in the Florida Everglades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M

    2013-08-01

    The hydrology of wetland ecosystems is a key driver of both mercury (Hg) methylation and waterbird foraging ecology, and hence may play a fundamental role in waterbird exposure and risk to Hg contamination. However, few studies have investigated hydrological factors that influence waterbird Hg exposure. We examined how several landscape-level hydrological variables influenced Hg concentrations in great egret and white ibis adults and chicks in the Florida Everglades. The great egret is a visual "exploiter" species that tolerates lower prey densities and is less sensitive to hydrological conditions than is the white ibis, which is a tactile "searcher" species that pursues higher prey densities in shallow water. Mercury concentrations in adult great egrets were most influenced by the spatial region that they occupied in the Everglades (higher in the southern region); whereas the number of days a site was dry during the previous dry season was the most important factor influencing Hg concentrations in adult ibis (Hg concentrations increased with the number of days dry). In contrast, Hg concentrations in egret chicks were most influenced by calendar date (increasing with date), whereas Hg concentrations in ibis chicks were most influenced by chick age, region, and water recession rate (Hg concentrations decreased with age, were higher in the southern regions, and increased with positive water recession rates). Our results indicate that both recent (preceding two weeks) hydrological conditions, and those of the prior year, influence Hg concentrations in wading birds. Further, these results suggest that Hg exposure in wading birds is driven by complex relationships between wading bird behavior and life stage, landscape hydrologic patterns, and biogeochemical processes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Local and landscape factors determining occurrence of phyllostomid bats in tropical secondary forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla

    Full Text Available Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late. We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches. Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in

  1. Local and landscape factors determining occurrence of phyllostomid bats in tropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Quesada, Mauricio; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late). We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity) and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches). Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in anthropogenic

  2. Examining fire-prone forest landscapes as coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Spies; Eric M. White; Jeffrey D. Kline; A. Paige Fisher; Alan Ager; John Bailey; John Bolte; Jennifer Koch; Emily Platt; Christine S. Olsen; Derric Jacobs; Bruce Shindler; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Roger. Hammer

    2014-01-01

    Fire-prone landscapes are not well studied as coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and present many challenges for understanding and promoting adaptive behaviors and institutions. Here, we explore how heterogeneity, feedbacks, and external drivers in this type of natural hazard system can lead to complexity and can limit the development of more adaptive approaches...

  3. Preclinical QSP Modeling in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An IQ Consortium Survey Examining the Current Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Bansal, Loveleena; Bradshaw‐Pierce, Erica; Chan, Jason R.; Liederer, Bianca M.; Mettetal, Jerome T.; Schroeder, Patricia; Schuck, Edgar; Tsai, Alice; Xu, Christine; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Le, Kha; Penney, Mark; Topp, Brian; Yamada, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    A cross‐industry survey was conducted to assess the landscape of preclinical quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling within pharmaceutical companies. This article presents the survey results, which provide insights on the current state of preclinical QSP modeling in addition to future opportunities. Our results call attention to the need for an aligned definition and consistent terminology around QSP, yet highlight the broad applicability and benefits preclinical QSP modeling is currently delivering. PMID:29349875

  4. U.S. Counterterrorism Landscape: An Examination of Policy and Strategy Using a Conceptual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    areas of strategy, policy, and parochialism apply to the strategic security environment. The analysis concludes that the counterterrorism landscape and...and the decision to invade Iraq in 2003. In particular, several lessons in the areas of strategy, policy, and parochialism apply to the strategic...capacities, to the parochialisms inherent in their cultures.3 1 Graham Allison and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis

  5. Understanding the Factors that Influence Perceptions of Post-Wildfire Landscape Recovery Across 25 Wildfires in the Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, C.; Hall, T. E.; Paveglio, T.; Pickering, M.

    2018-01-01

    Disturbances such as wildfire are important features of forested landscapes. The trajectory of changes following wildfires (often referred to as landscape recovery) continues to be an important research topic among ecologists and wildfire scientists. However, the landscape recovery process also has important social dimensions that may or may not correspond to ecological or biophysical perspectives. Perceptions of landscape recovery may affect people's attitudes and behaviors related to forest and wildfire management. We explored the variables that influence people's perceptions of landscape recovery across 25 fires that occurred in 2011 or 2012 in the United States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana and that represented a range of fire behavior characteristics and landscape impacts. Residents near each of the 25 fires were randomly selected to receive questionnaires about their experiences with the nearby fire, including perceived impacts and how the landscape had recovered since the fire. People generally perceived landscapes as recovering, even though only one to two years had passed. Regression analysis suggested that perceptions of landscape recovery were positively related to stronger beliefs about the ecological role of fire and negatively related to loss of landscape attachment, concern about erosion, increasing distance from the fire perimeter, and longer lasting fires. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis indicated that the above relationships were largely consistent across fires. These findings highlight that perceptions of post-fire landscape recovery are influenced by more than vegetation changes and include emotional and cognitive factors. We discuss the management implications of these findings.

  6. Using an agent-based model to examine forest management outcomes in a fire-prone landscape in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Spies

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire-prone landscapes present many challenges for both managers and policy makers in developing adaptive behaviors and institutions. We used a coupled human and natural systems framework and an agent-based landscape model to examine how alternative management scenarios affect fire and ecosystem services metrics in a fire-prone multiownership landscape in the eastern Cascades of Oregon. Our model incorporated existing models of vegetation succession and fire spread and information from original empirical studies of landowner decision making. Our findings indicate that alternative management strategies can have variable effects on landscape outcomes over 50 years for fire, socioeconomic, and ecosystem services metrics. For example, scenarios with federal restoration treatments had slightly less high-severity fire than a scenario without treatment; exposure of homes in the wildland-urban interface to fire was also slightly less with restoration treatments compared to no management. Treatments appeared to be more effective at reducing high-severity fire in years with more fire than in years with less fire. Under the current management scenario, timber production could be maintained for at least 50 years on federal lands. Under an accelerated restoration scenario, timber production fell because of a shortage of areas meeting current stand structure treatment targets. Trade-offs between restoration outcomes (e.g., open forests with large fire-resistant trees and habitat for species that require dense older forests were evident. For example, the proportional area of nesting habitat for northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis was somewhat less after 50 years under the restoration scenarios than under no management. However, the amount of resilient older forest structure and habitat for white-headed woodpecker (Leuconotopicus albolarvatus was higher after 50 years under active management. More carbon was stored on this landscape without management than

  7. Development of Landscape Dose Factors for dose assessments in SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden); Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-08-15

    In previous safety assessments Ecosystem Dose Factors (EDFs), were derived from estimates of doses to the most exposed group resulting from constant unit radionuclide release rates over 10,000 years to various ecosystem types, e.g. mires, agricultural lands, lakes and marine ecosystems. A number of limitations of the EDF approach have been identified. The objectives of this report is to further develop the EDF approach, in order to resolve the identified limitations, and to use the improved approach for deriving Dose Conversion Factors for use in the SR-Can risk assessments. The Dose Conversion Factors derived in this report are named Landscape Dose Factors (LDFs). It involves modelling the fate of the radionuclides in the whole landscape, which develops from a sea to a inland situation during 20,000 years. Both candidate sites studies in SR-Can, Forsmark and Laxemar, are included in the study. As a basis for the modelling, the period starting at the beginning of the last interglacial (8,000 BC) is used, over which releases from a hypothetical repository were assumed to take place. For the present temperate period, the overall development of the biosphere at each site is outlined in a 1,000 year perspective and beyond, essentially based on the ongoing shoreline displacement and the understanding on the impact this has on the biosphere. The past development, i.e. from deglaciation to the present time, is inferred from geological records and associated reconstructions of the shore-line. For each time step of 1,000 years, the landscape at the site is described as a number of interconnected biosphere objects constituting an integrated landscape model of each site. The water fluxes through the objects were estimated from the average run-off at the site, the areas of the objects and their associated catchment areas. Radionuclides in both dissolved and particulate forms were considered in the transport calculations. The transformation between ecosystems was modelled as

  8. Biomechanical factors contributing to self-organization in seagrass landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.S.; Koehl, M.A.R.; Kopp, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Field observations have revealed that when water flow is consistently from one direction, seagrass shoots align in rows perpendicular to the primary axis of flow direction. In this study, live Zostera marina shoots were arranged either randomly or in rows perpendicular to the flow direction and tested in a seawater flume under unidirectional flow and waves to determine if shoot arrangement: a) influenced flow-induced force on individual shoots, b) differentially altered water flow through the canopy, and c) influenced light interception by the canopy. In addition, blade breaking strength was compared with flow-induced force to determine if changes in shoot arrangement might reduce the potential for damage to shoots. Under unidirectional flow, both current velocity in the canopy and force on shoots were significantly decreased when shoots were arranged in rows as compared to randomly. However, force on shoots was nearly constant with downstream distance, arising from the trade-off of shoot bending and in-canopy flow reduction. The coefficient of drag was higher for randomly-arranged shoots at low velocities (rows tended to intercept slightly more light than those arranged randomly. Effects of shoot arrangement under waves were less clear, potentially because we did not achieve the proper plant size?row spacing ratio. At this point, we may only suggest that water motion, as opposed to light capture, is the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these shoot arrangements. Following a computation of the Environmental Stress Factor, we concluded that even photosynthetically active blades may be damaged or broken under frequently encountered storm conditions, irrespective of shoot arrangement. We hypothesize that when flow is generally from one direction, seagrass bed patterns over multiple scales of consideration may arise as a cumulative effect of individual shoot self-organization driven by reduced force and drag on the shoots and somewhat improved light capture.

  9. Integrating Geomorphic and Social Dynamics in the Analysis of Anthropogenic Landforms: Examining Landscape Evolution of Terrain Modified by Agricultural Terracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubius, J.; Maerker, M.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic landforms, such as mines and agricultural terraces, are impacted by both geomorphic and social processes at varying intensities through time. In the case of agricultural terraces, decisions regarding terrace maintenance are intertwined with land use, such as when terraced fields are abandoned. Furthermore, terrace maintenance and land use decisions, either jointly or separately, may be in response to geomorphic processes, as well as geomorphic feedbacks. Previous studies of these complex geomorphic systems considered agricultural terraces as static features or analyzed only the geomorphic response to landowner decisions. Such research is appropriate for short-term or binary landscape scenarios (e.g. the impact of maintained vs. abandoned terraces), but the complexities inherent in these socio-natural systems requires an approach that includes both social and geomorphic processes. This project analyzes feedbacks and emergent properties in terraced systems by implementing a coupled landscape evolution model (LEM) and agent-based model (ABM) using the Landlab and Mesa modeling libraries. In the ABM portion of the model, agricultural terraces are conceptualized using a life-cycle stages schema and implemented using Markov Decision Processes to simulate the changing geomorphic impact of terracing based on human decisions. This paper examines the applicability of this approach by comparing results from a LEM-only model against the coupled LEM-ABM model for a terraced region. Model results are compared by quantify and spatial patterning of sediment transport. This approach fully captures long-term landscape evolution of terraced terrain that is otherwise lost when the life-cycle of terraces is not considered. The coupled LEM-ABM approach balances both environmental and social processes so that the socio-natural feedbacks in such anthropogenic systems can be disentangled.

  10. Sequence2Vec: A novel embedding approach for modeling transcription factor binding affinity landscape

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Hanjun

    2017-07-26

    Motivation: An accurate characterization of transcription factor (TF)-DNA affinity landscape is crucial to a quantitative understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning endogenous gene regulation. While recent advances in biotechnology have brought the opportunity for building binding affinity prediction methods, the accurate characterization of TF-DNA binding affinity landscape still remains a challenging problem. Results: Here we propose a novel sequence embedding approach for modeling the transcription factor binding affinity landscape. Our method represents DNA binding sequences as a hidden Markov model (HMM) which captures both position specific information and long-range dependency in the sequence. A cornerstone of our method is a novel message passing-like embedding algorithm, called Sequence2Vec, which maps these HMMs into a common nonlinear feature space and uses these embedded features to build a predictive model. Our method is a novel combination of the strength of probabilistic graphical models, feature space embedding and deep learning. We conducted comprehensive experiments on over 90 large-scale TF-DNA data sets which were measured by different high-throughput experimental technologies. Sequence2Vec outperforms alternative machine learning methods as well as the state-of-the-art binding affinity prediction methods.

  11. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  12. Examining Social Adaptations in a Volatile Landscape in Northern Mongolia via the Agent-Based Model Ger Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Clark

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment of the mountain-steppe-taiga of northern Mongolia is often characterized as marginal because of the high altitude, highly variable precipitation levels, low winter temperatures, and periodic droughts coupled with severe winter storms (known as dzuds. Despite these conditions, herders have inhabited this landscape for thousands of years, and hunter-gatherer-fishers before that. One way in which the risks associated with such a challenging and variable landscape are mitigated is through social networks and inter-family cooperation. We present an agent-based simulation, Ger Grouper, to examine how households have mitigated these risks through cooperation. The Ger Grouper simulation takes into account locational decisions of households, looks at fission/fusion dynamics of households and how those relate to environmental pressures, and assesses how degrees of relatedness can influence sharing of resources during harsh winters. This model, coupled with the traditional archaeological and ethnographic methods, helps shed light on the links between early Mongolian pastoralist adaptations and the environment. While preliminary results are promising, it is hoped that further development of this model will be able to characterize changing land-use patterns as social and political networks developed.

  13. Examining the role of management practices and landscape context on methane dynamics from subtropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Nicholas; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Boughton, Elizabeth; Yang, Wendy; Bernacchi, Carl

    2017-04-01

    Globally, wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric CH4, an important GHG with a warming potential 25 times stronger than CO2 (IPCC 2008; Forster et al. 2013). In sub-tropical climates where precipitation and temperatures are high, land-use change and agricultural management practices often intersect with extensive wetland systems. The Everglades watershed in South Central Florida represents a large areal extent characterized by a high density of wetlands nested within agricultural fields dominated to a large extent by grazed rangelands. Soils are primarily Spodosols and Histosols and sustain a relatively high water table, even during the dry season. Here, rangelands dominated by native vegetation have been converted to agronomically 'improved pastures' suitable for large scale cattle ranching through high intensive agronomic practices including vegetation homogenization, fertilization and drainage. In this study we first tested the hypothesis that CH4 fluxes from small ephemeral wetlands are indirectly influenced by management practices associated with the agricultural fields in which they are nested. We found that wetlands embedded in agronomically 'Improved' pastures exhibit significantly higher CH4 fluxes compared to wetlands embedded in 'Native' pastures. Next, we sought to determine the mechanisms by which the surrounding landscapes affect methane production processes to better predict how expanding or intensifying agriculture will affect wetland methane fluxes. We focus on substrate supply in the form of substrate quality and quantity available to methanogens as it is a principle control over CH4 production and susceptible to ecosystem perturbations. This research was conducted at the McArthur Agro-Ecology Research Center on Buck Island Ranch, Lake Placid, Florida. Wetland CH4 fluxes were measured using static canopy chambers coupled with infrared gas analysis of CH4, CO2 and water vapor. Additionally, soil manipulation incubations were prepared

  14. Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

  15. Landscape dose conversion factors used in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Aastrand, Per-Gustav

    2010-12-01

    In this report two types of Dose Conversion Factors have been derived: i) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor (LDF) that is applicable to continuous long-term releases to the biosphere at a constant rate, and ii) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor for pulse releases (LDF pulse) that is applicable to a radionuclide release that reaches the biosphere in a pulse within years to hundreds of years. In SR-Site these Dose Factors are multiplied with modelled release rates or pulse releases from the geosphere to obtain dose estimates used in assessment of compliance with the regulatory risk criterion. The LDFs were calculated for three different periods of the reference glacial cycle; a period of submerged conditions following the deglaciation, the temperate period, and a prolonged period of periglacial conditions. Additionally, LDFs were calculated for the global warming climate case. The LDF pulse was calculated only for temperate climate conditions. The LDF and LDF pulse can be considered as Best Estimate values, which can be used in calculations of Best Estimate values of doses to a representative individual of the most exposed group from potential releases from a future repository. A systematic analysis of the effects of system, model and parameter uncertainties on the LDFs has been carried out. This analysis has shown that the use of the derived LDF would lead to cautious or realistic dose estimates. The models and methods that were used for derivation of the LDFs and LDF pulse are also described in this report

  16. Landscape dose conversion factors used in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Aastrand, Per-Gustav (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In this report two types of Dose Conversion Factors have been derived: i) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor (LDF) that is applicable to continuous long-term releases to the biosphere at a constant rate, and ii) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor for pulse releases (LDF pulse) that is applicable to a radionuclide release that reaches the biosphere in a pulse within years to hundreds of years. In SR-Site these Dose Factors are multiplied with modelled release rates or pulse releases from the geosphere to obtain dose estimates used in assessment of compliance with the regulatory risk criterion. The LDFs were calculated for three different periods of the reference glacial cycle; a period of submerged conditions following the deglaciation, the temperate period, and a prolonged period of periglacial conditions. Additionally, LDFs were calculated for the global warming climate case. The LDF pulse was calculated only for temperate climate conditions. The LDF and LDF pulse can be considered as Best Estimate values, which can be used in calculations of Best Estimate values of doses to a representative individual of the most exposed group from potential releases from a future repository. A systematic analysis of the effects of system, model and parameter uncertainties on the LDFs has been carried out. This analysis has shown that the use of the derived LDF would lead to cautious or realistic dose estimates. The models and methods that were used for derivation of the LDFs and LDF pulse are also described in this report

  17. Xenosurveillance: a novel mosquito-based approach for examining the human-pathogen landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Grubaugh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, regions at the highest risk for emerging infectious diseases are often the ones with the fewest resources. As a result, implementing sustainable infectious disease surveillance systems in these regions is challenging. The cost of these programs and difficulties associated with collecting, storing and transporting relevant samples have hindered them in the regions where they are most needed. Therefore, we tested the sensitivity and feasibility of a novel surveillance technique called xenosurveillance. This approach utilizes the host feeding preferences and behaviors of Anopheles gambiae, which are highly anthropophilic and rest indoors after feeding, to sample viruses in human beings. We hypothesized that mosquito bloodmeals could be used to detect vertebrate viral pathogens within realistic field collection timeframes and clinically relevant concentrations.To validate this approach, we examined variables influencing virus detection such as the duration between mosquito blood feeding and mosquito processing, the pathogen nucleic acid stability in the mosquito gut and the pathogen load present in the host's blood at the time of bloodmeal ingestion using our laboratory model. Our findings revealed that viral nucleic acids, at clinically relevant concentrations, could be detected from engorged mosquitoes for up to 24 hours post feeding by qRT-PCR. Subsequently, we tested this approach in the field by examining blood from engorged mosquitoes from two field sites in Liberia. Using next-generation sequencing and PCR we were able to detect the genetic signatures of multiple viral pathogens including Epstein-Barr virus and canine distemper virus.Together, these data demonstrate the feasibility of xenosurveillance and in doing so validated a simple and non-invasive surveillance tool that could be used to complement current biosurveillance efforts.

  18. Experiences and Factors that Influence Potassium Hydroxide Examination by Microscopists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Srisuma, Sorachai; Leeyaphan, Charussri

    2016-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide(KOH)examination is commonly used in dermatological practice. Despite its simplicity, rapidity, and minimal invasiveness, experience in specimen collection, preparation, and interpretation is extremely important. To determine the ability to interpret KOH examination of six microscopists with different levels of experience within the Department of Dermatology. Six volunteer microscopists, who have different experiences in KOH examination in terms of specimens per week(SPW), were assigned to prepare and examine 10 unknown slides of skin scrapings. All participants were then paired into three groups and exchanged the slides set to their partner in each group for a second round of slides interpretation. Results of examinations were classified as correct, false negative, false positive, and misinterpretation. The highly experienced microscopists achieved more correct answers than the fairly experienced group in both sessions. There was a significant positive correlation between SPW(r=1.0, Spearman rank, p=0.01)and the correct answers; and a significant negative correlation between SPW and misinterpretation(r= -1.0, Spearman rank, p<0.01), exclusively for the second session. A small number of volunteer microscopists was enrolled in this study. Experience in routine slide examination and time spent during examination were significant factors for accurate interpretation of KOH examination. Positive correlation between experience and correct answers, and negative correlation between experience and misinterpretation were particularly observed under limited examination time.

  19. Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining the factors affecting willingness to use electronic banking: the ... which information technologies are accepted are of the research studies. ... Customers' understanding of the ease of use of e-banking systems has a significant impact on perceived usefulness and their attitude had. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Examining Suicide Protective Factors among Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Chuan; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Tran, Kimberly K.; Bonaparte, Taria S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the nascent literature on resilience and suicidality among Black Americans by examining factors that may predict less suicidal behavior among this population. The authors hypothesized that reasons for living, life satisfaction, and religious awareness would account for unique variance in suicidal…

  1. Risk Factors, Pathobiomechanics and Physical Examination of Rotator Cuff Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Samuel G.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important to appreciate the risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears and specific physical examination maneuvers. Methods: A selective literature search was performed. Results: Numerous well-designed studies have demonstrated that common risk factors include age, occupation, and anatomic considerations such as the critical shoulder angle. Recently, research has also reported a genetic component as well. The rotator cuff axially compresses the humeral head in the glenohumeral joint and provides rotational motion and abduction. Forces are grouped into coronal and axial force couples. Rotator cuff tears are thought to occur when the force couples become imbalanced. Conclusion: Physical examination is essential to determining whether a patient has an anterosuperior or posterosuperior tear. Diagnostic accuracy increases when combining a series of examination maneuvers. PMID:27708731

  2. Passing the NBCOT Examination: Preadmission, Academic, and Fieldwork Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon D. Novalis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available All occupational therapy students are required to successfully complete the certification examination administered by the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy (NBCOT before they can practice independently. The need to repeat the examination can result in stress, anxiety, and financial hardship. This paper explores the relationship of preadmission factors, academic and fieldwork performance, and demographic variables to successful first-time attempts on the certification examination for occupational therapists. Data were gathered from 144 student files in a Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT Program at a single university. Of the sample, 82% passed and 18% failed their first NBCOT test trial. Considered independently, preadmission recommendation letters and writing sample scores, graduate MOT program GPA, lack of MOT program difficulty, fieldwork self-reports, and gender predicted NBCOT certification examination outcomes. When considered together in logistic regression models predicting outcome, this combination of factors correctly predicted 86.2% of student outcomes (or 20% to 32% of the variance in certification examination success, with OT program GPA and preadmission recommendation scores predicting unique outcome variance. This information may be helpful to admissions committees as well as to occupational therapy faculty as they identify strategies and practices to facilitate first-time test taking success on the NBCOT certification examination

  3. Evaluating land use changes by landscape historical examinations at the great pasture of Hajdúbagos (Eastern Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna ANTAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available At an Eastern Hungarian protected grassland, namely at the Lesser Mole Rat (Spalax leucodon Nordmann, 1840. Reservation of Hajdúbagos Nature Conservation Area, grazing animal husbandry formed the façade of the land for hundreds of years. Though, due to the unfavourable changes of the last few decades in this sector of agriculture, the primeval sand steppe meadow (Pulsatillo hungaricae-Festucetum rupicolae (Soó 1938 Borhidi 1996 plant association is endangered by the increasingly accelerating succession. To stop or at least to slow down this process the rehabilitation of the area could be necessary. The target of the restoration ecology actions is to restore the previously existing, more favourable natural status of a particular area. However, the lack of knowledge according to the conditions that refer to the original circumstances often complicates this activity. To define these reference conditions the exploration of the history of a certain landscape is very important as restoration is only successful if the restored ecosystem is similar to the original. We examined the land use changes of the research area during the last 250 years according to historical and present geographical databases using GIS technology and completed this work with the study of archival data. By our results we stated that these examinations are crucial in the proper - agriculture related - management of protected areas.

  4. Temporal Dynamics of the Driving Factors of Urban Landscape Change of Addis Ababa During the Past Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Meskerem; Worku, Hailu; Bantider, Amare

    2018-01-01

    Mapping and quantifying urban landscape dynamics and the underlying driving factors are crucial for devising appropriate policies, especially in cities of developing countries where the change is rapid. This study analyzed three decades (1984-2014) of land use land cover change of Addis Ababa using Landsat imagery and examined the underlying factors and their temporal dynamics through expert interview using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Classification results revealed that urban area increased by 50%, while agricultural land and forest decreased by 34 and 16%, respectively. The driving factors operated differently during the pre and post-1991 period. The year 1991 was chosen because it marked government change in the country resulting in policy change. Policy had the highest influence during the pre-1991 period. Land use change in this period was associated with the housing sector as policies and institutional setups were permissive to this sector. Population growth and in-migration were also important factors. Economic factors played significant role in the post-1991 period. The fact that urban land has a market value, the growth of private investment, and the speculated property market were among the economic factors. Policy reforms since 2003 were also influential to the change. Others such as accessibility, demography, and neighborhood factors were a response to economic factors. All the above-mentioned factors had vital role in shaping the urban pattern of the city. These findings can help planners and policymakers to better understand the dynamic relationship of urban land use and the driving factors to better manage the city.

  5. Temporal Dynamics of the Driving Factors of Urban Landscape Change of Addis Ababa During the Past Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Meskerem; Worku, Hailu; Bantider, Amare

    2018-01-01

    Mapping and quantifying urban landscape dynamics and the underlying driving factors are crucial for devising appropriate policies, especially in cities of developing countries where the change is rapid. This study analyzed three decades (1984-2014) of land use land cover change of Addis Ababa using Landsat imagery and examined the underlying factors and their temporal dynamics through expert interview using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Classification results revealed that urban area increased by 50%, while agricultural land and forest decreased by 34 and 16%, respectively. The driving factors operated differently during the pre and post-1991 period. The year 1991 was chosen because it marked government change in the country resulting in policy change. Policy had the highest influence during the pre-1991 period. Land use change in this period was associated with the housing sector as policies and institutional setups were permissive to this sector. Population growth and in-migration were also important factors. Economic factors played significant role in the post-1991 period. The fact that urban land has a market value, the growth of private investment, and the speculated property market were among the economic factors. Policy reforms since 2003 were also influential to the change. Others such as accessibility, demography, and neighborhood factors were a response to economic factors. All the above-mentioned factors had vital role in shaping the urban pattern of the city. These findings can help planners and policymakers to better understand the dynamic relationship of urban land use and the driving factors to better manage the city.

  6. Integrating natural disturbances and management activities to examine risks and opportunities in the central Oregon landscape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles A. Hemstrom; James Merzenich; Theresa Burcsu; Janet Ohmann; Ryan Singleton

    2010-01-01

    We used state and transition models to integrate natural disturbances and management activities for a 275 000-ha landscape in the central Oregon Cascades. The landscape consists of a diverse mix of land ownerships, land use allocations, and environments. Three different management scenarios were developed from public input: (1) no management except wildfire suppression...

  7. External factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Queirós, Antonio; Jorge, Jorge; Fernandes, Paulo; Cerviño, Alejandro; de Almeida, José Borges

    2007-03-01

    To analyze the factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination with the Medmont E-300 videokeratoscope and to provide strategies to minimize their effects. Sixty eyes from thirty young adults were examined. A second observer registered incidences with the potential to affect data acquisition. Those factors were correlated with the difficulty of measurements as judged subjectively by the practitioner who performed the examination. Measurements of axial curvature were analyzed to evaluate the variability expressed as intrasession and intersession coefficient of variation and the standard error of the mean (SEM). The level of difficulty rated by the practitioner was in general low, with 70% of the eyes being easy or very easy to measure. For the remaining 30% of the eyes, corneal topography measurements were considered to be difficult (27%) or very difficult (3%). Of the external parameters investigated, only fixation instability (PSEM improved when three readings from each session were considered. The level of subjective difficulty found during videokeratoscopy examination is correlated strongly with fixation instability and the need for head reorientation in the chin rest, whereas tear-related events seem to be less relevant in the practitioner perception of test ease or difficulty. Those factors have relevance in measurement variability.

  8. Examination stress at unified state examination: student destabilization or success factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Kostromina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to clear up the influence of examination stress on the results of completing examination papers by students in the situation of trial General and Unified State Examinations, imitating the real-life environment of unified state certification of schoolchildren. The tasks of the research included determining the dynamics of psychophysiological stress indices at different examination stages, and evaluating additional factors (the subject in which the examination is held, the strategy of solving the variant, success of solving the task etc., influencing the quantity and quality of stress reactions at the examination.The novelty of the research is in the attempt to overcome the problem of confusing the notions of examination stress and examination anxiety, caused by metering the students’ state either before or after the examination. The technology of online monitoring the students’ psychophysiological state is used in the work, which makes it possible to eliminate a number of restrictions occurring during subjective evaluation of the state by the students themselves. Telemetric cardiorhythmography was chosen as the basic method. The method is based on a three-component model of extreme states with consequent domination of one of the three stress-reactive systems. A cardiointervalogramm was being registered in the research process in the online mode and underwent spectral analysis. The following indices of heart rate variability were recorded in order to determine stress reactions: the total power of the spectrum (TP, the spectrum power in low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF regions, and a vegetative balance index (relation of the spectrum powers in low-frequency and high-frequency regions (LF/HF. When the total power of the heart rate fell and, at the same time, the vegetative balance index rose, a conclusion was made of there being a stress reaction. Twenty-five students of an illustrious school were examined

  9. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  10. Identifying Watershed, Landscape, and Engineering Design Factors that Influence the Biotic Condition of Restored Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Doll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Restored stream reaches at 79 sites across North Carolina were sampled for aquatic macroinvertebrates using a rapid bioassessment protocol. Morphological design parameters and geographic factors, including watershed and landscape parameters (e.g., valley slope, substrate, were also compiled for these streams. Principal component regression analyses revealed correlations between design and landscape variables with macroinvertebrate metrics. The correlations were strengthened by adding watershed variables. Ridge regression was used to find the best-fit model for predicting dominant taxa from the “pollution sensitive” orders of Ephemeroptera (mayflies, Plecoptera (stoneflies, and Trichoptera (caddisflies, or EPT taxa, resulting in coefficient weights that were most interpretable relative to site selection and design parameters. Results indicate that larger (wider streams located in the mountains and foothills where there are steeper valleys, larger substrate, and undeveloped watersheds are expected to have higher numbers of dominant EPT taxa. In addition, EPT taxa numbers are positively correlated with accessible floodplain width and negatively correlated with width-to-depth ratio and sinuosity. This study indicates that both site selection and design should be carefully considered in order to maximize the resulting biotic condition and associated potential ecological uplift of the stream.

  11. A transcription factor collective defines the HSN serotonergic neuron regulatory landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret-Fernández, Carla; Maicas, Miren; Mora-Martínez, Carlos; Artacho, Alejandro; Jimeno-Martín, Ángela; Chirivella, Laura; Weinberg, Peter; Flames, Nuria

    2018-03-22

    Cell differentiation is controlled by individual transcription factors (TFs) that together activate a selection of enhancers in specific cell types. How these combinations of TFs identify and activate their target sequences remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the cis -regulatory transcriptional code that controls the differentiation of serotonergic HSN neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans . Activation of the HSN transcriptome is directly orchestrated by a collective of six TFs. Binding site clusters for this TF collective form a regulatory signature that is sufficient for de novo identification of HSN neuron functional enhancers. Among C. elegans neurons, the HSN transcriptome most closely resembles that of mouse serotonergic neurons. Mouse orthologs of the HSN TF collective also regulate serotonergic differentiation and can functionally substitute for their worm counterparts which suggests deep homology. Our results identify rules governing the regulatory landscape of a critically important neuronal type in two species separated by over 700 million years. © 2018, Lloret-Fernández et al.

  12. Fatigue strength reduction factors for welds based on nondestructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechmer, J.L.; Kuhn, E.J. III

    1999-01-01

    Based on the author's hypothesis that nondestructive examination (NDE) has a major role in predicting the fatigue life of pressure vessels, a project was initiated to develop a defined relationship between NDE and fatigue strength reduction factors (FSRF). Even though a relationship should apply to both base metal and weld metal, the project was limited to weld metal because NDE for base metal is reasonably well established, whereas NDE for weld metal is more variable, depending on application. A matrix of FSRF was developed based on weld type (full penetration, partial penetration, and fillet weld) versus the NDE that is applied. The NDE methods that are included are radiographic testing (RT), ultrasonic testing (UT), magnetic particle testing (MT), dye penetrant testing (PT), and visual testing (VT). The first two methods (RT and UT) are volumetric examinations, and the remaining three are surface examinations. Seven combinations of volumetric and surface examinations were defined; thus, seven levels of FSRF are defined. Following the initial development of the project, a PVRC (Pressure Vessel Research Council) grant was obtained for the purpose of having a broad review. The report (Hechmer, 1998) has been accepted by PVRC. This paper presents the final matrix, the basis for the FSRF, and key definitions for accurate application of the FSRF matrix. A substantial amount of additional information is presented in the PVRC report (Hechmer, 1998)

  13. Engagement of National Board of Examinations in strengthening public health education in India: present landscape, opportunities and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Batra, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.

  14. A landscape-scale approach to examining the fate of atmospherically derived industrial metals in the surficial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromsoe, Nicola; Marx, Samuel K; McGowan, Hamish A; Callow, Nikolaus; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun

    2015-02-01

    Industrial metals are now ubiquitous within the atmosphere and their deposition represents a potential source of contamination to surficial environments. Few studies, however, have examined the environmental fate of atmospheric industrial metals within different surface environments. In this study, patterns of accumulation of atmospherically transported industrial metals were investigated within the surface environments of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Metals, including Pb, Sb, Cr and Mo, were enriched in aerosols collected in the Snowy Mountains by 3.5-50 times pre-industrial concentrations. In sedimentary environments (soils, lakes and reservoirs) metals showed varying degrees of enrichment. Differences were attributed to the relative degree of atmospheric input, metal sensitivity to enrichment, catchment area and metal behaviour following deposition. In settings where atmospheric deposition dominated (ombrotrophic peat mires in the upper parts of catchments), metal enrichment patterns most closely resembled those in collected aerosols. However, even in these environments significant dilution (by 5-7 times) occurred. The most sensitive industrial metals (those with the lowest natural concentration; Cd, Ag, Sb and Mo) were enriched throughout the studied environments. However, in alpine tarn-lakes no other metals were enriched, due to the dilution of pollutant-metals by catchment derived sediment. In reservoirs, which were located lower within catchments, industrial metals exhibited more complex patterns. Particle reactive metals (e.g. Pb) displayed little enrichment, implying that they were retained up catchment, whereas more soluble metals (e.g., Cu and Zn) showed evidence of concentration. These same metals (Cu and Zn) were depleted in soils, implying that they are preferentially transported through catchments. Enrichment of other metals (e.g. Cd) varied between reservoirs as a function of contributing catchment area. Overall this study showed that the fate

  15. Quantifying the impact of environmental factors on arthropod communities in agricultural landscapes across organizational levels and spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, O.; Maelfait, J.P.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Hendrickx, F.; Billeter, R.; Speelmans, M.; Augenstein, I.; Aukema, B.; Aviron, S.; Bailey, D.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Diekötter, T.; Dirksen, J.; Frenzel, M.; Herzog, F.; Liira, J.; Roubalova, M.; Bugter, R.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. In landscapes influenced by anthropogenic activities, such as intensive agriculture, knowledge of the relative importance and interaction of environmental factors on the composition and function of local communities across a range of spatial scales is important for maintaining biodiversity. 2. We

  16. Pharmacology national board examinations: factors that may influence performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidle, E A; Kahn, N

    1977-12-01

    Data from a survey of pharmacology courses in 60 dental schools were used to determine whether certain teaching variables affect performance in pharmacology National Board examinations. In addition, three-year class-averaged pharmacology scores and, rarely, one-year averaged scores were correlated with several admissions variables. While correlations between some admissions variables and pharmacology scores were quite good, the averaged pharmacology scores were not powerfully affected by course length, placement of the course in the curriculum, length of the curriculum, or the presence of a dentally trained pharmacologist in the department. It is suggested that other factors, related to the student and his capabilities, influence performance on National Boards. Dental pharmacology courses should be designed to given students the best possible exposure to an important basic science, not to make them perform well on National Boards, because student performance on National Boards may be independent of the nature of the didactic courses.

  17. Modeling the Long-term Transport and Accumulation of Radionuclides in the Landscape for Derivation of Dose Conversion Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo Moreno; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the radiological impact of potential releases to the biosphere from a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, it is necessary to assess the long-term dynamics of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. In this paper, we propose an approach for making prognoses of the distribution and fluxes of radionuclides released from the geosphere, in discharges of contaminated groundwater, to an evolving landscape. The biosphere changes during the temperate part (spanning approximately 20,000 years) of an interglacial period are handled by building biosphere models for the projected succession of situations. Radionuclide transport in the landscape is modeled dynamically with a series of interconnected radioecological models of those ecosystem types (sea, lake, running water, mire, agricultural land and forest) that occur at present, and are projected to occur in the future, in a candidate area for a geological repository in Sweden. The transformation between ecosystems is modeled as discrete events occurring every thousand years by substituting one model by another. Examples of predictions of the radionuclide distribution in the landscape are presented for several scenarios with discharge locations varying in time and space. The article also outlines an approach for estimating the exposure of man resulting from all possible reasonable uses of a potentially contaminated landscape, which was used for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors

  18. Comparison of Recent Oil and Gas, Wind Energy, and Other Anthropogenic Landscape Alteration Factors in Texas Through 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Jon Paul; Wolaver, Brad D; Labay, Benjamin J; LaDuc, Travis J; Duran, Charles M; Ryberg, Wade A; Hibbitts, Toby J; Andrews, John R

    2018-05-01

    Recent research assessed how hydrocarbon and wind energy expansion has altered the North American landscape. Less understood, however, is how this energy development compares to other anthropogenic land use changes. Texas leads U.S. hydrocarbon production and wind power generation and has a rapidly expanding population. Thus, for ~47% of Texas (~324,000 km 2 ), we mapped the 2014 footprint of energy activities (~665,000 oil and gas wells, ~5700 wind turbines, ~237,000 km oil and gas pipelines, and ~2000 km electrical transmission lines). We compared the footprint of energy development to non-energy-related activities (agriculture, roads, urbanization) and found direct landscape alteration from all factors affects ~23% of the study area (~76,000 km 2 ), led by agriculture (~16%; ~52,882 km 2 ). Oil and gas activities altered turbine pads and ~10 km 2 from power transmission lines. We found that edge effects of widely-distributed energy infrastructure caused more indirect landscape alteration than larger, more concentrated urbanization and agriculture. This study presents a novel technique to quantify and compare anthropogenic activities causing both direct and indirect landscape alteration. We illustrate this landscape-mapping framework in Texas for the Spot-tailed Earless Lizard (Holbrookia lacerata); however, the approach can be applied to a range of species in developing regions globally.

  19. Factors affecting golden-cheeked warbler nest survival in urban and rural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate...

  20. A computerized model for integrating the physical environmental factors into metropolitan landscape planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius Gy Fabos; Kimball H. Ferris

    1977-01-01

    This paper justifies and illustrates (in simplified form) a landscape planning approach to the environmental management of the metropolitan landscape. The model utilizes a computerized assessment and mapping system, which exhibits a recent advancement in computer technology that allows for greater accuracy and the weighting of different values when mapping at the...

  1. Examining demographic and situational factors on animal cruelty motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E; Dutkiewicz, Erik L

    2011-05-01

    Because of the limited number of studies that have examined the motives for childhood animal cruelty, researchers continue to suggest that further systematic study is needed. In a replication of the Hensley and Tallichet study and based on survey data from 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a southern U.S. state, the present study seeks to further develop this understanding by examining the impact of demographic and situational factors on a range of animal cruelty motivations. Of the 180 inmates, 103 (57%) committed acts of animal cruelty. Logistic regression analyses revealed that respondents who committed childhood animal cruelty out of anger were less likely to cover up their behavior and to be upset by their actions but were more likely to have repeated it. Those who committed animal cruelty to shock others were more likely to reside in urban areas and to have done it alone. Furthermore, respondents who committed animal cruelty for sexual reasons were more likely to have covered up their actions and to have engaged in it repeatedly.

  2. Analysis of the natural factors of biological productivity of water bodies in the different landscapes of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekanova Elena Valentinovna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic environmental factors of biological productivity were studied in seven lakes with low water exchange and a few inflows in different landscapes of Karelia (Russia. Lakes are not exposed to human impact. An indicator of the biological productivity is the phytoplankton photosynthesis rate calculated on the concentration of phosphorus in water. The water bodies vary from oligotrophic to mesotrophic according to their trophic level. Cluster and component analysis of chemicals was carried out, hydrological, morphometric and landscape characteristics of the lakes were also determined. It was shown that in the absence of anthropogenic influence the availability of phosphorus and trophic level of the studied lakes in the humid zone are determined by the water exchange, effluent per unit of water column, color of water and landscape features. The most productive water bodies are located on the fluvioglacial and moraine plains dominated by podsolic soils, which have a good flashing regime and soluble humus substances. These lakes are distinguished by a larger inflow of phosphorus forming a part of humus substances originated from the water-collecting area per unit of water column. Oligotrophic lakes are located in moraine and selga landscapes dominated by podbours and brown soils with a lot of humus slightly transformed. These lakes are characterized by less water exchange and drainage factor, and, accordingly, low values of phosphorus input and water color.

  3. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors that regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P; Pereira, Renata M; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T; Pipkin, Matthew E; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence the specification of distinct CD8 + T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TFs among differentially fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here we profiled the genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8 + T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that the expression and binding of TFs contributed to the establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal key TFs that influence the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8 + T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector cell fates and memory-precursor cell fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates and facilitate the identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8 + T cell differentiation.

  4. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors regulating CD8+ T cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J. Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P.; Pereira, Renata M.; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T.; Pipkin, Matthew E.; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence specification of distinct CD8+ T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TF among differentially-fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here, we profiled genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8+ T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that TF expression and binding contributed to establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal novel TFs influencing the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8+ T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector and memory-precursor cell-fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates, facilitating identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8+ T cell differentiation. PMID:28288100

  5. Structural landscape of the proline-rich domain of Sos1 nucleotide exchange factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Caleb B; Bhat, Vikas; Kurouski, Dmitry; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Lednev, Igor K; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Despite its key role in mediating a plethora of cellular signaling cascades pertinent to health and disease, little is known about the structural landscape of the proline-rich (PR) domain of Sos1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we provide evidence that the PR domain of Sos1 is structurally disordered and adopts an extended random coil-like conformation in solution. Of particular interest is the observation that while chemical denaturation of PR domain results in the formation of a significant amount of polyproline II (PPII) helices, it has little or negligible effect on its overall size as measured by its hydrodynamic radius. Our data also show that the PR domain displays a highly dynamic conformational basin in agreement with the knowledge that the intrinsically unstructured proteins rapidly interconvert between an ensemble of conformations. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the conformational equilibrium of a key signaling molecule with important consequences on its physiological function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transition Landscapes and Social Networks: Examining On-Gound Community Resilience and its Implications for Policy Settings in Multiscalar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Beilin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Community based natural resource management groups contribute to landscape scale ecological change through their aggregation of local ecological knowledge. However, the social networks at the heart of such groups remain invisible to decision makers as evidenced in funding cuts and strategic policy documents. Our research is a pilot study of the social networks in two peri-urban landscapes in Victoria, Australia. We describe the social network analysis undertaken with regard to natural resource management issues. The findings are assessed against the qualities of resilience: diversity, modularity, connectivity, and feedback loops. A social network analysis tool is discussed with participants to assess its usefulness on-ground and with agency staff involved in the project. We concluded that the sociograms are useful to the groups, however, the management of the tool itself is complex and calls for agency personnel to facilitate the process. Overall, the project did make visible the networks that contribute to a multiscalar social and ecological resilience in these landscapes, and in this regard, their use is of benefit to policy makers concerned with supporting networks that build social resilience.

  7. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on

  8. Analysis of factors correlating with medical radiological examination frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Jaervinen, H.; Bly, R.; Olerud, H.; Vassilieva, J.; Vogiatzi, S.; Shannoun, F.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) funded project Dose Datamed 2 (DDM2) had two objectives: to collect available data on patient doses from the radiodiagnostic procedures (X-ray and nuclear medicine) in Europe, and to facilitate the implementation of the Radiation Protection 154 Guidelines (RP154). Besides the collection of frequency and dose data, two questionnaires were issued to gather information about medical radiological imaging. This article analyses a possible correlation between the collected frequency data, selected variables from the results of the detailed questionnaire and national economic data. Based on a 35 countries dataset, there is no correlation between the gross domestic product (GDP) and the total number of X-ray examinations in a country. However, there is a significant correlation ( p < 0.01) between the GDP and the overall CT examination frequency. High income countries perform more CT examinations per inhabitant. That suggests that planar X-ray examinations are replaced by CT examinations. (authors)

  9. Resilient landscapes in Mediterranean urban areas: Understanding factors influencing forest trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomao, Antonio; Quatrini, Valerio; Corona, Piermaria; Ferrara, Agostino; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Salvati, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Urban and peri-urban forests are recognized as basic elements for Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), as they preserve and may increase environmental quality in urbanized contexts. For this reason, the amount of forest land per inhabitant is a pivotal efficiency indicator to be considered in the sustainable governance, land management, planning and design of metropolitan areas. The present study illustrates a multivariate analysis of per-capita forest area (PFA) in mainland Attica, the urban region surrounding Athens, Greece. Attica is considered a typical case of Mediterranean urbanization where planning has not regulated urban expansion and successive waves of spontaneous growth have occurred over time. In such a context, an analysis of factors that can affect landscape changes in terms of PFA may inform effective strategies for the sustainable management of socio-ecological local systems in light of the NBS perspective. A total of 26 indicators were collected per decade at the municipal scale in the study area with the aim to identify the factors most closely associated to the amount of PFA. Indicators of urban morphology and functions have been considered together with environmental and topographical variables. In Attica, PFA showed a progressive decrease between 1960 and 2010. In particular, PFA progressively declined (1980, 1990) along fringe areas surrounding Athens and in peri-urban districts experiencing dispersed expansion of residential settlements. Distance from core cities and from the seacoast, typical urban functions (e.g., multiple use of buildings and per capita built-up area) and percentage of agricultural land-use in each municipality are the variables most associated with high PFA. In recent years, some municipalities have shown an expansion of forest cover, mainly due to land abandonment and forest recolonization. Findings from this case study have allowed us to identify priorities for NBS at metropolitan level aimed at promoting more sustainable

  10. Examination of factors associated in motorcycle crashes in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors associated with motorcycle crashes in work zones. This analysis was completed : through the collection and inspection of three types of data: 1) practices used throughout the country on this topic, : 2) crash reports a...

  11. A Comprehensive Examination of Heavy Vehicle Emissions Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings from reviewing the literature on several topics that are related to heavy vehicle emissions including engine and fuel types, vehicle technologies that can be used to reduce or mitigate vehicle emissions, the factor...

  12. An empirical examination of the factor structure of compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jenny; Cavanagh, Kate; Baer, Ruth; Strauss, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Compassion has long been regarded as a core part of our humanity by contemplative traditions, and in recent years, it has received growing research interest. Following a recent review of existing conceptualisations, compassion has been defined as consisting of the following five elements: 1) recognising suffering, 2) understanding the universality of suffering in human experience, 3) feeling moved by the person suffering and emotionally connecting with their distress, 4) tolerating uncomfortable feelings aroused (e.g., fear, distress) so that we remain open to and accepting of the person suffering, and 5) acting or being motivated to act to alleviate suffering. As a prerequisite to developing a high quality compassion measure and furthering research in this field, the current study empirically investigated the factor structure of the five-element definition using a combination of existing and newly generated self-report items. This study consisted of three stages: a systematic consultation with experts to review items from existing self-report measures of compassion and generate additional items (Stage 1), exploratory factor analysis of items gathered from Stage 1 to identify the underlying structure of compassion (Stage 2), and confirmatory factor analysis to validate the identified factor structure (Stage 3). Findings showed preliminary empirical support for a five-factor structure of compassion consistent with the five-element definition. However, findings indicated that the 'tolerating' factor may be problematic and not a core aspect of compassion. This possibility requires further empirical testing. Limitations with items from included measures lead us to recommend against using these items collectively to assess compassion. Instead, we call for the development of a new self-report measure of compassion, using the five-element definition to guide item generation. We recommend including newly generated 'tolerating' items in the initial item pool, to determine

  13. Factors influencing the examinations by means of ultrasounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, M.

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of ultrasound examination can be influenced by many variables: the pulse generator and receiver, the material under examination, size, type, position and orientation of a defect inside the material. The results of a study aiming at evaluating the amplitude of the response signals as a means to size defects are exposed. The conclusions have been drawn considering the influence that a defect and an ultrasound system have on the power absorbed. The results show that the orientation, the geometry and the band width of the ultrasound system

  14. A critical examination of factors that might encourage secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, Allen

    If a signal is detected someday from extraterrestrial intelligence, several factors might encourage complete and immediate secrecy. As a result, all data might be restricted to the receiving facility or nation instead of being shared promptly with SETI scientists around the world. Seven factors seem particularly like to encourage secrecy: (1) the belief that people may panic; (2) the fear of a negative impact on religion, science, and culture; (3) embarrassment; (4) the individual and national competitive urge; (5) avoiding a harmful premature reply; (6) a national trade or military advantage; and (7) the fear of a Trojan Horse. Three steps might alleviate the particularly difficult factors (numbers 4, 5, 6): an international treaty for immediate sharing of possible signals with SETI scientists in several other countries; implementation and frequent use of an actual network of scientists for such sharing; and further study of the possible need for partial restriction of data about the location and channel of a suspected signal.

  15. Biogeographical relationship between landscapes pattern, chosen local abiotic factors and vegetation in forest edges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr; Švec, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2012), s. 2-12 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : patch isolation * patch area * agricultural landscape * Bohemian-Moravian Upland Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMgr/MGR_2012_04.pdf

  16. Using PISA 2003, Examining the Factors Affecting Students' Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of learning strategies on mathematics achievement. The sample was compiled from students who participated in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Turkey. The data consisted of 4493 15 years old Turkish students in 158 schools, and analyzed by two levels Bernoulli model as a…

  17. Clinical examination findings as prognostic factors in low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Kongsted, Alice; Hestbaek, Lise

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a strong tradition of performing a clinical examination of low back pain (LBP) patients and this is generally recommended in guidelines. However, establishing a pathoanatomic diagnosis does not seem possible in most LBP patients and clinical tests may potentially be more rele...

  18. Examining the Factors Contributing to Students' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ugur; Celik, Eyup

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationship between students' life satisfaction, school engagement, and confidence in the classroom. An analysis was performed of how students' life satisfaction differs according to their housing, school type, and classroom level. The multidimensional student satisfaction scale, confidence scale in the…

  19. An Examination of Educational and Familial Factors in Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikçi, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    In this study, family attitudes and behaviours, along with educational factors during school years, which are believed to have an effect on the development of leadership, are researched. In the study, the qualitative research method and phenomenological model have been applied. The participants were identified as one female and one male student by…

  20. Postnatal depression - an examination of psychosocial factors | Mills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postnatal depression (PND) has been underreported in South Africa. This retrospective study investigated factors which appear to predispose women to PND. Two groups, one consisting of women who suffered from PND and the other of women free of this complaint, provided information on a number of biological, ...

  1. Fear of examinations and educational factors of its overcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdonas, Algimantas; Merkys, Gediminas

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on the carried out scientific researches' data of late decades, tries to reveal die actuality of the phenomenon of exam fear and opportunities of solving this problem. In this article there is analyzed an actual exam fear phenomenon characteristic of different aged students from various countries and social classes. Exam fear is presented as a constituent part of the complicated phenomenon of school fear, emphasizing educational factors of its overcoming. Exam fear is also...

  2. Learning and Study Strategies Inventory subtests and factors as predictors of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Part 1 examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Christine M; Dalton, Leanne; Tepe, Rodger E

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to extend research on the relationship between chiropractic students' learning and study strategies and national board examination performance. Sixty-nine first trimester chiropractic students self-administered the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). Linear trends tests (for continuous variables) and Mantel-Haenszel trend tests (for categorical variables) were utilized to determine if the 10 LASSI subtests and 3 factors predicted low, medium and high levels of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) Part 1 scores. Multiple regression was performed to predict overall mean NBCE examination scores using the 3 LASSI factors as predictor variables. Four LASSI subtests (Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, Test Strategies) and one factor (Goal Orientation) were significantly associated with NBCE examination levels. One factor (Goal Orientation) was a significant predictor of overall mean NBCE examination performance. Learning and study strategies are predictive of NBCE Part 1 examination performance in chiropractic students. The current study found LASSI subtests Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, and Test Strategies, and the Goal-Orientation factor to be significant predictors of NBCE scores. The LASSI may be useful to educators in preparing students for academic success. Further research is warranted to explore the effects of learning and study strategies training on GPA and NBCE performance.

  3. Examining extrinsic factors that influence product acceptance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Examining perspectives on telecare: factors influencing adoption, implementation, and usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available David Barrett,1 Jonathan Thorpe,2 Nick Goodwin3 1Faculty of Health and Social Care, 2Knowledge Exchange, University of Hull, Hull, 3International Foundation for Integrated Care, Oxford, UK Abstract: Telecare, or the use of remote care technologies to support safe and independent living, offers great potential to mitigate the challenges faced in a time of changing demographics. By supporting people to live for longer in their own home, telecare can enhance quality of life, reduce reliance on institutional care settings, and reduce costs. Despite these potential opportunities, the adoption of telecare has not been as fast or widespread as it might have been. This article discusses some of the factors acting as drivers or barriers, which have influenced adoption and impacted on implementation. The implications of the availability of such a wide range of telecare applications is explored; this diversity of choice allows for services to be tailored to the specific needs of users, but also causes a tangled web of terminology that can lead to confusion and lack of clarity. In terms of the evidence base, although evaluations of telecare services often demonstrate a high level of cost benefit and user satisfaction, primary research findings are not as positive. This paper focuses particularly on the Whole System Demonstrator, a large-scale, randomized controlled trial that raised questions about the value and cost-effectiveness of telecare. The paper also discusses the ethical, governance, and resource issues associated with telecare implementation and the organizational complexities inherent in such exciting but challenging changes to services. The policy perspective is also summarized, highlighting how much of the adoption of telecare to date has been influenced by top-down initiatives. Telecare will continue to evolve as our understanding and the technology continue to develop. This paper provides information and advice for commissioners, providers

  5. Examining the Factors of Licensure Examination for Teachers Performance for Program Strategy Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januard D. Dagdag

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET has been the ultimate focus of tertiary education institutions in the Philippines to meet the present demand of local and global parties and communities. Hence, various strategies are conducted to increase the likelihood that the prospect will happen. With this, the current study determines the predictors of LET performance of the 146 Bachelor of Secondary Education graduates that could serve as basis for enhancing program strategies for a better LET rating. A descriptive correlational method through the analysis of registration data on LET, grade weighted average, college admission test (CAT scores, and course audit scores was conducted. Descriptive statistics and correlational tests were employed in the analysis of these data. Results showed that low LET performance is influenced by low performances in academics and admission test, and limited course audit units taken. Admission test performance, however, does not predict LET performance in Major. On the other hand, course audit performance can only forecast licensure exam scores in Major. Hence, to increase LET performance, the program should consider benchmarking from LET performing institutions, choose the right faculty to teach a course, secure the validity and/or reliability of instructional materials and assessment tools with LET competencies, strictly implement the admission and retention policy, and assess regularly the efficacy of the course audit in all areas

  6. A method to associate all possible combinations of genetic and environmental factors using GxE landscape plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaie, Satoshi; Ogishima, Soichi; Nakaya, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage analysis has identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to disease. There are many unknown SNPs whose minor allele frequencies (MAFs) as low as 0.005 having intermediate effects with odds ratio between 1.5~3.0. Low frequency variants having intermediate effects on disease pathogenesis are believed to have complex interactions with environmental factors called gene-environment interactions (GxE). Hence, we describe a model using 3D Manhattan plot called GxE landscape plot to visualize the association of p-values for gene-environment interactions (GxE). We used the Gene-Environment iNteraction Simulator 2 (GENS2) program to simulate interactions between two genetic loci and one environmental factor in this exercise. The dataset used for training contains disease status, gender, 20 environmental exposures and 100 genotypes for 170 subjects, and p-values were calculated by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test on known data. Subsequently, we created a 3D GxE landscape plot of negative logarithm of the association of p-values for all the possible combinations of genetic and environmental factors with their hierarchical clustering. Thus, the GxE landscape plot is a valuable model to predict association of p-values for GxE and similarity among genotypes and environments in the context of disease pathogenesis. GxE - Gene-environment interactions, GWAS - Genome-wide association study, MAFs - Minor allele frequencies, SNPs - Single nucleotide polymorphisms, EWAS - Environment-wide association study, FDR - False discovery rate, JPT+CHB - HapMap population of Japanese in Tokyo, Japan - Han Chinese in Beijing.

  7. Revisiting the Factors Shaping Outcomes for Forest and Landscape Restoration in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Way Forward for Policy, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nadia S. Djenontin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A lack of systematic understanding of the elements that determine the success of forest and landscape restoration (FLR investments leads to the inability to clearly articulate strategic and practical approaches to support natural resource restoration endeavors across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This review examines the different challenges and opportunities for effective restoration interventions. Using a structured literature review, we draw evidence from a broad range of scholarly works on natural resource conservation and governance to investigate the early dynamics of FLR in SSA. We first engage in a contextual clarification of FLR concepts and then provide a synthesis of the factors that influence the results of FLR interventions at the social and institutional level to inform relevant restoration stakeholders—policy makers, investors, and practitioners. The review finds that several interacting factors shape the outcomes of FLR interventions. We classified them into three categories based on their features, intensity, and scale of occurrence: (1 micro-scale factors that enable or limit individual engagement in FLR and sustainable management practices; (2 project/program-level factors, including the design and implementation stages; and (3 institutional, policy, and governance factors, and issues of inequity that operate at the local or national government scale. The review goes beyond underscoring funding constraints as a major challenge to the up- and out-scaling of restoration interventions and FLR success. The findings also set out a premise for future research to guide the design and implementation of successful FLR models in SSA.

  8. Accumulation factors of mercury in mushrooms from Zaborski Landscape Park, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Lipka, Krzysztof; Gucia, Magdalena; Kawano, Masahide; Strumnik, Katarzyna; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2002-11-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 117 samples of caps, 117 of stalks and 47 of whole fruiting bodies of 13 species of wild mushrooms and in 164 underlying soil substrate collected from Zaborski Landscape Park during 1997 and 1998. The study area is a background, forested site with rural landscape and no known local sources of mercury emission. Mean mercury concentrations in mushrooms varied widely (range: 50 +/- 20 to 3700 +/- 1700 ng/g, dry matter) depending on the site and mushroom species investigated. However, mercury concentrations in soil samples varied less (range: 3.0 +/- 3.0 to 43 +/- 17 ng/g dry matter). Fruiting bodies of Common Puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum) and King Bolete (Boletus edulis) contained the greatest concentrations of mercury of 3700 +/- 1700 and 2600 +/- 1200 ng/g dry matter, respectively. A positive correlation existed between mercury concentrations in the caps of Slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) and Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria) (p Suillus grevillei) and King Bolete (B. edulis) and varied between 130 +/- 78 and 160 +/- 120, while for the other species BCFs were between 4.0 +/- 6.0 and 61 +/- 20 in caps, and 4.4 +/- 3.1 and 70 +/- 68 in stalks. The concentration ratios of Hg in cap to stalk were from 1.1 +/- 0.5 for Poison Pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.7 +/- 1.7 in Larch Bolete (S. grevillei).

  9. Frequency of recommendations for additional imaging in diagnostic ultrasound examinations: Evaluation of radiologist, technologist, and other examination-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Nathaniel E; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Babb, James S; Macari, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate the effect of the radiologist, technologist, and other examination-related factors on the frequency of recommendations for additional imaging (RAI) during sonographic (US) interpretation. We retrospectively reviewed 719 US reports from a single academic medical center for the presence of RAI. All studies had been interpreted by one of three abdominal radiologists. Examinations were performed at an outpatient radiology facility with no onsite radiologist (n = 299) or at an inpatient emergency department or hospital-based outpatient setting that had an onsite radiologist (n = 420). Possible associations between the frequency of RAI and the presence of an onsite radiologist, location of the examination, body part or region imaged, patient age, technologist performing the exam, and radiologist reading the exam were evaluated. There were significant differences between each pair of radiologists in terms of overall frequency of RAI (p technologists (13.6%-40.0%, p = 0.03). However, other factors such as patient age, patient sex, US unit, patient location, and radiologist location were not associated with the frequency of RAI (p = 0.15-0.93). The individual radiologist and technologist influenced the frequency of RAI for US examinations, whereas other examination-related factors did not. The observed substantial variability in RAI between radiologists and technologists warrants further study, with consideration of strategies to optimize RAI within US reports. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  11. The Expanding Digital Media Landscape of Qualitative and Decolonizing Research: Examining Collaborative Podcasting as a Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Day

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of the twenty-first century has transformed our ability to create, modify, store, and share digital media and, in so doing, has presented new possibilities for how social science research can be conducted and mobilized. This paper introduces the use of collaborative podcasting as a research method of critical inquiry and knowledge mobilization. Using a case study, we describe the methodological process that our transdisciplinary team engaged in to create the Water Dialogues podcast, a collaborative initiative stemming from a larger research project examining approaches to implementing Indigenous and Western knowledge in water research and management. We situate collaborative podcasting within an expanding field of collaborative and participatory media practice in social research, and consider how the method may align with and support research within a decolonizing agenda.

  12. Large-Scale Prediction of Seagrass Distribution Integrating Landscape Metrics and Environmental Factors: The Case of Cymodocea nodosa (Mediterranean–Atlantic)

    KAUST Repository

    Chefaoui, Rosa M.

    2015-05-05

    Understanding the factors that affect seagrass meadows encompassing their entire range of distribution is challenging yet important for their conservation. Here, we predict the realized and potential distribution for the species Cymodocea nodosa modelling its environmental niche in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coastlines. We use a combination of environmental variables and landscape metrics to perform a suite of predictive algorithms which enables examination of the niche and find suitable habitats for the species. The most relevant environmental variables defining the distribution of C. nodosa were sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. We found suitable habitats at SST from 5.8 °C to 26.4 °C and salinity ranging from 17.5 to 39.3. Optimal values of mean winter wave height ranged between 1.2 and 1.5 m, while waves higher than 2.5 m seemed to limit the presence of the species. The influence of nutrients and pH, despite having weight on the models, was not so clear in terms of ranges that confine the distribution of the species. Landscape metrics able to capture variation in the coastline enhanced significantly the accuracy of the models, despite the limitations caused by the scale of the study. We found potential suitable areas not occupied by the seagrass mainly in coastal regions of North Africa and the Adriatic coast of Italy. The present study describes the realized and potential distribution of a seagrass species, providing the first global model of the factors that can be shaping the environmental niche of C. nodosa throughout its range. We identified the variables constraining its distribution as well as thresholds delineating its environmental niche. Landscape metrics showed promising prospects for the prediction of coastal species dependent on the shape of the coast. By contrasting predictive approaches, we defined the variables affecting the distributional areas that seem unsuitable for C. nodosa as well as those suitable habitats not

  13. Large-Scale Prediction of Seagrass Distribution Integrating Landscape Metrics and Environmental Factors: The Case of Cymodocea nodosa (Mediterranean–Atlantic)

    KAUST Repository

    Chefaoui, Rosa M.; Assis, Jorge; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrã o, Ester A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect seagrass meadows encompassing their entire range of distribution is challenging yet important for their conservation. Here, we predict the realized and potential distribution for the species Cymodocea nodosa modelling its environmental niche in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coastlines. We use a combination of environmental variables and landscape metrics to perform a suite of predictive algorithms which enables examination of the niche and find suitable habitats for the species. The most relevant environmental variables defining the distribution of C. nodosa were sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. We found suitable habitats at SST from 5.8 °C to 26.4 °C and salinity ranging from 17.5 to 39.3. Optimal values of mean winter wave height ranged between 1.2 and 1.5 m, while waves higher than 2.5 m seemed to limit the presence of the species. The influence of nutrients and pH, despite having weight on the models, was not so clear in terms of ranges that confine the distribution of the species. Landscape metrics able to capture variation in the coastline enhanced significantly the accuracy of the models, despite the limitations caused by the scale of the study. We found potential suitable areas not occupied by the seagrass mainly in coastal regions of North Africa and the Adriatic coast of Italy. The present study describes the realized and potential distribution of a seagrass species, providing the first global model of the factors that can be shaping the environmental niche of C. nodosa throughout its range. We identified the variables constraining its distribution as well as thresholds delineating its environmental niche. Landscape metrics showed promising prospects for the prediction of coastal species dependent on the shape of the coast. By contrasting predictive approaches, we defined the variables affecting the distributional areas that seem unsuitable for C. nodosa as well as those suitable habitats not

  14. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  15. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  16. Factor Responsible for Examination Malpractices as Expressed by Undergraduates of Osun State University, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf; Adeoti, Florence; Olufunke, Yinusa Rasheedat; Ruth, Bamgbose Oluwayemisi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perception of undergraduates on factors responsible for examination malpractices. The study is a descriptive study; a sample of two hundred (200) undergraduates formed the participants for the study. A questionnaire titled: "Factor responsible for examination malpractices was used for data collection. Data collected…

  17. Review of Factor Analytic Studies Examining Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Jill; Perry, Adrienne; Bebko, James; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2014-01-01

    Factor analytic studies have been conducted to examine the inter-relationships and degree of overlap among symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper reviewed 36 factor analytic studies that have examined ASD symptoms, using 13 different instruments. Studies were grouped into three categories: Studies with all DSM-IV symptoms, studies…

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of WAIS-IV in a Clinical Sample: Examining a Bi-Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Collinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies that have examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV using the standardization sample. In this study, we investigate its factor structure on a clinical neuropsychology sample of mixed aetiology. Correlated factor, higher-order and bi-factor models are all tested. Overall, the results suggest that the WAIS-IV will be suitable for use with this population.

  19. The people factor: An analysis of the human resources landscape for immunization supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasonde, Musonda; Steele, Pamela

    2017-04-19

    Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges. Without an effective supply chain leader supported by capable and motivated staff, none of the interventions designed to strengthen the supply chain can be effective or sustainable (Source: Gavi Alliance SC Strategy 2014). This landscape analysis was preceded by an HR Evidence Review (March 2014) and has served to inform global partner strategies and country activities, as well as highlight where most support is required. The study also aimed to define the status quo in order to create some form of baseline against which to measure the impact of interventions related to HR going forward. The analysis was comprised of a comprehensive desk review, a survey of 40 respondents from 32 countries and consultations with ISC practitioners in several forums. The findings highlight key areas that should inform the pillars of a HR capacity development plan. At the same time, it revealed that there are some positive examples of where countries are actively addressing some of the issues identified and putting in place mechanisms and structures to optimize the SC function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. From Loose Groups to Effective Teams: The Nine Key Factors of the Team Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, A. G.; Kakabadse, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    A loose group of individuals working on a task differs from an effective team on nine factors: clearly defined goals, priorities, roles and responsibilities, self-awareness, leadership, group dynamics, communications, content, and infrastructure. Ways to eliminate barriers and speed formation of effective teams could be based on those factors.…

  1. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  2. Examining the Impact of Gender on the Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory--Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…

  3. Development of fauna of water beetles (Coleoptera in waters bodies of a river valley – habitat factors, landscape and geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulnicka Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify the beetle fauna of a small lowland river valley against its spatial arrangement and the directions of beetle migrations between habitats, as well as to determine which environmental factors affect the characteristics of water beetle populations in a river valley's lentic water bodies. The field studies were carried out in various types of water bodies. 112 species of beetles with various ecological characteristics were identified. It was demonstrated that the diversity of water bodies in the valley is conducive to high local species richness. At the same time, the observed high degree of faunistic individualism may be regarded as a sign of poor symmetry in the directions of fauna propagation, particularly that of stagnobionts. The authors argue that high individualism is the consequence of poor hydrological contact between the water bodies due to topography and rare instances of high tide in the river, which, in turn, is the reason for active overflights remaining the main mean of migration between those water bodies. The factors restricting migration of fauna between the water bodies include certain landscape characteristics of the catchment which form topographical obstacles, mainly numerous and dense forest areas. The character of fauna in the respective types of water bodies is affected also by internal environmental factors, particularly the degree to which they are overgrown with macrophytes, type of bottom, type of mineral and organic matter as well as physical parameters of water, such as saturation, pH, temperature and biological oxygen demand.

  4. An examination of the factor structure of DSM-IV Narcissistic Personality Disorder Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains two factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of DSM-IV NPD symptoms supported a similar two-factor model. The present research tested this proposed two-factor solution against a one-factor solution (N = 298; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically relevant criteria (other PDs; depression, anxiety). The results of the CFA supported a one-factor solution. Likewise, the two factors each yielded a similar pattern of correlations with relevant criteria. Together, these results argue against a two-factor structure for the current DSM-IV NPD symptoms. Given the broader research literature suggesting a two-factor structure of narcissism, strategies for assessing both overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable forms of narcissism in DSM-V are discussed. PMID:18243885

  5. The African traditional religious landscape: An examination of the role of traditional leaders in the fight against HIV and AIDS in Chipinge, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Marashe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of traditional leaders, as custodians of culture, in the fight against infection with the HI virus and the AIDS pandemic in the Chipinge District of Zimbabwe. The research aims to assess traditional leaders� knowledge of HIV and AIDS and its causes. It also examines some traditional practices to determine whether they expose people to HIV and AIDS, and it evaluates the traditional leaders� roles in curbing the pandemic. From a phenomenological standpoint � and grounded in the African traditional religious landscape � the study uses a survey research design. A convenient sample of 18 participants for the study consisted of 3 chiefs and 5 headmen who completed a questionnaire as well as 5 village heads and 5 elders who were interviewed and involved in four focus-group discussions (FGDs that provided a variety of insightful information. The study identifies promiscuity as a major cause of HIV infection in communities. The results show that traditional leaders discourage barika and kuputsa as being harmful traditional marriage practices. Furthermore, the study indicates that traditional leaders encourage behavioural change amongst the youth and adults alike to curb the spread of HIV and that the pandemic could possibly be contained if government fully empowered the traditional leaders. The research has value in attempting to minimise the spread of HIV if communities discontinue harmful cultural practices. Therefore, donor agencies involved in intervention projects concerning the HIV and AIDS pandemic and government should work closely with traditional leaders who wield considerable power in areas under their jurisdiction to arrest the spread of the HIV and AIDS pandemic in the Chipinge district in Zimbabwe.

  6. A Geographic Information System (GIS-Based Analysis of Social Capital Data: Landscape Factors That Correlate with Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Rahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of community sociology has yielded rich insights on how neighborhoods and individuals foster social capital and reap the benefits of interpersonal relationships and institutions alike. Traditionally, institutions and cultural factors have been lauded as catalysts of community social life and cohesion. Yet, the built environment and configuration of the landscape, including infrastructure, amenities and population density, may also contribute to community social capital. In this article, we embedded zip code-level responses from Harvard University’s Saguaro Seminar’s 2006 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey with a geographic information system. Specifically, we correlated responses on residents’ general trust, trust of one’s neighbors, and trust of members of other racial groups with local urban environmental factors and infrastructural indicators such as housing and street conditions, land use, city form, amenity access (e.g., libraries and schools, home vacancy rates, and home value. We conducted these tests at the national level and for Rochester, NY, due to its many survey responses. We found that housing vacancies drive down levels of social trust, as captured by homeownership rates and tenure, yielding higher levels of social trust, and that certain urban facilities correlate with high trust among neighbors. Results can inform urban planners on the amenities that support sustainable community ties.

  7. Resources or landmarks: which factors drive homing success in Tetragonula carbonaria foraging in natural and disturbed landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A

    2016-10-01

    To date, no study has investigated how landscape structural (visual) alterations affect navigation and thus homing success in stingless bees. We addressed this question in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria by performing marking, release and re-capture experiments in landscapes differing in habitat homogeneity (i.e., the proportion of elongated ground features typically considered prominent visual landmarks). We investigated how landscape affected the proportion of bees and nectar foragers returning to their hives as well as the earliest time bees and foragers returned. Undisturbed landscapes with few landmarks (that are conspicuous to the human eye) and large proportions of vegetation cover (natural forests) were classified visually/structurally homogeneous, and disturbed landscapes with many landmarks and fragmented or no extensive vegetation cover (gardens and plantations) visually/structurally heterogeneous. We found that proportions of successfully returning nectar foragers and earliest times first bees and foragers returned did not differ between landscapes. However, most bees returned in the visually/structurally most (forest) and least (garden) homogeneous landscape, suggesting that they use other than elongated ground features for navigation and that return speed is primarily driven by resource availability in a landscape.

  8. Somatic Mutational Landscape of Splicing Factor Genes and Their Functional Consequences across 33 Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seiler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hotspot mutations in splicing factor genes have been recently reported at high frequency in hematological malignancies, suggesting the importance of RNA splicing in cancer. We analyzed whole-exome sequencing data across 33 tumor types in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, and we identified 119 splicing factor genes with significant non-silent mutation patterns, including mutation over-representation, recurrent loss of function (tumor suppressor-like, or hotspot mutation profile (oncogene-like. Furthermore, RNA sequencing analysis revealed altered splicing events associated with selected splicing factor mutations. In addition, we were able to identify common gene pathway profiles associated with the presence of these mutations. Our analysis suggests that somatic alteration of genes involved in the RNA-splicing process is common in cancer and may represent an underappreciated hallmark of tumorigenesis. : Seiler et al. report that 119 splicing factor genes carry putative driver mutations over 33 tumor types in TCGA. The most common mutations appear to be mutually exclusive and are associated with lineage-independent altered splicing. Samples with these mutations show deregulation of cell-autonomous pathways and immune infiltration. Keywords: splicing, SF3B1, U2AF1, SRSF2, RBM10, FUBP1, cancer, mutation

  9. Identifying Factors Causing Variability in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes in a Polygonal Tundra Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Wainwright, H. M.; Vaughn, L. S.; Curtis, J. B.; Torn, M. S.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) flux variations in Arctic tundra environments are important to understand because of the vast amount of soil carbon stored in these regions and the potential of these regions to convert from a global carbon sink to a source under warmer conditions. Multiple factors potentially contribute to GHG flux variations observed in these environments, including snowmelt timing, growing season length, active layer thickness, water table variations, and temperature fluctuations. The objectives of this study are to investigate temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 fluxes at Barrow, AK over three successive growing seasons (2012-14) and to determine the factors influencing this variability using a novel entropy-based classification scheme. We analyzed soil, vegetation, and climate parameters as well as GHG fluxes at multiple locations within low-, flat- and high-centered polygons at Barrow, AK as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) Arctic project. Entropy results indicate that different environmental factors govern variability in GHG fluxes under different spatiotemporal settings. In particular, flat-centered polygons are more likely to become significant sources of CO2 during warm and dry years as opposed to high-centered polygons that contribute considerably to CO2 emissions during cold and wet years. In contrast, the highest CH4 emissions were always associated with low-centered polygons. Temporal variability in CO2 fluxes was primarily associated with factors affecting soil temperature and/or vegetation dynamics during early and late season periods. Temporal variability in CH4 fluxes was primarily associated with changes in vegetation cover and its covariability with primary controls such as seasonal thaw—rather than direct response to changes in soil moisture. Overall, entropy results document which factors became important under different spatiotemporal settings, thus providing clues concerning the manner in which ecosystem

  10. System dynamic modelling of industrial growth and landscape ecology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Jian; Shao, Long; Zhao, Tianyu

    2015-09-15

    With the rapid development of large industrial corridors in China, the landscape ecology of the country is currently being affected. Therefore, in this study, a system dynamic model with multi-dimensional nonlinear dynamic prediction function that considers industrial growth and landscape ecology is developed and verified to allow for more sustainable development. Firstly, relationships between industrial development and landscape ecology in China are examined, and five subsystems are then established: industry, population, urban economy, environment and landscape ecology. The main influencing factors are then examined for each subsystem to establish flow charts connecting those factors. Consequently, by connecting the subsystems, an overall industry growth and landscape ecology model is established. Using actual data and landscape index calculated based on GIS of the Ha-Da-Qi industrial corridor, a typical industrial corridor in China, over the period 2005-2009, the model is validated in terms of historical behaviour, logical structure and future prediction, where for 84.8% of the factors, the error rate of the model is less than 5%, the mean error rate of all factors is 2.96% and the error of the simulation test for the landscape ecology subsystem is less than 2%. Moreover, a model application has been made to consider the changes in landscape indices under four industrial development modes, and the optimal industrial growth plan has been examined for landscape ecological protection through the simulation prediction results over 2015-2020. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining Success Factors Related to ERP Implementations in Higher Education Shared Services Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanoff, Dawn Galadriel Pfeiffer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations that utilized a shared services model in higher education. The purpose of this research was to examine the critical success factors which were perceived to contribute to project success. This research employed a quantitative non-experimental correlational design and the…

  12. A Confirmatory Approach to Examining the Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a Structural Confirmatory Factor Analytic approach. The Danish translation of the SDQ was distributed to 71,840 parents and teachers of 5-7 and 10-12-year-old boys and girls from ...

  13. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  14. Examining Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention to Adopt Broadband in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Selamat, Mohamad H.; Wahab, Muhammad S. Abd; Samsudin, Mohd A. Mat; Lal, Banita

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting the adoption of broadband Internet in a developing country context by focusing upon Malaysia. The data relating to these factors was collected using a survey approach. The findings of this paper suggest that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence are significant factors for explaining the behavioral intention to adopt broadband Internet by Malaysian accountants. The paper proceeds to outline the research limitations, theoretical contributions, and implications for practice.

  15. Evolving landscape of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer treatment and the future of biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Christian; Lammers, Philip; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer comprises approximately 15%-20% of all breast cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. The introduction of anti-HER2 therapy has significantly improved clinical outcomes for patients with HER2+ breast cancer, and multiple HER2-directed agents (ie, trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine [T-DM1]) are approved for clinical use in various settings. The treatment landscape for patients with HER2+ breast cancer is continuing to evolve. While novel agents and therapeutic strategies are emerging, biologic therapies, particularly trastuzumab, are likely to remain a mainstay of treatment. However, access issues create barriers to the use of biologics, and there is evidence for underuse of trastuzumab worldwide. A biosimilar is a biologic product that is highly similar to a licensed biologic in terms of product safety and effectiveness. Biosimilars of trastuzumab are in development and may soon become available. The introduction of biosimilars may improve access to anti-HER2 therapies by providing additional treatment options and lower-cost alternatives. Because HER2-targeted drugs may be administered for extended periods of time and in combination with other systemic therapies, biosimilars have the potential to result in significant savings for healthcare systems. Herein we review current and emerging treatment options for, and discuss the possible role of biosimilars in, treating patients with HER2+ breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Authors, Pfizer Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Variation pattern and its affecting factors of three-dimensional landscape in urban residential community of Shenyang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-Feng; Hu, Yuan-Man; Xiong, Zai-Ping; Liu, Miao

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1:10000 aerial photo in 1997 and the three QuickBird images in 2002, 2005, and 2008, and by using Barista software and GIS and RS techniques, the three-dimensional information of the residential community in Tiexi District of Shenyang was extracted, and the variation pattern of the three-dimensional landscape in the district during its reconstruction in 1997-2008 and related affecting factors were analyzed with the indices, ie. road density, greening rate, average building height, building height standard deviation, building coverage rate, floor area rate, building shape coefficient, population density, and per capita GDP. The results showed that in 1997-2008, the building area for industry decreased, that for commerce and other public affairs increased, and the area for residents, education, and medical cares basically remained stable. The building number, building coverage rate, and building shape coefficient decreased, while the floor area rate, average building height, height standard deviation, road density, and greening rate increased. Within the limited space of residential community, the containing capacity of population and economic activity increased, and the environment quality also improved to some extent. The variation degree of average building height increased, but the building energy consumption decreased. Population growth and economic development had positive correlations with floor area rate, road density, and greening rate, but negative correlation with building coverage rate.

  17. Energy landscapes in a crowded world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasqualetti, Martin; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    One of the main drivers of landscape transformation has been our demand for energy. We refer to the results of such transformations as "energy landscapes". This paper examines the definition of energy landscapes within a conceptual framework, proposes a classification of energy landscapes, and

  18. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  19. Cross-Jurisdictional Resource Sharing in Changing Public Health Landscape: Contributory Factors and Theoretical Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gulzar H; Badana, Adrian N S; Robb, Claire; Livingood, William C

    2016-01-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) are striving to meet public health needs within their jurisdictions, amidst fiscal restraints and complex dynamic environment. Resource sharing across jurisdictions is a critical opportunity for LHDs to continue to enhance effectiveness and increase efficiency. This research examines the extent of cross-jurisdictional resource sharing among LHDs, the programmatic areas and organizational functions for which LHDs share resources, and LHD characteristics associated with resource sharing. Data from the National Association of County & City Health Officials' 2013 National Profile of LHDs were used. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were performed for the 5 implementation-oriented outcome variables of interest, with 3 levels of implementation. More than 54% of LHDs shared resources such as funding, staff, or equipment with 1 or more other LHDs on a continuous, recurring basis. Results from the multinomial regression analysis indicate that economies of scale (population size and metropolitan status) had significant positive influences (at P ≤ .05) on resource sharing. Engagement in accreditation, community health assessment, community health improvement planning, quality improvement, and use of the Community Guide were associated with lower levels of engagement in resource sharing. Doctoral degree of the top executive and having 1 or more local boards of health carried a positive influence on resource sharing. Cross-jurisdictional resource sharing is a viable and commonly used process to overcome the challenges of new and emerging public health problems within the constraints of restricted budgets. LHDs, particularly smaller LHDs with limited resources, should consider increased resource sharing to address emerging challenges.

  20. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  1. Analysis of Factors Related to Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid Examination on Child Bearing Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Yunitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Not only the health promotion about Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA examination and servical cancer but also free for VIA examination have been held in Polindes Tanjunganom, but the scope of VIA examination is still in low grade. Health Belief Model (HBM theory is used to evaluate and explain the differences of individual perception towards preventive behaviors. This study was aimed to analyze the factors correlating with VIA examination in women by HBM. Design used in this study was cross sectional. The population was all child bearing women in Puskesmas Tanjunganom region. Total sample was 50 respondents, taken according to simple random technique. The independent variabels were perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues to action. The dependent variabel was VIA examination. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire and analyzed by using chi square test with level of significance of ≤ 0,05. Results showed that perceived susceptibility had correlation with VIA examination (p=0,026, perceived seriousness had correlation with VIA examination (p=0,004, perceived benefits had correlation with VIA examination (p=0,016, perceived barriers had correlation with VIA examination (p=0,016, and cues to action (p=0,000 had correlation with VIA examination. It can be concluded that HBM has correlation with VIA examination and cues to action has the strongest variabel related to VIA examination. Further studies should involve larger respondents and better measurement tools to obtain more accurate results.

  2. Weather and landscape factors affect white-tailed deer neonate survival at ecologically important life stages in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eric S.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Kaskie, Kyle D.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jensen, William F.

    2018-01-01

    Offspring survival is generally more variable than adult survival and may limit population growth. Although white-tailed deer neonate survival has been intensively investigated, recent work has emphasized how specific cover types influence neonate survival at local scales (single study area). These localized investigations have often led to inconsistences within the literature. Developing specific hypotheses describing the relationships among environmental, habitat, and landscape factors influencing white-tailed deer neonate survival at regional scales may allow for detection of generalized patterns. Therefore, we developed 11 hypotheses representing the various effects of environmental (e.g., winter and spring weather), habitat (e.g., hiding and escape cover types), and landscape factors (e.g., landscape configuration regardless of specific cover type available) on white-tailed deer neonate survival up to one-month and from one- to three-months of age. At one-month, surviving fawns experienced a warmer lowest recorded June temperature and more June precipitation than those that perished. At three-months, patch connectance (percent of patches of the corresponding patch type that are connected within a predefined distance) positively influenced survival. Our results are consistent with white-tailed deer neonate ecology: increased spring temperature and precipitation are likely associated with a flush of nutritional resources available to the mother, promoting increased lactation efficiency and neonate growth early in life. In contrast, reduced spring temperature with increased precipitation place neonates at risk to hypothermia. Increased patch connectance likely reflects increased escape cover available within a neonate’s home range after they are able to flee from predators. If suitable escape cover is available on the landscape, then managers could focus efforts towards manipulating landscape configuration (patch connectance) to promote increased neonate

  3. Examining Word Factors and Child Factors for Acquisition of Conditional Sound-Spelling Consistencies: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Petscher, Yaacov; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that children acquire spelling by picking up conditional sound-spelling consistencies. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated how variation in word characteristics (words that vary systematically in terms of phoneme-grapheme correspondences) and child factors (individual differences in the ability to extract…

  4. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  5. Examining the Risk Factors Associated With Hypertension Among the Elderly in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Godfred Odei; Luginaah, Isaac N; Taabazuing, Mary-Margaret

    2015-10-01

    This study sought to examine the risk factors associated with hypertension among the elderly in Ghana. We focused on the association between chronic diseases, socioeconomic factors, and being hypertensive. Data for the study were drawn from Wave 1 of the 2007/2008 Ghana Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). A binary logit model was used to estimate the effect of other noncommunicable diseases, psychosocial factors, lifestyle factors, and sociocultural and biosocial factors on the elderly being hypertensive. Elderly Ghanaians who had been diagnosed with arthritis, angina, diabetes, and asthma were significantly more likely to be hypertensive. Additionally, those depressed were found to be 1.22 times more likely to be hypertensive. Prevention and control of hypertension are complex and demand multistakeholder collaboration including governments, educational institutions, media, food and beverage industry, and a conscious focus on personal lifestyle factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Eating disorder examination: Factor structure and norms in a clinical female pediatric eating disorder sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Amy; Watson, Hunna J; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Anderson, Rebecca A; Hamilton, Matthew J; Shu, Chloe; McCormack, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The factor structure of the eating disorder examination (EDE) has never been tested in a clinical pediatric sample, and no normative data exist. The factor structure of an adapted EDE was examined in a clinical sample of 665 females aged 9-17 years with anorexia nervosa spectrum (70%), bulimia nervosa spectrum (12%), purging disorder (3%), and unspecified feeding and eating disorders (15%). The original four-factor model was a good fit in a confirmatory factor analysis as well a higher order model with three dimensions of restraint, eating concern, and combined weight concern/shape concern. Normative data are reported for clinicians to identify the percentiles in which their patients' score. The findings support dimensions of restraint, eating concern, weight concern, and shape concern in a clinical pediatric sample. This supports the factorial validity of the EDE, and the norms may assist clinicians to evaluate symptoms in females under 18 years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Predicting patriarchy: using individual and contextual factors to examine patriarchal endorsement in communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Courtney A; Wright, Emily M

    2013-04-01

    In much feminist literature, patriarchy has often been studied as a predictive variable for attitudes toward or acts of violence against women. However, rarely has patriarchy been examined as an outcome across studies. The current study works toward filling this gap by examining several individual-and neighborhood-level factors that might influence patriarchy. Specifically, this research seeks to determine if neighborhood-level attributes related to socioeconomic status, family composition, and demographic information affect patriarchal views after individual-level correlates of patriarchy were controlled. Findings suggest that factors at both the individual- and neighborhood levels, particularly familial characteristics and dynamics, do influence the endorsement of patriarchal views.

  8. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun; Shin, Jin-Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall pre...

  9. An examination of the factors affecting people's participation in future health examinations based on community health exam interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shih-Kai; Liao, Hung-En

    2014-01-01

    Community-based intervention health examinations were implemented at a health care facility to comply with the government's primary health care promotion policy. The theory of planned behavior model was applied to examine the effect that community-based health examinations had on people's health concepts regarding seeking future health examinations. The research participants were individuals who had received a health examination provided at two branches of a hospital in central Taiwan in 2012. The hospital's two branches held a total of 14 free community-based health examination sessions. The hospital provided health examination equipment and staff to perform health examinations during public holidays. We conducted an exploratory questionnaire survey to collect data and implemented cross-sectional research based on anonymous self-ratings to examine the public's intention to receive future community-based or hospital-based health examinations. Including of 807 valid questionnaires, accounting for 89.4% of the total number of questionnaires distributed. The correlation coefficients of the second-order structural model indicate that attitudes positively predict behavioral intentions (γ = .66, p intentions (γ = .66, p intentions (γ = -.71, p > .05). The results of the first-order structural model indicated that the second-order constructs had a high explanatory power for the first-order constructs. People's health concepts regarding health examinations and their desire to continue receiving health examinations must be considered when promoting health examinations in the community. Regarding hospital management and the government's implementation of primary health care, health examination services should address people's medical needs to increase coverage and participation rates and reduce the waste of medical resources.

  10. Factor Structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Interview in Patients With Binge-eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) as a primary assessment instrument in studies of eating and weight disorders, little is known about the psychometric aspects of this interview measure. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the EDE interview in a large series of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Participants were 688 treatment-seeking patients with BED who were reliably administered the EDE interview by trained research clinicians at three research centers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) performed on EDE interview data from a random split-half of the study group suggested a brief 7-item 3-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) performed on the second randomly selected half of the study group supported this brief 3-factor structure of the EDE interview. The three factors were interpreted as Dietary Restraint, Shape/Weight Overvaluation, and Body Dissatisfaction. In this series of patients with BED, factor analysis of the EDE interview did not replicate the original subscales but revealed an alternative factor structure. Future research must further evaluate the psychometric properties, including the factor structure, of the EDE interview in this and other eating-disordered groups. The implications of these factor analytic findings for understanding and assessing the specific psychopathology of patients with BED are discussed. PMID:19798064

  11. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  12. An Empirical Examination of Factors Affecting Group Effectiveness in Information Systems Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Bassam; Ali, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Although group project concepts and skills have become a major component in most information systems (IS) academic programs, very little research has attempted to examine factors that may improve or undermine effectiveness of IS group projects. Accordingly, based on relevant literatures, this study develops and empirically tests a model of factors…

  13. Examining Residence Status as a Risk Factor for Health Risk Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Angelo M.; Benz, Madeline B.; Miller, Mary Beth; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to evaluate college student residence as a unique risk factor for a range of negative health behaviors. Participants: We examined data from 63,555 students (66% females) from 157 campuses who completed the National College Health Assessment Survey in Spring 2011. Methods: Participants answered questions about…

  14. Age-Related Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Examining the Role of Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R.; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-01-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and…

  15. Jordanian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Competence: An Examination of Family Factors and Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe

    2015-01-01

    Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…

  16. An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Test Factor Structure and Test Hierarchical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, William M.; Airasian, Peter W.

    The question of whether test factor structure is indicative of the test item hierarchy was examined. Data from 1,000 subjects on two sets of five bivalued Law School Admission Test items, which were analyzed with latent trait methods of Bock and Lieberman and of Christoffersson in Psychometrika, were analyzed with an ordering-theoretic method to…

  17. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  18. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Delinquency: Examining a Spectrum of Promotive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…

  19. Examining Factors Related to Academic Success of Military-Connected Students at Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Klotz, Denise N.; Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    The number of military-connected students enrolling in community colleges has increased dramatically in the past decade, and this trend is expected to continue. This research focused on examining factors that contribute to the academic success of community college students. Specifically, the purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the…

  20. The effects of landscaping on the residential cooling energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of landscaping on the air-conditioning energy saving of houses in a tropical environment. This case study involved looking at the construction and landscaping of three single-family houses in three sections of Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The houses ranged in age from 5 to 30 years old, which provided different examples of construction and maturity levels of the surrounding landscaping. Landscaping affects the thermal performance as well as on the air-conditioning energy of houses, in how it provides shade, channels wind, and evapotranspiration. While the construction of the three houses was similar, they were different in size and design, including their landscape design. These houses were chosen because they are representative of single-family tropical houses and landscaping styles in Malaysia since 30 years ago. Three houses were chosen; the 30-year-old house, the 10-year-old house, and the 5-year-old house. In a tropical country, landscaping is used to reduce the effects of the hot and humid climate. The houses spent 15-45% of the electricity cost on cooling. These results were influenced by human factors and the surrounding landscaping. Every type of vegetation, such as trees, grass, shrubs, groundcover, and turf, contributes to reducing air temperatures near the house and providing evaporative cooling.

  1. Sociocultural factors associated with breast self-examination among Iranian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolhasan Naghibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the ways to fight breast cancer and reduce deaths hazard due to early detection is one of early detection programs in women's breast self- examination. Examining breast by oneself increase individuals knowledge of her breast health that helps in detecting breast cancer early. Different cultural, social, family and individual factors play roles in women's behavior about breast self- examination applying PEN-3 model in this study is to analyze factors influencing on breast self-examination. The research is a descriptive- analytical, cross-sectional type. Research community consists of women at fertility age of 20-49 in sari. Sample volume is 415 individuals and sampling method is cluster method. In this study, a 50-item questionnaire based on PEN-3 was used. Questions were answered by Likert scoring method. Questionnaire was gathered by personal presence of questioners. Data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and logistic regression methods. Based on the study findings, the most significant positive behaviors related to perceptual factors included effectiveness of disease background in family and relatives (73%, believing in breast self- examination for pursuing health (93% and the most important negative behaviors were shyness and modesty (83.9% and increased worry (78.9%. The most remarkable positive behaviors regarding enabling factors covered the skill to do breast examination oneself (35.2%, the availability of health and therapeutic centers (80.7% and the most significant negative behavior was being busy and lack of time (85.3%. The most important positive behavior about nurturing factors included family consent (68.9% and the most significant negative one was the inappropriate treatment of health and therapeutic personnel (61.8%. In this study, there is a meaningful difference between employment ages, education with PEN-3 model constituents. Since behaviors due to enabling and nurturing perceptual factors have been important in

  2. Examination of the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.

  3. Where's the impairment: an examination of factors that impact sustained attention following a stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Welhaf, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    The impact of stress on cognitive functioning has been examined across multiple domains. However, few studies investigate both physical and psychological factors that impact cognitive performance. The current study examined the impact of a physical and psychosocial stressor on sustained attention and identified factors related to sustained attention, including cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and mind wandering. A total of 53 participants completed either the socially evaluated cold pressor task or a control task followed by the sustained attention to response task with mind wandering measures. Participants also provided saliva samples following the attention task. Results indicate the stressor task did not impact mind wandering or sustained attention but increased cortisol and sAA. Mind wandering was negatively related to sustained attention and mediated the relationship between cortisol and sustained attention. The findings highlight the importance of examining multiple sources of stress-related cognitive impairments.

  4. High spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery for mapping NDVI and its relationship to temporal urban landscape evapotranspiration factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Beecham, Simon; Anderson, Sharolyn; Nagler, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration estimation has benefitted from recent advances in remote sensing and GIS techniques particularly in agricultural applications rather than urban environments. This paper explores the relationship between urban vegetation evapotranspiration (ET) and vegetation indices derived from newly-developed high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. The study site was Veale Gardens in Adelaide, Australia. Image processing was applied on five images captured from February 2012 to February 2013 using ERDAS Imagine. From 64 possible two band combinations of WorldView-2, the most reliable one (with the maximum median differences) was selected. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values were derived for each category of landscape cover, namely trees, shrubs, turf grasses, impervious pavements, and water bodies. Urban landscape evapotranspiration rates for Veale Gardens were estimated through field monitoring using observational-based landscape coefficients. The relationships between remotely sensed NDVIs for the entire Veale Gardens and for individual NDVIs of different vegetation covers were compared with field measured urban landscape evapotranspiration rates. The water stress conditions experienced in January 2013 decreased the correlation between ET and NDVI with the highest relationship of ET-Landscape NDVI (Landscape Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for shrubs (r2 = 0.66) and trees (r2 = 0.63). However, when the January data was excluded, there was a significant correlation between ET and NDVI. The highest correlation for ET-Landscape NDVI was found for the entire Veale Gardens regardless of vegetation type (r2 = 0.95, p > 0.05) and the lowest one was for turf (r2 = 0.88, p > 0.05). In support of the feasibility of ET estimation by WV2 over a longer period, an algorithm recently developed that estimates evapotranspiration rates based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS was employed. The results revealed a significant positive

  5. High Spatial Resolution WorldView-2 Imagery for Mapping NDVI and Its Relationship to Temporal Urban Landscape Evapotranspiration Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration estimation has benefitted from recent advances in remote sensing and GIS techniques particularly in agricultural applications rather than urban environments. This paper explores the relationship between urban vegetation evapotranspiration (ET and vegetation indices derived from newly-developed high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. The study site was Veale Gardens in Adelaide, Australia. Image processing was applied on five images captured from February 2012 to February 2013 using ERDAS Imagine. From 64 possible two band combinations of WorldView-2, the most reliable one (with the maximum median differences was selected. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values were derived for each category of landscape cover, namely trees, shrubs, turf grasses, impervious pavements, and water bodies. Urban landscape evapotranspiration rates for Veale Gardens were estimated through field monitoring using observational-based landscape coefficients. The relationships between remotely sensed NDVIs for the entire Veale Gardens and for individual NDVIs of different vegetation covers were compared with field measured urban landscape evapotranspiration rates. The water stress conditions experienced in January 2013 decreased the correlation between ET and NDVI with the highest relationship of ET-Landscape NDVI (Landscape Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for shrubs (r2 = 0.66 and trees (r2 = 0.63. However, when the January data was excluded, there was a significant correlation between ET and NDVI. The highest correlation for ET-Landscape NDVI was found for the entire Veale Gardens regardless of vegetation type (r2 = 0.95, p > 0.05 and the lowest one was for turf (r2 = 0.88, p > 0.05. In support of the feasibility of ET estimation by WV2 over a longer period, an algorithm recently developed that estimates evapotranspiration rates based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from MODIS was employed. The results revealed a

  6. A multi-species modelling approach to examine the impact of alternative climate change adaptation strategies on range shifting ability in a fragmented landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Synes, Nicholas W.; Watts, Kevin; Palmer, Stephen C.F.; Bocedi, Greta; Bartoń, Kamil A.; Osborne, Patrick E.; Travis, Justin M.J.

    2015-01-01

    An individual-based model of animal dispersal and population dynamics was used to test the effects of different climate change adaptation strategies on species range shifting ability, namely the improvement of existing habitat, restoration of low quality habitat and creation of new habitat. These strategies were implemented on a landscape typical of fragmentation in the United Kingdom using spatial rules to differentiate between the allocation of strategies adjacent to or away from existing h...

  7. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  8. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Performance in the FRCR (UK) Part 2B examination: Analysis of factors associated with success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawtin, K.E.; Williams, H.R.T.; McKnight, L.; Booth, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess factors that influence pass rates and examination scores in the Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists (FRCR) 2B examination. Materials and methods: 2238 attempts at the FRCR 2B examination were evaluated between Spring 2006 and Spring 2010. Pass rates and examination scores were analysed by gender and ethnicity, and the influence of factors such as radiology training (UK versus non-UK), sitting (Spring versus Autumn), and the presence of an undergraduate or postgraduate degree were examined. Results: 1571 candidates made 2238 examination attempts, with an overall pass rate of 59.4% (63.1% at first attempt). 66.2% entrants were male; 48.8% attempts were by candidates from a UK radiology training scheme. UK candidates were significantly more likely to pass than non-UK candidates (p < 0.0001). White candidates were more likely to pass at first or second attempt than non-white candidates (p < 0.0001), but when restricted to UK entrants ethnicity did not influence success at first attempt. Overall, females were more successful than males (p < 0.001). Presence of an undergraduate (p = 0.19) or postgraduate (p = 0.80) degree did not affect pass rate at first attempt for UK candidates. However, logistic regression demonstrated that the only significant factor influencing pass rates at first attempt was whether radiology training was undertaken in the UK (p < 0.0001). A trend towards increased pass rates in autumn sittings was seen (p = 0.06), but ethnicity (p = 0.99) and gender (p = 0.41) were not significant factors. Conclusion: The FRCR 2B examination is non-discriminatory for UK candidates with respect to gender and ethnicity. Poorer performance of non-UK trained candidates is a consistent outcome in the literature. - Highlights: • Factors influencing pass rates and scores in FRCR 2B examination were assessed. • UK candidates are more likely to pass than non-UK candidates. • There is no effect of gender or ethnicity on UK

  10. Interaction of blood coagulation factor Va with phospholipid vesicles examined by using lipophilic photoreagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, U.C.; Isaacs, B.S.; Yemul, S.S.; Esmon, C.T.; Bayley, H.; Johnson, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two different lipophilic photoreagents, [ 3 H]adamantane diazirine and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)diazirine (TID), have been utilized to examine the interactions of blood coagulation factor Va with calcium, prothrombin, factor Xa, and, in particular, phospholipid vesicles. With each of these structurally dissimilar reagents, the extent of photolabeling of factor Va was greater when the protein was bound to a membrane surface than when it was free in solution. Specifically, the covalent photoreaction with Vl, the smaller subunit of factor Va, was 2-fold higher in the presence of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS, 3:1) vesicles, to which factor Va binds, than in the presence of 100% PC vesicles, to which the protein does not bind. However, the magnitude of the PC/PS-dependent photolabeling was much less than has been observed previously with integral membrane proteins. It therefore appears that the binding of factor Va to the membrane surface exposes Vl to the lipid core of the bilayer, but that only a small portion of the Vl polypeptide is exposed to, or embedded in, the bilayer core. Addition of either prothrombin or active-site-blocked factor Xa to PC/PS-bound factor Va had little effect on the photolabeling of Vl with TID, but reduced substantially the covalent labeling of Vh, the larger subunit of factor Va. This indicates that prothrombin and factor Xa each cover nonpolar surfaces on Vh when the macromolecules associate on the PC/PS surface. It therefore seems likely that the formation of the prothrombinase complex involves a direct interaction between Vh and factor Xa and between Vh and prothrombin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Farmers’ perceptions of crop pest severity in Nigeria are associated with landscape, agronomic and socio-economic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei; Kato, Edward; Bianchi, Felix; Bhandary, Prapti; Gort, Gerrit; Werf, van der Wopke

    2018-01-01

    Insect pests are a major cause of crop yield losses around the world and pest management plays a critical role in providing food security and farming income. This study links Nigerian farmers’ perceptions of pest severity to the landscape, agronomic, biophysical, and socio-economic context in which

  12. Examining the factor structure of MUIS-C scale among baby boomers with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Humberto; Türegün, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Baby boomers account for two out of every three cases of hepatitis C infection in the U.S. To conduct an exploratory factor analysis directed at supporting the use of the MUIS-C as a reliable instrument in measuring illness uncertainty among baby boomers with hepatitis C. The steps of conducting a typical principal component analysis (PCA) with an oblique rotation were used on a sample of 146 participants, the sampling adequacy of items was examined via the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure, and the Bartlett's sphericity test was used for appropriateness of conducting a factor analysis. A two-factor structure was obtained by using Horn's parallel analysis method. The two factors explained a cumulative total of 45.8% of the variance. The results of the analyses indicated that the MUIS-C was a valid and reliable instrument and potentially suitable for use in baby boomer population diagnosed with hepatitis C. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Legible landscapes: the use of narratives in landscape design for leisure and tourism in Dutch cultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, leisure and tourism have become significant factors in rural development, which is manifest in the ‘commodification’ of landscapes. However, leisure and tourist markets are very competitive and consumers increasingly demand high quality, unique and memorable experiences. Landscape

  14. Validity and Reliability of 2 Goniometric Mobile Apps: Device, Application, and Examiner Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmon, Robert H; Gulick, Dawn T; Paterson, Mark L; Gulick, Colleen N

    2016-12-01

    Smartphones are being used in a variety of practice settings to measure joint range of motion (ROM). A number of factors can affect the validity of the measurements generated. However, there are no studies examining smartphone-based goniometer applications focusing on measurement variability and error arising from the electromechanical properties of the device being used. To examine the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of 2 goniometric mobile applications (Goniometer Records, Goniometer Pro), an inclinometer, and a universal goniometer (UG). Nonexperimental, descriptive validation study. University laboratory. 3 physical therapists having an average of 25 y of experience. Three standardized angles (acute, right, obtuse) were constructed to replicate the movement of a hinge joint in the human body. Angular changes were measured and compared across 3 raters who used 3 different devices (UG, inclinometer, and 2 goniometric apps installed on 3 different smartphones: Apple iPhone 5, LG Android, and Samsung SIII Android). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine interrater reliability and concurrent validity. Interrater reliability for each of the smartphone apps, inclinometer and UG were excellent (ICC = .995-1.000). Concurrent validity was also good (ICC = .998-.999). Based on the Bland-Altman plots, the means of the differences between the devices were low (range = -0.4° to 1.2°). This study identifies the error inherent in measurement that is independent of patient factors and due to the smartphone, the installed apps, and examiner skill. Less than 2° of measurement variability was attributable to those factors alone. The data suggest that 3 smartphones with the 2 installed apps are a viable substitute for using a UG or an inclinometer when measuring angular changes that typically occur when examining ROM and demonstrate the capacity of multiple examiners to accurately use smartphone-based goniometers.

  15. Using the SRQ–20 Factor Structure to Examine Changes in Mental Distress Following Typhoon Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J.; Richardson, Lisa K.; Tran, Trinh Luong; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Aggen, Steven H.; Berenz, Erin C.; Trung, Lam Tu; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research is limited regarding postdisaster assessment of distress in developing nations. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ–20) before and after an acute trauma, Typhoon Xangsane, in order to examine changes in mental health symptoms in an epidemiologic sample of Vietnamese adults. The study examined a model estimating individual item factor loadings, thresholds, and a latent change factor for the SRQ–20's single “general distress” common factor. The covariates of sex, age, and severity of typhoon exposure were used to evaluate the disaster-induced changes in SRQ–20 scores while accounting for possible differences in the relationship between individual measurement scale items and the latent mental health construct. Evidence for measurement noninvariance was found. However, allowing sex and age effects on the pre-typhoon and post-typhoon factors accounted for much of the noninvariance in the SRQ–20 measurement structure. A test of no latent change failed, indicating that the SRQ–20 detected significant individual differences in distress between pre- and post-typhoon assessment. Conditioning on age and sex, several typhoon exposure variables differentially predicted levels of distress change, including evacuation, personal injury, and peri-event fear. On average, females and older individuals reported higher levels of distress than males and younger individuals, respectively. The SRQ–20 is a valid and reasonably stable instrument that may be used in postdisaster contexts to assess emotional distress and individual changes in mental health symptoms. PMID:24512425

  16. Examination of factor structure for the consumers' responses to the Value Consciousness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, C A; Williams, J R

    2000-12-01

    The psychometric properties of the Value Consciousness Scale developed by Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton in 1990 were examined in a retail grocery study (N = 497). Original assessment of scale properties was undertaken using two convenience samples in a nonretail setting and additional scale performance has been documented by the scale authors. This study furthers previous research by (1) examining performance on the items in the retail grocery setting and (2) utilizing an appropriately rigorous sampling procedure. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the Value Consciousness Scale does not exhibit unidimensional properties, and one must be cautious if this scale is used in applications of market segmentation until further clarification can be provided.

  17. Critical Success in E-learning: An Examination of Technological and Institutional Support Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslin Masrom

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, information technology (IT becomes prominent to support teaching and learning activities. IT tools allow us to create, collect, store and use the information and knowledge. E-learning was one of IT tools introduced at College of Science and Technology (CST, University Technology Malaysia (UTM Kuala Lumpur since 2001. It has enabled a paradigm shift from institutio n-centered instruction to anywhere, anytime and anybody learning models. In CST the e-learning technology was used for accessing the syllabus and course content, submitting assignments, and taking class quizzes. This paper focuses on issues relating to the e-learning critical success factors (CSFs from university students’ perspective. In this study, two main factors related to the e-learning CSFs within a university environment included technological and institutional support factors were examined. Confirmatory factor modeling approach was used to assess the criticality of the measures included in each factor. The results indicated that the most critical measures for technological factor in terms of ease of access and infrastructure are the browser efficiency, course website ease of use and computer network reliability. Meanwhile, for institutional support factor, the most critical measure is the availability of technical support or help desk.

  18. Examining Measures of Weight as Risk Factors for Sport-Related Injury in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Sarah A.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Macpherson, Alison; Emery, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n = 1,040) at the ages of 11?15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese) were created using validated internati...

  19. EXAMINING FACTORS IN FLUENCING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND TRUST TOWARDS VENDORS ON THE MOBILE INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Norazah Mohd Suki

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine factors influencing customer satisfaction and trust towards vendors on the mobile Internet. Data were analysed among 200 respondents who completed the questionnaire by employing multiple regression analysis. Results revealed that customer satisfaction towards the vendor was significantly influenced by ease-of-use, responsiveness, and brand image. Meanwhile, customer trust towards the vendor in m-commerce is affected by responsiveness, brand image and...

  20. 〈Original Papers〉Examination of Factors Related to University Life Satisfaction for Students

    OpenAIRE

    大対, 香奈子

    2015-01-01

    (Abstract) The purpose of the present study was to examine factors related to university life satisfaction for students, and specifically to identify social skills related to satisfaction with peer relationships. Participants included 352 university students in their freshman or sophomore year that responded to a questionnaire. The results show that satisfaction with peer relationships is strongly related to more general university life satisfaction. It is also found that social skills requir...

  1. Urban thermal landscape characterization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Y; Fung, T; Tsou, J

    2014-01-01

    Urban warming is sensitive to the nature (thermal properties, including albedo, water content, heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and the placement (surface geometry or urban topography) of urban surface. In this research, the pattern and variation of urban surface temperature is regarded as one kind of landscape, urban thermal landscape, which is assumed as the presentation of local surface heating process upon urban landscape. The goal of this research is to develop a research framework incorporating geospatial statistics, thermal infrared remote sensing and landscape ecology to study the urban effect on local surface thermal landscape regarding both the pattern and process. This research chose Hong Kong as the case study. Within the study area, urban and rural area coexists upon a hilly topography. In order to probe the possibility of local surface warming mechanism discrepancy between urban and rural area, the sample points are grouped into urban and rural categories in according with the land use map taken into a linear regression model separately to examine the possible difference in local warming mechanism. Global regression analysis confirmed the relationship between environmental factors and surface temperature and the urban-rural distinctive mechanism of dominating diurnal surface warming is uncovered

  2. [Factors and validity analysis of Mini-Mental State Examination in Chinese elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming-yue; Yang, Min; Kuang, Wei-hong; Qiu, Pei-yuan

    2015-06-18

    To examine factors that may have impact on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) screening validity, which could lead to further establishing the general model of the MMSE score in Chinese health elderly and to improve the screening accuracy of the existing MMSE reference. Based on the data of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), the MMSE scores of 19,117 normal elderly and 137 dementia patients who met the inclusion criteria were used for the analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) and validity indexes were used to compare the screening accuracy of various criteria. Multiple linear regression was used to identify factors that had impact on the MMSE score for both the normal and dementia elderly. Descriptive analysis was performed for differences in the MMSE scores by age trends and gender between the normal and dementia elderly. The AUC of MMSE was ≥0.75(Pvalidity of MMSE in CLHLS is not affected by educational level. The analysis of factors that may impact on the MMSE screening validity are gender, age, vision and residence which with validity identification. These four factors can be used as assist tool of MMSE in the screening of dementia to improve the screening accuracy.

  3. Residency factors that influence pediatric in-training examination score improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Lindsay H; Highbaugh-Battle, Angela P; Buchter, Susie

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which measurable factors of resident training experience contribute to improvement of in-training examination (ITE) and certifying examination (CE) scores. This is a descriptive retrospective study analyzing data from July 2003 through June 2006 at a large academic pediatric training program. Pediatric categorical residents beginning residency in July 2003 were included. Regression analyses were used to determine if the number of admissions performed, core lectures attended, acute care topics heard, grand rounds attended, continuity clinic patients encountered, or procedures performed correlated with improvement of ITE scores. These factors were then analyzed in relation to CE scores. Seventeen residents were included in this study. The number of general pediatric admissions was the only factor found to correlate with an increase in ITE score (P = .04). Scores for the ITE at pediatric levels 1 and 3 were predictive of CE scores. No other factors measured were found to influence CE scores. Although all experiences of pediatric residents likely contribute to professional competence, some experiences may have more effect on ITE and CE scores. In this study, only general pediatric admissions correlated significantly with an improvement in ITE scores from year 1 to year 3. Further study is needed to identify which elements of the residency experience contribute most to CE success. This would be helpful in optimizing residency program structure and curriculum within the limitations of duty hour regulations.

  4. An Auditing Approach for ERP Systems Examining Human Factors that Influence ERP User Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MITAKOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to connect the successful implementation and operation of the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning information systems with people and their characteristics through a pilot survey. It examines the human factors that influence ERP user satisfaction. The presented survey tests 14 hypotheses and is based on the model developed by Zviran, Pliskin & Levin [21]. An additional factor has been added to the specified model, the self-efficacy factor analyzed by Bandura [1]. The results are based on 250 ERP users that responded to the survey. The key findings that were revealed by data analysis were that none of the human socio-demographic characteristics do influence ERP user satisfaction. Additionally it was found that perceived usefulness and self-efficacy are the key directors of the ERP user satisfaction. Moreover suggestions are given about how the companies should handle ERP usage in order to develop the prerequisites for increasing user satisfaction and productivity accordingly.

  5. Examining the Factors Associated with Paid Employment of Clients Enrolled in First Episode of Psychosis Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders. For a significant portion of individuals who suffer from this disorder, onset occurs in young adulthood, arresting important social and educational development that is necessary for future successful labor force participation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about clients enrolled in first episode psychosis programs and psychosocial outcomes by examining the factors associated with paid employment among young adults who have experienced their first psychotic episodes. In this paper, we consider the association of socioeconomic factors to employment. Our results suggest that in addition to treatment, socioeconomic factors such as receipt of public disability benefits and educational attainment are associated with employment status. These results can help to inform future directions for the enhancement of psychosocial programs in FEP models to promote paid employment.

  6. Changes in Farming in the Landscape of Eastern Sudetes as a Factor Influencing the Dynamic of Fluvial Prosesses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrádek, Mojmír; Loučková, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2009), s. 5-14 ISSN 0231-9365 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Zlatohorská vrchovina Upland * human inpacts * landscape structure * grassing * sediment deficient water * laterál erosion Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://geography.upol.cz/geographica-40-2

  7. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  8. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  9. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  10. [Factors Associated with Stress Check Attendance: Possible Effect of Timing of Annual Health Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hattori, Michihiro; Nagata, Masako; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Watanabe, Seiji; Mori, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The stress check program has been part of annual employees' health screening since 2015. Employees are recommended, but not obliged, to undergo the stress check offered. This study was designed to examine the factors associated with stress check attendance. A total of 31,156 Japanese employees who underwent an annual health examination and a stress check service at an Occupational Health Service Center in 2016 participated in this study. Data from the annual health examination and stress check service included stress check attendance, date of attendance (if implemented), gender, age, workplace industry, number of employees at the workplace, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The mean rate of stress check attendance was 90.8%. A higher rate of stress check attendance was associated with a lower duration from the annual health examination, age ≥30 years, construction and transport industry, and 50-999 employees at the workplace. A lower rate of stress check attendance was associated with medical and welfare industry and ≥1,000 employees at the workplace. These findings provide insights into developing strategies for improving the rate of stress check attendance. In particular, stress check attendance may improve if the stress check service and annual health examination are conducted simultaneously.

  11. Examining transgender health through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health's (ICF) Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Melissa; Cox, Steven R

    2017-12-01

    For many transgender individuals, medical intervention is necessary to live as their desired gender. However, little is known about Contextual Factors (i.e., Environmental and Personal) that may act as facilitators and barriers in the health of transgender individuals. Therefore, this paper sought to examine Contextual Factors of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health that may facilitate or negatively impact the physical, psychological, and social functioning of transgender individuals. A literature review was conducted to identify Environmental and Personal Factors that may influence transgender individuals' physical, psychological, and social functioning. Seven electronic databases were searched. In total, 154 records were reviewed, and 41 articles and other records met inclusion criteria. Three general themes emerged for Environmental Factors: family and social networks, education, and health care. Three general themes also emerged for Personal Factors: socioeconomic status, race, and age. Transgender individuals benefit from gender-affirming services, improved family and social support systems, and competent provider care. Educational training programs, including medical curricula or workshops, might provide the greatest benefit in improving transgender health by increasing the knowledge and cultural competency of health professionals working with this population. Given the diversity of gender expression, differences in lived experiences, and potential for enduring persistent "double discrimination" due to the intersectional relationships between socioeconomic status, race, and/or age, health professionals must approach transgender health using a holistic lens such as the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

  12. Context Dependent Effect of Landscape on the Occurrence of an Apex Predator across Different Climate Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Go; Azuma, Atsuki; Nonaka, Jun; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hatsumi; Iseki, Fumitaka; Itaya, Hiroo; Fukasawa, Keita; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In studies of habitat suitability at landscape scales, transferability of species-landscape associations among sites are likely to be critical because it is often impractical to collect datasets across various regions. However, limiting factors, such as prey availability, are not likely to be constant across scales because of the differences in species pools. This is particularly true for top predators that are often the target for conservation concern. Here we focus on gray-faced buzzards, apex predators of farmland-dominated landscapes in East Asia. We investigated context dependency of "buzzard-landscape relationship", using nest location datasets from five sites, each differing in landscape composition. Based on the similarities of prey items and landscape compositions across the sites, we determined several alternative ways of grouping the sites, and then examined whether buzzard-landscape relationship change among groups, which was conducted separately for each way of grouping. As a result, the model of study-sites grouping based on similarities in prey items showed the smallest ΔAICc. Because the terms of interaction between group IDs and areas of broad-leaved forests and grasslands were selected, buzzard-landscape relationship showed a context dependency, i.e., these two landscape elements strengthen the relationship in southern region. The difference in prey fauna, which is associated with the difference in climate, might generate regional differences in the buzzard-landscape associations.

  13. Context Dependent Effect of Landscape on the Occurrence of an Apex Predator across Different Climate Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Fujita

    Full Text Available In studies of habitat suitability at landscape scales, transferability of species-landscape associations among sites are likely to be critical because it is often impractical to collect datasets across various regions. However, limiting factors, such as prey availability, are not likely to be constant across scales because of the differences in species pools. This is particularly true for top predators that are often the target for conservation concern. Here we focus on gray-faced buzzards, apex predators of farmland-dominated landscapes in East Asia. We investigated context dependency of "buzzard-landscape relationship", using nest location datasets from five sites, each differing in landscape composition. Based on the similarities of prey items and landscape compositions across the sites, we determined several alternative ways of grouping the sites, and then examined whether buzzard-landscape relationship change among groups, which was conducted separately for each way of grouping. As a result, the model of study-sites grouping based on similarities in prey items showed the smallest ΔAICc. Because the terms of interaction between group IDs and areas of broad-leaved forests and grasslands were selected, buzzard-landscape relationship showed a context dependency, i.e., these two landscape elements strengthen the relationship in southern region. The difference in prey fauna, which is associated with the difference in climate, might generate regional differences in the buzzard-landscape associations.

  14. [Examination of the significance of psychological factors in the etiology of alopecia areata. I. Examining Type A behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygledowska-Kania, M; Bogdanowski, T

    1995-01-01

    We tested the significance of psychic factors in the etiology of alopecia areata by means of the assessment of the Behaviour Pattern A (BPA)--a particular way of regulation of the relations between the individual and the environment, the basis of which is a great need for achievement in the individual who realizes this need by means of domination and aggressiveness. The testing was carried out by means of the Polish Questionnaire for the Assessment of the Behaviour Pattern A in adults. 60 patients were tested (31 women and 29 men). The results were compared with the normative groups described by Wrześniewski. The frequency of the occurrence of the Behaviour Pattern A in the tested patients may indicate the connection of this type of regulation of relations between the individual and the environment with the susceptibility to this disease.

  15. Factors Influencing Candidates' Performance in English Language and Mathematics at West African Senior School Certificate Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alade, O. M.; Kuku, O. O.; Osoba, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated influence of some factors on the performance of selected West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) candidates. It also examined the relationship between these factors and candidates' performance. Factors investigated include socio-economic background of the candidates (SEB), study hours (SH), attitude…

  16. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  17. A longitudinal examination of factors predicting anxiety during the transition to middle school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Norton, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The transition from elementary to middle or junior high school is commonly regarded as a period of stress and turmoil for young adolescents, and has been associated with changes in anxiety and other psychological problems. However, less is known about risk and resilience factors that may predict these changes. This study examined changes in anxiety, as well as predictors of these changes among 77, predominantly Caucasian (88%), male and female (52%) adolescents from Grades 6 to 8. Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine the predicted grade and gender differences. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the prediction of eighth grade anxiety symptoms by sixth grade self-worth, perceived social acceptance, and social support, as well as the potential moderating role of gender in these relations. Results suggested a significant decrease in anxiety, particularly social anxiety, over this period for boys but not girls. Examination of predictors of changes in anxiety suggested that, in general, global self-worth, social acceptance, and gender were each associated with overall and social anxiety. Findings are integrated with extant literature on developmental changes associated with anxiety and school transitions and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20711893

  18. Prenatal care utilization in Zimbabwe: Examining the role of community-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton

    2017-12-01

    This paper assesses the importance of community-level factors on prenatal care utilization in Zimbabwe. The analysis is performed using data from the two most recent rounds of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11 linked with other community-level data. We use logistic, generalized linear regressions as well as multilevel mixed models to examine the factors associated with the frequency, timing and quality of prenatal care. Our results suggest that contraceptive prevalence, religious composition, density of nurses, health expenditures per capita and availability of government hospitals in communities are important predictors of prenatal care use in Zimbabwe. These findings have important implications for public health policy in Zimbabwe - a country with unfavorable maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of urbanization on ant abundance and diversity: a temporal examination of factors affecting biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Buczkowski

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "before and after" studies where species diversity is cataloged over time in the same sites. The current study examined changes in ant abundance and diversity associated with the conversion of natural habitats into urban habitats. Ant abundance and diversity were tracked in forested sites that became urbanized through construction and were examined at 3 time points - before, during, and after construction. On average, 4.3 ± 1.2 unique species were detected in undisturbed plots prior to construction. Ant diversity decreased to 0.7 ± 0.8 species in plots undergoing construction and 1.5 ± 1.1 species in plots 1 year after construction was completed. With regard to species richness, urbanization resulted in the permanent loss of 17 of the 20 species initially present in the study plots. Recovery was slow and only 3 species were present right after construction was completed and 4 species were present 1 year after construction was completed. The second objective examined ant fauna recovery in developed residential lots based on time since construction, neighboring habitat quality, pesticide inputs, and the presence of invasive ants. Ant diversity was positively correlated with factors that promoted ecological recovery and negatively correlated with factors that promoted ecological degradation. Taken together, these results address a critical gap in our knowledge by characterizing the short- and long-term the effects of urbanization on the loss of ant

  20. The effect of urbanization on ant abundance and diversity: a temporal examination of factors affecting biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Richmond, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "before and after" studies where species diversity is cataloged over time in the same sites. The current study examined changes in ant abundance and diversity associated with the conversion of natural habitats into urban habitats. Ant abundance and diversity were tracked in forested sites that became urbanized through construction and were examined at 3 time points - before, during, and after construction. On average, 4.3 ± 1.2 unique species were detected in undisturbed plots prior to construction. Ant diversity decreased to 0.7 ± 0.8 species in plots undergoing construction and 1.5 ± 1.1 species in plots 1 year after construction was completed. With regard to species richness, urbanization resulted in the permanent loss of 17 of the 20 species initially present in the study plots. Recovery was slow and only 3 species were present right after construction was completed and 4 species were present 1 year after construction was completed. The second objective examined ant fauna recovery in developed residential lots based on time since construction, neighboring habitat quality, pesticide inputs, and the presence of invasive ants. Ant diversity was positively correlated with factors that promoted ecological recovery and negatively correlated with factors that promoted ecological degradation. Taken together, these results address a critical gap in our knowledge by characterizing the short- and long-term the effects of urbanization on the loss of ant biodiversity.

  1. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchell, J E

    1983-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  2. An examination of multilevel factors that may explain gender differences in children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Noe C; Corder, Kirsten; Marshall, Simon; Norman, Gregory J; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, Jim F; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Girls are less physically active than boys, yet no single study has examined the factors that may explain gender differences in children's physical activity (PA). This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data from 116 caregivers and their children aged 5-8 years who participated in the MOVE study. Caregivers reported various factors that may relate to children's PA (eg, encouragement for child PA and PA equipment at home). Child PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Linear regression tested for the variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) explained by gender and several variables. Gender and ethnicity interactions were examined. Caregivers were mostly female (97%), mean age 38 ± 6 years, mean BMI 28 ± 6 (kg/m2). Child's mean age was 8.1 ± 0.7, 54% were female and 40% were overweight/obese. Girls were less physically active than boys (54.1 ± 19.7 vs. 65.2 ± 28.0 daily minutes of MVPA, respectively). Among girls, more days of PE/week was associated with greater MVPA. Among boys, greater parent support for PA, greater parent modeling for PA, and greater number of PA equipment in the home were associated with greater MVPA. This study supports that boys and girls have different correlates for MVPA, which may partly explain gender differences in PA.

  3. Examining structural and clinical factors associated with implementation of standing orders for adult immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Zimmerman, Richard K; Ahmed, Faruque; Albert, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    A proven method to increase vaccination rates in primary care is a standing orders program (SOP) for nonphysician staff to assess and vaccinate eligible individuals without a specific written physician order. This study describes a mixed methods approach to examining physicians' beliefs and attitudes about and adoption of SOPs for adult immunizations, specifically, influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Focus groups and in-depth interviews of physicians, nurses, practice managers, and the medical director of a managed care health plan were conducted. Results were used to enrich a concise survey based on the Awareness-to-Adherence model of physician behavior and previous research, which was mailed to 1,640 general internists and family physicians nationwide. Barriers to SOPs identified through qualitative methods were lack of interest in changing the status quo, a physician-dominated hierarchy, and fear of malpractice. Facilitators included having an electronic medical record and a practice culture that was open to change. The survey (response rate 67%) confirmed the facilitators and further identified patient, physician, and practice factors that served as barriers to establishing and maintaining SOPs. This mixed methods approach provided the opportunity to develop a tailored and practice-oriented survey for examining the contextual factors influencing clinical providers' decisions to implement SOPs for adult immunization. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  4. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fowokan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk.Adults ≥18 years (n = 77 from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score.Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent.Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members. Keywords: Food insecurity, Food banks, Cardiovascular disease, Risk factors, Canada

  5. The Value of Landscape Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004 have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the concept of fluid space;•recognising the existence of interstitial open spaces;•using those elements which are common to the distinct typologies of space;•defining the components that should be respected and those that can be respected;•observing landscape as a whole , while emphasising the relationship between the parts and the whole; and•rejecting simplification in the landscape transformation process.valuing the ambiguity incorporating the complexity Underlying this approach is the belief that the process of transformation must be based on the essence of each landscape. This implies the use of elements and structures of the landscape which are related to ecological, morphological and cultural systems. These elements and structures represent points of reference which should be considered in the process of landscape transformation.

  6. Examining the Factor Structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Feion; Villodas, Miguel T.; Roesch, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were examined in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the original two-factor model did not adequately fit the data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that four items were not pure markers of the factors. (Contains 1…

  7. Landscape changes as a factor affecting the course and consequences of extreme floods in the Otava river basin, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Vilímek, Vít

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis of anthropogenical modifications of the landscape in relation to the course and consequences of floods. The research was conducted in the Otava river basin which represents the core zone of the extreme flood in August 2002 in Central Europe. The analysis was focused on the key indicators of landscape modification potentially affecting the runoff process - the long-term changes of land-use, changes of land cover structure, land drainage, historical shortening of the river network and the modifications of streams and floodplains. The information on intensity and spatial distribution of modifications was derived from different data sources--historical maps, available GIS data, remote sensing and field mapping. The results revealed a high level of spatial diversity of anthropogenical modifications in different parts of the river basin. The intensive modifications in most of indicators were concentrated in the lowland region of the river basin due to its agricultural use; however important changes were also recorded in the headwater region of the basin. The high spatial diversity of the modifications may result in their varying effect on the course and consequences of floods in different parts of the river basin. This effect is demonstrated by the cluster analysis based on the matrix of indicators of stream and floodplain modification, physiogeographical characteristics and geomorphological evidences of the flood in August 2002, derived from the individual thematic layers using GIS.

  8. An examination of retention factors among registered practical nurses in north-eastern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, B; Rukholm, E; Larivière, M; Carter, L; Koren, I; Mian, O

    2015-01-01

    Literature from the past two decades has presented an insufficient amount of research conducted on the nursing practice environments of registered practical nurses (RPNs). The objective of this article was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to sustaining the nursing workforce in north-eastern Ontario (NEO), Canada. In particular, retention factors for RPNs were examined. This cross-sectional research used a self-administered questionnaire. Home addresses of RPNs working in NEO were obtained from the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO). Following a modified Dillman approach with two mail-outs, survey packages were sent to a random sample of RPNs (N=1337) within the NEO region. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine intent to stay (ITS) in relation to the following factor categories: demographic, and job and career satisfaction. Completed questionnaires were received from 506 respondents (37.8% response rate). The likeliness of ITS in the RPNs' current position for the next 5 years among nurses aged 46-56 years were greater than RPNs in the other age groups. Furthermore, the lifestyle of NEO, internal staff development, working in nursing for 14-22.5 years, and working less than 1 hour of overtime per week were factors associated with the intention to stay. Having an understanding of the work environment may contribute to recruitment and retention strategy development. The results of this study may assist with addressing the nursing shortage in rural and northern areas through improved retention strategies of RPNs.

  9. [Urinary incontinence as a risk factor for pressure sores does not withstand a critical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Tom; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang

    2005-10-01

    The association between urinary incontinence and pressure sores is put down to various causes. Most frequently urinary wet and following maceration of the skin are mentioned. However, it is possible that urinary incontinence is only an indicator for other risk factors or a measure of the need for care without any causal relation to pressure sores. There are hardly any controlled or randomised studies; this lack of scientific evidence is problematic. Based on a case-control-study including data of 200 patients as well as on the existing models of explanation, the following study tries to examine critically the connections between pressure sores and urinary incontinence. Out of the patients in our study population 97.5 percent were incontinent. Different categories of the risk factor urinary incontinence and different dichotomisations have led to different statistical results. Statements concerning the connection between urinary incontinence and pressure sores have to be interpreted critically. The dependence of urinary incontinence on other risk factors such as patients' need for care or compliance suggests that the causal connection to pressure sores be not reduced to the influence of wetness. We advise to research connections between urinary incontinence and pressure sores in a methodologically appropriate setting.

  10. Barriers and enabling factors for work-site physical activity programs: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gena M; Behrens, Timothyh K; Domina, Lorie

    2008-05-01

    Work sites offer a productive setting for physical activity (PA) promoting interventions. Still, PA participation remains low. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the reasoning behind commonly reported barriers and enabling factors to participation in PA programs in a work-site setting. Employees from a large city government were recruited to participate in focus groups, stratified by white- and blue-collar occupations. Responses from open-ended questions about factors influencing participation in PA programs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Resulting data were analyzed with open and axial coding. The sample consisted of 60 employees composing 9 focus groups. Although time was the most common barrier between both groups, white-collars workers responded that scheduling and work conflicts were the most common barrier concerning time. Blue-collar workers indicated shift work as their most common barrier. In addition, health was a significant enabling factor for both occupational categories. White-collar workers were much more concerned with appearances and were more highly motivated by weight loss and the hopefulness of quick results than were blue-collar workers. These findings are important in the understanding of PA as it relates to the reasoning behind participation in work-site programs in regard to occupational status.

  11. An empirical examination of factors contributing to the adoption of IFRS in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Farah Mita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze factors that influence the likelihood of IFRS adoption in developing countries. Research that focuses on the IFRS adoption in developing countries is limited. Developing countries are supposed to get many benefits from the adoption of IFRS as it is a cheap shortcut to improve the quality of financial reporting to attract foreign capital and to finance its development. In addition to macroeconomic factors, this research also examines the influence of institutional factors and the development of local accounting standards. Using the binomial logit regression, the result shows that the regulatory quality of a country positively af-fects the possibility of IFRS adoption in developing countries. It means that the better quality of the regulator in those countries, the higher possibility to fully adopt the IFRS. Furthermore, there is a tendency that the countries will fully adopt the IFRS when they already have local accounting standards that previously referred to international standards. The results imply that the IASB strategy should focus more on cooperation with local regulators or groups of regional cooperation to reach its objective to develop single set of high quality international standard.

  12. An examination of factors potentially influencing birth distributions in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuofu Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species of primates are considered seasonal breeders, but the set of factors, such as food availability, day length and temperature, that influence the timing of reproductive events for both wild and captive individuals remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of factors in shaping breeding patterns in Rhinopithecus roxellana, a temperate colobine primate. We used circular statistics to describe and compare the patterns of reproductive seasonality among individuals in 13 captive groups and two free ranging but provisioned groups at various locations throughout China. Almost 90% of births occurred in March, April and May in adult females residing in both free ranging (n = 131 and captive groups (n = 407. Births occurred principally in 2–4 months prior to the peak of food availability, while conceptions occurred in 1–2 months after the peak of food availability in free ranging but provisioned groups. Day length (latitude had a significant effect on the timing of reproduction. However, females that experienced a wide variation of temperature between the lowest and highest monthly average temperature had a later conception date. These results support that day length and temperature might be factor influencing the timing of reproductive activity.

  13. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  14. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowokan, A O; Black, J L; Holmes, E; Seto, D; Lear, S A

    2018-06-01

    Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk. Adults ≥18 years (n = 77) from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI) risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score. Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent. Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members.

  15. EXAMINING FACTORS AFFECTING IMPLEMENTATION OF INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING IN FINLAND AND SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingoo Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using inquiry has become a universal factor in science education, but teachers often face challenges in implementing inquiry-based learning (IBL because of, for instance, teachers’ low confidence in conducting inquiry or insufficient school resources. Much research has been conducted to identify the barriers that impede inquiry practice. However, most studies have employed small-scale qualitative methods from a single-country sample, and, thus, the effects of each factor on conducting inquiry in different educational systems have yet to be measured in one statistical model. Accordingly, this research was aimed to explore the extent to which various teacher- and school-factors have respectively affected teachers’ implementation of inquiry-based learning at lower secondary schools. To examine this issue, samples of 496 Finnish teachers in 135 lower secondary schools and 184 Korean teachers in 147 lower secondary schools were selected from the TIMSS 2011 science data set. The findings reveal that teachers’ confidence in teaching science and their collaboration to improve science teaching were strongly associated with facilitating inquiry in both countries, and these two factors’ positive effects on the implementation were partially derived from inquiry-related professional development in the Finnish sample. In addition, class size and school resources were also significantly related to inquiry practice in Finland, and the teachers’ education levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of inquiry practice in Korea. However, in both countries, the teachers’ emphasis on exams was indicated as a non-significant factor in predicting inquiry frequency. The results have implications in respect of the roles of professional development and school environment in increasing IBL practice in school science.

  16. Examining effective factors on human forces' productivity in bureau of naval operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at examining effective factors on improvement of human forces' productivity and determining degree of influence and importance of each group among factors including workshop equipment and arrangement in organization, system of control and supervision on employees, degree of employees training, occupational value of employees and at last, administrating meritocracy system on improvement of human forces' productivity. Statistical population is composed of bureau of naval operations' employees in oil terminals' company in Khark, Iran. Statistical population has been 230, among which 135 people were determined as statistical sample size using Cochran formula. Survey instrument in this research has been questionnaire, according to which employees' ideas about effective factors on employees' productivity were evaluated. These questionnaires completed by people among statistical sample contain 16 close questions which were set up according to Likert 5-grade scale and were distributed as 135 numbers that after returning questionnaire, statistical analysis and data processing were accomplished. Analysis was performed in 2 descriptive and inferential statistics levels. Results of data analysis show that: A 5-fold factors under review “workshop equipment and arrangement of organization, system of control and supervision on employees, degree of employees training, occupational value of employees and administrating meritocracy related to human resources by management” have had effects on improvement of employees' productivity as average. B degree of employees training and then occupational value of employees and administrating meritocracy system have had the most influence, and workshop equipment and arrangement of organization and system of control and supervision on employees have had the least influence.

  17. Risk Factors for Fatal Hyperglycaemia Confirmed by Forensic Postmortem Examination - A Nationwide Cohort in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Lotta; Jönsson, Anna K.; Zilg, Brita; Östgren, Carl Johan; Druid, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. Methods A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem. The forensic findings stored in the National Forensic Medicine Database were linked to nationwide registers. Cases that died due to confirmed hyperglycemia with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were identified and living controls with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were randomly selected in the Swedish prescribed drug register and matched on age and sex. Information on comorbidities, dispensed pharmaceuticals, clinical data and socioeconomic factors were obtained for cases and controls. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with fatal hyperglycaemia. Results During the study period 322 individuals, mostly males (79%) with the mean age of 53.9 years (SD.± 14) died due to confirmed hyperglycaemia. Risk factors for fatal hyperglycaemia included; insulin treatment (OR = 4.40; 95%CI,1.96, 9.85), poor glycaemic control (OR = 2.00 95%CI,1.23, 3.27), inadequate refill-adherence before death (OR = 3.87; 95%CI,1.99, 7.53), microvascular disease (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.84, 5.79), psychiatric illness (OR = 2.30; 95% CI,1.32, 4.01), substance abuse (OR = 8.85; 95%CI,2.34, 35.0) and/or living alone (OR = 2.25; 95%CI,1.21, 4.18). Conclusions/Interpretation Our results demonstrate the importance of clinical attention to poor glycaemic control in subjects with psychosocial problems since it may indicate serious non-adherence, which consequently could lead to fatal hyperglycaemia. PMID:27768720

  18. Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province of the Hudson River Valley and the Effect of Explanatory Data Classification Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...

  19. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. II. Image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A.; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how patient head characteristics, as well as the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect lesion contrast and noise values in computed tomography (CT) images. Head sizes and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images for five classes of patients ranging from the newborn to adults. X-ray spectra with tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV were used to compute the average photon energy, and energy fluence, transmitted through the heads of patients of varying size. Image contrast, and the corresponding contrast to noise ratios (CNRs), were determined for lesions of fat, muscle, and iodine relative to a uniform water background. Maintaining a constant image CNR for each lesion, the patient energy imparted was also computed to identify the x-ray tube voltage that minimized the radiation dose. For adults, increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV changed the iodine HU from 2.62x10 5 to 1.27x10 5 , the fat HU from -138 to -108, and the muscle HU from 37.1 to 33.0. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increased the percentage energy fluence transmission by up to a factor of 2. For a fixed x-ray tube voltage, the percentage transmitted energy fluence in adults was more than a factor of 4 lower than for newborns. For adults, increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV improved the CNR for muscle lesions by 130%, for fat lesions by a factor of 2, and for iodine lesions by 25%. As the size of the patient increased from newborn to adults, lesion CNR was reduced by about a factor of 2. The mAs value can be reduced by 80% when scanning newborns while maintaining the same lesion CNR as for adults. Maintaining the CNR of an iodine lesion at a constant level, use of 140 kV increases the energy imparted to an adult patient by nearly a factor of 3.5 in comparison to 80 kV. For fat and muscle lesions, raising the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV at a constant CNR increased the patient dose by 37% and 7

  20. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  1. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. I. Radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A.; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how patient age, size and composition, together with the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect radiation doses in head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Head size dimensions, cross-sectional areas, and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images of 127 patients. For radiation dosimetry purposes patients were modeled as uniform cylinders of water. Dose computations were performed for 18x7 mm sections, scanned at a constant 340 mAs, for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV. Values of mean section dose, energy imparted, and effective dose were computed for patients ranging from the newborn to adults. There was a rapid growth of head size over the first two years, followed by a more modest increase of head size until the age of 18 or so. Newborns have a mean HU value of about 50 that monotonically increases with age over the first two decades of life. Average adult A-P and lateral dimensions were 186±8 mm and 147±8 mm, respectively, with an average HU value of 209±40. An infant head was found to be equivalent to a water cylinder with a radius of ∼60 mm, whereas an adult head had an equivalent radius 50% greater. Adult males head dimensions are about 5% larger than for females, and their average x-ray attenuation is ∼20 HU greater. For adult examinations performed at 120 kV, typical values were 32 mGy for the mean section dose, 105 mJ for the total energy imparted, and 0.64 mSv for the effective dose. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increases patient doses by about a factor of 5. For the same technique factors, mean section doses in infants are 35% higher than in adults. Energy imparted for adults is 50% higher than for infants, but infant effective doses are four times higher than for adults. CT doses need to take into account patient age, head size, and composition as well as the selected x-ray technique factors

  2. An examination of trust as a strategical factor of success in logistical firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Oláh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the effect of the role and level of in-sector trust (involving clients, subcontractors, and other logistics providers and trust within firms in creating competitiveness in logistics service providers. The data were collected from 51 logistics service providers in Hungary. During our research we established that trust related to staff is decisive in the direction of the firm’s profitability, and the trust communicated by the top manager (trust in partners is essential in ensuring smooth operations and long term, stable flexible cooperation. The results of this paper effectively support logistics service providers in finding economic success factors, thanks to which they can completely satisfy the expectations of customers in the supply chain.

  3. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, N.; Knezevic, Z.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Milkovic, Dj.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  5. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  6. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  7. Disposable Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  8. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat

  9. Examining How Media Literacy and Personality Factors Predict Skepticism Toward Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Muldrow, Adrienne; Austin, Bruce W

    2016-05-01

    To examine the potential effectiveness of media literacy education in the context of well-established personality factors, a survey of 472 young adults, focused on the issue of alcohol marketing messages, examined how individual differences in personality associate with constructs representing aspects of media literacy. The results showed that need for cognition predicted social expectancies and wishful identification with media portrayals in alcohol advertising only through critical thinking about media sources and media content, which are foci of media literacy education. Need for affect did not associate with increased or diminished levels of critical thinking. Critical thinking about sources and messages affected skepticism, represented by expectancies through wishful identification, consistent with the message interpretation process model. The results support the view that critical thinking about media sources is an important precursor to critical thinking about media messages. The results also suggest that critical thinking about media (i.e., media literacy) reflects more than personality characteristics and can affect wishful identification with role models observed in media, which appears to be a key influence on decision making. This adds support to the view that media literacy education can improve decision making across personality types regarding alcohol use by decreasing the potential influence of alcohol marketing messages.

  10. Gender and Middle School Science: An Examination of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jennifer

    Gender differences in middle school science were examined utilizing a mixed-methods approach. The intrinsic and extrinsic experiences of male and female non-gifted high-achieving students were investigated through the administration of the CAIMI, student interviews, teacher questionnaires, observations, and document examination. Male and female students were selected from a rural Northeast Georgia school district based on their high performance and high growth during middle school science. Eighty-three percent of the student participants were white and 17% were Hispanic. Half of the male participants and one third of the female participants were eligible for free and reduced meals. Findings revealed that male participants were highly motivated, whereas female participants exhibited varying levels of motivation in science. Both male and female students identified similar instructional strategies as external factors that were beneficial to their success. Due to their selection by both genders, these instructional strategies were considered to be gender-neutral and thereby useful for inclusion within coeducational middle school science classrooms.

  11. Examination of premenstrual symptoms as a risk factor for depression in postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Melissa M; Mott, Sarah L; Pearlstein, Teri; Stuart, Scott; Zlotnick, Caron; O'Hara, Michael W

    2013-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health concern with prevalence of major and minor depressions reaching 20 % in the first three postpartum months. Sociodemographic and psychopathology correlates of PPD are well established; however, information on the relationship between premenstrual disorders and the development of PPD is less well established. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the role of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) as a risk factor for PPD. Premenstrual symptoms were assessed retrospectively using the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) and depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria and assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). A two-stage screening procedure was applied. In the first stage, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was employed. In the second stage, women endorsing ≥5 symptoms on the PHQ-9 were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, HDRS, and PSST. Hierarchical linear regression showed that history of depression and PMS/PMDD contributed an additional 2 % of the variance (p PMS/PMDD and PPD (OR = 1.97). The findings of this study suggest that PMS/PMDD is an important risk factor for PPD. Women endorsing a history of PMS/PMDD should be monitored during the perinatal period.

  12. Examining Measures of Weight as Risk Factors for Sport-Related Injury in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Richmond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n=1,040 at the ages of 11–15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese were created using validated international (BMI and national (WC cut-off points. A Poisson regression analysis controlling for relevant covariates (sex, previous injury, sport participation, intervention group, and aerobic fitness level estimated the risk of sport injury [incidence rate ratios (IRR with 95% confidence intervals (CI]. Results. There was an increased risk of time loss injury (IRR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.01–8.04 and knee injury (IRR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00–6.94 in adolescents that were overweight/obese; however, increases in injury risk for all injury and lower extremity injury were not statistically significant. Estimates suggested a greater risk of time loss injury [IRR = 1.63 (95% CI: 0.93–2.47] in adolescents with high measures of WC. Conclusions. There is an increased risk of time loss injury and knee injury in overweight/obese adolescents. Sport injury prevention training programs should include strategies that target all known risk factors for injury.

  13. Examining dynamic interactions among experimental factors influencing hydrologic data assimilation with the ensemble Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Huang, G. H.; Baetz, B. W.; Cai, X. M.; Ancell, B. C.; Fan, Y. R.

    2017-11-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is recognized as a powerful data assimilation technique that generates an ensemble of model variables through stochastic perturbations of forcing data and observations. However, relatively little guidance exists with regard to the proper specification of the magnitude of the perturbation and the ensemble size, posing a significant challenge in optimally implementing the EnKF. This paper presents a robust data assimilation system (RDAS), in which a multi-factorial design of the EnKF experiments is first proposed for hydrologic ensemble predictions. A multi-way analysis of variance is then used to examine potential interactions among factors affecting the EnKF experiments, achieving optimality of the RDAS with maximized performance of hydrologic predictions. The RDAS is applied to the Xiangxi River watershed which is the most representative watershed in China's Three Gorges Reservoir region to demonstrate its validity and applicability. Results reveal that the pairwise interaction between perturbed precipitation and streamflow observations has the most significant impact on the performance of the EnKF system, and their interactions vary dynamically across different settings of the ensemble size and the evapotranspiration perturbation. In addition, the interactions among experimental factors vary greatly in magnitude and direction depending on different statistical metrics for model evaluation including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and the Box-Cox transformed root-mean-square error. It is thus necessary to test various evaluation metrics in order to enhance the robustness of hydrologic prediction systems.

  14. Examining the Impact of Latino Nativity, Migration, and Acculturation Factors on Colonoscopy Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas-Muñiz, Rosario; Jandorf, Lina; Philip, Errol; Cohen, Noah; Villagra, Cristina; Sriphanlop, Pathu; Schofield, Elizabeth; DuHamel, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    Latinos are a diverse population comprised of multiple countries of origin with varying cultural profiles. This study examines differences in colonoscopy completion across place of birth and migration-related factors in a sample of predominantly Dominican and Puerto Rican Latinos living in New York City after receiving a recommendation for colonoscopy screening and navigation services. The sample included 702 Latinos recruited for two cancer screening projects targeting Latinos eligible for colonoscopy who seek healthcare in New York City. Participants completed a survey that included sociodemographic, health-related questions, psychosocial assessments and cancer screening practices, in Spanish or English. Migration, acculturation, and language factors were found to predict colonoscopy completion. The results indicated that Latinos born in the Dominican Republic and Central America were more likely to complete a screening colonoscopy than their counterparts born in the US. Further, those who emigrated at an older age, who have resided in the US for less than 20 years, preferred Spanish and those with lower US acculturation levels were also more likely to complete a screening colonoscopy. The findings suggest that Latinos who are less acculturated to the US are more likely to complete a screening colonoscopy after receiving a physician recommendation for colonoscopy screening. The results provide important information that can inform clinical practice and public health interventions. Continued attention to cultural and migration influences are important areas for cancer screening intervention development.

  15. Influence of landscape factors and management decisions on spatial and temporal patterns of the transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn O’Hara Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmission using a combination of clustering, generalised linear modelling and descriptive evaluations of a risk map of predicted cases of CWD. A species distribution map of white-tailed deer developed using MaxEnt provided an estimate of deer locations. We found that deer probability increased in areas with larger forests and less urban and agricultural lands. Spatial clustering analysis revealed a core area of persistent CWD transmission in the northern part of the region. The regression model indicated that larger and more compact forests were associated with higher risk for CWD. High risk areas also had soils with less clay and more sand than other parts of the region. The transmission potential was higher where landscape features indicated the potential for higher deer concentrations. The inclusion of spatial lag variables improved the model. Of the 102 cases reported in the study area in the two years following the study period, 89 (87% of those were in the 32% of the study area with the highest 50% of predicted risk of cases.

  16. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

  17. Habitat and landscape characteristics underlying anuran community structure along an urban-rural gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Finn C; Miller, James R

    2008-07-01

    Urbanization has been cited as an important factor in worldwide amphibian declines, and although recent work has illustrated the important influence of broad-scale ecological patterns and processes on amphibian populations, little is known about the factors structuring amphibian communities in urban landscapes. We therefore examined amphibian community responses to wetland habitat availability and landscape characteristics along an urban-rural gradient in central Iowa, USA, a region experiencing rapid suburban growth. We conducted call surveys at 61 wetlands to estimate anuran calling activity, and quantified wetland habitat structure and landscape context. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to examine patterns in anuran community structure and identify the most important variables associated with those patterns. Urban density at the landscape scale had a significant negative influence on overall anuran abundance and diversity. While every species exhibited a decrease in abundance with increasing urban density, this pattern was especially pronounced for species requiring post-breeding upland habitats. Anurans most affected by urbanization were those associated with short hydroperiods, early breeding activity, and substantial upland habitat use. We suggest that broad-scale landscape fragmentation is an important factor underlying anuran community structure in this region, possibly due to limitations on the accessibility of otherwise suitable habitat in fragmented urban landscapes. This study underscores the importance of a regional approach to amphibian conservation in urban and urbanizing areas; in fragmented landscapes, a network of interconnected wetland and upland habitats may be more likely to support a successful, diverse anuran community than will isolated sites.

  18. Genetics: A New Landscape for Medical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens resistant to medical treatment will present a challenge to the international public health community in the coming decades. Geography is uniquely positioned to examine the progressive evolution of pathogens across space and through time, and to link molecular change to interactions between population and environmental drivers. Landscape as an organizing principle for the integration of natural and cultural forces has a long history in geography, and, more specifically, in medical geography. Here, we explore the role of landscape in medical geography, the emergent field of landscape genetics, and the great potential that exists in the combination of these two disciplines. We argue that landscape genetics can enhance medical geographic studies of local-level disease environments with quantitative tests of how human-environment interactions influence pathogenic characteristics. In turn, such analyses can expand theories of disease diffusion to the molecular scale and distinguish the important factors in ecologies of disease that drive genetic change of pathogens. PMID:24558292

  19. An Examination of Rebuild America Partnership Accomplishments and the Factors Influencing Them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    2003-10-16

    The Rebuild America program was established in 1994 to accelerate the adoption of energy efficiency measures and practices in existing public facilities, commercial buildings, and multifamily housing units. More recently, the program has expanded to include new construction as well. The program encourages the formation of partnerships involving state and local governments, private businesses, and other organizations to help identify and solve problems related to energy use in buildings. Rebuild America does not directly fund actual building improvements. Instead, it provides the Rebuild Partners with the technical tools and assistance they need to plan and implement building projects and stimulates other entities to make substantial investments in energy efficiency. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied the Rebuild America program for the purpose of identifying key factors associated with successful operations. Substantial amounts of data were collected directly from Rebuild America partnerships concerning the results achieved by each of their individual projects, both committed and completed. In addition, data were collected from secondary sources on a limited number of factors describing partnership setting and characteristics. By combining these two data sets, we were able to perform statistical analyses testing the potential relationship between each partnership characteristic and each of four key results measures. The influences on successful partnership performance also were determined in another way, which allowed a broader examination of potentially important factors. Telephone interviews were conducted with representatives from 61 high-performing Rebuild America partnerships throughout the United States. The respondents were asked to identify the most important factors influencing good performance and the types of Rebuild America products

  20. Examining critical factors affecting graduate retention from an emergency medicine training program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Jane Kuipers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ethiopia, improvement and innovation of the emergency care system is hindered by lack of specialist doctors trained in emergency medicine, underdeveloped emergency care infrastructure, and consumable resource limitations. Our aim was to examine the critical factors affecting retention of graduates from the Addis Ababa University (AAU post-graduate emergency medicine (EM training program within the Ethiopian health care system. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with current AAU EM residents and stakeholders in Ethiopian EM. Mixed-methods inductive thematic analysis was performed. Results: Resident and stakeholder participants identified critical factors in three domains: the individual condition, the occupational environment, and the national context. Within each domain, priority themes emerged from the responses, including the importance of career satisfaction over the career continuum (individual condition, the opportunity to be involved in the developing EM program and challenges associated with resource, economic, and employment constraints (occupational environment, and perceptions regarding the state of awareness of EM and the capacity for change at the societal level (national context. Conclusions: This work underscores the need to resolve multiple systemic and cultural issues within the Ethiopian health care landscape in order to address EM graduate retention. It also highlights the potential success of a retention strategy focused on the career ambitions of keen EM doctors.

  1. Simulating Spatial-Temporal Changes of Land-Use Based on Ecological Redline Restrictions and Landscape Driving Factors: A Case Study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimu Jia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A change in the usage of land is influenced by a variety of driving factors and policies on spatial constraints. On the basis of considering the conventional natural and socio-economic indicators, the landscape pattern indicators were considered as new driving forces in the conversion of land use and its effects at small regional extent (CLUE-S model to simulate spatial and temporal changes of land-use in Beijing. Compared with traditional spatial restrictions characterized by small and isolated areas, such as forest parks and natural reserves, the ecological redline areas increase the spatial integrity and connectivity of ecological and environmental functions at a regional scale, which were used to analyze the distribution patterns and behaviors of land use conversion in the CLUE-S model. The observed results indicate that each simulation scenario has a Kappa coefficient of more than 0.76 beyond the threshold value of 0.6 and represents high agreements between the actual and simulated land use maps. The simulation scenarios including landscape pattern indicators are more accurate than those without consideration of these new driving forces. The simulation results from using ecological redline areas as space constraints have the highest precision compared with the unrestricted and traditionally restricted scenarios. Therefore, the CLUE-S model based on the restriction of ecological redline and the consideration of landscape pattern factors has shown better effectiveness in simulating the future land use change. The conversion of land use types mainly occurred between construction land and cropland during the period from 2010 to 2020. Meanwhile, a large number of grasslands are being changed to construction lands in the mountain towns of northwest Beijing and large quantities of water bodies have disappeared and been replaced by construction lands due to rapid urbanization in the eastern and southern plains. To improve the sustainable use of

  2. Examination of factors which may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rita C. F.

    Throughout this country the student population is becoming increasingly diverse, yet the teacher population does not reflect this diversity. This lack of diversity in the teacher population deprives students of color from having role models of the same race/ethnicity who look like them and who might have experiences which are similar to theirs (Epstein, 2005; Nettles & Perna, 1997). Having role models from their own race in the classroom could have a positive impact on students' attitudes about science (Perine, 2003), and facilitate their learning of the subject matter, and give students an incentive to do well in school (Vegas, Murnane, & Willett, 2001). In 2000, a national survey study of math and science teachers was conducted (Horizon Research, 2001). The majority of biology (90%), chemistry (93%), and physics (94%) teachers who participated in the study were White. Findings of the study revealed that only 55% to 60% of these teachers considered themselves well prepared to effectively teach a culturally diverse student population (Banilower, 2002; Smith, 2002; Wood, 2002). The majority of the teacher pool, which is White, prefer not to teach in urban communities as they have a preference for teaching jobs in the nonurban communities that are similar to those in which they were raised (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005; Epstein, 2005). The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine factors that may contribute to the underrepresentation of African American teachers certified in science. More specifically, it was decided to examine the high school experiences of in-service teachers. Study participants were teachers and other certificated faculty in two school districts located in the southern portion of the United States. Findings of the study revealed a statistically significant relationship between a teacher's decision to become certified in science and the following high school experiences: teachers and guidance counselors encouraging students to

  3. Substantial Mortality of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Predators in Urban Agriculture Is not Influenced by Scale of Production or Variation in Local and Landscape-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, David M; Gharehaghaji, Maryam; Wise, David H

    2017-02-01

    As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica. We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators. Predators removed 50% of eggs and 25% of larvae over a 3-d period. Landscape factors did not predict mortality rates, and the amount of loss and damage to sentinel prey were similar across sites that differed in scale (residential gardens, community gardens, and farms). To confirm that removal of sentinel items was likely caused by natural enemies, we set up a laboratory assay that measured predation of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by several predators occurring in urban gardens. Lady beetles caused the highest mortality rates, suggesting their potential value for biocontrol; spiders and pirate bugs also consumed both eggs and larvae at high rates. Our results suggest that urban growers benefit from high consumption rates of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by arthropod predators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Examining nervios among immigrant male farmworkers in the MICASA Study: sociodemographics, housing conditions and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Schenker, Marc B

    2015-02-01

    Nervios is a culturally defined condition of psychological stress with important implications for Latino health. Using epidemiological research methods, we examined the prevalence of nervios and associated risk factors, including drug and alcohol use, acculturation, and housing conditions in a population-based study of farm worker families in Mendota, CA (the MICASA Study). A household enumeration procedure was used for sampling, and 843 individuals were interviewed in 2006-2007. In this analysis, we present data on 422 men, 381 accompanied (family) males and 41 unaccompanied males. The prevalence of nervios was 22%, with no difference in prevalence by household status. Low family incomes, drug use, medium/high acculturation, and poor housing conditions were associated with increased odds of nervios. Self-reported poor/fair health, depressive symptoms, and high perceived stress were also associated with nervios. Since nervios has been shown to be a clinical indicator of psychiatric vulnerability among Latinos, this analysis furthers public health goals of reducing health disparities.

  5. Factors influencing moisture analysis in the 3013 destructive examination surveillance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    Thermogravimetric analysis of a solid sample with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) of the evolved gas is used in the destructive examination (DE) portion of the Integrated Surveillance Program to quantify the moisture content of the material stored in a 3013 container. As with any measurement determined from a small sample, the collection, storage, transportation, and handling of the sample can affect its ability to represent the properties of the bulk material. During the course of the DE program, questions have periodically arisen concerning the ability of the moisture sample to reflect reliably the actual moisture content of the entire material stored in the 3013 container. Most concerns are related to the ability to collect a representative sample and to preserve the moisture content of the sample between collection and analysis. Recent delays in analysis caused by maintenance issues with the TGA-MS instrument presented a unique opportunity to document and quantify the effects various factors have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. This report will use recent data to document the effects that current sample collection and handling practices have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. Some suggestions will be made which could improve the current sample collection and handling practices for the TGA-MS moisture measurement so that the analytical results more accurately reflect the moisture content of the material stored in the 3013 container.

  6. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of corporate social responsibility, social media marketing, sales promotion, store environment and perceived value on a purchase decision in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research methodology was used and the data were collected from 278 customers of retail stores in Malaysia. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 19 and structural equation modelling on AMOS. Findings – The findings showed that corporate social responsibility has significant positive effects on a purchase decision, whereas sales promotion has a negative effect on purchase decision. The outcomes of this study also indicated that store environment has a significant positive effect on consumers’ purchase decisions. Contrary to expectations, the findings revealed that the effect of social media marketing on purchase decision is insignificant. Finally, the results showed that perceived value has a significant positive effect on a purchase decision. Originality/value – The findings of this study contribute to an understanding of the importance of the selected factors in affecting a consumer’s purchase decision in the retail industry.

  7. Examination of Environmental Factors Influencing the Emission Rates of Semivolatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwoo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some types of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs that are emitted from plastics used in building materials and household appliances have been associated with health risks, even at low concentrations. It has been reported that di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP—one of the most commonly used plasticizers—causes asthma and allergic symptoms in children at home. The amount of emitted DEHP, which is classified as a SVOC, can be measured using a microchamber by the thermal desorption test chamber method. To accurately measure the SVOC emission rates, the relation between SVOC and environmental factors should be clarified. Herein, we examined the effects of the temperature, relative humidity, concentration of airborne particles, and flow field in the microchamber on SVOC emission rates. The flow fields inside the microchamber were analyzed via computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The emission rate of SVOC released from PVC flooring increased under high temperatures and at high concentrations of airborne particles but did not depend on the relative humidity. From an evaluation performed using an index of air change efficiency, such as the air age and the coefficient of air change performance, we found that a fixed air exchange rate of 1.5 h−1 in the microchamber is desirable.

  8. Construct Validity of the Korean Dental Licensing Examination using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyoung Yim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Confirmatory factor analysis based on a measurement model of a structural equation model was used to test the construct validity of 13 subjects in the Korean Dental Licensing Examination (KDLE. The results of 1,086 examinees who wrote the KDLE in 2004 were analyzed. The thirteen subjects were classified into 62 major categories and 122 intermediate categories. There were 364 items. A hierarchical model was constructed, including major and intermediate categories. The impact of the variables was determined by the standardized regression coefficient that related latent and measured variables in the measurement model. The KDLE showed a high goodness-of-fit with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.030 and a non-normed fit index of 0.998. When the latent variables for the major and intermediate categories were analyzed, the standardized regression coefficients of all of the subjects, with the exception of Health and Medical Legislation, were significant. From the result, we concluded that the 13 subjects showed constructive validity. In addition, the study model and data were very compatible. The subject Health and Medical Legislation had a low explanatory impact with respect to testing the ability of dentists to perform their jobs. This study suggests that similar psychometric studies are needed before integrating or deleting subjects on the KDLE, and to improve item development.

  9. Examining the Interrelationship among Critical Success Factors of Public Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiying Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining the interrelationships among critical success factors (CSFs for public private partnership (PPP projects is of importance for improving PPP project performance and maintaining the sustainability of PPP project implementation. Previous studies mostly focused on the identification of the CSFs for PPP projects; limited studies investigated the interrelationships among CSFs. Hence, the research objectives are (a to determine the interrelationships among CSFs of PPP projects taking into account the public and (b to identify influence paths contributing to take advantage of CSFs in the process of PPP implementation. A literature review and expert interviews were adopted to construct the CSFs framework; nine hypotheses were constructed and tested by the structural equation modelling (SEM based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey. This research reveals that the relationship between public and private partners is the leader-follower relationship, not the partnership relationship, in PPP projects, indicating that the responsibilities, power or resources existing among partners are very unequal. It also highlights that public involvement has a negative effect on the process of service provisions, and costs and risks exist in the process of public involvement in PPP projects. The determined interrelationships among CSFs will contribute to the sustainability and success of a PPP project.

  10. Factors influencing moisture analysis in the 3013 destructive examination surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogin, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis of a solid sample with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) of the evolved gas is used in the destructive examination (DE) portion of the Integrated Surveillance Program to quantify the moisture content of the material stored in a 3013 container. As with any measurement determined from a small sample, the collection, storage, transportation, and handling of the sample can affect its ability to represent the properties of the bulk material. During the course of the DE program, questions have periodically arisen concerning the ability of the moisture sample to reflect reliably the actual moisture content of the entire material stored in the 3013 container. Most concerns are related to the ability to collect a representative sample and to preserve the moisture content of the sample between collection and analysis. Recent delays in analysis caused by maintenance issues with the TGA-MS instrument presented a unique opportunity to document and quantify the effects various factors have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. This report will use recent data to document the effects that current sample collection and handling practices have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. Some suggestions will be made which could improve the current sample collection and handling practices for the TGA-MS moisture measurement so that the analytical results more accurately reflect the moisture content of the material stored in the 3013 container.

  11. Numerical examination of the factors controlling DNAPL migration through a single fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, D A; Kueper, B H

    2002-01-01

    The migration of five dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) through a single fracture in a clay aquitard was numerically simulated with the use of a compositional simulator. The effects of fracture aperture, fracture dip, matrix porosity, and matrix organic carbon content on the migration of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tetra-chloroethylene, and 1,2-dibromoethane were examined. Boundary conditions were chosen such that DNAPL entry into the system was allowed to vary according to the stresses applied. The aperture is the most important factor of those studied controlling the migration rate of DNAPL through a single fracture embedded in a clay matrix. Loss of mass to the matrix through diffusion does not significantly retard the migration rate of the DNAPL, particularly in larger aperture fractures (e.g., 50 microm). With time, the ratio of diffusive loss to the matrix to DNAPL flux into the fracture approaches an asymptotic value lower than unity. The implication is that matrix diffusion cannot arrest the migration of DNAPL in a single fracture. The complex relationships between density, viscosity, and solubility that, to some extent, govern the migration of DNAPL through these systems prevent accurate predictions without the use of numerical models. The contamination potential of the migrating DNAPL is significantly increased through the transfer of mass to the matrix. The occurrence of opposite concentration gradients within the matrix can cause dissolved phase contamination to exist in the system for more than 1000 years after the DNAPL has been completely removed from the fracture.

  12. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Mitchell; Scott H. Rutzmoser; T. Bently Wigley; Craig Loehle; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Roger W. Perry; Christopher L. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand...

  13. Project D.I.R.T.: A landscape architect's excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargmann, J.

    1994-01-01

    To a landscape architect interested in the creative manipulation of the land, mineral extraction presents a massive load for design exploration. The primary goal of Project D.I.R.T., Design Investigations Reclaiming Terrain, was to unearth the possibilities for renewing the perception of mining as creatively integral with the cultural and natural evolution of the landscape. The potential collaboration and planning inherent in the multidisciplinary task of reclamation became evident on a journey to document selected mining sites around the country. Various coal, gold, copper, and taconite operations visited represent a diversity of regional landscapes with specific mining and reclamation practices. Both active and abandoned mined sites serve as case studies presented from a landscape architect's perspective. Examining the legal, social, and economic factors uncovered the frustrations with the legislation governing reclamation and the financial and ethical dilemmas of future land use for dependent communities. Reviewing the technical and ecological aspects revealed the innovations and progress of reclamation technology, but also limited application of ecological principles. These current practices of mining and reclamation illustrate a need to revise the legislation and coordinate an interdisciplinary effort to form truly productive and sustainable landscapes. Moreover, from this landscape architect's point of view, a synthetic approach guided by a broader vision of mining must lead to the creation of meaningful places that objectively reveal and celebrate the industrial heritage of the landscape. Mined lands can be an expression of a reciprocal connection between communities and individuals with the land one cultivates and all nurture. These monumental landscapes may come to represent a dynamic relationship between culture and nature for the next century

  14. Skin examination behavior: the role of melanoma history, skin type, psychosocial factors, and region of residence in determining clinical and self-conducted skin examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Nadine A; Bränström, Richard; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tibben, Aad; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Debniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmanski, Slawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A; Leachman, Sancy; Bergman, Wilma; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2012-10-01

    To examine the frequency and correlates of skin examination behaviors in an international sample of individuals at varying risk of developing melanoma. A cross-sectional, web-based survey. Data were collected from the general population over a 20-month period on behalf of the Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL). A total of 8178 adults from Northern (32%), Central (33%), and Southern (14%) Europe, Australia (13%), and the United States (8%). Self-reported frequency of skin self-examination (SSE) and clinical skin examination (CSE). After adjustment for age and sex, frequency of skin examination was higher in both Australia (odds ratio [OR]SSE=1.80 [99% CI, 1.49-2.18]; ORCSE=2.68 [99% CI, 2.23-3.23]) and the United States (ORSSE=2.28 [99% CI, 1.76-2.94]; ORCSE=3.39 [99% CI, 2.60-4.18]) than in the 3 European regions combined. Within Europe, participants from Southern Europe reported higher rates of SSE than those in Northern Europe (ORSSE=1.61 [99% CI, 1.31-1.97]), and frequency of CSE was higher in both Central (ORCSE=1.47 [99% CI, 1.22-1.78]) and Southern Europe (ORCSE=3.46 [99% CI, 2.78, 4.31]) than in Northern Europe. Skin examination behavior also varied according to melanoma history: participants with no history of melanoma reported the lowest levels of skin examination, while participants with a previous melanoma diagnosis reported the highest levels. After adjustment for region, and taking into account the role of age, sex, skin type, and mole count, engagement in SSE and CSE was associated with a range of psychosocial factors, including perceived risk of developing melanoma; perceived benefits of, and barriers to, skin examination; perceived confidence in one's ability to engage in screening; and social norms. In addition, among those with no history of melanoma, higher cancer-related worry was associated with greater frequency of SSE. Given the strong association between psychosocial factors and skin examination behaviors, particularly among people with

  15. DIETFITS Study (Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) – Study Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; Robinson, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Avery, Erin; Rigdon, Joseph; Offringa, Lisa; Trepanowski, John; Hauser, Michelle; Hartle, Jennifer; Cherin, Rise; King, Abby C.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Desai, Manisha; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25 kg weight loss to ~5 kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing individual factors at baseline that help explain differential weight loss achieved by individuals assigned to the same diet, particularly a pre-determined multi-locus genotype pattern and insulin resistance status. Secondary objectives included discovery strategies for further identifying potential genetic risk scores. Exploratory objectives included investigation of an extensive set of physiological, psychosocial, dietary, and behavioral variables as moderating and/or mediating variables and/or secondary outcomes. The target population was generally healthy, free-living adults with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 (n=600). The intervention consisted of a 12-month protocol of 22 one-hour evening instructional sessions led by registered dietitians, with ~15-20 participants/class. Key objectives of dietary instruction included focusing on maximizing the dietary quality of both Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate diets (i.e., Healthy Low-Fat vs. Healthy Low-Carbohydrate), and maximally differentiating the two diets from one another. Rather than seeking to determine if one dietary approach was better than the other for the general population, this study sought to examine whether greater overall weight loss success could be achieved by matching different people to different diets. Here we present the design and methods of the study. PMID:28027950

  16. DIETFITS study (diet intervention examining the factors interacting with treatment success) - Study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael V; Robinson, Jennifer L; Kirkpatrick, Susan M; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Avery, Erin C; Rigdon, Joseph; Offringa, Lisa C; Trepanowski, John F; Hauser, Michelle E; Hartle, Jennifer C; Cherin, Rise J; King, Abby C; Ioannidis, John P A; Desai, Manisha; Gardner, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25kg weight loss to ~5kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing individual factors at baseline that help explain differential weight loss achieved by individuals assigned to the same diet, particularly a pre-determined multi-locus genotype pattern and insulin resistance status. Secondary objectives included discovery strategies for further identifying potential genetic risk scores. Exploratory objectives included investigation of an extensive set of physiological, psychosocial, dietary, and behavioral variables as moderating and/or mediating variables and/or secondary outcomes. The target population was generally healthy, free-living adults with BMI 28-40kg/m 2 (n=600). The intervention consisted of a 12-month protocol of 22 one-hour evening instructional sessions led by registered dietitians, with ~15-20 participants/class. Key objectives of dietary instruction included focusing on maximizing the dietary quality of both Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate diets (i.e., Healthy Low-Fat vs. Healthy Low-Carbohydrate), and maximally differentiating the two diets from one another. Rather than seeking to determine if one dietary approach was better than the other for the general population, this study sought to examine whether greater overall weight loss success could be achieved by matching different people to different diets. Here we present the design and methods of the study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining the virulence of Candida albicans transcription factor mutants using Galleria mellonella and mouse infection models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eAmorim-Vaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify C. albicans transcription factors (TF involved in virulence. Although mice are considered the gold-standard model to study fungal virulence, mini-host infection models have been increasingly used. Here, barcoded TF mutants were first screened in mice by pools of strains and fungal burdens quantified in kidneys. Mutants of unannotated genes which generated a kidney fungal burden significantly different from that of wild-type were selected and individually examined in G. mellonella. In addition, mutants that could not be detected in mice were also tested in G. mellonella. Only 25 % of these mutants displayed matching phenotypes in both hosts, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the two models. To address the basis of this difference (pool or host effects, a set of 19 mutants tested in G. mellonella were also injected individually into mice. Matching fungal burden phenotypes were observed in 50 % of the cases, highlighting the bias due to host effects. In contrast, 33.4 % concordance was observed between pool and single strain infections in mice, thereby highlighting the bias introduced by the pool effect. After filtering the results obtained from the two infection models, mutants for MBF1 and ZCF6 were selected. Independent marker-free mutants were subsequently tested in both hosts to validate previous results. The MBF1 mutant showed impaired infection in both models, while the ZCF6 mutant was only significant in mice infections. The two mutants showed no obvious in vitro phenotypes compared with the wild-type, indicating that these genes might be specifically involved in in vivo adaptation.

  18. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most consistent…

  19. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  20. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  1. Examining the Factor Structure of the MLQ Transactional and Transformational Leadership Dimensions in Nursing Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Sheila A; Tremblay, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is the most widely used instrument for assessing dimensions of leadership style; yet, most studies have failed to reproduce the original MLQ factor structure. The current study evaluates the dimensionality and nomological validity of Bass's transactional and transformational leadership model using the MLQ in a sample of registered nurses working in acute care hospitals in Canada. A combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the hypothetical factor structure of the MLQ consisting of five transformational factors, and three transactional factors. Results suggest that the eight-factor solution displayed best fit indices; however, two transactional factors should be extracted due to high interscale correlations and lack of differential relationships with the two leadership variables. The findings support a scale refinement and the need for new theory concerning the five transformational leadership and contingent reward dimensions of the MLQ.

  2. The Relationship between Bullying Victimization and School Avoidance: An Examination of Direct Associations, Protective Influences, and Aggravating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzell, Kirsten L.; Payne, Allison Ann

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of bullying victimization on school avoidance by proposing the following hypotheses: (1) Net of other factors, students who have experienced bullying victimization are more likely to engage in school avoidance behaviors; (2) There are protective factors that will decrease this relationship between bullying…

  3. A DNA-binding-site landscape and regulatory network analysis for NAC transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; Jensen, Michael Krogh; de Velde, Jan Van

    2014-01-01

    regulatory networks of 12 NAC transcription factors. Our data offer specific single-base resolution fingerprints for most TFs studied and indicate that NAC DNA-binding specificities might be predicted from their DNA-binding domain's sequence. The developed methodology, including the application......Target gene identification for transcription factors is a prerequisite for the systems wide understanding of organismal behaviour. NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors are amongst the largest transcription factor families in plants, yet limited data exist from unbiased approaches to resolve...... the DNA-binding preferences of individual members. Here, we present a TF-target gene identification workflow based on the integration of novel protein binding microarray data with gene expression and multi-species promoter sequence conservation to identify the DNA-binding specificities and the gene...

  4. Local and landscape drivers of predation services in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2017-04-01

    In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness, are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e., herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i.e., landscape diversity and surrounding land use types) characteristics on predation services provided by naturally occurring predators in 19 urban gardens in the California central coast. We introduced sentinel pests (moth eggs and larvae and pea aphids) onto greenhouse-raised plants taken to gardens and assigned to open or bagged (predator exclosure) treatments. We found high predation rates with between 40% and 90% of prey items removed in open treatments. Predation services varied with local and landscape factors, but significant predictors differed by prey species. Predation of eggs and aphids increased with vegetation complexity in gardens, but larvae predation declined with vegetation complexity. Smaller gardens experienced higher predation services, likely due to increases in predator abundance in smaller gardens. Several ground cover features influenced predation services. In contrast to patterns in rural agricultural landscapes, predation on aphids declined with increases in landscape diversity. In sum, we report the relationships between several local management factors, as well as landscape surroundings, and implications for garden management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Application of lot quality assurance sampling for leprosy elimination monitoring--examination of some critical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, M D; Murthy, B N; Mahmood, K; Meeralakshmi, S; Nagaraju, B; Prabhakaran, R

    2004-04-01

    The concept of elimination of an infectious disease is different from eradication and in a way from control as well. In disease elimination programmes the desired reduced level of prevalence is set up as the target to be achieved in a practical time frame. Elimination can be considered in the context of national or regional levels. Prevalence levels depend on occurrence of new cases and thus could remain fluctuating. There are no ready pragmatic methods to monitor the progress of leprosy elimination programmes. We therefore tried to explore newer methods to answer these demands. With the lowering of prevalence of leprosy to the desired level of 1 case per 10000 population at the global level, the programme administrators' concern will be shifted to smaller areas e.g. national and sub-national levels. For monitoring this situation, we earlier observed that lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), a quality control tool in industry was useful in the initially high endemic areas. However, critical factors such as geographical distribution of cases and adoption of cluster sampling design instead of simple random sampling design deserve attention before LQAS could generally be recommended. The present exercise was aimed at validating applicability of LQAS, and adopting these modifications for monitoring leprosy elimination in Tamil Nadu state, which was highly endemic for leprosy. A representative sample of 64000 people drawn from eight districts of Tamil Nadu state, India, with maximum allowable number of 25 cases was considered, using LQAS methodology to test whether leprosy prevalence was at or below 7 per 10000 population. Expected number of cases for each district was obtained assuming Poisson distribution. Goodness of fit for the observed and expected cases (closeness of the expected number of cases to those observed) was tested through chi(2). Enhancing factor (design effect) for sample size was obtained by computing the intraclass correlation. The survey actually

  6. [Examination of factors for promoting cooperation using documents between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawara, Makoto; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Kusumoto, Akira; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Shinkai, Takahiro; Morimoto, Hideki; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Michihiro; Mori, Koji

    2018-02-01

    There is little specific information concerning the method and the efficacy of sharing information between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists regarding the employment status and medical history of their patients with mental illnesses. To promote cooperation between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists, we examined the points necessary to be included on medical information request forms exchanged between them. We conducted focused group discussion (FGD) to identify the points that need to be described on the request form and the concerns in cooperation between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists. We conducted FGDs twice, with two different groups of nine psychiatrists participating in each round. We extracted and organized FGD results and determined the necessary request form points. Next, we assumed two different cases of workers with mental illnesses and created three request form templates with differing item descriptions and lengths. We also conducted a questionnaire survey among clinical psychiatrists to determine their impression of the templates. We performed logistic regression analysis on the obtained results. On the basis of the FGD results we extracted the situation in the workplace, clarification of points to be confirmed, representation of the occupational health physician's position, and handling of information provided by the doctor as points required for the request form. On the basis of these results and the opinions of occupational health specialists, we created a new request form using these points. Additionally, the results from the questionnaire survey about the prescribed items revealed the proportion of favorable answers regarding sufficient information written on the request form and a feeling of security for information provision increased (p situation by providing their personal medical information and believe the clinical information required by the occupational health physicians is unclear. This

  7. Factors Influencing Student Preference When Comparing Handwriting and Typing for Essay Style Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogey, Nora; Fluck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    It seems anachronistic that we expect students to handwrite essay examinations when almost all their other work is mediated by computer. Two universities, one in the UK and one in Australia, are exploring the use of computers in free text response examinations. This paper compares both the attitudes and the behaviours of their students concerning…

  8. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  9. Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers: Examination of the Multiple Factors Reported as Influential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan Kirik, Özgecan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the science teaching efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers and the relationship between efficacy beliefs and multiple factors such as antecedent factors (participation in extracurricular activities and number of science and science teaching methods courses taken), conceptual understanding, classroom management…

  10. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  11. Examination of Factors Impacting Student Satisfaction with a New Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lucy Santos; Inan, Fethi A.; Denton, Bree

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influenced student satisfaction with a new learning management system and to identify which of these factors were most important. The data was collected using an an online survey tool that was administered to students enrolled in courses designed and taught by faculty who participated in a…

  12. Factor structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed adolescents: Examining stability across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cao, Xing; Cao, Chengqi; Fang, Ruojiao; Yang, Haibo; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms using two-wave longitudinal data collected from a sample of adolescents exposed to an explosion accident. Two waves of surveys were conducted approximately 3 and 8 months after the accident, respectively. A total of 836 students completed the baseline survey, and 762 students completed the follow-up survey. The results of confirmatory factor analyses(CFA) indicated that a seven-factor hybrid model composed of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal and dysphoric arousal factors yielded significantly better data fit at both waves than the other models including the DSM-5 four-factor model, the six-factor anhedonia and externalizing behaviors models. Furthermore, the results of CFA invariance tests supported the longitudinal invariance of the model. Implications and limitations in terms of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impacts and underlying factors of landscape-scale, historical disturbance of mountain forest identified using archival documents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůna, Josef; Wild, Jan; Svoboda, M.; Heurich, M.; Müllerová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 305 (2013), s. 294-306 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0843 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mountain forests * disturbance * historical range of variability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2013

  14. Examining the Effect of Reverse Worded Items on the Factor Structure of the Need for Cognition Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Reverse worded (RW items are often used to reduce or eliminate acquiescence bias, but there is a rising concern about their harmful effects on the covariance structure of the scale. Therefore, results obtained via traditional covariance analyses may be distorted. This study examined the effect of the RW items on the factor structure of the abbreviated 18-item Need for Cognition (NFC scale using confirmatory factor analysis. We modified the scale to create three revised versions, varying from no RW items to all RW items. We also manipulated the type of the RW items (polar opposite vs. negated. To each of the four scales, we fit four previously developed models. The four models included a 1-factor model, a 2-factor model distinguishing between positively worded (PW items and RW items, and two 2-factor models, each with one substantive factor and one method factor. Results showed that the number and type of the RW items affected the factor structure of the NFC scale. Consistent with previous research findings, for the original NFC scale, which contains both PW and RW items, the 1-factor model did not have good fit. In contrast, for the revised scales that had no RW items or all RW items, the 1-factor model had reasonably good fit. In addition, for the scale with polar opposite and negated RW items, the factor model with a method factor among the polar opposite items had considerably better fit than the 1-factor model.

  15. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetinkaya Aynur

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a high school in Manisa, Turkey. The study sample included 718 female high school students. A socio-demographic characteristics data form, knowledge of breast self examination and risk factors for breast cancer form and breast self examination practice form were used to collect data. Results The female high school students had insufficient knowledge about breast self-examination and a low percentage of students reported that they had performed breast self examination monthly. The most common reason for not doing breast self- examination was "not knowing how to perform breast self-examination" (98.5%. Most of the students had little knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. The most widely known risk factor by the students was personal history of breast cancer (68.7%. There was a significant relation between breast self-examination practice and age, school grade, knowledge about breast cancer and knowledge about breast self- examination. Conclusion There is a need to increase knowledge of adolescent females about the risks of breast cancer and benefits of early detection. In fact, health care professionals can develop effective breast health care programs and help young women to acquire good health habits.

  16. Examining significant factors in micro and small enterprises performance: case study in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkos, Tomas; Zegeye, Muluken; Tilahun, Shimelis; Avvari, Muralidhar

    2017-07-01

    Furniture manufacturing micro and small enterprises are confronted with several factors that affect their performance. Some enterprises fail to sustain, some others remain for long period of time without transforming, and most are producing similar and non-standard products. The main aim of this manuscript is on improving the performance and contribution of MSEs by analyzing impact of significant internal and external factors. Data was collected via a questionnaire, group discussion with experts and interviewing process. Randomly selected eight representative main cities of Amhara region with 120 furniture manufacturing enterprises are considered. Data analysis and presentation was made using SPSS tools (correlation, proximity, and T test) and impact-effort analysis matrix tool. The correlation analysis shows that politico-legal with infrastructure, leadership with entrepreneurship skills and finance and credit with marketing factors are those factors, which result in high correlation with Pearson correlation values of r = 0.988, 0.983, and 0.939, respectively. The study investigates that the most critical factors faced by MSEs are work premises, access to finance, infrastructure, entrepreneurship and business managerial problems. The impact of these factors is found to be high and is confirmed by the 50% drop-out rate in 2014/2015. Furthermore, more than 25% work time losses due to power interruption daily and around 65% work premises problems challenged MSEs. Further, an impact-effort matrix was developed to help the MSEs to prioritize the affecting factors.

  17. Towards GMO-free landscapes? Identifying driving factors for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Consmuller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Since the end of the quasi-moratorium on genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the European Union in 2004, the establishment of GMO-free zones has become an EU wide phenomenon. In contrast to other European countries, Germany follows the concept of cooperative GMO-free zones where neighbouring farmers contractually refrain from GMO cultivation. In this article, we address the question which underlying factors could account for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany. Draw...

  18. Local and landscape factors affecting communities of plants and diurnal Lepidoptera in black coal spoil heaps: Implications for restoration management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Hejda, Martin; Kadlec, T.; Spitzer, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, aug. 2013 (2013), s. 252-260 ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR GAP504/12/2525; GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : diversity conservation * disturbance * habitat heterogenity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.041, year: 2013

  19. Thinking Structurally About Narcissism: An Examination of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory and Its Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; McCain, Jessica L; Few, Lauren R; Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-02-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a self-report measure of the traits linked to grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, as well as narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), from a five-factor model perspective (FFM). In the current studies, the factor structure of the FFNI was explored and the results supported the extraction of three factors: Antagonism (e.g., Arrogance), Neuroticism (e.g., Need for Admiration), and Agentic Extraversion (e.g., Authoritativeness). In Study 2, the FFNI factors manifested convergent validity with their corresponding Big Five domains and diverging relations with measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, NPD, and self-esteem. Ultimately, the FFNI factors help explicate the differences between various expressions of narcissism such that all are related to Antagonism but differ with regard to Neuroticism (relevant to vulnerable narcissism and NPD) and Agentic Extraversion (relevant to grandiose narcissism and NPD). The results also highlight the complex relation between self-esteem and the traits that comprise narcissism measures.

  20. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African

  1. Examining the effect of the injury definition on risk factor analysis in circus artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G M; Meeuwisse, W H; Emery, C A; Shrier, I

    2012-06-01

    A secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study was conducted to explore how different definitions of injury affect the results of risk factor analyses. Modern circus artists (n=1281) were followed for 828,547 performances over a period of 49 months (2004-2008). A univariate risk factor analysis (age, sex, nationality, artist role) estimating incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was conducted using three injury definitions: (1) medical attention injuries, (2) time-loss injuries resulting in ≥1 missed performances (TL-1) and (3) time-loss injuries resulting in >15 missed performances (TL-15). Results of the risk factor analysis were dependent on the injury definition. Sex (females to male; IRR=1.13, 95% CI; 1.02-1.25) and age over 30 (30 years; IRR=1.37, 95% CI; 1.07-1.79) were risk factors for medical attention injuries only. Risk of injury for Europeans compared with North Americans was higher for TL-1 and TL-15 injuries compared with medical attention injuries. Finally, non-sudden load artists (low-impact acts) were less likely than sudden load artists (high-impact acts) to have TL-1 injuries, but the risk of medical attention injuries was similar. The choice of injury definition can have effects on the magnitude and direction of risk factor analyses. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Examining Factor Structure of the Chinese Version of the PIRLS 2011 Home Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ming Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The home questionnaire of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS-HQ 2011 was designed to gather information from parents or primary caregivers of fourth-grade pupils on their reading literacy development related to aspects of pupils’ home lives across countries/districts. The questionnaire was translated into different languages for international comparison and research purposes. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the PIRLS 2011 home questionnaire (PIRLS-HQCV 2011 and identify the underlying factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA among Chinese fourth-grade pupils in Hong Kong. A 7-factor structure model has been identified by EFA and confirmed to resemble much to the original PIRLS structure by CFA. Additional conceptually important domains have been identified which add further insights into the inconclusive results in the literature regarding the relationship between home factors and reading achievement. Implications for further studies are discussed.

  3. Factor Structure of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire in a Clinical Sample of Adult Women With Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn E; Jennings, Karen M; Gregas, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    An exploratory factor analysis on the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is presented for a clinical sample of women with anorexia nervosa. THE EDE-Q was completed by 169 participants after admission to an inpatient unit for eating disorders. Results of the current study did not support the four-factor model presented by the EDE-Q. A new four-factor solution was obtained with two factors showing similarity to the Restraint and Eating Concern subscales of the original model. The Shape and Weight Concern items primarily loaded together on one factor, along with preoccupation with food and fear of losing control over eating, two Eating Concern items. Finally, an appearance factor was obtained that supports the results of prior research. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(5), 33-39.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Examination of lifestyle factors and diseases in teaching periodontology in dental education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle and general diseases are important for the development of periodontitis and other diseases in the oral cavity. Therefore, knowledge on lifestyle factors must be part of the dental curriculum. However, a search for information in the literature databases gave meagre results......, was sent to the chairs of the departments of periodontology in the Nordic countries. The questions concerned extent, curriculum structure, educational method, content, assessment and evaluation of the education. RESULTS: Education on lifestyle factors took place at all dental schools, but the extent......, content and placement in the curriculum varied. In some schools, more than 10 lessons were scheduled; two schools had only 3-5 lessons. The education of lifestyle factors was prioritised highest in the departments of periodontology followed by cariology and general health. Despite differences...

  5. An examination of human factors in external beam radiation therapy: Findings and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.E. Jr.; Morisseau, D.S.; Persensky, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the contributing factors to human error in external beam radiation therapy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken a series of human factors evaluations. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted visits to 24 radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of human-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. Representative findings and implications for improvement are discussed within the context of a dynamic model which holds that misadministration likely results from the unanticipated interaction of several necessary but singly insufficient conditions

  6. Development and Examination of the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sarah A; Suzuki, Takakuni; Lynam, Donald R; Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; Samuel, Douglas B

    2018-01-01

    The Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI) is an assessment of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) that is based on the conceptual framework of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality. The FFOCI has 12 subscales that assess those five-factor model facets relevant to the description of OCPD. Research has suggested that the FFOCI scores relate robustly to existing measures of OCPD and relevant scales from general personality inventories. Nonetheless, the FFOCI's length-120 items-may limit its clinical utility. This study derived a 48-item FFOCI-Short Form (FFOCI-SF) from the original measure using item response theory methods. The FFOCI-SF scales successfully recreated the nomological network of the original measure and improved discriminant validity relative to the long form. These results support the use of the FFOCI-SF as a briefer measure of the lower-order traits associated with OCPD.

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Statistics Anxiety Measure: An Examination of Four Alternative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bevrani, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Statistics Anxiety Measure (SAM, proposed by Earp.Method: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian adaptation of SAM.Results: As expected, the second order model provided a better fit to the data than the three alternative models. Conclusions: Hence, SAM provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.

  8. [Characteristics of temporal-spatial differentiation in landscape pattern vulnerability in Nansihu Lake wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia Xin; Li, Xin Ju

    2018-02-01

    With remote sensing images from 1985, 2000 Lantsat 5 TM and 2015 Lantsat 8 OLI as data sources, we tried to select the suitable research scale and examine the temporal-spatial diffe-rentiation with such scale in the Nansihu Lake wetland by using landscape pattern vulnerability index constructed by sensitivity index and adaptability index, and combined with space statistics such as semivariogram and spatial autocorrelation. The results showed that 1 km × 1 km equidistant grid was the suitable research scale, which could eliminate the influence of spatial heterogeneity induced by random factors. From 1985 to 2015, the landscape pattern vulnerability in the Nansihu Lake wetland deteriorated gradually. The high-risk area of landscape pattern vulnerability dramatically expanded with time. The spatial heterogeneity of landscape pattern vulnerability increased, and the influence of non-structural factors on landscape pattern vulnerability strengthened. Spatial variability affected by spatial autocorrelation slightly weakened. Landscape pattern vulnerability had strong general spatial positive correlation, with the significant form of spatial agglomeration. The positive spatial autocorrelation continued to increase and the phenomenon of spatial concentration was more and more obvious over time. The local autocorrelation mainly based on high-high accumulation zone and low-low accumulation zone had stronger spatial autocorrelation among neighboring space units. The high-high accumulation areas showed the strongest level of significance, and the significant level of low-low accumulation zone increased with time. Natural factors, such as temperature and precipitation, affected water-level and landscape distribution, and thus changed the landscape patterns vulnerability of Nansihu Lake wetland. The dominant driver for the deterioration of landscape patterns vulnerability was human activities, including social economy activity and policy system.

  9. Examining Marketing Officers' Demographic Factors' Influence on MIHE Scores at California Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zachary Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that one way to investigate a college's dedication to marketing is to examine the role, influence, and support the marketing officer receives on their campus. Based on the literature's premise that marketing officers are a measure of commitment, this study explored the relationship between Marketing Index of Higher Education…

  10. Factors Associated with Success in a Calculus Course: An Examination of Personal Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships between students' personal variables (gender, prior achievements, age and academic major) and their success in the first year undergraduate calculus course. The study sample consisted of 59 first year undergraduate students taking Math 154 Calculus II course. A written test about integral, sequence and series…

  11. Factors Inhibiting ESL Learners from Passing California High School Exit Examination: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    The problem was that Hispanic English Second Language (ESL) students enrolled in the ESL program had consistently failed the California High School Exit Examination (CASHEE) in greater numbers than their cohorts. The purpose of this qualitative narrative inquiry was to explore the life stories of Hispanic ESL students in identifying the factors…

  12. An Examination of the Situational Factors Associated with the Misuse of Prescription Analgesics among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew R.; Wynveen, Chris; Hackman, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Usdan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effect that students' educational environment has on the prevalence and motivations associated with the misuse of prescription analgesics (MPA). A sample of 893 undergraduate students was recruited from one religiously affiliated private university and one public university in the Southern United States. Participants…

  13. Immigrants Outperform Canadian-Born Groups in French Immersion: Examining Factors That Influence Their Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…

  14. Factors influencing medical students' self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.

  15. Longitudinal Examination of PTSD Symptoms and Problematic Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Adolescent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Kofler, Michael J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD…

  16. Student Motivation in Graduate Music Programmes: An Examination of Personal and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Moreno, Patricia Adelaida

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of students in music education graduate programmes, attrition rates suggest a lack of success in retaining and assisting them to the completion of their degree. Based on the expectancy-value theory, the aim of this study was to examine students' motivations (values and competence beliefs) and their complex interaction…

  17. Prognosis in advanced lung cancer--A prospective study examining key clinicopathological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Claribel P; Koinis, Filippos; Fallon, Marie T; Fearon, Kenneth C; Bowden, Jo; Solheim, Tora S; Gronberg, Bjorn Henning; McMillan, Donald C; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis; Laird, Barry J

    2015-06-01

    In patients with advanced incurable lung cancer deciding as to the most appropriate treatment (e.g., chemotherapy or supportive care only) is challenging. In such patients the TNM classification system has reached its ceiling therefore other factors are used to assess prognosis and as such, guide treatment. Performance status (PS), weight loss and inflammatory biomarkers (Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS)) predict survival in advanced lung cancer however these have not been compared. This study compares key prognostic factors in advanced lung cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer were recruited and demographics, weight loss, other prognostic factors (mGPS, PS) were collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to compare these prognostic factors. 390 patients with advanced incurable lung cancer were recruited; 341 were male, median age was 66 years (IQR 59-73) and patients had stage IV non-small cell (n=288) (73.8%) or extensive stage small cell lung cancer (n=102) (26.2%). The median survival was 7.8 months. On multivariate analysis only performance status (HR 1.74 CI 1.50-2.02) and mGPS (HR 1.67, CI 1.40-2.00) predicted survival (padvanced lung cancer. In combination, these improved survival prediction compared with either alone. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Organizational Support in Online Learning Environments: Examination of Support Factors in Corporate Online Learning Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Thomas L.; Correia, Ana-Paula

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the role of different types of support in corporate online learning programs. Most research has not specifically focused on all of the support factors required to provide a corporate online learning program, although many research studies address several in regards to the research outcome. An effort was made in this article…

  19. An Examination of the Protective Factors That Facilitate Motivation and Educational Attainment among Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are approximately 400,000 foster youth. The state of California accounts for approximately 20% percent of youth placed in the foster care system. As a whole, this population is exposed to a multitude of risk factors while placed in the foster care system and as they emancipate. Re-victimization is not uncommon as youth…

  20. Overcoming Obstacles and Academic Hope: An Examination of Factors Promoting Effective Academic Success Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michele Joann; Trujillo, Daniel J.; Boland, Donna L.; MacKinnon, Joyce L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the underlying non-cognitive processes and institutional factors that allowed first-year students to enact effective strategies for attaining academic success and persisting despite obstacles. The varying levels of academic preparation and unique obstacles faced by the student participants…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Technological, Organizational, and Environmental Factors and Cloud Computing Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweel, Abdeneaser

    2012-01-01

    High uncertainties related to cloud computing adoption may hinder IT managers from making solid decisions about adopting cloud computing. The problem addressed in this study was the lack of understanding of the relationship between factors related to the adoption of cloud computing and IT managers' interest in adopting this technology. In…

  2. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale: Examining the Variable of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shainna; Lambie, Glenn; Bloom, Zachary D.

    2017-01-01

    The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (SOCCS), developed by Bidell in 2005, measures counselors' levels of skills, awareness, and knowledge in assisting lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) clients. In an effort to gain an increased understanding of the construct validity of the SOCCS, researchers performed an exploratory factor analysis on…

  3. Too Calloused to Care: An Experimental Examination of Factors Influencing Youths' Displaced Aggression against Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Telch, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    People often displace their aggression against innocent targets. Notwithstanding the merits of previous research on displaced aggression, critical gaps remain. First, it is unclear whether and how situational and dispositional factors interact to influence displaced aggression. Moreover, it is unclear whether engaging in direct aggression…

  4. Examining Recruitment and Retention Factors for Minority STEM Majors through a Stereotype Threat Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Prior research regarding minorities in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicated that the factors of peer support and participation in STEM-related activities contributed positively to minority students' recruitment and retention in these fields. Utilizing stereotype threat as a conceptual framework, this…

  5. Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling to Examine Factors Predicting English Language Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Karen; ElAtia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM), this study aimed to identify factors such as ESL/ELL/EAL status that would predict students' reading performance in an English language arts exam taken across Canada. Using data from the 2007 administration of the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) along with the accompanying surveys for students and…

  6. Profiling the Plagiarists: An Examination of the Factors that Lead Students to Cheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C.; Horgan, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    While much work has been done on identifying and measuring the incidence of plagiarism in coursework, very little is known about the plagiarists themselves, and it is this issue that we address in this article. A model, developed to determine the factors that lead students to plagiarize, indicates that males are more likely to cheat than females,…

  7. Examining Factors That Influence Donor Motivation among Former Student-Athletes and NCAA DI Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchette, Brett M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify motivational factors that contribute to the philanthropic decision making of the former NCAA Division I student-athlete. A 47-item survey instrument was modified from a prior study and distributed electronically to 8,461 male and female former student-athletes at three participating NCAA Division I…

  8. Examining Second Language Receptive Knowledge of Collocation and Factors That Affect Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi My Hang; Webb, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated Vietnamese EFL learners' knowledge of verb-noun and adjective-noun collocations at the first three 1,000 word frequency levels, and the extent to which five factors (node word frequency, collocation frequency, mutual information score, congruency, and part of speech) predicted receptive knowledge of collocation. Knowledge…

  9. Further Examination of Factors that Influence Preference for Positive versus Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Trosclair, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Factors that influence choice between qualitatively different reinforcers (e.g., a food item or a break from work) are important to consider when arranging treatments for problem behavior. Previous findings indicate that children who engage in problem behavior maintained by escape from demands may choose a food item over the functional reinforcer…

  10. Minimizing driver errors: examining factors leading to failed target tracking and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Driving a motor vehicle is a common practice for many individuals. Although driving becomes : repetitive and a very habitual task, errors can occur that lead to accidents. One factor that can be a : cause for such errors is a lapse in attention or a ...

  11. Understanding the whole city as landscape. A multivariate approach to urban landscape morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stiles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Landscape Convention implies a requirement for signatory states to identify their urban landscapes which goes beyond the traditional focus on individual parks and green spaces and the links between them. Landscape ecological approaches can provide a useful model for identifying urban landscape types across a whole territory, but the variables relevant for urban landscapes are very different to those usually addressing rural areas. This paper presents an approach to classifying the urban landscape of Vienna that was developed in a research project funded by the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology: ‘Urban Fabric and Microclimate Response’. Nine landscape types and a number of sub-types were defined, using a multivariate statistical approach which takes account of both morphological and urban climate related variables. Although the variables were selected to objectively reflect the factors that could best represent the urban climatic characteristics of the urban landscape, the results also provided a widely plausible representation of the structure of the city’s landscapes. Selected examples of the landscape types that were defined in this way were used both to simulate current microclimatic conditions and also to model the effects of possible climatic amelioration measures. Finally the paper looks forward to developing a more general-purpose urban landscape typology that allows investigating a much broader complex of urban landscape functions.

  12. An examination of the factors governing the development of karst topography in the Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The landscape of the Cumberland Valley of South Central Pennsylvania is dominated by karst topography. A study was initiated to determine if the development of karst was controlled primarily by geologic structure or by lithologic differences. Existing data concerning the geographic locations of karst features, the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Cumberland Valley, and the chemistry of the eleven carbonate formations within the 518 km 2 study area were compiled. Data concerning 366 mapped sinkholes and over 9,000 additional karst features and their relations to the structural, lithological and spatial characteristics of the study area were collected and compiled into the database. Other factors contributing to karst development such as groundwater flow, soil and colluvium characteristics, and geographic distribution were considered. The data suggest that structure dominates lithology in the development of karst features within the study area. Structural features such as fractures, joints and folds, which create secondary porosity, are prerequisite for solution of the carbonate bedrock. Joint systems, fold axes, igneous intrusions, caves, springs and groundwater flow have a significant impact on the development of karst features. The presence of faults proved inconclusive. There are a greater number of karst features per unit area in areas of purer limestones (units with a lower percentage of acid insoluble residue). Lithological variations impact karst development only when structural features are present to provide secondary porosity that enhances chemical weathering. The distribution of karst features and the geologic factors governing their development and distribution should be taken into account when land-use decisions in karst terrains are made

  13. Butterfly Larval Host Plant use in a Tropical Urban Context: Life History Associations, Herbivory, and Landscape Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiple, Ashish D.; Khurad, Arun M.; Dennis, Roger L. H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines butterfly larval host plants, herbivory and related life history attributes within Nagpur City, India. The larval host plants of 120 butterfly species are identified and their host specificity, life form, biotope, abundance and perennation recorded; of the 126 larval host plants, most are trees (49), with fewer herbs (43), shrubs (22), climbers (7) and stem parasites (2). They include 89 wild, 23 cultivated, 11 wild/cultivated and 3 exotic plant species; 78 are perennials, 43 annuals and 5 biannuals. Plants belonging to Poaceae and Fabaceae are most widely used by butterfly larvae. In addition to distinctions in host plant family affiliation, a number of significant differences between butterfly families have been identified in host use patterns: for life forms, biotopes, landforms, perennation, host specificity, egg batch size and ant associations. These differences arising from the development of a butterfly resource database have important implications for conserving butterfly species within the city area. Differences in overall butterfly population sizes within the city relate mainly to the number of host plants used, but other influences, including egg batch size and host specificity are identified. Much of the variation in population size is unaccounted for and points to the need to investigate larval host plant life history and strategies as population size is not simply dependent on host plant abundance. PMID:21864159

  14. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of corporate social responsibility, social media marketing, sales promotion, store environment and perceived value on a purchase decision in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research methodology was used and the data were collected from 278 customers of retail stores in Malaysia. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 19 and structural equation modelling on AMOS. Findings – The findings showed th...

  15. The Effect of Urbanization on Ant Abundance and Diversity: A Temporal Examination of Factors Affecting Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Richmond, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "...

  16. Examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction: A factor specific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was aimed at examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction with data obtained from Malaysian soldiers who were involved in peace keeping missions in a Middle Eastern country. The results of which would enable the management to improve the quality of service accorded to peacekeeping personnel. Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a cross-sectional research design which allowed the researchers to integrate the service quality literature, the semi structured interview and the actual survey to collect and examine the data for optimum results. Findings and Originality/value: The outcome of multiple regression analysis showed that responsiveness and assurance variables reflected a high correlation with customer satisfaction. On the other hand, tangibility, reliability and empathy variables recorded an insignificant correlation with customer satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: With respect to practical contributions, the findings of this study can be used as a guideline by the management to improve the quality of peacekeeping in areas of conflict. Practical implications: For security reasons, certain information affecting customer satisfaction could not be examined in detail. Originality/value: This paper presents key results on service quality and customers satisfaction research by looking at the niche segment which was not previously studied from the Malaysian perspective.

  17. Pre-examination factors affecting molecular diagnostic test results and interpretation: A case-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah A; Baluchova, Katarina; Peoc'h, Katell H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Chan, K C Allen; Maekawa, Masato; Mamotte, Cyril; Russomando, Graciela; Rousseau, François; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz

    2017-04-01

    Multiple organizations produce guidance documents that provide opportunities to harmonize quality practices for diagnostic testing. The International Organization for Standardization ISO 15189 standard addresses requirements for quality in management and technical aspects of the clinical laboratory. One technical aspect addresses the complexities of the pre-examination phase prior to diagnostic testing. The Committee for Molecular Diagnostics of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (also known as, IFCC C-MD) conducted a survey of international molecular laboratories and determined ISO 15189 to be the most referenced guidance document. In this review, the IFCC C-MD provides case-based examples illustrating the value of select pre-examination processes as these processes relate to molecular diagnostic testing. Case-based examples in infectious disease, oncology, inherited disease and pharmacogenomics address the utility of: 1) providing information to patients and users, 2) designing requisition forms, 3) obtaining informed consent and 4) maintaining sample integrity prior to testing. The pre-examination phase requires extensive and consistent communication between the laboratory, the healthcare provider and the end user. The clinical vignettes presented in this paper illustrate the value of applying select ISO 15189 recommendations for general laboratory to the more specialized area of Molecular Diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A causal examination of the effects of confounding factors on multimetric indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William; Mitchell, Brian R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of multimetric indices (MMIs) as a means of providing integrative measures of ecosystem condition is becoming widespread. An increasingly recognized problem for the interpretability of MMIs is controlling for the potentially confounding influences of environmental covariates. Most common approaches to handling covariates are based on simple notions of statistical control, leaving the causal implications of covariates and their adjustment unstated. In this paper, we use graphical models to examine some of the potential impacts of environmental covariates on the observed signals between human disturbance and potential response metrics. Using simulations based on various causal networks, we show how environmental covariates can both obscure and exaggerate the effects of human disturbance on individual metrics. We then examine from a causal interpretation standpoint the common practice of adjusting ecological metrics for environmental influences using only the set of sites deemed to be in reference condition. We present and examine the performance of an alternative approach to metric adjustment that uses the whole set of sites and models both environmental and human disturbance effects simultaneously. The findings from our analyses indicate that failing to model and adjust metrics can result in a systematic bias towards those metrics in which environmental covariates function to artificially strengthen the metric–disturbance relationship resulting in MMIs that do not accurately measure impacts of human disturbance. We also find that a “whole-set modeling approach” requires fewer assumptions and is more efficient with the given information than the more commonly applied “reference-set” approach.

  19. Searching for a Role of Nursing Personnel in Developing Landscape of Ehealth: Factors Determining Attitudes toward Key Patient Empowering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Nurses may play an important role in the delivery of medical services based on the use of ehealth tools. Nevertheless, their taking an active role in an ehealth environment depends on their possessing the appropriate skills and mindset. The main objective of this paper was to assess nurses' opinions and to analyze the predictors of their acceptance of ehealth features relevant to patient empowerment with a strong focus on chronic care. A survey was conducted among nurses from hospital centers of south-eastern Poland based on a questionnaire designed to assess their attitudes toward the ehealth domain. The predictors of the nurses' acceptance of ehealth usage within specific contexts were assessed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. An analysis was performed on data from 648 questionnaires retained after a quality check. The duration of Internet use was consistently related to higher acceptance of ehealth applications and more certainty regarding the reliability of health-related information available on the Internet. Nurses from urban medical centers were more skeptical about the use of specific ehealth solutions. Previous experience in using information technologies is the main factor influencing the acceptance of specific ehealth solutions relevant for care provided to patients suffering from chronic conditions.

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis and examination of the psychometric properties of the eating beliefs questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Amy L.; Hay, Phillipa; Kleitman, Sabina; Smith, Evelyn; Raman, Jayanthi; Swinbourne, Jessica; Touyz, Stephen W.; Abbott, Maree J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Eating Beliefs Questionnaire (EBQ) is a 27-item self-report measure that assesses positive and negative beliefs about binge eating. It has been validated and its factor structure explored in a non-clinical sample. This study tested the psychometric properties of the EBQ in a clinical and a non-clinical sample. Method A sample of 769 participants (573 participants recruited from the university and general community, 76 seeking treatment for an eating disorder and 120 participati...

  1. Examining the Key Factors Affecting e-Service Quality of Small Online Apparel Businesses in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Che Nawi Noorshella; Al Mamun Abdullah; Ahmad Raston Nursalihah

    2015-01-01

    e-Service quality (eSQ) is increasingly recognized as an important aspect, as well as the key to determining the competitive advantage and factor in the long-term retention of firms operating online. This study, therefore, is aimed at identifying the key determinants of eSQ among the small online apparel businesses in Malaysia. This study used a cross-sectional design, and data were collected from 765 customers who pur...

  2. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poorly understood. We measured forest metrics of primary evergreen, riparian, and secondary tropical moist forest in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. We also used point counts to estimate density of Northern Mealy Amazons in each forest type during the nonbreeding (Sept 2013 and breeding (March 2014 seasons. We then examined how parrot density was influenced by forest structure and composition, and how parrots used forest types within tropical moist forest. Overall, parrot density was high in the breeding season, with few parrots present during the nonbreeding season. During the breeding season, primary forest had significantly greater density of 18.9 parrots/km² in evergreen forest and 35.9 parrots/km² in riparian forest, compared with only 3.4 parrots/km² in secondary forest. Secondary forest had significantly lower tree species richness, density, diameter, total height, and major branch ramification height, as well as distinct tree species composition compared with both types of primary forest. The number of parrots recorded at point counts was related to density of large, tall trees, characteristic of primary forest, and parrots used riparian forest more than expected by availability. Hence, the increased conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest is likely to lead to reduced densities of forest-dependent species such as the Northern Mealy Amazon. Furthermore, the species' requirement for primary tropical moist forest highlights the need to reevaluate

  3. Impact of Urban Climate Landscape Patterns on Land Surface Temperature in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasha Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Facing urban warming, mitigation and adaptation strategies are not efficient enough to tackle excessive urban heat, especially at the local scale. The local climate zone (LCZ classification scheme is employed to examine the diversity and complexity of the climate response within a city. This study suggests that zonal practice could be an efficient way to bridge the knowledge gap between climate research and urban planning. Urban surfaces classified by LCZ are designated as urban climate landscapes, which extends the LCZ concept to urban planning applications. Selecting Wuhan as a case study, we attempt to explore the climatic effect of landscape patterns. Thermal effects are compared across the urban climate landscapes, and the relationships between patch metrics and land surface temperature (LST are quantified. Results indicate that climate landscape layout is a considerable factor impacting local urban climate. For Wuhan, 500 m is an optimal scale for exploring landscape pattern-temperature relationships. Temperature contrast between surrounding landscape patches has a major influence on LST. Generally, fragmental landscape patches contribute to heat release. For most climate landscape types, patch metrics also have a significant effect on thermal response. When three metrics are included as predictive variables, 53.3% of the heating intensity variation can be explained for the Large Lowrise landscape, while 57.4% of the cooling intensity variation can be explained for the Water landscape. Therefore, this article claims that land-based layout optimization strategy at local scale, which conforms to planning manner, should be taken into account in terms of heat management.

  4. Risk factors for rape, physical assault, and posttraumatic stress disorder in women: examination of differential multivariate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, R; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D G; Saunders, B; Best, C L

    1999-01-01

    The National Women's Study, a 2-year, three-wave longitudinal investigation, employed a national probability sample of 3,006 adult women to: (a) identify separate risk factors for rape and physical assault, and (b) identify separate risk factors associated with post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-physical assault PTSD. This investigation differed from previous studies in that it prospectively examined risk factors at the multivariate, as opposed to univariate level. Overall, past victimization, young age, and a diagnosis of active PTSD increased women's risk of being raped. By contrast, past victimization, minority ethnic status, active depression, and drug use were associated with increased risk of being physically assaulted. Risk factors for PTSD following rape included a history of depression, alcohol abuse, or experienced injury during the rape. However, risk factors for PTSD following physical assault included only a history of depression and lower education.

  5. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina-S Kelch

    Full Text Available Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg., we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58% identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46% on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  6. Examining the Impact of Historical/Developmental, Sociodemographic, and Psychological Factors on Passive Suicide among African-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Tameka M.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…

  7. Examining the Theoretical Factors That Influence University Students to Adopt Web 2.0 Technologies: The Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Yasser D.; Houghton, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is (1) to examine Australian university students' awareness of the benefits of Web 2.0 technologies and (2) to investigate the factors that influence students to adopt Web 2.0 technologies to supplement in-class learning, using the theoretical foundations of both Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and Decomposed Theory of…

  8. Toward Digital Citizenship: Examining Factors Affecting Participation and Involvement in the Internet Society among Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to understand digital citizenship, based on the assumptions of Ribble (2014), by examining factors affecting participation and involvement in the Internet virtual societies among higher education students. A quantitative approach using a survey questionnaire was implemented. The participants were 174 students from the…

  9. A cross-sectional study examining factors related to critical thinking in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gary Morris; Beach, Nick Lee; Patrician, Patricia A; Martin, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking skills among registered nurses who work in a military hospital. Sixty-five nurses were administered the Health Sciences Reasoning Test to obtain scores in inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, interpretation, analysis, and evaluation skills. Results showed no significant association between critical thinking skills and years of experience; however, differences were identified among racial/ethnic groups. It is hoped that findings from this study create a platform for dialogue among staff development nurses who are best situated to develop strategies that address these issues.

  10. Examining Factors of Engagement With Digital Interventions for Weight Management: Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Emma Elizabeth; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-10-23

    Digital interventions for weight management provide a unique opportunity to target daily lifestyle choices and eating behaviors over a sustained period of time. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a lack of user engagement with digital health interventions, impacting on the levels of intervention effectiveness. Thus, it is critical to identify the factors that may facilitate user engagement with digital health interventions to encourage behavior change and weight management. The aim of this study was to identify and synthesize the available evidence to gain insights about users' perspectives on factors that affect engagement with digital interventions for weight management. A rapid review methodology was adopted. The search strategy was executed in the following databases: Web of Science, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated users' engagement with a digital weight management intervention and were published from 2000 onwards. A narrative synthesis of data was performed on all included studies. A total of 11 studies were included in the review. The studies were qualitative, mixed-methods, or randomized controlled trials. Some of the studies explored features influencing engagement when using a Web-based digital intervention, others specifically explored engagement when accessing a mobile phone app, and some looked at engagement after text message (short message service, SMS) reminders. Factors influencing engagement with digital weight management interventions were found to be both user-related (eg, perceived health benefits) and digital intervention-related (eg, ease of use and the provision of personalized information). The findings highlight the importance of incorporating user perspectives during the digital intervention development process to encourage engagement. The review contributes to our understanding of what facilitates user engagement and points toward a coproduction approach for developing digital

  11. Prevalence of Pterygia in Hawaii: Examining Cumulative Surfing Hours as a Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alexander D; Miles, Ku'ulei; Brinks, Mitchel V

    2016-08-01

    To examine the association between surfing and pterygium prevalence in Hawaii. A convenience sampling was performed at four beaches on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. A total of 169 individuals were interviewed and underwent penlight examination to assess grade and extent of pterygium. Of 169 participants aged 18-80 years, 88 non-surfers, 41 occasional surfers, 15 recreational surfers and 25 surfing enthusiasts were identified based on their lifetime surfing hours. Overall, 19 participants were found to have pterygia (28 pterygia total) including two non-surfers (2.3%), five occasional surfers (12.2%), three recreational surfers (20.0%), and nine enthusiast surfers (36.0%). Variables associated with pterygium prevalence were lifetime surfing hours (p surfing hours as the primary explanatory variable. After adjustment for confounders, a significant linear relationship was observed between chord length and lifetime surfing hours (p = 0.01). Surfing was associated with an increased pterygium prevalence and trend towards an association with increased pterygium severity. Increased risk of exposure to wind, particle irritation, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation while surfing may contribute to pterygium development. Implications for public health include promoting UV protective eyewear during surfing, in addition to raising awareness about the association of pterygia and the sport of surfing.

  12. Positive youth development among African American adolescents: examining single parents as a factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.

  13. THE EVOLUTION OF PRIVATE LOANS IN ROMANIA AND EXAMINATION OF SOME FACTORS OF INFLUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI MIEILĂ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the evolution of Romanian private loans, in national currency (lei, granted to households and non-financial corporations in the period between July 2005 and April 2017. In this context, after reviewing the importance of credit within the context of national economy is presented the evolution of some factors considered as influential upon the evolution of credit. These factors are, namely: the average interest rate of outstanding private loans granted by credit institutions, the average interest rate of outstanding amount of deposits received by credit institutions, the ratio of minimum (or reserve requirements, the interest rate on required reserves and the monetary policy rate. The database was built using the available data from the Statistical Section of the monthly bulletins released by the National Bank of Romania (herein after, referred to as NBR and published on the institution’s website. Every series of data is subject of testing for stationarity, using both the Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Pillips-Perron tests (herein after, referred to as ADF and PP, respectively, and the reported results are presented within the paper. In order to avoid spurious regression, following the stationarization of the data series, an analysis model is put in place and the significant results are subject to further interpretation.

  14. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  15. Examination of some factors responsible for a food-induced increase in absorption of atovaquone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolan, P E; Mercer, A J; Weatherley, B C; Holdich, T; Meire, H; Peck, R W; Ridout, G; Posner, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Atovaquone is a potent antiprotozoal slowly and irregularly absorbed after administration as tablets to fasting volunteers. A series of studies was performed to investigate the effects of food, bile and formulation on atovaquone absorption. 2. In 18 healthy male volunteers, a high-fat breakfast administered 45 min before 500 mg atovaquone as tablets increased AUC by 3.3-fold (95% CI 2.8-4.0) and Cmax 5.3-fold (4.3-6.6) compared with fasting. 3. The absorption of atovaquone from tablets was examined in 12 healthy male volunteers after an overnight fast, following toast alone, toast with 28 g butter (LOFAT), or toast with 56 g butter (HIFAT). Compared with absorption when fasted, toast had no significant effect but LOFAT increased AUC 3.0-fold (2.1-4.2) and Cmax 3.9-fold (2.6-5.8). HIFAT increased AUC 3.9-fold (2.7-5.5) and Cmax 5.6-fold (3.8-8.4). 4. The absorption of atovaquone was examined in nine healthy fasting male volunteers from tablets, an aqueous suspension, and an oily solution/suspension in miglyol (fractionated coconut oil). Compared with tablets, AUC following the aqueous suspension was increased 1.7-fold (1.0-2.7) and Cmax 2.4-fold (1.7-3.5). Following miglyol, AUC was increased to the same extent but Cmax was only increased 1.8-fold (1.2-2.6). 5. Atovaquone absorption was examined in eight healthy fasting male volunteers following an i.v. infusion of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP) which decreased gallbladder volume by 82% (73%-90%) on occasion 1 or saline on occasion 2. AUC(0,12) was increased following CCK-OP by 1.6-fold (1.1-2.4) and Cmax by 1.5-fold (0.98-2.4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8148213

  16. Optimising women's diets. An examination of factors that promote healthy eating and reduce the likelihood of unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David

    2012-08-01

    The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examination of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factor structure and longitudinal relationships with functioning in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Grossman, Michael; Oyewumi, L Kola; Bowie, Christopher R

    2016-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in early-episode psychosis and its relationships with functioning at baseline and follow-up. A total of 240 consecutive admissions to an early intervention in psychosis clinic were assessed at intake to the program with the PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Seventy individuals were reassessed at follow-up. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted on baseline PANSS scores and the ability of each factor to predict baseline and follow-up GAF and SOFAS was examined. A five-factor model with varimax rotation was the best fit to our data and was largely congruent with factors found previously. The negative symptom factor was the best predictor of GAF and SOFAS at baseline and follow-up. Negative symptoms are the best symptomatic predictor of functioning in individuals with early psychosis and are an important treatment target to improve recovery. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Examining Design Factors for Safe and Effective Hydrogen Vents for Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear renaissance, and the possibility of large scale new build to meet both the concerns of the environmental lobby and the economic imperatives created by the political hostage taking of unreliable fossil fuel markets throughout the world, coupled with the need to resolve issues still outstanding from a previous generation of wastes create the need for a widely accepted understanding of the needs for venting waste packages which are being prepared for term storage. In the US the technologies to immobilising the legacy wastes are being developed, in the UK the NDA is gearing up to decommission a range of sites and throughout Europe facilities are being demolished and the wastes taken to term storage. In several cases, the waste containers require venting, both to allow the thermal relief of the container during climatic variation and to allow the venting of generated gases from radiolysis, decomposition and corrosion of the contents, including Hydrogen and Hydrocarbons. The paper will examine the disparate demands of the market place, and propose strategies to rationalise the specification of filter breathers so that both producers and users have a common framework from which to determine their individual venting needs. Examining the mutually exclusive demands of permeability (affecting both pressure differential and Hydrogen diffusion) and filtration efficiency, the paper will explore economic solutions in an attempt to provide a framework against which the large number of waste containers requiring venting in the future can have their vent filters designed to meet both the best possible combination of efficiency and permeability, as well as exploring the limits of knowledge of corrosion of the filter media and suggesting strategies to tackle the possibility of the filter media failing before the waste container, and the consequences of such an event. (authors)

  19. Examination of employee factors influencing organisational productivity: Perspective of a public entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Green

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of employees’ challenges on productivity at a provincial department in KwaZulu-Natal has been notably affecting the overall provision of houses and sanitation (service delivery. According to the Annual Performance Plan 2013/14 – 2015/16, the improvement of efficiency and quality of human settlements’ services is one of the strategic goals which focuses on the overall organisational productivity; however, it fails to consider employees’ day-to-day challenges. Thus, the primary purpose of this paper is to investigate challenges at an operational level and determine the impact they have on productivity. Using a quantitative approach, a questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of 180 employees within the department. Applying factor analysis, the findings indicate Leadership as having the highest impact while Work-Life Balance displayed the least impact on Organisational Productivity. The results of this study are beneficial to other local, provincial and national public entities.

  20. Examining the Factors Affecting PDA Acceptance among Physicians: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Ecem; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Calisir, Fethi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the intention to use personal digital assistant (PDA) technology among physicians in Turkey using an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A structural equation-modeling approach was used to identify the variables that significantly affect the intention to use PDA technology. The data were collected from 339 physicians in Turkey. Results indicated that 71% of the physicians' intention to use PDA technology is explained by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. On comparing both, the perceived ease of use has the strongest effect, whereas the effect of perceived enjoyment on behavioral intention to use is found to be insignificant. This study concludes with the recommendations for managers and possible future research.

  1. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple Identification and Risks: Examination of Peer Factors Across Multiracial and Single-Race Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; He, Michael; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Multiracial youth are thought to be more vulnerable to peer-related risk factors than are single-race youth. However, there have been surprisingly few well-designed studies on this topic. This study empirically investigated the extent to which multiracial youth are at higher risk for peer influenced problem behavior. Data are from a representative and longitudinal sample of youth from Washington State (N = 1,760, mean age = 14.13, 50.9% girls). Of those in the sample, 225 youth self-identified as multiracial (12.8%), 1,259 as White (71.5%), 152 as Latino (8.6%), and 124 as Asian American (7.1%). Results show that multiracial youth have higher rates of violence and alcohol use than Whites and more marijuana use than Asian Americans. Higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage and single-parent family status partly explained the higher rates of problem behaviors among multiracial youth. Peer risk factors of substance-using or antisocial friends were higher for multiracial youth than Whites, even after socioeconomic variables were accounted for, demonstrating a higher rate of peer risks among multiracial youth. The number of substance-using friends was the most consistently significant correlate and predictor of problems and was highest among multiracial youth. However, interaction tests did not provide consistent evidence of a stronger influence of peer risks among multiracial youth. Findings underscore the importance of a differentiated understanding of vulnerability in order to better target prevention and intervention efforts as well as the need for further research that can help identify and explain the unique experiences and vulnerabilities of multiracial youth. PMID:22395776

  3. [What factors of prosocial behavior evoke recipients’ gratitude and indebtedness? An experimental examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yuma; Igarashi, Tasuku

    2016-12-01

    We examined two psychological processes of prosocial behavior: feeling gratitude and indebtedness. First, we asked if the value of the behavior for the receiver promotes gratitude; and second if the cost of the behavior for the giver promotes indebtedness. Gratitude and indebtedness were measured as behavioral indices of a quid pro quo (indirect reciprocity and direct reciprocity) to avoid social desirability effects in self-report measures. In Study 1, 119 undergraduates recalled a past experience in which they had been the recipients of prosocial behavior while emphasizing the value, cost, or situation (control) of the event. The level of gratitude was higher, and indirect reciprocity was observed more frequently, in the value condition than in the cost and control conditions. Indebtedness, however, did not differ across the conditions. In Study 2, 59 participants received a gift (the value and cost of which were manipulated) from an imaginary confederate. The value manipulation promoted indirect reciprocity, and both value and cost manipulations encouraged direct reciprocity. Implications for adaptive functions of gratitude in social selection processes are discussed.

  4. Examining the Key Factors Affecting e-Service Quality of Small Online Apparel Businesses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Nawi Noorshella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available e-Service quality (eSQ is increasingly recognized as an important aspect, as well as the key to determining the competitive advantage and factor in the long-term retention of firms operating online. This study, therefore, is aimed at identifying the key determinants of eSQ among the small online apparel businesses in Malaysia. This study used a cross-sectional design, and data were collected from 765 customers who purchased apparel online at the point-of-purchase. Findings of this study indicate that “product information quality,” “website design,” “security and privacy,” and “expected consumer service” are the key determinants of eSQ among small online apparel businesses in Malaysia. The implication for the owner-managers of the apparel businesses in Malaysia is that they must be aware of the significance of the key eSQ indicators while designing their businesses, to attract and retain customers.

  5. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Examination of factors predicting secondary students' interest in tertiary STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachashvili-Bolotin, Svetlana; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Lissitsa, Sabina

    2016-02-01

    Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), the study aims to investigate factors that predict students' interest in pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in tertiary education both in general and in relation to their gender and socio-economic background. The results of the analysis of survey responses of 2458 secondary public school students in the fifth-largest Israeli city indicate that STEM learning experience positively associates with students' interest in pursuing STEM fields in tertiary education as opposed to non-STEM fields. Moreover, studying advanced science courses at the secondary school level decreases (but does not eliminate) the gender gap and eliminates the effect of family background on students' interest in pursuing STEM fields in the future. Findings regarding outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs only partially support the SCCT model. Outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs positively correlate with students' entering tertiary education but did not differentiate between their interests in the fields of study.

  7. An examination of the factors fueling migration amongst Community Service practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Reardon

    2014-11-01

    Aim: The aims were to (1 explore the migration intentions and the factors that influence these intentions amongst Community Service (CS nurses and doctors; (2 explore their views and opinions about the Bilateral Agreement between the UK and South Africa (SA and other UK policies around the recruitment and employment of foreign health professionals; and (3 understand the impact of these policies on the migration plans of these CS doctors and nurses. Method: Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with 23 CS doctors and nurses. To supplement this, 6 interviews were conducted with nurses and a doctor who had worked in the UK. Results: A higher disposition toward moving abroad was apparent amongst those who had experienced a challenging and frustrating CS year. Poor working conditions, including long work hours, high patient loads and inadequate resources and equipment, as well as low salaries and the perceived ambivalence of the government to the complaints of health practitioners, were influencing decisions to migrate abroad. Conclusion: The findings suggest that government efforts to better manage, recognise and respect the work and contribution of health professionals to the country would go a long way toward retaining health professionals.

  8. Examining factors associated with elevated Lie Scale responding on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Amanda H; Shook, Natalie J; Wallace, Nancy M; McNeil, Cheryl B

    2018-02-01

    Child maltreatment remains a serious public health issue in the United States. Therefore, it is important to engage in quality control of the assessment, prevention, and treatment services for families affected by maltreatment. Parenting capacity assessments (PCAs) are typically an integral part of service delivery for families affected by maltreatment and can carry serious consequences for the referred parent. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a measure that is widely used in PCAs; however, socially desirable responding on the CAPI can serve to invalidate the important information derived from this assessment, as well as lead to negative impressions of the parent. Using data collected via multiple methods (including a non-face valid behavioral measure, intelligence screening, and self-report) from a predominantly at-risk sample of parents, the aim of this study was to better understand factors that may predict socially desirable responding on the CAPI. Results indicated that lower parental intelligence, a "positivity bias" (i.e., the tendency to learn and attend to positive over negative information during the non-face valid behavioral task), and lower reported depressive symptoms were associated with higher socially desirable responding. These findings suggest that assessors should thoughtfully consider the possibility that invalid CAPI scores may be more related to low intelligence and a positivity bias than to psychopathy and manipulation (e.g., purposefully trying to present oneself in a positive light to gain favor in a PCA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  10. Biography of an Industrial Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    Biography of an Industrial Landscape tells the story of one of the most significant urban redevelopment projects in northern Europe at the turn of the century. Examining the reinvention of the Carlsberg brewery site in Copenhagen as a city district, Svava Riesto unpacks the deeper assumptions abo...

  11. Soil temperature of peatland landscapes as a factor in the development of exogenous processes of biogenic relief formation in engineering development of territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, S.; Talyneva, O.; Kail, E.

    2018-03-01

    In the presented work we consider mire landscapes in the context of temperature monitoring. The mire landscapes in engineering development of the territory are very sensitive to anthropogenic impact that leads to a change in surface conditions, changes in natural succession and, as a rule, to changes in soil temperature and properties, which in turn may develop a complex of hostile geodynamic processes. For this study we used recording systems for field measurement of peat and subsoil temperatures. The measurements were made in two key areas: the territory of the north-taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (the Siberian Ridges), and the territory of the middle-taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (the Ob middle-river lowland). The paper analyses the data obtained from five observation sites (3, 5, 5a, 6 and 8) referred to hydromorphic landscapes. For the territory of the Siberian Ridges the 5-year average soil temperature was 3°C. For the Ob middle-river lowland the 6-year average soil temperature was 4.2°C. The annual soil temperature in the period 2015-2016 for Site 5a (man-disturbed area) was 8.3°C at all depths, which is 3.8°C higher than in a natural bog (Site 5 was a control area).

  12. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  13. The effects of seed dispersal on the simulation of long-term forest landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff

    1999-01-01

    The study of forest landscape change requires an understanding of the complex interactions of both spatial and temporal factors. Traditionally, forest gap models have been used to simulate change on small and independent plots. While gap models are useful in examining forest ecological dynamics across temporal scales, large, spatial processes, such as seed dispersal,...

  14. Gender issues in malaysian education: Factors influencing male and female students’ academic achievement through cognitive processes in public examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppiah Nachiappan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender issues in the field of education has been a continuos debated issue for generations. In the present context, the gender issue is being debated heatedly based on the differences in the achievements among male and female students in public exams.The objective of this study is to obtain views from (N=120 secondary school students randomly selected from various location in Malaysia. Hermeneutic analysis was used in order to analyse the students’ written essays on the factors which contributed to the achievement of the two genders in examinations. The findings of the study clearly indicated that female students outperform male students in examinations. The sample also summed up the factors leading to the failure of male students in performing well and ways to overcome this setback.

  15. Examining the Competition for Forest Resources in Sweden Using Factor Substitution Analysis and Partial Equilibrium Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Anna

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of the thesis is to analyse the procurement competition for forest resources in Sweden. The thesis consists of an introductory part and two self-contained papers. In paper I a translog cost function approach is used to analyse the factor substitution in the sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry and the heating industry in Sweden over the period 1970 to 2008. The estimated parameters are used to calculate the Allen and Morishima elasticities of substitution as well as the price elasticities of input demand. The utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector has been increasing and this increase is believed to continue. The increase is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Such policies could lead to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest industries and the energy sector. The calculated substitution elasticities indicate that it is easier for the heating industry to substitutes between by-products and logging residues than it is for the pulp and paper industry to substitute between by-products and roundwood. This suggests that the pulp and paper industry could suffer from an increase in the procurement competition. However, overall the substitutions elasticities estimated in our study are relatively low. This indicates that substitution possibilities could be rather limited due to rigidities in input prices. This result suggests that competition of forest resources also might be relatively limited. In paper II a partial equilibrium model is constructed in order to asses the effects an increasing utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector. The increasing utilisation of forest fuel is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In countries where forests already are highly utilised such policies will lead to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest sector and

  16. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  17. Examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into assisted living: A sample funding proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Ashleigh Leah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project presents a conceptually grounded, methodologically appropriate and logistically feasible Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funding proposal. By examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into an assisted living facility (ALF), the proposed study will provide insight into and a rich description of the decision making process as it unfolds. Presented in the format of a CIHR pilot study grant, the proposal details a qualita...

  18. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendro, Ivan G; Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim; Schenk, Martijn F; De Visser, J Arjan G M

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well. (paper)

  19. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests.

  20. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debissa Lemessa

    Full Text Available Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests.

  1. Job Accommodations Availability and Utilization Among People With Lupus: An Examination of Workplace Activity Limitations and Work Context Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhanhani, Ali M; Gignac, Monique A M; Beaton, Dorcas E; Su, Jiandong; Fortin, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the availability of diverse job accommodations (or flexible working arrangements) and to describe their use among people with systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), as well as to examine factors associated with the use of job accommodations. A mail survey was sent to adult lupus patients receiving care from a lupus clinic based in Toronto, Canada. The survey assessed demographic information, self-reported disease activity, work history, workplace activity limitations, job strain, and the availability and use of job accommodations. Standard multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with the use of job accommodations. We received 362 responses of 604 mailed surveys (60% response rate). Participants who were employed within the last 5 years, but who were not currently working, were less likely than currently employed participants to report having had job accommodations available to them at their last place of employment. The use of job accommodations was reported by 70% of currently employed respondents and by 72% of those not currently employed. The most common job accommodation used was sick leave days. Factors positively associated with the use of job accommodations among those who were employed included higher levels of education, being diagnosed with fibromyalgia, at least 1 episode of short-term work disability, not belonging to a union, greater workplace activity limitations, and greater job strain. The use of job accommodations among people with lupus is common. Work context factors, such as workplace activity limitations and job strain, are the main factors associated with the use of job accommodations. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Determination of the usage factor of components after cyclic loading by means of high-resolution microstructural examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, A.; Scheibe, A.; Assmann, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    Materials subjected to cyclic loading experience a change in the microstructure which may affect the service life. Quantification of the microstructural changes and allocation of the microstructural condition to the corresponding point on the fatigue curve for the component material allows the usage factor to be derived. Taking the low-alloy, fine-grained structural steel 20MnMoNi55 (quenched and tempered structure) as an example, the relationship between microstructure and number of load cycles can be represented in the form of a reference curve. High-resolution examination allows the usage factor to be determined up to η=N/N f ≅0.5 under the given cyclic loading. Only a small specimen volume is required for examination using a transmission electron microscope. It can be taken from the component without affecting the required minimum wall thickness. The location of the specimen must, however, be stipulated, e.g. the location of highest loading according to calculations. When removing the specimen, care must be taken to ensure that the micro-structure is not affected. If these requirements are observed, high-resolution microstructural examination provides a method for checking the usage factor of a component. (orig.)

  3. Validation of a Theory of Planned Behavior-Based Questionnaire to Examine Factors Associated With Milk Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon K; Dinour, Lauren M

    2017-11-01

    A proper assessment of multidimensional needs for breastfeeding mothers in various settings is crucial to facilitate and support breastfeeding and its exclusivity. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used frequently to measure factors associated with breastfeeding. Full utility of the TPB requires accurate measurement of theory constructs. Research aim: This study aimed to develop and confirm the psychometric properties of an instrument, Milk Expression on Campus, based on the TPB and to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument. In spring 2015, 218 breastfeeding (current or in the recent past) employees and students at one university campus in northern New Jersey completed the online questionnaire containing demography and theory-based items. Internal consistency (α) and split-half reliability ( r) tests and factor analyses established and confirmed the reliability and construct validity of this instrument. Milk Expression on Campus showed strong and significant reliabilities as a full scale (α = .78, r = .74, p theory construct subscales. Validity was confirmed as psychometric properties corresponded to the factors extracted from the scale. Four factors extracted from the direct construct subscales accounted for 79.49% of the total variability. Four distinct factors from the indirect construct subscales accounted for 73.68% of the total variability. Milk Expression on Campus can serve as a model TPB-based instrument to examine factors associated with women's milk expression behavior. The utility of this instrument extends to designing effective promotion programs to foster breastfeeding and milk expression behaviors in diverse settings.

  4. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.

  5. Urban Landscapes and Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Andersson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological research targeting sustainable urban landscapes needs to include findings and methods from many lines of ecological research, such as the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function, the role of humans in ecosystems, landscape connectivity, and resilience. This paper reviews and highlights the importance of these issues for sustainable use of ecosystem services, which is argued to be one aspect of sustainable cities. The paper stresses the need to include social and economic factors when analyzing urban landscapes. Spatially explicit data can be used to assess the roles different green areas have in providing people with ecosystem services, and whether people actually have access to the services. Such data can also be used to assess connectivity and heterogeneity, both argued to be central for continuous, long-term provision of these services, and to determine the role urban form has for sustainability.

  6. Associated factors for falls among the community-dwelling older people assessed by annual geriatric health examinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hao Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are very common among the older people. Nearly one-third older people living in a community fall each year. However, few studies have examined factors associated with falls in a community-dwelling population of older Taiwanese adults. OBJECTIVES: To identify the associated factors for falls during the previous 12 months among the community-dwelling Taiwanese older people receiving annual geriatric health examinations. PARTICIPANTS: People aged sixty-five years or older, living in the community, assessed by annual geriatric health examinations METHODS: 1377 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years who received annual geriatric health examinations at one hospital in northern Taiwan between March and November of 2008. They were asked about their history of falls during the year prior to their most recent health examination. RESULTS: The average age of the 1377 participants was 74.9±6.8 years, 48.9% of which were women. Three-hundred and thirteen of the participants (22.7% had at least one fall during the previous year. Multivariate analysis showed that odds ratio for the risk of falling was 1.94 (95% CI 1.36-2.76 when the female gender group is compared with the male gender group. The adjusted odds ratios of age and waist circumference were 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.06 and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05 respectively. The adjusted odds ratios of visual acuity, Karnofsky scale, and serum albumin level were 0.34 (95% CI 0.15-0.76, 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.98, and 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76 respectively. Larger waist circumference, older age, female gender, poorer visual acuity, lower score on the Karnofsky Performance Scale, and lower serum albumin level were the independent associated factors for falls. CONCLUSION: In addition to other associated factors, waist circumference should be included as a novel risk factor for falls.

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire: A comparison of five factor solutions across vegan and omnivore participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Sydney; Boswell, James F; Hormes, Julia M

    2018-05-01

    The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a valid and reliable measure of eating-related pathology, but its factor structure has proven difficult to replicate. Given differences in dietary patterns in vegans compared to omnivores, proper measurement of eating disorder symptoms is especially important in studies of animal product avoiders. This study compared goodness-of-fit of five alternative models of the EDE-Q in vegans (i.e., individuals refraining from all animal products, n = 318) and omnivores (i.e., individuals not restricting intake of animal products, n = 200). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to compare fit indices of the original four-factor model of the EDE-Q, along with alternative three-, two-, full one-, and brief one-factor models. No model provided adequate fit of the data in either sample of respondents. The fit of the brief one-factor model was the closest to acceptable in omnivores, but did not perform as well in vegans. Indicators of fit were comparable in vegans and omnivores across all other models. Our data confirm difficulties in replicating the proposed factor structure of the EDE-Q, including in vegans. More research is needed to determine the suitability of the EDE-Q for quantifying eating behaviors, including in those abstaining from animal products. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Research using energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin

    2007-01-01

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  9. Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

  10. Revisiting the Factors Shaping Outcomes for Forest and Landscape Restoration in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Way Forward for Policy, Practice and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djenontin, I.N.S.; Foli, S.; Zulu, L.C.

    2018-01-01

    A lack of systematic understanding of the elements that determine the success of forest and landscape restoration (FLR) investments leads to the inability to clearly articulate strategic and practical approaches to support natural resource restoration endeavors across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This

  11. An examination of bullying in georgia schools: demographic and school climate factors associated with willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H; Strasser, Sheryl M; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.

  12. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  13. An examination of social interaction profiles based on the factors measured by the screen for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Emery B; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Leone, Sarah L; Ghuman, Jaswinder Kaur

    2014-10-01

    Deficits in the capacity to engage in social interactions are a core deficit associated with Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These deficits emerge at a young age, making screening for social interaction deficits and interventions targeted at improving capacity in this area important for early identification and intervention. Screening and early intervention efforts are particularly important given the poor short and long term outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) who experience social interaction deficits. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI) is a well-validated screening measure that examines a child's capacity for social interaction using a developmental approach. The present study identified four underlying factors measured by the SSI, namely, Connection with Caregiver, Interaction/Imagination, Social Approach/Interest, and Agreeable Nature. The resulting factors were utilized to compare social interaction profiles across groups of children with AD, PDD-NOS, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions and typically developing children. The results indicate that children with AD and those with PDD-NOS had similar social interaction profiles, but were able to be distinguished from typically developing children on every factor and were able to be distinguished from children with non-ASD psychiatric conditions on every factor except the Connection with Caregiver factor. In addition, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions could be distinguished from typically developing children on the Connection with Caregiver factor and the Social Approach/Interest factor. These findings have implications for screening and intervention for children with ASDs and non-ASD psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An examination of the overlap between genetic and environmental risk factors for intentional weight loss and overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Treloar, Susan A; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2009-09-01

    To further our understanding of how intentional weight loss (IWL) and overeating are related, we examined the shared genetic and environmental variance between lifetime IWL and overeating. Interview data were available for 1,976 female twins (both members of 439 and 264 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, respectively), mean age = 40.61, SD = 4.72. We used lifetime diagnostic data for eating disorders obtained from a semistructured psychiatric telephone interview, examined in a bivariate twin analysis. Both lifetime behaviors were measured on a 3-point scale, where absence of IWL or overeating formed one anchor on the scale and lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) formed the opposite anchors, respectively. In line with previous findings, a higher body mass index was significantly associated with the lifetime presence of IWL and/or overeating (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.19). The best fitting twin model contained additive genetic and nonshared environmental influence influencing both IWL and overeating, with correlations between these influences of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.35-0.92) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.07-0.42), respectively. About 37% of genetic risk factors were considered to overlap between IWL and overeating, and with only 6% of overlap between environmental risk factors. Thus, considerable independence of risk factors was indicated.

  15. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  16. Methods for integrated modeling of landscape change: Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. Hayes; Alan. A. Ager; R. James Barbour

    2004-01-01

    The Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS) links a number of resource, disturbance, and landscape simulations models to examine the interactions of vegetative succession, management, and disturbance with policy goals. The effects of natural disturbance like wildfire, herbivory, forest insects and diseases, as well as specific management actions are...

  17. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.

  18. EXAMINATION OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VARIABILITY OF YEAST AMOUNT IN THE CONTEXT OF PH CHANGES IN BOTTLED WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper was to examine of factors (manufacturer, temperature and storage time influencing the variability of yeast amount and pH changes in bottled white wines. It was confirmed that wine coming from the business network was better quality in contract to domestic wine. We have assumed that domestic wine was contaminated during the manufacturing process, while the most probable reason was imperfect filtration of wine, or its contamination during the bottling. The results showed that the way of storage wine in the room, resp. cooler temperature did not significant effect on changes in the amount of yeast (p-hodnota=0.2080. Regarding the period of storage of wine, the conclusions are identical to the previous factor, ie. storage time not significantly impacted amount of yeast in wine (p-value=0.5507. doi:10.5219/151 

  19. Residents examine factors associated with 30-day, same-cause hospital readmissions on an internal medicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jennifer; Colbert, Colleen Y; Song, Juhee; Hull, Joshua; Rajan, Sabitha; Varghees, Sunita; Arroliga, Alejandro C; Reddy, Santosh P

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in stemming the tide of hospital readmissions in an attempt to improve quality of care. This study presents the Phase I results of a resident-led quality improvement initiative to determine the percentage of and risk factors for same-cause readmissions (SCRs; defined as hospital readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for treatment of the same condition) to the internal medicine service of a multispecialty teaching hospital in central Texas. Results indicate that patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma or anemia may be at increased risk for SCRs. Those patients who are insured by Medicaid and those who require assistance from social services also demonstrated an increased risk for SCRs. This study appears to be the first resident-led initiative in the field to examine 30-day SCRs to an internal medicine service for demographic and clinical risk factors.

  20. Collapsing Factors in Multitrait-Multimethod Models: Examining Consequences of a Mismatch Between Measurement Design and Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eGeiser

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA are frequently applied to examine the convergent validity of scores obtained from multiple raters or methods in so-called multitrait-multimethod (MTMM investigations. Many applications of CFA-MTMM and similarly structured models result in solutions in which at least one method (or specific factor shows non-significant loading or variance estimates. Eid et al. (2008 distinguished between MTMM measurement designs with interchangeable (randomly selected versus structurally different (fixed methods and showed that each type of measurement design implies specific CFA-MTMM measurement models. In the current study, we hypothesized that some of the problems that are commonly seen in applications of CFA-MTMM models may be due to a mismatch between the underlying measurement design and fitted models. Using simulations, we found that models with M method factors (where M is the total number of methods and unconstrained loadings led to a higher proportion of solutions in which at least one method factor became empirically unstable when these models were fit to data generated from structurally different methods. The simulations also revealed that commonly used model goodness-of-fit criteria frequently failed to identify incorrectly specified CFA-MTMM models. We discuss implications of these findings for other complex CFA models in which similar issues occur, including nested (bifactor and latent state-trait models.

  1. Examining the controlling factors on Southern Ocean clouds and their radiative effects in the context of midlatitude weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M. K.; Grise, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds and their associated radiative effects are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the present generation of global climate models. One region where model biases are especially large is over the Southern Ocean, where many models systematically underestimate the climatological shortwave cloud radiative effects (CRE) and/or misrepresent the relationship between shortwave CRE and atmospheric dynamics. Previous research has shown that two "cloud controlling factors", estimated inversion strength (EIS) and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity, are helpful in explaining the relationship between CRE and atmospheric dynamics on monthly timescales. For example, when the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude jet shifts poleward on monthly timescales, the high clouds and their associated longwave CRE shift poleward with the jet, consistent with a poleward shift of the storm track and the attendant vertical velocity anomalies. However, the observed changes in shortwave CRE with a poleward jet shift are small due to a trade-off between the competing effects of opposing EIS and vertical velocity anomalies. This study extends these previous findings to examine the relationship between Southern Ocean cloud controlling factors and CRE on daily timescales. On a daily timescale, the relationship of EIS and vertical velocity with CRE is more complex, due in part to the presence of transient weather systems. Composites of EIS, vertical velocity, longwave CRE, and shortwave CRE around extratropical cyclones and anticyclones are constructed to examine how the CRE anomalies vary in different sectors of midlatitude weather systems and the role that EIS and vertical velocity play in determining those anomalies. The relationships between the cloud controlling factors and CRE on daily timescales provide key insight into the underlying physical processes responsible for the relationships between midlatitude cloud controlling factors and CRE previously documented on monthly timescales.

  2. Examining relationships of intimate partner violence and food insecurity with HIV-related risk factors among young pregnant Liberian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Kershaw, Trace S; Callands, Tamora A

    2018-04-22

    Gender inequities place women at an increased risk for HIV acquisition, and this association may particularly disenfranchize young pregnant women. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and food insecurity may contribute to gender differences in power, thereby influencing HIV disparities between women and men. Factors influencing gender disparities in HIV are unique and country-specific within sub-Saharan Africa, yet these factors are understudied among women in Liberia. This paper sought to examine the unique contributions and intersections of intimate partner violence (IPV) and food insecurity with HIV-related risk factors among young pregnant women in Liberia. Between March 2016 and August 2016, cross-sectional data collected from 195 women aged 18-30, residing in Monrovia, Liberia who were receiving prenatal services were used to examine the independent and interaction effects of IPV and food insecurity on HIV-related risk factors (i.e., sexual partner concurrency, economically-motivated relationships). IPV (31.3%) and food insecurity (47.7%) were prevalent. Young women who experience IPV are more likely to report food insecurity (p insecurity were more likely to start a new relationship for economic support (ps insecurity were more likely to report engaging in transactional sex (ps insecurity (ps > 0.05). IPV and food insecurity each uniquely heighten young Liberian women's vulnerability to HIV. Intervention and policy efforts are need to promote and empower women's sexual health through integrated sexual and reproductive health services, and reduce IPV and food insecurity among pregnant Liberian women.

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Otitis Media: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Student’s t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and

  4. Habitat selection in a rocky landscape: experimentally decoupling the influence of retreat site attributes from that of landscape features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Croak

    Full Text Available Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features. Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats.

  5. Factors influencing medical informatics examination grade--can biorhythm, astrological sign, seasonal aspect, or bad statistics predict outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovecki, Mladen; Rahelić, Dario; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Jelec, Vjekoslav

    2003-02-01

    To investigate whether and to what extent various parameters, such as individual characteristics, computer habits, situational factors, and pseudoscientific variables, influence Medical Informatics examination grade, and how inadequate statistical analysis can lead to wrong conclusions. The study included a total of 382 second-year undergraduate students at the Rijeka University School of Medicine in the period from 1996/97 to 2000/01 academic year. After passing the Medical Informatics exam, students filled out an anonymous questionnaire about their attitude toward learning medical informatics. They were asked to grade the course organization and curriculum content, and provide their date of birth; sex; study year; high school grades; Medical Informatics examination grade, type, and term; and describe their computer habits. From these data, we determined their zodiac signs and biorhythm. Data were compared by the use of t-test, one-way ANOVA with Tukey's honest significance difference test, and randomized complete block design ANOVA. Out of 21 variables analyzed, only 10 correlated with the average grade. Students taking Medical Informatics examination in the 1998/99 academic year earned lower average grade than any other generation. Significantly higher Medical Informatics exam grade was earned by students who finished a grammar high school; owned and regularly used a computer, Internet, and e-mail (pzodiac sign, zodiac sign quality, or biorhythm cycles, except when intentionally inadequate statistics was used for data analysis. Medical Informatics examination grades correlated with general learning capacity and computer habits of students, but showed no relation to other investigated parameters, such as examination term or pseudoscientific parameters. Inadequate statistical analysis can always confirm false conclusions.

  6. Development of a Survey to Examine the Factors that Motivate Secondary Education Teachers' Use of Problem-based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Huei-Chen

    In this quantitative study, a survey was developed and administered to middle and high school teachers to examine what factors motivated them to implement problem-based learning (PBL). Using Expectancy-Value Theory by Eccles et al. (1983) and Self-Determination Theory by Ryan and Deci (2000b) as the theoretical framework, this instrument measured respondents' perceived competence, support for autonomy and relatedness, and value and cost they placed on implementing PBL. Data analyses indicated that the instrument had good reliability. A 3-factor structure was established by exploratory factor analysis which confirmed the construct validity of the instrument. Value of PBL to teachers and their students was the most dominant factor that motivated teachers to implement it. The second most important factor was their self-efficacy and anxiety about failing this pedagogy, and the third factor was teachers' perceived autonomy, and support from schools and colleagues. Regression models showed the predictive power of the factors on teachers' intention to implement PBL, with their perceptions of the value of PBL being the strongest predictor. Results also indicate that teachers with PBL experience perceived significantly higher levels of competence and support from peers, and placed a higher level of value and perceived less cost in implementing PBL than teachers who had not implemented PBL. Teachers' formal training in PBL played a significant role in positively influencing their perceptions of competence and the value of PBL, and reduced their perceived cost of implementing PBL. This, in turn, enhanced teachers' intention of practicing PBL. For teachers who had previously taught with PBL, their responses to two open-ended questions in this instrument corresponded with the theoretical framework of this study and triangulated well with the quantitative data. These teachers highly valued PBL and they recognized the challenges associated with its implementation. These teachers

  7. An examination of the psychosocial factors influencing colorectal cancer patients' communication of colorectal cancer patient risk with their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawsin, Catalina; Duhamel, Katherine; Itzkowitz, Steven; Brown, Karen; Lim, Helen; Jandorf, Lina

    2009-11-01

    This study examined psychosocial factors influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) patients' communication with their first-degree relatives regarding their CRC risk. Among a sample of CRC patients who were members of a colon registry in New York (n = 127), 60% reported discussing CRC risk with their siblings. These discussions were related to the CRC patients' age of diagnosis, such that those diagnosed before age 45 years were more likely to communicate with their siblings about CRC risk. Despite advances made in CRC prevention, compliance with screening recommendations among individuals who may be at familial risk for the disease is low. Perhaps this underrepresentation reflects how CRC patients communicate with their first-degree relatives about their potential risk for the disease. This study examined the psychosocial factors influencing whether CRC patients communicate with their siblings about CRC risk. The sample included CRC patients with siblings who enrolled in a colon disease registry at a NYC metropolitan hospital. Participants completed questionnaires regarding their current psychosocial functioning, perceived risk of sibling's development of CRC, and communication of CRC risk with their siblings. Patients were predominantly Caucasian, with a mean age of 60.4 years. Of the 127 patients, 60% engaged in discussions with their siblings regarding their CRC risk. Patients diagnosed with CRC before the age of 45 years were more likely to discuss the risk of CRC with their siblings (P siblings.

  8. Diabetes, Triglyceride Levels, and Other Risk Factors for Glaucoma in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V; Gupta, Priya; Gadkaree, Shekhar K; Vitale, Susan; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhao, Di; Friedman, David S

    2016-04-01

    To determine risk factors for glaucoma in a population-based study in the United States. Participants age 40 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and vision tests including fundus imaging. Glaucoma was determined based on expert grading of fundus photographs. Regression modeling of glaucoma risk factors was performed. Participants with glaucoma (172) were older (mean age 68.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 65.6-70.7] vs. 56.4 years [95% CI 55.6-57.2, P glucose, insulin dependence, body mass index, cholesterol levels, diastolic hypertension, systolic hypotension, obstructive sleep apnea, and marijuana were not associated with glaucoma. Multivariable modeling showed associations between glaucoma and older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 per year, 95% CI 1.04-1.14), black race (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.71-11.30), and poverty (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.73-6.66). Diabetes was no longer associated with glaucoma after adjustment for triglyceride levels. Sex, education, insurance status, body mass index, blood pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, and smoking were not associated with glaucoma. People who are older, of black race, and with lower income levels have a higher prevalence of glaucoma. A novel association between diabetes, triglyceride levels, and glaucoma is also identified.

  9. An examination of factors related to work-to-family conflict among employed men and women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Michiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study of Japanese married employees were: 1) to examine the relationship between work-related factors and work-to-family conflict (WFC); 2) to examine the relationship between WFC and fatigue and depression; and 3) to explore the role of family togetherness in a path between WFC and health. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among employees belonging to a labor union federation of the chemical industry. All analyses were conducted by subgroup according to gender and parental status. Data was collected from 12 companies located in the Tokyo metropolitan area from September to October 2005. The data of 961 married employees were analyzed. The main findings by regression analyses were: 1) high job demands, low job control, and unsupportive work-family culture were associated with high level of WFC; 2) WFC was positively associated with fatigue and depression regardless of gender and parental status; and 3) maintaining family togetherness was slightly, yet significantly associated with fatigue in the father group. WFC was unfavorably related to fatigue and depression in both genders regardless of parental status, and plays a role linking unfavorable work situations and health. As possible work-related factors of WFC, the data indicate not only individual workplace variables but also an organizational support. Additionally, maintaining family togetherness appears to benefit fathers by preventing fatigue. Strategies for reduction of WFC are therefore necessary to promote health among married workers of both genders.

  10. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Retrospective Study of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Clitoral Adhesions: Women's Health Providers Should Routinely Examine the Glans Clitoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Aerts, MD, PhD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The glans clitoris is covered by a prepuce that normally moves over the glans surface and can be retracted beyond the corona. Clitoral adhesions, ranging from mild to severe, occur when preputial skin adheres to the glans. Physical examination consistent with clitoral adhesions is based on the inability to visualize the entire glans corona. In this closed compartment, the space underneath the adherent prepuce and clitoris can become irritated, erythematous, or infected and can result in sexual dysfunction. Aim: To determine the prevalence of clitoral adhesions in a sexual medicine practice and assess risk factors associated with clitoral adhesions. Methods: This research involved retrospective examinations of vulvoscopy photographs taken from August 2007 to December 2015. Clitoral adhesions were considered absent when preputial retraction enabled full glans corona visualization. The study group consisted of women with mild, moderate, or severe clitoral adhesions based on more than 75%, 25% to 75%, or less than 25% glans clitoris exposure without full corona visualization, respectively. 2 independent reviewers evaluated photographs; a 3rd analyzed study group health record data. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of severity of clitoral adhesions. Results: Of the 1,261 vulvoscopy photographs, 767 (61% were determined adequate for assessment and 614 photographs represented individual patients. The study group with clitoral adhesions consisted of 140 women (23% of whom 44%, 34%, and 22% demonstrated mild, moderate, and severe clitoral adhesions, respectively. In the study group, 14% presented with clitorodynia. Risk factors included a history of sexual pain, yeast infection, urinary tract infection, blunt perineal or genital trauma, lichen sclerosus, low calculated free testosterone, and other sexual dysfunctions including persistent genital arousal disorder. Conclusion: Women with sexual dysfunction should routinely undergo clitoral

  12. Obesity as a Potential Risk Factor for Blepharoptosis: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sun Paik

    Full Text Available To examine obesity parameters as potential risk factors associated with blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, conducted between 2008 and 2010. 10,285 Korean adults (4,441 men and 5,844 women aged 40 years or older was enrolled. We compared body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and percentage body fat (BF, according to the severity of blepharoptosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with blepharoptosis.The overall prevalence of age-related blepharoptosis was 14.8 % in South Korea. There were significant and graded associations between increasing blepharoptosis severity and the mean value of obesity parameters (P for trend < 0.05. As marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1 decreased, the prevalence of general obesity and overweight status increased (P for trend=0.121 in men and < 0.001 in women; the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased (P for trend < 0.001 for both genders; the prevalence of highest quartile of percentage BF increased (P for trend ≤0.001 for both genders. Blepharoptosis was significantly associated with general obesity in women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 2.14; 95% confidence intervals (CI, 1.32-3.47; and with the highest quartile of percentage BF in men (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.34-2.97 and in women (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.3317, after adjusting for age, smoking exercise, drinking alcohol, total energy intake, fat intake, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, and family history of eye disease.The etiology of age-related blepharoptosis may be multifactorial and is unclear. Our results suggest that obesity parameters such as BMI, WC and percentage BF might be potential risk factors for age-related blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.

  13. What factors facilitate the engagement with flipped classrooms used in the preparation for postgraduate medical membership examinations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesurasa A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Jesurasa, Kelly Mackenzie, Hannah Jordan, Elizabeth C Goyder School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, Regent Court, Sheffield, UK Background: The “flipped classroom,” a pedagogical model where typical lecture and homework elements are reversed, is being advocated in medical education to support the teaching of a large curriculum. However, research into the use of this model in postgraduate medical education, which requires the application of acquired knowledge, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to engagement with the flipped classroom model in preparation for the written element of postgraduate membership examinations. Methods: Three focus groups (n=14 were held between February and June 2016. Participants were drawn from a membership examination preparation course, run by the University of Sheffield. Two of the groups (n=10 involved “students” (public health registrars while the other focus group (n=4 was held with “tutors” (experienced registrars and consultants. The focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using both predetermined and emergent themes. Results: Key themes that emerged from the data included variation in learning and teaching styles of individuals as well as the feasibility and flexibility of the overall course design. However, management of students’ expectations was found to be the fundamental factor, which underpinned the engagement. Conclusion: The complex interaction of factors affecting engagement in this study highlights the need to consider the appropriateness of the flipped classroom model. However, this must be balanced by the potential benefits of the approach for delivering a large curriculum. Recognizing the central importance of managing expectations at the outset would be useful when considering this model in postgraduate medical education. Keywords

  14. An examination of factors influencing the spatial distribution of foraging bats in pine stands in the southeastern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Michael, A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Menzel, M.A. 2003. An examination of factors influencing the spatial distribution of foraging bats in pine stands in the Southeastern United States. Ph.D Dissertation. Davis College of Agriculture, Forestry and Consumer Sciences at West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia. 336 pp. The general objective of this dissertation was to determine the effect of changes in forest structure on bat activity patterns in southern pine stands. Four sub studies are included in the dissertation: (1) An examination of the homerange size, habitat use and diet of four reproductively active male Rafinesque's big eared bats (Corynorhimus rafinesquii); (2) An examination of the diet of 5 reproductively active male Rafinesque's big eared bats; (3) A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 vegetational community types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature plantations, and pine savannahs; (4) A summarization of information concerning the natural history of all bat species common in the SPR.

  15. EVERYDAY LANDSCAPE AND MEANING IN URBAN LIVING

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    LAKSHMI PRIYA RAJENDRAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper conceptualizes landscape from a temporal and spatial perspective which emphasizes peoples’ interactions and activities as an inherent part of understanding the landscape itself. Today, peoples’ interaction with the landscape has become more complex, largely owing to the changing notions of place in contemporary urban living. In this context, the paper examines the role and significance of the landscapes of everyday life in urban environment and delineates how it (reconstructs ordinary human and social meanings that are necessary conditions for our existence. The paper is presented in three sections. In the first section, it discusses the concept of everyday life and its relevance in the contemporary urban living. In the following section, it examines the complexities encountered in urban landscapes today .The third section of the paper discusses how meaningful interaction experienced with everyday landscapes offer valuable insights for addressing the challenges posed by the complexities of urban city living. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for attention towards the largely neglected or overlooked domains of ‘ordinary’ everyday landscape by designer professionals, which plays a crucial role in creating meaningful relationship between people and place.

  16. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. A Comprehensive Examination of the Determinants for Food Risk Perception: Focusing on Psychometric Factors, Perceivers' Characteristics, and Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myoungsoon; Ju, Youngkee

    2017-01-01

    Risk characteristics within a psychometric paradigm have been of major concern in studies of food risk perception. This study compared the influence of psychometric factors, perceivers' characteristics (i.e., risk attitude, trust, and favorability of the country of origin), and that of the news media on the levels of food risk perception. The interaction of news media with the other two factors was also examined. A nationwide survey (n = 1,500) was conducted. The foods under investigation were Chinese processed foods and Japanese seafood imported to South Korea. In both cases, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that psychometric factors had the greatest influence on food risk perception, followed by perceivers' characteristics and media use. In addition, our results showed that the effect of perceived benefit and dread in Chinese food were salient only for those with little media use. The implication of the interaction effect on food risk perception is discussed in terms of accessibility and limited capacity of information processing.

  19. Monarto’s Contested Landscape

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    Paul Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to develop a new city at Monarto in South Australia during the 1970s was an important project of the reforming government of Don Dunstan. Dunstan’s view was that Monarto would be a city environmentally suited to the tough conditions of its site, and to an ‘Australian way of life’. As planning and preliminary design proceeded from 1972 to 1975, the landscape potential of the city’s selected site became central to its conception. This paper draws on new research comprising interviews with key participants and archival material to examine four issues: the adoption of an environmental orientation in Australian urban planning and discourse in the 1970s; strategies in the design proposals that seemingly gave Monarto validity even as the demographic and political drivers for it dissolved away; the investigations that supported Monarto’s landscape strategies; and attitudes to social and cultural history that the Monarto project adopted. While ultimately the plan for Monarto was abandoned, the projected city’s landscape can be seen as a theatre for competing values in relation to natural and cultural heritage and design ambitions. The paper situates Monarto within national and international urban discourse that is more complex than has been previously acknowledged, indicative of competing values and ideologies in the planning, landscape and design discourses of the period.

  20. An examination of retention factors among registered nurses in Northeastern Ontario, Canada: Nurses intent to stay in their current position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Rukholm, Ellen; Lariviere, Michel; Carter, Lorraine; Koren, Irene; Mian, Oxana; Giddens, Emilia

    2016-03-10

    The purpose of the study was to examine factors related to the retention of registered nurses in northeastern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey of registered nurses working in northeastern Ontario, Canada was conducted. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider intent to stay in current employment in relation to the following: 1) demographic factors, and 2) occupation and career satisfaction factors. A total of 459 (29.8% response rate) questionnaires were completed. The adjusted odds logistic regression analysis of RNs who intended to remain in their current position for the next five years, demonstrated that respondents in the 46 to 56 age group (OR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.50 to 4.69), the importance of staff development in the organization (OR: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.13 to 8.13) northeastern Ontario lifestyle (OR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.55 to 4.40), working in nursing for 14 to 22.5 years (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.93), and working between 0 to 1 hour of overtime per week (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.20 to 4.64) were significant factors in staying in their current position for the next five years. This study shows that a further understanding of the work environment could assist with developing retention for rural nurses. Furthermore, employers may use such information to ameliorate the working conditions of nurses, while researchers may use such evidence to develop interventions that are applicable to improving the working conditions of nurses.

  1. The measurement of dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an examination of the factor structure of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, M J; McDowell, A J; Wilkinson, J Y

    2001-06-01

    To conduct separate factor analyses of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R, TFEQ-D and TFEQ-H) scales and provide initial evidence of the construct validity of the obtained solutions. A cross-sectional survey with a 12 month retest of a subsample of subjects. A total of 553 undergraduate university women with a mean age of 25.0 y. The retest sample comprised 64 subjects with a mean age at retest of 25.7 y. In addition to the TFEQ, age, body mass index (BMI), satisfaction with current weight, nutrition knowledge and current exercise level were recorded. Three restraint (strategic dieting behaviour, attitude to self-regulation, avoidance of fattening foods), three disinhibition (habitual susceptibility, emotional susceptibility, situational susceptibility) and two hunger constructs (internal locus for hunger, external locus for hunger) were identified. Initial evidence of the validity of these constructs was provided. The explanation of disordered eating behaviour is likely to be refined more by specific constructs, such as those presented, rather than by the more general constructs measured by the original TFEQ-R, TFEQ-D and TFEQ-H scales. Further examination of the factor structures presented is therefore encouraged.

  2. Influence of Interspecific Competition and Landscape Structure on Spatial Homogenization of Avian Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Oliver J.; McAlpine, Clive; House, Alan; Maron, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced biotic homogenization resulting from landscape change and increased competition from widespread generalists or ‘winners’, is widely recognized as a global threat to biodiversity. However, it remains unclear what aspects of landscape structure influence homogenization. This paper tests the importance of interspecific competition and landscape structure, for the spatial homogeneity of avian assemblages within a fragmented agricultural landscape of eastern Australia. We used field observations of the density of 128 diurnal bird species to calculate taxonomic and functional similarity among assemblages. We then examined whether taxonomic and functional similarity varied with patch type, the extent of woodland habitat, land-use intensity, habitat subdivision, and the presence of Manorina colonies (a competitive genus of honeyeaters). We found the presence of a Manorina colony was the most significant factor positively influencing both taxonomic and functional similarity of bird assemblages. Competition from members of this widespread genus of native honeyeater, rather than landscape structure, was the main cause of both taxonomic and functional homogenization. These species have not recently expanded their range, but rather have increased in density in response to agricultural landscape change. The negative impacts of Manorina honeyeaters on assemblage similarity were most pronounced in landscapes of moderate land-use intensity. We conclude that in these human-modified landscapes, increased competition from dominant native species, or ‘winners’, can result in homogeneous avian assemblages and the loss of specialist species. These interacting processes make biotic homogenization resulting from land-use change a global threat to biodiversity in modified agro-ecosystems. PMID:23724136

  3. Biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural industrialization alters rural landscapes in Europe, causing large-scale and rapid loss of important biodiversity. The principal instruments to protect farmland biodiversity are various agri-environmental measures (AEMs) in the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, growing awareness of shortcomings to CAP biodiversity integration prompts examination of causes and potential solutions. This thesis assesses the importance of structural heterogeneity of crop and non-crop habi...

  4. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  5. Examining relationship/family planning factors and sexual relationship power among immigrant Latino couples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yui; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Knafl, George J; Worthington, Everett L; Jallo, Nancy; Corona, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    The ability to influence partners' actions within an intimate relationship (sexual relationship power [SRP]) is a key concept in achieving optimum family planning (FP) among U.S. Latinos. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between relationship/FP factors and SRP. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to analyze data for 40 couples. Both men's and women's sexual communications were positively associated with SRP, only women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with SRP, women's general communication was negatively associated with men's SRP, and men's contraception attitudes were negatively associated with SRP. Couples interventions are needed, which account for SRP and gender differences. These findings provide direction for developing targeted interventions to achieve better FP for Latino couples.

  6. Examining Socio-Cultural and Neighborhood Factors Associated with Trajectories of Mexican-Origin Mothers' Education-Related Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Sakshi; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Witherspoon, Dawn P; Pomerantz, Eva M; Robins, Richard W

    2017-08-01

    Parental involvement in education is an important determinant of youth's academic success. Yet, there is limited knowledge on how Latino parents' education-related involvement changes over time. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families (mother-adolescent dyad; M age of child at Wave 1=10.4, SD = 0.60), we examined trajectories of parental involvement from 5 th to 11 th grade and the effects of socio-cultural (e.g., family SES and acculturation) and contextual (e.g., neighborhood) factors on these trajectories. Results showed that mothers reduced two aspects of the educational involvement: home-based involvement and academic aspirations, but increased on a third aspect of involvement, resource seeking. Furthermore, family SES, acculturation, and neighborhood context were differentially associated with mothers' involvement at 5 th grade and predicted changes in involvement across elementary and high school.

  7. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How wind power landscapes change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Following 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind energy landscapes are going to face changes. Ceased on-shore construction, unresolved re-powering and stalled regional planning characterize the situation overshadowed by off-shore development. One of the factors inhibiting development...... in general. However, the pattern of visibility will become askew, and the present homogenous distribution of visibility will disappear. This skewness, together with changing ownership and receding local involvement, could eventually lead to lower popular acceptance of wind power....

  9. What factors facilitate the engagement with flipped classrooms used in the preparation for postgraduate medical membership examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesurasa, Amrita; Mackenzie, Kelly; Jordan, Hannah; Goyder, Elizabeth C

    2017-01-01

    Background The “flipped classroom,” a pedagogical model where typical lecture and homework elements are reversed, is being advocated in medical education to support the teaching of a large curriculum. However, research into the use of this model in postgraduate medical education, which requires the application of acquired knowledge, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to engagement with the flipped classroom model in preparation for the written element of postgraduate membership examinations. Methods Three focus groups (n=14) were held between February and June 2016. Participants were drawn from a membership examination preparation course, run by the University of Shef-field. Two of the groups (n=10) involved “students” (public health registrars) while the other focus group (n=4) was held with “tutors” (experienced registrars and consultants). The focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using both predetermined and emergent themes. Results Key themes that emerged from the data included variation in learning and teaching styles of individuals as well as the feasibility and flexibility of the overall course design. However, management of students’ expectations was found to be the fundamental factor, which underpinned the engagement. Conclusion The complex interaction of factors affecting engagement in this study highlights the need to consider the appropriateness of the flipped classroom model. However, this must be balanced by the potential benefits of the approach for delivering a large curriculum. Recognizing the central importance of managing expectations at the outset would be useful when considering this model in postgraduate medical education. PMID:28721116

  10. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  11. Factors influencing the adoption of an innovation: An examination of the uptake of the Canadian Heart Health Kit (HHK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikoff Ronald C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging knowledge base on the effectiveness of strategies to close the knowledge-practice gap. However, less is known about how attributes of an innovation and other contextual and situational factors facilitate and impede an innovation's adoption. The Healthy Heart Kit (HHK is a risk management and patient education resource for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD and promotion of cardiovascular health. Although previous studies have demonstrated the HHK's content validity and practical utility, no published study has examined physicians' uptake of the HHK and factors that shape its adoption. Objectives Conceptually informed by Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation theory, and Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study had two objectives: (1 to determine if specific attributes of the HHK as well as contextual and situational factors are associated with physicians' intention and actual usage of the HHK kit; and (2, to determine if any contextual and situational factors are associated with individual or environmental barriers that prevent the uptake of the HHK among those physicians who do not plan to use the kit. Methods A sample of 153 physicians who responded to an invitation letter sent to all family physicians in the province of Alberta, Canada were recruited for the study. Participating physicians were sent a HHK, and two months later a study questionnaire assessed primary factors on the physicians' clinical practice, attributes of the HHK (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, confidence and control using the HHK, barriers to use, and individual attributes. All measures were used in path analysis, employing a causal model based on Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results 115 physicians (follow up rate of 75% completed the questionnaire. Use of the HHK was associated with intention to use the HHK, relative advantage, and years of

  12. Factors influencing the adoption of an innovation: an examination of the uptake of the Canadian Heart Health Kit (HHK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Karunamuni, Nandini; Bize, Raphaël; Rodgers, Wendy

    2008-10-02

    There is an emerging knowledge base on the effectiveness of strategies to close the knowledge-practice gap. However, less is known about how attributes of an innovation and other contextual and situational factors facilitate and impede an innovation's adoption. The Healthy Heart Kit (HHK) is a risk management and patient education resource for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and promotion of cardiovascular health. Although previous studies have demonstrated the HHK's content validity and practical utility, no published study has examined physicians' uptake of the HHK and factors that shape its adoption. Conceptually informed by Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation theory, and Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study had two objectives: (1) to determine if specific attributes of the HHK as well as contextual and situational factors are associated with physicians' intention and actual usage of the HHK kit; and (2), to determine if any contextual and situational factors are associated with individual or environmental barriers that prevent the uptake of the HHK among those physicians who do not plan to use the kit. A sample of 153 physicians who responded to an invitation letter sent to all family physicians in the province of Alberta, Canada were recruited for the study. Participating physicians were sent a HHK, and two months later a study questionnaire assessed primary factors on the physicians' clinical practice, attributes of the HHK (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability), confidence and control using the HHK, barriers to use, and individual attributes. All measures were used in path analysis, employing a causal model based on Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Theory of Planned Behaviour. 115 physicians (follow up rate of 75%) completed the questionnaire. Use of the HHK was associated with intention to use the HHK, relative advantage, and years of experience. Relative advantage and the observability of the

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals 130-159 mg/dl) or very high (≥220 mg/dl) non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with diagnosed T2DM. Body mass index, low economic status or low educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999–2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk. PMID:28415936

  15. Association Between Serum Antibodies to Periodontal Bacteria and Rheumatoid Factor in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Charlene E; Kopp, Jacob; Papapanou, Panos N; Molitor, Jerry A; Demmer, Ryan T

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in the microbiome, including the periodontal microbiome, may be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most studies that have analyzed this association are relatively small, focus primarily on a single periodontal pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and are not population based. This study was undertaken to investigate the association between elevated serum levels of IgG antibodies to 19 periodontal species and the prevalence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in a large nationally representative sample of adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) is a cross-sectional sample of the noninstitutionalized US population (n = 33,994). Our study population included all dentate participants who were 60 years and older, did not have RA as defined by a modified version of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria, and had complete data for both serum IgG antibodies against periodontal bacteria and serum RF antibody titer (n = 2,461). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) summarizing the relationship between the 19 periodontal serum IgG antibodies and RF seropositivity ranged from 0.53 (95% CI 0.29-0.97) to 1.27 (95% CI 0.79-2.06), and 17 of the 19 observed ORs were periodontal bacteria are mostly unassociated with RF seropositivity in the nationally representative NHANES-III. Elevated levels of antibodies to P intermedia and C ochracea are associated with lower odds of RF seropositivity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. [Examination of psychomotor development in relation to social-environmental factors in preterm children at 2 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyhercz, Flóra; Nagy, Beáta

    2017-01-01

    The development of children born prematurely is an important aspect in public health, because preterm birth rates are not decreasing with the development of medical sciences. Description of psychomotor development of preterm children related to potentially influencing environmental factors. Children born below 2.500 grams at the age of two (n = 75). Psychomotor development, quality of home environment, socio-demographic background were measured. Lower birth weight was associated with lower development quotients. Psychomotor development was also negatively affected by child deprivation, low levels of cognitive stimulation and maternal empathy, regardless of birth weight. Increased performance loss was found related to lower sociodemographic variables, such as low maternal education or ethnicity. Psychomotor development of 2-year-old premature children is affected by the examined social-environmental factors. We recommend the screening and developmental interventions for premature children as early as possible, thus preventing difficulties in mental and motor development in the future. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(1), 31-38.

  17. The Prevalence of "Drinking and Biking" and Associated Risk Factors: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Se Hwan; Ahn, Ma Rhip; Han, Kyung Do; Lee, Jung Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the steady rise of health and environmental awareness, the number of bicyclists is increasing. However, there are few epidemiologic studies on bicycling under the influence (BUI). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of BUI and the associated risk factors in a representative Korean population. The data of 4,833 adult bicyclists who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed. Among the 4,833 participants investigated in this study, 586 (12.1%) had experienced BUI. As participants' age increased, so did the prevalence of BUI (P < 0.001), with the participants who were aged 60-69 showing the highest prevalence of BUI (19.6%). With regard to BUI and drinking habits, the likelihood of being a heavy or high-risk drinker increased with the frequency of BUI (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a positive relationship between the frequency of BUI and alcohol use disorder identification score level. Finally, those who had previous experiences of BUI were significantly more likely to drive and ride motorcycles under the influence (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of BUI was 12.1% and several associated risk factors for BUI were elucidated in this study. The development of specific preventive strategies and educational programs aimed at deterring individuals at a high risk of engaging in BUI is expected to reduce the number of alcohol-related bicycle injuries. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  18. A longitudinal examination of the relationship between sexual sensation seeking and STI-related risk factors among African American females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with STI-related risk factors in numerous cross sectional studies. However, no current studies have examined whether sexual sensation seeking is longitudinally related to a broad spectrum of STI-related factors such as consistent condom use, number of sexual partners, frequency of partner sexual communication, self-efficacy to refuse sex, and fear of condom negotiation. We explored these relationships over a 12-month period among a sample of 715 African American females attending three STI clinics in Georgia that were recruited into a larger randomized clinic intervention study. Utilizing A-CASI technology to assess all self-reported measures and employing general estimation equations while controlling for age, peer norms, school enrollment and employment, major results indicated that higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower percent of condom use in the last 14 and 60 days, lower consistent condom use and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower partner sexual communication, diminished self-efficacy to refuse sex, and a higher fear of condom negotiation. Findings suggest that STI/HIV prevention/intervention programs should assess for and target sexual sensation seeking behaviors in such efforts.

  19. Utilization of focused antenatal care in Zambia: examining individual- and community-level factors using a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama-Chiliba, Chitalu M; Koch, Steven F

    2015-02-01

    We examine the individual- and community-level factors associated with the utilization of antenatal care, following the adoption of the focused antenatal care (FANC) approach in Zambia. Using the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, linked with administrative and health facility census data, we specify two multilevel logistic models to assess the factors associated with (1) the inadequate use of antenatal care (ANC) (defined as three or fewer visits) and (2) the non-use of ANC in the first trimester of pregnancy. Although all women in the selected sample had at least one ANC visit, 40% did not have the minimum number required (four), whereas more than 80% of the initial check-ups did not occur in the first trimester. At the individual level, the woman's employment status, quality of ANC received and the husband's educational attainment are negatively associated, while parity, the household childcare burden and wealth are positively associated with inadequate utilization of ANC. Both individual- and community-level characteristics influence inadequate use and non-use of ANC in the first trimester; however, community-level factors are relatively stronger in rural areas. The results suggest that improving the content of care during ANC visits may foster adequate use of ANC and encourage early initiation of ANC visits. Furthermore, health promotion programmes need to further encourage male involvement in pregnant women's decision to seek ANC to encourage adequate use of services. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  20. A confirmatory factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: an examination of sex and racial/ethnic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurka Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis of MetS is typically based on cut-off points for various components, e.g. waist circumference and blood pressure. Because current MetS criteria result in racial/ethnic discrepancies, our goal was to use confirmatory factor analysis to delineate differential contributions to MetS by sub-group. Research Design and Methods Using 1999–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a single MetS factor that allowed differential loadings across sex and race/ethnicity, resulting in a continuous MetS risk score that is sex and race/ethnicity-specific. Results Loadings to the MetS score differed by racial/ethnic and gender subgroup with respect to triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. ROC-curve analysis revealed high area-under-the-curve concordance with MetS by traditional criteria (0.96, and with elevations in MetS-associated risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.71, uric acid (0.75 and fasting insulin (0.82. Using a cut off for this score derived from ROC-curve analysis, the MetS risk score exhibited increased sensitivity for predicting elevations in ≥2 of these risk markers as compared with traditional pediatric MetS criteria. Conclusions The equations from this sex- and race/ethnicity-specific analysis provide a clinically-accessible and interpretable continuous measure of MetS that can be used to identify children at higher risk for developing adult diseases related to MetS, who could then be targeted for intervention. These equations also provide a powerful new outcome for use in childhood obesity and MetS research.

  1. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified

  2. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...

  3. Selecting landscape metrics as indicators of spatial heterogeneity-A comparison among Greek landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plexida, Sofia G.; Sfougaris, Athanassios I.; Ispikoudis, Ioannis P.; Papanastasis, Vasilios P.

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates the spatial heterogeneity of three landscapes along an altitudinal gradient and different human land use. The main aim was the identification of appropriate landscape indicators using different extents. ASTER image was used to create a land cover map consisting of three landscapes which differed in altitude and land use. A number of landscape metrics quantifying patch complexity, configuration, diversity and connectivity were derived from the thematic map at the landscape level. There were significant differences among the three landscapes regarding these four aspects of landscape heterogeneity. The analysis revealed a specific pattern of land use where lowlands are being increasingly utilized by humans (percentage of agricultural land = 65.84%) characterized by physical connectedness (high values of Patch Cohesion Index) and relatively simple geometries (low values of fractal dimension index). The landscape pattern of uplands was found to be highly diverse based upon the Shannon Diversity index. After selecting the scale (600 ha) where metrics values stabilized, it was shown that metrics were more correlated at the small scale of 60 ha. From the original 24 metrics, 14 individual metrics with high Spearman correlation coefficient and Variance Inflation Factor criterion were eliminated, leaving 10 representative metrics for subsequent analysis. Data reduction analysis showed that Patch Density, Area-Weighted Mean Fractal Dimension Index and Patch Cohesion Index are suitable to describe landscape patterns irrespective of the scale. A systematic screening of these metrics could enhance a deeper understanding of the results obtained by them and contribute to a sustainable landscape management of Mediterranean landscapes.

  4. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  5. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M.A.; Dezzani, R.; Pilliod, D.S.; Storfer, A.

    2010-01-01

    powerful new modelling approach for examining a wide range of both basic and applied questions in landscape genetics.

  6. Examination of thromboxane synthase as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2011-03-09

    Abstract Background Thromboxane synthase (TXS) metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and\\/or a survival factor in the disease. Methods TXS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by western analysis and IHC. TXS metabolite (TXB2) levels were measured by EIA. A 204-patient NSCLC TMA was stained for COX-2 and downstream TXS expression. TXS tissue expression was correlated with clinical parameters, including overall survival. Cell proliferation\\/survival and invasion was examined in NSCLC cells following both selective TXS inhibition and stable TXS over-expression. Results TXS was over-expressed in human NSCLC samples, relative to matched normal controls. TXS and TXB2 levels were increased in protein (p < 0.05) and plasma (p < 0.01) NSCLC samples respectively. TXS tissue expression was higher in adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001) and female patients (p < 0.05). No significant correlation with patient survival was observed. Selective TXS inhibition significantly reduced tumour cell growth and increased apoptosis, while TXS over-expression stimulated cell proliferation and invasiveness, and was protective against apoptosis. Conclusion TXS is over-expressed in NSCLC, particularly in the adenocarcinoma subtype. Inhibition of this enzyme inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. Targeting thromboxane synthase alone, or in combination with conventional chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

  7. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  8. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  9. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  10. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  11. Examination of Factors that Influence the Operation Income and Expenditure Balance Difference Rate of 20 Educational Foundation Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hisato; Yano, Kouya; Nagasawa, Kaoko; Katou, Satoka; Yokota, Kuninobu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the operation income and expenditure balance ratio of school corporations running university hospitals by multiple regression analysis. 1. We conducted cluster analysis of the financial ratio and classified the school corporations into those running colleges and universities.2. We conducted multiple regression analysis using the operation income and expenditure balance ratio of the colleges as the variables and the Diagnosis Procedure Combination data as the explaining variables.3. The predictive expression was used for multiple regression analysis. 1. The school corporations were divided into those running universities (7), colleges (20) and others. The medical income ratio and the debt ratio were high and the student payment ratio was low in the colleges.2. The numbers of emergency care hospitalizations, operations, radiation therapies, and ambulance conveyances, and the complexity index had a positive influence on the operation income and expenditure balance ratio. On the other hand, the number of general anesthesia procedures, the cover rate index, and the emergency care index had a negative influence.3. The predictive expression was as follows.Operation income and expenditure balance ratio = 0.027 × number of emergency care hospitalizations + 0.005 × number of operations + 0.019 × number of radiation therapies + 0.007 × number of ambulance conveyances - 0.003 × number of general anesthesia procedures + 648.344 × complexity index - 5877.210 × cover rate index - 2746.415 × emergency care index - 38.647Conclusion: In colleges, the number of emergency care hospitalizations, the number of operations, the number of radiation therapies, and the number of ambulance conveyances and the complexity index were factors for gaining ordinary profit.

  12. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  13. Vacuum selection on the string landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh-Lartey, Edward

    2007-01-01

    I examine some nonanthropic approaches to the string landscape. These approaches are based on finding the initial conditions of the universe using the wave function of the multiverse to select the most probable vacuum out of this landscape. All approaches tackled so far seem to have their own problems and there is no clear-cut alternative to anthropic reasoning. I suggest that finding the initial conditions may be irrelevant since all possible vacua on the landscape are possible initial state conditions and eternal inflation could generate all the other vacua. We are now left to reason out why we are observing the small value of the cosmological constant. I address this issue in the context of noncritical string theory in which all values of the cosmological constant on the landscape are departures from the critical equilibrium state

  14. Landscape Classifications for Landscape Metrics-based Assessment of Urban Heat Island: A Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X F; Deng, L; Wang, H N; Chen, F; Hua, L Z

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, some studies have been carried out on the landscape analysis of urban thermal patterns. With the prevalence of thermal landscape, a key problem has come forth, which is how to classify thermal landscape into thermal patches. Current researches used different methods of thermal landscape classification such as standard deviation method (SD) and R method. To find out the differences, a comparative study was carried out in Xiamen using a 20-year winter time-serial Landsat images. After the retrieval of land surface temperature (LST), the thermal landscape was classified using the two methods separately. Then landscape metrics, 6 at class level and 14 at landscape level, were calculated and analyzed using Fragstats 3.3. We found that: (1) at the class level, all the metrics with SD method were evened and did not show an obvious trend along with the process of urbanization, while the R method could. (2) While at the landscape level, 6 of the 14 metrics remains the similar trends, 5 were different at local turn points of the curve, 3 of them differed completely in the shape of curves. (3) When examined with visual interpretation, SD method tended to exaggerate urban heat island effects than the R method

  15. Diverse landscapes have a higher abundance and species richness of spring wild bees by providing complementary floral resources over bees’ foraging periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape simplification and natural habitat loss can negatively affect wild bees. Alternatively, anthropogenic land-use change can potentially diversify landscapes to create complementary habitats that increase overall resource continuity and diversity. We examined the effects of landscape composit...

  16. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  17. Landscape function analysis as a base of rural development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filepné Kovács Krisztina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on ecosystem services and landscape functions are highly important in landscape ecology, landscape planning and open space design. The terms of ecosystem service and landscape function have been evolved parallel to each other in the scientific literature but have different focus. The term of landscape functions evolved from the scientific field of landscape ecology; it reflects the goods and services provided by regions, landscapes where the cultural, economic factors are important as well. As a framework assessment method with additional economic assessment, a landscape function analysis could be an additional tool of rural development, as it gives a complex analysis of multiple aspects, thus it is highly appropriate to explore, analyze the potentials, resources and limits of landscapes and land use systems. In the current research a landscape function analysis was compared with the rural development strategies in Hungarian micro-regions. We focused on the level of landscape functions and the objectives of the rural development strategies of the study areas. The local development strategies do not focus on territorial differences nor potentials evolving from natural, cultural resources or local constrains. The only exception is tourism development, where in some cases there is a holistic spatial approach which intends to develop the region as a whole.

  18. Why is a landscape perspective important in studies of primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-10-01

    With accelerated deforestation and fragmentation through the tropics, assessing the impact that landscape spatial changes may have on biodiversity is paramount, as this information is required to design and implement effective management and conservation plans. Primates are expected to be particularly dependent on the landscape context; yet, our understanding on this topic is limited as the majority of primate studies are at the local scale, meaning that landscape-scale inferences are not possible. To encourage primatologists to assess the impact of landscape changes on primates, and help future studies on the topic, we describe the meaning of a "landscape perspective" and evaluate important assumptions of using such a methodological approach. We also summarize a number of important, but unanswered, questions that can be addressed using a landscape-scale study design. For example, it is still unclear if habitat loss has larger consistent negative effects on primates than habitat fragmentation per se. Furthermore, interaction effects between habitat area and other landscape effects (e.g., fragmentation) are unknown for primates. We also do not know if primates are affected by synergistic interactions among factors at the landscape scale (e.g., habitat loss and diseases, habitat loss and climate change, hunting, and land-use change), or whether landscape complexity (or landscape heterogeneity) is important for primate conservation. Testing for patterns in the responses of primates to landscape change will facilitate the development of new guidelines and principles for improving primate conservation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. What do human factors and ergonomics professionals value in research publications? Re-examining the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann; Shorrock, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. This study examined the characteristics that make scientific journal articles appeal to HF/E researchers and practitioners using a web-based survey. HF/E researchers and practitioners were more similar than expected in judgements of important attributes and the selection of articles. Both practitioners and researchers considered practical significance to be more important than theoretical significance, in direct contrast to professionals from a related discipline--psychology. Well-written articles were appreciated across disciplines. The results signal a strong interest in practical applications in HF/E, but a relative lack of focus on development of theories that should be the basis for practical applications.

  20. Examining the Cervical Screening Behaviour of Women Aged 50 or above and Its Predicting Factors: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carmen W H; Choi, Kai Chow; Wong, Rosa S; Chow, Ka Ming; So, Winnie K W; Leung, Doris Y P; Lam, Wendy W T; Goggins, William

    2016-12-02

    Under-screening may increase the risk of cervical cancer in middle-aged women. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening behaviour and its predictors among women aged 50 years or above. A population-based sample of 959 women was recruited by telephone from domestic households in Hong Kong, using random methods, and a structured questionnaire developed to survey participants. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the factors independently associated with cervical screening behaviour. Nearly half the sample (48%) had never had a cervical smear test. Multivariable analyses showed that age, educational level, marital status, family history of cancer, smoking status, use of complementary therapy, recommendation from health professionals, and believing that regular visits to a doctor or a Chinese herbalist were good for their health were predictors of cervical screening behaviour. Misconceptions concerned with menopause may reduce women's perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, especially if they are 50 or above, and exert a negative effect on their screening behaviour. Healthcare professionals should actively approach these high-risk groups-older unmarried women, smokers, those less educated and who are generally not much concerned with their health.

  1. Examining the Cervical Screening Behaviour of Women Aged 50 or above and Its Predicting Factors: A Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen W. H. Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under-screening may increase the risk of cervical cancer in middle-aged women. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening behaviour and its predictors among women aged 50 years or above. A population-based sample of 959 women was recruited by telephone from domestic households in Hong Kong, using random methods, and a structured questionnaire developed to survey participants. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the factors independently associated with cervical screening behaviour. Nearly half the sample (48% had never had a cervical smear test. Multivariable analyses showed that age, educational level, marital status, family history of cancer, smoking status, use of complementary therapy, recommendation from health professionals, and believing that regular visits to a doctor or a Chinese herbalist were good for their health were predictors of cervical screening behaviour. Misconceptions concerned with menopause may reduce women’s perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, especially if they are 50 or above, and exert a negative effect on their screening behaviour. Healthcare professionals should actively approach these high-risk groups–older unmarried women, smokers, those less educated and who are generally not much concerned with their health.

  2. Examining factors that influence the effectiveness of cleaning antineoplastic drugs from drug preparation surfaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Chua, Prescillia Ps; Danyluk, Quinn; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented to result in various adverse health effects. Despite the implementation of control measures to minimize exposure, detectable levels of drug residual are still found on hospital work surfaces. Cleaning these surfaces is considered as one means to minimize the exposure potential. However, there are no consistent guiding principles related to cleaning of contaminated surfaces resulting in hospitals to adopt varying practices. As such, this pilot study sought to evaluate current cleaning protocols and identify those factors that were most effective in reducing contamination on drug preparation surfaces. Three cleaning variables were examined: (1) type of cleaning agent (CaviCide®, Phenokil II™, bleach and chlorhexidine), (2) application method of cleaning agent (directly onto surface or indirectly onto a wipe) and (3) use of isopropyl alcohol after cleaning agent application. Known concentrations of antineoplastic drugs (either methotrexate or cyclophosphamide) were placed on a stainless steel swatch and then, systematically, each of the three cleaning variables was tested. Surface wipes were collected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the percent residual of drug remaining (with 100% being complete elimination of the drug). No one single cleaning agent proved to be effective in completely eliminating all drug contamination. The method of application had minimal effect on the amount of drug residual. In general, application of isopropyl alcohol after the use of cleaning agent further reduced the level of drug contamination although measureable levels of drug were still found in some cases.

  3. Local and Landscape Drivers of Parasitoid Abundance, Richness, and Composition in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Julia M; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function. We examined the local habitat and landscape drivers of parasitoid abundance, superfamily and family richness, and parasitoid composition in urban gardens in the California central coast. Local factors included garden size, ground cover type, herbaceous plant species, and number of trees and shrubs. Landscape characteristics included land cover and landscape diversity around gardens. We found that garden size, mulch cover, and urban cover within 500 m of gardens predicted increases in parasitoid abundance within gardens. The height of herbaceous vegetation and tree and shrub richness predicted increases in superfamily and family richness whereas increases in urban cover resulted in declines in parasitoid richness. Abundance of individual superfamilies and families responded to a wide array of local and landscape factors, sometimes in opposite ways. Composition of parasitoid communities responded to changes in garden size, herbaceous plant cover, and number of flowers. Thus, both local scale management and landscape planning may impact the abundance, diversity, and community composition of parasitoids in urban gardens, and may result in differences in the effectiveness of parasitoids in biological control. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale: An Examination of the Personality Traits and Disorders Associated with the LSRP Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Pryor, Lauren R.

    2008-01-01

    There are several self-report measures of psychopathy, most of which use a two-factor structure. There is debate regarding the convergence of these factors, particularly with regard to Factor 1 (F1), which is related to the interpersonal and affective aspects of psychopathy; Factor 2 (F2) is related to the social deviance associated with…

  5. Association of Individual and Neighborhood Factors with Home Food Availability: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Weiwen; Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the important role of the home food environment in an individual's dietary intake. This study examined the associations of individual and neighborhood-level factors with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the home using a nationally representative sample from the 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). A cross-sectional study design was used with NHANES merged with the 2000 census data. Food availability was measured through self-report questionnaire regarding the frequency of foods or drinks available in the home. The analysis included 8,975 participants aged 19 to 65 years. Associations of individual and neighborhood factors with home food availability (always or most of the time available) were assessed using logistic regression modeling accounting for NHANES' complex survey design and weights. Individual-level and neighborhood-level factors were simultaneously included in the analysis. Family income-to-needs ratio was positively associated with the availability of dark green vegetables (odds ratio [OR]=1.07; 95% CI=1.00 to 1.13), fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.16; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.25), and salty snacks (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.04 to 1.20) in the home. College graduates were more likely to have fruits (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.48 to 2.60), vegetables (OR=1.48; 95% CI=1.16 to 1.88), and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.55 to 2.12) and less likely to have salty snacks (OR=0.77; 95% CI=0.63 to 0.95) and sugary drinks (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.37 to 0.57) available compared with non-college graduates. Tract socioeconomic status (SES) scores were positively associated with fruit (OR=1.15; 95% CI=1.02 to 1.29), vegetable (OR=1.14; 95% CI=1.03 to 1.26), and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.10 to 1.42) availability. Urban residents were associated with greater availability of fruits (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.05 to 2.08) and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.02 to 1

  6. LANDSCAPE MODELING OF CHARACTERISTIC HABITAT SCALES, DISPERSAL, AND CONNECTIVITY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORGANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A modeling framework was developed to investigate the interactive effects of life history characteristics and landscape heterogeneity on dispersal success. An individual-based model was used to examine how dispersal between resource patches is affected by four landscape characte...

  7. Scale effects on spatially varying relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run

    2014-08-01

    Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.

  8. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  9. Examination of Factors Explaining Coaching Strategy and Training Methodology as Correlates of Potential Doping Behavior in High-Level Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liposek, Silvester; Zenic, Natasa; Saavedra, Jose M; Sekulic, Damir; Rodek, Jelena; Marinsek, Miha; Sajber, Dorica

    2018-01-01

    Although coaching is considered an important determinant of athletes’ potential doping behavior (PDB), there is an evident lack of studies that have examined coaching-strategy-and-training-methodology (CS&TM) in relation to PDB. This study was aimed to identify the specific associations that may exist between CS&TM -factors and other factors, and PDB in high-level swimming. The sample comprised 94 swimmers (35 females; 19.7 ± 2.3 years of age) and consisted of swimmers older than 18 years who participated in the 2017 National Championship. Variables were collected by previously validated questionnaires, with the addition of questions where athletes were asked about CS&TM to which they had been exposed. Multinomial logistic regression was applied for the criterion PDB (Negative PDB – Neutral PDB – Positive PDB). The higher risk for positive-PDB was found in males (OR: 6.58; 95%CI: 1.01-9.12); therefore, all regressions were adjusted for gender. Those swimmers who achieved better competitive result were less prone to neutral-PDB (0.41; 0.17-0.98). The positive-PDB was evidenced in those swimmers who perceived that their training was monotonous and lacked diversity (1.82; 1.41-5.11), and who were involved in training which was mostly oriented toward volume (1.76; 1.11-7.12). The lower likelihood of positive-PDB is found in those who replied that technique is practiced frequently (0.12; 0.01-0.81), those who replied that coach regularly provided the attention to explain the training aims (0.21; 0.04-0.81), and that coach frequently reviewed and discussed the quality of execution of specific tasks (0.41; 0.02-0.81). The findings on the relationships between the studied variables and PDB should be incorporated into targeted anti-doping efforts in swimming. Further studies examining sport-specific variables of CS&TM in younger swimmers and other sports are warranted. Key points The opinions about doping presence in swimming were not associated with athletes

  10. The potential of landscape labelling approaches for integrated landscape management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Plieninger, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This paper combines conceptual thinking and empirical analysis of landscape labelling as a new governance approach. With the help of a literature review and qualitative interviews, we (1) explore the conceptual orientation of landscape labelling, (2) analyse existing approaches in Europe and (3......) elaborate its potential for integrated landscape management on a regional scale. Governance analysis to identify fostering and hindering factors is carried out for regional brands in biosphere reserves in Germany, geographic indication in Spain, organic agriculture in France and a community forest...... approach within policy mixes that depend on supportive governance structures and stakeholders....

  11. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  12. Diet and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths: acculturation and socioeconomic factors in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Robert E; Marquis, Grace S; Jensen, Helen H

    2003-12-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor diet, food insufficiency, and poor child health. Hispanic households have disproportionately low incomes. Acculturation-related changes may augment the effects of poverty on children's diet and health. The goal was to determine the associations that acculturation, measured by parents' language use, and income have with dietary intakes and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths. Data on 2985 Hispanic youths aged 4-16 y were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Nutrient intake data were from one 24-h dietary recall. The analysis was controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, and program variables. Parents' exclusive use of Spanish was associated in bivariate analyses with differences in intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and folate and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. When other factors were controlled for, less acculturation was associated with differences in intakes of energy and sodium and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. Individuals in poorer households had higher intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and some micronutrients. Although not significant for all indicators of food insufficiency, consistent patterns showed that household food insufficiency decreased with less acculturation (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7 for adult meal size reduced) and increased with low income [odds ratio: 5.9 (3.0, 11.7) for not enough food and 5.4 (2.2, 13.4) for child meal size reduced]. Both acculturation and poverty have roles in children's diets and in household food insufficiency. Culturally specific public health and nutrition education should complement efforts to improve the financial security of low-income households.

  13. Fitness landscape complexity and the emergence of modularity in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Jessica

    Previous research has shown that the shape of the fitness landscape can affect the evolution of modularity. We evolved neural networks to solve different tasks with different fitness landscapes, using NEAT, a popular neuroevolution algorithm that quantifies similarity between genomes in order to divide them into species. We used this speciation mechanism as a means to examine fitness landscape complexity, and to examine connections between fitness landscape complexity and the emergence of modularity.

  14. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  15. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  16. State Transitions in Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed a large number of state-and-transition models (STM) to predict and interpret changes in vegetation communities in drylands of the southwestern U.S. These are represented as box-and-arrow models indicating potential changes in response to various combinations of management practices and environmental forcings. Analysis of the 320 STMs developed for areas within the state of Texas reveals two important aspects of environmental change in semiarid environments. First, the STMs are highly local—they are specific to very particular combinations of landform, soil, and climate. This is consistent with the perfect landscape concept in geomorphology, which emphasizes the irreducible importance of geographically and historically contingent local factors in addition to universal laws or principles in determining the state or condition of landscapes. Second, analysis of the STMs using algebraic graph theory shows that a majority of them have structures that tend to amplify effects of change and disturbances. In many cases the STMs represent a form of self-organization characterized by the potential of divergent behavior rather than convergence toward a dominant pattern or outcome. These results indicate that geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological responses to climate and land use change are likely to be highly variable and idiosyncratic, both within and between semiarid landscapes of Texas.

  17. Landscape structure and the speed of adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudino, Elder S.; Campos, Paulo R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The role of fragmentation in the adaptive process is addressed. We investigate how landscape structure affects the speed of adaptation in a spatially structured population model. As models of fragmented landscapes, here we simulate the percolation maps and the fractal landscapes. In the latter the degree of spatial autocorrelation can be suited. We verified that fragmentation can effectively affect the adaptive process. The examination of the fixation rates and speed of adaptation discloses the dichotomy exhibited by percolation maps and fractal landscapes. In the latter, there is a smooth change in the pace of the adaptation process, as the landscapes become more aggregated higher fixation rates and speed of adaptation are obtained. On the other hand, in random percolation the geometry of the percolating cluster matters. Thus, the scenario depends on whether the system is below or above the percolation threshold. - Highlights: • The role of fragmentation on the adaptive process is addressed. • Our approach makes the linkage between population genetics and landscape ecology. • Fragmentation affects gene flow and thus influences the speed of adaptation. • The level of clumping determines how the speed of adaptation is influenced

  18. Factors Affecting Examination Attrition: Does Academic Support Help? A Survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) Students at Unisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tladi, Lerato Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the attributing and contributing factors to examination absence as well as whether the academic and social support available to students had a role to play in discouraging or reducing absence from examinations using results from a quantitative survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) students who were admitted…

  19. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-11-05

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.

  20. Examining Parents' Ratings of Middle-School Students' Academic Self-Regulation Using Principal Axis Factoring Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P.; Cleary, Timothy J.; Lui, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the "Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale" ("SRSI-PRS"), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS:…

  1. Examinations of Factors Influencing Survival of Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single-Center Experience From Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piros, L; Fehérvári, I; Görög, D; Nemes, B; Szabó, J; Gerlei, Z; Végső, G; Kóbori, L; Máthé, Z

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best therapy of choice for early, unresectable HCC. The Hungarian Liver Transplantation Program was launched in 1995 at the Department of Transplantation and Surgery, Semmelweis University, Budapest. From that time more than 60 patients underwent OLT for hepatic tumors, which in most cases were HCC. Our clinical examination was undertaken to analyze the possible influential factors of outcomes for our series of patients who received OLT for HCC. We performed a review of all patients who underwent OLT for HCC at our department from 1996 to October 1, 2013. Disease extent was determined by preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. All explants were examined and categorized based on tumor number, size, distribution, HCC histologic grade, and vascular invasion. Patients with HCC were classified as having tumors either meeting Milan criteria, beyond Milan criteria but within UCSF criteria, or exceeding UCSF criteria. OLT was performed using standard techniques including orthotopic implantation with cross-clamp technique or with the piggyback technique. Postoperative immunosuppression included a triple drug regimen of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone. mTOR inhibitors have been available since 2004. HCC most commonly occurs in the presence of cirrhosis as a result of longstanding chronic liver disease. Most of our patients who underwent OLT for HCC are 56 to 60 years old, and most also had underlying HCV cirrhosis. As of October 1, 2013, 21 of 49 (42.85%) patients had died after OLT for HCC. The main cause was the recurrence of the HCC in 38%, followed by sepsis in 33%, and HCV recurrence in 19%. One death each (4.7% of the total number of deaths) was caused by primary nonfunction of the graft, acute myocardial infarct, and de novo malignancy, respectively. Overall

  2. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social......‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...

  3. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  4. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However,

  5. Exploring Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in the potential energy landscapes approach are highlighted, including both theoretical and computational contributions. Treating the high dimensionality of molecular and condensed matter systems of contemporary interest is important for understanding how emergent properties are encoded in the landscape and for calculating these properties while faithfully representing barriers between different morphologies. The pathways characterized in full dimensionality, which are used to construct kinetic transition networks, may prove useful in guiding such calculations. The energy landscape perspective has also produced new procedures for structure prediction and analysis of thermodynamic properties. Basin-hopping global optimization, with alternative acceptance criteria and generalizations to multiple metric spaces, has been used to treat systems ranging from biomolecules to nanoalloy clusters and condensed matter. This review also illustrates how all this methodology, developed in the context of chemical physics, can be transferred to landscapes defined by cost functions associated with machine learning.

  6. Relative importance of current and past landscape structure and local habitat conditions for plant species richness in dry grassland-like forest openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Iveta; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    In fragmented landscapes, plant species richness may depend not only on local habitat conditions but also on landscape structure. In addition, both present and past landscape structure may be important for species richness. There are, however, only a few studies that have investigated the relative importance of all of these factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of current and past landscape structures and habitat conditions on species richness at dry grassland-like forest openings in a forested landscape and to assess their relative importance for species richness. We analyzed information on past and present landscape structures using aerial photographs from 1938, 1973, 1988, 2000 and 2007. We calculated the area of each locality and its isolation in the present and in the past and the continuity of localities in GIS. At each locality, we recorded all vascular plant species (296 species in 110 forest openings) and information on abiotic conditions of the localities. We found that the current species richness of the forest openings was significantly determined by local habitat conditions as well as by landscape structure in the present and in the past. The highest species richness was observed on larger and more heterogeneous localities with rocks and shallow soils, which were already large and well connected to other localities in 1938. The changes in the landscape structure in the past can thus have strong effects on current species richness. Future studies attempting to understand determinants of species diversity in fragmented landscapes should also include data on past landscape structure, as it may in fact be more important than the present structure.

  7. To kill, stay or flee: the effects of lions and landscape factors on habitat and kill site selection of cheetahs in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rostro-García

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species' habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa.

  8. To Kill, Stay or Flee: The Effects of Lions and Landscape Factors on Habitat and Kill Site Selection of Cheetahs in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostro-García, Susana; Kamler, Jan F.; Hunter, Luke T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges) and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used) of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species’ habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa. PMID:25693067

  9. To kill, stay or flee: the effects of lions and landscape factors on habitat and kill site selection of cheetahs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostro-García, Susana; Kamler, Jan F; Hunter, Luke T B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges) and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used) of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species' habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa.

  10. Landscape scale ecology at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Jones, D.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Robert, K.; Gooday, A. J.; Durden, J. M.; Laguionie-Marchais, C.; Stefanoudis, P. V.; Benoist, N. M.; Paterson, G. L.; Wolff, G. A.; Milligan, R. J.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of life on the seafloor is set to some extent by the supply of sinking particulate organic matter from overlying surface water. However, the habitat landscape of the seafloor can also exert important ecological influences at local scales. Community differences on the scales of centimeters upwards can arise from drivers including changes in seafloor sediments, slope, and lateral movement of particulate organic matter. Here we use photographic survey data covering an extent on the order of 100 km2 to examine relationships between megafauna density, biomass, diversity, and community composition, as well as food availability and habitat type across landscape scales. The surveyed area at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain has a maximum water depth of about 4850 m and includes a range of topographic features from slight undulations of the seafloor to exposed bedrock scarps on an abyssal hill rising more than 200 m above the surrounding plain. We first examine community descriptors across the entire area and then sequentially break the analytical units into smaller units including variants based on habitat types and spatial extent. We repeat the examination of seafloor community descriptors with finer and finer analytical unit scales, as well as for different habitat types, and changing levels of phytodetritus coverage. We then examine the scales at which diversity and community composition go from statistically indistinguishable between analytical units to significantly different and which factors best explain these observations. Lastly, we relate the results from this megafauna study to other recent spatial studies at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, from foraminifera to fishes, to build a landscape view of the ecology of the area.

  11. Digital landscapes of imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-01-01

    Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence be...

  12. Modeling disturbance and succession in forest landscapes using LANDIS: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He

    2004-01-01

    Modeling forest landscape change is challenging because it involves the interaction of a variety of factors and processes, such as climate, succession, disturbance, and management. These processes occur at various spatial and temporal scales, and the interactions can be complex on heterogeneous landscapes. Because controlled field experiments designed to investigate...

  13. The Examination of Factors Influencing Social Media Usage by African American Small Business Owners Using the UTAUT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serben, Dion F.

    2014-01-01

    The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for various business technology uses within the organizational system. However, in the context of African American small businesses (AASB), there was very little evidence of research to determine factors affecting the intention to use…

  14. Examining the Factor Structure and Discriminant Validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Among Spanish Postpartum Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.…

  15. Education and adult cause-specific mortality--examining the impact of family factors shared by 871 367 Norwegian siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Oyvind; Hoff, Dominic A; Lawlor, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood.......To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood....

  16. Landscape architecture between politics and science : an integrative perspective on landscape planning and design in the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the typical nature of design thinking, which is compared and contrasted with scientific and political thinking. A theretical framework is formulated and applied to landscape planning and design. During the 20th century the established operational orientation in landscape

  17. The effects of landscape position on plant species density: Evidence of past environmental effects in a coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    additional insight into the factors controlling current patterns of species density by examining the effects of position within the landscape.

  18. Cumulative effects of climate and landscape change drive spatial distribution of Rocky Mountain wolverine (Gulo gulo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Nicole; Fisher, Jason T; Clevenger, Anthony; Paczkowski, John; Volpe, John

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary landscapes are subject to a multitude of human-derived stressors. Effects of such stressors are increasingly realized by population declines and large-scale extirpation of taxa worldwide. Most notably, cumulative effects of climate and landscape change can limit species' local adaptation and dispersal capabilities, thereby reducing realized niche space and range extent. Resolving the cumulative effects of multiple stressors on species persistence is a pressing challenge in ecology, especially for declining species. For example, wolverines ( Gulo gulo L.) persist on only 40% of their historic North American range. While climate change has been shown to be a mechanism of range retractions, anthropogenic landscape disturbance has been recently implicated. We hypothesized these two interact to effect declines. We surveyed wolverine occurrence using camera trapping and genetic tagging at 104 sites at the wolverine range edge, spanning a 15,000 km 2 gradient of climate, topographic, anthropogenic, and biotic variables. We used occupancy and generalized linear models to disentangle the factors explaining wolverine distribution. Persistent spring snow pack-expected to decrease with climate change-was a significant predictor, but so was anthropogenic landscape change. Canid mesocarnivores, which we hypothesize are competitors supported by anthropogenic landscape change, had comparatively weaker effect. Wolverine population declines and range shifts likely result from climate change and landscape change operating in tandem. We contend that similar results are likely for many species and that research that simultaneously examines climate change, landscape change, and the biotic landscape is warranted. Ecology research and species conservation plans that address these interactions are more likely to meet their objectives.

  19. Population growth, demographic change, and cultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, G; Sage, C

    1994-01-01

    The inclusion of both ecological and socioeconomic components within landscapes makes possible the perception of the hierarchical character of landscape organization. A research approach is needed to conceptualize cultural landscapes as the product of interaction between society and nature. Richard Norgaard's 1984 paper on coevolutionary agricultural development attempts to meet this challenge. Coevolution is the interactive synthesis of natural and social mechanisms of change that characterize the relationship between social systems and ecosystems. The relationship between population, consumption, and environmental changes is complex. Currently industrialized countries present the biggest threat to global environmental resources. The issue of carrying capacity is the corollary of population and the environment. It is primarily the technological factor rather than population that needs to be controlled. The relationship between rich and poor countries is determined by superior economic power. An analysis of landscape change is made, tracing the coevolution of society and environment from the end of the feudal era and making comparisons with continental Europe. Over the years since 1945 the need to realize potential economies of scale has resulted in a wholesale loss of woodlands, hedgerows, and small ponds in the UK. In a global context the likely impacts of population growth and demographic change on landscapes will be influenced by such socioeconomic factors as technology and affluence; policies that ignore cause and effect; and the traditional tendency to treat the environment as a waste repository and a supply depot.

  20. Persistence of aquatic insects across managed landscapes: effects of landscape permeability on re-colonization and population recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galic, N.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Van den Brink, P.J.; Schmolke, A.; Thorbek, P.; Bruns, E.; Baveco, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a

  1. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by

  2. The association between leisure time physical activity and smoking in adolescence: an examination of potential mediating and moderating factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Nielsen, G.A.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern, sense of

  3. The Association between leisure time physical activity and smoking in adolescence: an examination of potential mediating and moderating factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verkooijen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Gert A; Kremers, Stef P J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. PURPOSE: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern,...

  4. Examining the design and developmental factors associated with crashes involving pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    "Using a parcel-level database of crash incidence and urban form developed for the San Antonio-Bexar : County metropolitan region, this study examined how urban form-related variables affect the incidence of : crashes involving pedestrians, bicyclist...

  5. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  6. What can a numerical landscape evolution model tell us about the evolution of a real landscape? Two examples of modeling a real landscape without recreating it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Willenbring, J.; Crosby, B. T.; Brocard, G. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical landscape evolution models (LEMs) offer us the unique opportunity to watch a landscape evolve under any set of environmental forcings that we can quantify. The possibilities for using LEMs are infinite, but complications arise when trying to model a real landscape. Specifically, numerical models cannot recreate every aspect of a real landscape because exact initial conditions are unknown, there will always be gaps in the known tectonic and climatic history, and the geomorphic transport laws that govern redistribution of mass due to surface processes will always be a simplified representation of the actual process. Yet, even with these constraints, numerical models remain the only tool that offers us the potential to explore a limitless range of evolutionary scenarios, allowing us to, at the very least, identify possible drivers responsible for the morphology of the current landscape, and just as importantly, rule out others. Here we highlight two examples in which we use a numerical model to explore the signature of different forcings on landscape morphology and erosion patterns. In the first landscape, the Northern Bolivian Andes, the relative imprint of rock uplift and precipitation patterns on landscape morphology is widely contested. We use the CHILD LEM to systematically vary climate and tectonics and quantify their fingerprints on channel profiles across a steep mountain front. We find that rock uplift and precipitation patterns in this landscape and others can be teased out by examining channel profiles of variably sized catchments that drain different parts of the topography. In the second landscape, the South Fork Eel River (SFER), northern California, USA, the tectonic history is relatively well known; a wave of rock uplift swept through the watershed from headwaters to outlet, perturbing the landscape and sending a wave of bedrock incision upstream. Nine millennial-scale erosion rates from along the mainstem of the river illustrate a pattern of

  7. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  8. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  9. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  10. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  11. Landscape and Ambience on the Urban Fringe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This article stems from ongoing research on the creation of penurbia since 1945 which examines the development of hybrid city-country landscapes around large urban areas that mesh stylized countryside with functional links to the cities. Simply put, penurbia looks like country but often thinks li...

  12. Local and landscape-scale biotic correlates of mistletoe distribution in Mediterranean pine forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura-Pascual, N.; Brotons, L.; Garcia, D.; Zamora, R.; Caceres, M. de

    2012-11-01

    The study of the spatial patterns of species allows the examination of hypotheses on the most plausible ecological processes and factors determining their distribution. To investigate the determinants of parasite species on Mediterranean forests at regional scales, occurrence data of the European Misletoe (Viscum album) in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) were extracted from forest inventory data and combined with different types of explanatory variables by means of generalized linear mixed models. The presence of mistletoes in stands of Pinus halepensis seems to be determined by multiple factors (climatic conditions, and characteristics of the host tree and landscape structure) operating at different spatial scales, with the availability of orchards of Olea europaea in the surroundings playing a relevant role. These results suggest that host quality and landscape structure are important mediators of plant-plant and plant-animal interactions and, therefore, management of mistletoe populations should be conducted at both local (i.e. clearing of infected host trees) and landscape scales (e.g. controlling the availability of nutrient-rich food sources that attract bird dispersers). Research and management at landscape-scales are necessary to anticipate the negative consequence of land-use changes in Mediterranean forests. (Author) 38 refs.

  13. The role of landscape spatial patterns on obesity in Hispanic children residing in inner-city neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Chanam; Olvara, Norma E; Ellis, Christopher D

    2014-11-01

    Childhood obesity and its comorbidities have become major public health challenges in the US. While previous studies have investigated the roles of land uses and transportation infrastructure on obesity, limited research has examined the influence of landscape spatial patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between landscape spatial patterns and obesity in Hispanic children. Participants included 61 fourth- and fifth-grade Hispanic children from inner-city neighborhoods in Houston, TX. BMI z-scores were computed based on objectively-measured height and weight from each child. Parental and child surveys provided sociodemographic and physical activity data. Landscape indices were used to measure the quality of landscape spatial patterns surrounding each child's home by utilizing Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing analyses using aerial photo images. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, in the half-mile airline buffer, more tree patches and well-connected landscape patterns were negatively correlated with their BMI z-scores. Furthermore, larger sizes of urban forests and tree patches were negatively associated with children's BMI z-scores in the half-mile network buffer assessment. This study suggests that urban greenery requires further attention in studies aimed at identifying environmental features that reduce childhood obesity.

  14. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  15. Mapping the cultural learnability landscape of danger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, H.C.; Peterson, C.D.; Frankenhuis, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural transmission is often viewed as a domain-general process. However, a growing literature suggests that learnability is influenced by content and context. The idea of a learnability landscape is introduced as a way of representing the effects of interacting factors on how easily information

  16. Unveiling soil degradation and desertification risk in the Mediterranean basin: a data mining analysis of the relationships between biophysical and socioeconomic factors in agro-forest landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvati, L.; Kosmas, C.; Kairis, O.; Karavitis, C.; Hessel, R.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil degradation and desertification processes in the Mediterranean basin reflect the interplay between environmental and socioeconomic drivers. An approach to evaluate comparatively the multiple relationships between biophysical variables and socioeconomic factors is illustrated in the present

  17. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for examining healthcare professionals' assessments of risk factors. The relative importance of risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, L; Bath, P A; Pendleton, N; Bracale, M

    2011-01-01

    A gap exists between evidence-based medicine and clinical-practice. Every day, healthcare professionals (HCPs) combine empirical evidence and subjective experience in order to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. Consequently, it is important to understand how HCPs interpret the research evidence and apply it in everyday practice. We focused on the prevention of falls, a common cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in later life, for which there is a wide range of known risk factors. To use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to investigate the opinions of HCPs in prioritizing risk factors for preventing falls. We used the AHP to develop a hierarchy of risk factors for falls based on the knowledge and experience of experts. We submitted electronic questionnaires via the web, in order to reach a wider number of respondents. With a web service, we pooled the results and weighted the coherence and the experience of respondents. Overall, 232 respondents participated in the study: 32 in the technical pilot study, nine in the scientific pilot study and 191 respondents in the main study. We identified a hierarchy of 35 risk factors, organized in two categories and six sub-categories. The hierarchy of risk factors provides further insights into clinicians' perceptions of risk factors for falls. This hierarchy helps understand the relative importance that clinicians place on risk factors for falls in older people and why evidence-based guidelines are not always followed. This information may be helpful in improving intervention programs and in understanding how clinicians prioritize multiple risk factors in individual patients. The AHP method allows the opinions of HCPs to be investigated, giving appropriate weight to their coherence, background and experience.

  18. An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Personality Traits and Transfer Climate Factors on Transfer of Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Imran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality has been considered an important factor influencing trainee efficiency & organizational productivity. Similarly, work climate factors have been recognized as primary influencers in post training context influencing productivity. But research concerning the impact of personality and work climate on trainees’ learning motivation has been very scant and mostly conducted in the western context. The present study was an attempt therefore, to extend this line of research in the Indian context involving educational sector of the State of Jammu & Kashmir. A sample of 517 teacher trainees was drawn for the present study using convenience sampling method. Results indicate that personality traits (i.e., conscientiousness, openness to experience, and internal locus of control do not influence training transfer directly or indirectly, while, transfer climate factors do affect training transfer both directly as well as indirectly via learning motivation. The implications of the results are discussed and the limitations of the study are noted, along with suggested avenues for future research.

  19. Modelling interactions and feedback mechanisms between land use change and landscape processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.; Schoorl, J.M.; Verburg, P.H.; Geraedts, L.; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Land use changes and landscape processes are interrelated and influenced by multiple bio-physical and socio-economic driving factors, resulting in a complex, multi-scale system. Consequently in landscapes with active landscape processes such as erosion, land use changes should not be analysed in

  20. Fractal Landscape Algorithms for Environmental Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Moran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural science and geographical research are now able to take advantage of environmental simulations that more accurately test experimental hypotheses, resulting in deeper understanding. Experiments affected by the natural environment can benefit from 3D landscape simulations capable of simulating a variety of terrains and environmental phenomena. Such simulations can employ random terrain generation algorithms that dynamically simulate environments to test specific models against a variety of factors. Through the use of noise functions such as Perlin noise, Simplex noise, and diamond square algorithms, computers can generate simulations that model a variety of landscapes and ecosystems. This study shows how these algorithms work together to create realistic landscapes. By seeding values into the diamond square algorithm, one can control the shape of landscape. Perlin noise and Simplex noise are also used to simulate moisture and temperature. The smooth gradient created by coherent noise allows more realistic landscapes to be simulated. Terrain generation algorithms can be used in environmental studies and physics simulations. Potential studies that would benefit from simulations include the geophysical impact of flash floods or drought on a particular region and regional impacts on low lying area due to global warming and rising sea levels. Furthermore, terrain generation algorithms also serve as aesthetic tools to display landscapes (Google Earth), and simulate planetary landscapes. Hence, it can be used as a tool to assist science education. Algorithms used to generate these natural phenomena provide scientists a different approach in analyzing our world. The random algorithms used in terrain generation not only contribute to the generating the terrains themselves, but are also capable of simulating weather patterns.