Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth
Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...
The paper deals with urban landscape individualities in the cities and towns of Latgale region. Also show facilities and methods of integrated assessment of urban landscape quality. Article provides information about specifics of urban landscape and factors, that have influence on landscape quality. The paper presents the results of Daugavpils and Rēzekne urban landscape quality complex assessment, that have been realised in 2003- 2005. This results don’t establish significant disparities bet...
Özge Volkan Aksu
Full Text Available Number of problems about city order and its vision has been increasing rapidly. There is two main factors that causes visual pollution. The first factor is that cities are in an unplanned and dense urbanization process which has serious effects on appearance of a city. The second factor is retaining walls used densely in Trabzon city because of its open land structure. These walls which are set up for environmental construction security should be rebuilt with using some landscape plans so that the vision of dense concrete can be reduced. In this study, retaining walls are examined regarded landscape architecture. The continuous situation in Trabzon city is revealed with the help of an examination place, and also some suggestions for preventing the landscape problems which includes vegetal, structural and both vegetal-structural solutions are thrown out for consideration.
Kurt H. Riitters; R.V. O' Neill; C.T. Hunsaker; James D. Wickham; D.H. Yankee; S.P. Timmins; K.B. Jones; B.L. Jackson
Fifty-five metrics of landscape pattern and structure were calculated for 85 maps of land use and land cover. A multivariate factor analysis was used to identify the common axes (or dimensions) of pattern and structure which were measured by a reduced set of 26 metrics. The first six factors explained about 87% of the variation in the 26 landscape metrics. These...
Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.
Full Text Available Urban planners and ecologists have long debated the relationship between the structure of urban landscapes and social activities. There have, however, been very few discussions as to whether any such relationships might depend on the scales of observation. This work applies a hierarchical zoning technique to data from the city of Quito, Ecuador, to examine how relationships between typical spatial landscape metrics and social indicators depend on zoning scales. Our results showed that the estimates of both landscape heterogeneity features and social indicators significantly depend on the zoning scale. The mean values of the typical landscape metrics and the social indicators all exhibited predictable responses to a changing zoning scale, suggesting a consistent and significant scaling relationship within the multiple zoning scales. Yet relationships between these pairs of variables remain notably invariant to scale. This quantitative demonstration of the scale-free nature of the relationship between landscape characteristics and social indicators furthers our understanding of the relationships between landscape structures and social aspects of urban spaces, including deprivation and public service accessibility. The relationships between social indicators and one typical landscape aggregation metric (represented as the percentage of like adjacencies were nevertheless significantly dependent on scale, suggesting the importance of zoning scale decisions for analyzing the relationships between the social indicators and the landscape characteristics related with landscape adjacency. Aside from this typical landscape aggregation metric, the general invariance to the zoning scale of relationships between landscape structures and socioeconomic indicators in Quito suggests the importance of applying these scale-free relationships in understanding complex socio-ecological systems in other cities, which are shaped by the conflated influences of both
Thomas A. Spies; Eric White; Alan Ager; Jeffrey D. Kline; John P. Bolte; Emily K. Platt; Keith A. Olsen; Robert J. Pabst; Ana M. G. Barros; John D. Bailey; Susan Charnley; Anita T. Morzillo; Jennifer Koch; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Peter H. Singleton; James Sulzman; Cynthia Schwartz; Blair Csuti
Fire-prone landscapes present many challenges for both managers and policy makers in developing adaptive behaviors and institutions. We used a coupled human and natural systems framework and an agent-based landscape model to examine how alternative management scenarios affect fire and ecosystem services metrics in a fire-prone multiownership landscape in the eastern...
During the last years, the landscape definition related to the European Landscape Convention has been more and more recognized among scientists and planners dealing with different aspects of landscapes. Sometimes the definition has been abbreviated to the sentence: ‘ an area, as perceived by people', see, e.g. (Olwig 2005), thus focusing on the mental construction of the landscape concept. Indeed, this perceptional aspect is also crucial to understand the ongoing mental battles on landscape i...
Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John
Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Abstract. The study attempted to examine students' perception of the predisposing factors towards examination malpractice among students in Lagos universities. The study adopted the descriptive survey design involving 240 students from the. Faculty of Education in the two public universities in Lagos State. A.
Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung
Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to discover determinant factors of students' participation in online examination based on expectancy-value theory. The method used was group comparison between the groups of participating and nonparticipating students. The results showed that the following factors differentiated the two groups, i.e.: (1 self efficacy in using computers (t=12.81, p<0.01, (2 perceived of easiness in operating an online examination (t=9.51, p<0.01, (3 perceived of the importance of online examination (t=5.58, t<0.01, (4 intrinsic value of online examination (t=10.58, p<001, and (5 cost of online examination (t=-2.05, p=0.029. In addition, the following students' personal factors were also compared and the results were (1 age (t=-2.01, p=0.46, (2 grade point average (t=-5.546, 0<0.01, (3 sex (x2=28.51, p<0.01, and (4 marital status (x2=6.50, p=0.011. The results concluded that the expectancy and value theory was useful for explaining and predicting students' participation in online examinations.
Full Text Available Phenotypic states and evolutionary trajectories available to cell populations are ultimately dictated by complex interactions among DNA, RNA, proteins, and other molecular species. Here we study how evolution of gene regulation in a single-cell eukaryote S. cerevisiae is affected by interactions between transcription factors (TFs and their cognate DNA sites. Our study is informed by a comprehensive collection of genomic binding sites and high-throughput in vitro measurements of TF-DNA binding interactions. Using an evolutionary model for monomorphic populations evolving on a fitness landscape, we infer fitness as a function of TF-DNA binding to show that the shape of the inferred fitness functions is in broad agreement with a simple functional form inspired by a thermodynamic model of two-state TF-DNA binding. However, the effective parameters of the model are not always consistent with physical values, indicating selection pressures beyond the biophysical constraints imposed by TF-DNA interactions. We find little statistical support for the fitness landscape in which each position in the binding site evolves independently, indicating that epistasis is common in the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, by correlating TF-DNA binding energies with biological properties of the sites or the genes they regulate, we are able to rule out several scenarios of site-specific selection, under which binding sites of the same TF would experience different selection pressures depending on their position in the genome. These findings support the existence of universal fitness landscapes which shape evolution of all sites for a given TF, and whose properties are determined in part by the physics of protein-DNA interactions.
Haldane, Allan; Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V
Phenotypic states and evolutionary trajectories available to cell populations are ultimately dictated by complex interactions among DNA, RNA, proteins, and other molecular species. Here we study how evolution of gene regulation in a single-cell eukaryote S. cerevisiae is affected by interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their cognate DNA sites. Our study is informed by a comprehensive collection of genomic binding sites and high-throughput in vitro measurements of TF-DNA binding interactions. Using an evolutionary model for monomorphic populations evolving on a fitness landscape, we infer fitness as a function of TF-DNA binding to show that the shape of the inferred fitness functions is in broad agreement with a simple functional form inspired by a thermodynamic model of two-state TF-DNA binding. However, the effective parameters of the model are not always consistent with physical values, indicating selection pressures beyond the biophysical constraints imposed by TF-DNA interactions. We find little statistical support for the fitness landscape in which each position in the binding site evolves independently, indicating that epistasis is common in the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, by correlating TF-DNA binding energies with biological properties of the sites or the genes they regulate, we are able to rule out several scenarios of site-specific selection, under which binding sites of the same TF would experience different selection pressures depending on their position in the genome. These findings support the existence of universal fitness landscapes which shape evolution of all sites for a given TF, and whose properties are determined in part by the physics of protein-DNA interactions.
Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo
The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…
The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...
Full Text Available Ensuring comfort of use and security of pedestrians, which are the main users of urban green spaces, and the determination of their needs are important since local authorities are guiding for new pedestrian zone studies in the Konya city. Because of the problems caused by the upper structure, the necessary care is not given in terms of transportation comfort, pedestrian safety, vehicle security, plant design and ergonomic / antropemetric standards. The pedestrian way and refuge landscape designs have an important position and amount among open green areas on the scale of Konya. However, it was identified that the applications conducted were inadequate in terms of aesthetic and functional characteristics and were not suitable for the urban landscape design principles, in general, and the standards of urban afforestation of the streets. In this study, the current situation of 3 main streets of Konya used most intensely was examined in terms of landscape design criteria and some suggestions were made by attempting to identify the improvement works that should be performed by the public authorities.
Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini; Mohammad Ali Shafia; Negar Nazari
This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four ...
Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four variables with encouraging people to purchase. Using creativity in advertisements, however dominate the effects on this issue. The marketing and advertisement environment are dynamic and the paper concentrates only on some of the more effective factors. Producers might be more successful in choosing the best way to promote their goods and services by following the proposed model. This paper puts four effective factors together and investigates their impact on advertisement, which was not done by any other previous papers. Unlike other studies, this paper examines the role of customer needs together with four other elements on advertisement effectiveness.
Full Text Available We identified the beetle fauna of springs of a small lowland river and attempted to determine the direction and magnitude of beetle migration between the springs and neighboring water bodies in the river valley, as well as the local environmental factors and landscape parameters that most influence the character of aquatic beetle assemblages in the springs. We studied springs of three limnological types, along the entire length of the river valley, and identified 42 beetle species. All types of springs were dominated by stagnobiontic species, which enter springs from other aquatic environments, mainly via dispersion by air. We also found a small proportion of crenophiles and a substantial proportion of rheophiles and tyrphophiles, which was linked to the close proximity of the river and dystrophic water bodies. The fauna of the springs was affected to a similar degree by local environmental factors and by landscape factors acting on a broader scale. This indicates the need for broader consideration of landscape factors, which are often neglected in ecological studies.
, as well as to define quality objectives for the identified landscapes (Art. 6). In the explanatory report enclosing the European Landscape Convention it is explicated as an important aim that ‘Landscape must become a mainstream political concern, since it plays an important role in the well being...... biodiversity to expected climatic changes. There was however a marked gap between these theories, including their general applicability and the empirical evidence, which was very limited, at best. Dispersal and spatial reproduction conditions for different species of plant and animals are extremely different...... told, that the local farm cooperative had got a loan from the Ministry of Agriculture to cover the expenditures. Due to the experimental character of the project the loan was very attractive: It was free of rent and payment. But one important condition was added: It had to be proved that the corridor...
Ove Edvard Hatlevik
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students’ digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what characterizes students’ digital competence. A sample of 852 ninth-grade Norwegian students from 38 schools participated in the study. The students answered a 26 item multiple-choice digital competence test and a self-report questionnaire about family background, motivation, and previous grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of the hypothesised relationship between family background, mastery orientation, previous achievements, and digital competence. The results indicate variation in digital competence among the ninth-graders. Further, analyses showed that students’ conditions at home, i.e., language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic achievements predict students digital competence. This study indicates that that there is evidence of digital diversity between lower secondary students. It does not seem like the development of digital competence among the students happens automatically. Students’ family background and school performance are the most important factors. Therefore, as this study shows, it is necessary to further investigate how schools can identify students’ level of competence and to develop plans and actions for how schools can help to try to equalize differences.
Wayne C. Zipperer
Non-native species are presumed to be pervasive across the urban landscape. Yet, we actually know very little about their actual distribution. For this study, vegetation plot data from Syracuse, NY and Baltimore, MD were used to examine non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes. Data were collected from remnant and emergent forest patches on upland sites...
Joshi, Omkar; Becerra, Terrie A.; Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Elmore, R. Dwayne
Agricultural intensification has fragmented rangelands in the Great Plains, which has contributed to uniform and homogeneous landscapes and decreased biodiversity. Alternative land management practices involving fire-grazing interactions can help maintain biodiversity without affecting livestock productivity. A survey was designed to understand the factors that influence preferences among the general population towards grassland landscape heterogeneity. Given the ordinal nature of survey responses, requisite data were analyzed using a generalized ordinal logit model. Results suggested that respondents who valued open space and those who recognized a need for a varying mix of uniform grasses and grasslands preferred landscape heterogeneity. Female respondents were about two times as likely to prefer heterogeneous landscapes compared to male respondents. In contrast, population groups that preferred wildlife habitat did not desire heterogeneous landscapes. Results suggest the need for extension and outreach activities to educate certain segments of the general population regarding benefits of alternative management practices that support landscape heterogeneity in the Great Plains.
Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Meshesha, Derege T; Li, Li; Zheng, Mingqing
Air pollution gained special attention with the rapid development in Beijing. In January 2013, Beijing experienced extreme air pollution, which was not well examined. We thus examine the magnitude of air quality in the particular month by applying the air quality index (AQI), which is based on the newly upgraded Chinese environmental standard. Our finding revealed that (1) air quality has distinct spatial heterogeneity and relatively better air quality was observed in the northwest while worse quality happened in the southeast part of the city; (2) the wind speed is the main determinant of air quality in the city-when wind speed is greater than 4 m/sec, air quality can be significantly improved; and (3) urban impervious surface makes a contribution to the severity of air pollution-that is, with an increase in the fraction of impervious surface in a given area, air pollution is more severe. The results from our study demonstrated the severe pollution in Beijing and its meteorological and landscape factors. Also, the results of this work suggest that very strict air quality management should be conducted when wind speed less than 4 m/sec, especially at places with a large fraction of urban impervious surface. Prevention of air pollution is rare among methods with controls on meteorological and urban landscape conditions. We present research that utilizes the latest air quality index (AQI) to compare air pollution with meteorological and landscape conditions. We found that wind is the major meteorological factor that determines the air quality. For a given wind speed greater than 4 m/sec, the air quality improved significantly. Urban impervious surface also contributes to the severe air pollution: that is, when the fraction of impervious surface increases, there is more severe air pollution. These results suggest that air quality management should be conducted when wind speed is less than 4 m/sec, especially at places with a larger fraction of urban impervious surface.
Full Text Available Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes. Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats. Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.
the family, particularly in the mother.'2 Other authors, however, suggest that there may be an interplay of genetic factors (of biological origin) and other psychodynamic factors related to the birth situation that predispose mothers to depression. Psychodynamic factors essentially involve the woman's relationship with her own ...
Full Text Available An understanding of the various influences of urbanisation on plant communities is critical for planning a sustainable future for the planet. For example, landscape practices and sense of place driven by aesthetic influences often dominate in the design of built landscapes, resulting in strikingly different vegetation communities from that of the surrounding communities. Furthermore, these built landscapes in metropolitan areas often markedly influence an inhabitant's impressions of a region's biotic foundation and sense of place. Inhabitants may not consider or understand the ecological impacts of practices that are typically dominated by contemporary cultural aesthetics. Do these cultural aesthetic drivers result in relatively similar landscapes in terms of appearance, regardless of region? The purpose of this study was to document general trends in landscape structure and composition from two distinct, different regions. Specifically, we addressed the questions: how do these built landscapes deviate from their surrounding natural communities and are these built landscapes from the two regions similar in structure and composition? This paper characterised landscape vegetation patterns of typical residential areas in two cities with relatively diverse climatic regions, Tucson, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia. Comparisons were done on data for plant diversity, density, life form (tree, shrub, groundcover, and vines and species origin (native versus non-native from sites within typical residential subdivisions throughout the two cities. Results were compared with the composition of local typology in order to determine what differences and similarities existed in relation to native biotic communities. In both cities, residential landscapes converged on savannah-type landscapes, emphasising scattered overstory and minimal understory that were more compositionally diverse than the native biotic communities because of the introduction of non
Rice, Kevin B; Troyer, Rachael R; Watrous, Kristal M; Tooker, John F; Fleischer, Shelby J
Landscape structure and diversity influence insect species abundance. In agricultural systems, adjacent crop and non-crop habitats can influence pest species population dynamics and intensify economic damage. To investigate the influence of landscape factors on stink bug damage in agricultural systems, we assessed stink bug damage from 30 processing tomato fields in the mid-Atlantic United States and analyzed landscape structure and geographic location. We found that forest shape and size, and geographic location strongly influenced stink bug damage. Landscapes with larger forest edge in southern portions of the mid-Atlantic region experienced the greatest damage, perhaps owing to the introduction of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug. We conclude that landscape structure will likely influence damage rates in nearby agricultural fields.
This collaborative project will examine the role the Integrated Co-operative Model can play in reducing poverty and promoting development in rural African communities. Specifically, it aims to add to the knowledge of how to improve livelihoods and reduce poverty in a sustainable way in rural communities. It will strive to: ...
The result of the analysis revealed that self-concept, Intelligence, moral value and test anxiety significantly influence students' tendency to be involved in examination malpractice. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that parents and lecturers should endeavour to build good moral in their students so that ...
Thomas A. Spies; Eric M. White; Jeffrey D. Kline; A. Paige Fisher; Alan Ager; John Bailey; John Bolte; Jennifer Koch; Emily Platt; Christine S. Olsen; Derric Jacobs; Bruce Shindler; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Roger. Hammer
Fire-prone landscapes are not well studied as coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and present many challenges for understanding and promoting adaptive behaviors and institutions. Here, we explore how heterogeneity, feedbacks, and external drivers in this type of natural hazard system can lead to complexity and can limit the development of more adaptive approaches...
Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M
The hydrology of wetland ecosystems is a key driver of both mercury (Hg) methylation and waterbird foraging ecology, and hence may play a fundamental role in waterbird exposure and risk to Hg contamination. However, few studies have investigated hydrological factors that influence waterbird Hg exposure. We examined how several landscape-level hydrological variables influenced Hg concentrations in great egret and white ibis adults and chicks in the Florida Everglades. The great egret is a visual "exploiter" species that tolerates lower prey densities and is less sensitive to hydrological conditions than is the white ibis, which is a tactile "searcher" species that pursues higher prey densities in shallow water. Mercury concentrations in adult great egrets were most influenced by the spatial region that they occupied in the Everglades (higher in the southern region); whereas the number of days a site was dry during the previous dry season was the most important factor influencing Hg concentrations in adult ibis (Hg concentrations increased with the number of days dry). In contrast, Hg concentrations in egret chicks were most influenced by calendar date (increasing with date), whereas Hg concentrations in ibis chicks were most influenced by chick age, region, and water recession rate (Hg concentrations decreased with age, were higher in the southern regions, and increased with positive water recession rates). Our results indicate that both recent (preceding two weeks) hydrological conditions, and those of the prior year, influence Hg concentrations in wading birds. Further, these results suggest that Hg exposure in wading birds is driven by complex relationships between wading bird behavior and life stage, landscape hydrologic patterns, and biogeochemical processes. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.
The hydrology of wetland ecosystems is a key driver of both mercury (Hg) methylation and waterbird foraging ecology, and hence may play a fundamental role in waterbird exposure and risk to Hg contamination. However, few studies have investigated hydrological factors that influence waterbird Hg exposure. We examined how several landscape-level hydrological variables influenced Hg concentrations in great egret and white ibis adults and chicks in the Florida Everglades. The great egret is a visual “exploiter” species that tolerates lower prey densities and is less sensitive to hydrological conditions than is the white ibis, which is a tactile “searcher” species that pursues higher prey densities in shallow water. Mercury concentrations in adult great egrets were most influenced by the spatial region that they occupied in the Everglades (higher in the southern region); whereas the number of days a site was dry during the previous dry season was the most important factor influencing Hg concentrations in adult ibis (Hg concentrations increased with the number of days dry). In contrast, Hg concentrations in egret chicks were most influenced by calendar date (increasing with date), whereas Hg concentrations in ibis chicks were most influenced by chick age, region, and water recession rate (Hg concentrations decreased with age, were higher in the southern regions, and increased with positive water recession rates). Our results indicate that both recent (preceding two weeks) hydrological conditions, and those of the prior year, influence Hg concentrations in wading birds. Further, these results suggest that Hg exposure in wading birds is driven by complex relationships between wading bird behavior and life stage, landscape hydrologic patterns, and biogeochemical processes.
Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Quesada, Mauricio; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos Alonso
Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late). We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity) and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches). Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in anthropogenic
Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla
Full Text Available Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late. We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches. Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in
Katharina C. Wollenberg Valero
Full Text Available The endemic Malagasy frog radiations are an ideal model system to study patterns and processes of speciation in amphibians. Large-scale diversity patterns of these frogs, together with other endemic animal radiations, led to the postulation of new and the application of known hypotheses of species diversification causing diversity patterns in this biodiversity hotspot. Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been studied in a comparative framework, with extrinsic factors usually being related to the physical environment (landscape, climate, river catchments, mountain chains, and intrinsic factors being clade-specific traits or constraints (reproduction, ecology, morphology, physiology. Despite some general patterns emerging from such large-scale comparative analyses, it became clear that the mechanism of diversification in Madagascar may vary among clades, and may be a multifactorial process. In this contribution, I test for intrinsic factors promoting population-level divergence within a clade of terrestrial, diurnal leaf-litter frogs (genus Gephyromantis that has previously been shown to diversify according to extrinsic factors. Landscape genetic analyses of the microendemic species G. enki and its widely distributed, larger sister species G. boulengeri over a rugged landscape in the Ranomafana area shows that genetic variance of the smaller species cannot be explained by landscape resistance alone. Both topographic and riverine barriers are found to be important in generating this divergence. This case study yields additional evidence for the probable importance of body size in lineage diversification.
Marcela Suarez-Rubio; John R. Thomlinson
As human population continues to increase and intensification of human land use escalates, it is important to address the role of urban forest patches in supporting bird communities. We related bird species richness and community assemblage to landscape- and patch- level factors in 40 forest patches in the densely populated metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico....
W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson
Ecosystem management requires an understanding of disturbance processes and their influence on forests. One of these disturbances is damage due to severe wind events. In an ideal model, assessing risk of windstorm damage to a forested ecosystem entails defining tree-, stand-, and landscape-level factors that influence response and recovery. Data are not always...
Thomas A. Spies
Full Text Available Fire-prone landscapes present many challenges for both managers and policy makers in developing adaptive behaviors and institutions. We used a coupled human and natural systems framework and an agent-based landscape model to examine how alternative management scenarios affect fire and ecosystem services metrics in a fire-prone multiownership landscape in the eastern Cascades of Oregon. Our model incorporated existing models of vegetation succession and fire spread and information from original empirical studies of landowner decision making. Our findings indicate that alternative management strategies can have variable effects on landscape outcomes over 50 years for fire, socioeconomic, and ecosystem services metrics. For example, scenarios with federal restoration treatments had slightly less high-severity fire than a scenario without treatment; exposure of homes in the wildland-urban interface to fire was also slightly less with restoration treatments compared to no management. Treatments appeared to be more effective at reducing high-severity fire in years with more fire than in years with less fire. Under the current management scenario, timber production could be maintained for at least 50 years on federal lands. Under an accelerated restoration scenario, timber production fell because of a shortage of areas meeting current stand structure treatment targets. Trade-offs between restoration outcomes (e.g., open forests with large fire-resistant trees and habitat for species that require dense older forests were evident. For example, the proportional area of nesting habitat for northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis was somewhat less after 50 years under the restoration scenarios than under no management. However, the amount of resilient older forest structure and habitat for white-headed woodpecker (Leuconotopicus albolarvatus was higher after 50 years under active management. More carbon was stored on this landscape without management than
Monitoring and quantifying changes in vegetation cover over large areas using remote sensing can be achieved using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an indicator of greenness. However, distinguishing gradual shifts in NDVI (e.g. climate change) versus direct and rapid changes (e.g., fire, land development) is challenging as changes can be confounded by time-dependent patterns, and variation associated with climatic factors. In the present study we leveraged a method, that we previously developed for a pilot study, to address these confounding factors by evaluating NDVI change using autoregression techniques that compare results from univariate (NDVI vs. time) and multivariate analyses (NDVI vs. time and climatic factors) for ~7,660,636 1-km2 pixels comprising the 48 contiguous states of the USA, over a 25-year period (1989−2013). NDVI changed significantly for 48% of the nation over the 25-year in the univariate analyses where most significant trends (85%) indicated an increase in greenness over time. By including climatic factors in the multivariate analyses of NDVI over time, the detection of significant NDVI trends increased to 53% (an increase of 5%). Comparisons of univariate and multivariate analyses for each pixel showed that less than 4% of the pixels had a significant NDVI trend attributable to gradual climatic changes while the remainder of pixels with a significant NDVI trend indicated that changes were due to direct factors. Whi
Kooistra, C.; Hall, T. E.; Paveglio, T.; Pickering, M.
Disturbances such as wildfire are important features of forested landscapes. The trajectory of changes following wildfires (often referred to as landscape recovery) continues to be an important research topic among ecologists and wildfire scientists. However, the landscape recovery process also has important social dimensions that may or may not correspond to ecological or biophysical perspectives. Perceptions of landscape recovery may affect people's attitudes and behaviors related to forest and wildfire management. We explored the variables that influence people's perceptions of landscape recovery across 25 fires that occurred in 2011 or 2012 in the United States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana and that represented a range of fire behavior characteristics and landscape impacts. Residents near each of the 25 fires were randomly selected to receive questionnaires about their experiences with the nearby fire, including perceived impacts and how the landscape had recovered since the fire. People generally perceived landscapes as recovering, even though only one to two years had passed. Regression analysis suggested that perceptions of landscape recovery were positively related to stronger beliefs about the ecological role of fire and negatively related to loss of landscape attachment, concern about erosion, increasing distance from the fire perimeter, and longer lasting fires. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis indicated that the above relationships were largely consistent across fires. These findings highlight that perceptions of post-fire landscape recovery are influenced by more than vegetation changes and include emotional and cognitive factors. We discuss the management implications of these findings.
Kooistra, C; Hall, T E; Paveglio, T; Pickering, M
Disturbances such as wildfire are important features of forested landscapes. The trajectory of changes following wildfires (often referred to as landscape recovery) continues to be an important research topic among ecologists and wildfire scientists. However, the landscape recovery process also has important social dimensions that may or may not correspond to ecological or biophysical perspectives. Perceptions of landscape recovery may affect people's attitudes and behaviors related to forest and wildfire management. We explored the variables that influence people's perceptions of landscape recovery across 25 fires that occurred in 2011 or 2012 in the United States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana and that represented a range of fire behavior characteristics and landscape impacts. Residents near each of the 25 fires were randomly selected to receive questionnaires about their experiences with the nearby fire, including perceived impacts and how the landscape had recovered since the fire. People generally perceived landscapes as recovering, even though only one to two years had passed. Regression analysis suggested that perceptions of landscape recovery were positively related to stronger beliefs about the ecological role of fire and negatively related to loss of landscape attachment, concern about erosion, increasing distance from the fire perimeter, and longer lasting fires. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis indicated that the above relationships were largely consistent across fires. These findings highlight that perceptions of post-fire landscape recovery are influenced by more than vegetation changes and include emotional and cognitive factors. We discuss the management implications of these findings.
W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; Jennifer L. Reidy; John. Faaborg
Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri,...
Wang, Yijun; Lu, Wenjie; Deng, Dexiang
Diverse bioinformatic resources have been developed for plant transcription factor (TF) research. This review presents the bioinformatic resources and methodologies for the elucidation of plant TF-mediated biological events. Such information is helpful to dissect the transcriptional regulatory systems in the three reference plants Arabidopsis , rice, and maize and translation to other plants. Transcription factors (TFs) orchestrate diverse biological programs by the modulation of spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression via binding cis-regulatory elements. Advanced sequencing platforms accompanied by emerging bioinformatic tools revolutionize the scope and extent of TF research. The system-level integration of bioinformatic resources is beneficial to the decoding of TF-involved networks. Herein, we first briefly introduce general and specialized databases for TF research in three reference plants Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. Then, as proof of concept, we identified and characterized heat shock transcription factor (HSF) members through the TF databases. Finally, we present how the integration of bioinformatic resources at -omics layers can aid the dissection of TF-mediated pathways. We also suggest ways forward to improve the bioinformatic resources of plant TFs. Leveraging these bioinformatic resources and methodologies opens new avenues for the elucidation of transcriptional regulatory systems in the three model systems and translation to other plants.
Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden); Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)
In previous safety assessments Ecosystem Dose Factors (EDFs), were derived from estimates of doses to the most exposed group resulting from constant unit radionuclide release rates over 10,000 years to various ecosystem types, e.g. mires, agricultural lands, lakes and marine ecosystems. A number of limitations of the EDF approach have been identified. The objectives of this report is to further develop the EDF approach, in order to resolve the identified limitations, and to use the improved approach for deriving Dose Conversion Factors for use in the SR-Can risk assessments. The Dose Conversion Factors derived in this report are named Landscape Dose Factors (LDFs). It involves modelling the fate of the radionuclides in the whole landscape, which develops from a sea to a inland situation during 20,000 years. Both candidate sites studies in SR-Can, Forsmark and Laxemar, are included in the study. As a basis for the modelling, the period starting at the beginning of the last interglacial (8,000 BC) is used, over which releases from a hypothetical repository were assumed to take place. For the present temperate period, the overall development of the biosphere at each site is outlined in a 1,000 year perspective and beyond, essentially based on the ongoing shoreline displacement and the understanding on the impact this has on the biosphere. The past development, i.e. from deglaciation to the present time, is inferred from geological records and associated reconstructions of the shore-line. For each time step of 1,000 years, the landscape at the site is described as a number of interconnected biosphere objects constituting an integrated landscape model of each site. The water fluxes through the objects were estimated from the average run-off at the site, the areas of the objects and their associated catchment areas. Radionuclides in both dissolved and particulate forms were considered in the transport calculations. The transformation between ecosystems was modelled as
Liu, Xinchun; Zhang, Yuandong; Ren, Guangyao; Pan, Xiaoling; He, Qing
The spatial pattern of ecological landscape during land utilization in Fukang is heavily influenced by natural difference and the scale of water and land resource development. Analyses on the spatial pattern based on different zones and indexes showed that from 1987 to 1998, the change of the spatial pattern of ecological landscape during land utilization in Fukang was mainly the increase of plantation area in pluvial fan and the decrease in alluvial plain. The case was on the contrary about badlands. The acreage of woodland decreased in lower mountains, uplands and alluvial plain, but no variety in alluvial plain. The acreage of grassland increased in lower mountains and uplands, while decreased in other fields. The acreage of town increased in each sample field, while that of water area remained uncharged. The landscape diversity and evenness was descending, the dominance was ascending in lower mountains and in pluvial fan, while it was reverse in alluvial plain. Accessorial fragmentation showed the increasing influence of human beings. The change of the spatial pattern of ecological landscape in Fukang focused on the acreage alteration of plantation and badlands in pluvial fan and alluvial plain. The key factor was the dynamic variation of water-salt in water and soil resource utilization. Terrain and land utilization were the key factors affecting water table, and the continuous changes of the water table worked on the spatial distribution of soil water-salt.
Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D; Merchant, William; Bishop, Malachy
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) to assess its suitability for modeling the impact of MS on a nation-wide sample of individuals from the United States. Investigators completed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to examine the two-factor structure proposed by Hobart et al. . Although the original MSIS-29 factor structure did not fit the data exactly, the hypothesized two-factor model was partially supported in the current data. Implications for future instrument development and rehabilitation practice are discussed.
Christine S. Olsen
Full Text Available Expansion of the wildland-urban interface (WUI and the increasing size and number of wildfires has policy-makers and wildfire managers seeking ways to reduce wildfire risk in communities located near fire-prone forests. It is widely acknowledged that homeowners can reduce their exposure to wildfire risk by using nonflammable building materials and reducing tree density near the home, among other actions. Although these actions can reduce the vulnerability of homes to wildfire, many homeowners do not take them. We examined the influence of risk factors on homeowners' perceived wildfire risk components using a survey of WUI homeowners in central Oregon (USA and biophysical data that described wildfire risk as predicted by wildfire simulation models, past wildfire, and vegetation characteristics. Our analysis included homeowners' perceptions of the likelihood of wildfire and resulting damage, and examined how these factors contribute to homeowners' likelihood to conduct mitigation actions. We developed an empirical model of homeowners' risk perceptions and mitigation behavior, which served as input into an agent-based model to examine potential landscape and behavior changes over 50 years. We found homeowners' wildfire risk perceptions to be positively correlated with hazardous conditions predicted by fuel models and weakly predictive of mitigation behavior. Homeowners' perceived chance of wildfire was positively correlated with actual probability of wildfire, while their perceived chance of damage to the home was positively correlated with potential wildfire intensity. Wildfire risk perceptions also were found to be correlated with past wildfire experience. Our results suggest that homeowners may be savvy observers of landscape conditions, which act as "feedbacks" that enhance homeowners' concerns about wildfire hazard and motivate them to take mitigation action. Alternatively, homeowners living in hazardous locations are somehow receiving the
He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…
Julia K. Clark
Full Text Available The environment of the mountain-steppe-taiga of northern Mongolia is often characterized as marginal because of the high altitude, highly variable precipitation levels, low winter temperatures, and periodic droughts coupled with severe winter storms (known as dzuds. Despite these conditions, herders have inhabited this landscape for thousands of years, and hunter-gatherer-fishers before that. One way in which the risks associated with such a challenging and variable landscape are mitigated is through social networks and inter-family cooperation. We present an agent-based simulation, Ger Grouper, to examine how households have mitigated these risks through cooperation. The Ger Grouper simulation takes into account locational decisions of households, looks at fission/fusion dynamics of households and how those relate to environmental pressures, and assesses how degrees of relatedness can influence sharing of resources during harsh winters. This model, coupled with the traditional archaeological and ethnographic methods, helps shed light on the links between early Mongolian pastoralist adaptations and the environment. While preliminary results are promising, it is hoped that further development of this model will be able to characterize changing land-use patterns as social and political networks developed.
DeLucia, Nicholas; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Boughton, Elizabeth; Yang, Wendy; Bernacchi, Carl
Globally, wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric CH4, an important GHG with a warming potential 25 times stronger than CO2 (IPCC 2008; Forster et al. 2013). In sub-tropical climates where precipitation and temperatures are high, land-use change and agricultural management practices often intersect with extensive wetland systems. The Everglades watershed in South Central Florida represents a large areal extent characterized by a high density of wetlands nested within agricultural fields dominated to a large extent by grazed rangelands. Soils are primarily Spodosols and Histosols and sustain a relatively high water table, even during the dry season. Here, rangelands dominated by native vegetation have been converted to agronomically 'improved pastures' suitable for large scale cattle ranching through high intensive agronomic practices including vegetation homogenization, fertilization and drainage. In this study we first tested the hypothesis that CH4 fluxes from small ephemeral wetlands are indirectly influenced by management practices associated with the agricultural fields in which they are nested. We found that wetlands embedded in agronomically 'Improved' pastures exhibit significantly higher CH4 fluxes compared to wetlands embedded in 'Native' pastures. Next, we sought to determine the mechanisms by which the surrounding landscapes affect methane production processes to better predict how expanding or intensifying agriculture will affect wetland methane fluxes. We focus on substrate supply in the form of substrate quality and quantity available to methanogens as it is a principle control over CH4 production and susceptible to ecosystem perturbations. This research was conducted at the McArthur Agro-Ecology Research Center on Buck Island Ranch, Lake Placid, Florida. Wetland CH4 fluxes were measured using static canopy chambers coupled with infrared gas analysis of CH4, CO2 and water vapor. Additionally, soil manipulation incubations were prepared
Motivation: An accurate characterization of transcription factor (TF)-DNA affinity landscape is crucial to a quantitative understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning endogenous gene regulation. While recent advances in biotechnology have brought the opportunity for building binding affinity prediction methods, the accurate characterization of TF-DNA binding affinity landscape still remains a challenging problem. Results: Here we propose a novel sequence embedding approach for modeling the transcription factor binding affinity landscape. Our method represents DNA binding sequences as a hidden Markov model (HMM) which captures both position specific information and long-range dependency in the sequence. A cornerstone of our method is a novel message passing-like embedding algorithm, called Sequence2Vec, which maps these HMMs into a common nonlinear feature space and uses these embedded features to build a predictive model. Our method is a novel combination of the strength of probabilistic graphical models, feature space embedding and deep learning. We conducted comprehensive experiments on over 90 large-scale TF-DNA data sets which were measured by different high-throughput experimental technologies. Sequence2Vec outperforms alternative machine learning methods as well as the state-of-the-art binding affinity prediction methods.
Dai, Hanjun; Umarov, Ramzan; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Li, Yu; Song, Le; Gao, Xin
An accurate characterization of transcription factor (TF)-DNA affinity landscape is crucial to a quantitative understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning endogenous gene regulation. While recent advances in biotechnology have brought the opportunity for building binding affinity prediction methods, the accurate characterization of TF-DNA binding affinity landscape still remains a challenging problem. Here we propose a novel sequence embedding approach for modeling the transcription factor binding affinity landscape. Our method represents DNA binding sequences as a hidden Markov model which captures both position specific information and long-range dependency in the sequence. A cornerstone of our method is a novel message passing-like embedding algorithm, called Sequence2Vec, which maps these hidden Markov models into a common nonlinear feature space and uses these embedded features to build a predictive model. Our method is a novel combination of the strength of probabilistic graphical models, feature space embedding and deep learning. We conducted comprehensive experiments on over 90 large-scale TF-DNA datasets which were measured by different high-throughput experimental technologies. Sequence2Vec outperforms alternative machine learning methods as well as the state-of-the-art binding affinity prediction methods. Our program is freely available at https://github.com/ramzan1990/sequence2vec. firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Miguel L. Villarreal; Leila Gass; Laura Norman; Joel B. Sankey; Cynthia S. A. Wallace; Dennis McMacken; Jack L. Childs; Roy Petrakis
Between 2001 and 2009, the Borderlands Jaguar Detection Project deployed 174 camera traps in the mountains of southern Arizona to record jaguar activity. In addition to jaguars, the motion-activated cameras, placed along known wildlife travel routes, recorded occurrences of ~ 20 other animal species. We examined temporal relationships of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus...
Freund, Judith Ann
This paper is an examination of nature journals written by ten American and ten Russian high school students during a cross-cultural exchange that provided experiences in selected national wilderness areas designated by the respective countries. The students participated in a backpacking excursion in the Lee Metcalf Wilderness Area of Montana in the summer of 1994, and a camping experience in the wilderness areas in the provincial region of Penza, Russia in the summer of 1995. The examination of the journals focuses on the following areas: aesthetic "peak" experiences; spiritual inspiration derived from experiences in nature; attitudes toward the preservation of wildlife; and environmental ethics. The students' attitudes toward the environment is compared using student-identified cultural values of both the Russian and the American students. Also discussed is the viability of the students' reflections as natural history journal-writing, with references to selected natural history authors, including Henry David Thoreau, Aldo Leopold and Anne Dillard. Because the experience focused on wilderness preservation students were invited to speculate about how to develop and reinforce essential attitudes that are respectful of ecology. Conclusions they reached included the necessity to economic security at some level and the notion that direct experience in the environment is essential to developing an attitude that will engender an ethics of caring within their--as well as other--cultural groups.
Calley, Nancy G.
One hundred and seventy three male juvenile offenders were followed two years postrelease from a residential treatment facility to assess recidivism and factors related to recidivism. The overall recidivism rate was 23.9%. Logistic regression with stepwise and backward variable selection methods was used to examine the relationship between…
Shinas, Valerie Harlow; Yilmaz-Ozden, Sule; Mouza, Chrystalla; Karchmer-Klein, Rachel; Glutting, Joseph J.
This study examined the construct validity of the Survey of Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching and Technology through an exploratory factor analysis using responses from 365 preservice teachers enrolled in an educational technology course in the United States. The participants were completing methods courses and field experience concurrent…
Avila, Rodolfo; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Aastrand, Per-Gustav (Facilia AB (Sweden))
In this report two types of Dose Conversion Factors have been derived: i) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor (LDF) that is applicable to continuous long-term releases to the biosphere at a constant rate, and ii) a Landscape Dose Conversion Factor for pulse releases (LDF pulse) that is applicable to a radionuclide release that reaches the biosphere in a pulse within years to hundreds of years. In SR-Site these Dose Factors are multiplied with modelled release rates or pulse releases from the geosphere to obtain dose estimates used in assessment of compliance with the regulatory risk criterion. The LDFs were calculated for three different periods of the reference glacial cycle; a period of submerged conditions following the deglaciation, the temperate period, and a prolonged period of periglacial conditions. Additionally, LDFs were calculated for the global warming climate case. The LDF pulse was calculated only for temperate climate conditions. The LDF and LDF pulse can be considered as Best Estimate values, which can be used in calculations of Best Estimate values of doses to a representative individual of the most exposed group from potential releases from a future repository. A systematic analysis of the effects of system, model and parameter uncertainties on the LDFs has been carried out. This analysis has shown that the use of the derived LDF would lead to cautious or realistic dose estimates. The models and methods that were used for derivation of the LDFs and LDF pulse are also described in this report
Lilly, Christa L; Umer, Amna; Cottrell, Lesley; Pyles, Lee; Neal, William
The prevalence of childhood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors often increases in more rural geographic regions in the USA. However, research on the topic often has conflicting results. Researchers note differences in definitions of rurality and other factors that would lead to differences in inference, including appropriate use of statistical clustering analysis, representative data, and inclusion of individual-level covariates. The present study's objective was to examine CVD risk factors during childhood by geographic distribution in the US Appalachian region as a first step towards understanding the health disparities in this area. Rurality and CVD risk factors (including blood pressure, body-mass index (BMI), and cholesterol) were examined in a large, representative sample of fifth-grade students (N=73 014) from an Appalachian state in the USA. A six-category Rural-Urban Continuum Codes classification system was used to define rurality regions. Mixed modeling analysis was used to appropriately cluster individuals within 725 unique zip codes in each of these six regions, and allowed for including several individual-level socioeconomic factors as covariates. Rural areas had better outcomes for certain CVD risk factors (lowest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood pressure (BP) and highest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) whereas mid-sized metro and town areas presented with the worst CVD risk factors (highest BMI% above ideal, mean diastolic BP, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and lowest HDL-C) outcomes in children and adolescence in this Appalachian state. Counter to the study hypothesis, mid-sized metro areas presented with the worst CVD risk factors outcomes in children and adolescence in the Appalachian state. This data contradicts previous literature suggesting a straightforward link between rurality and cardiovascular risk factors. Future research should include a longitudinal design and explore some of
Zhao, Yutao; Yu, Xinxiao; Guang, Wenbin
On the base of precedent studies, the occurring mechanism, classification, measurement methods, and the important role of landscape heterogeneity in landscape ecology were reviewed. The inner and outer uncertain factors result in landscape heterogeneity. Landscape heterogeneity has close relations with landscape stability, landscape design, architecture, management and disturbance, scale and ecological diversity in ecology. Complexity of landscape heterogeneity research, non-system of measurement indices and methods, difficulties and limitations of landscape heterogeneity modelling were all discussed respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the theory and methods of ecological complexity should be used to improve landscape heterogeneity research.
Sharon D. Novalis
Full Text Available All occupational therapy students are required to successfully complete the certification examination administered by the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy (NBCOT before they can practice independently. The need to repeat the examination can result in stress, anxiety, and financial hardship. This paper explores the relationship of preadmission factors, academic and fieldwork performance, and demographic variables to successful first-time attempts on the certification examination for occupational therapists. Data were gathered from 144 student files in a Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT Program at a single university. Of the sample, 82% passed and 18% failed their first NBCOT test trial. Considered independently, preadmission recommendation letters and writing sample scores, graduate MOT program GPA, lack of MOT program difficulty, fieldwork self-reports, and gender predicted NBCOT certification examination outcomes. When considered together in logistic regression models predicting outcome, this combination of factors correctly predicted 86.2% of student outcomes (or 20% to 32% of the variance in certification examination success, with OT program GPA and preadmission recommendation scores predicting unique outcome variance. This information may be helpful to admissions committees as well as to occupational therapy faculty as they identify strategies and practices to facilitate first-time test taking success on the NBCOT certification examination
Kingsbury, John H; Parks, Michael J; Amato, Michael S; Boyle, Raymond G
Smoking prevalence has declined considerably over the past 30 years. This decline has coincided with a growing stigma against smokers and a trend toward nondaily or occasional smoking. Some individuals now deny being a smoker despite current cigarette use-i.e., "deniers"; conversely, occasional smokers who admit to being a smoker are defined as "admitters." Although the "denier" phenomenon has been the focus of recent research, no studies have examined smoker identity in the context of emerging tobacco products and ongoing, statewide tobacco control programs. Recent data from the 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey provided an opportunity to address these research gaps. Using the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey, participants were 242 adults who reported smoking 100 cigarettes lifetime, currently smoking "some days," and past 30-day smoking. Questions also assessed smoker identity, emerging product use and perceptions, and changes in smoking behavior in response to a recent statewide tobacco tax increase. Regression models revealed no difference in e-cigarette or hookah use between deniers and admitters, but deniers were more likely to perceive that hookah use was less harmful than smoking cigarettes. In response to the tax increase, we found that admitters were more likely than deniers to report thinking about quitting, reducing cigarette amount, and making a quit attempt. Findings suggest that deniers perceive lower harm from using tobacco products. Tax increases may be less effective at motivating quit attempts in deniers compared to admitters, implying that cessation programs tailored to specific smoking identities could usefully complement tax increases. Findings from this study suggest that tobacco tax increases should be coordinated with health promotion interventions to address occasional and social smoking. The denier phenomenon in particular is an important identity-based construct that population-level public health practice should consider in order to
Zewdie, Meskerem; Worku, Hailu; Bantider, Amare
Mapping and quantifying urban landscape dynamics and the underlying driving factors are crucial for devising appropriate policies, especially in cities of developing countries where the change is rapid. This study analyzed three decades (1984-2014) of land use land cover change of Addis Ababa using Landsat imagery and examined the underlying factors and their temporal dynamics through expert interview using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Classification results revealed that urban area increased by 50%, while agricultural land and forest decreased by 34 and 16%, respectively. The driving factors operated differently during the pre and post-1991 period. The year 1991 was chosen because it marked government change in the country resulting in policy change. Policy had the highest influence during the pre-1991 period. Land use change in this period was associated with the housing sector as policies and institutional setups were permissive to this sector. Population growth and in-migration were also important factors. Economic factors played significant role in the post-1991 period. The fact that urban land has a market value, the growth of private investment, and the speculated property market were among the economic factors. Policy reforms since 2003 were also influential to the change. Others such as accessibility, demography, and neighborhood factors were a response to economic factors. All the above-mentioned factors had vital role in shaping the urban pattern of the city. These findings can help planners and policymakers to better understand the dynamic relationship of urban land use and the driving factors to better manage the city.
Svetlana N. Kostromina
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to clear up the influence of examination stress on the results of completing examination papers by students in the situation of trial General and Unified State Examinations, imitating the real-life environment of unified state certification of schoolchildren. The tasks of the research included determining the dynamics of psychophysiological stress indices at different examination stages, and evaluating additional factors (the subject in which the examination is held, the strategy of solving the variant, success of solving the task etc., influencing the quantity and quality of stress reactions at the examination.The novelty of the research is in the attempt to overcome the problem of confusing the notions of examination stress and examination anxiety, caused by metering the students’ state either before or after the examination. The technology of online monitoring the students’ psychophysiological state is used in the work, which makes it possible to eliminate a number of restrictions occurring during subjective evaluation of the state by the students themselves. Telemetric cardiorhythmography was chosen as the basic method. The method is based on a three-component model of extreme states with consequent domination of one of the three stress-reactive systems. A cardiointervalogramm was being registered in the research process in the online mode and underwent spectral analysis. The following indices of heart rate variability were recorded in order to determine stress reactions: the total power of the spectrum (TP, the spectrum power in low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF regions, and a vegetative balance index (relation of the spectrum powers in low-frequency and high-frequency regions (LF/HF. When the total power of the heart rate fell and, at the same time, the vegetative balance index rose, a conclusion was made of there being a stress reaction. Twenty-five students of an illustrious school were examined
Silva, Welington Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Filipe Moraes; Guimarães, Gabriel Kamei; Santos, Matheus de Sá Dos; Almeida, Victor Porfírio Dos Santos; Barroso-Junior, Ubirajara de Oliveira
The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.
Walsh, Catherine M; Seldomridge, Lisa A; Badros, Karen K
The stability of the factor structure of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory was re-examined using a convenience sample of 800 undergraduate students from nursing (n=520 first bachelors' and n=185 second bachelors' students) and biology (n=95) enrolled in introductory courses in their majors at a 4-yr. mid-Atlantic public university. Ages ranged from 17 to 54 years (M = 23.0, SD = 5.9), with 92 men and 707 women (1 missing). 685 participants identified themselves as Euro-American, 65 as African American, 9 as Hispanic, 26 as Asian, and 11 as "Other" (4 missing). The inventory developed by Facione in 1994 is a 75-item, forced-choice, adjective checklist, yielding seven subscores and a total score assessing testees' disposition toward critical thinking. A principal components factor analysis did not replicate the original factor structure of seven factors but supported the stability of a four-factor structure which had emerged in previous work by Walsh and Hardy and by Kakai. When the 75 original items were reduced to 25, the explained variance for the inventory improved from 27% to 44.95%. Thus, further investigation and continued refinement is warranted.
Full Text Available Restored stream reaches at 79 sites across North Carolina were sampled for aquatic macroinvertebrates using a rapid bioassessment protocol. Morphological design parameters and geographic factors, including watershed and landscape parameters (e.g., valley slope, substrate, were also compiled for these streams. Principal component regression analyses revealed correlations between design and landscape variables with macroinvertebrate metrics. The correlations were strengthened by adding watershed variables. Ridge regression was used to find the best-fit model for predicting dominant taxa from the “pollution sensitive” orders of Ephemeroptera (mayflies, Plecoptera (stoneflies, and Trichoptera (caddisflies, or EPT taxa, resulting in coefficient weights that were most interpretable relative to site selection and design parameters. Results indicate that larger (wider streams located in the mountains and foothills where there are steeper valleys, larger substrate, and undeveloped watersheds are expected to have higher numbers of dominant EPT taxa. In addition, EPT taxa numbers are positively correlated with accessible floodplain width and negatively correlated with width-to-depth ratio and sinuosity. This study indicates that both site selection and design should be carefully considered in order to maximize the resulting biotic condition and associated potential ecological uplift of the stream.
Krümmelbein, Julia; Raab, Thomas
The practice of open cast mining, e.g. for lignite, results in major landscape disturbances and especially affects soils because relocation and subsequent mixing of naturally developed soil horizons leads to areas with extremely altered soil properties compared to the undisturbed conditions. Various reclamation measures are applied to recover the reconstructed landscape for different land use options. Major parts of the post mining landscapes are used for agriculture, agroforestry or silviculture, the remaining voids of the coal mines fill successively with groundwater after mine closure and are or will be used mainly for touristic and leisure purposes. Small proportions of the post mining areas are left for natural succession, or habitats for endangered flora and fauna are initiated. In reclamation research, many studies have focused on soil chemical and biological constraints of post mining substrates and investigated factors such as unsuitable pH, in many cases very low pH, (poor) nutrient contents and (poor) biological activity. But the initial and developing soil physical parameters and functions are also key factors for the success of reclamation practices. The soil water and gas balance influence strongly the suitability of a site for the intended future land use. The mechanical stability of the soil determines the rigidity of the pore system against deforming forces and thereby the persistence of soil functions, such as water and air permeability over time. The amendment of unfavourable (initial) soil physical properties is in most cases more complex and time-consuming than e.g. optimization of pH or fertilization with nutrients. Moreover, regarding the suitability of a site e.g. as a habitat for plants or microorganisms, poor physical pre-conditions can turn substrates with perfect nutrient contents and composition and pH into infertile locations of very low productivity. We show results of an on-going field study where the effects of different
Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun
Forest stand stability to strong winds such as hurricanes has been found to be associated with a number of forest, soil and topography factors. In this study, through applying geographic information system (GIS) and logit regression, we assessed effects of forest characteristics and site conditions on pattern, severity and probability of Hurricane Katrina disturbance to forests in the Lower Pearl River Valley, USA. The factors included forest type, forest coverage, stand density, soil great group, elevation, slope, aspect, and stream buffer zone. Results showed that Hurricane Katrina damaged 60% of the total forested land in the region. The distribution and intensity of the hurricane disturbance varied across the landscape, with the bottomland hardwood forests on river floodplains most severely affected. All these factors had a variety of effects on vulnerability of the forests to the hurricane disturbance and thereby spatial patterns of the disturbance. Soil groups and stand factors including forest types, forest coverage and stand density contributed to 85% of accuracy in modeling the probability of the hurricane disturbance to forests in this region. Besides assessment of Katrina's damage, this study elucidates the great usefulness of remote sensing and GIS techniques combined with statistics modeling in assessment of large-scale risks of hurricane damage to coastal forests.
Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Prues, A. G.; D'Amico, E.
Human activities can stimulate the physical and chemical properties of streams to move beyond their background conditions, thereby facilitating the transition of these factors to stressors that affect watershed resilience. This is particularly true in mixed land cover watersheds. We quantify and explore the statistical nonlinear relationships between watershed and buffer-scale factors and nutrient (nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP)) concentrations, in addition to a multi-metric Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed. Our goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the potentially numerous landscape and near-stream hydrological and biogeochemical factors that affect watershed resiliency - as inferred from in-stream nutrient levels and biological condition. We used a boosted regression tree approach, which quantifies nonlinear relationships and variable interactions, to develop watershed and 200 m buffer scale models for each chemical constituent and the annual IBI score. We developed nutrient models for the spring and summer seasons. Two primary factors - location within the watershed and percentage of urban land cover in the watershed or buffer - emerged as important explanatory variables in most nutrient and IBI models. Geographic location (i.e., latitude and longitude) interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores and suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover) and runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors). Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrologic Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. Our overall approach confirms that it is important to consider multiple and often interacting factors when managing for watershed resilience.
Wang, Mei-Chuan; Lightsey, Owen Richard; Tran, Kimberly K; Bonaparte, Taria S
The purpose of this study was to contribute to the nascent literature on resilience and suicidality among Black Americans by examining factors that may predict less suicidal behavior among this population. The authors hypothesized that reasons for living, life satisfaction, and religious awareness would account for unique variance in suicidal thoughts and behavior among Black Americans, above the variance accounted for by depressive symptoms. They also hypothesized that reasons for living and religious awareness would be stronger inverse predictors among Black women than Black men. Results indicated that both depression and life satisfaction were stronger predictors of suicidal behavior among Black men. Among women, only reasons for living was a significant inverse predictor of suicidal thoughts and behavior. More frequent reasons for living moderated the relationship between depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior among Black women.
Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Kongsted, Alice; Hestbaek, Lise
BACKGROUND: There is a strong tradition of performing a clinical examination of low back pain (LBP) patients and this is generally recommended in guidelines. However, establishing a pathoanatomic diagnosis does not seem possible in most LBP patients and clinical tests may potentially be more...... from inception to June 2012. Prospective clinical studies of adult patients with LBP with or without leg pain and/or signs of nerve root involvement or spinal stenosis, receiving non-surgical or no treatment, which investigated the association between low-tech clinical tests and outcome were included...... relevant as prognostic factors. The aim of this review of the literature was to systematically assess the association between low-tech clinical tests commonly used in adult patients with acute, recurrent or chronic LBP and short- and long-term outcome. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and MANTIS were searched...
Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J
Learning to write the letters of the alphabet is an important part of learning how to write conventionally. In this study, we investigated critical factors in the development of letter-writing skills using exploratory item response models to simultaneously account for variance in responses due to differences between students and between letters. Letter-writing skills were assessed in 415 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. At the student level, we examined the contribution of letter-name knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness to letter-writing skills. At the letter level, we examined seven intrinsic and extrinsic factors in understanding how preschool children learn to write alphabet letters: first letter of name, letters in name, letter order, textual frequency, number of strokes, symmetry, and letter type. Results indicated that variation in letter-writing skills was accounted for more by differences between students rather than by differences between letters, with most of the variability accounted for by letter-name knowledge and age. Although significant, the contribution of letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness was relatively small. Student-level mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-writing skills are similar to the mechanisms underlying the learning of letter sounds. However, letter characteristics, which appear to play a major role in the learning of letter names and letter sounds, did not appear to influence learning how to write letters in a substantial way. The exception was if the letter was in the child's name. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E; Dutkiewicz, Erik L
Because of the limited number of studies that have examined the motives for childhood animal cruelty, researchers continue to suggest that further systematic study is needed. In a replication of the Hensley and Tallichet study and based on survey data from 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a southern U.S. state, the present study seeks to further develop this understanding by examining the impact of demographic and situational factors on a range of animal cruelty motivations. Of the 180 inmates, 103 (57%) committed acts of animal cruelty. Logistic regression analyses revealed that respondents who committed childhood animal cruelty out of anger were less likely to cover up their behavior and to be upset by their actions but were more likely to have repeated it. Those who committed animal cruelty to shock others were more likely to reside in urban areas and to have done it alone. Furthermore, respondents who committed animal cruelty for sexual reasons were more likely to have covered up their actions and to have engaged in it repeatedly.
Tammy L. Hamer; Curtis H. Flather; Barry R. Noon
The factors responsible for widespread declines of grassland birds in the United States are not well understood. This study, conducted in the short-grass prairie of eastern Wyoming, was designed to investigate the relationship between variation in habitat amount, landscape heterogeneity, prey resources, and spatial variation in grassland bird species richness. We...
Csorba, Péter; Lóczy, Dénes; Mezosi, Gábor
Both the study of landscape types and investigations of the interactions between landscape factors have a long tradition in Hungarian landscape geography. Major achievements in landscape synthesis were the two-volume Inventory of microregions in Hungary. In the various schools of landscape geography fundamental research is directed at investigations of landscape pattern, landscape sensitivity, geo-ecological mapping and urban ecology. The major trends in applied research are the optimisation ...
Rodrigues Anna P.
Full Text Available Biotic factors such as the presence of invasive animal and/or plant species are well known as major causes of ecological degradation and as limiting either natural or assisted (human-induced ecological restoration. However, abiotic aspects of the landscape, such as water availability and soil physical/chemical conditions can also potentially limit restoration and should be considered. Dryland ecosystems are amongst the world’s most threatened and least protected. New Zealand’s drylands have been drastically changed, initially through burning, agricultural and grazing practices and the impacts of introduced herbivores and plants. This research aimed at identifying some of the key environmental factors preventing the reestablishment of native woody species in a New Zealand dryland ecosystem. The experiments involved a combination of shading, irrigation and grazing exclusion. The results showed that supplemental water was not beneficial for the survival and growth of the native seedlings, unless combined with shade. Fencing proved important for establishment, even though the species used are regarded in the literature as unpalatable to herbivores. The results indicated that the presence of shade was fundamental for the establishment and growth of the native seedlings likely due to improvements in the microclimate, soil aeration, and water availability to seedlings.
S. A. Cushman; M. G. Raphael; L. F. Ruggiero; A. S. Shirk; T. N. Wasserman; E. C. O' Doherty
In mobile animals, movement behavior can maximize fitness by optimizing access to critical resources and minimizing risk of predation. We sought to evaluate several hypotheses regarding the effects of landscape structure on American marten foraging path selection in a landscape experiencing forest perforation by patchcut logging. We hypothesized that in the uncut pre-...
Jenifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak
We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate...
Julius Gy Fabos; Kimball H. Ferris
This paper justifies and illustrates (in simplified form) a landscape planning approach to the environmental management of the metropolitan landscape. The model utilizes a computerized assessment and mapping system, which exhibits a recent advancement in computer technology that allows for greater accuracy and the weighting of different values when mapping at the...
Poblano-Verástegui, Ofelia; Figueroa-Perea, Juan Guillermo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth
To identify factors associated with utilization of breast clinical examination (BCE) and their relationship with institutional medical practice. This is a qualitative study conducted between 1996 and 1997 in medical units of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security) and Secretaria de Salud (Ministry of Health). Eight focus groups were included: four groups of female users and four groups of health professionals; in total, 47 users and 29 physicians and nurses participated. Interpretations of information were based on the organizational ability to respond to the user's expectations, "ability/knowledge" within the organization and the institutional medical practice, at the light of the Grounded Theory. Service demand was conditioned on the perception of poor quality of care, lack of trust in physicians, and organizational aspects. When providing care, male physicians were not interested and felt uneasy about performing the BCE. Female physicians seemed more interested and were well accepted by users. Psychological, cultural, social, and institutional barriers exist in the access and utilization of BCE. Identifying these barriers and their origins could support the development of actions to improve the physician-patient relationship. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
Chen Kun Chung
Full Text Available This dissertation argues that the floods following extreme precipitation result not only from very heavy rainfall but also from the significant impact of human activities on natural water systems. While most literature emphasises that the increasing magnitude of storm rainfall extends beyond the original protection standards of hydrologic facilities in highly populated delta cities. Based on the knowledge of urban morphology, this study analyses how human systems have affected the transformation of natural water processes in the Kaoping River Delta. The relationship between human environments and natural landscape is illustrated via a 3-layer analytical framework which consists of a natural landscape layer, an infrastructure layer and an occupation layer. This layer-based approach views landscapes as a whole system in which each element interacts with the others. In order to transcend the limitations of traditional urban morphology and the overlay-mapping method, this research initiates an analysis framework with the delta scale from a deductive perspective. Furthermore, it argues that the significant progress of infrastructure technology is the crucial factor to dominate the transformation of modern urban pattern. This influence could be identified by the analytic process of the 3-layer approach from the perspective of the delta or regional scale. This new starting point of a theoretical framework for analysing urban forms has been proved in the Kaoping Delta case. Furthermore, it could be a new and valid theoretical background to extend the knowledge of urban morphology.The formal transformation of the Kaoping Delta is divided into four main periods, which reveals human activities have affected the operation of natural systems since a century ago. From a delta scale perspective, those effects interacting between different layers can be identified in six different topographies (in italics of the whole river catchment area.A. The dike
Chen Kun Chung
Full Text Available This dissertation argues that the floods following extreme precipitation result not only from very heavy rainfall but also from the significant impact of human activities on natural water systems. While most literature emphasises that the increasing magnitude of storm rainfall extends beyond the original protection standards of hydrologic facilities in highly populated delta cities. Based on the knowledge of urban morphology, this study analyses how human systems have affected the transformation of natural water processes in the Kaoping River Delta. The relationship between human environments and natural landscape is illustrated via a 3-layer analytical framework which consists of a natural landscape layer, an infrastructure layer and an occupation layer. This layer-based approach views landscapes as a whole system in which each element interacts with the others. In order to transcend the limitations of traditional urban morphology and the overlay-mapping method, this research initiates an analysis framework with the delta scale from a deductive perspective. Furthermore, it argues that the significant progress of infrastructure technology is the crucial factor to dominate the transformation of modern urban pattern. This influence could be identified by the analytic process of the 3-layer approach from the perspective of the delta or regional scale. This new starting point of a theoretical framework for analysing urban forms has been proved in the Kaoping Delta case. Furthermore, it could be a new and valid theoretical background to extend the knowledge of urban morphology. The formal transformation of the Kaoping Delta is divided into four main periods, which reveals human activities have affected the operation of natural systems since a century ago. From a delta scale perspective, those effects interacting between different layers can be identified in six different topographies (in italics of the whole river catchment area. A. The dike
Schulp, C.J.E.; Veldkamp, A.
The present-day land use pattern is often used for estimating soil organic matter pools. Although the effect of historical land use on soil organic matter (SOM) pools is often recognized, this factor is never accounted for in large-scale SOM inventories. We assessed if an inventory of long-term
Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J. Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P.; Pereira, Renata M.; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T.; Pipkin, Matthew E.; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W.
Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence specification of distinct CD8+ T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TF among differentially-fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here, we profiled genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8+ T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that TF expression and binding contributed to establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal novel TFs influencing the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8+ T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector and memory-precursor cell-fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates, facilitating identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8+ T cell differentiation. PMID:28288100
Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P; Pereira, Renata M; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T; Pipkin, Matthew E; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W
Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence the specification of distinct CD8+ T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TFs among differentially fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here we profiled the genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8+ T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that the expression and binding of TFs contributed to the establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal key TFs that influence the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8+ T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector cell fates and memory-precursor cell fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates and facilitate the identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8+ T cell differentiation.
Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.
We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on
Brennan, P A; Konieczny, K; Groves, J; Parker, M; Sherman, K P; Foulkes, J; Hills, S; Featherstone, C
Human factors including stress, repetition, burnout and fatigue are associated with possible sources of error. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), where examiners concentrate for long periods, would benefit from a human factors approach to see whether these factors affect consistency of examiner behaviour, attitude and marking. Little has been published for OSCEs, in part due to the lack of a validated tool for collecting data in this setting. A 46-item questionnaire was developed based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) domains and completed by examiners in the Intercollegiate Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS) examination. To refine the questionnaire, an initial analysis focused on response patterns of each item. Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency, and a factor analysis was performed to uncover different domains emerging from the data. A total of 108 examiners completed the questionnaire (90·0 per cent response rate). The questionnaire, refined to 38 items based on an initial analysis of response patterns, showed good reliability for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0·76) and test-retest reliability (r = 0·85, n = 48, P factors had a close themed resemblance to the original HFACS domains, but were associated with different items, suggesting that the four human-factor domains might be linked to different behaviours and attitudes in an examination setting. Analyses according to sex, professional background and experience highlighted additional stress levels in examiners from one of the surgical Royal Colleges (P human factors in OSCEs is needed to improve examiner experience and behaviour in order to influence delivery, candidate experience and quality assurance of these examinations. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Campbell, Kelly; Holderness, Nicole; Riggs, Matt
Interpersonal chemistry refers to a connection between two individuals that exists upon first meeting. The goal of the current study is to identify beliefs about the underlying components of friendship chemistry. Individuals respond to an online Friendship Chemistry Questionnaire containing items that are derived from interdependence theory and the friendship formation literature. Participants are randomly divided into two subsamples. A principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation is performed on subsample 1 and produces 5 factors: Reciprocal candor, mutual interest, personableness, similarity, and physical attraction. A confirmatory factor analysis is conducted using subsample 2 and provides support for the 5-factor model. Participants with agreeable, open, and conscientious personalities more commonly report experiencing friendship chemistry, as do those who are female, young, and European/white. Responses from participants who have never experienced chemistry are qualitatively analyzed. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Simsek, Sukran; Ayhan, Aynur Butun; Beyazit, Utku
...%) of the adolescents had cyberbullied others at least once. Hierarchical regression analysis showed in Step 1 that age, gender, grade, father's age, and family income were significant factors predictive of cyberbullying, and in Step 2 that owning a computer...
Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of learning strategies on mathematics achievement. The sample was compiled from students who participated in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Turkey. The data consisted of 4493 15 years old Turkish students in 158 schools, and analyzed by two levels Bernoulli model as a…
Dogan, Ugur; Celik, Eyup
In this study, the authors examined the relationship between students' life satisfaction, school engagement, and confidence in the classroom. An analysis was performed of how students' life satisfaction differs according to their housing, school type, and classroom level. The multidimensional student satisfaction scale, confidence scale in the…
Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Kongsted, Alice; Hestbaek, Lise
BACKGROUND: There is a strong tradition of performing a clinical examination of low back pain (LBP) patients and this is generally recommended in guidelines. However, establishing a pathoanatomic diagnosis does not seem possible in most LBP patients and clinical tests may potentially be more...
Hampton, Jessica Daneen
Recruiting and retaining special educators has been a major concern for the department of education, school administration, and parents across the United States. Attrition, defined as the exit of teachers from their positions, has been a contributing factor to the shortage of teachers. The theoretical foundation for this study was based on the…
Postnatal depression (PND) has been underreported in South Africa. This retrospective study investigated factors which appear to predispose women to PND. Two groups, one consisting of women who suffered from PND and the other of women free of this complaint, provided information on a number of biological, ...
Arthur, Michael W; Brown, Eric C; Briney, John S; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F; Becker, Linda; Langer, Michael; Mueller, Martin T
School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achievement. We examined relationships among school levels of student substance use and risk and protective factors that predict adolescent problem behaviors and achievement test performance. Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to predict associations involving school-averaged levels of substance use and risk and protective factors and students' likelihood of meeting achievement test standards on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, statistically controlling for demographic and economic factors known to be associated with achievement. Levels of substance use and risk/protective factors predicted the academic test score performance of students. Many of these effects remained significant even after controlling for model covariates. Implementing prevention programs that target empirically identified risk and protective factors has the potential to have a favorable effect on students' academic achievement. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Tomao, Antonio; Quatrini, Valerio; Corona, Piermaria; Ferrara, Agostino; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Salvati, Luca
Urban and peri-urban forests are recognized as basic elements for Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), as they preserve and may increase environmental quality in urbanized contexts. For this reason, the amount of forest land per inhabitant is a pivotal efficiency indicator to be considered in the sustainable governance, land management, planning and design of metropolitan areas. The present study illustrates a multivariate analysis of per-capita forest area (PFA) in mainland Attica, the urban region surrounding Athens, Greece. Attica is considered a typical case of Mediterranean urbanization where planning has not regulated urban expansion and successive waves of spontaneous growth have occurred over time. In such a context, an analysis of factors that can affect landscape changes in terms of PFA may inform effective strategies for the sustainable management of socio-ecological local systems in light of the NBS perspective. A total of 26 indicators were collected per decade at the municipal scale in the study area with the aim to identify the factors most closely associated to the amount of PFA. Indicators of urban morphology and functions have been considered together with environmental and topographical variables. In Attica, PFA showed a progressive decrease between 1960 and 2010. In particular, PFA progressively declined (1980, 1990) along fringe areas surrounding Athens and in peri-urban districts experiencing dispersed expansion of residential settlements. Distance from core cities and from the seacoast, typical urban functions (e.g., multiple use of buildings and per capita built-up area) and percentage of agricultural land-use in each municipality are the variables most associated with high PFA. In recent years, some municipalities have shown an expansion of forest cover, mainly due to land abandonment and forest recolonization. Findings from this case study have allowed us to identify priorities for NBS at metropolitan level aimed at promoting more sustainable
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.
Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A
Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Santen, Sally A; Holt, Danielle B; Kemp, Jean D; Hemphill, Robin R
Burnout has been described as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment, and may originate during medical school. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of burnout and contributing factors in medical students. A survey was administered to 249 medical students using a modified Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and scales of stressors, assessment of workload, relaxation, control, accomplishment, support systems, and demographics. Moderate or high degree of burnout was seen in 21% of the first year class, 41% of the second year class, 43% of the third year class, and 31% of the fourth year class (P burnout using multivariate analysis. Burnout progressively develops over the course of medical education, while a high level of support and low stress decreased burnout.
Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang; Law, Rob; Lam, Desmond
Gambling is a leisure activity, which is enjoyed by many people around the world. Among these people, Chinese are known for their high propensity to gamble and are highly sought after by many casinos. In this exploratory study, the effect of two types of fallacy bias-positive recency and negative recency-on the betting behavior of Chinese gamblers is investigated. Although the influence of fallacy bias on a betting decision is well documented, little is known about the interaction of the factors that dictate fallacy bias. Drawing from an analysis of 2,645 betting decisions, the results show that Chinese gamblers primarily endorse positive recency, especially when the latest outcome is more frequent. This is contrary to most findings on Western subjects in which negative recency is more common. Current findings have meaningful implications to casino gaming entertainment businesses and public policymakers.
Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira
Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard
Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....
Full Text Available In this article we explore recent history to uncover the role that public engagement has played in the effort to reform America's urban schools. In the place of narratives that focus on elite actors (foundations, unions, corporations, etc., we focus on the role of local stakeholders. Specifically, we look to how the changing political context (policy agendas and governance structures of urban school systems has shifted possibilities for communities to participate in determining the direction of reform efforts in urban school systems. Through interviews and archival research, we examine the case of a single parent-led advocacy organization, Parents United for the D.C. Public Schools. Established in 1980 and remaining active until the late 1990s, Parents United developed a broad-based vision of educational equity and had a significant impact on the local public school system during that time. We show that in the current political and social context of education reform, communities may derive important lessons from Parents United while also devising new strategies for public engagement.
Chefaoui, Rosa M.
Understanding the factors that affect seagrass meadows encompassing their entire range of distribution is challenging yet important for their conservation. Here, we predict the realized and potential distribution for the species Cymodocea nodosa modelling its environmental niche in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coastlines. We use a combination of environmental variables and landscape metrics to perform a suite of predictive algorithms which enables examination of the niche and find suitable habitats for the species. The most relevant environmental variables defining the distribution of C. nodosa were sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. We found suitable habitats at SST from 5.8 °C to 26.4 °C and salinity ranging from 17.5 to 39.3. Optimal values of mean winter wave height ranged between 1.2 and 1.5 m, while waves higher than 2.5 m seemed to limit the presence of the species. The influence of nutrients and pH, despite having weight on the models, was not so clear in terms of ranges that confine the distribution of the species. Landscape metrics able to capture variation in the coastline enhanced significantly the accuracy of the models, despite the limitations caused by the scale of the study. We found potential suitable areas not occupied by the seagrass mainly in coastal regions of North Africa and the Adriatic coast of Italy. The present study describes the realized and potential distribution of a seagrass species, providing the first global model of the factors that can be shaping the environmental niche of C. nodosa throughout its range. We identified the variables constraining its distribution as well as thresholds delineating its environmental niche. Landscape metrics showed promising prospects for the prediction of coastal species dependent on the shape of the coast. By contrasting predictive approaches, we defined the variables affecting the distributional areas that seem unsuitable for C. nodosa as well as those suitable habitats not
Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.
Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…
Full Text Available Small, astatic ponds are important features of post-glacial landscape, which support heterogeneity and biodiversity of agricultural areas. In the presented research we explored differences in hydrochemistry and plant cover of 20 small ponds located in Northeastern Poland, characterized by diverse age and developed in differently managed areas. According to our research, though changes in water level are under direct influence of water balance in the catchment, to which belonged the ponds, their hydrochemistry seemed to be shaped by processes at the level lower than the catchment scale. Age of the ponds appeared to be an important factor influencing density and species composition of vegetation developed on the studied ponds.
Chun, Seong Min; Hwang, Byungkwan; Park, Jong-Hyock; Shin, Hyung-Ik
To determine disparities in health examination rates between people with disabilities (PWD) and the general population (GP), and to investigate the sociodemographic factors influencing health examination rates in PWD. The study compared the health examination rates between PWD and the GP using data from 2 national surveys. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of (KNHANES) 2008 and the National Survey on Persons with Disabilities (NSPD) in 2008. The study comprised data from the NSPD 2008 for PWD (n=6999) and data from the KNHANES 2008 for the GP (n=6582). Not applicable. Health examination rates of 2 groups were assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the related factors influencing health examination rates in PWD. Health examination rates for PWD were significantly lower than those for the GP (Phealth examination rates for PWD were lowest when they were in the age group of 30 to 39 years, in the quartile 2 group of income level, had no "existing spouse," had chronic diseases, thought their health condition was very bad, and when they needed complete help from others to carry out activities of daily living. Health examination rates were reduced by the disability factor. To enhance the overall rate of health examinations, researchers should determine which groups of PWD have relatively low health examination rates and propose measures to increase their rates of health examination. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kasonde, Musonda; Steele, Pamela
Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges. Without an effective supply chain leader supported by capable and motivated staff, none of the interventions designed to strengthen the supply chain can be effective or sustainable (Source: Gavi Alliance SC Strategy 2014). This landscape analysis was preceded by an HR Evidence Review (March 2014) and has served to inform global partner strategies and country activities, as well as highlight where most support is required. The study also aimed to define the status quo in order to create some form of baseline against which to measure the impact of interventions related to HR going forward. The analysis was comprised of a comprehensive desk review, a survey of 40 respondents from 32 countries and consultations with ISC practitioners in several forums. The findings highlight key areas that should inform the pillars of a HR capacity development plan. At the same time, it revealed that there are some positive examples of where countries are actively addressing some of the issues identified and putting in place mechanisms and structures to optimize the SC function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch
Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...
Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify the beetle fauna of a small lowland river valley against its spatial arrangement and the directions of beetle migrations between habitats, as well as to determine which environmental factors affect the characteristics of water beetle populations in a river valley's lentic water bodies. The field studies were carried out in various types of water bodies. 112 species of beetles with various ecological characteristics were identified. It was demonstrated that the diversity of water bodies in the valley is conducive to high local species richness. At the same time, the observed high degree of faunistic individualism may be regarded as a sign of poor symmetry in the directions of fauna propagation, particularly that of stagnobionts. The authors argue that high individualism is the consequence of poor hydrological contact between the water bodies due to topography and rare instances of high tide in the river, which, in turn, is the reason for active overflights remaining the main mean of migration between those water bodies. The factors restricting migration of fauna between the water bodies include certain landscape characteristics of the catchment which form topographical obstacles, mainly numerous and dense forest areas. The character of fauna in the respective types of water bodies is affected also by internal environmental factors, particularly the degree to which they are overgrown with macrophytes, type of bottom, type of mineral and organic matter as well as physical parameters of water, such as saturation, pH, temperature and biological oxygen demand.
Full Text Available This study examines the role of traditional leaders, as custodians of culture, in the fight against infection with the HI virus and the AIDS pandemic in the Chipinge District of Zimbabwe. The research aims to assess traditional leaders� knowledge of HIV and AIDS and its causes. It also examines some traditional practices to determine whether they expose people to HIV and AIDS, and it evaluates the traditional leaders� roles in curbing the pandemic. From a phenomenological standpoint � and grounded in the African traditional religious landscape � the study uses a survey research design. A convenient sample of 18 participants for the study consisted of 3 chiefs and 5 headmen who completed a questionnaire as well as 5 village heads and 5 elders who were interviewed and involved in four focus-group discussions (FGDs that provided a variety of insightful information. The study identifies promiscuity as a major cause of HIV infection in communities. The results show that traditional leaders discourage barika and kuputsa as being harmful traditional marriage practices. Furthermore, the study indicates that traditional leaders encourage behavioural change amongst the youth and adults alike to curb the spread of HIV and that the pandemic could possibly be contained if government fully empowered the traditional leaders. The research has value in attempting to minimise the spread of HIV if communities discontinue harmful cultural practices. Therefore, donor agencies involved in intervention projects concerning the HIV and AIDS pandemic and government should work closely with traditional leaders who wield considerable power in areas under their jurisdiction to arrest the spread of the HIV and AIDS pandemic in the Chipinge district in Zimbabwe.
The present study examined the factor structure of a Malay translation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 among a community sample of 554 Malaysian women. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors, two of which (Information and Internalization-Athlete) mirrored those found among Western samples. An additional factor was an amalgamation of two factors reported in the West, namely Pressure and Internalization-General. A fourth factor consisted of six items, four of which cross-loaded onto previous factors, and was consequently dropped from analyses. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three retained factors were all above .82, and the three factors were significantly correlated with each other and with participants' body mass index. The results of this study stress the need for locally developed scales in the study of body image and a shift away from reliance on scales developed in the West.
Wang, Peigang; Fang, Min; Wang, Xiao; VanderWeele, Tyler J
When the mandatory premarital examination requirement in China was cancelled in 2003, the rate of participation dropped sharply. This study examined the levels of exam satisfaction and the factors influencing satisfaction in the Hubei Province. Graduate students administered 650 questionnaires, and 633 questionnaires were returned. Regression analysis was used to analyze satisfaction. The study found high levels of satisfaction, even though the exam participation rate was only 34.8%. A regression model for satisfaction showed that the most important objective factors were female sex (P premarital examination (P premarital examination (P premarital examination might be increased by efforts to increase the level of understanding of the premarital examination and to improve medical services. © 2012 APJPH.
Klinger, Don A.; Rogers, W. Todd; Anderson, John O.; Poth, Cheryl; Calman, Ruth
This study identified student and school-level factors associated with student achievement on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), an examination that includes a student questionnaire examining home literacy practices. Linked student and school contextual data enabled the use of hierarchical linear modeling to complete the analyses…
Safaan, Tamer; Bashah, Moataz; El Ansari, Walid; Karam, Mohsen
Background Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a common surgical therapeutic option for obese patients, with debate about the value of routine histopathologic examination of LSG specimens. We assessed the following: prevalence of different histopathologic changes in LSG specimens, risk factors associated with premalignant and with frequent histopathologic changes, and whether routine histopathologic examination is warranted for LSG patients with nonsignificant clinical history. Methods R...
Stoyanoff, Dawn Galadriel Pfeiffer
This study examined the enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations that utilized a shared services model in higher education. The purpose of this research was to examine the critical success factors which were perceived to contribute to project success. This research employed a quantitative non-experimental correlational design and the…
Maliha S. Nash
Full Text Available Monitoring and quantifying changes in vegetation cover over large areas using remote sensing can be achieved using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, an indicator of greenness. However, distinguishing gradual shifts in NDVI (e.g., climate related-changes versus direct and rapid changes (e.g., fire, land development is challenging as changes can be confounded by time-dependent patterns, and variation associated with climatic factors. In the present study, we leveraged a method that we previously developed for a pilot study to address these confounding factors by evaluating NDVI change using autoregression techniques that compare results from univariate (NDVI vs. time and multivariate analyses (NDVI vs. time and climatic factors for 7,660,636 1 km × 1 km pixels comprising the 48 contiguous states of the USA, over a 25-year period (1989–2013. NDVI changed significantly for 48% of the nation over the 25-year period in the univariate analyses where most significant trends (85% indicated an increase in greenness over time. By including climatic factors in the multivariate analyses of NDVI over time, the detection of significant NDVI trends increased to 53% (an increase of 5%. Comparisons of univariate and multivariate analyses for each pixel showed that less than 4% of the pixels had a significant NDVI trend attributable to gradual climatic changes while the remainder of pixels with a significant NDVI trend indicated that changes were due to direct factors. While most NDVI changes were attributable to direct factors like wildfires, drought or flooding of agriculture, and tree mortality associated with insect infestation, these conditions may be indirectly influenced by changes in climatic factors.
Few, Lauren R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Yaggi, Kirsten E.; Reynolds, Sarah K.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
Despite substantial research use, measures of the five-factor model (FFM) are infrequently used in clinical settings due, in part, to issues related to administration time and a reluctance to use self-report instruments. The current study examines the reliability and validity of the Five-Factor Model Score Sheet (FFMSS), which is a 30-item…
Xu, Jian; Kang, Jian; Shao, Long; Zhao, Tianyu
With the rapid development of large industrial corridors in China, the landscape ecology of the country is currently being affected. Therefore, in this study, a system dynamic model with multi-dimensional nonlinear dynamic prediction function that considers industrial growth and landscape ecology is developed and verified to allow for more sustainable development. Firstly, relationships between industrial development and landscape ecology in China are examined, and five subsystems are then established: industry, population, urban economy, environment and landscape ecology. The main influencing factors are then examined for each subsystem to establish flow charts connecting those factors. Consequently, by connecting the subsystems, an overall industry growth and landscape ecology model is established. Using actual data and landscape index calculated based on GIS of the Ha-Da-Qi industrial corridor, a typical industrial corridor in China, over the period 2005-2009, the model is validated in terms of historical behaviour, logical structure and future prediction, where for 84.8% of the factors, the error rate of the model is less than 5%, the mean error rate of all factors is 2.96% and the error of the simulation test for the landscape ecology subsystem is less than 2%. Moreover, a model application has been made to consider the changes in landscape indices under four industrial development modes, and the optimal industrial growth plan has been examined for landscape ecological protection through the simulation prediction results over 2015-2020. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The field of community sociology has yielded rich insights on how neighborhoods and individuals foster social capital and reap the benefits of interpersonal relationships and institutions alike. Traditionally, institutions and cultural factors have been lauded as catalysts of community social life and cohesion. Yet, the built environment and configuration of the landscape, including infrastructure, amenities and population density, may also contribute to community social capital. In this article, we embedded zip code-level responses from Harvard University’s Saguaro Seminar’s 2006 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey with a geographic information system. Specifically, we correlated responses on residents’ general trust, trust of one’s neighbors, and trust of members of other racial groups with local urban environmental factors and infrastructural indicators such as housing and street conditions, land use, city form, amenity access (e.g., libraries and schools, home vacancy rates, and home value. We conducted these tests at the national level and for Rochester, NY, due to its many survey responses. We found that housing vacancies drive down levels of social trust, as captured by homeownership rates and tenure, yielding higher levels of social trust, and that certain urban facilities correlate with high trust among neighbors. Results can inform urban planners on the amenities that support sustainable community ties.
Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A
To date, no study has investigated how landscape structural (visual) alterations affect navigation and thus homing success in stingless bees. We addressed this question in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria by performing marking, release and re-capture experiments in landscapes differing in habitat homogeneity (i.e., the proportion of elongated ground features typically considered prominent visual landmarks). We investigated how landscape affected the proportion of bees and nectar foragers returning to their hives as well as the earliest time bees and foragers returned. Undisturbed landscapes with few landmarks (that are conspicuous to the human eye) and large proportions of vegetation cover (natural forests) were classified visually/structurally homogeneous, and disturbed landscapes with many landmarks and fragmented or no extensive vegetation cover (gardens and plantations) visually/structurally heterogeneous. We found that proportions of successfully returning nectar foragers and earliest times first bees and foragers returned did not differ between landscapes. However, most bees returned in the visually/structurally most (forest) and least (garden) homogeneous landscape, suggesting that they use other than elongated ground features for navigation and that return speed is primarily driven by resource availability in a landscape.
Niclasen, Janni; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a Structural Confirmatory Factor Analytic approach. The Danish translation of the SDQ was distributed to 71,840 parents and teachers of 5-7 and 10-12-year-old boys and girls from...... four large scale cohorts. Three theoretical models were examined: 1. a model with five first order factors (i.e., hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional, peer problems and prosocial), 2. a model adding two internalising and externalising second order factors to model 1, and 3. a model adding...... children than for younger children. No convincing differences were found between boys and girls. Factor loadings were acceptable for all groups, especially for older children rated by teachers. Some emotional, peer, conduct and prosocial subscale problems were revealed for younger children rated by parents...
Abraham, I L; Manning, C A; Snustad, D G; Brashear, H R; Newman, M C; Wofford, A B
To examine factor structures of the Mini-Mental State Examination, attempting first to replicate any of previously proposed 2-factor solutions; and to explore, secondly, the presence of clinically more differentiated and statistically stable factor structures representing common neurocognitive dimensions. Factor analytic investigation of descriptive dataset collected on nursing home residents. Two factor analyses were performed, one in which the number of factors was fixed at 2 in an effort to replicate previous studies, and one in which the number of factors to retain was determined by the scree test. Both factor analyses used established methods for judging the adequacy of the correlation matrix and the significance of factor loadings, and both applied principal components analysis for initial factor extraction and the equamax criterion for orthogonal rotation. Seven nursing homes with a total of 894 beds. 922 assessments on nursing home residents were performed, of which 892 were complete and entered into the factor analyses. The observation-to-variable ratio exceeded 81:1, assuring the statistical stability of factor solutions derived. The Mini-Mental State Examination, with standardization of words to be recalled and the inverted spelling of "world" as the mental reversal task. Two factor structures were derived. A 2-factor solution, explaining 36.5% of the variance and statistically and conceptually different from those obtained in previous studies, distinguished between Perceptual-Organizational and Psychomotor skills. A 4-factor solution, which explained 56.1% of the variance, included a factor named Executing Psychomotor Commands, while also further differentiating the perceptual-organizational processes into the factors of Memory, Concentration, and Language. The 2-factor solution shows that, notwithstanding previous claims to the contrary, the MMSE can make stable and independent distinctions between psychomotor and perceptual-organizational processes
M. L. NEAGU
Full Text Available Wind is the main factor involved in changing the natural balance of forest ecosystems from Gurghiu hydrographic basin. Strong winds are responsible for windthrows, especially in spruce arboretums, the most representative of the wood species form the studied area. Trees can be partially (bending of trunks, branches and broken tops or totally (pulling the roots damaged. Windthrows occurrence is closely related to the climatic factors, physical-geographical conditions (slope, soil characteristics and arboretum characteristics (structure, age, consistency are also important. The imbalance induced by those phenomena is emphasized by pest invasions (especially Ips Typographus which are quite frequent after windthrows.Our study represents a detailed analysis of the way in which the structure and the balance of the forest ecosystems of Gurghiu basin undergo major changes, because the climatic factors (wind, snow action. Case study is the windthrow occurred on June 2010, when 200,000 m³ of wood was windthrowed, over a total area of 5,953 ha in P.U. II Isticeu (Fâncel Forest Range and partially in P.U. I Glăjărie (the same forest range. The methodology used includes the analysis of climatic data, statistical data processing, GIS techniques for mapping the areas vulnerable to windthrows, synthesis.
Full Text Available The mammalian genome is packed tightly in the nucleus of the cell. This packing is primarily facilitated by histone proteins and results in an ordered organization of the genome in chromosome territories that can be roughly divided in heterochromatic and euchromatic domains. On top of this organization several distinct gene regulatory elements on the same chromosome or other chromosomes are thought to dynamically communicate via chromatin looping. Advances in genome-wide technologies have revealed the existence of a plethora of these regulatory elements in various eukaryotic genomes. These regulatory elements are defined by particular in vitro assays as promoters, enhancers, insulators and boundary elements. However, recent studies indicate that the in vivo distinction between these elements is often less strict. Regulatory elements are bound by a mixture of common and lineage specific transcription factors which mediate the long-range interactions between these elements. Inappropriate modulation of the binding of these transcription factors can alter the interactions between regulatory elements, which in turn leads to aberrant gene expression with disease as an ultimate consequence. Here we discuss the bi-modal behavior of regulatory elements that act in cis (with a focus on enhancers, how their activity is modulated by transcription factor binding and the effect this has on gene regulation.
Sawada, Tsunaki; Nakamura, Masanao; Watanabe, Osamu; Yamamura, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Funasaka, Kohei; Ohno, Eizaburo; Kawashima, Hiroki; Miyahara, Ryoji; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki
Retention is the most common complication of capsule endoscopy (CE), and is reported to occur in 0-13% of cases. To avoid retention, a PillCam patency capsule (PC) is used in patients with suspected intestinal stenosis. However, a relatively low positive predictive value of the PC examination has been reported previously. The aims of this study were to clarify the accuracy of PC examination and to evaluate clinical factors related to cases of false-positive detection. We performed a retrospective single-center study of 282 consecutive patients referred for PC examination. Patients in which the PC could not pass through the small bowel within 33 h were classified into the 'no patency' group. The 'no patency' group was investigated for evidence of significant stenosis upon further examinations, including CE, double-balloon endoscopy, and small bowel follow-through after PC examination. Clinical factors related to small bowel patency and false-positive cases were evaluated. We included 161 male (57.1%) and 121 female (42.9%) patients with a mean age of 47.5 ± 17.7 years. Of the 282 patients enrolled, 27 patients exhibited 'no patency' upon PC examination. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical factors related to 'no patency' included Crohn's disease, abdominal symptoms, stenosis upon imaging, and previous abdominal surgery. Upon further examination, nine cases in the 'no patency' group had significant stenosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of PC examination for detecting small bowel stenosis were 93.8%, 96.6%, 99.6%, and 62.5%, respectively, and the only clinical factor related to false-positive cases was constipation (p predictive value of PC examination and that constipation was related to false-positive results. To extend the implications of CE indications, clinical study focusing on these results is expected.
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Petscher, Yaacov; Park, Younghee
It has been suggested that children acquire spelling by picking up conditional sound-spelling consistencies. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated how variation in word characteristics (words that vary systematically in terms of phoneme-grapheme correspondences) and child factors (individual differences in the ability to extract…
Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar
Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...
Boateng, Godfred Odei; Luginaah, Isaac N; Taabazuing, Mary-Margaret
This study sought to examine the risk factors associated with hypertension among the elderly in Ghana. We focused on the association between chronic diseases, socioeconomic factors, and being hypertensive. Data for the study were drawn from Wave 1 of the 2007/2008 Ghana Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). A binary logit model was used to estimate the effect of other noncommunicable diseases, psychosocial factors, lifestyle factors, and sociocultural and biosocial factors on the elderly being hypertensive. Elderly Ghanaians who had been diagnosed with arthritis, angina, diabetes, and asthma were significantly more likely to be hypertensive. Additionally, those depressed were found to be 1.22 times more likely to be hypertensive. Prevention and control of hypertension are complex and demand multistakeholder collaboration including governments, educational institutions, media, food and beverage industry, and a conscious focus on personal lifestyle factors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hayes, Sharon; Stoeckel, Nina; Napolitano, Melissa A; Collins, Charlotte; Wood, G Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Grunwald, Heidi E; Foster, Gary D; Still, Christopher D
The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is frequently used to evaluate bariatric patients in clinical and research settings; yet, there are limited data regarding the factor structure of the BDI-II with a bariatric surgery population. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal axis factoring with oblimin rotation was employed with data from 1228 consecutive presurgical bariatric candidates. Independent t tests were used to examine potential differences between sexes. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with the next 383 consecutive presurgical patients to evaluate the proposed model based on EFA results. EFA revealed three factors: negative perceptions, diminished vigor, and cognitive dysregulation, each with adequate internal consistency. Six BDI-II items did not load significantly on any of the three factors. CFA results largely supported the proposed model. Results suggest that dimensions of depression for presurgical bariatric candidates vary from other populations and raise important caveats regarding the utility of the BDI-II in bariatric research.
O'Brien, Amy; Watson, Hunna J; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Anderson, Rebecca A; Hamilton, Matthew J; Shu, Chloe; McCormack, Julie
The factor structure of the eating disorder examination (EDE) has never been tested in a clinical pediatric sample, and no normative data exist. The factor structure of an adapted EDE was examined in a clinical sample of 665 females aged 9-17 years with anorexia nervosa spectrum (70%), bulimia nervosa spectrum (12%), purging disorder (3%), and unspecified feeding and eating disorders (15%). The original four-factor model was a good fit in a confirmatory factor analysis as well a higher order model with three dimensions of restraint, eating concern, and combined weight concern/shape concern. Normative data are reported for clinicians to identify the percentiles in which their patients' score. The findings support dimensions of restraint, eating concern, weight concern, and shape concern in a clinical pediatric sample. This supports the factorial validity of the EDE, and the norms may assist clinicians to evaluate symptoms in females under 18 years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to identify the factors that contribute to examination malpractices at secondary school level. The target population of the study was all the heads, teachers and students at secondary school level in Kohat Division (Pakistan. The study was delimited to the 80 male secondary schools. The sample for this study was made up of 840 respondents which were selected through simple random sampling technique. A self-developed semi-structured questionnaire was used as research instrument for data collection. Descriptive statistics i.e., simple percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics i.e., ANOVA were applied for the statistical analysis of data. The findings of the study explored that there are various factors that contribute to examination malpractices i.e., corruption; poor implementation of examinations rules; students and parental threats; no fear of punishment; inadequate preparation for examination; poor invigilation; collusion; disloyalty of examination bodies; fear of failure; poor morale and economic depression of supervisory staff etc. Furthermore, the findings of the study revealed that bringing of unauthorized materials to examination hall; sending of prepared answers to students by teachers and parents; impersonation; questions and papers leakage; cheating; and scripts changing are the various forms of examination malpractices. Based on findings, it was recommended that examination rules should be implemented effectively and those who were found guilty should be given severe exemplary punishment according to the examination’s rules.
Crittenden, Courtney A; Wright, Emily M
In much feminist literature, patriarchy has often been studied as a predictive variable for attitudes toward or acts of violence against women. However, rarely has patriarchy been examined as an outcome across studies. The current study works toward filling this gap by examining several individual-and neighborhood-level factors that might influence patriarchy. Specifically, this research seeks to determine if neighborhood-level attributes related to socioeconomic status, family composition, and demographic information affect patriarchal views after individual-level correlates of patriarchy were controlled. Findings suggest that factors at both the individual- and neighborhood levels, particularly familial characteristics and dynamics, do influence the endorsement of patriarchal views.
Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.
Landscape resilience refers to the ability of systems to adapt to and recover from disturbance. In pastoral landscapes, degradation can be measured in terms of increased desertification and/or shrub encroachment. In many countries across Central Asia, the use and resilience of pastoral systems has changed markedly over the past 25 years, influenced by centralized Soviet governance, private property rights and recently, communal resource governance. In Kyrgyzstan, recent governance reforms were in response to the increasing degradation of pastures attributed to livestock overgrazing. Our goal is to examine and map the landscape-level factors that influence overgrazing throughout successive governance periods. Here, we map and examine some of the spatial factors influencing landscape resilience in agro-pastoral systems in the Kyrgyzstan Republic where pastures occupy >50% of the country's area. We ask three questions: 1) which mechanisms of pasture degradation (desertification vs. shrub encroachment), are detectable using remote sensing vegetation indices?; 2) Are these degraded pastures associated with landscape features that influence herder mobility and accessibility (e.g., terrain, distance to other pastures)?; and 3) Have these patterns changed through successive governance periods? Using a chronosequence of Landsat imagery (1999-2014), NDVI and other VIs were used to identify trends in pasture condition during the growing season. Least-cost path distances as well as graph theoretic indices were derived from topographic factors to assess landscape connectivity (from villages to pastures and among pastures). Fieldwork was used to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach using the most recent imagery. Previous research concluded that low herder mobility hindered pasture use, thus we expect the distance from pasture to village to be an important predictor of pasture condition. This research will quantify the magnitude of pastoral degradation and test
Shah, Gulzar H; Badana, Adrian N S; Robb, Claire; Livingood, William C
Local health departments (LHDs) are striving to meet public health needs within their jurisdictions, amidst fiscal restraints and complex dynamic environment. Resource sharing across jurisdictions is a critical opportunity for LHDs to continue to enhance effectiveness and increase efficiency. This research examines the extent of cross-jurisdictional resource sharing among LHDs, the programmatic areas and organizational functions for which LHDs share resources, and LHD characteristics associated with resource sharing. Data from the National Association of County & City Health Officials' 2013 National Profile of LHDs were used. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were performed for the 5 implementation-oriented outcome variables of interest, with 3 levels of implementation. More than 54% of LHDs shared resources such as funding, staff, or equipment with 1 or more other LHDs on a continuous, recurring basis. Results from the multinomial regression analysis indicate that economies of scale (population size and metropolitan status) had significant positive influences (at P ≤ .05) on resource sharing. Engagement in accreditation, community health assessment, community health improvement planning, quality improvement, and use of the Community Guide were associated with lower levels of engagement in resource sharing. Doctoral degree of the top executive and having 1 or more local boards of health carried a positive influence on resource sharing. Cross-jurisdictional resource sharing is a viable and commonly used process to overcome the challenges of new and emerging public health problems within the constraints of restricted budgets. LHDs, particularly smaller LHDs with limited resources, should consider increased resource sharing to address emerging challenges.
Cook, Maia B; Smallman, Harvey S
This study addresses the human factors challenge of designing and validating decision support to promote less biased intelligence analysis. The confirmation bias can compromise objectivity in ambiguous medical and military decision making through neglect of conflicting evidence and judgments not reflective of the entire evidence spectrum. Previous debiasing approaches have had mixed success and have tended to place additional demands on users' decision making. Two new debiasing interventions that help analysts picture the full spectrum of evidence, the relation of evidence to a hypothesis, and other analysts' evidence assessments were manipulated in a repeated-measures design: (a) an integrated graphical evidence layout, compared with a text baseline; and (b) evidence tagged with other analysts' assessments, compared with participants' own assessments. Twenty-seven naval trainee analysts and reservists assessed, selected, and prioritized evidence in analysis vignettes carefully constructed to have balanced supporting and conflicting evidence sets. Bias was measured for all three evidence analysis steps. A bias to select a skewed distribution of confirming evidence occurred across conditions. However, graphical evidence layout, but not other analysts' assessments, significantly reduced this selection bias, resulting in more balanced evidence selection. Participants systematically prioritized the most supportive evidence as most important. Domain experts exhibited confirmation bias in a realistic intelligence analysis task and apparently conflated evidence supportiveness with importance. Graphical evidence layout promoted more balanced and less biased evidence selection. Results have application to real-world decision making, implications for basic decision theory, and lessons for how shrewd visualization can help reduce bias.
Full Text Available Aims: To examine the variation in risk factors and hospitalization costs among four elderly dementia cohorts by race and gender. Materials and Methods: The 2008 Tennessee Hospital Discharged database was examined. The prevalence, risk factors and cost of inpatient care of dementia were examined for individuals aged 65 years and above, across the four race gender cohorts - white males (WM, black males (BM, white females (WF, and black females (BF. Results: 3.6% of patients hospitalized in 2008 had dementia. Dementia was higher among females than males, and higher among blacks than whites. Further, BF had higher prevalence of dementia than WF; similarly, BM had a higher prevalence of dementia than WM. Overall, six risk factors were associated with dementia for the entire sample including HTN, DM, CKD, CHF, COPD, and stroke. These risk factors varied slightly in predicting dementia by race and gender. Hospital costs were 14% higher among dementia patients compared to non-dementia patients. Conclusions: There exist significant race and gender disparities in prevalence of dementia. A greater degree of co-morbidity, increased duration of hospital stay, and more frequent hospitalizations, may result in a higher cost of inpatient dementia care. Aggressive management of risk factors may subsequently reduce stroke and cost of dementia care, especially in the black population. Race and gender dependent milestones for management of these risk factors should be considered.
Strawn, Laura K.; Fortes, Esther D.; Bihn, Elizabeth A.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Worobo, Randy W.; Wiedmann, Martin
Produce-related outbreaks have been traced back to the preharvest environment. A longitudinal study was conducted on five farms in New York State to characterize the prevalence, persistence, and diversity of food-borne pathogens in fresh produce fields and to determine landscape and meteorological factors that predict their presence. Produce fields were sampled four times per year for 2 years. A total of 588 samples were analyzed for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The prevalence measures of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and STEC were 15.0, 4.6, and 2.7%, respectively. L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were detected more frequently in water samples, while STEC was detected with equal frequency across all sample types (soil, water, feces, and drag swabs). L. monocytogenes sigB gene allelic types 57, 58, and 61 and Salmonella enterica serovar Cerro were repeatedly isolated from water samples. Soil available water storage (AWS), temperature, and proximity to three land cover classes (water, roads and urban development, and pasture/hay grass) influenced the likelihood of detecting L. monocytogenes. Drainage class, AWS, and precipitation were identified as important factors in Salmonella detection. This information was used in a geographic information system framework to hypothesize locations of environmental reservoirs where the prevalence of food-borne pathogens may be elevated. The map indicated that not all croplands are equally likely to contain environmental reservoirs of L. monocytogenes. These findings advance recommendations to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination by enhancing models of the environmental constraints on the survival and persistence of food-borne pathogens in fields. PMID:23144137
Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther D; Bihn, Elizabeth A; Nightingale, Kendra K; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Worobo, Randy W; Wiedmann, Martin; Bergholz, Peter W
Produce-related outbreaks have been traced back to the preharvest environment. A longitudinal study was conducted on five farms in New York State to characterize the prevalence, persistence, and diversity of food-borne pathogens in fresh produce fields and to determine landscape and meteorological factors that predict their presence. Produce fields were sampled four times per year for 2 years. A total of 588 samples were analyzed for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The prevalence measures of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and STEC were 15.0, 4.6, and 2.7%, respectively. L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were detected more frequently in water samples, while STEC was detected with equal frequency across all sample types (soil, water, feces, and drag swabs). L. monocytogenes sigB gene allelic types 57, 58, and 61 and Salmonella enterica serovar Cerro were repeatedly isolated from water samples. Soil available water storage (AWS), temperature, and proximity to three land cover classes (water, roads and urban development, and pasture/hay grass) influenced the likelihood of detecting L. monocytogenes. Drainage class, AWS, and precipitation were identified as important factors in Salmonella detection. This information was used in a geographic information system framework to hypothesize locations of environmental reservoirs where the prevalence of food-borne pathogens may be elevated. The map indicated that not all croplands are equally likely to contain environmental reservoirs of L. monocytogenes. These findings advance recommendations to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination by enhancing models of the environmental constraints on the survival and persistence of food-borne pathogens in fields.
Tu, Shih-Kai; Liao, Hung-En
Community-based intervention health examinations were implemented at a health care facility to comply with the government's primary health care promotion policy. The theory of planned behavior model was applied to examine the effect that community-based health examinations had on people's health concepts regarding seeking future health examinations. The research participants were individuals who had received a health examination provided at two branches of a hospital in central Taiwan in 2012. The hospital's two branches held a total of 14 free community-based health examination sessions. The hospital provided health examination equipment and staff to perform health examinations during public holidays. We conducted an exploratory questionnaire survey to collect data and implemented cross-sectional research based on anonymous self-ratings to examine the public's intention to receive future community-based or hospital-based health examinations. Including of 807 valid questionnaires, accounting for 89.4% of the total number of questionnaires distributed. The correlation coefficients of the second-order structural model indicate that attitudes positively predict behavioral intentions (γ = .66, p .05). The results of the first-order structural model indicated that the second-order constructs had a high explanatory power for the first-order constructs. People's health concepts regarding health examinations and their desire to continue receiving health examinations must be considered when promoting health examinations in the community. Regarding hospital management and the government's implementation of primary health care, health examination services should address people's medical needs to increase coverage and participation rates and reduce the waste of medical resources.
Chen, Pan; Voisin, Dexter R.; Jacobson, Kristen C.
This study examined whether promotive factors (future expectations, family warmth, school attachment, and neighborhood cohesion) moderated relationships between community violence exposure and youth delinquency. Analyses were conducted using N = 2,980 sixth to eighth graders (M[subscript age] = 12.48; 41.1% males) from a racially, ethnically, and…
Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe
Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…
Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
This article offers an approach to examining differential item functioning (DIF) under its item response theory (IRT) treatment in the framework of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The approach is based on integrating IRT- and CFA-based testing of DIF and using bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals with a syntax code in Mplus.
Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk
Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…
Calley, Nancy G.; Richardson, Emily M.
This study examined factors influencing clinician predictions of recidivism for juvenile offenders, including youth age at initial juvenile justice system involvement, youth age at discharge, program completion status, clinician perception of strength of the therapeutic relationship, and clinician perception of youth commitment to treatment.…
Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam
Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…
Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R.; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya
Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and…
Brandon, John R.
This study is an analysis of 24 variables associated with employee attitudes, behaviors and outcomes. A total of 140 college graduates participated in the study. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) techniques, the research examined relationships among the following variables: perceived fit, job satisfaction, cognitive ability, vocational…
Barron, David; Swami, Viren; Towell, Tony; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin D
Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n = 284) resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a) 3-factor and (b) modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.
Full Text Available Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n=351 resident in the UK and from an African Caribbean subsample (n=284 resident in Trinidad completed the SPQ. The higher-order factor structure of the SPQ was analysed through confirmatory factor analysis, followed by multiple-group analysis for the model of best fit. Between-group differences for sex and ethnicity were investigated using multivariate analysis of variance in relation to the higher-order domains. The model of best-fit was the four-factor structure, which demonstrated measurement invariance across groups. Additionally, these data had an adequate fit for two alternative models: (a 3-factor and (b modified 4-factor model. The British subsample had significantly higher scores across all domains than the Trinidadian group, and men scored significantly higher on the disorganised domain than women. The four-factor structure received confirmatory support and, importantly, support for use with populations varying in ethnicity and culture.
Seyed Abolhasan Naghibi
Full Text Available Of the ways to fight breast cancer and reduce deaths hazard due to early detection is one of early detection programs in women's breast self- examination. Examining breast by oneself increase individuals knowledge of her breast health that helps in detecting breast cancer early. Different cultural, social, family and individual factors play roles in women's behavior about breast self- examination applying PEN-3 model in this study is to analyze factors influencing on breast self-examination. The research is a descriptive- analytical, cross-sectional type. Research community consists of women at fertility age of 20-49 in sari. Sample volume is 415 individuals and sampling method is cluster method. In this study, a 50-item questionnaire based on PEN-3 was used. Questions were answered by Likert scoring method. Questionnaire was gathered by personal presence of questioners. Data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and logistic regression methods. Based on the study findings, the most significant positive behaviors related to perceptual factors included effectiveness of disease background in family and relatives (73%, believing in breast self- examination for pursuing health (93% and the most important negative behaviors were shyness and modesty (83.9% and increased worry (78.9%. The most remarkable positive behaviors regarding enabling factors covered the skill to do breast examination oneself (35.2%, the availability of health and therapeutic centers (80.7% and the most significant negative behavior was being busy and lack of time (85.3%. The most important positive behavior about nurturing factors included family consent (68.9% and the most significant negative one was the inappropriate treatment of health and therapeutic personnel (61.8%. In this study, there is a meaningful difference between employment ages, education with PEN-3 model constituents. Since behaviors due to enabling and nurturing perceptual factors have been important in
Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Thaddanee, Rekha; Pathak, Rakesh R; Makwana, Sohil; Khilnani, Gurudas
The study aims to understand the process and factors influencing the implementation of structured oral examination (SOE) for undergraduate medical students; in comparison with conventional oral examination (COE) in pharmacology. In a randomized, parallel group study, 123 students of pharmacology were divided into two groups, SOE (n = 63) and COE (n = 60). Students of each group were subdivided into two, and four examiners took viva voce individually. Three sets of questionnaires from autonomic nervous system were prepared, each having 15 items with increasing difficulty levels and were validated by subject experts and pretested. Ten minutes were allotted for each student for each viva. Feedback of students and faculty about the novel method was obtained. SOE yielded significantly lower marks as compared to COE. There were significant inter-examiner variations in marks awarded in SOE and COE. Other factors influencing implementation were difficulty in structuring viva, rigid time limits, lack of flexibility in knowledge content, monotony, and fatigue. The students perceived this format not different from COE but felt that it required in-depth preparation of topic. Faculty opined that SOE led to less drift from main topic and provided uniform coverage of topics in given time. Conducting SOE is a resource-intensive exercise. Despite structuring, inter-examiner variability was not completely eliminated. The students' performance was depended on factors related to examiners such as teaching experience, vernacular language used, and lack of training. Orientation and training of examiners in assessment strategies is necessary. Standardization of questionnaire is necessary before the implementation of SOE for summative assessment.
Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne
Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape...
Cari Jo Clark
Full Text Available Introduction: This study examines race and sex differences in the latent structure of a wide range of psychosocial measures and whether the identified factors are related to self-reported history of coronary heart disease (CHD. Materials and Methods : The sample included 4,128 participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with oblique geomin rotation was used to identify latent factors among 10 psychosocial measures. Multi-group comparisons of the EFA model were conducted using exploratory structural equation modeling. Measurement invariance was defined by a difference in the CFI of less than 0.01. For invariant factor(s, a factor-based scale score was created. Differences in mean scale scores across race-sex subgroups were tested with analysis of variance and Sheffe’s test. Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between the factor score(s and CHD adjusting for relevant confounders. Effect modification of the relationship by race-sex subgroup was tested.Results : A two-factor model fit the data well (CFI=0.986; TLI=0.969; RMSEA=0.039. Factor I was comprised of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived stress, and low life satisfaction. Factor II was comprised of social engagement, spirituality, social networks, and extraversion. Only Factor I, renamed Distress, showed measurement invariance across subgroups, although the level of Distress varied by race and sex. Distress was significantly related to report of CHD (odds ratio: 1.37; p-value < 0.0001. This effect did not differ by race or sex (interaction p-value=0.43. Conclusions: This study found two underlying latent constructs among a large range of psychosocial variables, but only one, Distress, was validly measured across race-sex subgroups. This construct was also robustly related to prevalent CHD, highlighting the potential importance of latent constructs as predictors of cardiovascular disease.
Reinoso, Humberto; Türegün, Mehmet
Baby boomers account for two out of every three cases of hepatitis C infection in the U.S. To conduct an exploratory factor analysis directed at supporting the use of the MUIS-C as a reliable instrument in measuring illness uncertainty among baby boomers with hepatitis C. The steps of conducting a typical principal component analysis (PCA) with an oblique rotation were used on a sample of 146 participants, the sampling adequacy of items was examined via the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure, and the Bartlett's sphericity test was used for appropriateness of conducting a factor analysis. A two-factor structure was obtained by using Horn's parallel analysis method. The two factors explained a cumulative total of 45.8% of the variance. The results of the analyses indicated that the MUIS-C was a valid and reliable instrument and potentially suitable for use in baby boomer population diagnosed with hepatitis C. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Brown, Seth A
A number of scales are employed to measure mental illness stigma, but many fail to have documented or adequate psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ). Based on responses from 774 college students, exploratory factor analyses were conducted followed by an examination of the reliability and validity of the newly formed factor scales. A six-factor structure emerged and four of these factor scales (Fear/Dangerousness, Help/Interact, Forcing Treatment, and Negative Emotions) had acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity with other stigma measures. Twenty items from the AQ provide reliable and valid measurement of four important aspects of stigmatizing attitudes/beliefs towards the mentally ill. Accurate measurement of these attitudes/beliefs will be critical to more fully understanding the stigma process and developing effective strategies to address stigma.
Wellmon, Robert H; Gulick, Dawn T; Paterson, Mark L; Gulick, Colleen N
Smartphones are being used in a variety of practice settings to measure joint range of motion (ROM). A number of factors can affect the validity of the measurements generated. However, there are no studies examining smartphone-based goniometer applications focusing on measurement variability and error arising from the electromechanical properties of the device being used. To examine the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of 2 goniometric mobile applications (Goniometer Records, Goniometer Pro), an inclinometer, and a universal goniometer (UG). Nonexperimental, descriptive validation study. University laboratory. 3 physical therapists having an average of 25 y of experience. Three standardized angles (acute, right, obtuse) were constructed to replicate the movement of a hinge joint in the human body. Angular changes were measured and compared across 3 raters who used 3 different devices (UG, inclinometer, and 2 goniometric apps installed on 3 different smartphones: Apple iPhone 5, LG Android, and Samsung SIII Android). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine interrater reliability and concurrent validity. Interrater reliability for each of the smartphone apps, inclinometer and UG were excellent (ICC = .995-1.000). Concurrent validity was also good (ICC = .998-.999). Based on the Bland-Altman plots, the means of the differences between the devices were low (range = -0.4° to 1.2°). This study identifies the error inherent in measurement that is independent of patient factors and due to the smartphone, the installed apps, and examiner skill. Less than 2° of measurement variability was attributable to those factors alone. The data suggest that 3 smartphones with the 2 installed apps are a viable substitute for using a UG or an inclinometer when measuring angular changes that typically occur when examining ROM and demonstrate the capacity of multiple examiners to accurately use smartphone-based goniometers.
Menzies, Lara; Minson, Susan; Brightwell, Alexandra; Davies-Muir, Anna; Long, Andrew; Fertleman, Caroline
To determine if demographic factors are associated with outcome in a multiple-choice, electronically marked paediatric postgraduate examination. Retrospective analysis of pass rates of UK trainees sitting Membership of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (MRCPCH) part 1B from 2007 to 2011. Data collected by the RCPCH from examination candidates were analysed to assess the effects of gender, age, and country and university of medical qualification on examination outcome. At first attempt at MRCPCH part 1B, the overall pass rate from 2007 to 2011 was 843/2056 (41.0%). In univariate analysis, passing the examination was associated with being a UK graduate (649/1376 (47.2%)) compared with being an international medical graduate (130/520 (25.0%)) (OR 2.68 (95% CI 2.14 to 3.36), psex and whether the part 1A examination was taken concurrently, being a UK graduate was still strongly associated with passing the examination (OR 3.17 (95% CI 2.41 to 4.17), peducation for these trainees and to inform development of undergraduate curricula and help trainees prepare more successfully for postgraduate examinations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ashby, Samantha E; Snodgrass, Suzanne H; Rivett, Darren A; Russell, Trevor
The development of student-practitioners' practical clinical skills is essential in health professional education. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are central to the assessment of students performing clinical procedures on simulated patients (actors). While feedback is considered core to learning providing timely, individualised student OSCE feedback is difficult. This study explored the perceptions of students about the multiple factors which shape the utility of e-feedback following an electronic Objective Structured Clinical Examinations, which utilized iPad and specialised software. The e-feedback was trialled in four courses within occupational therapy and physiotherapy pre-professional programs with a cohort of 204 students. Evaluation of student perceptions about feedback was collected using two surveys and eight focus groups. This data showed three factors shaped perceptions of the utility of e- Objective Structured Clinical Examinations feedback: 1) timely accessibility within one day of the assessment, 2) feedback demonstrating examiners' academic literacy and 3) feedback orientated to ways of improving future performance of clinical skills. The study found training in the provision of feedback using IPads and software is needed for examiners to ensure e-feedback meets students' needs for specific, future-oriented e-feedback and institutional requirements for justification of grades. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available In recent years, information technology (IT becomes prominent to support teaching and learning activities. IT tools allow us to create, collect, store and use the information and knowledge. E-learning was one of IT tools introduced at College of Science and Technology (CST, University Technology Malaysia (UTM Kuala Lumpur since 2001. It has enabled a paradigm shift from institutio n-centered instruction to anywhere, anytime and anybody learning models. In CST the e-learning technology was used for accessing the syllabus and course content, submitting assignments, and taking class quizzes. This paper focuses on issues relating to the e-learning critical success factors (CSFs from university students’ perspective. In this study, two main factors related to the e-learning CSFs within a university environment included technological and institutional support factors were examined. Confirmatory factor modeling approach was used to assess the criticality of the measures included in each factor. The results indicated that the most critical measures for technological factor in terms of ease of access and infrastructure are the browser efficiency, course website ease of use and computer network reliability. Meanwhile, for institutional support factor, the most critical measure is the availability of technical support or help desk.
Sawada, Tsunaki; Nakamura, Masanao; Watanabe, Osamu; Yamamura, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Takuya; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Funasaka, Kohei; Ohno, Eizaburo; Kawashima, Hiroki; Miyahara, Ryoji; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki
Background Retention is the most common complication of capsule endoscopy (CE), and is reported to occur in 0?13% of cases. To avoid retention, a PillCam patency capsule (PC) is used in patients with suspected intestinal stenosis. However, a relatively low positive predictive value of the PC examination has been reported previously. The aims of this study were to clarify the accuracy of PC examination and to evaluate clinical factors related to cases of false-positive detection. Methods We pe...
Gallagher, Austin J; Creel, Scott; Wilson, Rory P; Cooke, Steven J
Animals are not distributed randomly in space and time because their movement ecology is influenced by a variety of factors. Energy landscapes and the landscape of fear have recently emerged as largely independent paradigms, both reshaping our perspectives and thinking relating to the spatial ecology of animals across heterogeneous landscapes. We argue that these paradigms are not distinct but rather complementary, collectively providing a better mechanistic basis for understanding the spatial ecology and decision-making of wild animals. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of each paradigm and illuminate their complementary nature through case studies, then integrate these concepts quantitatively by constructing quantitative pathways of movement modulated by energy and fear to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the spatial ecology of wild animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nouri, Hamideh; Beecham, Simon; Anderson, Sharolyn; Nagler, Pamela
Evapotranspiration estimation has benefitted from recent advances in remote sensing and GIS techniques particularly in agricultural applications rather than urban environments. This paper explores the relationship between urban vegetation evapotranspiration (ET) and vegetation indices derived from newly-developed high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. The study site was Veale Gardens in Adelaide, Australia. Image processing was applied on five images captured from February 2012 to February 2013 using ERDAS Imagine. From 64 possible two band combinations of WorldView-2, the most reliable one (with the maximum median differences) was selected. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values were derived for each category of landscape cover, namely trees, shrubs, turf grasses, impervious pavements, and water bodies. Urban landscape evapotranspiration rates for Veale Gardens were estimated through field monitoring using observational-based landscape coefficients. The relationships between remotely sensed NDVIs for the entire Veale Gardens and for individual NDVIs of different vegetation covers were compared with field measured urban landscape evapotranspiration rates. The water stress conditions experienced in January 2013 decreased the correlation between ET and NDVI with the highest relationship of ET-Landscape NDVI (Landscape Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for shrubs (r2 = 0.66) and trees (r2 = 0.63). However, when the January data was excluded, there was a significant correlation between ET and NDVI. The highest correlation for ET-Landscape NDVI was found for the entire Veale Gardens regardless of vegetation type (r2 = 0.95, p > 0.05) and the lowest one was for turf (r2 = 0.88, p > 0.05). In support of the feasibility of ET estimation by WV2 over a longer period, an algorithm recently developed that estimates evapotranspiration rates based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS was employed. The results revealed a significant positive
MARTIN, REBECCA; TIGERA, CASSIE; DENCKLA, MARTHA B; MAHONE, E MARK
AIM Brain systems supporting higher cognitive and motor control develop in a parallel manner, dependent on functional integrity and maturation of related regions, suggesting neighbouring neural circuitry. Concurrent examination of motor and cognitive control can provide a window into neurological development. However, identification of performance-based measures that do not correlate with IQ has been a challenge. METHOD Timed motor performance from the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs and IQ were analysed in 136 children aged 6 to 16 (mean age 10y 2.6mo, SD 2y 6.4mo; 98 female, 38male) attending an outpatient neuropsychology clinic and 136 right-handed comparison individuals aged 6 to 16 (mean age 10y 3.1mo, SD 2y 6.1mo; 98 female, 38male). Timed activities – three repetitive movements (toe tapping, hand patting, finger tapping) and three sequenced movements (heel–toe tap, hand pronate/supinate, finger sequencing) each performed on the right and left – were included in exploratory factor analyses. RESULTS Among comparison individuals, factor analysis yielded two factors – repetitive and sequenced movements – with the sequenced factor significantly predictive of Verbal IQ (VIQ) (ΔR2=0.018, p=0.019), but not the repetitive factor (ΔR2=0.004, p=0.39). Factor analysis within the clinical group yielded two similar factors (repetitive and sequenced), both significantly predictive of VIQ, (ΔR2=0.028, p=0.015; ΔR2=0.046, p=0.002 respectively). INTERPRETATION Among typical children, repetitive timed tasks may be independent of IQ; however, sequenced tasks share more variance, implying shared neural substrates. Among neurologically vulnerable populations, however, both sequenced and repetitive movements covary with IQ, suggesting that repetitive speed is more indicative of underlying neurological integrity. PMID:20412260
There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones......, coastal areas inundated by rising seas, and many others. The Anti-Landscape examines the emergence of such sites, how they have been understood, and how some of them have been recovered for habitation. The anti-landscape refers both to artistic and literary representations and to specific places...... humanities. The Anti-Landscape provides an interdisciplinary approach that moves beyond the false duality of nature vs. culture, and beyond diagnosis and complaint to the recuperation of damaged sites into our complex heritage. Collection of essays based on a conference held at SDU in 2011....
This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...
Norazah Mohd Suki
This study aims to examine factors influencing customer satisfaction and trust towards vendors on the mobile Internet. Data were analysed among 200 respondents who completed the questionnaire by employing multiple regression analysis. Results revealed that customer satisfaction towards the vendor was significantly influenced by ease-of-use, responsiveness, and brand image. Meanwhile, customer trust towards the vendor in m-commerce is affected by responsiveness, brand image and...
(Abstract) The purpose of the present study was to examine factors related to university life satisfaction for students, and specifically to identify social skills related to satisfaction with peer relationships. Participants included 352 university students in their freshman or sophomore year that responded to a questionnaire. The results show that satisfaction with peer relationships is strongly related to more general university life satisfaction. It is also found that social skills requir...
Swarn Chatterjee; Jinhee Kim
This study uses a nationally representative sample of newly legalized immi-grants to the United States to investigate factors related to their financial and non-financial asset ownership. Our analysis examines the ownership of financial assets, homes, and businesses in association with human capital, acculturation, and other demographic variables. The results indicate that household income and English fluency are significant predictors of financial, housing and business asset ownership. Other...
Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Matthews, Derrick; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Introduction African American men often fail to obtain routine health examinations, which increases the probability of disease detection, yet little is known about psychosocial factors that motivate scheduling and receipt among this group. Methods We used the Andersen model and theory of reasoned action as frameworks to evaluate the relative contribution of psychosocial factors to self-reported routine health examination scheduling and receipt in a cross-sectional sample of African American men (N = 386) recruited from barbershops (65.3%) and academic institutions/events (34.7%) in Michigan, Georgia, and North Carolina between 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Participants completed measures assessing demographic factors, physical/mental health status, traditional male role norms, health-promoting male subjective norms, health value, and medical mistrust. Pearson's χ2, analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between these study factors and routine health examination scheduling and receipt in the past year. Results After final adjustment, the odds of scheduling a routine health examination were increased for men with a usual source of care (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 3.06-9.78) and more health-promoting male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.04). Higher medical mistrust (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76) and traditional male role norms (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98) reduced the odds of routine health examination receipt. The odds of routine health examination receipt were increased among men who were older (OR=1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), had a usual source of care (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.54-5.51) and reported more male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.02-2.22). Conclusions Improving African American men's uptake of routine health examinations will require addressing medical mistrust, mitigating traditional masculine concerns about disclosing vulnerability, and leveraging male social networks. PMID
Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Matthews, Derrick; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
African American men often fail to obtain routine health examinations, which increases the probability of disease detection, yet little is known about psychosocial factors that motivate scheduling and receipt among this group. We used the Andersen model and theory of reasoned action as frameworks to evaluate the relative contribution of psychosocial factors to self-reported routine health examination scheduling and receipt in a cross-sectional sample of African American men (N = 386) recruited from barbershops (65.3%) and academic institutions/events (34.7%) in Michigan, Georgia, and North Carolina between 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Participants completed measures assessing demographic factors, physical/mental health status, traditional male role norms, health-promoting male subjective norms, health value, and medical mistrust. Pearson's chi(2), analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between these study factors and routine health examination scheduling and receipt in the past year. After final adjustment, the odds of scheduling a routine health examination were increased for men with a usual source of care (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 3.06-9.78) and more health-promoting male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.04). Higher medical mistrust (OR, 0.26;; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76) and traditional male role norms (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98) reduced the odds of routine health examination receipt. The odds of routine health examination receipt were increased among men who were older (OR=1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), had a usual source of care (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.54-5.51) and reported more male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.02-2.22). Improving African American men's uptake of routine health examinations will require addressing medical mistrust, mitigating traditional masculine concerns about disclosing vulnerability, and leveraging male social networks.
Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida
This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. Natural resources emerge as feats of particular political and historical landscape configurations, rather than fixed dormant sediments waiting to be exploited. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...
Zakerian, Sa; Subramaniam, Id
With computers rapidly carving a niche in virtually every nook and crevice of today's fast-paced society, musculoskeletal disorders are becoming more prevalent among computer users, which comprise a wide spectrum of the Malaysian population, including office workers. While extant literature depicts extensive research on musculoskeletal disorders in general, the five dimensions of psychosocial work factors (job demands, job contentment, job control, computer-related problems and social interaction) attributed to work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been neglected. This study examines the aforementioned elements in detail, pertaining to their relationship with musculoskeletal disorders, focusing in particular, on 120 office workers at Malaysian public sector organizations, whose jobs require intensive computer usage. Research was conducted between March and July 2009 in public service organizations in Malaysia. This study was conducted via a survey utilizing self-complete questionnaires and diary. The relationship between psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal discomfort was ascertained through regression analyses, which revealed that some factors were more important than others were. The results indicate a significant relationship among psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal discomfort among computer users. Several of these factors such as job control, computer-related problem and social interaction of psychosocial work factors are found to be more important than others in musculoskeletal discomfort. With computer usage on the rise among users, the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort could lead to unnecessary disabilities, hence, the vital need for greater attention to be given on this aspect in the work place, to alleviate to some extent, potential problems in future.
Carolyn S. Dewa
Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders. For a significant portion of individuals who suffer from this disorder, onset occurs in young adulthood, arresting important social and educational development that is necessary for future successful labor force participation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about clients enrolled in first episode psychosis programs and psychosocial outcomes by examining the factors associated with paid employment among young adults who have experienced their first psychotic episodes. In this paper, we consider the association of socioeconomic factors to employment. Our results suggest that in addition to treatment, socioeconomic factors such as receipt of public disability benefits and educational attainment are associated with employment status. These results can help to inform future directions for the enhancement of psychosocial programs in FEP models to promote paid employment.
Full Text Available This paper tries to connect the successful implementation and operation of the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning information systems with people and their characteristics through a pilot survey. It examines the human factors that influence ERP user satisfaction. The presented survey tests 14 hypotheses and is based on the model developed by Zviran, Pliskin & Levin . An additional factor has been added to the specified model, the self-efficacy factor analyzed by Bandura . The results are based on 250 ERP users that responded to the survey. The key findings that were revealed by data analysis were that none of the human socio-demographic characteristics do influence ERP user satisfaction. Additionally it was found that perceived usefulness and self-efficacy are the key directors of the ERP user satisfaction. Moreover suggestions are given about how the companies should handle ERP usage in order to develop the prerequisites for increasing user satisfaction and productivity accordingly.
Full Text Available Migration and ethnic characteristics of the population, along with the general population trend, population density as well as the age, socioeconomic, racial and even gender structure of the population, have an impact on the transformation of cultural landscape of an area. It has been shown here on the example of the Dubrava district in Zagreb by analyzing the basic demographic indicators and their reflections on the visible space. A case study has been applied to explore the impact of Janjevci on a part of the Dubrava landscape, more precisely on one shopping street – Konjščinska Street. The research has shown that Dubrava, i.e. its “narrow” centre, was largely populated during the period from 1950 to 1970, and that the population growth was mostly influenced by immigration from other parts of Croatia, and from Bosnia-Herzegovina. Although the first immigrants left their mark on the landscape in which they had settled, so that it was possible earlier to identify the area in the parts with individual house building where different groups of immigrants lived, today this is almost or even completely unnoticed. A long-time co-existence and recent trends of copying in both construction and garden decoration have reduced or completely erased the differences in the cultural landscape. The effects that one ethnic group can have influence on a directly visible cultural landscape can be noticed only in the enormous, aesthetically, functionally and physiognomically substantially different houses in Konjščinska Street.
Gary I. Britton
Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that many of the clinical constructs used to help understand and explain obsessive-compulsive (OC symptoms, and negative mood, may be causally interrelated. One approach to understanding this interrelatedness is a motivational systems approach. This approach suggests that rather than considering clinical constructs and negative affect as separable entities, they are all features of an integrated threat management system, and as such are highly coordinated and interdependent. The aim of the present study was to examine if clinical constructs related to OC symptoms and negative mood are best treated as separable or, alternatively, if these clinical constructs and negative mood are best seen as indicators of an underlying superordinate variable, as would be predicted by a motivational systems approach. A sample of 370 student participants completed measures of mood and the clinical constructs of inflated responsibility, intolerance of uncertainty, not just right experiences, and checking stop rules. An exploratory factor analysis suggested two plausible factor structures, one where all construct items and negative mood items loaded onto one underlying superordinate variable, and a second structure comprising of five factors, where each item loaded onto a factor representative of what the item was originally intended to measure. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the five factor model was preferential to the one factor model, suggesting the four constructs and negative mood are best conceptualized as separate variables. Given the predictions of a motivational systems approach were not supported in the current study, other possible explanations for the causal interrelatedness between clinical constructs and negative mood are discussed.
Diniz, Maisa Reis; Sabadin, Patricia A; Leite, Fabiola P P; Kamizaki, Ricardo
The aim of this study was to research how stress and anxiety affected the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in 55 high school graduates at two different times: six months before and one the week before their college entrance examinations. The American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) Questionnaire, Lipp's Stress for Adults Inventory (ISSL) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate TMD, stress and anxiety, respectively. The data were submitted to Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests. At first the results showed higher positive correlation between anxiety and TMD than between stress and TMD. Out of the total participants, 36% had TMD, and of these, only 12.7% had no psychological disorder. One week before the tests there were high positive correlations between TMD and the psychological factors studied, and 50.9% of the students had TMD, of which only 9% had no psychological disorder The most prevalent signs of TMD symptomatology were joint sounds and headache, followed by neck pain. It was concluded that students preparing to take college entrance examinations are a potential risk group for developing TMD due to psychological factors generating anxiety and stress. Anxiety becomes more significant as the semester progresses, and both anxiety and stress increase as the examination dates approach.
Meng, X F; Liu, G M; Wang, X L; Xu, Q
Objective: To explore the incidence of carotid atherosclerosis in staffs of Tsinghua university according to the different age groups, the possible risk factors and conduct a follow-up survey. Methods: Detailed information about physical examination and carotid ultrasound from 832 staffs of Tsinghua University between 2014 to 2016 were reviewed to observe the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis according to different age groups; the correlation between conventional risk factors and carotid arteriosclerosis was studied by multivariate Logistic regression analysis.The process of different degrees of arteriosclerosis in the population was observed one year later. Results: In the past three years, there were 2 024 cases of carotid examination. Among them, there were 832 staffs who had been followed up for more than 6 months. There were 517 cases of carotid atherosclerosis, with 289 males (55.9%) and 228 females (44.1%), and the incidence of atherosclerosis in male was higher than that in female ( P 0.05). Conclusions: This research suggests that the incidence of atherosclerosis in male is higher than that in female, and hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia are important influencing factors of arteriosclerosis for staffs of Tsinghua University. Early screening, identification of high-risk patients and comprehensive treatment should be done to delay the process of atherosclerosis.In addition, long-term follow-up is necessary in the context of no significant changes within the short-term.
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Spivey, Christina A; Byrd, Debbie C; McDonough, Sharon L K; Phelps, Stephanie J
Objective. To examine the relationship between the NAPLEX and Pre-NAPLEX among pharmacy graduates, as well as determine effects of pre-pharmacy, pharmacy school, and demographic variables on NAPLEX performance. Methods. A retrospective review of pharmacy graduates' NAPLEX scores, Pre-NAPLEX scores, demographics, pre-pharmacy academic performance factors, and pharmacy school academic performance factors was performed. Bivariate (eg, ANOVA, independent samples t-test) and correlational analyses were conducted, as was stepwise linear regression to examine the significance of Pre-NAPLEX score and other factors as related to NAPLEX score. Results. One hundred fifty graduates were included, with the majority being female (60.7%) and white (72%). Mean NAPLEX score was 104.7. Mean Pre-NAPLEX score was 68.6. White students had significantly higher NAPLEX scores compared to Black/African American students. NAPLEX score was correlated to Pre-NAPLEX score, race/ethnicity, PCAT composite and section scores, undergraduate overall and science GPAs, pharmacy GPA, and on-time graduation. The regression model included pharmacy GPA and Pre-NAPLEX score. Conclusion. The findings provide evidence that, although pharmacy GPA is the most critical determinant, the Pre-NAPLEX score is also a significant predictor of NAPLEX score.
To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants' test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants' test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants' test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p study found some non-cognitive factors related to medical students' test anxiety on the OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs.
Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Tamayo, Brittney A
A large and growing body of research demonstrates the impact of psychological stress on working memory. However, the typical study approach tests the effects of a single biological or psychological factor on changes in working memory. The current study attempted to move beyond the standard single-factor assessment by examining the impact of 2 possible factors in stress-related working memory impairments. To this end, 60 participants completed a working memory task before and after either a psychological stressor writing task or a control writing task and completed measures of both cortisol and mind wandering. We also included a measure of state anxiety to examine the direct and indirect effect on working memory. We found that mind wandering mediated the relationship between state anxiety and working memory at the baseline measurement. This indirect relationship was moderated by cortisol, such that the impact of mind wandering on working memory increased as cortisol levels increased. No overall working memory impairment was observed following the stress manipulation, but increases in state anxiety and mind wandering were observed. State anxiety and mind wandering independently mediated the relationship between change in working memory and threat perception. The indirect paths resulted in opposing effects on working memory. Combined, the findings from this study suggest that cortisol enhances the impact of mind wandering on working memory, that state anxiety may not always result in stress-related working memory impairments, and that high working memory performance can protect against mind wandering. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Pride, C; Fawcett, A; Grassi, T; Jones, B
A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by veterinary practices across Australia, and to determine the risk factors involved; 1700 practices were asked to complete a veterinarian opinion survey, and of the 428 practices that responded, 178 were selected to complete an RSPCA Australia Pet Obesity Questionnaire, together with additional practices selected by Australian State and Territory RSPCA societies. This questionnaire was sent to a total of 209 practices which were asked to record details of eligible dogs, and the reason why they had been examined during the previous month. Fifty-two (24.9 per cent) of the practices responded and provided data on 2661 dogs, of which 892 (33.5 per cent) were overweight and 201 (7.6 per cent) were obese. A further 112 dogs (4.2 per cent) were classified as thin or very thin, but these were excluded from subsequent analyses. Of the remaining 2549 dogs, approximately half were female and 1905 (74.7 per cent) were neutered. The dogs' weight category was influenced by several factors. Breed influenced the importance of sex and neutering as risk factors. The prevalence of overweight and obese dogs combined was 41 per cent; the prevalence increased with age up to about 10 years old, and then declined. Rural and semirural dogs were more at risk of obesity than urban and suburban dogs.
Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida
has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...... analysis of shifting landscape projects and has an essential methodological corollary, namely that fieldwork must be improvisational, situated, and humble. Rather than finding the ‘right’ field materials for a canonical landscape history of Søby, we develop a method of ‘dustballing’ – being blown here...
García Cruz, C; Sánchez, H; Escobar Rodríguez, A; Ponce Saavedra, A S; Rodríguez Guzmán, L M
Determine the frequency of a breast self-examination (BSE), in health workers and the associated risk factors in its correct performance. From January 24 to February 24, 2000, a transversal analytical study was performed in the workers of the General Hospital Zone number 32, of the IMSS in Minatitlán, Veracruz. 106 women were included, who verbally accepted to participate in the study. A self-administered survey was applied which contained variables of the use and performance of the BSE, social demographic variables, information about BSE, and positive health attitudes and faces with breast cancer. A total of 92 (86.8%) of the workers have performed an BSE at least once in their life; 46.2% performed it adequately and 53.8% did not perform the technique adequately. The variables: profession, high social economical level, nulliparous after 25 years old, users of contraceptives, having visited a gynecologist for breast clinical examination, and if a family member recommended to perform a BSE, were related with the use adequately of BSE (p < 0.05). The frequency of the use of a breast self-examination is high, however, it is not performed adequately by the majority of the women studied. Its correct execution is associated with the following variables: medical background doctor or nurse, well informed about BSE, family support and a positive health attitude. It is necessary to perform educational interventions so that the breast self-examination can be performed correctly.
Ganesh, Gajalakshmi; U, Kavitha; B, Anandarajan; M, Chandrasekar
Introduction: Exam stress is a set of responses that includes excessive worry, depression, nervousness and irrelevant thinking to a class of stimuli from an individualâ€™s experience of assessment and outcome. The rationale of this study is to assess the examination related stress among the first year MBBS students by measuring BMI (body mass index) and VAS (VisualÂ analogue scale) as to determine the factors contributing to exam stress among first year medical students. Methods: The study w...
Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Richmond, Douglas S
Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "before and after" studies where species diversity is cataloged over time in the same sites. The current study examined changes in ant abundance and diversity associated with the conversion of natural habitats into urban habitats. Ant abundance and diversity were tracked in forested sites that became urbanized through construction and were examined at 3 time points - before, during, and after construction. On average, 4.3 ± 1.2 unique species were detected in undisturbed plots prior to construction. Ant diversity decreased to 0.7 ± 0.8 species in plots undergoing construction and 1.5 ± 1.1 species in plots 1 year after construction was completed. With regard to species richness, urbanization resulted in the permanent loss of 17 of the 20 species initially present in the study plots. Recovery was slow and only 3 species were present right after construction was completed and 4 species were present 1 year after construction was completed. The second objective examined ant fauna recovery in developed residential lots based on time since construction, neighboring habitat quality, pesticide inputs, and the presence of invasive ants. Ant diversity was positively correlated with factors that promoted ecological recovery and negatively correlated with factors that promoted ecological degradation. Taken together, these results address a critical gap in our knowledge by characterizing the short- and long-term the effects of urbanization on the loss of ant biodiversity.
Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "before and after" studies where species diversity is cataloged over time in the same sites. The current study examined changes in ant abundance and diversity associated with the conversion of natural habitats into urban habitats. Ant abundance and diversity were tracked in forested sites that became urbanized through construction and were examined at 3 time points - before, during, and after construction. On average, 4.3 ± 1.2 unique species were detected in undisturbed plots prior to construction. Ant diversity decreased to 0.7 ± 0.8 species in plots undergoing construction and 1.5 ± 1.1 species in plots 1 year after construction was completed. With regard to species richness, urbanization resulted in the permanent loss of 17 of the 20 species initially present in the study plots. Recovery was slow and only 3 species were present right after construction was completed and 4 species were present 1 year after construction was completed. The second objective examined ant fauna recovery in developed residential lots based on time since construction, neighboring habitat quality, pesticide inputs, and the presence of invasive ants. Ant diversity was positively correlated with factors that promoted ecological recovery and negatively correlated with factors that promoted ecological degradation. Taken together, these results address a critical gap in our knowledge by characterizing the short- and long-term the effects of urbanization on the loss of ant
Schlenz, Alyssa M; Schatz, Jeffrey; Roberts, Carla W
To examine biopsychosocial variables in relation to multiple pain features in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD). 76 children with SCD (M = 14.05, SD = 3.26), ages 8-19 years, and 70 caregivers completed measures of coping, mood, and family functioning and reported on multiple pain features via retrospective interviews during routine hematological visits. Sickle cell genotype and health care utilization were collected via medical record review. Using hierarchical regression, biological (genotype), child psychological (coping and mood), and social factors (caregiver coping and family functioning) were evaluated in relation to multiple pain features. Genotype was associated with pain intensity, and child psychological factors were associated with pain frequency. Multiple biopsychosocial factors were related to health care utilization. Biopsychosocial factors may have distinct relationships with pain features in pediatric SCD. Understanding these relationships may refine the biopsychosocial model and inform integrated medical and psychosocial approaches in SCD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mętrak Monika; Pawlikowski Paweł; Suska-Malawska Małgorzata
Small, astatic ponds are important features of post-glacial landscape, which support heterogeneity and biodiversity of agricultural areas. In the presented research we explored differences in hydrochemistry and plant cover of 20 small ponds located in Northeastern Poland, characterized by diverse age and developed in differently managed areas. According to our research, though changes in water level are under direct influence of water balance in the catchment, to which belonged the ponds, the...
Hrádek, Mojmír; Loučková, B.
Roč. 40, č. 2 (2009), s. 5-14 ISSN 0231-9365 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Zlatohorská vrchovina Upland * human inpacts * landscape structure * grassing * sediment deficient water * laterál erosion Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://geography.upol.cz/geographica-40-2
Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)
Miles A. Hemstrom; Janine Salwasser; Joshua Halofsky; Jimmy Kagan; Cyndi Comfort
The Integrated Landscape Assessment Project (ILAP) is a three-year effort that produces information, models, data, and tools to help land managers, policymakers, and others examine mid- to broad-scale (e.g., watersheds to states and larger areas) prioritization of land management actions, perform landscape assessments, and estimate potential effects of management...
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse
Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....
David C. Natcher
Full Text Available Although wildfire has been central to the ecological dynamics of Interior Alaska for 5000 yr, the role of humans in this dynamic is not well known. As a multidisciplinary research team, together with native community partners, we analyzed patterns of human-fire interaction in two contiguous areas of Interior Alaska occupied by different Athabaskan groups. The Koyukon in the western Interior considered fire a destructive force and had no recollection or oral history of using fire for landscape management. Low lightning-strike density and moist climate constrained the effects of lightning fires, and a subsistence dependence on salmon, a relatively predictable resource, resulted in a trilocal residency pattern. In this environment the occurrence of wildfire would have negatively impacted territorial use and the exploitation of wildlife resources. In contrast, the Gwich'in of the eastern Interior actively used fires to manage the landscape. The Gwich'in territory experienced a higher lightning-strike density and a corresponding increase in wildfire activity. The Gwich'in showed greater mobility in hunting moose and caribou, their less spatially predictable subsistence resources, which enabled them to avoid andor target a range of habitats affected by wildfires. The contrasts between these two neighboring Athabaskan groups indicate different uses and views of wildfire that are derived from their cultural adaptation to local biophysical and ecological settings. These findings call into question the commonly held view that native peoples of North America pervasively and near universally modified landscapes through the use of fire.
Yuen, Jonathan; Mila, Asimina
The study of plant disease epidemics at a landscape scale can be extended to allow for predictions about disease occurrence at this scale. Examined within the context of the disease triangle, systems developed to incorporate information primarily about the pathogen and conditions conducive to the infection process. Parametric methods can be used to relate environmental conditions to disease, and specifically relate environment to the inoculum production, the resulting infection process, or both. Aspects relating to the presence or absence of the host plant within the landscape, or patterns of the host within the landscape, are much rarer in disease prediction, although analyses incorporating these factors have been conducted. Predictive systems at the landscape scale may concentrate only on the conditions for infection or possible migratory paths of pathogen propagules. Incorporation of all components of the disease triangle may be one way to improve these systems.
Austin, Lynn D
The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific admissions criteria that are significantly correlated with a student's National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) total score and case-based score. Specifically, the study examined the relation between an individual's reading acuity and their scores on the NBDHE. Because of the competitive nature of most dental hygiene admissions, selecting those applicants who are more likely to be successful in the academic program and pass the NBDHE is critical. Total NBDHE scores and case-based scores of 214 students attending Western Kentucky University's Program of Dental Hygiene between 2002 and 2010 were examined to determine if significant correlations existed. Specific factors examined were each student's total NBDHE score, as well as the score on the case-based section of the examination, age, microbiology lecture grade, microbiology lab grade, anatomy and physiology grade, college GPA, English grade, psychology grade, composite ACT score and subcomponent scores of the ACT (math, reading, English and science). Results revealed that the strongest predictors of total NBDHE scores were the score on the reading portion of the ACT (r=0.715, r2=0.511, p=0.01) and the grades in Microbiology lecture (r=0.644, r2=0.414, p=0.01). Results revealed that the strongest predictors of scores on the case-based portion of the NBDHE were students' scores on the reading portion of the ACT (r=0.673, r2=0.452, p=0.01) and the microbiology lecture grade (r = .637, r2 = .405, p = 0.01). Traditionally, schools have looked at specific science-based pre-requisite courses as a means of determining admission to schools of dental hygiene. Findings from this study suggest that a broader approach may need to be taken, specifically as it concerns a student's reading aptitude.
Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.
Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.
Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform
Full Text Available Using inquiry has become a universal factor in science education, but teachers often face challenges in implementing inquiry-based learning (IBL because of, for instance, teachers’ low confidence in conducting inquiry or insufficient school resources. Much research has been conducted to identify the barriers that impede inquiry practice. However, most studies have employed small-scale qualitative methods from a single-country sample, and, thus, the effects of each factor on conducting inquiry in different educational systems have yet to be measured in one statistical model. Accordingly, this research was aimed to explore the extent to which various teacher- and school-factors have respectively affected teachers’ implementation of inquiry-based learning at lower secondary schools. To examine this issue, samples of 496 Finnish teachers in 135 lower secondary schools and 184 Korean teachers in 147 lower secondary schools were selected from the TIMSS 2011 science data set. The findings reveal that teachers’ confidence in teaching science and their collaboration to improve science teaching were strongly associated with facilitating inquiry in both countries, and these two factors’ positive effects on the implementation were partially derived from inquiry-related professional development in the Finnish sample. In addition, class size and school resources were also significantly related to inquiry practice in Finland, and the teachers’ education levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of inquiry practice in Korea. However, in both countries, the teachers’ emphasis on exams was indicated as a non-significant factor in predicting inquiry frequency. The results have implications in respect of the roles of professional development and school environment in increasing IBL practice in school science.
Walz, Lotta; Jönsson, Anna K.; Zilg, Brita; Östgren, Carl Johan; Druid, Henrik
Aims/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. Methods A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem. The forensic findings stored in the National Forensic Medicine Database were linked to nationwide registers. Cases that died due to confirmed hyperglycemia with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were identified and living controls with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were randomly selected in the Swedish prescribed drug register and matched on age and sex. Information on comorbidities, dispensed pharmaceuticals, clinical data and socioeconomic factors were obtained for cases and controls. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with fatal hyperglycaemia. Results During the study period 322 individuals, mostly males (79%) with the mean age of 53.9 years (SD.± 14) died due to confirmed hyperglycaemia. Risk factors for fatal hyperglycaemia included; insulin treatment (OR = 4.40; 95%CI,1.96, 9.85), poor glycaemic control (OR = 2.00 95%CI,1.23, 3.27), inadequate refill-adherence before death (OR = 3.87; 95%CI,1.99, 7.53), microvascular disease (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.84, 5.79), psychiatric illness (OR = 2.30; 95% CI,1.32, 4.01), substance abuse (OR = 8.85; 95%CI,2.34, 35.0) and/or living alone (OR = 2.25; 95%CI,1.21, 4.18). Conclusions/Interpretation Our results demonstrate the importance of clinical attention to poor glycaemic control in subjects with psychosocial problems since it may indicate serious non-adherence, which consequently could lead to fatal hyperglycaemia. PMID:27768720
Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E
This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Godwin S Ashiabi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health
Koppenhaver, Shane L; Walker, Michael J; Smith, Ryan W; Booker, Jacquelynn M; Walkup, Isaac D; Su, Jonathan; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Flynn, Timothy
Quasi-experimental. To explore for associations between demographic, patient history, and physical examination variables and short-term improvement in self-reported disability following dry needling therapy performed on individuals with low back pain (LBP). Dry needling is an intervention used with increasing frequency in patients with LBP; however, the characteristics of patients who are most likely to respond are not known. Seventy-two volunteers with mechanical LBP participated in the study. Potential prognostic factors were collected from baseline questionnaires, patient history, and physical examination tests. Treatment consisted of dry needling to the lumbar multifidus muscles bilaterally, administered during a single treatment session. Improvement was based on percent change on the Oswestry Disability Index at 1 week. The univariate and multivariate associations between 33 potential prognostic factors and improved disability were assessed with correlation coefficients and multivariate linear regression. Increased LBP with the multifidus lift test (rpb = 0.31, P = .01) or during passive hip flexion performed with the patient supine (rpb = 0.23, P = .06), as well as positive beliefs about acupuncture/dry needling (rho = 0.22, P = .07), demonstrated univariate associations with Oswestry Disability Index improvement. Aggravation of LBP with standing (rpb = -0.27, P = .03), presence of leg pain (rpb = -0.29, P = .02), and any perception of hypermobility in the lumbar spine (rpb = -0.21, P = .09) were associated with less improvement. The multivariate model identified 2 predictors of improved disability with dry needling: pain with the multifidus lift test and no aggravation with standing (R(2) = 0.16, P = .01). Increased LBP with the multifidus lift test was the strongest predictor of improved disability after dry needling, suggesting that the finding of pain during muscle contraction should be studied in future dry needling studies. Prognosis, level 1b.
Ashiabi, Godwin S.; O'Neal, Keri K.
Background We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b) material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c) parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. Methods and Results We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. Conclusions Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health would require a multi
Vaidya, Chatura; Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette
The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon's diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Sharma, Arun; Kumar, Dipanshu; Anand, Ashish; Mittal, Vipula; Singh, Aparna; Aggarwal, Nidhi
The aim of the present study was to identify the various background variables and its influence on behavior management problems (BMP) in children. The study included 165 children aged 2 to 8 years. During the initial dental visit, an experienced operator obtained each child's background variables from accompanying guardians using a standardized questionnaire. Children's dental behavior was rated by Frankel behavior rating scale. The behavior was then analyzed in relation to the answers of the questionnaire, and a logistic regression model was used to determine the power of the variables, separately or combined, to predict BMP. The logistic regression analysis considering differences in background variables between children with negative or positive behavior. Four variables turned out to be as predictors: Age, the guardian's expectation of the child's behavior at the dental examination, the child's anxiety when meeting unfamiliar people, and the presence and absence of toothache. The present study concluded that by means of simple questionnaire BMP in children may be expected if one of these attributes is found. Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient prior to treatment process may help the pediatric dentist plan appropriate behavior management and treatment strategy. Sharma A, Kumar D, Anand A, Mittal V, Singh A, Aggarwal N. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):5-9.
Austin, Erica Weintraub; Muldrow, Adrienne; Austin, Bruce W
To examine the potential effectiveness of media literacy education in the context of well-established personality factors, a survey of 472 young adults, focused on the issue of alcohol marketing messages, examined how individual differences in personality associate with constructs representing aspects of media literacy. The results showed that need for cognition predicted social expectancies and wishful identification with media portrayals in alcohol advertising only through critical thinking about media sources and media content, which are foci of media literacy education. Need for affect did not associate with increased or diminished levels of critical thinking. Critical thinking about sources and messages affected skepticism, represented by expectancies through wishful identification, consistent with the message interpretation process model. The results support the view that critical thinking about media sources is an important precursor to critical thinking about media messages. The results also suggest that critical thinking about media (i.e., media literacy) reflects more than personality characteristics and can affect wishful identification with role models observed in media, which appears to be a key influence on decision making. This adds support to the view that media literacy education can improve decision making across personality types regarding alcohol use by decreasing the potential influence of alcohol marketing messages.
Gender differences in middle school science were examined utilizing a mixed-methods approach. The intrinsic and extrinsic experiences of male and female non-gifted high-achieving students were investigated through the administration of the CAIMI, student interviews, teacher questionnaires, observations, and document examination. Male and female students were selected from a rural Northeast Georgia school district based on their high performance and high growth during middle school science. Eighty-three percent of the student participants were white and 17% were Hispanic. Half of the male participants and one third of the female participants were eligible for free and reduced meals. Findings revealed that male participants were highly motivated, whereas female participants exhibited varying levels of motivation in science. Both male and female students identified similar instructional strategies as external factors that were beneficial to their success. Due to their selection by both genders, these instructional strategies were considered to be gender-neutral and thereby useful for inclusion within coeducational middle school science classrooms.
Loggins, Shondra; Alston, Reginald; Lewis, Allen
Examine the relationship between race, use of assistive technology (AT), gender, educational attainment, income, employment status and access to health care. Data were analyzed from the national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) collected in USA in 2007. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Among those who used AT, more European Americans (EAs) were educated, employed, made >$25,000 per year and had better access to health coverage. In contrast, more African Americans (AAs) who used AT were less educated, unemployed, made predictive factors. AAs were 29% more likely to use AT compared to EAs. For EAs and AAs, predictors for use of AT were age, gender, education, employment status, income, health coverage and medical costs. Racial differences between AAs and EAs were observed in the use of AT by persons with physical disabilities based on age, gender, education, employment status, income levels, health care coverage and medical costs. Even though EAs and AAs had the same predictors, there were racial differences in the magnitude of the predictors.
Sarah A. Richmond
Full Text Available Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n=1,040 at the ages of 11–15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese were created using validated international (BMI and national (WC cut-off points. A Poisson regression analysis controlling for relevant covariates (sex, previous injury, sport participation, intervention group, and aerobic fitness level estimated the risk of sport injury [incidence rate ratios (IRR with 95% confidence intervals (CI]. Results. There was an increased risk of time loss injury (IRR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.01–8.04 and knee injury (IRR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00–6.94 in adolescents that were overweight/obese; however, increases in injury risk for all injury and lower extremity injury were not statistically significant. Estimates suggested a greater risk of time loss injury [IRR = 1.63 (95% CI: 0.93–2.47] in adolescents with high measures of WC. Conclusions. There is an increased risk of time loss injury and knee injury in overweight/obese adolescents. Sport injury prevention training programs should include strategies that target all known risk factors for injury.
Wang, S.; Huang, G. H.; Baetz, B. W.; Cai, X. M.; Ancell, B. C.; Fan, Y. R.
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is recognized as a powerful data assimilation technique that generates an ensemble of model variables through stochastic perturbations of forcing data and observations. However, relatively little guidance exists with regard to the proper specification of the magnitude of the perturbation and the ensemble size, posing a significant challenge in optimally implementing the EnKF. This paper presents a robust data assimilation system (RDAS), in which a multi-factorial design of the EnKF experiments is first proposed for hydrologic ensemble predictions. A multi-way analysis of variance is then used to examine potential interactions among factors affecting the EnKF experiments, achieving optimality of the RDAS with maximized performance of hydrologic predictions. The RDAS is applied to the Xiangxi River watershed which is the most representative watershed in China's Three Gorges Reservoir region to demonstrate its validity and applicability. Results reveal that the pairwise interaction between perturbed precipitation and streamflow observations has the most significant impact on the performance of the EnKF system, and their interactions vary dynamically across different settings of the ensemble size and the evapotranspiration perturbation. In addition, the interactions among experimental factors vary greatly in magnitude and direction depending on different statistical metrics for model evaluation including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and the Box-Cox transformed root-mean-square error. It is thus necessary to test various evaluation metrics in order to enhance the robustness of hydrologic prediction systems.
Arathuzik, D; Aber, C
Identification of factors associated with National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) success is critical at public colleges of nursing with diverse student populations. This issue was the purpose of this research study. A descriptive correlational research design was used. Seventy-nine generic senior students enrolled in an urban public university participated in the study. Several internal and external blocks to success were described by the students, including family responsibilities, emotional distress, fatigue, and financial and work burdens. Significant correlations were found between success in the NCLEX-RN and cumulative undergraduate nursing program grade point average, English as the primary language spoken at home, lack of family responsibilities or demands, lack of emotional distress, and sense of competency in critical thinking. Establishment of a comprehensive data base-including factors associated with success in the NCLEX-RN and programs of advisement, tutoring, and stress management as well as classes in study skills, test taking, and NCLEX preparation-are recommended for public colleges of nursing with diverse student populations.
Seguin, Rebecca A; Economos, Christina D; Palombo, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E
Despite the recognized health benefits, few older women participate in strength-training exercises. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to older women's adherence to strength training after participation in the StrongWomen Program, a nationally disseminated community program. Adherence was defined as > or =4 months of twice-weekly strength training. Surveys were sent to 970 program participants from 23 states and to participants' corresponding program leaders. Five-hundred fifty-seven participants responded (57%). Of respondents who completed surveys (527), 79% (415) adhered to strength training; adherers reported a mean of 14.1 +/- 9.1 months of strength training. Logistic-regression analysis revealed that exercise adherence was positively associated with age (p = .001), higher lifetime physical activity levels (p = .045), better perceived health (p = .003), leader's sports participation (p = .028), and leader's prior experience leading programs (p = .006). These data lend insight to factors that may be related to exercise adherence among midlife and older women.
De la Mora, Aldo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Lachaud, Jean-Paul; Philpott, Stacy M
Parasitism of ants that nest in rotting wood by eucharitid wasps was studied in order to examine whether habitat and season influence ant parasitism, vegetation complexity and agrochemical use correlate with ant parasitism, and whether specific local and landscape features of agricultural landscapes correlate with changes in ant parasitism. In a coffee landscape, 30 coffee and 10 forest sites were selected in which local management (e.g., vegetation, agrochemical use) and landscape features (e.g., distance to forest, percent of rustic coffee nearby) were characterized. Rotten logs were sampled and ant cocoons were collected from logs and cocoons were monitored for parasitoid emergence. Sixteen ant morphospecies in three ant subfamilies (Ectatomminae, Ponerinae, and Formicinae) were found. Seven ant species parasitized by two genera of Eucharitidae parasitoids (Kapala and Obeza) were reported and some ant-eucharitid associations were new. According to evaluated metrics, parasitism did not differ with habitat (forest, high-shade coffee, low-shade coffee), but did increase in the dry season for Gnamptogenys ants. Parasitism increased with vegetation complexity for Gnamptogenys and Pachycondyla and was high in sites with both high and low agrochemical use. Two landscape variables and two local factors positively correlated with parasitism for some ant genera and species. Thus, differences in vegetation complexity at the local and landscape scale and agrochemical use in coffee landscapes alter ecological interactions between parasitoids and their ant hosts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...
The Rebuild America program was established in 1994 to accelerate the adoption of energy efficiency measures and practices in existing public facilities, commercial buildings, and multifamily housing units. More recently, the program has expanded to include new construction as well. The program encourages the formation of partnerships involving state and local governments, private businesses, and other organizations to help identify and solve problems related to energy use in buildings. Rebuild America does not directly fund actual building improvements. Instead, it provides the Rebuild Partners with the technical tools and assistance they need to plan and implement building projects and stimulates other entities to make substantial investments in energy efficiency. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied the Rebuild America program for the purpose of identifying key factors associated with successful operations. Substantial amounts of data were collected directly from Rebuild America partnerships concerning the results achieved by each of their individual projects, both committed and completed. In addition, data were collected from secondary sources on a limited number of factors describing partnership setting and characteristics. By combining these two data sets, we were able to perform statistical analyses testing the potential relationship between each partnership characteristic and each of four key results measures. The influences on successful partnership performance also were determined in another way, which allowed a broader examination of potentially important factors. Telephone interviews were conducted with representatives from 61 high-performing Rebuild America partnerships throughout the United States. The respondents were asked to identify the most important factors influencing good performance and the types of Rebuild America products
Meredith Jane Kuipers
Full Text Available Background: In Ethiopia, improvement and innovation of the emergency care system is hindered by lack of specialist doctors trained in emergency medicine, underdeveloped emergency care infrastructure, and consumable resource limitations. Our aim was to examine the critical factors affecting retention of graduates from the Addis Ababa University (AAU post-graduate emergency medicine (EM training program within the Ethiopian health care system. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with current AAU EM residents and stakeholders in Ethiopian EM. Mixed-methods inductive thematic analysis was performed. Results: Resident and stakeholder participants identified critical factors in three domains: the individual condition, the occupational environment, and the national context. Within each domain, priority themes emerged from the responses, including the importance of career satisfaction over the career continuum (individual condition, the opportunity to be involved in the developing EM program and challenges associated with resource, economic, and employment constraints (occupational environment, and perceptions regarding the state of awareness of EM and the capacity for change at the societal level (national context. Conclusions: This work underscores the need to resolve multiple systemic and cultural issues within the Ethiopian health care landscape in order to address EM graduate retention. It also highlights the potential success of a retention strategy focused on the career ambitions of keen EM doctors.
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina
Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...
Pillsbury, Finn C; Miller, James R
Urbanization has been cited as an important factor in worldwide amphibian declines, and although recent work has illustrated the important influence of broad-scale ecological patterns and processes on amphibian populations, little is known about the factors structuring amphibian communities in urban landscapes. We therefore examined amphibian community responses to wetland habitat availability and landscape characteristics along an urban-rural gradient in central Iowa, USA, a region experiencing rapid suburban growth. We conducted call surveys at 61 wetlands to estimate anuran calling activity, and quantified wetland habitat structure and landscape context. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to examine patterns in anuran community structure and identify the most important variables associated with those patterns. Urban density at the landscape scale had a significant negative influence on overall anuran abundance and diversity. While every species exhibited a decrease in abundance with increasing urban density, this pattern was especially pronounced for species requiring post-breeding upland habitats. Anurans most affected by urbanization were those associated with short hydroperiods, early breeding activity, and substantial upland habitat use. We suggest that broad-scale landscape fragmentation is an important factor underlying anuran community structure in this region, possibly due to limitations on the accessibility of otherwise suitable habitat in fragmented urban landscapes. This study underscores the importance of a regional approach to amphibian conservation in urban and urbanizing areas; in fragmented landscapes, a network of interconnected wetland and upland habitats may be more likely to support a successful, diverse anuran community than will isolated sites.
Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen
Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat
Berner, Laura A; Arigo, Danielle; Mayer, Laurel Es; Sarwer, David B; Lowe, Michael R
Elevated body mass index (BMI), higher waist-to-hip ratio, and body dissatisfaction have been investigated as risk factors for the development of bulimic symptoms. Central fat deposition may be particularly relevant to eating disorders. To our knowledge, the longitudinal relations between fat distribution, body dissatisfaction, and loss-of-control (LOC) eating development and maintenance have not been studied. We examined body fat distribution, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms, as a unique correlate and predictor of body dissatisfaction and LOC eating cross-sectionally and over a 2-y follow-up. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 294 adult women at risk of weight gain at baseline, 6 mo, and 24 mo. We assessed LOC eating, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms at baseline, 6 wk, 6 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo by using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Interview, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales Body Areas Satisfaction subscale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, respectively. Independent of BMI, baseline total percentage body fat, percentage trunk fat, and percentage abdominal fat were related to greater body dissatisfaction. Total percentage body fat and trunk fat tended to be associated with greater body dissatisfaction at all subsequent time points. Women with a greater percentage trunk fat, specifically abdominal fat, were at highest risk of developing LOC eating. In the full sample, women with higher baseline percentage trunk and abdominal fat showed increases in LOC eating episode frequency over time, whereas LOC eating frequency remained stable among women with smaller percentages of fat in trunk and abdominal regions. These findings lend further support to the premise that increased central body fat deposition is associated with body image dissatisfaction and suggest that it may represent a risk and maintenance factor for LOC eating. This trial was
Marilyn O’Hara Ruiz
Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmission using a combination of clustering, generalised linear modelling and descriptive evaluations of a risk map of predicted cases of CWD. A species distribution map of white-tailed deer developed using MaxEnt provided an estimate of deer locations. We found that deer probability increased in areas with larger forests and less urban and agricultural lands. Spatial clustering analysis revealed a core area of persistent CWD transmission in the northern part of the region. The regression model indicated that larger and more compact forests were associated with higher risk for CWD. High risk areas also had soils with less clay and more sand than other parts of the region. The transmission potential was higher where landscape features indicated the potential for higher deer concentrations. The inclusion of spatial lag variables improved the model. Of the 102 cases reported in the study area in the two years following the study period, 89 (87% of those were in the 32% of the study area with the highest 50% of predicted risk of cases.
Komissarova, Olga; Paramonova, Tatiana
One of the notable lessons obtained from nuclear accidents could be revealing the general features of 137Cs root uptake by agricultural crops for prediction the radionuclide accumulation in plants and its further distribution via food chains. Transfer factors (TFs) (the ratio of 137Cs activities in vegetation and in soil) have become a basis for such assessment when the characteristics of radioactive contamination, soil properties and phylogenetic features of different plant taxons important for root uptake are known. For the sake of simplicity the concept of conversion factor (CF) was accepted by IAEA (2006) to obtain unknown value of TF from the TF value of the reference crop cultivated on the same soil. Cereals were selected like reference group of agricultural crops. Presuming TF for cereals equal 1, CFs for tubers and fodder leguminous are 4, for grasses - 4.5, for leafy vegetables - 9, ets. To verify TFs and corresponding CFs values under environmental conditions of post-Chernobyl agricultural landscape the study in the area of Plavsky radioactive hotspot (Tula region, Russia) was conducted. Nowadays, after 30 years after the Chernobyl accident ( the first half-life period of 137Cs), arable chernozems of the territory are still polluted at the level 126-282 kBq/m2. The main crops of field rotation: wheat and barley (cereals), potatoes (tubers), soybean (leguminous), amaranth (non-leafy vegetables), rape ("other crops"), as well as galega-bromegrass mixture (cultivated species of grasses) and pasture grasses of semi-natural dry and wet meadows have been studied. Accumulation parameters of 137Cs in aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and edible parts of the plants were examined separately. Experimentally obtained 137Cs TFs in cereals are 0.24-0.32 for total biomass, 0.07-0.14 for aerial parts, 0.54-0.64 for roots and 0.01-0.02 for grain. Thus, (i) 137Cs transfer in grain of wheat and barley is insignificant and (ii) corresponding TFs values in both crops
Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael
The emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens resistant to medical treatment will present a challenge to the international public health community in the coming decades. Geography is uniquely positioned to examine the progressive evolution of pathogens across space and through time, and to link molecular change to interactions between population and environmental drivers. Landscape as an organizing principle for the integration of natural and cultural forces has a long history in geography, and, more specifically, in medical geography. Here, we explore the role of landscape in medical geography, the emergent field of landscape genetics, and the great potential that exists in the combination of these two disciplines. We argue that landscape genetics can enhance medical geographic studies of local-level disease environments with quantitative tests of how human-environment interactions influence pathogenic characteristics. In turn, such analyses can expand theories of disease diffusion to the molecular scale and distinguish the important factors in ecologies of disease that drive genetic change of pathogens. PMID:24558292
Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael
The emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens resistant to medical treatment will present a challenge to the international public health community in the coming decades. Geography is uniquely positioned to examine the progressive evolution of pathogens across space and through time, and to link molecular change to interactions between population and environmental drivers. Landscape as an organizing principle for the integration of natural and cultural forces has a long history in geography, and, more specifically, in medical geography. Here, we explore the role of landscape in medical geography, the emergent field of landscape genetics, and the great potential that exists in the combination of these two disciplines. We argue that landscape genetics can enhance medical geographic studies of local-level disease environments with quantitative tests of how human-environment interactions influence pathogenic characteristics. In turn, such analyses can expand theories of disease diffusion to the molecular scale and distinguish the important factors in ecologies of disease that drive genetic change of pathogens.
Maldonado-Rivera, Jose Gabriel
The factors affecting the teaching and learning of evolution were examined in the public schools of Puerto Rico. The study explored (1) the extent and nature of evolution education; (2) the role of teacher's attitudes, knowledge and beliefs in the teaching of evolution; (3) the nature and sources of student misconceptions; and (4) the extent to which conceptual change teaching can induce changes in these misconceptions. Questionnaires, interviews, and an experimental intervention were used to ascertain the factors affecting the teaching and learning of evolution. Among the study's major findings: (1) While evolution is present in the official curriculum, it is not treated as a central unifying theme. (2) In actual teaching evolution is completely neglected. (3) This neglect is due to several factors including: the religious beliefs of teachers; deficient pre-service training in particular poor training in history and philosophy of science, and deficient content and methods knowledge. (4) Students possess a wide variety of misconceptions about evolutionary theory. While some of these are ascribable to religion, many are related to other aspects of student affect, knowledge and cognition, including: (a) a misunderstanding of the nature of science; (b) methodological, epistemological and ontological commitments which difficultate comprehension; (c) the distorting influence of an anthropocentric, urban experience; (d) deficiencies in prior knowledge; and (e) an ahistoric worldview. (5) Conceptual change teaching was found to be more effective in transforming student views towards more scientific ones, than traditional didactic instruction. Conceptual change instruction: (a) increased the explanatory repertoire of students; (b) promoted greater changes towards more scientific conceptions; (c) increased student acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory, and (d) induced more students to incorporate evolution in their explanations of biological phenomena. These
Aylaz, Rukuye; Aktürk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice; Öztürk, Hatice; Aslan, Hakime
This study was planned and conducted for the purpose of examining the relationship between depression and loneliness in elderly people and the influencing factors. The study was a descriptive and correlational study and its population consisted of 17,080 older individuals aged sixty and over who were registered at six Family Healthcare Centers (FHCs) located in the provisional center of Malatya. The sample of the study comprised of 913 elderly people who were chosen from the elderly people registered at the FHCs first by cluster sampling and then by simple random sampling from the clusters in proportion to the population. The data was collected between April and June 2011 using a questionnaire developed by the investigators in line with the literature, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS). They had a mean score of 13.83 ± 7.4 from the GDS and 40.50 ± 12.1 from the ULS. A positive correlation was found between Geriatric Depression and loneliness (r=0.608, ploneliness and depression in the elderly people living in a community, presence of social security and higher income, on the other hand, led to lower mean scores. In view of these results, it can be advised that a minimum income should be secured for elderly people whether they have social security or not, their families and the society should be trained not to leave elderly people alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Although many homebound older adults cope well using various resources, including religious coping strategies, some experience prolonged and unresolved psychosocial distress resulting in biological disruptions, such as hypercortisolism and increased inflammation, which are suggested mechanisms of decreased executive function. Purpose: To examine relationships of religious coping, psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, salivary biomarkers (cortisol, C-reactive protein (CRP, Interleukin-1β, and executive function. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 older adults (mean age 75.3. Religious coping, stress, depression, loneliness, and cognitive function were measured with standardized instruments, and saliva samples were collected for salivary cortisol, CRP, and IL-1β. Results: Negative religious coping significantly and positively correlated with stress, depression, and loneliness (r = 0.46, r = 0.21, r = 0.47, all p < 0.05; positive religious coping significantly and negatively correlated with depression and loneliness (r = −0.29, r = −0.23, both p < 0.05; and greater loneliness significantly predicted greater CRP (p < 0.05. For executive function, IL-1β showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.23, p = < 0.05. Discussion: Our findings fill gaps related to biobehavioral interactions of religious coping and cognitive health in the aging population. Future research should include additional psychosocial and biobehavioral variables in larger samples of diverse and vulnerable populations. Collective findings may be able to identify particularly vulnerable subgroups of population, ultimately with tailored interventions to prevent cognitive decline.
Scogin, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
Thermogravimetric analysis of a solid sample with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) of the evolved gas is used in the destructive examination (DE) portion of the Integrated Surveillance Program to quantify the moisture content of the material stored in a 3013 container. As with any measurement determined from a small sample, the collection, storage, transportation, and handling of the sample can affect its ability to represent the properties of the bulk material. During the course of the DE program, questions have periodically arisen concerning the ability of the moisture sample to reflect reliably the actual moisture content of the entire material stored in the 3013 container. Most concerns are related to the ability to collect a representative sample and to preserve the moisture content of the sample between collection and analysis. Recent delays in analysis caused by maintenance issues with the TGA-MS instrument presented a unique opportunity to document and quantify the effects various factors have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. This report will use recent data to document the effects that current sample collection and handling practices have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. Some suggestions will be made which could improve the current sample collection and handling practices for the TGA-MS moisture measurement so that the analytical results more accurately reflect the moisture content of the material stored in the 3013 container.
Jiang, Qiaolei; Huang, Xiuqin; Tao, Ran
In China, public concern continues to mount regarding the risks of excessive Internet use among adolescents. This study investigated the factors influencing Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors among excessive Internet users. Proposing a conceptual model with a theoretical origin in risk behavior theory and media dependency theory, this study examined the influence of personality traits, online gaming, Internet connectedness (both the overall index and various scopes), and demographics on Internet addiction and risk behaviors (smoking, drinking, gambling, and risky sexual behaviors). Clinical data (N = 467) were retrieved from one of the earliest and largest Internet addiction clinics in China. The findings reveal that certain personality traits are significantly associated with Internet addiction and risk behaviors. Online gaming had a strong impact on both Internet addiction and risk behaviors among excessive Internet users. The study also reveals that various scopes of Internet connectedness, such as site scope, facilitate addictive Internet use, and risk behaviors among adolescents. The findings can contribute to the prevention of and intervention into Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors.
Full Text Available Examining the interrelationships among critical success factors (CSFs for public private partnership (PPP projects is of importance for improving PPP project performance and maintaining the sustainability of PPP project implementation. Previous studies mostly focused on the identification of the CSFs for PPP projects; limited studies investigated the interrelationships among CSFs. Hence, the research objectives are (a to determine the interrelationships among CSFs of PPP projects taking into account the public and (b to identify influence paths contributing to take advantage of CSFs in the process of PPP implementation. A literature review and expert interviews were adopted to construct the CSFs framework; nine hypotheses were constructed and tested by the structural equation modelling (SEM based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey. This research reveals that the relationship between public and private partners is the leader-follower relationship, not the partnership relationship, in PPP projects, indicating that the responsibilities, power or resources existing among partners are very unequal. It also highlights that public involvement has a negative effect on the process of service provisions, and costs and risks exist in the process of public involvement in PPP projects. The determined interrelationships among CSFs will contribute to the sustainability and success of a PPP project.
Ross, Scott R; Kendall, Anna C; Matters, Kasee G; Wrobel, Thomas A; Rye, Mark S
In a sample composed of 147 undergraduates (age range 18 to 55 years; M = 22), we conducted an examination of the convergent and discriminant validity of self- and other-forgiveness in the Five-factor model of personality (FFM). Using multiple measures of each construct, principal components analysis (PCA) supported a 2-component model of forgiveness. Findings for the PCA and external correlates with the FFM provided evidence for a largely orthogonal relationship between self- and other-forgiveness. Specifically, self-forgiveness was negatively related to Neuroticism and unrelated to Agreeableness, whereas other-forgiveness was unrelated to Neuroticism and positively related to Agreeableness. Overlap between the constructs was found in which both self- and other-forgiveness were negatively related to the hostility facet of Neuroticism and the order facet from Conscientiousness and positively related to the warmth and positive emotions facet scales from the Extraversion domain of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Overall, these findings suggest that self- and other-forgiveness, although seemingly similar, carry very different motivational underpinnings.
Barrett, Barbara; Tyrer, Peter; Tyrer, Helen; Cooper, Sylvia; Crawford, Mike J; Byford, Sarah
To measure and document the total service cost of patients with health anxiety and to investigate the statistical association between costs and patient characteristics, levels of anxiety and other clinical characteristics. Data on services used by 444 people with high health anxiety from five types of secondary care medical outpatient clinics were collected in interview with patients by self-report for the preceding six months. Costs associated with these services were calculated and personal and clinical factors associated with these costs were explored. Mean total costs over six months were £2976 per participant and ranged from £146 to £25,200. The regression model found higher costs were significantly associated with poorer social functioning and self-reported health-related quality of life. No statistical association was found between severity of health anxiety and cost, and generalised anxiety was inversely related. The findings suggest that a re-examination of the simple causative relationship between health anxiety and cost in the health anxious is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape, by considering various stakeholder perspectives. It is now recognized that strong community engagement with the landscape should be translated into conservation and management practices. This paper aims to examine the recent conservation activities around endangered traditional rural landscapes in Korea through a case study of Gacheon village. In this village, since 2000, a series of central administrative measures have been implemented to revive the local community, and to conserve its distinctive landscape. By analyzing challenges to the site, by discussing conservation experience and lessons, and by recommending future strategies for sustaining its cultural landscapes, this paper is expected to provide a basis for future policy-making for safeguarding traditional rural landscapes.
Kasparian, Nadine A; Bränström, Richard; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tibben, Aad; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Debniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmanski, Slawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A; Leachman, Sancy; Bergman, Wilma; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne
To examine the frequency and correlates of skin examination behaviors in an international sample of individuals at varying risk of developing melanoma. A cross-sectional, web-based survey. Data were collected from the general population over a 20-month period on behalf of the Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL). A total of 8178 adults from Northern (32%), Central (33%), and Southern (14%) Europe, Australia (13%), and the United States (8%). Self-reported frequency of skin self-examination (SSE) and clinical skin examination (CSE). After adjustment for age and sex, frequency of skin examination was higher in both Australia (odds ratio [OR]SSE=1.80 [99% CI, 1.49-2.18]; ORCSE=2.68 [99% CI, 2.23-3.23]) and the United States (ORSSE=2.28 [99% CI, 1.76-2.94]; ORCSE=3.39 [99% CI, 2.60-4.18]) than in the 3 European regions combined. Within Europe, participants from Southern Europe reported higher rates of SSE than those in Northern Europe (ORSSE=1.61 [99% CI, 1.31-1.97]), and frequency of CSE was higher in both Central (ORCSE=1.47 [99% CI, 1.22-1.78]) and Southern Europe (ORCSE=3.46 [99% CI, 2.78, 4.31]) than in Northern Europe. Skin examination behavior also varied according to melanoma history: participants with no history of melanoma reported the lowest levels of skin examination, while participants with a previous melanoma diagnosis reported the highest levels. After adjustment for region, and taking into account the role of age, sex, skin type, and mole count, engagement in SSE and CSE was associated with a range of psychosocial factors, including perceived risk of developing melanoma; perceived benefits of, and barriers to, skin examination; perceived confidence in one's ability to engage in screening; and social norms. In addition, among those with no history of melanoma, higher cancer-related worry was associated with greater frequency of SSE. Given the strong association between psychosocial factors and skin examination behaviors, particularly among people with
Vejre, Henrik; Brandt, Jesper
Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring o...... of the countryside. The values of the Danish landscape pertain mainly to the coastal landscapes. The threats include the industrilization of the agricultural landsclaes and,in places urban sprawl.......Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...
Amorim-Vaz, Sara; Delarze, Eric; Ischer, Françoise; Sanglard, Dominique; Coste, Alix T
The aim of the present study was to identify Candida albicans transcription factors (TFs) involved in virulence. Although mice are considered the gold-standard model to study fungal virulence, mini-host infection models have been increasingly used. Here, barcoded TF mutants were first screened in mice by pools of strains and fungal burdens (FBs) quantified in kidneys. Mutants of unannotated genes which generated a kidney FB significantly different from that of wild-type were selected and individually examined in Galleria mellonella. In addition, mutants that could not be detected in mice were also tested in G. mellonella. Only 25% of these mutants displayed matching phenotypes in both hosts, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the two models. To address the basis of this difference (pool or host effects), a set of 19 mutants tested in G. mellonella were also injected individually into mice. Matching FB phenotypes were observed in 50% of the cases, highlighting the bias due to host effects. In contrast, 33.4% concordance was observed between pool and single strain infections in mice, thereby highlighting the bias introduced by the "pool effect." After filtering the results obtained from the two infection models, mutants for MBF1 and ZCF6 were selected. Independent marker-free mutants were subsequently tested in both hosts to validate previous results. The MBF1 mutant showed impaired infection in both models, while the ZCF6 mutant was only significant in mice infections. The two mutants showed no obvious in vitro phenotypes compared with the wild-type, indicating that these genes might be specifically involved in in vivo adapt.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify C. albicans transcription factors (TF involved in virulence. Although mice are considered the gold-standard model to study fungal virulence, mini-host infection models have been increasingly used. Here, barcoded TF mutants were first screened in mice by pools of strains and fungal burdens quantified in kidneys. Mutants of unannotated genes which generated a kidney fungal burden significantly different from that of wild-type were selected and individually examined in G. mellonella. In addition, mutants that could not be detected in mice were also tested in G. mellonella. Only 25 % of these mutants displayed matching phenotypes in both hosts, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the two models. To address the basis of this difference (pool or host effects, a set of 19 mutants tested in G. mellonella were also injected individually into mice. Matching fungal burden phenotypes were observed in 50 % of the cases, highlighting the bias due to host effects. In contrast, 33.4 % concordance was observed between pool and single strain infections in mice, thereby highlighting the bias introduced by the pool effect. After filtering the results obtained from the two infection models, mutants for MBF1 and ZCF6 were selected. Independent marker-free mutants were subsequently tested in both hosts to validate previous results. The MBF1 mutant showed impaired infection in both models, while the ZCF6 mutant was only significant in mice infections. The two mutants showed no obvious in vitro phenotypes compared with the wild-type, indicating that these genes might be specifically involved in in vivo adaptation.
Porta, Carolyn M; Mathiason, Michelle A; Lust, Katherine; Eisenberg, Marla E
Sexual violence incidents involving college students have received media attention and increased awareness of this public health problem in the United States; prevention efforts are needed that target potential perpetrators. We examined characteristics of self-reported perpetrators of sexual violence on campuses. This study used a secondary data analysis of the 2015 College Student Health Survey, an annual survey, which was completed by students attending 17 colleges/universities in Minnesota. The analytic sample included 6,548 18-to 24-year-old college students who answered at least one of two questions assessing perpetration in the past 12 months (i.e., sex/sexual touch without consent). Chi-square tests were used to detect associations between perpetration and individual (e.g., age, race, substance use, victimization) and institutional (e.g., school type, location) level characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified predictive models for being a perpetrator of sexual violence. Fifty-two students reported perpetration of sexual violence in the past year, including 29 rapes. Overall, self-reported perpetrators of sexual violence are more likely to be men, to have been a victim in his or her lifetime, to have smoked marijuana in the past 12 months (but not the past month), and to be younger (18 or 19 years old). Institutional level characteristics, including school type and location, did not yield significant associations with perpetration. Sexual violence prevention and response efforts toward college students need to be inclusive, especially targeting individual level factors, and considerate of the victimization-perpetration comorbidity experienced by many students.
Michael S. Mitchell; Scott H. Rutzmoser; T. Bently Wigley; Craig Loehle; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Roger W. Perry; Christopher L. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood
Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand...
Lowenstein, David M; Gharehaghaji, Maryam; Wise, David H
As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica. We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators. Predators removed 50% of eggs and 25% of larvae over a 3-d period. Landscape factors did not predict mortality rates, and the amount of loss and damage to sentinel prey were similar across sites that differed in scale (residential gardens, community gardens, and farms). To confirm that removal of sentinel items was likely caused by natural enemies, we set up a laboratory assay that measured predation of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by several predators occurring in urban gardens. Lady beetles caused the highest mortality rates, suggesting their potential value for biocontrol; spiders and pirate bugs also consumed both eggs and larvae at high rates. Our results suggest that urban growers benefit from high consumption rates of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by arthropod predators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Zhou, Huashi; Kusaka, Yukinori; Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Subhannachart, Ponglada; Siriruttanapruk, Somkiat; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Zhang, Xing; Sishodiya, P K; Van Duy, Khuong; Hering, Kurt G; Parker, John E; Algranti, Eduardo; Fedotov, Igor; Shida, Hisao; Akira, Masanori
29 physicians (A1-Group) and 24 physicians (A2-Group) attending the 1st and 2nd "Asian Intensive Reader of Pneumoconiosis" (AIR Pneumo) training course, respectively, and 22 physicians (B-Group) attending the Brazilian training course took the examination of reading the 60-film set. The objective of the study was firstly to investigate the factor structure of physicians' proficiency of reading pneumoconiosis chest X-ray, and secondly to examine differences in factor scores between groups. Reading results in terms of the 8-index of all examinees (Examinee Group) were subjected to the exploratory factor analysis. A 4-factor was analyzed to structure the 8-index: the specificity for pneumoconiosis, specificity for large opacities, specificity for pleural plaque and shape differentiation for small opacities loaded on the Factor 1; the sensitivity for pneumoconiosis and sensitivity for large opacities loaded on the Factor 2; the sensitivity for pleural plaque loaded on the Factor 3; the profusion increment consistency loaded on the Factor 4. 4-Factor scores were compared between each other of the three groups. The Factor 2 scores in A1 and A2 groups were significantly higher than in B-Group. Four factors could reflect four aspects of reading proficiency of pneumoconiosis X-ray, and it was suggested that 4-factor scores could also assess the attained skills appropriately.
Ronning, Emily Anne
This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…
Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul
This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most consistent…
Hutzell, Kirsten L.; Payne, Allison Ann
This study examines the impact of bullying victimization on school avoidance by proposing the following hypotheses: (1) Net of other factors, students who have experienced bullying victimization are more likely to engage in school avoidance behaviors; (2) There are protective factors that will decrease this relationship between bullying…
Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet
We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…
Beitz, Janice M
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of selected programmatic factors of a Wound Ostomy Continence Nursing Education Program (WOCNEP) on graduates' success when completing their certification examinations. First-time certification examination candidates over a 10-year period graduating from 1 WOCNEP located in the northeastern section of the United States comprised the sample. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of academic factors (entry-level grade point average [GPA], test scores from the 2 WOCNEP courses, scores in a comprehensive final examination, and scores on the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing Certification Board [WOCNCB] self-assessment examinations). Program format (on-site vs online study) was not analyzed due to the small online sample size. The predictive power of academic factors for WOCNCB certification success is similar to findings in published literature. Entry-level GPA, 4 course examination test scores, comprehensive final examination score, and 3 self-assessment examination (SAE) tests accounted for 56% of the variance in successful passing of the WOCNCB examinations (χ2 = 25.98, P academic course work are most predictive of successful completion of WOCNCB certification examination.
Lindemose, Søren; Jensen, Michael Krogh; de Velde, Jan Van
Target gene identification for transcription factors is a prerequisite for the systems wide understanding of organismal behaviour. NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors are amongst the largest transcription factor families in plants, yet limited data exist from unbiased approaches to resol...... with the workflow associated with functional modules offer a strong resource to unravel the regulatory potential of NAC genes and that this workflow could be used to study other families of transcription factors.......Target gene identification for transcription factors is a prerequisite for the systems wide understanding of organismal behaviour. NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors are amongst the largest transcription factor families in plants, yet limited data exist from unbiased approaches to resolve...... regulatory networks of 12 NAC transcription factors. Our data offer specific single-base resolution fingerprints for most TFs studied and indicate that NAC DNA-binding specificities might be predicted from their DNA-binding domain's sequence. The developed methodology, including the application...
Grilo, C.; Ascensao, F.; Santos-Reis, M.; Bissonette, J.A.
Cost surface (CS) models have emerged as a useful tool to examine the interactions between landscapes patterns and wildlife at large-scale extents. This approach is particularly relevant to guide conservation planning for species that show vulnerability to road networks in human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we measured the functional connectivity of the landscape in southern Portugal and examined how it may be related to stone marten road mortality risk. We addressed three questions: (1) How different levels of landscape connectivity influence stone marten occurrence in montado patches? (2) Is there any relation between montado patches connectivity and stone marten road mortality risk? (3) If so, which road-related features might be responsible for the species' high road mortality? We developed a series of connectivity models using CS scenarios with different resistance values given to each vegetation cover type to reflect different resistance to species movement. Our models showed that the likelihood of occurrence of stone marten decreased with distance to source areas, meaning continuous montado. Open areas and riparian areas within open area matrices entailed increased costs. We found higher stone marten mortality on roads in well-connected areas. Road sinuosity was an important factor influencing the mortality in those areas. This result challenges the way that connectivity and its relation to mortality has been generally regarded. Clearly, landscape connectivity and road-related mortality are not independent. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Full Text Available Reverse worded (RW items are often used to reduce or eliminate acquiescence bias, but there is a rising concern about their harmful effects on the covariance structure of the scale. Therefore, results obtained via traditional covariance analyses may be distorted. This study examined the effect of the RW items on the factor structure of the abbreviated 18-item Need for Cognition (NFC scale using confirmatory factor analysis. We modified the scale to create three revised versions, varying from no RW items to all RW items. We also manipulated the type of the RW items (polar opposite vs. negated. To each of the four scales, we fit four previously developed models. The four models included a 1-factor model, a 2-factor model distinguishing between positively worded (PW items and RW items, and two 2-factor models, each with one substantive factor and one method factor. Results showed that the number and type of the RW items affected the factor structure of the NFC scale. Consistent with previous research findings, for the original NFC scale, which contains both PW and RW items, the 1-factor model did not have good fit. In contrast, for the revised scales that had no RW items or all RW items, the 1-factor model had reasonably good fit. In addition, for the scale with polar opposite and negated RW items, the factor model with a method factor among the polar opposite items had considerably better fit than the 1-factor model.
Green, Lucy Santos; Inan, Fethi A.; Denton, Bree
The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influenced student satisfaction with a new learning management system and to identify which of these factors were most important. The data was collected using an an online survey tool that was administered to students enrolled in courses designed and taught by faculty who participated in a…
Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances
Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…
Cunningham, Natalie Jo
The purpose of this study was to assess the relative influence of career, financial, personal, and legal factors on African American male engagement in postsecondary career and technical education and to determine whether the influence of these factors was moderated by the participants having graduated or not graduated high school and by their…
Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W
The application of factor analysis to the "Force Concept Inventory" (FCI) has proven to be problematic. Some studies have suggested that factor analysis of test results serves as a helpful tool in assessing the recognition of Newtonian concepts by students. Other work has produced at best ambiguous results. For the FCI administered as a…
Wallner, Adam M; Hamilton, George C; Nielsen, Anne L; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1) H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2) H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3) density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4) subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5) high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide.
Adam M Wallner
Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1 H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2 H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3 density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4 subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5 high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide.
Wallner, Adam M.; Hamilton, George C.; Nielsen, Anne L.; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1) H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2) H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3) density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4) subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5) high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide. PMID:24787576
Wang, Li; Cao, Xing; Cao, Chengqi; Fang, Ruojiao; Yang, Haibo; Elhai, Jon D
This study investigated the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms using two-wave longitudinal data collected from a sample of adolescents exposed to an explosion accident. Two waves of surveys were conducted approximately 3 and 8 months after the accident, respectively. A total of 836 students completed the baseline survey, and 762 students completed the follow-up survey. The results of confirmatory factor analyses(CFA) indicated that a seven-factor hybrid model composed of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal and dysphoric arousal factors yielded significantly better data fit at both waves than the other models including the DSM-5 four-factor model, the six-factor anhedonia and externalizing behaviors models. Furthermore, the results of CFA invariance tests supported the longitudinal invariance of the model. Implications and limitations in terms of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a high school in Manisa, Turkey. The study sample included 718 female high school students. A socio-demographic characteristics data form, knowledge of breast self examination and risk factors for breast cancer form and breast self examination practice form were used to collect data. Results The female high school students had insufficient knowledge about breast self-examination and a low percentage of students reported that they had performed breast self examination monthly. The most common reason for not doing breast self- examination was "not knowing how to perform breast self-examination" (98.5%. Most of the students had little knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. The most widely known risk factor by the students was personal history of breast cancer (68.7%. There was a significant relation between breast self-examination practice and age, school grade, knowledge about breast cancer and knowledge about breast self- examination. Conclusion There is a need to increase knowledge of adolescent females about the risks of breast cancer and benefits of early detection. In fact, health care professionals can develop effective breast health care programs and help young women to acquire good health habits.
Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter
In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness, are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e., herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i.e., landscape diversity and surrounding land use types) characteristics on predation services provided by naturally occurring predators in 19 urban gardens in the California central coast. We introduced sentinel pests (moth eggs and larvae and pea aphids) onto greenhouse-raised plants taken to gardens and assigned to open or bagged (predator exclosure) treatments. We found high predation rates with between 40% and 90% of prey items removed in open treatments. Predation services varied with local and landscape factors, but significant predictors differed by prey species. Predation of eggs and aphids increased with vegetation complexity in gardens, but larvae predation declined with vegetation complexity. Smaller gardens experienced higher predation services, likely due to increases in predator abundance in smaller gardens. Several ground cover features influenced predation services. In contrast to patterns in rural agricultural landscapes, predation on aphids declined with increases in landscape diversity. In sum, we report the relationships between several local management factors, as well as landscape surroundings, and implications for garden management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
This article examines various meanings of the term landscape. It advocates a deep engagement with the concept to enable high school students to carry out a range of thought-provoking geographical inquiries. Each aspect of the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority's definition of landscape, shown below, is examined by reference…
Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders
to production, cooperation and communication. Following, we have witnessed a growing number of calls for attention to the effects of new ICT’s on the concept of strategic management and strategizing. Despite the numerous calls, few have answered. In this article we aim at providing a possible response beginning...... with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...
Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando
This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...
Semak, M. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Willis, C. W.
The application of factor analysis to the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has proven to be problematic. Some studies have suggested that factor analysis of test results serves as a helpful tool in assessing the recognition of Newtonian concepts by students. Other work has produced at best ambiguous results. For the FCI administered as a pre- and post-test, we see factor analysis as a tool by which the changes in conceptual associations made by our students may be gauged given the evolution of their response patterns. This analysis allows us to identify and track conceptual linkages, affording us insight as to how our students have matured due to instruction. We report on our analysis of 427 pre- and post-tests. The factor models for the pre- and post-tests are explored and compared along with the methodology by which these models were fit to the data. The post-test factor pattern is more aligned with an expert's interpretation of the questions' content, as it allows for a more readily identifiable relationship between factors and physical concepts. We discuss this evolution in the context of approaching the characteristics of an expert with force concepts. Also, we find that certain test items do not significantly contribute to the pre- or post-test factor models and attempt explanations as to why this is so. This may suggest that such questions may not be effective in probing the conceptual understanding of our students.
Cherkos, Tomas; Zegeye, Muluken; Tilahun, Shimelis; Avvari, Muralidhar
Furniture manufacturing micro and small enterprises are confronted with several factors that affect their performance. Some enterprises fail to sustain, some others remain for long period of time without transforming, and most are producing similar and non-standard products. The main aim of this manuscript is on improving the performance and contribution of MSEs by analyzing impact of significant internal and external factors. Data was collected via a questionnaire, group discussion with experts and interviewing process. Randomly selected eight representative main cities of Amhara region with 120 furniture manufacturing enterprises are considered. Data analysis and presentation was made using SPSS tools (correlation, proximity, and T test) and impact-effort analysis matrix tool. The correlation analysis shows that politico-legal with infrastructure, leadership with entrepreneurship skills and finance and credit with marketing factors are those factors, which result in high correlation with Pearson correlation values of r = 0.988, 0.983, and 0.939, respectively. The study investigates that the most critical factors faced by MSEs are work premises, access to finance, infrastructure, entrepreneurship and business managerial problems. The impact of these factors is found to be high and is confirmed by the 50% drop-out rate in 2014/2015. Furthermore, more than 25% work time losses due to power interruption daily and around 65% work premises problems challenged MSEs. Further, an impact-effort matrix was developed to help the MSEs to prioritize the affecting factors.
Clougherty, Jane E.; Houseman, E. Andres; Levy, Jonathan I.
Recent studies have used land use regression (LUR) techniques to explain spatial variability in exposures to PM 2.5 and traffic-related pollutants. Factor analysis has been used to determine source contributions to measured concentrations. Few studies have combined these methods, however, to construct and explain latent source effects. In this study, we derive latent source factors using confirmatory factor analysis constrained to non-negative loadings, and develop LUR models to predict the influence of outdoor sources on latent source factors using GIS-based measures of traffic and other local sources, central site monitoring data, and meteorology. We collected 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and PM 2.5 outside of 44 homes in summer and winter, from 2003 to 2005 in and around Boston, Massachusetts. Reflectance analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were performed on particle filters to estimate elemental carbon (EC), trace element, and water-soluble metals concentrations. Within our constrained factor analysis, a five-factor model was optimal, balancing statistical robustness and physical interpretability. This model produced loadings indicating long-range transport, brake wear/traffic exhaust, diesel exhaust, fuel oil combustion, and resuspended road dust. LUR models largely corroborated factor interpretations through covariate significance. For example, 'long-range transport' was predicted by central site PM 2.5 and season; 'brake wear/traffic exhaust' and 'resuspended road dust' by traffic and residential density; 'diesel exhaust' by percent diesel traffic on nearest major road; and 'fuel oil combustion' by population density. Results suggest that outdoor residential PM 2.5 source contributions can be partially predicted using GIS-based terms, and that LUR techniques can support factor interpretation for source apportionment. Together, LUR and factor analysis
Noorshella, Che Nawi; Abdullah, Al Mamun; Nursalihah, Ahmad Raston
e-Service quality (eSQ) is increasingly recognized as an important aspect, as well as the key to determining the competitive advantage and factor in the long-term retention of firms operating online...
The aim of this study is to determine the overall performance of Apollo Food Holdings Berhad with specific risk factors and macroeconomic factor on profitability performance. The data obtained from annual report of Apollo Food Holdings Berhad starting from 2011-2015. The overall performance of Apollo Food Holdings Berhad measured by its own liquidity and operating ratio in 5 years which supposedly over benchmark. The asset size is an extra calculation which is not engaged with ...
Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; McCain, Jessica L; Few, Lauren R; Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A; Campbell, W Keith
The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is a self-report measure of the traits linked to grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, as well as narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), from a five-factor model perspective (FFM). In the current studies, the factor structure of the FFNI was explored and the results supported the extraction of three factors: Antagonism (e.g., Arrogance), Neuroticism (e.g., Need for Admiration), and Agentic Extraversion (e.g., Authoritativeness). In Study 2, the FFNI factors manifested convergent validity with their corresponding Big Five domains and diverging relations with measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, NPD, and self-esteem. Ultimately, the FFNI factors help explicate the differences between various expressions of narcissism such that all are related to Antagonism but differ with regard to Neuroticism (relevant to vulnerable narcissism and NPD) and Agentic Extraversion (relevant to grandiose narcissism and NPD). The results also highlight the complex relation between self-esteem and the traits that comprise narcissism measures.
Cottledge, Michael Christopher
Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African
Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.
Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret
Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P higher marks. Preparation and confidence correlated significantly with actual examination score (P < 0.05; r = 0.459 and 0.569 respectively). Gender, self-reported preparation and confidence are associated with self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.
Shields, Alan L; Guttmannova, Katarina; Caruso, John C
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was examined by employing confirmatory factor analytic techniques to data from two samples collected 1998-1999: college students (n = 465) and court-referred, substance use treatment outpatients (clinical sample; n = 135). Despite the fact that the AUDIT was originally designed as a three-factor measure (consumption, dependence, and consequences), previous studies have lent support to one- and two-factor models. The results of this study support a two-factor model (alcohol consumption and dependence/consequences) in both samples. As further evidence that the two-factor model is appropriate, a psychometric evaluation suggested that the AUDIT generated reliable scores in both groups when used as either a one- or two-factor measure, but not when three scores are derived in the student sample.
Pratt, P D; Rosetta, R; Croft, B A
The predatory mite Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) was evaluated as a biological control agent of herbivorous mites on outdoor-grown ornamental landscape plants. To elucidate factors that may affect predator efficiency, replicated tests were conducted on 30 ornamental plant cultivars that varied in relationship to their generalized morphology (e.g., conifers, shade trees, evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs, and herbaceous perennials), production method (potted or field grown), canopy density, and the prey species present on each. Plant morphological grouping and foliar density appeared to be the most influential factors in predicting successful biological control. Among plant morphological groups, N. fallacis was most effective on shrubs and herbaceous perennials and less effective on conifers and shade trees. N. fallacis was equally effective at controlling spider mites on containerized (potted) and field grown plants, and there was no difference in control of mites on plants with Tetranychus spp. versus those with Oligonychus or Schizotetranychus spp. Moderate to unsuccessful control of spider mites by N. fallacis occurred mostly on tall, vertical plants with sparse canopies. Acceptable spider mite control occurred in four large-scale releases of N. fallacis into production plantings of Abies procera, Thuja occidentalis 'Emerald', Malus rootstock, and Viburnum plicatum 'Newport'. These data suggest that N. fallacis can be an effective biological control agent of multiple spider mite species in a range of low-growing and selected higher growing ornamental plants.
Tomioka, Michiyo; Braun, Kathryn L.
In 2006, funds were received to replicate Stanford’s Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) among eldercare providers in Honolulu. This case study, conducted 1 year after the close of the initial 3-year replication grant, explored factors for sustaining the delivery of CDSMP, with an aim to create guidelines for cultivating sustainability. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with one representative from each of eight eldercare agencies, with the representative specified by the agency. Representatives discussed the presence and strength (low, medium, or high) of sustainability factors, including readiness, champions, technical assistance, perceived fit of CDSMP with their agency, CDSMP modifiability, perceived benefits of CDSMP, and other. Only three of the eight agencies (38%) were still offering CDSMP by the end of 2010. Agencies who sustained CDSMP rated higher on all sustainability factors compared to those that did not sustain the program. Additional factors identified by representatives as important were funding and ongoing access to pools of elders from which to recruit program participants. When replicating evidence-based programs, sustainability factors must be consciously nurtured. For example, readiness must be cultivated, multiple champions must be developed, agencies must be helped to modify the program to best fit their clientele, evaluation findings demonstrating program benefit should be shared, and linkages to funding may be needed. PMID:25964896
Wai Ming Cheung
Full Text Available The home questionnaire of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS-HQ 2011 was designed to gather information from parents or primary caregivers of fourth-grade pupils on their reading literacy development related to aspects of pupils’ home lives across countries/districts. The questionnaire was translated into different languages for international comparison and research purposes. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the PIRLS 2011 home questionnaire (PIRLS-HQCV 2011 and identify the underlying factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA among Chinese fourth-grade pupils in Hong Kong. A 7-factor structure model has been identified by EFA and confirmed to resemble much to the original PIRLS structure by CFA. Additional conceptually important domains have been identified which add further insights into the inconclusive results in the literature regarding the relationship between home factors and reading achievement. Implications for further studies are discussed.
Full Text Available Landscape is a crucial component of world heritage and, in the last few years, landscape projects have played a vital role in the development of sustainable scenarios. As reported in the European Landscape Convention, landscape means an area, as perceived by people, of which the character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, in landscape planning and assessment, the community is necessarily involved. In order to improve the effectiveness of a project for landscape enhancement, this study suggests strategies for an integrated project, taking into account the numerous, heterogeneous variables involved. A landscape project, therefore, is a complex project that requires structured valuation stages, open to the community dimension. The qualitative, intergenerational, and inclusive characteristics of landscapes suggest that the limits of traditional economic analysis should be exceeded by adopting new assessment methods. With this aim in mind, this paper proposes social evaluation approaches, which operate by combining deliberative processes with total economic and multidimensional approaches. In this paper, we present: (1 a brief overview of the main features and issues concerning landscape projects; (2 strategies for integrated projects in landscape enhancement; and (3 social approaches in landscape assessment that account for complexity and social inclusion.
Burdsal, C; Greenberg, G; Bell, M; Reynolds, S
A questionnaire that pertains to sexual attitudes and behaviors, family relationships, and marihuana usage was administered to 358 undergraduates at Wichita State University. A factor analysis performed upon the results yielded 12 factors related to sexual behavior: (1) Liberal vs. Conservative Attitudes; (2) Age-Experience; (3) Symbolic Sexual Preoccupation; (4) Romantic Love vs. Cynicism; (5) Experience-linked Drug Effects; (6) Affectual Dependence; (7) Mature Satisfaction; (8) Conservative vs. Liberal Sexual Practices; (9) High vs. Low Sexual Activity; (10) Sexual Revolution; (11) Sex; (12) Traditional vs. Cynical Love Roles.
Bilodeau, Cynthia; Savard, Reginald; Lecomte, Conrad
This study examined the agreement of 31 supervisee-supervisor pairs on perceived strength of working alliance throughout 5 supervision sessions and on whether the alliance differed significantly in relation to supervisee shame-proneness. The Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (Trainee and Supervisor versions) was used to measure the working…
Hochstedt, Kirsten S.; Lei, Pui-Wa; DiPerna, James C.; Morgan, Paul L.
The purpose of this study was to examine response dimensionality for a new measure of young children's early literacy skills. The Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI) include six brief measures of early literacy skills. These measures were administered at three time points (October, January, and April) to children enrolled in…
Hall, Zachary Martin
Research indicates that one way to investigate a college's dedication to marketing is to examine the role, influence, and support the marketing officer receives on their campus. Based on the literature's premise that marketing officers are a measure of commitment, this study explored the relationship between Marketing Index of Higher Education…
McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Kofler, Michael J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
The current study examined associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD…
This study examined relationships between students' personal variables (gender, prior achievements, age and academic major) and their success in the first year undergraduate calculus course. The study sample consisted of 59 first year undergraduate students taking Math 154 Calculus II course. A written test about integral, sequence and series…
The author examined how Taiwanese junior high students' perceptions of autonomy support from teachers and parents as well as autonomous and controlled motivations were related to their implicit theories of intelligence. The author also attempted to determine the ability of these constructs to explain students' reports of avoidance strategies…
Gallucci, Andrew R.; Wynveen, Chris; Hackman, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Usdan, Stuart
The current study examined the effect that students' educational environment has on the prevalence and motivations associated with the misuse of prescription analgesics (MPA). A sample of 893 undergraduate students was recruited from one religiously affiliated private university and one public university in the Southern United States. Participants…
This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…
Simmel, Cassandra; Postmus, Judy L.; Lee, Inseon
Using data collected from a sample of adult women (n = 234), this study examined the relationship between the experience and disclosure of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent adult sexual violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that physical force during the childhood sexual abuse experience was significant in both children's decisions to…
High uncertainties related to cloud computing adoption may hinder IT managers from making solid decisions about adopting cloud computing. The problem addressed in this study was the lack of understanding of the relationship between factors related to the adoption of cloud computing and IT managers' interest in adopting this technology. In…
DeFago, Jennifer Kelly
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that predict provision of counseling services by Ohio-based school psychologists. In order to address the research questions, a survey instrument was created and a sample of school psychologists working in Ohio completed a questionnaire regarding their counseling practices. The data were…
Wylie, D'Errico M.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that were predictive of academic performance of college students at Historically Black Colleges/Universities (HBCUs). The variables of interest included: seating choice, self-esteem, anxiety, stress and study habits. The sample consisted of 201 African-American undergraduate students. Participants…
Valdivia Vázquez, Juan Antonio; Rubio Sosa, Juan Carlos A.; French, Brian F.
The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) is an emotional intelligence (EI) assessment originally developed for the U.S. population. This scale measures three EI factors--attention, clarity, and repair--to evaluate how an individual perceives one's own EI skills. Although the TMMS has been adapted for use in several languages and cultures, the structure of…
Burchette, Brett M.
The purpose of this study was to identify motivational factors that contribute to the philanthropic decision making of the former NCAA Division I student-athlete. A 47-item survey instrument was modified from a prior study and distributed electronically to 8,461 male and female former student-athletes at three participating NCAA Division I…
Nguyen, Thi My Hang; Webb, Stuart
This study investigated Vietnamese EFL learners' knowledge of verb-noun and adjective-noun collocations at the first three 1,000 word frequency levels, and the extent to which five factors (node word frequency, collocation frequency, mutual information score, congruency, and part of speech) predicted receptive knowledge of collocation. Knowledge…
In the United States, there are approximately 400,000 foster youth. The state of California accounts for approximately 20% percent of youth placed in the foster care system. As a whole, this population is exposed to a multitude of risk factors while placed in the foster care system and as they emancipate. Re-victimization is not uncommon as youth…
Lee, Huan-Fang; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Yen, Miaofen
To investigate the factorial structure of a Chinese version of the MBI-HSS for nurses in Taiwan. BACKGROUND Previous studies have presented different factorial structures using the Maslach burnout inventory-human services survey (MBI-HSS). Secondary data analysis was implemented to explore the factor structure of MBI-HSS using exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was then performed to verify the modified structure for nurses in Taiwan. The EFA found that three factors explaining 57% of the variance were extracted, and 20 of the 22 items were retained. The goodness-of-fit test was performed using the CFA approach, and it was verified that the modified version of MBI-HSS is a suitable instrument for measuring burnout for nurses in Taiwan. A nationwide sample confirmed the factorial structure of MBI-HSS for nurses in Taiwan with a three-dimension, 20-item assessment, and the variance was not diminished in this sample. These findings demonstrate that the modified version of MBI-HSS provides a suitable instrument for measuring burnout for nurses in Taiwan. Therefore, the modified version of MBI-HSS can be used to compare burnout of nurses across cultures, providing valuable information for policies or preventions in the future. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Prior research regarding minorities in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicated that the factors of peer support and participation in STEM-related activities contributed positively to minority students' recruitment and retention in these fields. Utilizing stereotype threat as a conceptual framework, this…
Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.
Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…
Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Telch, Michael J.
People often displace their aggression against innocent targets. Notwithstanding the merits of previous research on displaced aggression, critical gaps remain. First, it is unclear whether and how situational and dispositional factors interact to influence displaced aggression. Moreover, it is unclear whether engaging in direct aggression…
This study investigated the heterogeneity of depressive symptom trajectories and the roles of school-related factors in predicting the membership of different trajectories in a sample of early adolescents in Taiwan. In all, 870 junior high school students were followed for 3 years. Using growth mixture modeling, the study identified four distinct…
Introduction: A paramount attention in the national polity today, and, perhaps, cross-culturally,is that, research investigations are needed to identify and classify the multi-psychosocial factors maintaining voluntary and compulsive idleness among able bodied women. Method: Descriptive survey, in a cross-sectional format ...
Allan, Nicholas P; Norr, Aaron M; Boffa, Jay W; Durmaz, Daphne; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has recently been linked to suicidality. Specifically, AS cognitive concerns has been implicated as a risk factor, and AS physical concerns as a protective factor, for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, no studies have used structural equation modeling (SEM) to address issues of skewed suicide variables and bifactor modeling of AS to address the high degree of overlap between the lower-order dimensions of AS that limit interpretation of these past findings. AS, suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and depression were assessed in a clinical sample of 267 individuals (M age=35.45 years, SD=16.53; 52.1% female). The global AS and AS cognitive concerns factors were positively, significantly associated with suicidal ideation, though these effects were nonsignificant controlling for depression. The global AS factor was positively, significantly associated with suicide attempts, controlling for depression. The current study demonstrated that the relations between AS and suicidal ideation are not maintained when accounting for depression, suggesting that the relation between AS and suicidal ideation may be mediated by depression. The positive relation between global AS and suicide attempts is consistent with theories positing suicide attempts as a consequence of an inability to cope with intolerable distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bruffaerts, Ronny; Kessler, Ronald C; Demyttenaere, Koen; Bonnewyn, Anke; Nock, Matthew K
Despite the fact that suicide is an important public health problem, the etiology is still not well understood. Especially lacking is a societal-level approach that takes into account the extent to which several risk factor domains are attributable to new onset of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB). Data stem from a cross-sectional population study of the non-institutionalized adult (18+) population from Belgium (N=2419). The third version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-3.0) was administered to assess lifetime STB and risk factor domains. Multivariate approaches, expressed in population attributable risk proportions, were used to estimate the proportion of new onset cases of STB related to the occurrence of different risk factors. Approximately 38% of cases of suicidal ideation onset were attributable to mental disorders, 20% to chronic physical conditions, and another 13% to parental psychopathology. Suicide attempts in the general population were attributable to mental disorders (PARP=48%), but attempts among persons with suicidal ideation were unrelated to mental disorders, but rather to trauma (PARP=17%) and childhood adversities (PARP=12%). This is an explorative study using multivariate additive general models that generates specific hypotheses on the development of STB onset rather than testing specific pathways in the process of STB. New onset STB is mostly attributable to proximal risk factors such as mental disorders. However, distal risk factors like childhood adversities or trauma also play a considerable role in the new onset of STB, especially in the transition from suicide ideation to suicide attempt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Capanna, R.; Campanacci, M.; Albisinni, U.; Caroli, G.C.
Local injection of radiopaque medium demonstrated the presence of intracystic fibrous septa in 13 patients with solitary bone cyst. Contrast examination was helpful in predicting the response of solitary bone cysts to treatment by injection of methylprednisolone-acetate (MPA). As the number of septa increased, an increased difficulty in obtaining an equal distribution of MPA inside the cyst and a higher incidence of incomplete healing of the cyst was encountered.
Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Peng; Qin, Jin-Qiu; Wei, Ai-Qiu; Huang, Ping; Lai, Zhan-Feng; Lin, Fa-Quan
Studies on homocysteine (Hcy) have mainly focused on the correlation between the homocysteine concentration and disease development. Few epidemiological investigations have been performed. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) during routine physical examination in Guangxi Province, China and the correlation of serum Hcy with gender, age, serum uric acid (UA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood glucose (GLU) to provide evidence for preventing and treating HHcy. Data of 8043 patients who underwent physical examinations at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China from 2015 to 2016 were collected. These data included gender, age, and the serum Hcy, UA, GLU, TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C concentrations. The overall prevalence of HHcy was 50.8% (52.3% in males, 48.1% in females). Age, UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower in patients with than without HHcy, regardless of gender (all Pphysical examination in Guangxi Province, China. HHcy was related to gender, age, high concentrations of UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C; and low concentrations of HDL-C. Strengthening early intervention of HHcy can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Payne, Deborah A; Baluchova, Katarina; Peoc'h, Katell H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Chan, K C Allen; Maekawa, Masato; Mamotte, Cyril; Russomando, Graciela; Rousseau, François; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz
Multiple organizations produce guidance documents that provide opportunities to harmonize quality practices for diagnostic testing. The International Organization for Standardization ISO 15189 standard addresses requirements for quality in management and technical aspects of the clinical laboratory. One technical aspect addresses the complexities of the pre-examination phase prior to diagnostic testing. The Committee for Molecular Diagnostics of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (also known as, IFCC C-MD) conducted a survey of international molecular laboratories and determined ISO 15189 to be the most referenced guidance document. In this review, the IFCC C-MD provides case-based examples illustrating the value of select pre-examination processes as these processes relate to molecular diagnostic testing. Case-based examples in infectious disease, oncology, inherited disease and pharmacogenomics address the utility of: 1) providing information to patients and users, 2) designing requisition forms, 3) obtaining informed consent and 4) maintaining sample integrity prior to testing. The pre-examination phase requires extensive and consistent communication between the laboratory, the healthcare provider and the end user. The clinical vignettes presented in this paper illustrate the value of applying select ISO 15189 recommendations for general laboratory to the more specialized area of Molecular Diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: This research was aimed at examining the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction with data obtained from Malaysian soldiers who were involved in peace keeping missions in a Middle Eastern country. The results of which would enable the management to improve the quality of service accorded to peacekeeping personnel. Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a cross-sectional research design which allowed the researchers to integrate the service quality literature, the semi structured interview and the actual survey to collect and examine the data for optimum results. Findings and Originality/value: The outcome of multiple regression analysis showed that responsiveness and assurance variables reflected a high correlation with customer satisfaction. On the other hand, tangibility, reliability and empathy variables recorded an insignificant correlation with customer satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: With respect to practical contributions, the findings of this study can be used as a guideline by the management to improve the quality of peacekeeping in areas of conflict. Practical implications: For security reasons, certain information affecting customer satisfaction could not be examined in detail. Originality/value: This paper presents key results on service quality and customers satisfaction research by looking at the niche segment which was not previously studied from the Malaysian perspective.
Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge
. The aim of this study was to describe education of lifestyle in relation to diseases in the oral cavity with focus on periodontitis and to elucidate how education is practiced and reflected in dental education in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire, which consisted of 18 questions......, was sent to the chairs of the departments of periodontology in the Nordic countries. The questions concerned extent, curriculum structure, educational method, content, assessment and evaluation of the education. RESULTS: Education on lifestyle factors took place at all dental schools, but the extent......, content and placement in the curriculum varied. In some schools, more than 10 lessons were scheduled; two schools had only 3-5 lessons. The education of lifestyle factors was prioritised highest in the departments of periodontology followed by cariology and general health. Despite differences...
Hardaway, Cecily R; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Wood, Dana
Using a sample of 391 low-income youth ages 13-17, this study investigated the potential moderating effects of school climate, participation in extracurricular activities, and positive parent-child relations on associations between exposure to violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and adolescent socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). Exposure to violence was related to both internalizing and externalizing problems. High levels of participation in extracurricular activities and positive parent-child relations appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the positive association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, school climate did not moderate associations between exposure to violence and socioemotional adjustment. Further, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems.
Fiehn, N-E; Christensen, L B
Lifestyle and general diseases are important for the development of periodontitis and other diseases in the oral cavity. Therefore, knowledge on lifestyle factors must be part of the dental curriculum. However, a search for information in the literature databases gave meagre results. The aim of this study was to describe education of lifestyle in relation to diseases in the oral cavity with focus on periodontitis and to elucidate how education is practiced and reflected in dental education in the Nordic countries. A questionnaire, which consisted of 18 questions, was sent to the chairs of the departments of periodontology in the Nordic countries. The questions concerned extent, curriculum structure, educational method, content, assessment and evaluation of the education. Education on lifestyle factors took place at all dental schools, but the extent, content and placement in the curriculum varied. In some schools, more than 10 lessons were scheduled; two schools had only 3-5 lessons. The education of lifestyle factors was prioritised highest in the departments of periodontology followed by cariology and general health. Despite differences in the content across the dental schools, there were also similarities. So, at all schools smoking, medication, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2 had a high priority. Education of other factors such as alcohol, psychological stress, oral hygiene habits, hypotension and obesity varied. Despite the general view that understanding of odontology is considered to be rather homogenous in the Nordic countries, the education varies across the dental schools. This variation may inspire dental educators in the future planning dental curricula. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sharpe, Emma Elizabeth; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline
Digital interventions for weight management provide a unique opportunity to target daily lifestyle choices and eating behaviors over a sustained period of time. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a lack of user engagement with digital health interventions, impacting on the levels of intervention effectiveness. Thus, it is critical to identify the factors that may facilitate user engagement with digital health interventions to encourage behavior change and weight management. The aim of this study was to identify and synthesize the available evidence to gain insights about users' perspectives on factors that affect engagement with digital interventions for weight management. A rapid review methodology was adopted. The search strategy was executed in the following databases: Web of Science, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated users' engagement with a digital weight management intervention and were published from 2000 onwards. A narrative synthesis of data was performed on all included studies. A total of 11 studies were included in the review. The studies were qualitative, mixed-methods, or randomized controlled trials. Some of the studies explored features influencing engagement when using a Web-based digital intervention, others specifically explored engagement when accessing a mobile phone app, and some looked at engagement after text message (short message service, SMS) reminders. Factors influencing engagement with digital weight management interventions were found to be both user-related (eg, perceived health benefits) and digital intervention-related (eg, ease of use and the provision of personalized information). The findings highlight the importance of incorporating user perspectives during the digital intervention development process to encourage engagement. The review contributes to our understanding of what facilitates user engagement and points toward a coproduction approach for developing digital
Ripley, Adam J; Clapp, Joshua D; Beck, J Gayle
Several factors have been linked to the severity of posttraumatic distress, although retrospective designs in much of the literature limit conclusions regarding the temporal relation between risk factors and corresponding symptoms. To address these concerns, the current project employed an analog trauma paradigm to assess the impact of background characteristics, stress response, and post-stressor affect regulation on subjective distress and intrusive memories experienced during the subsequent processing of emotional stimuli. University students (N = 184; 56% female, 42% White/Non-Hispanic) were shown graphic scenes of a televised suicide. Physiological activation was recorded during exposure with emotion ratings collected following the film. Participants then viewed a sadness- or humor-eliciting prime under instructions to inhibit or naturally express emotion. Intrusions experienced during the priming film and residual distress at study's conclusion were rated prior to debriefing. Hierarchical regression identified reductions in emotional valence as a robust predictor of intrusions and distress. Sympathetic activation and exposure to the sadness prime were associated with intrusion frequency, whereas attenuated parasympathetic response predicted intrusion intensity. Expressive inhibition demonstrated a unique association with residual distress. Results suggest peritraumatic processes and post-exposure factors may hold more prominent relations with immediate trauma-related distress as compared to pre-existing survivor characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elhai, Jon D.; Engdahl, Ryan M.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Naifeh, James A.; Schweinle, Amy; Jacobs, Gerard A.
The authors examined the effects of a methodological manipulation on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist's factor structure: specifically, whether respondents were instructed to reference a single worst traumatic event when rating PTSD symptoms. Nonclinical, trauma-exposed participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 PTSD…
High and low Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk factor for effects (e.g., premature mortality) induced by exposure to common air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Diesel exhaust contributes to particulate matter levels. We examined lung responses using the exhaled bre...
The current study aims to understand digital citizenship, based on the assumptions of Ribble (2014), by examining factors affecting participation and involvement in the Internet virtual societies among higher education students. A quantitative approach using a survey questionnaire was implemented. The participants were 174 students from the…
Jacobs, Anne K.; Roberts, Michael C.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Nyre, Joseph E.; Randall, Camille J.; Puddy, Richard W.
We examined factors related to treatment responders (n = 35) and nonresponders (n = 16) in a group of 51 children admitted to the Intensive Mental Health Program (IMHP). Children's response to treatment was coded based on their functioning at intake and discharge using total CAFAS scores. Demographic variables, length of treatment, number of…
Fedor, Megan C.; Bender, Stacy L.; Carlson, John S.
This study examined parental reports of children attending Head Start programs in high- (N = 200) and low- (N = 188) violence communities to determine whether differences existed in the level of risk and protective factors as measured by the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (P. A. LeBuffe & J. A. Naglieri, 1999). Previous research has indicated…
Tucker, Tameka M.
Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…
Sorgeloos, Frederic; Caddy, Sarah L.; Vashist, Surender; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav; Lloyd, Richard; Heesom, Kate; Locker, Nicolas
Noroviruses produce viral RNAs lacking a 5′ cap structure and instead use a virus-encoded viral protein genome-linked (VPg) protein covalently linked to viral RNA to interact with translation initiation factors and drive viral protein synthesis. Norovirus infection results in the induction of the innate response leading to interferon stimulated gene (ISG) transcription. However, the translation of the induced ISG mRNAs is suppressed. A SILAC-based mass spectrometry approach was employed to analyze changes to protein abundance in both whole cell and m7GTP-enriched samples to demonstrate that diminished host mRNA translation correlates with changes to the composition of the eukaryotic initiation factor complex. The suppression of host ISG translation correlates with the activity of the viral protease (NS6) and the activation of cellular caspases leading to the establishment of an apoptotic environment. These results indicate that noroviruses exploit the differences between viral VPg-dependent and cellular cap-dependent translation in order to diminish the host response to infection. PMID:28087593
Ahern, Nancy R; Norris, Anne E
In contrast to adolescents attending traditional universities, adolescents attending community colleges represent a large but relatively unstudied population with respect to stress and mental health issues. The purpose of this study was to determine what factors increase and decrease stress in a sample of adolescent community college students (N = 166). Findings from a self-administered questionnaire indicated that students had moderate levels of stress and resilience. Contrary to predictions, males demonstrated statistically significant higher levels of stress than females, but as expected, resilience had a significant negative effect on stress (p < .05). Practice and research implications are discussed for nurses in pediatric settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Robertson, Michelle M; Schleifer, Lawrence M; Huang, Yueng-hsiang
With the rising number of teleworkers who are working in non-traditional work locations, health and safety issues are even more critical. While telework offers attractive alternatives to traditional work locations, it is not without challenges for employers and workers. A macroergonomics approach or work system design for telework programs is proposed to address these new challenges. This approach explains the impact of organizational, psychosocial and workplace risk factors on teleworker's health and safety. A process for managing the health and safety of teleworkers is presented along with preventive strategies to provide an injury-free working environment.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the evolution of Romanian private loans, in national currency (lei, granted to households and non-financial corporations in the period between July 2005 and April 2017. In this context, after reviewing the importance of credit within the context of national economy is presented the evolution of some factors considered as influential upon the evolution of credit. These factors are, namely: the average interest rate of outstanding private loans granted by credit institutions, the average interest rate of outstanding amount of deposits received by credit institutions, the ratio of minimum (or reserve requirements, the interest rate on required reserves and the monetary policy rate. The database was built using the available data from the Statistical Section of the monthly bulletins released by the National Bank of Romania (herein after, referred to as NBR and published on the institution’s website. Every series of data is subject of testing for stationarity, using both the Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Pillips-Perron tests (herein after, referred to as ADF and PP, respectively, and the reported results are presented within the paper. In order to avoid spurious regression, following the stationarization of the data series, an analysis model is put in place and the significant results are subject to further interpretation.
Many, Gina M; Lutsch, Andrea; Connors, Kimberly E; Shearer, Jane; Brown, Haley C; Ash, Garrett; Pescatello, Linda S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Barfield, Whitney; Dubis, Gabriel; Houmard, Joseph A; Hoffman, Eric P; Hittel, Dustin S
Preventing physical inactivity and weight gain during college is critical in decreasing lifelong obesity and associated disease risk. As such, we sought to compare cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors between college students enrolled in kinesiology and non-kinesiology degree programs to assess whether health and exercise degree programs may influence health behaviors and associated disease risk outcomes. Anthropometrics, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and HbA1c%, blood pressure, and peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) were assessed in 247 healthy college students. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA) was calculated using glucose and insulin levels. Self-reported physical activity from the Paffenbarger questionnaire was collected to estimate the average caloric expenditure due to different types of physical activities. Despite no significant differences in body mass index or waist circumference between groups, kinesiology majors presented with ∼20% lower fasting insulin levels and HOMA (p = 0.01; p Kinesiology majors reported increased weekly participation in vigorous-intensity sport and leisure activities and, on average, engaged in >300 metabolic equivalent-h·wk, whereas non-kinesiology majors engaged in kinesiology degree programs display improved healthy behaviors and associated outcomes (parameters of glucose homeostasis). Practical outcomes of this research indicate that implementing components of a comprehensive kinesiology curriculum encourages improved health behaviors and associated cardiometabolic risk factors.
Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis concerning the influence of selected psychophysical parameters on the quality of human gait recognition. The following factors have been taken into account: body height (BH, body weight (BW, the emotional condition of the respondent, the physical condition of the respondent, previous injuries or dysfunctions of the locomotive system. The study was based on data measuring the ground reaction forces (GRF among 179 participants (3 315 gait cycles. Based on the classification, some kind of confusion matrix were established. On the basis of the data included in the matrix, it was concluded that the wrong classification was most affected by the similar weight of two confused people. It was also noted, that people of the same gender and similar BH were confused most often. On the other hand, previous body injuries and dysfunctions of the motor system were the factors facilitating the recognition of people. The results obtained will allow for the design of more accurate biometric systems in the future.
Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David
The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cavelti, M; Wirtz, M; Corrigan, P; Vauth, R
The recovery framework has found its way into local and national mental health services and policies around the world, especially in English speaking countries. To promote this process, it is necessary to assess personal recovery validly and reliably. The Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) is the most established measure in recovery research. The aim of the current study is to examine the factor structure of the German version of the RAS (RAS-G). One hundred and fifty-six German-speaking clients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from a community mental health service completed the RAS-G plus measures of recovery attitudes, self-stigma, psychotic symptoms, depression, and functioning. A confirmatory factor analysis of the original 24-item RAS version was conducted to examine its factor structure, followed by reliability and validity testing of the extracted factors. The CFA yielded five factors capturing 14 items which showed a substantial overlap with the original subscales Personal Confidence and Hope, Goal and Success Orientation, Willingness to Ask for Help, Reliance on Others, and No Domination by Symptoms. The factors demonstrated mean to excellent reliability (0.59-0.89) and satisfactory criterial validity by positive correlations with measures of recovery attitudes and functioning, and negative correlations with measures of self-stigma, and psychotic and depressive symptoms. The study results are discussed in the light of other studies examining the factor structure of the RAS. Overall, they support the use of the RAS-G as a means to promote recovery oriented services, policies, and research in German-speaking countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Facing urban warming, mitigation and adaptation strategies are not efficient enough to tackle excessive urban heat, especially at the local scale. The local climate zone (LCZ classification scheme is employed to examine the diversity and complexity of the climate response within a city. This study suggests that zonal practice could be an efficient way to bridge the knowledge gap between climate research and urban planning. Urban surfaces classified by LCZ are designated as urban climate landscapes, which extends the LCZ concept to urban planning applications. Selecting Wuhan as a case study, we attempt to explore the climatic effect of landscape patterns. Thermal effects are compared across the urban climate landscapes, and the relationships between patch metrics and land surface temperature (LST are quantified. Results indicate that climate landscape layout is a considerable factor impacting local urban climate. For Wuhan, 500 m is an optimal scale for exploring landscape pattern-temperature relationships. Temperature contrast between surrounding landscape patches has a major influence on LST. Generally, fragmental landscape patches contribute to heat release. For most climate landscape types, patch metrics also have a significant effect on thermal response. When three metrics are included as predictive variables, 53.3% of the heating intensity variation can be explained for the Large Lowrise landscape, while 57.4% of the cooling intensity variation can be explained for the Water landscape. Therefore, this article claims that land-based layout optimization strategy at local scale, which conforms to planning manner, should be taken into account in terms of heat management.
Dewa, Carolyn S; Dermer, Stanley W; Chau, Nancy; Lowrey, Scott; Mawson, Susan; Bell, Judith
The rise in globalization, new technologies and changes in workforce demographics have created new work environments. As a result, countries around the world are seeking to restructure their educational systems to better prepare future generations for the challenges that they will face in this new labour market. These trends have also introduced new and increased demands on the educational sector and especially school principals who are responsible for the quality of education in schools. This study examines the association between mental health status and self-reported working conditions of principals. Our findings highlight potential mental health problems among principals. The results provide evidence that their satisifaction with their work characteristics are associated with their mental health status. They also indicate areas in which school boards may be well positioned to address some of the potential organizational difficulties encountered by this group.
Choi, Yoonsun; He, Michael; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Toumbourou, John W.
Multiracial youth are thought to be more vulnerable to peer-related risk factors than are single-race youth. However, there have been surprisingly few well-designed studies on this topic. This study empirically investigated the extent to which multiracial youth are at higher risk for peer influenced problem behavior. Data are from a representative and longitudinal sample of youth from Washington State (N = 1,760, mean age = 14.13, 50.9% girls). Of those in the sample, 225 youth self-identified as multiracial (12.8%), 1,259 as White (71.5%), 152 as Latino (8.6%), and 124 as Asian American (7.1%). Results show that multiracial youth have higher rates of violence and alcohol use than Whites and more marijuana use than Asian Americans. Higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage and single-parent family status partly explained the higher rates of problem behaviors among multiracial youth. Peer risk factors of substance-using or antisocial friends were higher for multiracial youth than Whites, even after socioeconomic variables were accounted for, demonstrating a higher rate of peer risks among multiracial youth. The number of substance-using friends was the most consistently significant correlate and predictor of problems and was highest among multiracial youth. However, interaction tests did not provide consistent evidence of a stronger influence of peer risks among multiracial youth. Findings underscore the importance of a differentiated understanding of vulnerability in order to better target prevention and intervention efforts as well as the need for further research that can help identify and explain the unique experiences and vulnerabilities of multiracial youth. PMID:22395776
Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T
The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.
Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.
Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to
Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Meyer, Craig; Didericksen, Katharine; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Introduction Few studies have examined concordance/discordance between caregivers to identify whether caregivers see familial and parental factors in the home environment similarly or differently and whether the agreement or disagreement is related to adolescent obesity risk. Answers to these questions are important and may inform whether family-based childhood obesity interventions need to target both parents. Objective The main objective of the study is to examine whether and how parental concordance/discordance on factors in the home environment (e.g., importance of family meals, parent feeding practices, encouraging child physical activity, limit setting on child screen time) are associated with adolescent health behaviors and weight status. Design Data from two linked population-based studies were used in cross-sectional analyses. Linear regression models examined associations between parental concordance/discordance on home environment factors and adolescents’ health behaviors and weight status. Participant/Settings Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=1,052; 54% girls; mean age = 14.3 years) and their parents (n=2,104; 52% female; mean age = 41.0 years) from Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota participated in the study. Anthropometric assessments and surveys were completed at school by adolescents and surveys were completed at home by parents. Results Parental concordance on home environment factors was high for some factors (e.g., 68% concordance on not pressuring adolescent to eat) and low for other factors (e.g., 2% concordance on parent engaging in physically activity with child 4+ hours/week). Parental concordance on positive home environment factors (e.g., frequency of family meals) was associated with more adolescent healthful eating patterns and hours of physical activity (p food and more unhealthy weight control behaviors (p environment factors, however the results were inconsistent and approximately one third of
Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Meyer, Craig; Didericksen, Katharine; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Few studies have examined concordance/discordance between caregivers to identify whether caregivers see familial and parental factors in the home environment similarly or differently and whether the agreement or disagreement is related to adolescent obesity risk. Answers to these questions are important and may inform whether family-based childhood obesity interventions need to target both parents. The main objective of the study was to examine whether and how parental concordance/discordance on factors in the home environment (eg, importance of family meals, parent feeding practices, encouraging child physical activity, and limit setting on child screen time) are associated with adolescent health behaviors and weight status. Data from two linked population-based studies were used in cross-sectional analyses. Linear regression models examined associations between parental concordance/discordance on home environment factors and adolescents' health behaviors and weight status. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=1,052; 54% girls; mean age=14.3 years) and their parents (n=2,104; 52% women; mean age=41.0 years) from Minneapolis and St Paul, MN, participated in the study. Anthropometric assessments and surveys were completed at school by adolescents and surveys were completed at home by parents. Parental concordance on home environment factors was high for some factors (eg, 68% concordance on not pressuring adolescent to eat) and low for other factors (eg, 2% concordance on parent engaging in physically activity with child 4+ hours per week). Parental concordance on positive home environment factors (eg, frequency of family meals) was associated with more adolescent healthful eating patterns and hours of physical activity (Pparents were discordant, adolescents had higher consumption of fast food and more unhealthy weight control behaviors (Pparental concordance on home environment factors; however, the results were inconsistent and
Kelch, Nina-S; Neves, Frederico S; Fernandes, G Wilson; Wirth, Rainer
Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.
Song, Jiangen; Zha, Xiaojuan; Li, Haibo; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) represent serious threats to human health, and as a result, this study was aimed at understanding the blood glucose distribution characteristics and the risk factors among a large health examination population in China. Methods: An investigation with physical and biochemical examinations and questionnaires was conducted in the physical examination center from 2011 to 2014 and as a result 175,122 physical examination attendees were enrolled in this study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the factors influencing blood sugar levels. Results: The rates of IFG and DM were 6.0% and 3.8%. Prevalence were 7.6%/5.1% in males and 5.1%/2.8% in females for IFG and DM, respectively. The prevalence of IFG and DM were thus higher in males than in females. In the normal group, except high density lipoprotein (HDL) that was significantly higher than in the IFG and DM group, the other indexes (age, body mass index (BMI), glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (TC) and total glycerides (TG) were lower than those in the IFG and DM group. The proportion of IFG and DM also increased with the increases in proportion of abnormal blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that increasing age, high BMI, high TC, high TG and low HDL increased the risk of diabetes, while in males, in addition to the above factors, the smoking and drinking factors also increased the risk of diabetes. After the age of 65, the blood glucose level reached a peak in males, while in females, the increasing trends was on the rise. The inflexion age of the fast rise was younger in males than in females. Conclusion: The study population showed a high prevalence of DM and IFG among the adults. Regular physical examination for the early detection of diabetes is recommended in the high-risk population. PMID:27043603
Song, Jiangen; Zha, Xiaojuan; Li, Haibo; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) represent serious threats to human health, and as a result, this study was aimed at understanding the blood glucose distribution characteristics and the risk factors among a large health examination population in China. An investigation with physical and biochemical examinations and questionnaires was conducted in the physical examination center from 2011 to 2014 and as a result 175,122 physical examination attendees were enrolled in this study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the factors influencing blood sugar levels. The rates of IFG and DM were 6.0% and 3.8%. Prevalence were 7.6%/5.1% in males and 5.1%/2.8% in females for IFG and DM, respectively. The prevalence of IFG and DM were thus higher in males than in females. In the normal group, except high density lipoprotein (HDL) that was significantly higher than in the IFG and DM group, the other indexes (age, body mass index (BMI), glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (TC) and total glycerides (TG) were lower than those in the IFG and DM group. The proportion of IFG and DM also increased with the increases in proportion of abnormal blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that increasing age, high BMI, high TC, high TG and low HDL increased the risk of diabetes, while in males, in addition to the above factors, the smoking and drinking factors also increased the risk of diabetes. After the age of 65, the blood glucose level reached a peak in males, while in females, the increasing trends was on the rise. The inflexion age of the fast rise was younger in males than in females. The study population showed a high prevalence of DM and IFG among the adults. Regular physical examination for the early detection of diabetes is recommended in the high-risk population.
Biography of an Industrial Landscape tells the story of one of the most significant urban redevelopment projects in northern Europe at the turn of the century. Examining the reinvention of the Carlsberg brewery site in Copenhagen as a city district, Svava Riesto unpacks the deeper assumptions about...... value that lie behind contemporary design, spatial planning and heritage praxis. In particular, Riesto examines ways of valuing a vital yet seldom explicitly discussed feature of industrial landscapes: open space. Carlsberg’s industrial open spaces were largely disregarded during the redevelopment...... to landscape research, the Carlsberg site’s open spaces are presented anew as an interplay of materials, practices and the imagination – shaped and reshaped by water, yeast, industrial working routines and conflicting ideas about the urban future....
Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández
Full Text Available The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poorly understood. We measured forest metrics of primary evergreen, riparian, and secondary tropical moist forest in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. We also used point counts to estimate density of Northern Mealy Amazons in each forest type during the nonbreeding (Sept 2013 and breeding (March 2014 seasons. We then examined how parrot density was influenced by forest structure and composition, and how parrots used forest types within tropical moist forest. Overall, parrot density was high in the breeding season, with few parrots present during the nonbreeding season. During the breeding season, primary forest had significantly greater density of 18.9 parrots/km² in evergreen forest and 35.9 parrots/km² in riparian forest, compared with only 3.4 parrots/km² in secondary forest. Secondary forest had significantly lower tree species richness, density, diameter, total height, and major branch ramification height, as well as distinct tree species composition compared with both types of primary forest. The number of parrots recorded at point counts was related to density of large, tall trees, characteristic of primary forest, and parrots used riparian forest more than expected by availability. Hence, the increased conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest is likely to lead to reduced densities of forest-dependent species such as the Northern Mealy Amazon. Furthermore, the species' requirement for primary tropical moist forest highlights the need to reevaluate
Che Nawi Noorshella
Full Text Available e-Service quality (eSQ is increasingly recognized as an important aspect, as well as the key to determining the competitive advantage and factor in the long-term retention of firms operating online. This study, therefore, is aimed at identifying the key determinants of eSQ among the small online apparel businesses in Malaysia. This study used a cross-sectional design, and data were collected from 765 customers who purchased apparel online at the point-of-purchase. Findings of this study indicate that “product information quality,” “website design,” “security and privacy,” and “expected consumer service” are the key determinants of eSQ among small online apparel businesses in Malaysia. The implication for the owner-managers of the apparel businesses in Malaysia is that they must be aware of the significance of the key eSQ indicators while designing their businesses, to attract and retain customers.
Full Text Available Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg., we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58% identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46% on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.
Witherspoon, Dawn P; Daniels, Lisa L; Mason, Amber E; Smith, Emilie Phillips
Research consistently shows that neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and residents' neighborhood perceptions matter for youth well-being, including a positive sense of racial-ethnic identity. Although elementary-school children are likely in the earlier phases of identity formation, the authors examined whether objective and subjective neighborhood characteristics are related to their racial-ethnic identity and, in turn, their academic adjustment. A diverse sample (30.4% African American, 35.2% White, 12.3% Latino, & 22.0% Other) of 227 children in Grades 2 through 5 were surveyed in afterschool programs. Bivariate correlations showed that youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported more barriers due to their race-ethnicity, but these barriers were not related to their sense of academic efficacy. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood was unrelated to youth's academic self-efficacy. However, path analyses showed that positive neighborhood perceptions were associated with a stronger sense of race-ethnicity (i.e., affirmation and belonging), which was in turn related to greater academic efficacy. These results suggest that neighborhood connection provides a source of affirmation and value for young children, helping them to understand who they are as part of a racial-ethnic group and helping to foster a sense of future achievement opportunities. This study provides additional evidence that along with other important proximal contexts (e.g., family, school), young children's neighborhood context is important for development. Results are discussed to highlight environmental influences on young children's awareness of race-ethnicity and the implications of the combined impact of neighborhood and racial-ethnic identity on psychosocial adjustment. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Full Text Available Background: Research is needed in order to understand the potential influence of the Bilateral Agreement between South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK, as well as other more recent international and local policies restricting movement of South African health workers abroad; and to determine what effect they have on the migration intentions and plans of health professionals in South Africa.Aim: The aims were to (1 explore the migration intentions and the factors that influence these intentions amongst Community Service (CS nurses and doctors; (2 explore their views and opinions about the Bilateral Agreement between the UK and South Africa (SA and other UK policies around the recruitment and employment of foreign health professionals; and (3 understand the impact of these policies on the migration plans of these CS doctors and nurses.Method: Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with 23 CS doctors and nurses. To supplement this, 6 interviews were conducted with nurses and a doctor who had worked in the UK.Results: A higher disposition toward moving abroad was apparent amongst those who had experienced a challenging and frustrating CS year. Poor working conditions, including long work hours, high patient loads and inadequate resources and equipment, as well as low salaries and the perceived ambivalence of the government to the complaints of health practitioners, were influencing decisions to migrate abroad.Conclusion: The findings suggest that government efforts to better manage, recognise and respect the work and contribution of health professionals to the country would go a long way toward retaining health professionals.
Vine, Michelle M; Elliott, Susan J
Increasing numbers of overweight and obese youth draw attention to the school as an important setting for targeted nutrition interventions, given that it is where they spend a majority of their waking time. The objective of the present study was to explore local-level factors shaping the implementation of a school nutrition policy. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person or via the telephone (a maximum of 60 min). An interview guide was informed by the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, research objectives and literature. Key themes centred on policy implementation, including facilitators and barriers (i.e. resources, capacity), user satisfaction (i.e. students) and communication strategies. Secondary schools in Ontario, Canada. Twenty-two participants from local agencies supporting school nutrition programming (n 8) and secondary-school principals, vice principals and teachers (n 14) from nine schools across three Ontario school boards. Results are organized according to environments outlined in the ANGELO framework. The cost of healthy food for sale, revenue loss (economic), proximity of schools to off-site food outlets (physical), the restrictive nature of policy, the role of key stakeholders (political), the role of stigma and school culture (sociocultural) act as local-level barriers to policy implementation. Gaps in policy implementation include the high cost of food for sale and subsequent revenue generation, the close proximity of internal and external food environments, the need for consultation and communication between stakeholders, and strategies to reduce stigma and improve the school nutrition culture.
Zaller, Johann; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Paredes, Daniel; Kratschmer, Sophie; Schwantzer, Martina; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Burel, Françoise; Guernion, Muriel; Scimia, Jennifer; Nicolai, Annegret; Cluzeau, Daniel
Ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from interactions between management intensity, soil properties, organisms inhabiting these landscapes, and the diversity and structure of the surrounding landscape. However, there is actually very little known to what extent these different factors influence the abundance and diversity of various soil biota. In this study we examined (i) to what extent different soil management intensities of interrows affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (earthworms, Collembola, litter decomposition), (ii) the role of soil properties in influencing these effects and (iii) whether the surrounding landscape structure is altering these interactions. We collected data in 16 vineyards in Austria embedded in landscapes with varying structure (i.e. from structurally simple to complex) and assessed earthworms (hand sorting), Collembola (pitfall trapping and soil coring), litter decomposition (tea bag method). Additionally, soil physical (water infiltration, aggregate stability, porosity, bulk density, soil texture) and chemical (pH, soil carbon content, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorus) parameters were assessed. The landscape surrounding our vineyards within a radius of 750 m was assessed by field mapping using a geographical information system. Results showed that different soil biota/processes are differently affected by soil cultivation intensity and soil properties. Parameters describing the surrounding landscape interacted more with the responses of Collembola to soil cultivation than with earthworms or litter decomposition. These investigations are part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers (www.vinedivers.eu) and will ultimately lead into management recommendations for various stakeholders.
Fitzgerald, Zoë; Thayer, Zoë; Mohamed, Armin; Miller, Laurie A
Some patients with epilepsy demonstrate normal memory when this is tested at relatively short intervals (e.g., 30 min), but substantial loss over longer delay periods (e.g., days or weeks) when compared to healthy control subjects. This pattern of "accelerated long-term forgetting" (ALF) affects the everyday lives of patients, yet goes undetected by standard neuropsychological memory tests, and its pathophysiologic basis is poorly understood. By testing memory over a period of concurrent ambulatory electroencephalography (EEG), the current study aimed to investigate possible factors contributing to ALF. Thirty-nine patients diagnosed with epilepsy or probable epilepsy underwent 5 days of continuous ambulatory EEG: 18 had normal EEG studies, 10 had focal epileptic discharges, 5 had generalized epileptic discharges, and 6 had one or more seizures. Fifteen matched healthy control subjects also participated, but did not undergo EEG. Subjects were taught 13-item word and design lists to criterion, and recall was tested at 30 min, 24 h, and 4 days. Subjects also completed questionnaires pertaining to everyday memory and mood. Group analyses (excluding patients who experienced seizures during monitoring) indicated that patients who experienced generalized discharges during the 24-h to 4-day delay intervals showed higher rates of forgetting for nonverbal information. Those with focal discharges showed ALF between 30 min and 4 days for verbal information, whereas those with normal EEGs over the 4 days recording had no evidence of ALF. Surprisingly, mood and epilepsy variables (such as duration of disease or number of anticonvulsant medications) showed no significant correlation with ALF. Although no aspect of nighttime sleep architecture was found to be related to recall after the first 24 h, daytime naps were associated with better retention. Self-report of everyday memory functioning was related to recall at longer delays, but not at 30 min. The present findings indicated
Richardson, Robin A; Wiest, Katharina
Poor nutritional health among opioid-dependent individuals is well established, yet no nutritional screening tool exists for this specific population. The utility of "Determine Your Nutritional Health" developed by the Nutrition Screening Initiative is considered. The study examines the questionnaire's relevance in patients beginning opioid dependence treatment at a methadone-assisted treatment program (N = 140) by examining nutritional risk factor prevalence, body mass index, and association between nutritional risk level and treatment retention. The majority of patients reported at least one nutritional risk factor (89 %) and 59 % were at high nutritional risk. Body mass index was not related to nutritional risk; however, a trend was identified between increasing nutritional risk and decreased retention in treatment. These preliminary findings suggest the need for incorporation of nutritional screening at intake in opioid treatment programs, consideration of the effect of dietary risk on treatment retention, and the potential utility of this screening tool.
Wilson, Ashleigh Leah Davidson
This capstone project presents a conceptually grounded, methodologically appropriate and logistically feasible Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funding proposal. By examining key factors and influential actors involved in the decision to relocate into an assisted living facility (ALF), the proposed study will provide insight into and a rich description of the decision making process as it unfolds. Presented in the format of a CIHR pilot study grant, the proposal details a qualita...
Opalińska, Edyta; Michalak, Anna; Stoma, Filip; Latalski, Maciej; Goniewicz, Mariusz
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men, therefore has become recently an essential problem of public health. The factors influencing cancer include: androgens metabolism disorders, diabetes mellitus, overweight and obesity, smoking, alcohol and black coffee intake, diet rich in saturated fats and poor in unsaturated, lack of physical activity, geographical zone, race, such carcinogenic substances as: cadmium, materials used in rubber, painting, printing, ship industry etc., contagious factors and also older age and a positive family history of the disease. To diagnose prostate cancer in its early stage such screening procedures as physical examination--digital rectal exam (DRE) and determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in blood serum are used. The aim of the study was to assess prostate cancer risk factors occurrence in the examined 193 men, aged 50-70 years, who reported to urology outpatient department at Clinical Hospital in Lublin, measure the PSA level in blood serum and examine the correlation between them. Respondents filled in a questionnaire about the presence of prostate cancer risk factors and urogenital symptoms. The questionnaire was completed with DRE and PSA measurement. The results led us to the following conclusions: 1/ in the studied population elevated PSA level is determined in 3.1% of 193 examined men, 2/ increased PSA occurs mainly in men from rural areas, with elementary education, divorced, older (>60 years), using fat-rich diet, smokers, black coffee drinkers, with overweight or obesity and non diabetic, 3/ a combination of PSA test with DRE seems to be useful and rather cheap for the detection of prostate cancer in the early stage of its development.
Fink, Jonathan Rupert
Scholars have long been interested in the complex relationships between personality and motivation. However, much of their understanding has been limited to The Big Five personality factors (namely, Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism), and a proliferation of motivation constructs emanating from a large number of different theories and sub-theories. This study adds to the body of personality psychology and motivation science literature by examining the re...
Augustine Egwu, Ogugua; Dimkpa, Uche; Ogbonnaya Orji, Jude; Ogbannaya Njoku, Clinton; Ogbonnia Eni, Egwu; Besong, Elizabeth
Self-reported confidence before any examination in all levels of medical training is a product of previous experience, attitudinal inclinations overtime, degree of self subjection to tenets of professionalism and possibly, the inadvertent role of the medical school environment including colleagues, teachers and faculty members, comfort, satisfaction and psychosocial stability; which may be addressed as sub-factors that determine the level of preparedness. Let medical schools in Nigeria; adopt...
Bai, Yeon K; Dinour, Lauren M
A proper assessment of multidimensional needs for breastfeeding mothers in various settings is crucial to facilitate and support breastfeeding and its exclusivity. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used frequently to measure factors associated with breastfeeding. Full utility of the TPB requires accurate measurement of theory constructs. Research aim: This study aimed to develop and confirm the psychometric properties of an instrument, Milk Expression on Campus, based on the TPB and to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument. In spring 2015, 218 breastfeeding (current or in the recent past) employees and students at one university campus in northern New Jersey completed the online questionnaire containing demography and theory-based items. Internal consistency (α) and split-half reliability ( r) tests and factor analyses established and confirmed the reliability and construct validity of this instrument. Milk Expression on Campus showed strong and significant reliabilities as a full scale (α = .78, r = .74, p theory construct subscales. Validity was confirmed as psychometric properties corresponded to the factors extracted from the scale. Four factors extracted from the direct construct subscales accounted for 79.49% of the total variability. Four distinct factors from the indirect construct subscales accounted for 73.68% of the total variability. Milk Expression on Campus can serve as a model TPB-based instrument to examine factors associated with women's milk expression behavior. The utility of this instrument extends to designing effective promotion programs to foster breastfeeding and milk expression behaviors in diverse settings.
Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.
Full Text Available In adjustment studies of scales and in terms of cross validity at scale development, confirmatory factor analysis is conducted. Confirmatory factor analysis, multivariate statistics, is estimated via various parameter estimation methods and utilizes several fit indexes for evaluating the model fit. In this study, model fit indexes utilized in confirmatory factor analysis are examined with different parameter estimation methods under different sample sizes. For the purpose of this study, answers of 60, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 students who attended PISA 2012 program were pulled from the answers to two dimensional “thoughts on the importance of mathematics” dimension. Estimations were based on methods of maximum likelihood (ML, unweighted least squares (ULS and generalized least squares (GLS. As a result of the study, it was found that model fit indexes were affected by the conditions, however some fit indexes were affected less than others and vice versa. In order to analyze these, some suggestions were made.
Historical and Landscape approaches to the study of geography are issues that have loomed large in methodological discussions in geography. This paper evaluates and discusses the arguments about historical and landscape geography. It examines the methodological problems in historical and landscape geography,
Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea
The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population—adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to represent these constructs with minimal error and to examine whether residual variance unaccounted for by oral language can be captured by specific factors of syntax and vocabulary. A 1-, 3-, 4-, and bifactor model were tested with 1,792 students in 18 schools in 2 large urban districts in the Southeast. Students were individually administered measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary, syntax, and decoding fluency in mid-year. At the end of the year students took the state reading test as well as a group-administered, norm-referenced test of reading comprehension. The bifactor model fit the data best in all 7 grades and explained 72% to 99% of the variance in reading comprehension. The specific factors of syntax and vocabulary explained significant unique variance in reading comprehension in 1 grade each. The decoding fluency factor was significantly correlated with the reading comprehension and oral language factors in all grades, but, in the presence of the oral language factor, was not significantly associated with the reading comprehension factor. Results support a bifactor model of lexical knowledge rather than the 3-factor model of the Simple View of Reading, with the vast amount of variance in reading comprehension explained by a general oral language factor. PMID:26346839
Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Liu, B.; Liu, C.
Based on procedural modeling approach and buildings 2D GIS data of Shenzhen, 3D external models of buildings are generated by CityEngine in a quick and batch mode. And 3D internal model is generated by vectorization of houses distribution within the target building. Following that, the landscape analysis and the sunlight analysis based on GIS visibility analysis method are applied on 3D model of the target building to get the concrete quantization indexes, such as landscape visual range and sunshine duration which could significantly influence real estate value. Finally, the drawing with 3D visualization effect for landscape information and sunshine information is produced. Compared with traditional manual modeling method, the results showed that rule-based 3D modeling method in CityEngine platform could take full advantage of existing GIS data. It could improve the efficiency of 3D modeling by rapidly and automatically generate refined building 3D models in batch mode. Meanwhile, compared with man-made subjective judgment, the building landscape and sunlight analysis model built by visibility analysis could quantify landscape and sunshine indexes more accurately. Furthermore, the application in real estate mass appraisal model for calculation and analysis will reduce the index errors caused by man-made subjective judgment. In addition, precise 3D visualization effect can provide appraisers with more intuitive and efficient view for real estate expression. It greatly improves the efficiency and accuracy in real estate appraisal.
Full Text Available Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests.
Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras.
Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras
Olivia E. Freeman
the process of taking a landscape approach. Drawing on a review of the literature, we identify and discuss three different kinds of landscape approaches: using the landscape scale, a sectoral landscape approach, and an integrated landscape approach. Focusing on an integrated landscape approach, we examine five concepts to help characterize landscape approaches: multifunctionality, transdisciplinarity, participation, complexity, and sustainability. For each term, a continuum of application exists. To help improve and move the integrated landscape approach more toward operationalization, more focus needs to be placed on the process of taking the approach. Although the process can be implemented in a range of ways, in a more integrated approach it will require explicitly defined objectives as well as a clear understanding of what is meant by multifunctionality and sustainability. It will also require collaborative participation, transdisciplinarity/cross-sectoral approaches, managing for adaptive capacity, and applying an iterative process to address the inherent complexity within the system. Although these concepts are not new, we present continuums on which they can exist, allowing for clarification and distinctions to be made regarding what it means to take a landscape approach.
Bridgewater, P. B.
Biodiversity and landscape pattern and process are inextricably linked. Maximum biodiversity occurs where landscape patterns and processes are most heterogeneous. Human use of landscapes in Australia and New Zealand has changed biodiversity patterns. European settlement introduced many species from Europe, America, Africa and Asia to the landscapes of Australia and New Zealand. These species have caused a decline in native biodiversity of much greater significance than their addition to the biodiversity. Future landscape management should seek to maintain maximum landscape heterogeneity, thereby ensuring the maximum persistence of biodiversity.
Elizabeth Kim, B K; Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David
This paper examined proximal and distal effects of protective factors specified in the social development model (SDM) on youth violence among high-risk youth. Data come from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of development from childhood into adulthood. A community sample of 808 participants from the Seattle Public School District was surveyed from the 5th grade through adulthood. This paper uses data from participants' adolescent years, ages 10-18. Higher levels of protective factors in early and middle adolescence reduced the odds of violence during late adolescence in the full sample and in two different risk groups (high cumulative risk and low SES). Although risk exposure increased the odds of violence, protective factors in middle adolescence predicted lower odds of violence during late adolescence. Importantly, protective factors had a greater effect in reducing violence among youth exposed to high levels of cumulative risk than among youth exposed to lower levels of cumulative risk. This difference was not observed between youth from higher and lower SES families. Protective factors specified in the SDM appear to reduce violence in late adolescence even among youth from low SES families and youth exposed to high levels of cumulative risk.
Han, Huiwu; Zhao, Liqun; Yu, Renhe; Chen, Nengfeng; Liu, Yun; He, Lianxiang; Xiao, Ying; Zhou, Shi
To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behavior on blood lipid among people in Changsha and to provide evidences for prevention and control of blood lipid abnormality. A total of 400 cases were randomly selected on the questionnaire of the knowledge, attitude and behavior on blood lipid in ordinary adults who participate in health examination in Xiangya Hospital. Blood lipid related physical examination was conducted at the same time. The health examination participants were divided into several groups according to their sex, age, degree of education, marriage and family income. The influential factors for knowledge, attitude and behavior were analyzed. The knowledge score of blood lipid for health examination participants was 18.33±8.67 (total score 37), the attitude score was 6.63±2.45 (total score 9) and the behavior score was 8.32±2.65 (total score 16). The scores of female was higher than that of male in the terms of knowledge and behavior (both Pattitude of blood lipid was influenced by four factors such as education background, systemic blood pressure, blood sugar and triglyceride(all Pattitude and behavior on blood lipid among health examination participants were mostly influenced by education background, gender and ages. Thus, clinical medical staff should prevent the blood lipid abnormality through the health education and improve the knowledge in normal people. The group of 40-49 age male should be thought as the primary intervention subjects. The knowledge, attitude and behavior on blood lipid among the general population is also related to individual's blood pressure, blood sugar and triglyceride. So the clinical medical staff should also improve the knowledge of blood lipid, blood pressure and blood sugar in general population for improving their attitude and unhealthy habits. In addition, the active control of blood sugar and blood pressure can enhance the overall health status of the general population.
Fleming, Charles B; Guttmannova, Katarina; Cambron, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina
As marijuana laws have become more permissive, survey data on adolescents in the United States have shown an increase in marijuana-specific risk factors, particularly in the proportion of youth who do not perceive marijuana use as harmful. Prevalence of marijuana use among youth, however, has changed little. Using representative data from Washington State, which has legalized medical and nonmedical marijuana for adults, we examined two competing hypotheses to account for this divergence in population trends. Data were from 2000 to 2014 biennial Washington State surveys of 10th-grade students. First, we assessed whether associations between marijuana use and marijuana-specific risk factors have weakened over time. Second, we examined whether decreases in alcohol and cigarette use can account for the lack of expected increase in marijuana use prevalence. Despite stability in marijuana use prevalence, there were increases in marijuana-specific risk factors of low perceived harm, youth favorable attitudes about use, and perceived community attitudes favorable to use. Associations between marijuana use and marijuana use predictors varied little across time; if anything, the positive association between low perceived harm and marijuana use grew stronger. Decreases in prevalence of alcohol and cigarette use largely accounted for stability in marijuana use during a period when marijuana risk factors increased. Decreases in other types of substance use or in the underlying, common risk for substance use may have mitigated effects of increases in marijuana-specific risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahoney, Emery B; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Leone, Sarah L; Ghuman, Jaswinder Kaur
Deficits in the capacity to engage in social interactions are a core deficit associated with Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These deficits emerge at a young age, making screening for social interaction deficits and interventions targeted at improving capacity in this area important for early identification and intervention. Screening and early intervention efforts are particularly important given the poor short and long term outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) who experience social interaction deficits. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI) is a well-validated screening measure that examines a child's capacity for social interaction using a developmental approach. The present study identified four underlying factors measured by the SSI, namely, Connection with Caregiver, Interaction/Imagination, Social Approach/Interest, and Agreeable Nature. The resulting factors were utilized to compare social interaction profiles across groups of children with AD, PDD-NOS, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions and typically developing children. The results indicate that children with AD and those with PDD-NOS had similar social interaction profiles, but were able to be distinguished from typically developing children on every factor and were able to be distinguished from children with non-ASD psychiatric conditions on every factor except the Connection with Caregiver factor. In addition, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions could be distinguished from typically developing children on the Connection with Caregiver factor and the Social Approach/Interest factor. These findings have implications for screening and intervention for children with ASDs and non-ASD psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rhee, Chae-Seo; Wee, Jee Hye; Ahn, Jae-Cheul; Lee, Woo Hyun; Tan, Keng Lu; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Lee, Chul-Hee; Cho, Yang-Sun; Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Kyung-Su; Lee, Ari; Kim, Jeong-Whun
There has been no nationwide epidemiological investigation of allergic rhinitis (AR) that was diagnosed by both questionnaires and laboratory tests in Korea. This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of AR in South Korea. The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey examined a representative sample of the Korean population. A total of 2305 participants underwent immunoradiometric assay for specific IgE antibodies against common indoor allergens. Healthy, atopy only, and AR groups were defined according to the results of allergen test. The weighted prevalence for each group was calculated. Risk factors including food and comorbidities were identified using univariate or multivariate analyses. The patients were also categorized into four subgroups according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification and associated comorbidities were analyzed. The prevalence of atopy only and AR was 30.0 ± 1.2% and 16.2 ± 1.0%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence was influenced by sex (p rhinitis was most common (58.1%). Asthma was correlated to severity and atopic dermatitis and NPs was associated with persistency. Daily intake of less mackerel and more carrots, bread, and bean curd were associated with the increased risk of AR. Prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of AR were evaluated in the general Korean population, which will contribute to prevention and treatment of AR and its comorbidities in Koreans.
of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...... more stringent. One of the factors inhibiting development seems to be uncertainty in planning about the future impact on landscapes. Visual impact has rarely been an issue so far, but ever-increasing turbine size and less local involvement may change this. This paper presents a deterministic approach...... of turbines in the period of 1990 to 2010, based on historical and planning data. Multiple viewsheds are calculated for various thresholds of visual impact and overlaid with population and land-use data. The results show that a decrease in the number of turbines by about 40% and an increase in installed...
Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun
Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.
Full Text Available Aim of this paper was to examine of factors (manufacturer, temperature and storage time influencing the variability of yeast amount and pH changes in bottled white wines. It was confirmed that wine coming from the business network was better quality in contract to domestic wine. We have assumed that domestic wine was contaminated during the manufacturing process, while the most probable reason was imperfect filtration of wine, or its contamination during the bottling. The results showed that the way of storage wine in the room, resp. cooler temperature did not significant effect on changes in the amount of yeast (p-hodnota=0.2080. Regarding the period of storage of wine, the conclusions are identical to the previous factor, ie. storage time not significantly impacted amount of yeast in wine (p-value=0.5507. doi:10.5219/151
Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe
Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.
Gu, Yaming; Li, Lu; Zhou, Chi; Yang, Tingzhong; Dong, Hengjin
Premarital medical examination (PME) compliance rate has dropped drastically since it became voluntary in China in 2003. This study aimed to establish a prediction model to be a theoretic framework for analyzing factors affecting PME compliance in Zhejiang province, China. A culturally-tailored health behavioral model combining the Health Behavioral Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was established to analyze the data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey (n = 2,572) using the intercept method at the county marriage registration office in 12 counties from Zhejiang in 2010. Participants were grouped by high (n = 1,795) and low (n = 777) social desirability responding tendency (SDRT) by Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate behavioral determinants for their influences on PME compliance in both high and low SDRT groups. 69.8% of the participants had high SDRT and tended to overly report benefits and underreport barriers, which may affect prediction accuracy on PME participation. In the low SDRT group, the prediction model showed the most influencing factor on PME compliance was behavioral intention, with standardized structural coefficients (SSCs) being 0.75 (P norms (SSCs = 0.22, P norms were more crucial predictors for PME compliance than perceived threat (SSCs = 0.36, 0.269, and -0.06, respectively). County environmental factors played a role in PME compliance while less influential than behavioral determinates (16% vs. 84% in across factor variance partition coefficient). PME compliance might be influenced by demographic, behavioral, and social environmental factors. The verified prediction model was tested to be an effective theoretic framework for the prediction of factors affecting voluntary PME compliance. It also should be noted that internationally available behavioral theories and models need to be culturally tailored to adapt to particular populations. This
Gary H. Elsner
Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.
Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian
Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...
Xin Xu; Shifu Xiao; Tri Budi Rahardjo; Eef Hogervorst
Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM) in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM case...
Full Text Available Models of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA are frequently applied to examine the convergent validity of scores obtained from multiple raters or methods in so-called multitrait-multimethod (MTMM investigations. Many applications of CFA-MTMM and similarly structured models result in solutions in which at least one method (or specific factor shows non-significant loading or variance estimates. Eid et al. (2008 distinguished between MTMM measurement designs with interchangeable (randomly selected versus structurally different (fixed methods and showed that each type of measurement design implies specific CFA-MTMM measurement models. In the current study, we hypothesized that some of the problems that are commonly seen in applications of CFA-MTMM models may be due to a mismatch between the underlying measurement design and fitted models. Using simulations, we found that models with M method factors (where M is the total number of methods and unconstrained loadings led to a higher proportion of solutions in which at least one method factor became empirically unstable when these models were fit to data generated from structurally different methods. The simulations also revealed that commonly used model goodness-of-fit criteria frequently failed to identify incorrectly specified CFA-MTMM models. We discuss implications of these findings for other complex CFA models in which similar issues occur, including nested (bifactor and latent state-trait models.
Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun
Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Student’s t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and
Full Text Available Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems.
In this quantitative study, a survey was developed and administered to middle and high school teachers to examine what factors motivated them to implement problem-based learning (PBL). Using Expectancy-Value Theory by Eccles et al. (1983) and Self-Determination Theory by Ryan and Deci (2000b) as the theoretical framework, this instrument measured respondents' perceived competence, support for autonomy and relatedness, and value and cost they placed on implementing PBL. Data analyses indicated that the instrument had good reliability. A 3-factor structure was established by exploratory factor analysis which confirmed the construct validity of the instrument. Value of PBL to teachers and their students was the most dominant factor that motivated teachers to implement it. The second most important factor was their self-efficacy and anxiety about failing this pedagogy, and the third factor was teachers' perceived autonomy, and support from schools and colleagues. Regression models showed the predictive power of the factors on teachers' intention to implement PBL, with their perceptions of the value of PBL being the strongest predictor. Results also indicate that teachers with PBL experience perceived significantly higher levels of competence and support from peers, and placed a higher level of value and perceived less cost in implementing PBL than teachers who had not implemented PBL. Teachers' formal training in PBL played a significant role in positively influencing their perceptions of competence and the value of PBL, and reduced their perceived cost of implementing PBL. This, in turn, enhanced teachers' intention of practicing PBL. For teachers who had previously taught with PBL, their responses to two open-ended questions in this instrument corresponded with the theoretical framework of this study and triangulated well with the quantitative data. These teachers highly valued PBL and they recognized the challenges associated with its implementation. These teachers
Mann, Carsten; Plieninger, Tobias
This paper combines conceptual thinking and empirical analysis of landscape labelling as a new governance approach. With the help of a literature review and qualitative interviews, we (1) explore the conceptual orientation of landscape labelling, (2) analyse existing approaches in Europe and (3......) elaborate its potential for integrated landscape management on a regional scale. Governance analysis to identify fostering and hindering factors is carried out for regional brands in biosphere reserves in Germany, geographic indication in Spain, organic agriculture in France and a community forest...... in England. We argue that landscape labelling can highlight the multitude of landscape functions and values, target a broader range of stakeholders and act as a boundary object and exchange platform for rural transformation, experimentation and learning. However, landscape labels are no panacea, but one...
Jesurasa, Amrita; Mackenzie, Kelly; Jordan, Hannah; Goyder, Elizabeth C
The "flipped classroom," a pedagogical model where typical lecture and homework elements are reversed, is being advocated in medical education to support the teaching of a large curriculum. However, research into the use of this model in postgraduate medical education, which requires the application of acquired knowledge, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to engagement with the flipped classroom model in preparation for the written element of postgraduate membership examinations. Three focus groups (n=14) were held between February and June 2016. Participants were drawn from a membership examination preparation course, run by the University of Shef-field. Two of the groups (n=10) involved "students" (public health registrars) while the other focus group (n=4) was held with "tutors" (experienced registrars and consultants). The focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using both predetermined and emergent themes. Key themes that emerged from the data included variation in learning and teaching styles of individuals as well as the feasibility and flexibility of the overall course design. However, management of students' expectations was found to be the fundamental factor, which underpinned the engagement. The complex interaction of factors affecting engagement in this study highlights the need to consider the appropriateness of the flipped classroom model. However, this must be balanced by the potential benefits of the approach for delivering a large curriculum. Recognizing the central importance of managing expectations at the outset would be useful when considering this model in postgraduate medical education.
Kwon, Min A; Shim, Woo Seok; Kim, Myung Hee; Gwak, Mi Sook; Hahm, Tae Soo; Kim, Gaab Soo; Kim, Chung Su; Choi, Yoon Ho; Park, Jeong Heon; Cho, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Hyeong
Many factors are associated with the development of low back pain. Among them, exercise, obesity, smoking, age, educational level and stress are the most common. This study examined the association of these factors with low back pain. An additional aim was to determine a procedure for preventing low back pain. This study analyzed the responses to a questionnaire sent to 772 individuals who had undergone a medical examination at this hospital in 2003 and excluded the individuals who had shown symptoms or their test results indicated a particular disease. Assuming that there were no variables, individuals who exercised regularly 3-4 times per week would have a lower chance of having low back pain than those who did not exercise regularly. The analysis revealed that individuals with a college degree or higher education have a lower chance of experiencing low back pain than those with only a high school education or even college drop-outs. When the other variables were constant, age, extent of obesity (body mass index), smoking and level of stress were not found to affect the development of low back pain. The level of education was associated with the development of low back pain. However, regular exercise 3-4 times per week or more would be most effective in reducing the incidence and duration of low back pain.
Full Text Available Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia.Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006 administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311. We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation.Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene.Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:324–328.
Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.
Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With
Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael
This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman  Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae  Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck  Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Schritz, Anna; Barré, Jessica; Delagardelle, Charles; Krippler, Serge; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Stranges, Saverio
Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but it remains the main cause of death in Luxembourg. We aimed to estimate the current prevalence of hypertension, associated risk factors, and its geographic variation in Luxembourg.Cross-sectional, population-based data on 1497 randomly selected Luxembourg residents aged 25 to 64 years were collected as part of the European Health Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg, self-report of a physician diagnosis or on antihypertensive medication. Standard and Bayesian regressions were used to examine associations between hypertension and covariates, and also geographic distribution of hypertension across the country.Nearly 31% of Luxembourg residents were hypertensive, and over 70% of those were either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled. The likelihood of hypertension was lower in men more physically active (odds ratio [95% credible region] 0.6 [0.4, 0.9]) and consuming alcohol daily (0.3 [0.1, 0.8]), and higher in men with a poor health perception (1.6 [1.0, 2.7]) and in women experiencing depressive symptoms (1.8 [1.3, 2.7]). There were geographic variations in hypertension prevalence across cantons and municipalities. The highest odds ratio was observed in the most industrialized region (South-West) (1.2 [0.9, 1.6]) with a positive effect at 90% credible region.In Luxembourg, the vast majority of people with hypertension are either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled, which constitutes a major, neglected public health challenge. There are geographic variations in hypertension prevalence in Luxembourg, hence the role of individual and regional risk factors along with public health initiatives to reduce disease burden should be considered.
Menzel, Michael, A., Jr.
Menzel, M.A. 2003. An examination of factors influencing the spatial distribution of foraging bats in pine stands in the Southeastern United States. Ph.D Dissertation. Davis College of Agriculture, Forestry and Consumer Sciences at West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia. 336 pp. The general objective of this dissertation was to determine the effect of changes in forest structure on bat activity patterns in southern pine stands. Four sub studies are included in the dissertation: (1) An examination of the homerange size, habitat use and diet of four reproductively active male Rafinesque's big eared bats (Corynorhimus rafinesquii); (2) An examination of the diet of 5 reproductively active male Rafinesque's big eared bats; (3) A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 vegetational community types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature plantations, and pine savannahs; (4) A summarization of information concerning the natural history of all bat species common in the SPR.
Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M
This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Vadaparampil Susan T
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime testicular cancer (TC risk in the general population is relatively low (~1 in 250, but men with a family history of TC are at 4 to 9 times greater risk than those without. Some health and professional organizations recommend consideration of testicular self-examination (TSE for certain high-risk groups (e.g. men with a family history of TC. Yet little is known about factors associated with TSE behaviors in this at-risk group. Methods We collected information on this subject during an on-going NCI multidisciplinary, etiologically-focused, cross-sectional Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC study. We present the first report specifically targeting TSE behaviors among first- and second-degree relatives (n = 99 of affected men from families with ≥ 2 TC cases. Demographic, medical, knowledge, health belief, and psychological factors consistent with the Health Belief Model (HBM were evaluated as variables related to TSE behavior, using chi-square tests of association for categorical variables, and t-tests for continuous variables. Results For men in our sample, 46% (n = 46 reported performing TSE regularly and 51% (n = 50 reported not regularly performing TSE. Factors associated (p Conclusion The findings suggest that, even in this high-risk setting, TSE practices are sub-optimal. Our data provide a basis for further exploring psychosocial issues that are specific to men with a family history of TC, and formulating intervention strategies aimed at improving adherence to TSE guidelines.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, diabetes, and high total cholesterol (TC) by BMI categories. Data from the National Health Examination Survey III of Thai adults aged≥18 years were used. Age and sex-adjusted prevalence and awareness of the 3 risk factors increased with increases in BMI categories. Proportions of awareness of hypertension, diabetes, and high TC were 27.9%, 33.4%, and 13.6%, respectively, in the BMI≥30 kg/m2 group. The highest treatment rates of 19.0% for hypertension and 10.1% for high TC were found in the BMI≥30 kg/m2 group and the highest treatment rate of 33.6% for diabetes in the 25 to 30 kg/m2 BMI group. There were no significant differences in the control rates of these risk factors across BMI groups. Improvement in detection, treatment, and control of these metabolic risk factors in all BMI subgroups is critical.
Nowrouzi, Behdin; Rukholm, Ellen; Lariviere, Michel; Carter, Lorraine; Koren, Irene; Mian, Oxana; Giddens, Emilia
The purpose of the study was to examine factors related to the retention of registered nurses in northeastern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey of registered nurses working in northeastern Ontario, Canada was conducted. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider intent to stay in current employment in relation to the following: 1) demographic factors, and 2) occupation and career satisfaction factors. A total of 459 (29.8% response rate) questionnaires were completed. The adjusted odds logistic regression analysis of RNs who intended to remain in their current position for the next five years, demonstrated that respondents in the 46 to 56 age group (OR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.50 to 4.69), the importance of staff development in the organization (OR: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.13 to 8.13) northeastern Ontario lifestyle (OR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.55 to 4.40), working in nursing for 14 to 22.5 years (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.93), and working between 0 to 1 hour of overtime per week (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.20 to 4.64) were significant factors in staying in their current position for the next five years. This study shows that a further understanding of the work environment could assist with developing retention for rural nurses. Furthermore, employers may use such information to ameliorate the working conditions of nurses, while researchers may use such evidence to develop interventions that are applicable to improving the working conditions of nurses.
N. H. K. Linh
Full Text Available Studying temporal changes of land use and land cover (LULC from satellite images has been conducted in Vietnam several years. However, few studies have been done to consider seriously the relationship between LULC changes and the fragmentation of landscape. Hence, analysing the changes of LULC and landscape pattern helps revealing the interactions between anthropogenic factors and the environment, through which planning actions could be effectively supported. The present study aimed to examine these changes in the surroundings of Danang City, Vietnam from 1979 to 2009 based on Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and ASTER satellite images. The Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD approach was employed for processing and postclassification change detection, from which key landscape indices were applied by using FRAGSTATS. The results showed that during the whole study period, there was a notable decrease of forestland, shrub, agriculture and barren while urban areas expanded dramatically. Further spatial analysis by using landscape metrics underlined the evidence of changes in landscape characteristics with an increase in total number of patches and patch density while the mean patch area decreased during the span of 30 years. Consequently, the landscape structure of Danang city became more fragmented and heterogeneous.
Matsuda, Yui; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Knafl, George J; Worthington, Everett L; Jallo, Nancy; Corona, Rosalie
The ability to influence partners' actions within an intimate relationship (sexual relationship power [SRP]) is a key concept in achieving optimum family planning (FP) among U.S. Latinos. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between relationship/FP factors and SRP. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to analyze data for 40 couples. Both men's and women's sexual communications were positively associated with SRP, only women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with SRP, women's general communication was negatively associated with men's SRP, and men's contraception attitudes were negatively associated with SRP. Couples interventions are needed, which account for SRP and gender differences. These findings provide direction for developing targeted interventions to achieve better FP for Latino couples.
Jesurasa, Amrita; Mackenzie, Kelly; Jordan, Hannah; Goyder, Elizabeth C
Background The “flipped classroom,” a pedagogical model where typical lecture and homework elements are reversed, is being advocated in medical education to support the teaching of a large curriculum. However, research into the use of this model in postgraduate medical education, which requires the application of acquired knowledge, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to engagement with the flipped classroom model in preparation for the written element of postgraduate membership examinations. Methods Three focus groups (n=14) were held between February and June 2016. Participants were drawn from a membership examination preparation course, run by the University of Shef-field. Two of the groups (n=10) involved “students” (public health registrars) while the other focus group (n=4) was held with “tutors” (experienced registrars and consultants). The focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using both predetermined and emergent themes. Results Key themes that emerged from the data included variation in learning and teaching styles of individuals as well as the feasibility and flexibility of the overall course design. However, management of students’ expectations was found to be the fundamental factor, which underpinned the engagement. Conclusion The complex interaction of factors affecting engagement in this study highlights the need to consider the appropriateness of the flipped classroom model. However, this must be balanced by the potential benefits of the approach for delivering a large curriculum. Recognizing the central importance of managing expectations at the outset would be useful when considering this model in postgraduate medical education. PMID:28721116
Kleiman, Evan M; Turner, Brianna J; Fedor, Szymon; Beale, Eleanor E; Huffman, Jeff C; Nock, Matthew K
Two studies examined 2 important but previously unanswered questions about the experience of suicidal ideation: (a) How does suicidal ideation vary over short periods of time?, and (b) To what degree do risk factors for suicidal ideation vary over short periods and are such changes associated with changes in suicidal ideation? Participants in Study 1 were 54 adults who had attempted suicide in the previous year and completed 28 days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA; average of 2.51 assessments per day; 2,891 unique assessments). Participants in Study 2 were 36 adult psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide risk who completed EMA throughout their time in the hospital (average stay of 10.32 days; average 2.48 assessments per day; 649 unique assessments). These studies revealed 2 key findings: (a) For nearly all participants, suicidal ideation varied dramatically over the course of most days: more than 1-quarter (Study 1 = 29%; Study 2 = 28%) of all ratings of suicidal ideation were a standard deviation above or below the previous response from a few hours earlier and nearly all (Study 1 = 94.1%; Study 2 = 100%) participants had at least 1 instance of intensity of suicidal ideation changing by a standard deviation or more from 1 response to the next. (b) Across both studies, well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation such as hopelessness, burdensomeness, and loneliness also varied considerably over just a few hours and correlated with suicidal ideation, but were limited in predicting short-term change in suicidal ideation. These studies represent the most fine-grained examination of suicidal ideation ever conducted. The results advance the understanding of how suicidal ideation changes over short periods and provide a novel method of improving the short-term prediction of suicidal ideation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Pradipasen, Mandhana
To examine the fruit and vegetable consumption in Thailand, the percentage of Thais meeting recommended intakes and the association with sociodemographic factors. Cross-sectional survey with a stratified, three-stage, cluster probability sampling design. Community-dwelling men and women participating in the Thailand National Health Examination Survey III. A total of 39 290 individuals aged >or=15 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics and fruit and vegetable consumption. Daily fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated through the use of a short semi-qualitative FFQ. Overall, participants had average frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption equal to 4.56 and 5.97 d/week, respectively. Average daily number of servings of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables were 1.46, 1.78 and 3.24, respectively. Intake amounts of fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables varied by marital status and region, and were lower among males (except for vegetable intake), those of older age, those with low educational attainment, those with low monthly household income and those living in a rural area. Only 1/3, 1/4 and 1/4 of the population consumed the recommended >or=2, >or=3 and >or=5 servings/d for fruit, vegetables and fruit plus vegetables. Sociodemographic factors related to meeting the recommended intake of >or=5 servings/d for fruit plus vegetables included being female (OR = 1.13) and household income >or=50,000 Baht/month (OR = 1.66). The amounts of fruit and vegetables consumed by Thai participants were far below the level of current recommendations. Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables should be targeted more towards low socio-economic groups.
Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie
We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jesmin, Syeda S
One-third of the women worldwide experience intimate partner violence (IPV) that increases their vulnerability to both short- and long-term physical, sexual, reproductive, and mental health problems. Surprisingly, IPV is justified by many women globally. Although the IPV literature to date is mostly focused on risk factors associated with actual occurrences, little is known on attitudinal acceptance of such violence. Also, despite the growing scholarship of community influence and health link, IPV research has relatively overlooked the effects of norms at the community level. Using a representative national sample of 13,611 married women in Bangladesh, this study examined the association of community attitudes and women's individual attitudes toward wife beating. The results revealed that women living in communities with permissive attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to justify husbands' beating (OR=4.5). Women married at a younger age, who had less than primary-level education, lived in households categorized as poor or middle class, and did not consume media appeared to be at higher risk for justifying wife beating. This research adds to a growing research body on community influences on health by examining IPV attitudes and community norms link.
O'Byrne Kenneth J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Thromboxane synthase (TXS metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and/or a survival factor in the disease. Methods TXS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by western analysis and IHC. TXS metabolite (TXB2 levels were measured by EIA. A 204-patient NSCLC TMA was stained for COX-2 and downstream TXS expression. TXS tissue expression was correlated with clinical parameters, including overall survival. Cell proliferation/survival and invasion was examined in NSCLC cells following both selective TXS inhibition and stable TXS over-expression. Results TXS was over-expressed in human NSCLC samples, relative to matched normal controls. TXS and TXB2 levels were increased in protein (p p p p Conclusion TXS is over-expressed in NSCLC, particularly in the adenocarcinoma subtype. Inhibition of this enzyme inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. Targeting thromboxane synthase alone, or in combination with conventional chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.
Bourne, Paul A; McGrowder, Donovan A
Poverty is mainly concentrated in rural areas. Rural populations also generally experience excessive deficiencies in healthcare access, social services, and other goods and services needed for healthy living. This study investigated the health status and determining factors of Jamaican rural residents in order to provide healthcare practitioners and policy makers with research findings to assist in effectively addressing health in rural Jamaica. The current research used a sub-sample of 15 260 respondents. The sub-sample was taken from a national cross-sectional study of 25 018 respondents from the 14 parishes of the island. The survey from which the present study is drawn used a stratified random probability sampling technique to draw the 25 018 respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the demographic characteristics of the sub-sample population. The model will be established using logistic regression using statistically significant (p health (n = 2554), 82.8% (n = 12 285) reported good health and 5.9% (n = 873) reported private health insurance coverage. The model used had statistically significant predictive power (model chi2 = 15939.9, p goodness of fit, chi2 = 14.46, p = 0.71). It was found that 85.1% (n = 4738) of the data were correctly classified. Of those with good health, 97.2% (n = 4387) were correctly classified, while of those with poor health, 38.6% (n = 451) were correctly classified. Some 12 factors can be used to predict the health status of rural residents in Jamaica with chi2(28) = 1595.03, p health status. An examination of the predictors revealed that the six most influential in descending order were: health insurance coverage (Wald statistic = 492.556; OR = 0.044, 95% CI: 0.033-0.058, p good health, and the 12 factors accounted for 38% of the variability in good health. Of the 12 factors, ownership of health insurance was the most significant and this is negatively associated with good health status
Scott, Shannon D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Karunamuni, Nandini; Bize, Raphaël; Rodgers, Wendy
There is an emerging knowledge base on the effectiveness of strategies to close the knowledge-practice gap. However, less is known about how attributes of an innovation and other contextual and situational factors facilitate and impede an innovation's adoption. The Healthy Heart Kit (HHK) is a risk management and patient education resource for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and promotion of cardiovascular health. Although previous studies have demonstrated the HHK's content validity and practical utility, no published study has examined physicians' uptake of the HHK and factors that shape its adoption. Conceptually informed by Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation theory, and Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study had two objectives: (1) to determine if specific attributes of the HHK as well as contextual and situational factors are associated with physicians' intention and actual usage of the HHK kit; and (2), to determine if any contextual and situational factors are associated with individual or environmental barriers that prevent the uptake of the HHK among those physicians who do not plan to use the kit. A sample of 153 physicians who responded to an invitation letter sent to all family physicians in the province of Alberta, Canada were recruited for the study. Participating physicians were sent a HHK, and two months later a study questionnaire assessed primary factors on the physicians' clinical practice, attributes of the HHK (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability), confidence and control using the HHK, barriers to use, and individual attributes. All measures were used in path analysis, employing a causal model based on Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Theory of Planned Behaviour. 115 physicians (follow up rate of 75%) completed the questionnaire. Use of the HHK was associated with intention to use the HHK, relative advantage, and years of experience. Relative advantage and the observability of the
Plotnikoff Ronald C
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging knowledge base on the effectiveness of strategies to close the knowledge-practice gap. However, less is known about how attributes of an innovation and other contextual and situational factors facilitate and impede an innovation's adoption. The Healthy Heart Kit (HHK is a risk management and patient education resource for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD and promotion of cardiovascular health. Although previous studies have demonstrated the HHK's content validity and practical utility, no published study has examined physicians' uptake of the HHK and factors that shape its adoption. Objectives Conceptually informed by Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation theory, and Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study had two objectives: (1 to determine if specific attributes of the HHK as well as contextual and situational factors are associated with physicians' intention and actual usage of the HHK kit; and (2, to determine if any contextual and situational factors are associated with individual or environmental barriers that prevent the uptake of the HHK among those physicians who do not plan to use the kit. Methods A sample of 153 physicians who responded to an invitation letter sent to all family physicians in the province of Alberta, Canada were recruited for the study. Participating physicians were sent a HHK, and two months later a study questionnaire assessed primary factors on the physicians' clinical practice, attributes of the HHK (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability, confidence and control using the HHK, barriers to use, and individual attributes. All measures were used in path analysis, employing a causal model based on Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results 115 physicians (follow up rate of 75% completed the questionnaire. Use of the HHK was associated with intention to use the HHK, relative advantage, and years of
Ortiz, Edwin; Shorey, Ryan C; Cornelius, Tara L
Dating violence is a serious problem among college students. Research indicates that females perpetrate as much, if not more, psychological and physical aggression against their dating partners relative to their male counterparts. Unfortunately, there is considerably less research on risk factors for female-perpetrated dating violence, hindering efforts aimed at preventing violence in their relationships. This study examined 2 risk factors for female-perpetrated dating violence, namely alcohol use and emotion regulation, within a sample of undergraduate female college students (N = 379). Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that emotion regulation was associated with psychological aggression perpetration, and this was partially mediated by alcohol use. Moreover, a 2-chain mediation was present, such that emotion regulation deficits predicted alcohol use, which in turn predicted psychological aggression, which finally predicted physical aggression. These findings are consistent with theoretical models of dating violence and indicate that intervention programs should focus their efforts on increasing adaptive emotion regulation, decreasing alcohol use, and reducing psychological aggression.
Chen, Shu-Ling; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Hsieh, Mei-Mei; Lee, Lin-Lin; Tzeng, Ya-Ling
Nurses are the most visible, frontline personnel providing health education to patients. In particular, nurse experience with Pap examinations have the potential to influence women's attitudes toward screening for cervical cancer. However, nurses in Taiwan have lower rates of Pap testing than the general population. Understanding the factors predicting nurse intent to have a Pap exam and Pap exam status would inform interventions and policies to increase their Pap exam uptake. Therefore, the present study was undertaken. Data were collected by questionnaire from a convenient sample of 504 nurses at a regional hospital in central Taiwan between August and October 2011 and analyzed by descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, and logistic regression. Nurse intention to have a Pap exam was predicted by younger age, less negative attitudes toward Pap exams, and greater influence of others recommendations. However, nurses were more likely to actually have had a Pap exam if they were older, married, had sexual experience, and had a high intention to have a Pap exam. Nurses who are younger than 34 years old, unmarried, sexually inexperienced, and with low intention to have a Pap exam should be targeted with interventions to educate them not only about the importance of Pap exams in detecting cervical cancer, but also about strategies to decrease pain and embarrassment during exams. Nurses with less negative attitudes and experiences related to Pap exams would serve as role models to persuade women to have Pap exams, thus increasing the uptake rate of Pap exams in Taiwan.
Zhang, Weijun; Pritzker, Sonya E.; Hui, Ka-Kit
Aim. This study identifies existing definitions and approaches among China's integrative medicine (IM) experts and examines relationships with key characteristics distinguishing individual experts. Methods. Snowball sampling was used to select 73 IM experts for semistructured interviews. In this mixed methods study, we first identified definitions and approaches through analyzing core statements. Four key factors, including age, education, practice type, and working environment, were then chosen to evaluate the associations with the definitions. Results. Four unique definitions were identified, including IM as a “new medicine” (D1), as a combination of western medicine (WM) and Chinese medicine (CM) (D2), as a modernization of CM (D3), and as a westernization of CM (D4). D4 was mostly supported by those working in WM organizations, while D3 was more prominent from individuals working in CM organizations (P = 0.00004). More than 64% clinicians had D2 while only 1 (5.9%) nonclinician had D2. Only 1 clinician (1.8%) had D4 while almost 30% nonclinicians had D4 (P = 0.0001). Among nonclinicians working in WM organizations, 83.3% of them had D4 (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Findings indicate that institutional structure and practice type are factors affecting IM approaches. These results carry implications for the ways in which western countries move forward with the definition and implementation of IM. PMID:25792999
Eun Chul Kim
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older. METHODS: A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history. RESULTS: Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia ( 0.5 D were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4-48.8, 4.0% (CI, 3.7-4.3, and 24.2% (CI, 23.6-24.8, respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4 in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3 in 60-69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001, education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001, and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7% was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.
Carr, Bruce Henry
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified
Lidy, Christopher James
How do different methods employed by landscape architects impact the design outcome? This paper identifies and defines design methods in landscape architecture that may be classified as part of four internal and external connections and structures categories. Methods are further examined through two design exercises. In the first design exercise, the identified methods are individually applied to the same simple design which is used as a control. The only variable changed is the method used ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with negative direct sputum examination among African and Cambodian patients co-infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter study (ANRS1260 conducted in Cambodia, Senegal and Central African Republic. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression were used to identify clinical and radiological features associated with negative direct sputum examination in HIV-infected patients with positive M. tuberculosis culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. RESULTS: Between September 2002 and December 2005, 175 co-infected patients were hospitalized with at least one respiratory symptom and pulmonary radiographic anomaly. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB examination was positive in sputum samples from 110 subjects (63% and negative in 65 patients (37%. Most patients were at an advanced stage of HIV disease (92% at stage III or IV of the WHO classification with a median CD4 cell count of 36/mm³. In this context, we found that sputum AFB negativity was more frequent in co-infected subjects with associated respiratory tract infections (OR = 2.8 [95%CI:1.1-7.0], dyspnea (OR = 2.5 [95%CI:1.1-5.6], and localized interstitial opacities (OR = 3.1 [95%CI:1.3-7.6], but was less frequent with CD4 ≤ 50/mm³ (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.90, adenopathies (OR = 0.4 [95%CI:0.2-0.93] and cavitation (OR = 0.1 [95%CI:0.03-0.6]. CONCLUSIONS: One novel finding of this study is the association between concomitant respiratory tract infection and negative sputum AFB, particularly in Cambodia. This finding suggests that repeating AFB testing in AFB-negative patients should be conducted when broad spectrum antibiotic treatment does not lead to complete recovery from respiratory symptoms. In HIV-infected patients with a CD4 cell count below 50/mm3 without an identified cause of pneumonia, systematic AFB direct sputum examination is justified because of atypical clinical
Following 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind energy landscapes are going to face changes. Ceased on-shore construction, unresolved re-powering and stalled regional planning characterize the situation overshadowed by off-shore development. One of the factors inhibiting development...... in general. However, the pattern of visibility will become askew, and the present homogenous distribution of visibility will disappear. This skewness, together with changing ownership and receding local involvement, could eventually lead to lower popular acceptance of wind power....
This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use......-patterns close to roads, but also intercepted the central lines of movement and conflicted with previous ways of organizing the landscape. This development is interpreted as a different form of large-scale landholding, in which livestock possibly played a dominant role and boundaries were used to confiscate land...... in the zones bordering suitable pastures. This situation shows obvious parallels with southern Britain centuries earlier. It is discussed how the study of these physical boundaries provides new insights into the organization of pre-Roman landscapes, not only demonstrating a continuing engagement with landscape...
Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G
Energy landscape theory, developed in the context of protein folding, provides, to our knowledge, a new perspective on chromosome architecture. We review what has been learned concerning the topology and structure of both the interphase and mitotic chromosomes from effective energy landscapes constructed using Hi-C data. Energy landscape thinking raises new questions about the nonequilibrium dynamics of the chromosome and gene regulation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klemen, P. K.
At the heart of Devon in the southwest of England lies Dartmoor, a large expanse of high moorland and rocky tors. Anyone who has visited Dartmoor or seen photographs and read about it will have their own personal images and feelings for the place, which will be as varied as the landscape. Over recent years landscape approaches have adopted strategies to understand how people experience and perceive the landscape that surrounds them (Ingold 2000, Thomas 1999, Tilley 1994). Phenomenology attemp...
Abstract Background Thromboxane synthase (TXS) metabolises prostaglandin H2 into thromboxanes, which are biologically active on cancer cells. TXS over-expression has been reported in a range of cancers, and associated with a poor prognosis. TXS inhibition induces cell death in-vitro, providing a rationale for therapeutic intervention. We aimed to determine the expression profile of TXS in NSCLC and if it is prognostic and\\/or a survival factor in the disease. Methods TXS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by western analysis and IHC. TXS metabolite (TXB2) levels were measured by EIA. A 204-patient NSCLC TMA was stained for COX-2 and downstream TXS expression. TXS tissue expression was correlated with clinical parameters, including overall survival. Cell proliferation\\/survival and invasion was examined in NSCLC cells following both selective TXS inhibition and stable TXS over-expression. Results TXS was over-expressed in human NSCLC samples, relative to matched normal controls. TXS and TXB2 levels were increased in protein (p < 0.05) and plasma (p < 0.01) NSCLC samples respectively. TXS tissue expression was higher in adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001) and female patients (p < 0.05). No significant correlation with patient survival was observed. Selective TXS inhibition significantly reduced tumour cell growth and increased apoptosis, while TXS over-expression stimulated cell proliferation and invasiveness, and was protective against apoptosis. Conclusion TXS is over-expressed in NSCLC, particularly in the adenocarcinoma subtype. Inhibition of this enzyme inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. Targeting thromboxane synthase alone, or in combination with conventional chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.
Aekplakorn, Wichai; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak
To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes in Thai adults in 2009 and examine the extent of changes in proportions of diagnosis, treatment, and control for blood glucose, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol between 2004 and 2009. Data from the multistage cross-sectional National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV of 18,629 Thai adults aged ≥20 years conducted in 2009 were used to analyze and compare with the data from NHES III in 2004. The prevalence of IFG and diabetes was 10.6 and 7.5%, respectively. Of all diabetes diagnoses, 35.4% were not previously diagnosed, and the proportion was higher in men than in women (47.3 vs. 23.4%, P < 0.05). Compared with those in year 2004, the proportions of individuals with diabetes and concomitant hypertension did not significantly decrease in 2009 in both sexes, but the proportions of women with diabetes who were abdominally obese or had high total cholesterol (≥5.2 mmol/L) significantly increased in 2009 by 18.0 and 23.5%, respectively (all P < 0.01). The rates of treatment and control of blood glucose, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol were favorably improved in 2009. However, in substantial proportions of individuals with diabetes these concomitants were still controlled suboptimally. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG remained high in Thai adults. Improvement in detection and control of diabetes and associated metabolic risk factors, particularly obesity and high serum cholesterol, are necessary.
Nakajima, Hisato; Yano, Kouya; Nagasawa, Kaoko; Katou, Satoka; Yokota, Kuninobu
The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the operation income and expenditure balance ratio of school corporations running university hospitals by multiple regression analysis. 1. We conducted cluster analysis of the financial ratio and classified the school corporations into those running colleges and universities.2. We conducted multiple regression analysis using the operation income and expenditure balance ratio of the colleges as the variables and the Diagnosis Procedure Combination data as the explaining variables.3. The predictive expression was used for multiple regression analysis. 1. The school corporations were divided into those running universities (7), colleges (20) and others. The medical income ratio and the debt ratio were high and the student payment ratio was low in the colleges.2. The numbers of emergency care hospitalizations, operations, radiation therapies, and ambulance conveyances, and the complexity index had a positive influence on the operation income and expenditure balance ratio. On the other hand, the number of general anesthesia procedures, the cover rate index, and the emergency care index had a negative influence.3. The predictive expression was as follows.Operation income and expenditure balance ratio = 0.027 × number of emergency care hospitalizations + 0.005 × number of operations + 0.019 × number of radiation therapies + 0.007 × number of ambulance conveyances - 0.003 × number of general anesthesia procedures + 648.344 × complexity index - 5877.210 × cover rate index - 2746.415 × emergency care index - 38.647Conclusion: In colleges, the number of emergency care hospitalizations, the number of operations, the number of radiation therapies, and the number of ambulance conveyances and the complexity index were factors for gaining ordinary profit.
Ko, Hyeonyoung; Song, Yun-Mi; Shin, Jin-Young
This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with drinking behavior of cancer survivors after cancer diagnosis. The study subjects were 906 adult cancer survivors who had reportedly drunk alcohol before cancer diagnosis and participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2007 to 2013. Among them, 360 abstained from alcohol drinking after cancer diagnosis. We categorized remaining 546 persistent drinkers into high-risk drinker (consuming≥7 glasses of alcohol for men and≥5 glasses of alcohol for women at one sitting at the frequency of at least once a month) or moderate drinker. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate risk factors associated with drinking behavior. The high-risk drinkers occupied 27.1% (148 survivors) of the persistent alcohol drinking survivors. Age increase (OR=0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99), female sex (OR=0.15; 95% CI 0.08-0.28), and increase of time lapse (by 1-year) after cancer diagnosis (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.92-0.97) were associated with a lower risk of high-risk drinking as compared with moderate drinking. Meanwhile,≤9years of education (OR=1.99; 95% CI 1.10-3.60), alcohol-related cancer (OR=2.09; 95% CI 1.23-3.56), and current smoking (OR=1.92; 95% CI 1.03-3.59) were associated with increased risk of high-risk drinking of cancer survivors. These findings suggest that greater efforts for preventing high-risk drinking should be laid on the cancer survivors, with consideration of individual sociodemographic characteristics, especially when the survivors had been diagnosed with alcohol-related cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Parallel to a growing global cooperation among landscape ecologists, different regional trends within landscape ecology seems to arise, related to different geographical and historical conditions. Modern landscape ecology in Europe has developed as an interdisciplinary activity inspired by practi...
endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural......Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...
Rand-Giovannetti, Devin; Cicero, David C; Mond, Jonathan M; Latner, Janet D
The original, theoretically derived factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) has received limited empirical support and there is no consensus on an appropriate alternative. Moreover, there is a paucity of data on the factor structure of the EDE-Q across sexes. The goals of the current study were to evaluate models of the EDE-Q factor structure and to assess the best-fitting model for differences by sex. Twelve models were compared using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 940 undergraduates. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original factor structure. A four-factor model fit the data reasonably well with factors corresponding to themes of (a) dietary restraint, (b) preoccupation and restriction, (c) weight and shape concern, and (d) eating shame. The EDE-Q was found to be invariant by sex across all factors except Factor 3. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann; Shorrock, Steven T
The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. This study examined the characteristics that make scientific journal articles appeal to HF/E researchers and practitioners using a web-based survey. HF/E researchers and practitioners were more similar than expected in judgements of important attributes and the selection of articles. Both practitioners and researchers considered practical significance to be more important than theoretical significance, in direct contrast to professionals from a related discipline--psychology. Well-written articles were appreciated across disciplines. The results signal a strong interest in practical applications in HF/E, but a relative lack of focus on development of theories that should be the basis for practical applications.
Goldstein, Abby L.; Vilhena-Churchill, Natalie; Stewart, Sherry H.; Hoaken, Peter N. S.; Flett, Gordon L.
Background and aims To date, there is a lack of research on psychological factors associated with young adult online gambling. The current study examined differences between young adult online and non-online gamblers, using information gathered at baseline and over 30 days during which participants reported on their moods, gambling behaviors, and reasons for initiating and discontinuing gambling. Methods Participants were 108 young adult regular gamblers (i.e., gambling four or more times in the past month) who participated in a 30-day daily diary study. Results Male gender, baseline coping motives for gambling and negative affect averaged across the 30 days emerged as significant correlates of online gambling, over and above other background variables. Online gamblers also scored higher on a baseline measure of pathological gambling. Over the 30 days of self-monitoring, online gamblers spent more time gambling, and won more money gambling, whereas non-online gamblers consumed more alcohol while gambling. Online gambling was more often initiated to make money, because of boredom and to demonstrate skills, whereas non-online gambling was more often initiated for social reasons and for excitement. Online gambling was more often discontinued because of boredom, fatigue or distress, whereas non-online gambling was discontinued because friends stopped gambling or mood was improved. Discussion and conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that coping strategies may be particularly important to reduce risks for online gamblers, whereas strategies for non-online gamblers should focus on the social aspects of gambling. PMID:28092184
Rector, Neil A; Bagby, Robert Michael; Huta, Veronika; Ayearst, Lindsay E
Structural models of the mood and anxiety disorders postulate that each disorder has a shared component that can account for comorbidity and its own unique component that distinguishes it from others. The principal aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which the 30 facets of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), as measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), contribute to the identification of the unique component in mood and anxiety disorders in treatment-seeking clinical samples. Participants (N=610) were psychiatric outpatients with principal DSM-IV diagnoses (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized social phobia (GSP), panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (PD; PD/A) or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results suggest that approximately half of the variance in differences between these diagnoses is associated with specific characteristics represented by the FFM facets. Unique personality profiles for the MDD, GSP, PTSD and, to a lesser extent, OCD groups emerged. Broad traits of the FFM, when broken into more narrow components at the facet level, contribute significantly to the identification of unique aspects associated with specific mood and anxiety disorders. The integration of lower and higher levels of structural examination of the mood and anxiety disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marraccini, Élisa; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Galli, Mariassunta; Lardon, Sylvie; Rapey, Hélène; Thenail, Claudine; Bonari, Enrico
Landscape dynamics increasingly challenge agronomists to explain how and why agricultural landscapes are designed and managed by farmers. Nevertheless, agronomy is rarely included in the wide range of disciplines involved in landscape research. In this paper, we describe how landscape agronomy can help explain the relationship between farming systems and agricultural landscape dynamics. For this, we propose a conceptual model of agricultural landscape dynamics that illustrates the specific co...
Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Pryor, Lauren R.
There are several self-report measures of psychopathy, most of which use a two-factor structure. There is debate regarding the convergence of these factors, particularly with regard to Factor 1 (F1), which is related to the interpersonal and affective aspects of psychopathy; Factor 2 (F2) is related to the social deviance associated with…
Luque, Raul M; Gahete, Manuel D; Valentine, Rudy J; Kineman, Rhonda D
In humans, circulating GH levels are increased in catabolic states and suppressed in obesity. In both extremes, normalization of the metabolic environment normalizes GH release, leading to the conclusion that changes in metabolic hormones and/or metabolites promote changes in GH synthesis and release. Metabolic regulation of GH secretion can be mediated centrally by modulation of hypothalamic GHRH and somatostatin input to the pituitary and/or by direct regulation of pituitary somatotrope function. Although data are available showing glucocorticoids, free fatty acids (FFA), IGF-I, and insulin have direct effects on rat somatotrope function, little information is available regarding the direct pituitary effects of these metabolic factors in primates. Therefore, this study examined the effects of glucocorticoids (dexamethasone (0.1-100 nM) and hydrocortisone (10 nM)), FFA (oleic and linoleic acid, 100 and 400 microM each), IGF-I (0.5-50 nM), and insulin (0.5-50 nM) on GH release and GH, GHRH-receptor (GHRH-R) and ghrelin-receptor (GHS-R) mRNA levels, in primary pituitary cell cultures of baboons (Papio anubis) after 24 h treatment. A commercial ELISA kit was used to determine the amount of GH released into the media, while quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels. To design species-specific primers for baboon GH, GHRH-R, GHS-R, insulin receptor (INSR), IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1), and cyclophilin A (used as a housekeeping gene) cDNA, sequence data for each baboon transcript were obtained and this data were submitted to Genbank. Glucocorticoids, FFA, insulin and IGF-I treatment did not significantly alter the expression of Pit-1, a transcription factor essential for normal somatotrope development and function. However, as previously reported in the rat, glucocorticoids increased, while FFA, IGF-I and insulin decreased GH release in baboon pituitary cell cultures, where changes in
The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,
Landscaping is one of the most cost effective tools for improving and sustaining the quality of life, whether in the city, the suburbs, or the country. Landscaping is an integral part of our culture and plays an essential role in the quality of our environment, affecting our economic well-being and our physical and psychological health.
Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.
T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in
On the basis of maps from the 18th and 19th centuries, a retrospective analysis was carried out of documentary settlement and landscape data extending back to the Middle Ages with the intention of identifying and dating general structural and dynamic features of the cultural landscape in a selected...
Filepné Kovács Krisztina
Full Text Available Research on ecosystem services and landscape functions are highly important in landscape ecology, landscape planning and open space design. The terms of ecosystem service and landscape function have been evolved parallel to each other in the scientific literature but have different focus. The term of landscape functions evolved from the scientific field of landscape ecology; it reflects the goods and services provided by regions, landscapes where the cultural, economic factors are important as well. As a framework assessment method with additional economic assessment, a landscape function analysis could be an additional tool of rural development, as it gives a complex analysis of multiple aspects, thus it is highly appropriate to explore, analyze the potentials, resources and limits of landscapes and land use systems. In the current research a landscape function analysis was compared with the rural development strategies in Hungarian micro-regions. We focused on the level of landscape functions and the objectives of the rural development strategies of the study areas. The local development strategies do not focus on territorial differences nor potentials evolving from natural, cultural resources or local constrains. The only exception is tourism development, where in some cases there is a holistic spatial approach which intends to develop the region as a whole.
Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Fahrig, Lenore
With accelerated deforestation and fragmentation through the tropics, assessing the impact that landscape spatial changes may have on biodiversity is paramount, as this information is required to design and implement effective management and conservation plans. Primates are expected to be particularly dependent on the landscape context; yet, our understanding on this topic is limited as the majority of primate studies are at the local scale, meaning that landscape-scale inferences are not possible. To encourage primatologists to assess the impact of landscape changes on primates, and help future studies on the topic, we describe the meaning of a "landscape perspective" and evaluate important assumptions of using such a methodological approach. We also summarize a number of important, but unanswered, questions that can be addressed using a landscape-scale study design. For example, it is still unclear if habitat loss has larger consistent negative effects on primates than habitat fragmentation per se. Furthermore, interaction effects between habitat area and other landscape effects (e.g., fragmentation) are unknown for primates. We also do not know if primates are affected by synergistic interactions among factors at the landscape scale (e.g., habitat loss and diseases, habitat loss and climate change, hunting, and land-use change), or whether landscape complexity (or landscape heterogeneity) is important for primate conservation. Testing for patterns in the responses of primates to landscape change will facilitate the development of new guidelines and principles for improving primate conservation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J
Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate
Hirshfield, Sabina; Downing, Martin J; Horvath, Keith J; Swartz, James A; Chiasson, Mary Ann
Hypertension affects nearly a third of U.S. adult males and is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but there is a paucity of hypertension research among men who have sex with men (MSM). Andersen's model of health service use was adapted to examine factors associated with hypertension among MSM. In 2008, 7,454 U.S. MSM completed an online survey. Overall, 16.5% of the sample reported a lifetime diagnosis of hypertension. In hierarchical logistic regression, Black MSM had increased odds of reporting hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.24, 2.60]) compared with White MSM, as did men aged 30 years and older (age 30-39: AOR = 2.46, 95% CI [1.84, 3.29]; age 40-49: AOR = 3.76, 95% CI [2.85, 4.97]; age 50+: AOR = 6.40, 95% CI [4.78, 8.58]; Reference: 18-29 years). Health conditions associated with hypertension included diabetes (AOR = 3.62, 95% CI [2.81, 4.68]), heart disease (AOR = 5.19, 95% CI [3.99, 6.75]), depression (AOR = 1.38, 95% CI [1.17, 1.63]), anxiety (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.09, 1.57]), and being overweight (AOR = 2.23, 95% CI [1.91, 2.59]). Having a primary care provider (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI [1.64, 2.93]) and residing in South Atlantic (AOR = 1.39, 95% CI [1.12, 1.74]) or South Central (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI [1.27, 2.00]) regions was also associated with reporting hypertension. Study findings are consistent with those in the literature for the general population. To address health care inequities, the Internet could serve as a potential access point for health screening and referral for care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Burks, Julia M; Philpott, Stacy M
Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function. We examined the local habitat and landscape drivers of parasitoid abundance, superfamily and family richness, and parasitoid composition in urban gardens in the California central coast. Local factors included garden size, ground cover type, herbaceous plant species, and number of trees and shrubs. Landscape characteristics included land cover and landscape diversity around gardens. We found that garden size, mulch cover, and urban cover within 500 m of gardens predicted increases in parasitoid abundance within gardens. The height of herbaceous vegetation and tree and shrub richness predicted increases in superfamily and family richness whereas increases in urban cover resulted in declines in parasitoid richness. Abundance of individual superfamilies and families responded to a wide array of local and landscape factors, sometimes in opposite ways. Composition of parasitoid communities responded to changes in garden size, herbaceous plant cover, and number of flowers. Thus, both local scale management and landscape planning may impact the abundance, diversity, and community composition of parasitoids in urban gardens, and may result in differences in the effectiveness of parasitoids in biological control. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.
A modeling framework was developed to investigate the interactive effects of life history characteristics and landscape heterogeneity on dispersal success. An individual-based model was used to examine how dispersal between resource patches is affected by four landscape characte...
Tladi, Lerato Sonia
This study sought to determine the attributing and contributing factors to examination absence as well as whether the academic and social support available to students had a role to play in discouraging or reducing absence from examinations using results from a quantitative survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) students who were admitted…
Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run
Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.
De la Mora, A; García-Ballinas, JA; Philpott, SM
© 2014 Elsevier B.V. Agricultural management and the landscape surrounding farms impact biological diversity and ecosystem services, such as predation, in agroecosystems. Diversified coffee agroecosystems harbor biodiversity, and maintain ecosystem services, especially when in complex landscapes, and when diversity of organisms providing services is maintained. But few have examined whether biological diversity, per se, or the local and landscape habitat features are stronger drivers of the s...
Touchet, Bryan; Walker, Ashley; Flanders, Sarah; McIntosh, Heather
In the first year of training, psychiatry residents progress from direct supervision to indirect supervision but factors predicting time to transition between these levels of supervision are unknown. This study aimed to examine times for transition to indirect levels of supervision and to identify resident factors associated with slower progression. The authors compiled data from training files from years 2011-2015, including licensing exam scores, age, gender, medical school, month of first inpatient psychiatry rotation, and transition times between levels of supervision. Correlational analysis examined the relationship between these factors. Univariate analysis further examined the relationship between medical school training and transition times between supervision levels. Among the factors studied, only international medical school training was positively correlated with time to transition to indirect supervision and between levels of indirect supervision. International medical graduate (IMG) interns in psychiatry training may benefit from additional training and support to reach competencies required for the transition to indirect supervision.
Braae, Ellen Marie
Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....
Phillips, J. D.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has developed a large number of state-and-transition models (STM) to predict and interpret changes in vegetation communities in drylands of the southwestern U.S. These are represented as box-and-arrow models indicating potential changes in response to various combinations of management practices and environmental forcings. Analysis of the 320 STMs developed for areas within the state of Texas reveals two important aspects of environmental change in semiarid environments. First, the STMs are highly local—they are specific to very particular combinations of landform, soil, and climate. This is consistent with the perfect landscape concept in geomorphology, which emphasizes the irreducible importance of geographically and historically contingent local factors in addition to universal laws or principles in determining the state or condition of landscapes. Second, analysis of the STMs using algebraic graph theory shows that a majority of them have structures that tend to amplify effects of change and disturbances. In many cases the STMs represent a form of self-organization characterized by the potential of divergent behavior rather than convergence toward a dominant pattern or outcome. These results indicate that geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecological responses to climate and land use change are likely to be highly variable and idiosyncratic, both within and between semiarid landscapes of Texas.
Breitbach, Anthony P.; Downey, Darcy L.; Frager, Alfred J.
Context: Success on the Board of Certification (BOC) examination is necessary to obtain the Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC) credential. First attempt pass rates have historically been an issue in the profession. Objective: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the impact of coping, locus of control, and academic worry on…
Serben, Dion F.
The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for various business technology uses within the organizational system. However, in the context of African American small businesses (AASB), there was very little evidence of research to determine factors affecting the intention to use…
Næss, Oyvind; Hoff, Dominic A; Lawlor, Debbie
To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood.......To estimate the impact family factors shared by siblings has on the association between length of education and cause-specific mortality in adulthood....
McMordie Stoughton, Kate
The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: evapotranspiration method and irrigation audit method. The evapotranspiration method option calculates the amount of water needed to maintain a healthy turf or landscaped area for a given location based on the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the plants. The evapotranspiration method offers a relatively easy “one-stop-shop” for Federal agencies to develop an initial estimate of annual landscape water use. The document presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the U.S. that represents the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. By following the steps outlined in the document, the reader can choose a location that is a close match their location and landscape type to provide a rough estimate of annual irrigation needs without the need to research specific data on their site. The second option presented in the document is the irrigation audit method, which is the physical measurement of water applied to landscaped areas through irrigation equipment. Steps to perform an irrigation audit are outlined in the document, which follow the Recommended Audit Guidelines produced by the Irrigation Association. An irrigation audit requires some knowledge on the specific procedures to accurately estimate how much water is being consumed by the irrigation equipment.
Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal
Effective implementation of the "multiple path" approach to managing green landscapes depends fundamentally on rigorous quantification of the composition and structure of the landscapes of concern at present, modelling landscape structure trajectories under alternative management paths, and monitoring landscape structure into the future to confirm...
Full Text Available To understand the bonds cultural groups living in Estonia have with their cultural landscape and why they identify themselves with a particular territory (region, the general process of presenting the landscape role in their identity needs to be analysed. Scales of landscape and regional identity of cultural groups are examined as belonging to different historical social formation periods, including nowadays, also taking into account the identity and physical setting relationship, as well as the results of questionnaires and previous studies. The tendency is that becoming more open the society is influenced by globalisation, new technologies and freedom of movement, thus changing both the identities and landscapes scales.
Aoki, Shuri; Kanda, Tomonori; Matsutani, Noriyuki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Masafumi; Furui, Shigeru; Yamashita, Hideomi
Previous studies have been conducted on the prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with brain metastases (BMs) following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, there have been a small number of studies regarding the prognostic factors for the response of tumor to WBRT. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictive factors for the response to WBRT from the point of view of reduction of tumor using magnetic resonance imaging. A retrospective analysis of 62 patients with BMs from primary lung cancer treated with WBRT was undertaken. The effects of the following factors on the response to WBRT were evaluated: Age; sex; performance status; lactate dehydrogenase; pathology; existence of extracranial metastases; activity of extracranial disease; chemo-history; chest radiotherapy history; treatment term; γ-knife radiotherapy; diffusion weighted image signal intensity; tumor diameter; extent of edema and the edema/tumor (E/T) ratio. The association between the reduction of tumors and clinical factors was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Ppredictive factors for the reduction of tumor. The following 3 factors were significantly associated with the response of tumors to WBRT: The presence of SCLC; an E/T ratio of ≥1.5; and the presence of extracranial metastases. The E/T ratio is a novel index that provides a simple and easy predictive method for use in a clinical setting.
De Wet, Benita
Full Text Available or email bdewet@ csir.co.za. The science of landscape restoration Over the last two decades the ecological restoration of industrial land has developed into a specialist science combined with highly sophisticated management activities. A prime...
Landscaping can make the school environment more attractive, thus encouraging students' intellectual, emotional, and physical development. Guidelines are offered for comprehensive site planning, tree and plant selection, and grounds maintenance. (MLF)
WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.
Flannery, John A; Smith, Karen M
.... The effects of drought, melting polar ice and increased incidences of extreme weather events will impact on the diverse landscapes of the earth and a human population predicted to be 9 billion...
‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....
Verkooijen, K.T.; Nielsen, G.A.; Kremers, S.P.J.
Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern, sense of
Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.
This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by
Voogt, Joke; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael
This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning in utilizing Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program characterized by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’
R.V. O' Neill; C.T. Hunsaker; S.P. Timmins; B.L. Jackson; K.B. Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham
Remotely sensed data for Southeastern United States (Standard Federal Region 4) are used to examine the scale problems involved in reporting landscape pattern for a large, heterogeneous region. Frequency distribu-tions of landscape indices illustrate problems associated with the grain or resolution of the data. Grain should be 2 to 5 times smaller than the...
The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide, harmonise and shape changes which are brought about by social, economic and environmental processes. In this respect we can consider urbanism as an object or goal-oriented interdisciplinary approac...
, and the physical appearance of many villages and detached farms can at best be characterized as shockingly inferior. It can be argued that the Danish society has grossly omitted to take care of the largest and most important part of its cultural heritage in the Danish landscape; 6-7,000 large and small villages...... dispersed in the Danish cultural landscape.These villages are crucial to the future of rural areas and are normally neglected....
Full Text Available Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species' habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa.
Higashiguchi, K; Morikawa, Y; Miura, K; Nishijo, M; Tabata, M; Yoshita, K; Sagara, T; Nakagawa, H
This article presents an evaluation of the factor structures of the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The MBI is a widely used psychometric instrument for measuring 'burnout' developed by Maslach and her co-workers. The MBI consists of four subscales: Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment, Depersonalization, and Involvement. The MBI was translated into Japanese along with a back-translation and was administered to a sample of 267 nurses. Various psychometric analyses showed that the Japanese version of the MBI has high reliability for the 22 items scored for the frequency dimension. The factor analysis using principal factoring with an oblique rotation resulted in three factor structures that had different implications from the MBI: Emotional Exhaustion/Depersonalization, Personal Accomplishment, and Physical Exhaustion. The correlationship between the MBI and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), measures of depression, showed that burnout was a unique phenomenon.
Full Text Available In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches’ need-supportive (ISS-C and controlling interpersonal (CCBS styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs.
It reveals the pattern of change in landscape and how that corresponds to human factors such as increased population, demand for food and consequent expansion in agricultural activity in the modification of Landscape. The period under consideration (1970-2007) witnessed an increase in population size and household ...
Brian R. Sturtevant; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He
Modeling forest landscape change is challenging because it involves the interaction of a variety of factors and processes, such as climate, succession, disturbance, and management. These processes occur at various spatial and temporal scales, and the interactions can be complex on heterogeneous landscapes. Because controlled field experiments designed to investigate...
S. Kelso; C. Hall; G. Maentz
Landscape anomalies are regionally restricted habitats created by unusual geologic, edaphic, or hydrologic factors. Barrens, cliff faces, canyons, hanging gardens, and playas are all examples of landscape anomalies in the arid Southwest. Such sites often harbor an unusual and rich flora, including endemic, disjunct, or relictual plant species. Using examples from our...
Gan, Yonghong; Luo, Tao; Breitung, Werner; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Tianhai
In this paper, the contribution of visual and acoustic preference to multi-sensory landscape evaluation was quantitatively compared. The real landscapes were treated as dual-sensory ambiance and separated into visual landscape and soundscape. Both were evaluated by 63 respondents in laboratory conditions. The analysis of the relationship between respondent's visual and acoustic preference as well as their respective contribution to landscape preference showed that (1) some common attributes are universally identified in assessing visual, aural and audio-visual preference, such as naturalness or degree of human disturbance; (2) with acoustic and visual preferences as variables, a multi-variate linear regression model can satisfactorily predict landscape preference (R(2 )= 0.740), while the coefficients of determination for a unitary linear regression model were 0.345 and 0.720 for visual and acoustic preference as predicting factors, respectively; (3) acoustic preference played a much more important role in landscape evaluation than visual preference in this study (the former is about 4.5 times of the latter), which strongly suggests a rethinking of the role of soundscape in environment perception research and landscape planning practice.
Heim, Nicole; Fisher, Jason T; Clevenger, Anthony; Paczkowski, John; Volpe, John
Contemporary landscapes are subject to a multitude of human-derived stressors. Effects of such stressors are increasingly realized by population declines and large-scale extirpation of taxa worldwide. Most notably, cumulative effects of climate and landscape change can limit species' local adaptation and dispersal capabilities, thereby reducing realized niche space and range extent. Resolving the cumulative effects of multiple stressors on species persistence is a pressing challenge in ecology, especially for declining species. For example, wolverines (Gulo gulo L.) persist on only 40% of their historic North American range. While climate change has been shown to be a mechanism of range retractions, anthropogenic landscape disturbance has been recently implicated. We hypothesized these two interact to effect declines. We surveyed wolverine occurrence using camera trapping and genetic tagging at 104 sites at the wolverine range edge, spanning a 15,000 km2 gradient of climate, topographic, anthropogenic, and biotic variables. We used occupancy and generalized linear models to disentangle the factors explaining wolverine distribution. Persistent spring snow pack-expected to decrease with climate change-was a significant predictor, but so was anthropogenic landscape change. Canid mesocarnivores, which we hypothesize are competitors supported by anthropogenic landscape change, had comparatively weaker effect. Wolverine population declines and range shifts likely result from climate change and landscape change operating in tandem. We contend that similar results are likely for many species and that research that simultaneously examines climate change, landscape change, and the biotic landscape is warranted. Ecology research and species conservation plans that address these interactions are more likely to meet their objectives.
Jonge, de J.M.
This thesis examines the typical nature of design thinking, which is compared and contrasted with scientific and political thinking. A theretical framework is formulated and applied to landscape planning and design. During the 20th century the established operational orientation in landscape
Galic, N.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Van den Brink, P.J.; Schmolke, A.; Thorbek, P.; Bruns, E.; Baveco, J.M.
Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a
McGinley, Meredith; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.
A two-part latent growth mixture model was implemented in order to examine heterogeneity in the growth of sexual harassment (SH) victimization in college and university students, and the extent to which SH class membership explains substance use and mental health outcomes for certain groups of students. Demographic risk factors, mental health, and substance use were examined as they related to chronically experienced SH victimization. Incoming freshmen students (N = 2855; 58% female; 54% Whit...
classifying officers by job specializztion. There were four major groupings of designators represented in the sarpe Thirty-five of the students in this... students an opportunit \\ to provide a personal insight as to what factors they perceived influenced their performance in MN2150. Although the answers were...AD-A184 125 AN EXAMINATION OF THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN THE FIRS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL ID MONTEREY CA T S KENNEDY JUN 87
Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A
Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence
Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Needell, Barbara; King, Bryn; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle
Objective: Data from the United States indicate pronounced and persistent racial/ethnic differences in the rates at which children are referred and substantiated as victims of child abuse and neglect. In this study, we examined the extent to which aggregate racial differences are attributable to variations in the distribution of individual and…
Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.
No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…
Roura-Pascual, N.; Brotons, L.; Garcia, D.; Zamora, R.; Caceres, M. de
The study of the spatial patterns of species allows the examination of hypotheses on the most plausible ecological processes and factors determining their distribution. To investigate the determinants of parasite species on Mediterranean forests at regional scales, occurrence data of the European Misletoe (Viscum album) in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) were extracted from forest inventory data and combined with different types of explanatory variables by means of generalized linear mixed models. The presence of mistletoes in stands of Pinus halepensis seems to be determined by multiple factors (climatic conditions, and characteristics of the host tree and landscape structure) operating at different spatial scales, with the availability of orchards of Olea europaea in the surroundings playing a relevant role. These results suggest that host quality and landscape structure are important mediators of plant-plant and plant-animal interactions and, therefore, management of mistletoe populations should be conducted at both local (i.e. clearing of infected host trees) and landscape scales (e.g. controlling the availability of nutrient-rich food sources that attract bird dispersers). Research and management at landscape-scales are necessary to anticipate the negative consequence of land-use changes in Mediterranean forests. (Author) 38 refs.
Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.
Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way.
Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III
The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship (if any) between college selection factors and persistence for Black and Latino males in the community college. Using data derived from the Educational Longitudinal Study, backwards stepwise logistic regression models were developed for both groups. Findings are contextualized in light…
Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.
Research investigating the structural convergence of the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC; Wiggins, 1979, 1995) with the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) of personality has predominantly focused on the traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. The characteristics of the other three FFM traits: Neuroticism, Openness, and Conscientiousness…
Lopez, Carlos; Jones, Stephanie J.
There are a limited number of individuals who possess the skills to fulfill the workforce demand in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) in the United States. Therefore, community colleges and 4-year institutions must be able to identify academic and social factors that impact students' participation in the areas of STEM. These…
Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.
This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), pre-departure expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and…
Kel'man, G P; Nosov, A E; Vlasova, E M; Alekseev, V B; Safonova, M A
The article covers prevalence of risk factors concerning cardiovascular diseases and health disorders in workers due to occupational hazards of textile production, criteria for early diagnosis of arterial hypertension. To prevent arterial hypertension and its progress into severe cardiovascular diseases in the workers, the authors necessitated complex of medical and preventive measures.
Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan
This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…
Chong, Yit Sean; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.
With the globalisation of the higher education industry, service quality in the higher education services is seen as a vital factor in determining a university's competitive advantage. The purpose of this study is to extend current conceptualisation of quality research in higher education by investigating the influence of self-determination and…
Keel, David S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors involved in natural recover or spontaneous remission from high-risk alcohol use in college students. The author hoped to explore the relationship between cognitive development and college students' drinking behaviors. Fraternity and sorority students from The College of William and Mary and…
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.; Holmes, Sharon L.
Although the numbers of minority students are increasing in higher education, researchers remain concerned about the ability of predominantly White institutions (PWIs) to support and retain these students. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore factors promoting the academic success of minority students at a research…
Diedrich, Lisa Babette
This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....
Row, Jeffrey R.; Knick, Steven T.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Lougheed, Stephen C.; Fedy, Bradley C.
Dispersal can impact population dynamics and geographic variation, and thus, genetic approaches that can establish which landscape factors influence population connectivity have ecological and evolutionary importance. Mixed models that account for the error structure of pairwise datasets are increasingly used to compare models relating genetic differentiation to pairwise measures of landscape resistance. A model selection framework based on information criteria metrics or explained variance may help disentangle the ecological and landscape factors influencing genetic structure, yet there are currently no consensus for the best protocols. Here, we develop landscape-directed simulations and test a series of replicates that emulate independent empirical datasets of two species with different life history characteristics (greater sage-grouse; eastern foxsnake). We determined that in our simulated scenarios, AIC and BIC were the best model selection indices and that marginal R2 values were biased toward more complex models. The model coefficients for landscape variables generally reflected the underlying dispersal model with confidence intervals that did not overlap with zero across the entire model set. When we controlled for geographic distance, variables not in the underlying dispersal models (i.e., nontrue) typically overlapped zero. Our study helps establish methods for using linear mixed models to identify the features underlying patterns of dispersal across a variety of landscapes.
Liu, Jiang; Kang, Jian; Luo, Tao; Behm, Holger
The main objective of this study was to analyse the effects of various landscape factors on soundscape perception in city parks. This was based on the experience, which was supposed to reflect soundscape perception, of 580 users of five city parks in Xiamen, China. Visual and functional landscape characteristics were analysed in relation to experienced occurrence of and preference for individual sounds, as well as overall soundscape preference. The results suggest that landscape factors have more significant effects on experienced occurrence of individual sounds than preference for individual sounds. However, landscape effects on overall soundscape preference depend more on preferences for individual sounds. The effects of visual landscape on the perception of individual sounds could be more important in natural sounds than in artificial sounds, and more in experienced occurrence of than preference for individual sounds; for functional landscape the effects are reversed. In general, visual landscape effects on the perception of individual sounds are more significant than functional landscape effects, especially on experienced occurrence of individual sounds. Taking all factors into account, only the two landscape factors are highly correlated with the overall soundscape preference, with coefficient values of 0.325 and 0.204, respectively. Overall, the results reveal the close relationship between landscape and soundscape experience in real contexts, and that visual and functional aspects should be considered in terms of creating a better soundscape during park design and management processes. The analysis of users' social, demographical and behavioural factors such as age, visit frequency and length of stay, in relation to the soundscape experience, has also shown significant effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Jones, Stephanie M; Subramanian, S V; Koenen, Karestan C
Interest in understanding how psychosocial environments shape youth outcomes has grown considerably. School environments are of particular interest to prevention scientists as many prevention interventions are school-based. Therefore, effective conceptualization and operationalization of the school environment is critical. This paper presents an illustration of an emerging analytic method called multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) that provides an alternative strategy to conceptualize, measure, and model environments. MLFA decomposes the total sample variance-covariance matrix for variables measured at the individual level into within-cluster (e.g., student level) and between-cluster (e.g., school level) matrices and simultaneously models potentially distinct latent factor structures at each level. Using data from 79,362 students from 126 schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (formerly known as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), we use MLFA to show how 20 items capturing student self-reported behaviors and emotions provide information about both students (within level) and their school environment (between level). We identified four latent factors at the within level: (1) school adjustment, (2) externalizing problems, (3) internalizing problems, and (4) self-esteem. Three factors were identified at the between level: (1) collective school adjustment, (2) psychosocial environment, and (3) collective self-esteem. The finding of different and substantively distinct latent factor structures at each level emphasizes the need for prevention theory and practice to separately consider and measure constructs at each level of analysis. The MLFA method can be applied to other nested relationships, such as youth in neighborhoods, and extended to a multilevel structural equation model to better understand associations between environments and individual outcomes and therefore how to best implement preventive interventions.
Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio
Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual
Mestre Martínez, Nieves; Bevk, Tadej; Brereton, Patrick; Lalošević, Marija; Perič, Milica
Photography – a simulation of the landscape – is often used to assess visual qualities of landscapes, silently implying there is consensus around what remains the best representation of a given landscape. In this study we examine if such a consensus in visually experiencing a landscape truly exists and what the main differences in visual perceptions of landscape are. To gather participant’s visual experiences, a participant generated image (PGI) method was used. Each participant took a photo,...
This article stems from ongoing research on the creation of penurbia since 1945 which examines the development of hybrid city-country landscapes around large urban areas that mesh stylized countryside with functional links to the cities. Simply put, penurbia looks like country but often thinks like...
Sitaula, BK; Warner, WS; Bakken, LR
An experimental approach is described that examines the influence of landscape terrain and land use on fluxes of important greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) in soil. The landscape is gridded into 'field' units (cells), and each cell is characterized. For example, a 500 X 500 m rolling landscape...
Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...