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Sample records for examined similar techniques

  1. Case-based reasoning diagnostic technique based on multi-attribute similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto, Takahashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Akio, Gofuku [Okayama University, Okayamaa (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Case-based diagnostic technique has been developed based on the multi-attribute similarity. Specific feature of the developed system is to use multiple attributes of process signals for similarity evaluation to retrieve a similar case stored in a case base. The present technique has been applied to the measurement data from Monju with some simulated anomalies. The results of numerical experiments showed that the present technique can be utilizes as one of the methods for a hybrid-type diagnosis system.

  2. Examining Similarity Structure: Multidimensional Scaling and Related Approaches in Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Shinkareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers similarity analyses, a subset of multivariate pattern analysis techniques that are based on similarity spaces defined by multivariate patterns. These techniques offer several advantages and complement other methods for brain data analyses, as they allow for comparison of representational structure across individuals, brain regions, and data acquisition methods. Particular attention is paid to multidimensional scaling and related approaches that yield spatial representations or provide methods for characterizing individual differences. We highlight unique contributions of these methods by reviewing recent applications to functional magnetic resonance imaging data and emphasize areas of caution in applying and interpreting similarity analysis methods.

  3. Nondestructive examination techniques on Candu fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, G.; Man, I.

    2013-01-01

    During irradiation in nuclear reactor, fuel elements undergo dimensional and structural changes, and changes of surface conditions sheath as well, which can lead to damages and even loss of integrity. Visual examination and photography of Candu fuel elements are among the non-destructive examination techniques, next to dimensional measurements that include profiling (diameter, bending, camber) and length, sheath integrity control with eddy currents, measurement of the oxide layer thickness by eddy current techniques. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 tubes were used for calibration purposes, whereas irradiated Zircaloy-4 tubes were actually subjected to visual inspection and dimensional measurements. We present results of measurements done by eddy current techniques on Zircaloy- 4 tubes, unirradiated, but oxidized in an autoclave prior to examinations. The purpose of these nondestructive examination techniques is to determine those parameters that characterize the behavior and performance of nuclear fuel operation. (authors)

  4. Radiologic examination of orthopaedics. Methods and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, E.; Meuli, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    This volume describes in detail radiological examinations of the skeleton modern procedures in orthopaedic surgery. Special emphasis is given to functional examination techniques based upon the authors' extensive work on standardized radiological examinations best suited to the needs of orthopaedic surgeons. These techniques were developed at the Radiodiagnostic Department of the Central Radiological Clinic, Bern University, in cooperation with the University Clinic of Orthopaedics and Surgery of the Locomotor System. Exposure techniques are explained concisely, yet with extraordinary precision and attention to detail. They have proved highly successful in teaching programs for X-ray technicians and as standard examination techniques for many hospitals, X-ray departments, orthopaedic units, and private clinics. Recommended for orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists, general surgeons, and X-ray technicians, this definitive treatise, with its superb X-ray reproductions and complementary line drawings, explains how to achieve improved diagnoses and standardized control with the least possible radiation exposure to the patient

  5. Development of hotcell non-destructive examination techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Uhn; Yu, S. C.; Kang, B. S.; Byun, K. S. [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to establish non-destructive examination techniques which needs to determine the status of spent nuclear fuel and/or bundles. Through the project, we will establish an image reconstruction tomography which is a kind of non-destructive techniques in Hotcell. The tomography technique can be used to identify the 2-dimensional density distribution of fission products in the spent fuel rods and/or bundles. And form results of the measurement and analysis of magnetic properties of neutron irradiated material in the press vessel and reactor, we will develop some techniques to test its hardness and defects. In 2001, the first year, we have established mathematical background and necessary data and informations to develop the techniques. We will try to find some experimental results that are necessary in developing the Hotcell non-destructive examination techniques in the coming year. 14 refs., 65 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  6. An efficient similarity measure technique for medical image registration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an efficient similarity measure technique is proposed for medical image registration. The proposed approach is based on the Gerschgorin circles theorem. In this approach, image registration is carried out by considering Gerschgorin bounds of a covariance matrix of two compared images with normalized ...

  7. Comparing Physical Examination With Sonographic Versions of the Same Examination Techniques for Splenomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessford, Tara; Meneilly, Graydon S; Arishenkoff, Shane; Eddy, Christopher; Chen, Luke Y C; Kim, Daniel J; Ma, Irene W Y

    2017-12-08

    To determine whether sonographic versions of physical examination techniques can accurately identify splenomegaly, Castell's method (Ann Intern Med 1967; 67:1265-1267), the sonographic Castell's method, spleen tip palpation, and the sonographic spleen tip technique were compared with reference measurements. Two clinicians trained in bedside sonography patients recruited from an urban hematology clinic. Each patient was examined for splenomegaly using conventional percussion and palpation techniques (Castell's method and spleen tip palpation, respectively), as well as the sonographic versions of these maneuvers (sonographic Castell's method and sonographic spleen tip technique). Results were compared with a reference standard based on professional sonographer measurements. The sonographic Castell's method had greater sensitivity (91.7% [95% confidence interval, 61.5% to 99.8%]) than the traditional Castell's method (83.3% [95% confidence interval, 51.6% to 97.9%]) but took longer to perform [mean ± SD, 28.8 ± 18.6 versus 18.8 ± 8.1 seconds; P = .01). Palpable and positive sonographic spleen tip results were both 100% specific, but the sonographic spleen tip method was more sensitive (58.3% [95% confidence interval, 27.7% to 84.8%] versus 33.3% [95% confidence interval, 9.9% to 65.1%]). Sonographic versions of traditional physical examination maneuvers have greater diagnostic accuracy than the physical examination maneuvers from which they are derived but may take longer to perform. We recommend a combination of traditional physical examination and sonographic techniques when evaluating for splenomegaly at the bedside. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Data mining technique for fast retrieval of similar waveforms in Fusion massive databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N.; Santos, M.; Sanchez, E.; Pajares, G.

    2008-01-01

    Fusion measurement systems generate similar waveforms for reproducible behavior. A major difficulty related to data analysis is the identification, in a rapid and automated way, of a set of discharges with comparable behaviour, i.e. discharges with 'similar' waveforms. Here we introduce a new technique for rapid searching and retrieval of 'similar' signals. The approach consists of building a classification system that avoids traversing the whole database looking for similarities. The classification system diminishes the problem dimensionality (by means of waveform feature extraction) and reduces the searching space to just the most probable 'similar' waveforms (clustering techniques). In the searching procedure, the input waveform is classified in any of the existing clusters. Then, a similarity measure is computed between the input signal and all cluster elements in order to identify the most similar waveforms. The inner product of normalized vectors is used as the similarity measure as it allows the searching process to be independent of signal gain and polarity. This development has been applied recently to TJ-II stellarator databases and has been integrated into its remote participation system

  9. Data mining technique for fast retrieval of similar waveforms in Fusion massive databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N. [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Santos, M. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Pajares, G. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Fusion measurement systems generate similar waveforms for reproducible behavior. A major difficulty related to data analysis is the identification, in a rapid and automated way, of a set of discharges with comparable behaviour, i.e. discharges with 'similar' waveforms. Here we introduce a new technique for rapid searching and retrieval of 'similar' signals. The approach consists of building a classification system that avoids traversing the whole database looking for similarities. The classification system diminishes the problem dimensionality (by means of waveform feature extraction) and reduces the searching space to just the most probable 'similar' waveforms (clustering techniques). In the searching procedure, the input waveform is classified in any of the existing clusters. Then, a similarity measure is computed between the input signal and all cluster elements in order to identify the most similar waveforms. The inner product of normalized vectors is used as the similarity measure as it allows the searching process to be independent of signal gain and polarity. This development has been applied recently to TJ-II stellarator databases and has been integrated into its remote participation system.

  10. Point-of-care cardiac ultrasound techniques in the physical examination: better at the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Bruce J

    2017-07-01

    The development of hand-carried, battery-powered ultrasound devices has created a new practice in ultrasound diagnostic imaging, called 'point-of-care' ultrasound (POCUS). Capitalising on device portability, POCUS is marked by brief and limited ultrasound imaging performed by the physician at the bedside to increase diagnostic accuracy and expediency. The natural evolution of POCUS techniques in general medicine, particularly with pocket-sized devices, may be in the development of a basic ultrasound examination similar to the use of the binaural stethoscope. This paper will specifically review how POCUS improves the limited sensitivity of the current practice of traditional cardiac physical examination by both cardiologists and non-cardiologists. Signs of left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left atrial enlargement, lung congestion and elevated central venous pressures are often missed by physical techniques but can be easily detected by POCUS and have prognostic and treatment implications. Creating a general set of repetitive imaging skills for these entities for application on all patients during routine examination will standardise and reduce heterogeneity in cardiac bedside ultrasound applications, simplify teaching curricula, enhance learning and recollection, and unify competency thresholds and practice. The addition of POCUS to standard physical examination techniques in cardiovascular medicine will result in an ultrasound-augmented cardiac physical examination that reaffirms the value of bedside diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Techniques for laser processing, assay, and examination of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Mitchell, R.C.; Rogell, M.L.

    1981-11-01

    Fuel examination studies were performed which have application to interim spent fuel storage. These studies were in three areas, i.e., laser drilling and rewelding demonstration, nondestructive assay techniques survey, and fuel examination techniques survey

  12. Examination techniques for non-magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metala, M.J.; Kilpatrick, N.L.; Frank, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Until the introduction of 18Mn18Cr rings a few years ago, most non-magnetic steel rings for generator rotors were made from 18Mn5Cr alloy steel, which is highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of water. This, the latest in a series of papers on the subject of non-magnetic rings by the authors' company, provides a discussion of nondestructive examination of 18Mn5Cr rings for stress corrosion distress. With rings on the rotor, fluorescent penetrant, ultrasonic and special visual techniques are applied. With rings off the rotor, the fluorescent penetrant technique is used, with and without stress enhancement

  13. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, F.C.; Atan, S.; Jaafar, H.

    1998-01-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA) n , (TA) n and (TTA) n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of

  14. Development of radiographic technique for examining k-type butt weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barui, K.L.; Bhattacharyya, B.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop a radiographic technique for examining K-type full penetration butt joints in heavy duty crane girders. The existing standard techniques of radiographic examination is found to be unsuitable to assess the internal defects properly. The examination technique reported here is successful in detecting not only the nature of the internal defects but also their degree of severities - from which clues for avoiding the most probable defects can be found out. The results of radiographic examination applied on the K-type butt joints of heavy duty crane girders have been discussed and it is specified that the acceptable limit of the defects must lie between 'blue' and 'green' according to the IIW colour code. Much work is yet to be done before standard specifications regarding the acceptibility of the defects in the actual job can be formulated. (author)

  15. Machine learning techniques to examine large patient databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyfroidt, Geert; Güiza, Fabian; Ramon, Jan; Bruynooghe, Maurice

    2009-03-01

    Computerization in healthcare in general, and in the operating room (OR) and intensive care unit (ICU) in particular, is on the rise. This leads to large patient databases, with specific properties. Machine learning techniques are able to examine and to extract knowledge from large databases in an automatic way. Although the number of potential applications for these techniques in medicine is large, few medical doctors are familiar with their methodology, advantages and pitfalls. A general overview of machine learning techniques, with a more detailed discussion of some of these algorithms, is presented in this review.

  16. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques Using RDX and C-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    Explosive trace detection equipment has been deployed to airports for more than a decade. During this time, the need for standardized procedures and calibrated trace amounts for ensuring that the systems are operating properly and detecting the correct explosive has been apparent but a standard representative of a fingerprint has been elusive. Standards are also necessary to evaluate instrumentation in the laboratories during development and prior to deployment to determine sample throughput, probability of detection, false positive/negative rates, ease of use by operator, mechanical and/or software problems that may be encountered, and other pertinent parameters that would result in the equipment being unusable during field operations. Since many laboratories do not have access to nor are allowed to handle explosives, the equipment is tested using techniques aimed at simulating the actual explosives fingerprint. This laboratory study focused on examining the similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used to performance test explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples and to offer scenarios where each contamination technique is applicable. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of standard solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory’s (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards onto substrates, and fingerprinting of actual explosives onto substrates. RDX was deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each substrate type using each contamination technique. The substrate types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that

  17. Development status of post irradiation examination techniques at the JMTR Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, M.; Ohsawa, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Umino, A.; Shimizu, M.; Satoh, H.; Oyamada, R.

    1992-01-01

    Hot laboratory at Oarai Research Establishment was founded to examine the objects mainly irradiated at JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) and has been operated since 1971. A wide variety of post-irradiation examinations (PIE) is available using the hot laboratory. Continuous efforts are made to develop new PIE techniques to accommodate the user's requirements. The following are main techniques recently developed in the hot laboratory; 1. Remote capsule assembly including remote weld of irradiated objects for reirradiation in JMTR. 2. Fracture toughness tests of reactor component materials. 3. Creep tests of heat resistance alloys in high temperature conditions. 4. Tests of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). 5. Examination techniques of miniaturized test specimens. This report describes an outline of the hot laboratory with main emphasis on the new PIE techniques. (author)

  18. Examination of irradiated fuel elements using gamma scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichim, O.; Mincu, M.; Man, I.; Stanica, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to validate the gamma scanning technique used to calculate the activity of gamma fission products from CANDU/TRIGA irradiated fuel elements. After a short presentation of the equipments used and their characteristics, the paper describes the calibration technique for the devices and how computed tomography reconstruction is done. Following the previously mentioned steps is possible to obtain the axial and radial profiles and the computed tomography reconstruction for calibration sources and for the irradiated fuel elements. The results are used to validate the gamma scanning techniques as a non-destructive examination method. The gamma scanning techniques will be used to: identify the fission products in the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements, construct the axial and radial distributions of fission products, get the distribution in cross section through computed tomography reconstruction, and determine the nuclei number and the fission products activity of the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements. (authors)

  19. Temporomandibular joint arthrography: normal anatomy and technique of examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvoisin, B.; Schnyder, P.; Klaus, E.; Jacques, B.

    1990-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is common. This entity is most often consecutive to internal derangements of the TMJ, which are not recognizable on plain films and tomograms. TMJ arthrography has proved a valuable tool in diagnosing these abnormalities. The technique of examination and normal arthrographic anatomy are reviewed. (author) [pt

  20. Patient radiation doses in upper GI examinations: a comparison between conventional and double-contrast techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankvall, G; Owman, T

    1982-01-01

    A total of 60 patients, divided into 3 groups with 20 patients in each, were examined with 3 different techniques: group 1 -- conventional technique, exposure at 120 kV; group 2 -- double-contrast technique (hypotonic gastrography, HG), exposure at 80 kW; group 3 -- HG, exposure at 120 kV. All examinations were performed in the same examination room and by the same radiologist. Absorbed doses to skin, thyroid, breasts, and gonads as well as energy imparted were measured. The only significant dose enhancements found when using double-contrast instead of conventional technique were in the female breasts and then only if the voltage was in the lower range. With exposure at 120 kV there was little difference in absorbed dose, but a significant advantage with respect to energy was imparted when using a double-contrast technique instead of a conventional technique. The testes doses were very low in all 3 types of examinations, and it seems that use of a testes shield is hardly motivated. With regard to both diagnostic accuracy and patient radiation dose, there can be no reason to use a conventional technique for upper GI examinations.

  1. Comparison of a modified mid-coronal sectioning technique and Wilson's technique when conducting eye and brain examinations in rabbit teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziejewski, Mary K; Solomon, Howard M; Rendemonti, Joyce; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    There are two methods used when examining fetal rabbit eyes and brain in teratology studies. One method employs prior fixation before serial sectioning (Wilson's technique) and the other uses fresh tissue (mid-coronal sectioning). We modified the mid-coronal sectioning technique to include removal of eyes and brain for closer examination and to increase the number of structures that can be evaluated and compared it to the Wilson's technique. We found that external examination of the head, in conjunction with either sectioning method, is equally sensitive in identifying developmental defects. We evaluated 40,401 New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch-Belted (DB) rabbit fetuses for external head alterations, of which 28,538 fetuses were further examined for eye and brain alterations using the modified mid-coronal sectioning method (16,675 fetuses) or Wilson's technique (11,863 fetuses). The fetuses were from vehicle control or drug-treated pregnant rabbits in embryo-fetal development studies conducted to meet international regulatory requirements for the development of new drugs. Both methods detected the more common alterations (microphthalmia and dilated lateral cerebral ventricles) and other less common findings (changes in size and/or shape of eye and brain structures). While both methods are equally sensitive at detecting common and rare developmental defects, the modified mid-coronal sectioning technique eliminates the use of chemicals and concomitant fixation artifacts that occur with the Wilson's technique and allows for examination of 100% intact fetuses thereby increasing potential for detecting eye and brain alterations as these findings occur infrequently in rabbits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fuel bundle examination techniques for the Phebus fission product test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.; Clement, B.; Hardt, P. von der

    1996-01-01

    The paper develops the non-destructive examinations, with a special emphasis on transmission tomography, performed in the Phebus facility, using a linear accelerator associated with a line scan camera based on PCD components. This particular technique enabled the high level of penetration to be obtained, necessary for this high density application. Spatial resolution is not far from the theoretical limit and the density resolution is often adequate. This technique permitted: 1) to define beforehand the cuts on a precise basis, avoiding a long step-by-step choice as in previous in-pile tests; 2) to determine, at an early stage, mass balance, material relocations (in association with axial gamma spectrometry), and FP distribution, as an input into re-calculations of the bundle events. However, classical cuttings, periscopic visual examinations, macrographies, micrographies and EPMA analyses remain essential to give oxidation levels (in the less degraded zones), phase aspect and composition, to distinguish between materials of identical density, and, if possible, to estimate temperatures. Oxidation resistance of sensors (thermocouples or ultrasonic thermometers) is also traced. The EPMA gives access to the molten material chemical analyses, especially in the molten fuel blockage area. The first results show that an important part of the fuel bundle melted (which was one of the objectives of this test) and that the degradation level is close to TIMI-2 with a molten plug under a cavity surrounded by an uranium-rich crust. In lower and upper areas fuel rods are less damaged. Complementaries between these examination techniques and between international teams involved will be major advantages in the Phebus FPT0 test comprehension. 3 refs, 9 figs

  3. Examining Thematic Similarity, Difference, and Membership in Three Online Mental Health Communities from Reddit: A Text Mining and Visualization Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike; Chen, Annie T

    2018-01-01

    Social media, including online health communities, have become popular platforms for individuals to discuss health challenges and exchange social support with others. These platforms can provide support for individuals who are concerned about social stigma and discrimination associated with their illness. Although mental health conditions can share similar symptoms and even co-occur, the extent to which discussion topics in online mental health communities are similar, different, or overlapping is unknown. Discovering the topical similarities and differences could potentially inform the design of related mental health communities and patient education programs. This study employs text mining, qualitative analysis, and visualization techniques to compare discussion topics in publicly accessible online mental health communities for three conditions: Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. First, online discussion content for the three conditions was collected from three Reddit communities (r/Anxiety, r/Depression, and r/PTSD). Second, content was pre-processed, and then clustered using the k -means algorithm to identify themes that were commonly discussed by members. Third, we qualitatively examined the common themes to better understand them, as well as their similarities and differences. Fourth, we employed multiple visualization techniques to form a deeper understanding of the relationships among the identified themes for the three mental health conditions. The three mental health communities shared four themes: sharing of positive emotion, gratitude for receiving emotional support, and sleep- and work-related issues. Depression clusters tended to focus on self-expressed contextual aspects of depression, whereas the Anxiety Disorders and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder clusters addressed more treatment- and medication-related issues. Visualizations showed that discussion topics from the Anxiety Disorders and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder subreddits

  4. The Dorsal 4-finger Technique: A Novel Method to Examine Metacarpophalangeal Joints in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omair, Mohammed A; Akhavan, Pooneh; Naraghi, Ali; Mittoo, Shikha; Xiong, Juan; Weber, Deborah; Lin, Daming; Weber, Melissa; Keystone, Edward C

    2018-03-01

    To describe the dorsal 4-finger technique (DFFT) in examining metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compare it to the traditional 2-finger technique (TFT) using ultrasound (US) as a gold standard. Four rheumatologists evaluated 180 MCP joints of 18 patients with RA. All patients underwent US for greyscale (GSUS) and power Doppler US (PDUS). Agreements between rheumatologists, the 2 techniques, and US were evaluated using Cohen κ and the first-order agreement coefficient (AC1) κ methods. The population comprised 17 females (94.4%) with a mean (SD) age and disease duration of 56.8 (14.4) and 21.8 (12.9) years, respectively. Eight patients (44.4%) were taking methotrexate monotherapy, while 10 patients (55.6%) were receiving biologics. US evaluation revealed 69 (38.3%) and 30 (16.7%) joints exhibited synovitis grade 2-3 by GSUS and PDUS, respectively. Effusion was documented in 30 joints (16.7%). The mean intraobserver agreement using the DFFT and TFT were 80.5% and 86%, respectively. The mean interobserver agreements using the DFFT and TFT were 84% and 74%, respectively. κ agreement with US findings was similar for both techniques in tender joints but was higher for the DFFT in nontender joints (0.33 vs 0.07, p = 0.015 for GSUS) and (0.48 vs 0.11, p = 0.002 for PDUS). The DFFT had a higher sensitivity in detecting ballottement by GSUS (0.47 vs 0.2, p The DFFT is a novel, reproducible, and reliable method to examine MCP joints, and it has a better correlation with US than the traditional TFT.

  5. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: Similar patterns of rehearsal and similar effects of word length, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Smith, Jessica; Hayes, Louise

    2009-07-01

    In five experiments, rehearsal and recall phenomena were examined using the free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of eight words, were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR, and rehearsed out loud during presentation. The patterns of rehearsal were similar in all the conditions, and there was little difference between recall in the precued and postcued conditions. In Experiment 2, both free recall and ISR were sensitive to word length and presentation rate and showed similar patterns of rehearsal. In Experiment 3, both tasks were sensitive to word length and articulatory suppression. The word length effects generalized to 6-item (Experiment 4) and 12-item (Experiment 5) lists. These findings suggest that the two tasks are underpinned by highly similar rehearsal and recall processes.

  6. Comparison of computational performance of GA and PSO optimization techniques when designing similar systems - Typical PWR core case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Lima, Carlos A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, Rua Helio de Almeida 75, Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, P.O. Box: 68550 - Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Politecnico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Rua Alberto Rangel - s/n, Vila Nova, Nova Friburgo, Zip Code: 28630-050, Nova Friburgo (Brazil); Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.; Pereira, Claudio Marcio do N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, Rua Helio de Almeida 75, Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, P.O. Box: 68550 - Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (INCT) (Brazil); Cunha, Joao J. da [Eletronuclear Eletrobras Termonuclear - Gerencia de Analise de Seguranca Nuclear, Rua da Candelaria, 65, 7 andar. Centro, Zip Code: 20091-906, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Alvim, Antonio Carlos M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao s/n, P.O.Box 68509 - Zip Code: 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (INCT) (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > Performance of PSO and GA techniques applied to similar system design. > This work uses ANGRA1 (two loop PWR) core as a prototype. > Results indicate that PSO technique is more adequate than GA to solve this kind of problem. - Abstract: This paper compares the performance of two optimization techniques, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) applied to the design a typical reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, at full power in single phase forced circulation flow. This comparison aims at analyzing the performance in reaching the global optimum, considering that both heuristics are based on population search methods, that is, methods whose population (candidate solution set) evolve from one generation to the next using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic rules. The simulated PWR, similar to ANGRA 1 power plant, was used as a case example to compare the performance of PSO and GA. Results from simulations indicated that PSO is more adequate to solve this kind of problem.

  7. Flow shop scheduling decisions through Techniques for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The flow-shop scheduling problem (FSP has been widely studied in the literature and having a very active research area. Over the last few decades, a number of heuristic/meta-heuristic solution techniques have been developed. Some of these techniques offer excellent effectiveness and efficiency at the expense of substantial implementation efforts and being extremely complicated. This paper brings out the application of a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method known as techniques for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS using different weighting schemes in flow-shop environment. The objective function is identification of a job sequence which in turn would have minimum makespan (total job completion time. The application of the proposed method to flow shop scheduling is presented and explained with a numerical example. The results of the proposed TOPSIS based technique of FSP are also compared on the basis of some benchmark problems and found compatible with the results obtained from other standard procedures.

  8. Comparison of computational performance of GA and PSO optimization techniques when designing similar systems - Typical PWR core case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Lima, Carlos A.; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.; Pereira, Claudio Marcio do N.A.; Cunha, Joao J. da; Alvim, Antonio Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Performance of PSO and GA techniques applied to similar system design. → This work uses ANGRA1 (two loop PWR) core as a prototype. → Results indicate that PSO technique is more adequate than GA to solve this kind of problem. - Abstract: This paper compares the performance of two optimization techniques, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) applied to the design a typical reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, at full power in single phase forced circulation flow. This comparison aims at analyzing the performance in reaching the global optimum, considering that both heuristics are based on population search methods, that is, methods whose population (candidate solution set) evolve from one generation to the next using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic rules. The simulated PWR, similar to ANGRA 1 power plant, was used as a case example to compare the performance of PSO and GA. Results from simulations indicated that PSO is more adequate to solve this kind of problem.

  9. Available post-irradiation examination techniques at Romanian institute for nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvan, Marcel; Sorescu, Antonius; Mincu, Marin; Uta, Octavian; Dobrin, Relu

    2005-01-01

    The Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) has a set of nuclear facilities consisting of TRIGA 14 MW(th) materials testing reactor and LEPI (Romanian acronym for post-irradiation examination laboratory) which enable to investigate the behaviour of the nuclear fuel and materials under various irradiation conditions. The available techniques of post-irradiation examination (PIE) and purposes of PIE for CANDU reactor fuel are as follows. 1) Visual inspection and photography by periscope: To examine the surface condition such as deposits, corrosion etc. 2) Eddy current testing: To verify the cladding integrity. 3) Profilometry and length measurement performed both before and after irradiation: To measure the parameters which highlight the dimensional changes i.e. diameter, length, diametral and axial sheath deformation, circumferential sheath ridging height, bow and ovality. 4) Gamma scanning and Tomography: To determine the burnup, axial and radial fission products activity distribution and to check for flux peaking and loading homogeneity. 5) Puncture test: To measure the pressure, volume and composition of fission gas and the inner free volume. 6) Optical microscopy: To highlight the structural changes and hydriding, to examine the condition of the fuel-sheath interface and to measure the oxide thickness and Vickers microhardness. 7) Mass spectrometry: To measure the burnup. 8) Tensile testing: To check the mechanical properties. So far, non-destructive and destructive post-irradiation examinations have been performed on a significant number of CANDU fuel rods (about 100) manufactured by INR and irradiated to different power histories in the INR 14 MW(th) TRIGA reactor. These examinations have been performed as part of the Romanian research programme for the manufacturing, development and safety of the CANDU fuel. The paper describes the PIE techniques and some results. (Author)

  10. Idealness and similarity in goal-derived categories: a computational examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Storms, Gert; Vanpaemel, Wolf

    2013-02-01

    The finding that the typicality gradient in goal-derived categories is mainly driven by ideals rather than by exemplar similarity has stood uncontested for nearly three decades. Due to the rather rigid earlier implementations of similarity, a key question has remained--that is, whether a more flexible approach to similarity would alter the conclusions. In the present study, we evaluated whether a similarity-based approach that allows for dimensional weighting could account for findings in goal-derived categories. To this end, we compared a computational model of exemplar similarity (the generalized context model; Nosofsky, Journal of Experimental Psychology. General 115:39-57, 1986) and a computational model of ideal representation (the ideal-dimension model; Voorspoels, Vanpaemel, & Storms, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18:1006-114, 2011) in their accounts of exemplar typicality in ten goal-derived categories. In terms of both goodness-of-fit and generalizability, we found strong evidence for an ideal approach in nearly all categories. We conclude that focusing on a limited set of features is necessary but not sufficient to account for the observed typicality gradient. A second aspect of ideal representations--that is, that extreme rather than common, central-tendency values drive typicality--seems to be crucial.

  11. Techniques Used in Forensic Psychological Examinations in Cases of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Lages Gava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no standardized protocol for the evaluation of situations of sexual abuse. Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation. Semi-structured interviews, which were qualitatively analyzed using the WebQDA software, were applied with twelve psychologists who work as expert witnesses in the Medical-Legal Institute of six Brazilian capitals. The results showed a diversity of actions taken in the forensic examination practice, as well as consensus and controversy regarding the use of psychological testing and the credibility assessment of the report. Flexibility in conducting the forensic examinations by the teams was also observed, with the techniques used adapted according to the needs. The importance of the diversity of techniques was highlighted, as these aim to assist the expert witness to come to reliable conclusions, as well as maintain the rigor and technical quality of the evaluation.

  12. Post-Irradiation Examination and In-Pile Measurement Techniques for Water Reactor Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    Today nuclear technology plays an increasingly important role in our everyday lives, i.e. in energy, industry, medical and environmental applications. Faced with the immediate world's problems of economics, greenhouse gas emissions and water scarcity, as well as the future demand for electricity, nuclear power would provide a long term solution. However better reactor design is required to fulfil such objectives. Therefore, after its stagnation, nuclear engineering has been going through a revival which is reflected in the start of such international projects as Generation IV, INPRO, GNEP and others. These development programs include consideration of a wide range of nuclear reactors of different types and purposes, from high temperature gas cooled and fast reactors with different coolant options to thermal water cooled ones which have both enhanced operating safety and efficient operation due to the optimal design and coolant parameters, etc. Requirements for enhanced reactor safety and efficiency make it necessary to perform precise in- and post-reactor experiments and, consequently, to use more up-to-date measurement equipment and analysis techniques, thus developing hot labs and research reactor facilities. Application of new techniques for measurement and analysis is also related to the consideration of advanced materials for future innovative nuclear reactors with challenging operational conditions that differ greatly from those of the existing nuclear reactors. The necessity to use the most up-to-date precise equipment follows from the necessity to prolong the operating lifetime of the existing NPPs. The designed lifetime of units of many NPPs under operation is practically over. Since these units are in satisfactory condition and the construction of new NPPs is very expensive, it is reasonable to justify their lifetime more precisely and prolong it. However, it requires additional in- and post-reactor examinations. The majority of the hot labs were designed

  13. Diagnosis of deep endometriosis: clinical examination, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazot, Marc; Daraï, Emile

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present review was to evaluate the contribution of clinical examination and imaging techniques, mainly transvaginal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose deep infiltrating (DE) locations using prisma statement recommendations. Clinical examination has a relative low sensitivity and specificity to diagnose DE. Independently of DE locations, for all transvaginal sonography techniques a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 94% are observed approaching criteria for a triage test. Whatever the protocol and MRI devices, the pooled sensitivity and specificity for pelvic endometriosis diagnosis were 94% and 77%, respectively. For rectosigmoid endometriosis, pooled sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 92% and 96%, respectively fulfilling criteria of replacement test. In conclusion, advances in imaging techniques offer high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose DE with at least triage value and for rectosigmoid endometriosis replacement value imposing a revision of the concept of laparoscopy as the gold standard. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-6, Radiography Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains radiographic inspection as a means of nondestructively examining components, assemblies, structures, and fabricated piping. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  15. Exposure to radiation in whole body and skull CT examinations depending upon parameters determined by the technique of examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebach, B.J.O.; Makoski, H.B.; Ewen, K.

    1983-01-01

    The article gives the organ doses for whole body CT examinations of the thoracic region, the upper abdomen, the mesogastric and pelvic regions as well as of the lumbar vertebral column and for CT scanning of the skull. The examinations were performed using in Alderson-Rando phantom with the whole body computer thomograph Somatom DR2 supplied by Siemens and with the skull computer tomograph Siretom 2000, also supplied by Siemens, It was found that the magnitude of radiation exposure of the patient depends not only on instrument-specific properties, but also to a very large measure on the examination parameters and techniques which can vary considerably from one clinic to another. (orig.) [de

  16. Sedation as a technique to aid in the supportive examination for children with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risti Saptarini Primarti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Undergoing medical procedures often extremely distress people, especially patients with special needs. Supportive examinations, such as radiographic and laboratory examinations, as a part of medical procedure sometimes are impossible to be done in those patients, while we demand those tests for diagnostic and treatment reasons. A variety of techniques are available to the dental and medical professional to aid in the management of these patients regarding medical procedures, one of them is sedation. By eliminating patient’s fear and anxiety throughout sedation, all medical procedure including taking a supportive examination may be successfully completed. This paper will report the role of sedation as a technique to aid in the supportive examination for special needs child (Down’s syndrome in Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, West Java Indonesia.

  17. Angiographic examinations with the medium size technique (70 mm films)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Reichardt, W.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of medium-size technique was tested in angiographic examinations of thoracic and abdominal organs. By means of full-size image intensifiers it is possible to carry out organ angiography, and by means of a pace control mechanism for the patient transport, the angiography of the extremities can be realized. Examples are given illustrate the informational value in cases where the arial and venous vascular systems of organs and extremities are concerned. The particular advantages for functional analyses of organ circulatory systems in cases of angiography are described. Two factors of importance are pointed out: the reduction of the exposure to irradiation for the patient on the one hand, and the increasing film prices on the other hand. The authors demand to overcome the psychological problems arising in the medical working groups where the medium-size technique shall be introduced into routine diagnostics. (orig./APR) [de

  18. Managing Age Discrimination: An Examination of the Techniques Used when Seeking Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ellie D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Results: Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination.…

  19. Musical structure analysis using similarity matrix and dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Jeong, Hong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-10-01

    Automatic music segmentation and structure analysis from audio waveforms based on a three-level hierarchy is examined in this research, where the three-level hierarchy includes notes, measures and parts. The pitch class profile (PCP) feature is first extracted at the note level. Then, a similarity matrix is constructed at the measure level, where a dynamic time warping (DTW) technique is used to enhance the similarity computation by taking the temporal distortion of similar audio segments into account. By processing the similarity matrix, we can obtain a coarse-grain music segmentation result. Finally, dynamic programming is applied to the coarse-grain segments so that a song can be decomposed into several major parts such as intro, verse, chorus, bridge and outro. The performance of the proposed music structure analysis system is demonstrated for pop and rock music.

  20. Evacuation proctography - examination technique and method of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, R.; Schott, U.; Starlinger, M.

    1993-01-01

    Evacuation proctography is the most important imaging technique to supplement findings of physical examination, manometry, and endoscopy in patients presenting with pathologies in anorectal morphology and function. Indications for evacuation proctography include obstructed defecation or incomplete evacuation, imaging of ileal pouches following excision of the rectum, and suspected anorectal fistulae. Evacuation proctography with thick barium sulfate is performed under fluoroscopy. Documentation of the study can either be done by single-shot X-rays, video recording, or imaging with a 100-mm spot-film camera. Evacuation proctography shows morphologic changes such as spastic pelvic floor, rectocele, enterocele, intussusception and anal prolapse. Measurements can be performed to obtain the anorectal angle, location and mobility of the pelvic floor, and size as well as importance of a rectocele. Qualitative and quantitative data can only be interpreted along with clinical and manometric data. (orig.) [de

  1. Physical activity for health: examining similarities and differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the face of a rising diabetes epidemic, a target population for prevention programme is the children of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study examined physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes and that of their adult children, and characterized the factors associated with physical inactivity among the participants.

  2. Improved X-ray diagnosis of stomach by progress in the development of contrast media and examination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, W.

    1982-01-01

    Three factors have been responsible for the advances during the past few years in X-ray examination of the stomach: Improvement of the contrast media used; introduction of the rare-earth foils; and examination techniques imaging all sections of the stomach and of the duodenal bulb under hypotension in double-contrast technique, in complete filling, and imaging the accessible sections by means of proper compression. An interesting technique employs a combination of two different barium sulphate suspension used at the same time, e.g. Bubbly Barium or some other barium sulphate preparation with a small amount of High-Density Barium yielding excellent image of the gastric mucosa (technique with two contrast media). (orig.) [de

  3. Evaluation of mfcc estimation techniques for music similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Murthi, Manohar

    2006-01-01

    Spectral envelope parameters in the form of mel-frequencycepstral coefficients are often used for capturing timbral information of music signals in connection with genre classification applications. In this paper, we evaluate mel-frequencycepstral coefficient (MFCC) estimation techniques, namely...... independent linear prediction and MVDR spectral estimators did not exhibit any statistically significant improvement over MFCCs based on the simpler FFT....

  4. An Efficient Similarity Digests Database Lookup - A Logarithmic Divide & Conquer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Breitinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigating seized devices within digital forensics represents a challenging task due to the increasing amount of data. Common procedures utilize automated file identification, which reduces the amount of data an investigator has to examine manually. In the past years the research field of approximate matching arises to detect similar data. However, if n denotes the number of similarity digests in a database, then the lookup for a single similarity digest is of complexity of O(n. This paper presents a concept to extend existing approximate matching algorithms, which reduces the lookup complexity from O(n to O(log(n. Our proposed approach is based on the well-known divide and conquer paradigm and builds a Bloom filter-based tree data structure in order to enable an efficient lookup of similarity digests. Further, it is demonstrated that the presented technique is highly scalable operating a trade-off between storage requirements and computational efficiency. We perform a theoretical assessment based on recently published results and reasonable magnitudes of input data, and show that the complexity reduction achieved by the proposed technique yields a 220-fold acceleration of look-up costs.

  5. Irradiated fuel examination using the Cerenkov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1981-03-01

    A technique for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in water filled storage ponds has been developed and demonstrated. This technique provides sufficient qualitative information to be useful as a confirmatory technique to International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors. Measurements have been made on the Cerenkov glow light intensity from irradiated fuel that show the intensity of this light to be proportional to the cooling time. Fieldable instruments used in several tests confirm that such measurements can be made easily and rapidly, without fuel assembly movement or the introduction of apparatus into the storage ponds. The Cerenkov technique and instrumentation have been shown to be of potential use to operators of reactor spent fuel facilities and away from reactor storage facilities, and to the International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors who provide surveillance of the irradiated fuel stored in these facilities

  6. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  7. Present and future aspects of PET examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomio

    2003-01-01

    The PET examination gives the body distribution image of a compound labeled with the positron emitter manufactured by cyclotron. Recently, PET with F18-deoxyglucose (FDG) attracts considerable attention because the imaging is particularly useful for cancer detection. Since the technique was authorized by the United States (US) official health insurance in 1998, the number of the examination is increasing, which is also under similar situation in Japan due to the latest partial authorization for some malignant tumors. In Japan, about 30,000 examinations per year are carried out, half of which, in private hospitals. Their purpose is increasingly for cancer detection. For future PET examination, awaited are improvement of PET camera and development of a novel imaging agent. PET/CT imaging is for the former and F18-α-methyltyrosine, for the latter. Miniaturization of cyclotron, FDG delivery system, improved FDG synthetic method, popularization of PET/CT, development of PET camera for health examination, clinical trial of a novel imaging agent, and spread of PET health examination and operation of PET Center, are expected for future progress of PET technique. (N.I.)

  8. Application of a visual soil examination and evaluation technique at site and farm level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Moolenaar, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Visual soil examination and evaluation (VSEE) techniques are semi-quantitative methods that provide rapid and cost-effective information on soil quality. These are mostly applied at site or field level, but there is an increased need for soil quality indicators at farm level to allow integration

  9. Examining the Environmental Effects of Athletic Training: Perceptions of Waste and the Use of Green Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Kelly; Pitney, William A; Cappaert, Thomas A; Wolfe, Angela

    2017-12-01

      Environmental sustainability is a critical concern in health care. Similar to other professions, the practice of athletic training necessitates the use of a large quantity of natural and manufactured resources.   To examine the perceptions of the waste produced by the practice of athletic training and the green practices currently used by athletic trainers (ATs) to combat this waste.   Mixed-methods study.   Field setting.   A total of 442 ATs completed the study. Sixteen individuals participated in the qualitative portion.   Data from sections 2 and 3 of the Athletic Training Environmental Impact Survey were analyzed. Focus groups and individual interviews were used to determine participants' views of waste and the efforts used to combat waste. Descriptive statistics were used to examine types of waste. Independent t tests, χ 2 tests, and 1-way analyses of variance were calculated to identify any differences between the knowledge and use of green techniques. Interviews and focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively.   Participants reported moderate knowledge of green techniques (3.18 ± 0.53 on a 5-point Likert scale). Fifty-eight percent (n = 260) of survey participants perceived that a substantial amount of waste was produced by the practice of athletic training. Ninety-two percent (n = 408) admitted they thought about the waste produced in their daily practice. The types of waste reported most frequently were plastics (n = 111, 29%), water (n = 88, 23%), and paper for administrative use (n = 81, 21%). Fifty-two percent (n = 234) agreed this waste directly affected the environment. The qualitative aspect of the study reinforced recognition of the large amount of waste produced by the practice of athletic training. Types of conservation practices used by ATs were also explored.   Participants reported concern regarding the waste produced by athletic training. The amount of waste varies depending on practice size and setting

  10. Assessing semantic similarity of texts - Methods and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, Anna; Zerkova, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the semantic similarity of texts is an important part of different text-related applications like educational systems, information retrieval, text summarization, etc. This task is performed by sophisticated analysis, which implements text-mining techniques. Text mining involves several pre-processing steps, which provide for obtaining structured representative model of the documents in a corpus by means of extracting and selecting the features, characterizing their content. Generally the model is vector-based and enables further analysis with knowledge discovery approaches. Algorithms and measures are used for assessing texts at syntactical and semantic level. An important text-mining method and similarity measure is latent semantic analysis (LSA). It provides for reducing the dimensionality of the document vector space and better capturing the text semantics. The mathematical background of LSA for deriving the meaning of the words in a given text by exploring their co-occurrence is examined. The algorithm for obtaining the vector representation of words and their corresponding latent concepts in a reduced multidimensional space as well as similarity calculation are presented.

  11. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-02-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.

  12. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  13. Evaluation of the robustness of the preprocessing technique improving reversible compressibility of CT images: Tested on various CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Kim, Bohyoung; Gu, Bon Seung; Lee, Jong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Joong [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, South Korea and Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, South Korea and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Ki [Medical Information Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To modify the preprocessing technique, which was previously proposed, improving compressibility of computed tomography (CT) images to cover the diversity of three dimensional configurations of different body parts and to evaluate the robustness of the technique in terms of segmentation correctness and increase in reversible compression ratio (CR) for various CT examinations.Methods: This study had institutional review board approval with waiver of informed patient consent. A preprocessing technique was previously proposed to improve the compressibility of CT images by replacing pixel values outside the body region with a constant value resulting in maximizing data redundancy. Since the technique was developed aiming at only chest CT images, the authors modified the segmentation method to cover the diversity of three dimensional configurations of different body parts. The modified version was evaluated as follows. In randomly selected 368 CT examinations (352 787 images), each image was preprocessed by using the modified preprocessing technique. Radiologists visually confirmed whether the segmented region covers the body region or not. The images with and without the preprocessing were reversibly compressed using Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), JPEG2000 two-dimensional (2D), and JPEG2000 three-dimensional (3D) compressions. The percentage increase in CR per examination (CR{sub I}) was measured.Results: The rate of correct segmentation was 100.0% (95% CI: 99.9%, 100.0%) for all the examinations. The median of CR{sub I} were 26.1% (95% CI: 24.9%, 27.1%), 40.2% (38.5%, 41.1%), and 34.5% (32.7%, 36.2%) in JPEG, JPEG2000 2D, and JPEG2000 3D, respectively.Conclusions: In various CT examinations, the modified preprocessing technique can increase in the CR by 25% or more without concerning about degradation of diagnostic information.

  14. A personality and impairment approach to examine the similarities and differences between avoidant personality disorder and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Kieran L C; Sellbom, Martin; Liggett, Jacqueline; Smith, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined whether avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) should be considered distinct disorder constructs, which is a persistent and controversial issue in the clinical literature. We examined whether relative scores on SAD and AvPD were associated with the same personality profile and severity of impairment. The current research used a cross-sectional design and self-report inventories, including multiple measures of personality, impairment and psychopathology. Results from a mixed sample of 402 university and community participants found that scores on AvPD and SAD were similarly associated with personality traits and impairment indices. Moreover, a latent construct accounting for the shared variance for AvPD and SAD was associated with personality traits and impairment, whereas the residuals representing the uniquenesses of these disorder constructs were not. These findings support the view that AvPD and SAD are similar disorders from a phenotypic personality trait and impairment perspective. These findings are contrary to a prevalent view in the literature, known as severity continuum hypothesis, because the two disorders could not be meaningfully differentiated based on severity of impairment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Similar or different?: the importance of similarities and differences for support between siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, M.; van der Lippe, T.; Dykstra, P.A.; Flap, H.

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  16. Similar or Different? The Importance of Similarities and Differences for Support Between Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Flap, Henk

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  17. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strybulevych, A.; Leroy, V.; Shum, A. L.; Koksel, H. F.; Scanlon, M. G.; Page, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  18. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strybulevych, A; Leroy, V; Page, J H; Shum, A L; Koksel, H F; Scanlon, M G

    2012-01-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  19. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  20. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-4, Operation of Magnetic Particle Test Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the specific technique variables and options which are available to the test technician, provides instructions for selecting and operating the appropriate test equipment, describes physical criteria for detectable discontinuities,…

  1. Managing age discrimination: an examination of the techniques used when seeking employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ellie D

    2009-06-01

    This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination. Individuals counteract employers' ageist stereotypes by maintaining their skills and changing their work-related expectations and conceal age by altering their résumés, physical appearance, and language used. This research suggests that there is a need to reexamine the hiring practices of employers and to improve legislation in relation to their accountability.

  2. [Similarities between disaster areas and developing countries in terms of the lack of facilities for clinical examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganami, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    From the experience of more than 130 emergency medical relief missions in over 50 countries/areas, the AMDA would like to propose a system of mobile clinical examinations to prepare for possible natural disasters in Japan. Such a system will require the development of vehicles equipped with a full range of laboratory equipment, which I believe will become a public property in the world, and contribute to the enhancement of medical services in disaster areas as well as in areas with less developed medical technologies. AMDA's recent medical relief activities include the support of the victims of the earthquakes in Haiti (2010) and Turkey (2011), and the flood in Thailand (2012). In these countries, the AMDA faced the lack of a clinical examination system which resulted in a huge number of patients who could not receive proper treatment after injury, or those who suffered from infectious diseases. Domestically, when the AMDA sent medical teams to the affected areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami (2011), their activities took place mainly in evacuation shelters, where survivors needed treatment for chronic diseases and preventive care. All of these experiences highlight the importance of clinical examination in disaster areas, as well as in developing countries/areas similarly lacking basic medical services. The Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine will surely play an important role in the development of the proposed system of mobile clinical examinations. The AMDA would like to collaborate with the JSLM in emergency relief activities and medical aid projects in areas affected by disasters or lack basic medical services.

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-5, Fundamentals of Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fifth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains the radiographic process, from radiation source selection to equipment and specimen selection and arrangement, and film processing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  4. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  5. Advanced post-irradiation examination techniques for water reactor fuel. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide and overview of the status of post-irradiation examination (PIE) techniques for water cooled reactor fuel assemblies and their components with emphasis given to advanced PIE techniques applied to high burnup fuel. Papers presented at the meeting described progress obtained in non-destructive (e.g. dimensional measurements, oxide layer thickness measurements, gamma scanning and tomography, neutron and X-ray radiography, etc.) and destructive PIE techniques (e.g. microstructural studies, elemental and isotopic analysis, measurement of physical and mechanical properties, etc.) used for investigation of water reactor fuel. Recent practice in high burnup fuel investigation revealed the importance of advanced PIE techniques, such as 3-D tomography, secondary ion mass spectrometry, laser flash, high resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy, image analysis in microstructural studies, for understanding mechanisms of fuel behaviour under irradiation. Importance and needs for in-pile irradiation of samples and rodlets in instrumented rigs were also discussed. This TECDOC contains 20 individual papers presented at the meeting; each of the papers has been indexed separately

  6. Neutron scattering techniques in the examination of recycled aggregate concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krezel, A.; Alabaster, P.; Bakshi, E.; McManus, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Researchers at Swinburne University of Technology (SUT) have undertaken a research project aiming initially at better understanding the effects of any chemical impurities in Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) on the microstructure development of Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC). Furthermore, a porosity of RCA and RAC and its effect on the acoustic performance and mechanical properties is being investigated. A number of conventional tests have been employed to examine the porosity of the aggregate and concrete made from RCA ranging from Volume of Permeable Voids test, through nitrogen adsorption to scanning electron microscopy. These tests are performed at SUT to characterise pores structure including pore size and volume as well as their surface area. The preparation of samples differs for the various tests, and this is a main reason contributing to inconsistencies in the results from these tests. None-the-less the results indicate strong positive correlation of inherent and purposely introduced porosity in RAC to its sound absorption capacities. Some inconsistency in the results is also due to the complexity of concrete itself compounded by the use of recycled material. However, the research has been granted a Grant from Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) which allows to conduct RAC examination using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). This neutron scattering technique characterises pore structure in a non-destructive manner. The results from this method should augment these obtained from conventional methods

  7. Detection of unsuspected colonic abnormalities using the pneumocolon technique during small bowel meal examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.; Skehan, S.J.; Brown, A.L.; Rawlinson, J.; Somers, S.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: The pneumocolon technique in small bowel meal examination is used to obtain double-contrast views of the distal ileum. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of cases in which an overhead pneumocolon radiograph demonstrated clinically relevant findings in the colon. METHODS: The overhead pneumocolon radiographs in 151 patients who underwent small bowel meals were evaluated retrospectively. A chart review was performed on those patients with positive colonic findings to determine if the suspected abnormalities affected patient management. RESULTS: Colonic abnormalities were identified in 34 of the 151 patients. One patient had a previously undiagnosed ascending colonic cancer; 17 had evidence of acute or chronic colitis; 13 had diverticulosis; one had a caecal polyp; one had an ileosigmoid fistula; one had a filling defect in the ascending colon. In 25 cases the colonic abnormality was visible only on the pneumocolon radiograph and not on the preceding single-contrast images. Management was altered by the colonic findings in seven cases. False-positive findings occurred in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: A routine overhead radiograph following use of the pneumocolon technique is a useful adjunct to small bowel meal examination as it can yield unsuspected and clinically significant colonic findings. Chou, S. (2000)

  8. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  9. The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöholm, B

    2003-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

  10. Re-examining TG-142 recommendations in light of modern techniques for linear accelerator based radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Trager, Michael; Yin, Fang-Fang; Kirkpatrick, John; Adamson, Justus

    2016-10-01

    The recent development of multifocal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using a single isocenter volumetric modulated arc theory (VMAT) technique warrants a re-examination of the quality assurance (QA) tolerances for routine mechanical QA recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group Report Number 142. Multifocal SRS can result in targets with small volumes being at a large off-axis distance from the treatment isocenter. Consequently, angular errors in the collimator, patient support assembly (PSA), or gantry could have an increased impact on target coverage. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of dose deviations caused by systematic errors in PSA, collimator, and gantry angle at the tolerance level for routine linear accelerator QA as recommended by TG-142. Dosimetric deviations from multifocal SRS plans (N = 10) were compared to traditional single target SRS using dynamic conformal arcs (N = 10). The chief dosimetric quantities used in determining clinical impact were V 100% and D 99% of the individual planning target volumes and V 12Gy of the healthy brain. Induced errors at tolerance levels showed the greatest change in multifocal SRS target coverage for collimator rotations (±1.0°) with the average changes to V 100% and D 99% being 5% and 6%, respectively, with maximum changes of 33% and 20%. A reduction in the induced error to half the TG-142 tolerance (±0.5°) demonstrated similar changes in coverage loss to traditional single target SRS assessed at the recommended tolerance level. The observed change in coverage for multifocal SRS was reduced for gantry errors (±1.0°) at 2% and 4.5% for V 100% and D 99% , respectively, with maximum changes of 18% and 12%. Minimal change in coverage was noted for errors in PSA rotation. This study indicates that institutions utilizing a single isocenter VMAT technique for multifocal disease should pay careful attention to the angular mechanical tolerances in designing a robust and

  11. A comparison of analogue and digital techniques in upper gastrointestinal examinations: absorbed dose and diagnostic quality of the images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsson, B.; Hansson, I.B. [Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Boden, K.; Witt, H.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, S.G. [Department of Thoracic Radiology, University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden); Persliden, J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether patient exposure and diagnostic quality of the image is significantly influenced by the introduction of digital image acquisition techniques. Evaluation was performed for three different techniques (analogue, analogue fluoro+digital radiography, digital) in examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The evaluation was done from data acquired in three different departments. Patient exposure was recorded as KERMA-area product (KAP) and the individual patient readings were normalised to a standard size patient. Image quality was assessed using visual grading with a reference image. The recorded KAP values were significantly higher (22.3 Gycm{sup 2}) for the fully digital technique compared to the others (analogue 6.8 Gycm{sup 2}, analogue+digital 3.6 Gycm{sup 2}). This was due mostly to an increased number of exposures. The diagnostic quality of the image was, however, also regarded to be slightly lower for the technique giving the lowest patient dose with the smallest number of exposures (analogue+digital). The digital examination technique, as used in this study, thus resulted in significantly higher patient dose without any significant gain in diagnostic quality of the image. (orig.)

  12. A comparison of analogue and digital techniques in upper gastrointestinal examinations: absorbed dose and diagnostic quality of the images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, B.; Hansson, I.B.; Boden, K.; Witt, H.H.; Fransson, S.G.; Persliden, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether patient exposure and diagnostic quality of the image is significantly influenced by the introduction of digital image acquisition techniques. Evaluation was performed for three different techniques (analogue, analogue fluoro+digital radiography, digital) in examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The evaluation was done from data acquired in three different departments. Patient exposure was recorded as KERMA-area product (KAP) and the individual patient readings were normalised to a standard size patient. Image quality was assessed using visual grading with a reference image. The recorded KAP values were significantly higher (22.3 Gycm 2 ) for the fully digital technique compared to the others (analogue 6.8 Gycm 2 , analogue+digital 3.6 Gycm 2 ). This was due mostly to an increased number of exposures. The diagnostic quality of the image was, however, also regarded to be slightly lower for the technique giving the lowest patient dose with the smallest number of exposures (analogue+digital). The digital examination technique, as used in this study, thus resulted in significantly higher patient dose without any significant gain in diagnostic quality of the image. (orig.)

  13. Cardiac Limited Ultrasound Examination Techniques to Augment the Bedside Cardiac Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Bruce J; Shaw, David J; Amundson, Stan A; Phan, James N; Blanchard, Daniel G; DeMaria, Anthony N

    2015-09-01

    The current practice of physical diagnosis is dependent on physician skills and biases, inductive reasoning, and time efficiency. Although the clinical utility of echocardiography is well known, few data exist on how to integrate 2-dimensional screening "quick-look" ultrasound applications into a novel, modernized cardiac physical examination. We discuss the evidence basis behind ultrasound "signs" pertinent to the cardiovascular system and elemental in synthesis of bedside diagnoses and propose the application of a brief cardiac limited ultrasound examination based on these signs. An ultrasound-augmented cardiac physical examination can be taught in traditional medical education and has the potential to improve bedside diagnosis and patient care. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Assessing Student Theses: Differences and Similarities between Examiners from Different Academic Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Mats; Åström, Maria; Stolpe, Karin; Björklund, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    The writing of student theses is an important activity at universities and is expected to demonstrate the students' academic skills. In the teacher-education programme, examiners from different academic disciplines are involved in supervising and examining student theses. Moreover, different subject disciplines have different traditions concerning…

  15. Gonad doses for male patients from stomach examination and oral cholegraphy using the X-ray image intensifying technique and television fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, W.; Richter, K.; Koenig, W.; Menzel, B.; Reisinger, W.; Uhlich, F.

    1979-01-01

    The gonad dose was measured for male patients undergoing stomach examinations and oral cholegraphy by means of a diagnostic twelve pulse generator (TuR D 1500) and an X-ray apparatus 'Diagnost 100' (Philips-Mueller). In a small group of patients the gonad dose was ascertained per exposure to a 70 mm single spot film, to a 24 cm x 30 cm full size radiograph, and per minute of exposure to image intensifier fluoroscopy. The total gonad dose in both the diagnostic techniques was determined seperately in larger groups of patients. In stomach examination large size radiography led to a gonad dose 20 times higher than that obtained with the spot film technique, while exposure from cholegraphy was 10 times higher. The gonad dose per exposure of a single spot film was about 0.5 mrad. In examinations of the stomach the gonad dose from one minute fluroscopy was 18 times higher than the doses determined for a single spot film, and in cholegraphy it was 10 times higher. Supposing mean values of the number of radiographs and of the fluoroscopy time according to the conditions applied, the gonad dose in stomach examination from the film-screen technique is about twice that from the television image-intensifying technique. By comparison, oral cholegraphy exclusively performed by large-size radiography yielded about the same gonad dose as the spot film television technique. Total dose values determined separately confirmed these evaluations. (author)

  16. Gender similarities and differences in 200 individuals with body dysmorphic disorder⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Background Gender is a critically important moderator of psychopathology. However, gender similarities and differences in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have received scant investigation. In this study, we examined gender similarities and differences in the broadest sample in which this topic has been examined. Methods Two hundred subjects with BDD recruited from diverse sources were assessed with a variety of standard measures. Results There were more similarities than differences between men and women, but many gender differences were found. The men were significantly older and more likely to be single and living alone. Men were more likely to obsess about their genitals, body build, and thinning hair/balding; excessively lift weights; and have a substance use disorder. In contrast, women were more likely to obsess about their skin, stomach, weight, breasts/chest, buttocks, thighs, legs, hips, toes, and excessive body/facial hair, and they were excessively concerned with more body areas. Women also performed more repetitive and safety behaviors, and were more likely to camouflage and use certain camouflaging techniques, check mirrors, change their clothes, pick their skin, and have an eating disorder. Women also had earlier onset of subclinical BDD symptoms and more severe BDD as assessed by the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination. However, men had more severe BDD as assessed by the Psychiatric Status Rating Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and they had poorer Global Assessment of Functioning Scale scores, were less likely to be working because of psychopathology, and were more likely to be receiving disability, including disability for BDD. Conclusions The clinical features of BDD in men and women have many similarities but also some interesting and important differences. These findings have implications for the detection and treatment of BDD. PMID:16490564

  17. Different yet similar: Examining race and ethnicity in treatment-seeking adults with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in demographic variables and the clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in treatment research at a medical school-based program. Participants were 775 (n = 195 men, n = 560 women) treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV-defined BED who self-identified as Black (n = 121), Hispanic (n = 54), or White (n = 580). Doctoral-level research clinicians assessed participants for BED and for eating disorder psychopathology using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview, and measured height and weight. Participants also completed established self-report measures. Black participants had a greater proportion of women than White participants and White participants had higher education than Black and Hispanic participants. Black participants had higher body mass index (BMI) and reported more frequent binge eating episodes than White participants but eating-disorder psychopathology (EDE scales and Global Severity) did not significantly differ across racial/ethnic groups. Black participants had lower levels of depression than Hispanic and White participants. These differences in clinical presentation remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, sex, and BMI. White participants had younger ages of onset for dieting, binge eating, and obesity, but not BED, than Black and Hispanic participants. There are some racial/ethnic differences in the developmental trajectories and clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with BED that remain unchanged after adjusting for demographic differences. Black participants presented for treatment with higher BMI and binge eating frequency than White participants and with lower depression than White and Hispanic groups, but associated eating disorder psychopathology levels were similar across racial/ethnic groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Semantic Similarity between Web Documents Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Poonam; Singh Tomer, Manjeet; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-06-01

    The World Wide Web is the source of information available in the structure of interlinked web pages. However, the procedure of extracting significant information with the assistance of search engine is incredibly critical. This is for the reason that web information is written mainly by using natural language, and further available to individual human. Several efforts have been made in semantic similarity computation between documents using words, concepts and concepts relationship but still the outcome available are not as per the user requirements. This paper proposes a novel technique for computation of semantic similarity between documents that not only takes concepts available in documents but also relationships that are available between the concepts. In our approach documents are being processed by making ontology of the documents using base ontology and a dictionary containing concepts records. Each such record is made up of the probable words which represents a given concept. Finally, document ontology's are compared to find their semantic similarity by taking the relationships among concepts. Relevant concepts and relations between the concepts have been explored by capturing author and user intention. The proposed semantic analysis technique provides improved results as compared to the existing techniques.

  19. Semantic Similarity between Web Documents Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Poonam; Singh Tomer, Manjeet; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    The World Wide Web is the source of information available in the structure of interlinked web pages. However, the procedure of extracting significant information with the assistance of search engine is incredibly critical. This is for the reason that web information is written mainly by using natural language, and further available to individual human. Several efforts have been made in semantic similarity computation between documents using words, concepts and concepts relationship but still the outcome available are not as per the user requirements. This paper proposes a novel technique for computation of semantic similarity between documents that not only takes concepts available in documents but also relationships that are available between the concepts. In our approach documents are being processed by making ontology of the documents using base ontology and a dictionary containing concepts records. Each such record is made up of the probable words which represents a given concept. Finally, document ontology's are compared to find their semantic similarity by taking the relationships among concepts. Relevant concepts and relations between the concepts have been explored by capturing author and user intention. The proposed semantic analysis technique provides improved results as compared to the existing techniques.

  20. Molecular techniques to distinguish morphologically similar Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa, Elodea nuttallii, and Elodea canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Nancy B.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    The four submerged aquatic species, hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata [monoecious and dioecious]), Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa), Canadian waterweed (Elodea canadensis), and western waterweed (Elodea nuttallii), are difficult to positively identify because of their morphological similarity to each other, resulting in possible misidentification. This limits our ability to understand their past and present distribution, which is important in aquatic plant management. We investigated a molecular technique to identify these species, which are problematic because of their invasive nature on multiple continents. Approximately 100 samples of these species, ranging in age from 40-yr-old herbarium samples to recently collected plants, were collected from regions across the United States. The distribution and range of the samples collected in this research were compared to those reported in the literature. We confirmed information on the current wide distribution of both hydrilla biotypes in the United States and discovered that hydrilla had actually invaded the waterways near Washington, DC 6 yr earlier than originally reported. In addition, we found evidence of the confusion, dating back to the 1980s, between Canadian waterweed and western waterweed in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Canadian waterweed was previously reported as common and western waterweed as rare; however, our samples indicate the opposite is true. This information indicates there is a need for investigators to anticipate the spread of hydrilla populations to northern U.S. waterways, where it will compete with existing plant species, including Canadian and western waterweeds. Our ability to confirm distribution and pace of spread of invasive and noninvasive species will improve with increased application of molecular techniques.

  1. X-ray examination of the stomach - a highly informative noninvasive examination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grehn, S.

    1987-10-01

    The X-ray examination of the stomach still holds its own in this age of sophisticated endoscopic examination techniques. Nevertheless, it needs to be based on a meticulous examination technique performed by the physian in person on the patient and resulting in convincing imaging. (orig.)

  2. MR urography: examination techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Adam, G.B.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2001-03-01

    Modern MR urography is performed on the basis of two different imaging strategies, which can be used complementarily to cover almost all aspects in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract diseases. The first technique utilizes unenhanced, heavily T2-weighted pulse sequences to obtain static-fluid images of the urinary tract. T2-weighted MR urograms have proved to be excellent in the visualization of the markedly dilated urinary tract, even if the renal excretory function is quiescent. Static-fluid MR urography is less suitable for imaging of disorders that occur in the nondilated collecting system. The second MR urography technique is analogous to the methodology of conventional intravenous pyelography and is, therefore, designated as excretory MR urography. For this purpose, a non-nephrotoxic gadolinium chelate is intravenously administered and after its renal excretion, the gadolinium-enhanced urine is visualized using fast T1-weighted gradient-echo sequences. The combination of gadolinium and low-dose furosemide (5-10 mg) is the key for achieving a uniform distribution of the contrast material inside the entire urinary tract and, secondly, to avoid high endoluminal gadolinium concentrations, which cause signal loss of the urine due to T2{sup *} effects. Gadolinium excretory MR urography allows to obtain high-quality images of both nondilated and obstructed urinary tracts in patients with normal or moderately impaired renal function. This article reviews the principles of T2- and T1-weighted MR urography in detail and informs how to use these techniques safely in potential clinical applications such as chronic urolithiasis, intrinsic and extrinsic tumor diseases, and congenital anomalies. Magnetic resonance urography performed in combination with standard MR imaging offers a potential to reduce the need for invasive retrograde pyelography. Although the economic aspect is still problematic, it is obvious that MR urography will continue to increase its role in

  3. Marriage Matters: Spousal Similarity in Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schimmack; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-lagged spousal similarity in life satisfaction over a 21-year period. Analyses were based on married couples (N = 847) in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Concurrent spousal similarity was considerably higher than one-year retest similarity, revealing spousal similarity in the variable component of life satisfac-tion. Spousal similarity systematically decreased with length of retest interval, revealing simi-larity in the changing component of life sati...

  4. Phishing Detection: Analysis of Visual Similarity Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the major problems faced by cyber-world and leads to financial losses for both industries and individuals. Detection of phishing attack with high accuracy has always been a challenging issue. At present, visual similarities based techniques are very useful for detecting phishing websites efficiently. Phishing website looks very similar in appearance to its corresponding legitimate website to deceive users into believing that they are browsing the correct website. Visual similarity based phishing detection techniques utilise the feature set like text content, text format, HTML tags, Cascading Style Sheet (CSS, image, and so forth, to make the decision. These approaches compare the suspicious website with the corresponding legitimate website by using various features and if the similarity is greater than the predefined threshold value then it is declared phishing. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of phishing attacks, their exploitation, some of the recent visual similarity based approaches for phishing detection, and its comparative study. Our survey provides a better understanding of the problem, current solution space, and scope of future research to deal with phishing attacks efficiently using visual similarity based approaches.

  5. Relationship between genetic similarity and some productive traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to detect genetic similarity between five local chicken strains that have been selected for eggs and meat production in Egypt. Based on six oligonucleotide primers, the genetic similarity between the egg-producing strains (Anshas, Silver. Montazah and ...

  6. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  7. Helped positioning by using a simulation tool for qualification of PWR vessel examination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasserre, Frederic; Pasquier, Thierry; Haiat, Guillaume; Calmon, Pierre; Leberre, Stephane; Lutsen, Mickael

    2006-01-01

    INTERCONTROLE have been performing the examination of all PWR vessels in France from the inside, using UT techniques since 1975. The in-service inspection machine (MIS) features several tools equipped with focussed transducers; each tool is dedicated to one specific area of the vessel. In the core region, the very first millimeters from the cladding-base metal interface has to be inspected with accuracy because of the under-cladding cracks type defects (perpendicular to the inner surface) likely to be found. The technique used up to now was qualified according to the RSE-M code in 1998. It is based on a set of 63 angle L-waves transducers specifically designed for the detection of defect tip diffraction echoes in the 25 first millimeters in through-wall thickness. The analysis methods for defect characterization are based on a global integration of various cladding induced phenomena. The technique, the procedure and the analysis methods were qualified for a given limited volume. The new qualification in process in France, requires that INTERCONTROLE find solutions for increasing the accuracy of the analysis, in a larger qualification volume than before, while remaining in close compliance with the RSE-M code. A new computer assisted analysis tool for the characterization, the sizing and the positioning of defects is part of the improvements currently in progress or already completed. This tool is the result of a thesis commissioned to the CEA (Atomic Energy Commission), now implemented in the CIVAMIS software (developed on a CIVA based system). The updated version of CIVAMIS including this characterization tool and the RSE-M qualification of the new analysis method (with validation on mock-ups) is now qualified. Despite of a larger qualification volume, the results obtained (mentioned in the present paper) fulfill the customer's requirements thanks to the amount of data, of information and of knowledge, available today. The ability to simulate the cladding in terms

  8. Development of the ultrasonic technique for examination of centrifugally-cast stainless steel in pressure piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurenka, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Centrifugally - cast stainless steel (CCSS) are used to manufacture a large variety of components in the nuclear industry. Weldments are also made to join these parts to carbon steel items. These welds are usually made of stainless steel or inconel alloys. CCSS is sophisticated material and justification for its use in critical components is safety and reliability. These steels, as any other materials, need to be inspected to assess their structural integrity. Ultrasonic testing is one of the possible techniques. In some cases it is the only one of the feasible methods for this examination. This mainly concerns components in the primary and auxiliary circuits of nuclear plants. For a long time it has been recognized that CCSS items can be extremely difficult to inspect using ultrasonics. Many attempts in various research laboratories were conducted to improve the testing technique

  9. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music...

  10. Determining the semantic similarities among Gene Ontology terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2013-05-01

    We present in this paper novel techniques that determine the semantic relationships among GeneOntology (GO) terms. We implemented these techniques in a prototype system called GoSE, which resides between user application and GO database. Given a set S of GO terms, GoSE would return another set S' of GO terms, where each term in S' is semantically related to each term in S. Most current research is focused on determining the semantic similarities among GO ontology terms based solely on their IDs and proximity to one another in the GO graph structure, while overlooking the contexts of the terms, which may lead to erroneous results. The context of a GO term T is the set of other terms, whose existence in the GO graph structure is dependent on T. We propose novel techniques that determine the contexts of terms based on the concept of existence dependency. We present a stack-based sort-merge algorithm employing these techniques for determining the semantic similarities among GO terms.We evaluated GoSE experimentally and compared it with three existing methods. The results of measuring the semantic similarities among genes in KEGG and Pfam pathways retrieved from the DBGET and Sanger Pfam databases, respectively, have shown that our method outperforms the other three methods in recall and precision.

  11. Computational prediction of drug-drug interactions based on drugs functional similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdousi, Reza; Safdari, Reza; Omidi, Yadollah

    2017-06-01

    Therapeutic activities of drugs are often influenced by co-administration of drugs that may cause inevitable drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and inadvertent side effects. Prediction and identification of DDIs are extremely vital for the patient safety and success of treatment modalities. A number of computational methods have been employed for the prediction of DDIs based on drugs structures and/or functions. Here, we report on a computational method for DDIs prediction based on functional similarity of drugs. The model was set based on key biological elements including carriers, transporters, enzymes and targets (CTET). The model was applied for 2189 approved drugs. For each drug, all the associated CTETs were collected, and the corresponding binary vectors were constructed to determine the DDIs. Various similarity measures were conducted to detect DDIs. Of the examined similarity methods, the inner product-based similarity measures (IPSMs) were found to provide improved prediction values. Altogether, 2,394,766 potential drug pairs interactions were studied. The model was able to predict over 250,000 unknown potential DDIs. Upon our findings, we propose the current method as a robust, yet simple and fast, universal in silico approach for identification of DDIs. We envision that this proposed method can be used as a practical technique for the detection of possible DDIs based on the functional similarities of drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, David J.; Chumbley, L. Scott

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the resulting set of impressions left from a tool tip act in a manner similar to a photographic negative, in that it leaves a reverse, or negative impression on the surface of a plate. If properly inverted and reversed, measurements from the softer material should be identical to the harder indenting object with regard to surface texture and roughness. This assumption is inherent in the area of forensics, where bullets, cartridge cases, and toolmarked surfaces from crime scenes are compared to similar marks made under controlled conditions in the forensic laboratory. This paper will examine the methodology used to compare two surfaces for similarities and dissimilarities, and comment on the applicability of this technique to other studies.

  13. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2018-04-04

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  14. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  15. Similarity joins in relational database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Augsten, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art database systems manage and process a variety of complex objects, including strings and trees. For such objects equality comparisons are often not meaningful and must be replaced by similarity comparisons. This book describes the concepts and techniques to incorporate similarity into database systems. We start out by discussing the properties of strings and trees, and identify the edit distance as the de facto standard for comparing complex objects. Since the edit distance is computationally expensive, token-based distances have been introduced to speed up edit distance comput

  16. Examination of race disparities in physical inactivity among adults of similar social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M; Thorpe, Roland J; Bell, Caryn N; Bleich, Sara N; Ford, Jean G; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether race disparities in physical inactivity are present among urban low-income Blacks and Whites living in similar social context. This analysis included Black and White respondents ( > or = 18 years) from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB; N=1350) Study and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; N = 67790). Respondents who reported no levels of moderate or vigorous physical activity, during leisure time, over a usual week were considered physically inactive. After controlling for confounders, Blacks had higher adjusted odds of physical inactivity compared to Whites in the national sample (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30-1.51). In EHDIC-SWB, Blacks and Whites had a similar odds of physical inactivity (OR = 1.09; 95% CI .86-1.40). Social context contributes to our understanding of racial disparities in physical inactivity.

  17. Automated image-matching technique for comparative diagnosis of the liver on CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Eiichiro; Sanada, Shigeru; Suzuki, Masayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito; Matsui, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    When interpreting enhanced computer tomography (CT) images of the upper abdomen, radiologists visually select a set of images of the same anatomical positions from two or more CT image series (i.e., non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images at arterial and delayed phase) to depict and to characterize any abnormalities. The same process is also necessary to create subtraction images by computer. We have developed an automated image selection system using a template-matching technique that allows the recognition of image sets at the same anatomical position from two CT image series. Using the template-matching technique, we compared several anatomical structures in each CT image at the same anatomical position. As the position of the liver may shift according to respiratory movement, not only the shape of the liver but also the gallbladder and other prominent structures included in the CT images were compared to allow appropriate selection of a set of CT images. This novel technique was applied in 11 upper abdominal CT examinations. In CT images with a slice thickness of 7.0 or 7.5 mm, the percentage of image sets selected correctly by the automated procedure was 86.6±15.3% per case. In CT images with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, the percentages of correct selection of image sets by the automated procedure were 79.4±12.4% (non-enhanced and arterial-phase CT images) and 86.4±10.1% (arterial- and delayed-phase CT images). This automated method is useful for assisting in interpreting CT images and in creating digital subtraction images. (author)

  18. Resource use by two morphologically similar insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of morphologically dissimilar insectivorous bats have lead to the conclusion that morphology is the prime correlate of habitat use, and consequently of diet. This has lead to the prediction that morphologically similar bats should have similar diets. We examined the diet and morphology of two morphologically similar ...

  19. A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Seok Choi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.

  20. Visual reconciliation of alternative similarity spaces in climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Poco; A Dasgupta; Y Wei; William Hargrove; C.R. Schwalm; D.N. Huntzinger; R Cook; E Bertini; C.T. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Visual data analysis often requires grouping of data objects based on their similarity. In many application domains researchers use algorithms and techniques like clustering and multidimensional scaling to extract groupings from data. While extracting these groups using a single similarity criteria is relatively straightforward, comparing alternative criteria poses...

  1. Semantic relatedness and similarity of biomedical terms: examining the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publications on the performance of word2vec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Yan, Erjia; Wang, Fei

    2017-07-03

    Understanding semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms has a great impact on a variety of applications such as biomedical information retrieval, information extraction, and recommender systems. The objective of this study is to examine word2vec's ability in deriving semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms from large publication data. Specifically, we focus on the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publication data on the performance of word2vec. We download abstracts of 18,777,129 articles from PubMed and 766,326 full-text articles from PubMed Central (PMC). The datasets are preprocessed and grouped into subsets by recency, size, and section. Word2vec models are trained on these subtests. Cosine similarities between biomedical terms obtained from the word2vec models are compared against reference standards. Performance of models trained on different subsets are compared to examine recency, size, and section effects. Models trained on recent datasets did not boost the performance. Models trained on larger datasets identified more pairs of biomedical terms than models trained on smaller datasets in relatedness task (from 368 at the 10% level to 494 at the 100% level) and similarity task (from 374 at the 10% level to 491 at the 100% level). The model trained on abstracts produced results that have higher correlations with the reference standards than the one trained on article bodies (i.e., 0.65 vs. 0.62 in the similarity task and 0.66 vs. 0.59 in the relatedness task). However, the latter identified more pairs of biomedical terms than the former (i.e., 344 vs. 498 in the similarity task and 339 vs. 503 in the relatedness task). Increasing the size of dataset does not always enhance the performance. Increasing the size of datasets can result in the identification of more relations of biomedical terms even though it does not guarantee better precision. As summaries of research articles, compared with article

  2. Dose levels from thoracic and pelvic examinations in two pediatric radiological departments in Norway - a comparison study of dose-area product and radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjernlie Saether, Hilde; Traegde Martinsen, Anne Catrine; Lagesen, Bente; Platou Holsen, Eva; Oevreboe, Kirsti Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pediatric doses expressed in dose-area product (DAP) can be retrieved from only a few publications; most of which correlate DAP to patient size or large age spans. In clinical practice age is often the only available parameter describing the patient, and thus, evaluation of dose levels in pediatric radiology on the basis of DAP related to age alone would be useful in optimization work. Purpose: To provide comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, and evaluate the usefulness of comparing age-related DAP and radiographic technique between systems to identify areas with potential for optimization. Material and Methods: DAP, age, and radiographic technique were registered for 575 thoracic examinations and 371 pelvic examinations of children from newborn up to 14 years of age in groups with an age span of 1 year, performed with two digital flat-panel systems and one computed radiography system. Results: DAP varies from 2.2 to 54.0 mGycm2 for thoracic examinations, and from 4.6 to 532.5 mGycm2 for pelvic examinations. There are significant differences in DAP between systems and departments due to differences in technique, equipment, and staff. Conclusion: This study provides comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, which could be used as an input to estimate diagnostic reference levels. The comparison between systems of DAP and radiographic technique has proven useful in identifying areas where there may be a potential for optimization.

  3. In-pile creep test technique for zirconium alloys examination in BR-10 reactor channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevchikh, Yu.M.; Kruglov, A.S.; Troyanov, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation enhanced creep phenomenon was discovered in stainless steels as a specific physical process accompanying high-intensity neutron flux irradiation in fast reactors. IPPE is also experienced in irradiation creep test activities, studying different types of materials under irradiation in BR-10 fast reactor. Series of in-channel type test facilities were constructed and tested in BR-10 reactor's 'dry' channels in order to carry out full-scale instrumented examination regarded to in-pile creep behaviour of different reactor materials. As a result, a specific test technique, named 'Tensometric method', has been developed and experimentally proved to be power enough in order to investigate irradiation creep of materials right in situ under neutron irradiation. The main peculiarity of test facility, which is constructed to apply the tensometric method, consists in absence of any special deformation-measurement cell at all. The in-pile creep strain measurement technique developed at IPPE is based on the non-direct measurement of specimen's deformation (either linear tensile strain or angular twisting one), which directly affects the loaded draws' tension parameters. Starting from 1993, in-pile creep experiments to investigate in-reactor creep behaviour of E110 and E635 zirconium alloys were carried out in BR-10. Experimental results and data collected during more than 20-year of BR-10 in-reactor creep test experience can be assumed as a strong evidence that the tensometric technique is a powerful instrument, which can give a chance to study different irradiation effects on reactor materials directly under irradiation. (author)

  4. Effects of moisture content in cigar tobacco on nicotine extraction. Similarity between soxhlet and focused open-vessel microwave-assisted techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Hupé, Michel

    2003-09-05

    The effects of tobacco moisture on nicotine yield were investigated in this study. Soxhlet and microwave-assisted techniques were used to extract nicotine from cigar fillers of varying moisture contents (5-20%), using a polar (methanol) and a non-polar (isooctane) solvent. The extracts were analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector. For both extraction techniques, higher nicotine yields were consistently obtained with methanol than with isooctane from the same samples. Solubility of nicotine salts in methanol but not in isooctane is the major cause of this observation. Moreover, pronounced effects of the tobacco moisture content on extraction efficiency were observed with isooctane but not with methanol. For microwave assisted extraction (MAE) with isooctane, nicotine yield increased from 3 to 70% as the moisture level in tobacco was raised from 3 to 13%, and leveled off thereafter. Similar observations were made with Soxhlet extraction. While MAE results were rationalized by the known cell-rupture process, a mechanism based on the interaction between the solvents and the structural components of the plant cells has been proposed to account for the observations made with Soxhlet extraction.

  5. Application of discrete Fourier inter-coefficient difference for assessing genetic sequence similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian R; Aburdene, Maurice; Thompson, Alex; Warres, Zach

    2014-01-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) techniques for biological sequence analysis continue to grow in popularity due to the inherent digital nature of these sequences. DSP methods have demonstrated early success for detection of coding regions in a gene. Recently, these methods are being used to establish DNA gene similarity. We present the inter-coefficient difference (ICD) transformation, a novel extension of the discrete Fourier transformation, which can be applied to any DNA sequence. The ICD method is a mathematical, alignment-free DNA comparison method that generates a genetic signature for any DNA sequence that is used to generate relative measures of similarity among DNA sequences. We demonstrate our method on a set of insulin genes obtained from an evolutionarily wide range of species, and on a set of avian influenza viral sequences, which represents a set of highly similar sequences. We compare phylogenetic trees generated using our technique against trees generated using traditional alignment techniques for similarity and demonstrate that the ICD method produces a highly accurate tree without requiring an alignment prior to establishing sequence similarity.

  6. Image magnification based on similarity analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuoping; Ye Zhenglin; Wang Shuxun; Peng Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the high time complexity of the decoding phase in the traditional image enlargement methods based on fractal coding, a novel image magnification algorithm is proposed in this paper, which has the advantage of iteration-free decoding, by using the similarity analogy between an image and its zoom-out and zoom-in. A new pixel selection technique is also presented to further improve the performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, by combining some existing fractal zooming techniques, an efficient image magnification algorithm is obtained, which can provides the image quality as good as the state of the art while greatly decrease the time complexity of the decoding phase.

  7. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Chen, Lisi; Wei, Zhewei; Jensen, Christian S.; Zheng, Kai; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm's per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  8. 10 years of 1:1 taping in Belgium - A selection of murder cases involving fibre examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L; Lunstroot, K; Gason, F

    2016-01-01

    Since 2002, the 1:1 tape lifting technique on murder victims has been introduced in Belgium. Thirty-six murder cases for which a fibre examination was carried out in our laboratory between 2002 and 2012 are reviewed. These cases all involved the collection of microtraces on 39 victims using a 1:1 taping or similar technique, called semi 1:1 taping. The degree of "positive outcomes" for investigative and comparative fibre cases is high. Especially in cases where the modus operandi of suspects had to be verified, the examination of the 1:1 tape lifting led to very useful fibre results. The findings from some of these fibre cases are used to illustrate the advantages, drawbacks and points of interest of the two collection techniques. These are also compared with the zonal taping technique, another microtrace collection technique applied on victims at the crime scene. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  10. Studies and research concerning BNFP: evaluation of spent-fuel-examination techniques for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Gray, J.H.; Rogell, M.L.

    1982-09-01

    A study was made of various examinations which could be remotely performed on a production basis with spent fuel at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These techniques could form an integral portion of fuel disassembly and canning operations. Their benefits accrue to either improved fuel storage, reprocessing, or both. In conjunctoin with these studies, evaluations have been made of the operational impact of receiving failed or canned fuel at the BNFP

  11. Examining students' graduation issues using data mining techniques - The case of TEI of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaris, Manolis; Gritzalis, Stefanos; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Sgouropoulou, Cleo; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2015-02-01

    One of the major issues that Greek Higher Education Institutes face is the delayed completion of studies of their students. For example, in the case of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens, in the academic year 2012-2013, the percentage of graduates with a length of studies of more than 6 years was 53%. This "problem" becomes harder if we consider that according to the new legislation, the Greek Higher Education Institutes (HEI) must cut off access to the students who "linger" too long. This means that many of these graduates wouldn't be able to complete their studies. While many institutes have systems to quantify and report the length of studies of all graduates, far less attention is typically paid to each student's reason(s) for delayed graduation. In this paper, we focus on examining the question of why students delay in the completion of their studies using several data mining techniques. Through the application of data mining techniques new knowledge will be provided to the administration of a HEI that could be used for solving this problem. The data used in our case study come from a questionnaire distributed to graduates of the institute but also from educational data stored in the Institute's student database.

  12. Processing techniques for data from the GKSS pressure suppression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; McCauley, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes techniques developed at LLNL for processing data from large-scale steam condensation experiments being performed by the GKSS Research Center in the Federal Republic of Germany. In particular, the computer code GKPLOT, a special evaluation program for generating time-history plots and numerical output files of GKSS data, will be discussed together with tape handling techniques to unblock the data to a form compatible with the LLNL octopus computer network. Using these data processing techniques, we have provided a convenient means of independently examining and analyzing a very extensive data base for steam condenstaion phenomena. In addition, the techniques developed for handling the GKSS data are applicable to the treatment of similar, but perhaps differently structured, experiment data sets

  13. Onsite nondestructive examination techniques for irradiated water-cooled power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, in response to the recommendations from several Member States, has prepared this Guidebook on Onsite Non-Destructive Techniques for Irradiated Water-Cooled Power Reactor Fuel with the assistance of a number of experts and organizations in this field. During the preparation of this report it became evident that a comparison between different techniques is a most difficult task and depends on a number of factors related to fuel design, plant characteristics and operating conditions. Consequently the emphasis of the report is on the survey of different techniques presently available. It is also to be noted that because the degree of development for any given technique varies significantly among organizations, it is understood that the report should not be used as consensus standard of the minimum capabilities for each class of techniques, nor does it give recommendations in the regulatory sense. Furthermore, the inclusion of some commercial pieces of equipment, services and other products are for illustrative purposes only and neither implies any preference by the Agency nor can the Agency be liable for any material presented in the report

  14. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. I. Radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A.; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how patient age, size and composition, together with the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect radiation doses in head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Head size dimensions, cross-sectional areas, and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images of 127 patients. For radiation dosimetry purposes patients were modeled as uniform cylinders of water. Dose computations were performed for 18x7 mm sections, scanned at a constant 340 mAs, for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV. Values of mean section dose, energy imparted, and effective dose were computed for patients ranging from the newborn to adults. There was a rapid growth of head size over the first two years, followed by a more modest increase of head size until the age of 18 or so. Newborns have a mean HU value of about 50 that monotonically increases with age over the first two decades of life. Average adult A-P and lateral dimensions were 186±8 mm and 147±8 mm, respectively, with an average HU value of 209±40. An infant head was found to be equivalent to a water cylinder with a radius of ∼60 mm, whereas an adult head had an equivalent radius 50% greater. Adult males head dimensions are about 5% larger than for females, and their average x-ray attenuation is ∼20 HU greater. For adult examinations performed at 120 kV, typical values were 32 mGy for the mean section dose, 105 mJ for the total energy imparted, and 0.64 mSv for the effective dose. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increases patient doses by about a factor of 5. For the same technique factors, mean section doses in infants are 35% higher than in adults. Energy imparted for adults is 50% higher than for infants, but infant effective doses are four times higher than for adults. CT doses need to take into account patient age, head size, and composition as well as the selected x-ray technique factors

  15. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Similarity Analysis of Audio Signal to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Using Similarity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra García-Hernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human Activity Recognition (HAR is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities. This paper proposes a novel approach for the HAR based on acoustic data and similarity networks. In this approach, we were able to characterize the sound of the activities and identify those activities looking for similarity in the sound pattern. We evaluated the similarity of the sounds considering mainly two features: the sound location and the materials that were used. As a result, the materials are a good reference classifying the human activities compared with the location.

  17. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. On self-similarity of crack layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  19. Power-Management Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks and Similar Low-Power Communication Devices Based on Nonrechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnelo Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-known advantages of communication solutions based on energy harvesting, there are scenarios where the absence of batteries (supercapacitor only or the use of rechargeable batteries is not a realistic option. Therefore, the alternative is to extend as much as possible the lifetime of primary cells (nonrechargeable batteries. By assuming low duty-cycle applications, three power-management techniques are combined in a novel way to provide an efficient energy solution for wireless sensor networks nodes or similar communication devices powered by primary cells. Accordingly, a customized node is designed and long-term experiments in laboratory and outdoors are realized. Simulated and empirical results show that the battery lifetime can be drastically enhanced. However, two trade-offs are identified: a significant increase of both data latency and hardware/software complexity. Unattended nodes deployed in outdoors under extreme temperatures, buried sensors (underground communication, and nodes embedded in the structure of buildings, bridges, and roads are some of the target scenarios for this work. Part of the provided guidelines can be used to extend the battery lifetime of communication devices in general.

  20. Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    . Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying......This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  1. Dual kidney transplant techniques: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Annelise; Shahrestani, Sara; Cocco, Nicholas; Hameed, Ahmer; Yuen, Lawrence; Ryan, Brendan; Hawthorne, Wayne; Lam, Vincent; Pleass, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) was developed to improve outcomes from transplantation of extended criteria donors (ECD). This study examined which surgical techniques have been reported for DKT and whether any technique had superior patient and graft survival. Electronic databases were searched for published studies mapping to MESH terms: "kidney or renal" AND "transplan*" AND "dual or double." Single case reports, studies of patients less than 18 years old, studies which did not describe the surgical technique, and studies that did not report patient or graft survival were excluded. Fifteen reports of 434 DKT recipients were identified. Three techniques were described: bilateral placement; unilateral placement with separate anastomoses; and unilateral placement with patch anastomoses. Patient survival across all three techniques was over 95% at 1 year, and graft survival was also similar at over 90%. Rates of delayed graft function were between 20% and 30% across all techniques. The three techniques have equivalent delayed graft function as well as patient and graft survival rates. This is an encouraging result as it means that the surgeon can choose to use the technique which is most appropriate for their own skills and for the patient. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Privacy Preserving Similarity Based Text Retrieval through Blind Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is improving rapidly due to their more advantage and more data owners give interest to outsource their data into cloud storage for centralize their data. As huge files stored in the cloud storage, there is need to implement the keyword based search process to data user. At the same time to protect the privacy of data, encryption techniques are used for sensitive data, that encryption is done before outsourcing data to cloud server. But it is critical to search results in encryption data. In this system we propose similarity text retrieval from the blind storage blocks with encryption format. This system provides more security because of blind storage system. In blind storage system data is stored randomly on cloud storage.  In Existing Data Owner cannot encrypt the document data as it was done only at server end. Everyone can access the data as there was no private key concept applied to maintained privacy of the data. But In our proposed system, Data Owner can encrypt the data himself using RSA algorithm.  RSA is a public key-cryptosystem and it is widely used for sensitive data storage over Internet. In our system we use Text mining process for identifying the index files of user documents. Before encryption we also use NLP (Nature Language Processing technique to identify the keyword synonyms of data owner document. Here text mining process examines text word by word and collect literal meaning beyond the words group that composes the sentence. Those words are examined in API of word net so that only equivalent words can be identified for index file use. Our proposed system provides more secure and authorized way of recover the text in cloud storage with access control. Finally, our experimental result shows that our system is better than existing.

  3. Image Steganalysis with Binary Similarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharrazi Mehdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique for steganalysis of images that have been subjected to embedding by steganographic algorithms. The seventh and eighth bit planes in an image are used for the computation of several binary similarity measures. The basic idea is that the correlation between the bit planes as well as the binary texture characteristics within the bit planes will differ between a stego image and a cover image. These telltale marks are used to construct a classifier that can distinguish between stego and cover images. We also provide experimental results using some of the latest steganographic algorithms. The proposed scheme is found to have complementary performance vis-à-vis Farid's scheme in that they outperform each other in alternate embedding techniques.

  4. [-25]A Similarity Analysis of Audio Signal to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Using Similarity Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Alejandra; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I; Celaya-Padilla, José M; Gamboa-Rosales, Hamurabi; Velasco-Elizondo, Perla; Cárdenas-Vargas, Rogelio

    2017-11-21

    Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities. This paper proposes a novel approach for the HAR based on acoustic data and similarity networks. In this approach, we were able to characterize the sound of the activities and identify those activities looking for similarity in the sound pattern. We evaluated the similarity of the sounds considering mainly two features: the sound location and the materials that were used. As a result, the materials are a good reference classifying the human activities compared with the location.

  5. A comparative examination of several techniques for the routine determination of mercury in biological samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Das, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative examination of the most important techniques for the separation of mercury from irradiated biological material was made. Procedures for routine analysis and results for standard materials are given. Activation was performed at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 5x10 12 nxcm -2 xs -1 during ( 3 ) 2 offers a convenient solution to this problem. The variation of the neutron flux with the irradiation position can be measured by the application of thin iron rings as flux monitors. Losses of mercury due to uptake in the wall of the irradiation containers are negligible. The most powerful destruction technique for large samples is that based on a stainless-steel bomb. (T. I.)

  6. A similarity-based data warehousing environment for medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jefferson William; Annibal, Luana Peixoto; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar; Ciferri, Ricardo Rodrigues; Ciferri, Cristina Dutra de Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    A core issue of the decision-making process in the medical field is to support the execution of analytical (OLAP) similarity queries over images in data warehousing environments. In this paper, we focus on this issue. We propose imageDWE, a non-conventional data warehousing environment that enables the storage of intrinsic features taken from medical images in a data warehouse and supports OLAP similarity queries over them. To comply with this goal, we introduce the concept of perceptual layer, which is an abstraction used to represent an image dataset according to a given feature descriptor in order to enable similarity search. Based on this concept, we propose the imageDW, an extended data warehouse with dimension tables specifically designed to support one or more perceptual layers. We also detail how to build an imageDW and how to load image data into it. Furthermore, we show how to process OLAP similarity queries composed of a conventional predicate and a similarity search predicate that encompasses the specification of one or more perceptual layers. Moreover, we introduce an index technique to improve the OLAP query processing over images. We carried out performance tests over a data warehouse environment that consolidated medical images from exams of several modalities. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our proposed imageDWE to manage images and to process OLAP similarity queries. The results also demonstrated that the use of the proposed index technique guaranteed a great improvement in query processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Techniques and devices developed by the CEA for hot cell and in-situ examinations of PWR components and PWR fuel assembliess after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Craeynest, J.C.; Leseur, A.; Lhermenier, A.; Cytermann, R.

    1981-11-01

    Within the framework of the electro-nuclear development of the PWR system, the CEA has provided itself with facilities for developing techniques for analyzing assemblies, pins and fuels. These are examinations and tests on irradiated heads and assemblies with the aid of the Fuel Examination Module (FEM), of machining of assemblies and examinations in the Celimene hot laboratory or detailed examinations and analyses on fuel elements using eddy currents, the electronic microprobe and the Fisher ''permeascope'' which enables the outline of the oxide coat present on the cladding to be followed [fr

  8. An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Marieke K; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R; Kahana, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth electrode recordings and scalp electroencephalography. On each experimental trial, participants judged whether a test face had been among a small set of recently studied faces. Consistent with summed-similarity theory, participants' tendency to endorse a test item increased as a function of its summed similarity to the items on the just-studied list. To characterize this behavioral effect of summed similarity, we successfully fit a summed-similarity model to individual participant data from each experiment. Using the parameters determined from fitting the summed-similarity model to the behavioral data, we examined the relation between summed similarity and brain activity. We found that 4-9 Hz theta activity in the medial temporal lobe and 2-4 Hz delta activity recorded from frontal and parietal cortices increased with summed similarity. These findings demonstrate direct neural correlates of the similarity computations that form the foundation of several major cognitive theories of human recognition memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Sampling methods and non-destructive examination techniques for large radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.H.; Smith, D.L.; Burgoyne, K.E.; Maxwell, D.J.; Norris, G.H.; Billington, D.M.; Pipe, R.G.; Smith, J.E.; Inman, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress is reported on work undertaken to evaluate quality checking methods for radioactive wastes. A sampling rig was designed, fabricated and used to develop techniques for the destructive sampling of cemented simulant waste using remotely operated equipment. An engineered system for the containment of cooling water was designed and manufactured and successfully demonstrated with the drum and coring equipment mounted in both vertical and horizontal orientations. The preferred in-cell orientation was found to be with the drum and coring machinery mounted in a horizontal position. Small powdered samples can be taken from cemented homogeneous waste cores using a hollow drill/vacuum section technique with the preferred subsampling technique being to discard the outer 10 mm layer to obtain a representative sample of the cement core. Cement blends can be dissolved using fusion techniques and the resulting solutions are stable to gelling for periods in excess of one year. Although hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are promising solvents for dissolution of cement blends, the resultant solutions tend to form silicic acid gels. An estimate of the beta-emitter content of cemented waste packages can be obtained by a combination of non-destructive and destructive techniques. The errors will probably be in excess of +/-60 % at the 95 % confidence level. Real-time X-ray video-imaging techniques have been used to analyse drums of uncompressed, hand-compressed, in-drum compacted and high-force compacted (i.e. supercompacted) simulant waste. The results have confirmed the applicability of this technique for NDT of low-level waste. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Examination, characterisation and analysis techniques for the knowledge and the conservation / restoration of cultural heritage - importance of ionising radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine; J. L.

    2004-01-01

    For the examination, characterisation and analysis of cultural heritage artefacts or art objects and their component materials, the conservation scientist needs a palette of non destructive and non invasive techniques, in order to improve our knowledge concerning their elaboration, their evolution and/or degradation during time, and to give rational basis for their restoration and conservation. A general survey and illustrations showing the usefulness of these techniques will be presented. Among these methods, many are based on the use of ionising radiation. 1. Radiography (using X-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, secondary electrons, neutrons), electron emission radiography, tomodensimetry, 2. Scanning electron microscope associated with X-ray spectrometry, 3. X-ray diffraction, 4. Synchrotron radiation characterisation, 5. X-ray fluorescence analysis, 6. Activation analysis, 7. Ion beam analysis (PIXE, PIGE, RBS, secondary X-ray fluorescence), 8. Thermoluminescence dating, 9. Carbon-14 dating. These methods are used alone or in connection with other analytical methods. Any kind of materials can be encountered, for instance: i. stones, gems, ceramics, terracotta, enamels, glasses, i i. wood, paper, textile, bone, ivory, i i i. metals, jewellery, i v. paint layers, canvas and wooden backings, pigments, dyers, oils, binding media, varnishes, glues. Some examples will be taken, among recent work done at the Centre of Research and Restoration of the Museums of France (C2RMF), from various geographical origins, various ages and different art disciplines. This will illustrate the kind of assistance that science and technology can provide to a better knowledge of mankind's cultural heritage and also to the establishment of rational basis for its better conservation for the future generations. (Author)

  11. Detecting Distortion: Bridging Visual and Quantitative Reasoning on Similarity Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dana C.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on identifying and describing the reasoning patterns of middle grade students when examining potentially similar figures. Described here is a framework that includes 11 strategies that students used during clinical interview to differentiate similar and non-similar figures. Two factors were found to influence the strategies…

  12. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  13. Metallographic examination in irradiated materials examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Lee, Key Soon; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Yoo, Byoung Ok

    1998-01-01

    It is very important to have equipment of metallographic examination in hot-cell to observe the micro-structure of nuclear fuels and materials irradiated at nuclear power and/or research reactor. Those equipment should be operated by master-slave manipulators, so they are designed, manufactured and modified to make exercise easy and no trouble. The metallographic examination equipment and techniques as well as its operation procedure are described, so an operator can practice the metallography in hot-cell. (author). 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  14. CT coronary angiography: examination technique, clinical results, and outlook on future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, M.; Hamm, B.

    2007-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) after intravenous contrast agent administration enables visualization of the coronary arteries with high spatial resolution (voxel sizes down to 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.35 mm3) and a short scan time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also intensively studied with respect to the noninvasive detection of coronary artery stenosis and thus the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) without radiation exposure but is not equal to MSCT at present. This article provides an overview of the historical development of CT coronary angiography from 4-slice CT to 16-slice CT and 64-slice CT. A crucial aspect of this development is the improvement in image quality resulting from shorter breath-hold periods and the reduced gantry rotation time. Other techniques that appear to considerably improve image quality and accuracy and make CT independent of patient heart rates are multisegment reconstruction and dual-source CT. Sublingual nitroglycerin as well as oral or intravenous betablocker administration should be considered in relation to the diagnostic question to be answered and the patient's heart rate. In the studies available CT coronary angiography with at least 12 simultaneous detector rows has a sensitivity of 96.9 % and a specificity of 75.3 % at the patient level. Especially the negative predictive value of CT (94.6 %) emphasizes the idea that this technique may reliably exclude CAD in patients with intermediate pretest likelihood. In the near future, 256-slice CT will allow examination of the entire heart during one heartbeat or even 4D CT scanning with simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion. Automatic or semiautomatic software tools will assume a central place in detecting and quantifying coronary artery stenoses and plaques as well as in the analysis of cardiac function in the clinical setting over the next years. Prior to its routine clinical use, the cost-effectiveness of CT coronary angiography must be determined and the

  15. A novel numerical framework for self-similarity in plasticity: Wedge indentation in single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, K. J.; Niordson, C. F.; Nielsen, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    -viscoplastic single crystal. However, the framework may be readily adapted to any constitutive law of interest. The main focus herein is the development of the self-similar framework, while the indentation study serves primarily as verification of the technique by comparing to existing numerical and analytical......A novel numerical framework for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed and demonstrated. Self-similar problems of this kind include processes such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. The proposed technique offers a simple and efficient method for handling...

  16. Phonological similarity and orthographic similarity affect probed serial recall of Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Lai, Yvonne C; Wu, Denise H

    2015-04-01

    The previous literature on working memory (WM) has indicated that verbal materials are dominantly retained in phonological representations, whereas other linguistic information (e.g., orthography, semantics) only contributes to verbal WM minimally, if not negligibly. Although accumulating evidence has suggested that multiple linguistic components jointly support verbal WM, the visual/orthographic contribution has rarely been addressed in alphabetic languages, possibly due to the difficulty of dissociating the effects of word forms from the effects of their pronunciations in relatively shallow orthography. In the present study, we examined whether the orthographic representations of Chinese characters support the retention of verbal materials in this language of deep orthography. In Experiments 1a and 2, we independently manipulated the phonological and orthographic similarity of horizontal and vertical characters, respectively, and found that participants' accuracy of probed serial recall was reduced by both similar pronunciations and shared phonetic radicals in the to-be-remembered stimuli. Moreover, Experiment 1b showed that only the effect of phonological, but not that of orthographic, similarity was affected by concurrent articulatory suppression. Taken together, the present results indicate the indispensable contribution of orthographic representations to verbal WM of Chinese characters, and suggest that the linguistic characteristics of a specific language not only determine long-term linguistic-processing mechanisms, but also delineate the organization of verbal WM for that language.

  17. Evaluation of examination techniques for ferritic stainless steel feedwater heater tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, M.J.; Catapano, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel has been finding increased application in utility plant feedwater heaters due to good strength and corrosion resistance and absence of potential copper contamination of feedwater system. Ferritic stainless steel is highly magnetic and is generally not inspectable using conventional eddy current testing techniques. A variety of techniques have been developed for inspection of this tubing material used in typical heat exchanger applications. Through a project funded by the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO), the evaluation of data generated by four present state of the art NDE testing techniques were evaluated on a controlled mock-up of the heater tubing with service related defects. The primary objective was to determine the strengths and limitations of each method. The testing of two in service feedwater heaters at the Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison's) Arthur Kill Generating Station also allowed further evaluations based on actual field conditions

  18. Dental CT: examination technique, radiation load and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenglinger, F.X.; Muhr, T.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally oral surgeons and dentists have evaluated the jaws using intraoral films and panoramic radiographs. The involvement of radiologists has been limited. In the past few years dedicated CT-software-programs developed to evaluate dental implant patients have provided a new look at the jaws. The complex anatomy is described and identified on human skulls and on axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional images. With this anatomic description Dental-CT-scans are used to demonstrate the anatomy of maxilla and the mandible. An overview of the technique of Dental-CT is provided, furthermore the radiation dose of different organs is explained. Suggestions to reduce these doses by simple modifications of the recommended protocols are given. (orig.) [de

  19. Equal Work, Unequal Pay: Gender Discrimination within Work-Similar Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Alice Abel; Beck, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an empirical method to identify work-similar occupations using selected measures from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Examines male-female earnings differences within a group of work-similar occupations and finds that discrimination against females is extensive. (Author/CH)

  20. To Examine effect of Flow Zone Generation Techniques for Numerical Flow Analysis in Hydraulic Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Khan, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical study of flow in distributor of Francis Turbine is carried out by using two different techniques of flow zone generation. Distributor of GAMM Francis Turbine is used for present calculation. In present work, flow is assumed to be periodic around the distributor in steady state conditions, therefore computational domain consists of only one blade channel (one stay vane and one guide vane). The distributor computational domain is bounded up stream by cylindrical and downstream by conical patches. The first one corresponds to the spiral casing outflow section, while the second one is considered to be the distributor outlet or runner inlet. Upper and lower surfaces are generated by the revolution of hub and shroud edges. Single connected and multiple connected techniques are considered to generate distributor flow zone for numerical flow analysis of GAMM Francis turbine. The tetrahedral meshes are generated in both the flow zones. Same boundary conditions are applied for both the equivalent flow zones. The three dimensional, laminar flow analysis for both the distributor flow zones of the GAMM Francis turbine operating at the best efficiency point is performed. Gambit and G- Turbo are used as a preprocessor while calculations are done by using Fluent. Finally, numerical results obtained on the distributor outlet are compared with the available experimental data to validate the two different methodologies and examine their accuracy. (author)

  1. ESTABLISHING A STEREOSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE KINEMATIC PROPERTIES OF SOLAR WIND TRANSIENTS BASED ON A GENERALIZED SELF-SIMILARLY EXPANDING CIRCULAR GEOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J. A.; Perry, C. H.; Harrison, R. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Lugaz, N.; Möstl, C.; Liu, Y. D.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    The twin-spacecraft STEREO mission has enabled simultaneous white-light imaging of the solar corona and inner heliosphere from multiple vantage points. This has led to the development of numerous stereoscopic techniques to investigate the three-dimensional structure and kinematics of solar wind transients such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Two such methods—triangulation and the tangent to a sphere—can be used to determine time profiles of the propagation direction and radial distance (and thereby radial speed) of a solar wind transient as it travels through the inner heliosphere, based on its time-elongation profile viewed by two observers. These techniques are founded on the assumption that the transient can be characterized as a point source (fixed φ, FP, approximation) or a circle attached to Sun-center (harmonic mean, HM, approximation), respectively. These geometries constitute extreme descriptions of solar wind transients, in terms of their cross-sectional extent. Here, we present the stereoscopic expressions necessary to derive propagation direction and radial distance/speed profiles of such transients based on the more generalized self-similar expansion (SSE) geometry, for which the FP and HM geometries form the limiting cases; our implementation of these equations is termed the stereoscopic SSE method. We apply the technique to two Earth-directed CMEs from different phases of the STEREO mission, the well-studied event of 2008 December and a more recent event from 2012 March. The latter CME was fast, with an initial speed exceeding 2000 km s –1 , and highly geoeffective, in stark contrast to the slow and ineffectual 2008 December CME

  2. The efficiency of similarity-focused comparisons in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Comparison processes are ubiquitous in person perception. Comparative thinking can follow two routes: People either search for similarities or for dissimilarities while comparing. Which of these two routes is more efficient? Previous research indicates that people could compare two geometrical figures faster if they focused on similarities rather than dissimilarities. I examine comparisons of people and measure the consumption of cognitive resources as indicator for efficiency. The results confirm an efficiency-advantage of similarity-focused comparisons for social stimuli.

  3. [Development of an attitude-measurement questionnaire using the semantic differential technique: defining the attitudes of radiological technology students toward X-ray examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Naomi; Terashita, Takayoshi; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2014-03-01

    In general, it is difficult to objectively evaluate the results of an educational program. The semantic differential (SeD) technique, a methodology used to measure the connotative meaning of objects, words, and concepts, can, however, be applied to the evaluation of students' attitudes. In this study, we aimed to achieve an objective evaluation of the effects of radiological technology education. We therefore investigated the attitude of radiological students using the SeD technique. We focused on X-ray examinations in the field of radiological technology science. Bipolar adjective scales were used for the SeD questionnaire. To create the questionnaire, appropriate adjectives were selected from past reports of X-ray examination practice. The participants were 32 senior students at Hokkaido University at the Division of Radiological Technology at the School of Medicine's Department of Health Sciences. All the participants completed the questionnaire. The study was conducted in early June 2012. Attitudes toward X-ray examination were identified using a factor analysis of 11 adjectives. The factor analysis revealed the following three attitudes: feelings of expectation, responsibility, and resistance. Knowledge regarding the attitudes that students have toward X-ray examination will prove useful for evaluating the effects of educational intervention. In this study, a sampling bias may have occurred due to the small sample size; however, no other biases were observed.

  4. Asymmetric similarity-weighted ensembles for image segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheplygina, V.; Van Opbroek, A.; Ikram, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Supervised classification is widely used for image segmentation. To work effectively, these techniques need large amounts of labeled training data, that is representative of the test data. Different patient groups, different scanners or different scanning protocols can lead to differences between...... the images, thus representative data might not be available. Transfer learning techniques can be used to account for these differences, thus taking advantage of all the available data acquired with different protocols. We investigate the use of classifier ensembles, where each classifier is weighted...... and the direction of measurement needs to be chosen carefully. We also show that a point set similarity measure is robust across different studies, and outperforms state-of-the-art results on a multi-center brain tissue segmentation task....

  5. Guidebook on destructive examination of water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As a result of common efforts of fuel vendors, utilities and research institutes the average burnup pf design batch fuels was increased for both PWRs and BWRs and the fuel failure rate has been reduced. The previously published Guidebook on Non-Destructive Examination of Water Reactor Fuel recommended that more detailed destructive techniques are required for complete understanding of fuel performance. On the basis of contributions of the 14 participants in the ED-WARF-II CRP and proceedings of IAEA Technical Committee on Recent Developments in Post-irradiation Examination Techniques for Water Reactor Fuel this guidebook was compiled. It gives a complete survey of destructive techniques available to date worldwide. The following examination techniques are described in detailed including major principles of equipment design: microstructural studies; elemental analysis; isotopic analysis; measurement of physical properties; measurement of mechanical properties. Besides the examination techniques, methods for refabrication of experimental rods from high burnup power reactor rods as well as methods for verification of non-destructive techniques by using destructive techniques is included

  6. A novel numerical framework for self-similarity in plasticity: Wedge indentation in single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, K. J.; Niordson, C. F.; Nielsen, K. L.; Kysar, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    A novel numerical framework for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed and demonstrated. Self-similar problems of this kind include processes such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. The proposed technique offers a simple and efficient method for handling this class of complex problems by avoiding issues related to traditional Lagrangian procedures. Moreover, the proposed technique allows for focusing the mesh in the region of interest. In the present paper, the technique is exploited to analyze the well-known wedge indentation problem of an elastic-viscoplastic single crystal. However, the framework may be readily adapted to any constitutive law of interest. The main focus herein is the development of the self-similar framework, while the indentation study serves primarily as verification of the technique by comparing to existing numerical and analytical studies. In this study, the three most common metal crystal structures will be investigated, namely the face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal structures, where the stress and slip rate fields around the moving contact point singularity are presented.

  7. Constructing canine carotid artery stenosis model by endovascular technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guangsen; Liu Yizhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a carotid artery stenosis model by endovascular technique suitable for neuro-interventional therapy. Methods: Twelve dogs were anesthetized, the unilateral segments of the carotid arteries' tunica media and intima were damaged by a corneous guiding wire of home made. Twenty-four carotid artery stenosis models were thus created. DSA examination was performed on postprocedural weeks 2, 4, 8, 10 to estimate the changes of those stenotic carotid arteries. Results: Twenty-four carotid artery stenosis models were successfully created in twelve dogs. Conclusions: Canine carotid artery stenosis models can be created with the endovascular method having variation of pathologic characters and hemodynamic changes similar to human being. It is useful for further research involving the new technique and new material for interventional treatment. (authors)

  8. An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory

  9. Techniques for Soundscape Retrieval and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtley, Brandon Michael

    The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the soundscape: the acoustic environment as perceived by a listener. This dissertation examines the application of several computational tools in the realms of digital signal processing, multimedia information retrieval, and computer music synthesis to the analysis of the soundscape. Namely, these tools include a) an open source software library, Sirens, which can be used for the segmentation of long environmental field recordings into individual sonic events and compare these events in terms of acoustic content, b) a graph-based retrieval system that can use these measures of acoustic similarity and measures of semantic similarity using the lexical database WordNet to perform both text-based retrieval and automatic annotation of environmental sounds, and c) new techniques for the dynamic, realtime parametric morphing of multiple field recordings, informed by the geographic paths along which they were recorded.

  10. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  11. Self-similar slip distributions on irregular shaped faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A.; Murphy, S.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy to place a self-similar slip distribution on a complex fault surface that is represented by an unstructured mesh. This is possible by applying a strategy based on the composite source model where a hierarchical set of asperities, each with its own slip function which is dependent on the distance from the asperity centre. Central to this technique is the efficient, accurate computation of distance between two points on the fault surface. This is known as the geodetic distance problem. We propose a method to compute the distance across complex non-planar surfaces based on a corollary of the Huygens' principle. The difference between this method compared to others sample-based algorithms which precede it is the use of a curved front at a local level to calculate the distance. This technique produces a highly accurate computation of the distance as the curvature of the front is linked to the distance from the source. Our local scheme is based on a sequence of two trilaterations, producing a robust algorithm which is highly precise. We test the strategy on a planar surface in order to assess its ability to keep the self-similarity properties of a slip distribution. We also present a synthetic self-similar slip distribution on a real slab topography for a M8.5 event. This method for computing distance may be extended to the estimation of first arrival times in both complex 3D surfaces or 3D volumes.

  12. Nondestructive examination of irradiated fuel rods by pulsed eddy current techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, W.C.; Quapp, W.J.; Martin, M.R.; Gibson, G.W.

    1976-02-01

    A number of fuel rods and unfueled zircaloy cladding tubes which had been irradiated in the Saxton reactor have undergone extensive nondestructive and corroborative destructive examinations by Aerojet Nuclear Company as part of the Water Reactor Safety Research Program, Irradiation Effects Test Series. This report discusses the pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive examinations on the fuel rods and tubing and the metallography results on two fuel rods and one irradiated zircaloy tube. The PEC equipment, designed jointly by Argonne National Laboratory and Aerojet, performed very satisfactorily the functions of diameter, profile, and wall thickness measurements and OD and ID surface defect detection. The destructive examination provided reasonably good confirmation of ''defects'' detected in the nondestructive examination

  13. The Curious Case of the "Refrigerator-TV": Similarity and Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbert, Michael; Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Mazursky, David

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of similarity in the hybridization of concepts, focusing on hybrid products as an applied test case. Hybrid concepts found in natural language, such as "singer songwriter," typically combine similar concepts, whereas dissimilar concepts rarely form hybrids. The hybridization of dissimilar concepts in products such as…

  14. Personality similarity in negotiations: Testing the dyadic effects of similarity in interpersonal traits and the use of emotional displays on negotiation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly Schwind; DeRue, D Scott; Matta, Fadel K; Howe, Michael; Conlon, Donald E

    2016-10-01

    We build on the small but growing literature documenting personality influences on negotiation by examining how the joint disposition of both negotiators with respect to the interpersonal traits of agreeableness and extraversion influences important negotiation processes and outcomes. Building on similarity-attraction theory, we articulate and demonstrate how being similarly high or similarly low on agreeableness and extraversion leads dyad members to express more positive emotional displays during negotiation. Moreover, because of increased positive emotional displays, we show that dyads with such compositions also tend to reach agreements faster, perceive less relationship conflict, and have more positive impressions of their negotiation partner. Interestingly, these results hold regardless of whether negotiating dyads are similar in normatively positive (i.e., similarly agreeable and similarly extraverted) or normatively negative (i.e., similarly disagreeable and similarly introverted) ways. Overall, these findings demonstrate the importance of considering the dyad's personality configuration when attempting to understand the affective experience as well as the downstream outcomes of a negotiation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz BenAbdelkader

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  16. Similarity of Experience and Empathy in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A.

    The present study examined the role of similarity of experience in young children's affective reactions to others. Some preschoolers played one of two games (Puzzle Board or Buckets) and were informed that they had either failed or succeeded; others merely observed the games being played and were given no evaluative feedback. Subsequently, each…

  17. Assessment of Robotic Patient Simulators for Training in Manual Physical Therapy Examination Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shun; Okamoto, Shogo; Isogai, Kaoru; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Naomi; Yamada, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Robots that simulate patients suffering from joint resistance caused by biomechanical and neural impairments are used to aid the training of physical therapists in manual examination techniques. However, there are few methods for assessing such robots. This article proposes two types of assessment measures based on typical judgments of clinicians. One of the measures involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different severities of a specified disease. Experienced clinicians were requested to rate the simulated symptoms in terms of severity, and the consistency of their ratings was used as a performance measure. The other measure involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different types of symptoms. In this case, the clinicians were requested to classify the simulated resistances in terms of symptom type, and the average ratios of their answers were used as performance measures. For both types of assessment measures, a higher index implied higher agreement among the experienced clinicians that subjectively assessed the symptoms based on typical symptom features. We applied these two assessment methods to a patient knee robot and achieved positive appraisals. The assessment measures have potential for use in comparing several patient simulators for training physical therapists, rather than as absolute indices for developing a standard. PMID:25923719

  18. Assessment of robotic patient simulators for training in manual physical therapy examination techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Robots that simulate patients suffering from joint resistance caused by biomechanical and neural impairments are used to aid the training of physical therapists in manual examination techniques. However, there are few methods for assessing such robots. This article proposes two types of assessment measures based on typical judgments of clinicians. One of the measures involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different severities of a specified disease. Experienced clinicians were requested to rate the simulated symptoms in terms of severity, and the consistency of their ratings was used as a performance measure. The other measure involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different types of symptoms. In this case, the clinicians were requested to classify the simulated resistances in terms of symptom type, and the average ratios of their answers were used as performance measures. For both types of assessment measures, a higher index implied higher agreement among the experienced clinicians that subjectively assessed the symptoms based on typical symptom features. We applied these two assessment methods to a patient knee robot and achieved positive appraisals. The assessment measures have potential for use in comparing several patient simulators for training physical therapists, rather than as absolute indices for developing a standard.

  19. Assessment of robotic patient simulators for training in manual physical therapy examination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shun; Okamoto, Shogo; Isogai, Kaoru; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Naomi; Yamada, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Robots that simulate patients suffering from joint resistance caused by biomechanical and neural impairments are used to aid the training of physical therapists in manual examination techniques. However, there are few methods for assessing such robots. This article proposes two types of assessment measures based on typical judgments of clinicians. One of the measures involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different severities of a specified disease. Experienced clinicians were requested to rate the simulated symptoms in terms of severity, and the consistency of their ratings was used as a performance measure. The other measure involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different types of symptoms. In this case, the clinicians were requested to classify the simulated resistances in terms of symptom type, and the average ratios of their answers were used as performance measures. For both types of assessment measures, a higher index implied higher agreement among the experienced clinicians that subjectively assessed the symptoms based on typical symptom features. We applied these two assessment methods to a patient knee robot and achieved positive appraisals. The assessment measures have potential for use in comparing several patient simulators for training physical therapists, rather than as absolute indices for developing a standard.

  20. Radiation levels in nuclear diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, A.M.T.I.

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the risks for a pregnant radiological worker, radiation level measurements are executed for common nuclear diagnostic techniques. These measurements are combined with the time which the radiologic worker is present during the performance of the diagnostic techniques. It is concluded that a radiologic worker is receiving less than 5 mSv during pregnancy. This is the case with in vivo determination in a department of nuclear medicine with common diagnostic techniques. Reduction of radiation doses during pregnancy is possible by reduction of heart function examinations, skeletal examinations and brain scans. 1 figure; 13 tabs

  1. Similarity facilitates relationships on social networks: a field experiment on facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angélique; Jacob, Céline; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    People interact more readily with someone with whom they think they have something in common, but the effect of an incidental similarity has never been examined on social networks. Facebook users were contacted by a stranger who also possessed a Facebook page and who asked them to become his friend. The request message contained one item of similarity, two items of similarity, or none. Compliance to the request was the dependent variable. Increased compliance to the request was found when comparing the two similarity conditions with the control no-similarity condition. However, no difference was found between the two similarity conditions. Similarity appears to foster relationships on social networks.

  2. Relationship between swelling and irradiation creep in cold-worked PCA stainless steel irradiated to similar 178 dpa at similar 400 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    The eighth and final irradiation segment for pressurized tubes constructed from the fusion Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) has been completed in FFTF. At 178 dpa and similar 400 C, the irradiation creep of 20% cold-worked PCA has become dominated by the ''creep disappearance'' phenomenon. The total diametral deformation rate has reached the limiting value of 0.33%/dpa at the three highest stress levels employed in this test. The stress-enhancement of swelling tends to camouflage the onset of creep disappearance, however, requiring the use of several non-traditional techniques to extract the creep coefficients. No failures occurred in these tubes, even though the swelling ranged from similar 20 to 40%. ((orig.))

  3. Relationship between swelling and irradiation creep in cold-worked PCA stainless steel irradiated to similar 178 dpa at similar 400 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloczko, M.B. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)); Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The eighth and final irradiation segment for pressurized tubes constructed from the fusion Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) has been completed in FFTF. At 178 dpa and similar 400 C, the irradiation creep of 20% cold-worked PCA has become dominated by the creep disappearance'' phenomenon. The total diametral deformation rate has reached the limiting value of 0.33%/dpa at the three highest stress levels employed in this test. The stress-enhancement of swelling tends to camouflage the onset of creep disappearance, however, requiring the use of several non-traditional techniques to extract the creep coefficients. No failures occurred in these tubes, even though the swelling ranged from similar 20 to 40%. ((orig.))

  4. Integrating user profile in medical CBIR systems to answer perceptual similarity queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugatti, Pedro H.; Kaster, Daniel S.; Ponciano-Silva, Marcelo; Traina, Agma J. M.; Traina, Caetano, Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Techniques for Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) have been intensively explored due to the increase in the amount of captured images and the need of fast retrieval of them. The medical field is a specific example that generates a large flow of information, especially digital images employed for diagnosing. One issue that still remains unsolved deals with how to reach the perceptual similarity. That is, to achieve an effective retrieval, one must characterize and quantify the perceptual similarity regarding the specialist in the field. Therefore, the present paper was conceived to fill in this gap creating a consistent support to perform similarity queries over medical images, maintaining the semantics of a given query desired by the user. CBIR systems relying in relevance feedback techniques usually request the users to label relevant images. In this paper, we present a simple but highly effective strategy to survey user profiles, taking advantage of such labeling to implicitly gather the user perceptual similarity. The user profiles maintain the settings desired for each user, allowing tuning the similarity assessment, which encompasses dynamically changing the distance function employed through an interactive process. Experiments using computed tomography lung images show that the proposed approach is effective in capturing the users' perception.

  5. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  6. Survey of image quality and radiographic technique of pediatric chest examinations performed in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.; Mora, P.; Defaz, M.Y.; Blanco, S.; Leyton, F.; Benavente, T.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Ramirez, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the results of a survey of entrance surface air kerma values (K e ), image quality and radiographic exposure parameters used in pediatric chest examinations performed in Latin America. This study is part of the activities of the IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/057 whose objective is to optimize the radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The survey was performed in nine hospitals in Argentina (1), Brazil (4), Chile (1), Costa Rica (1), Peru (1) and Ecuador (1). The study group consisted of 462 pediatric patients (Group I- from two days to one year, Group II- from four to six years of age) undergoing chest PA/AP examinations. At the time of the examination the exposure parameters (kVp, mAs, focal-spot-to-film distance, etc.) and patient information (gender, height, weight and age) were recorded. The radiographic image quality was evaluated by the local radiologist based on the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images in Pediatrics. The results showed that the exposure parameters used on newborn patients were in the majority outside the 60-65kV range recommended by the European Guidelines for a good radiographic practice. In the case of examinations of patients with age between 4 to 6 years, 80% were performed with a peak tube voltage within the 60-80 kV range, as recommended by the European Guidelines. It was found that none of countries fully comply with the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria and those criteria No. 2 and No. 3 (reproduction of the chest without rotation) received the lowest scores. Probably this occurs because there are no proper patient immobilization devices. The Ke values, for both patient groups, showed a wide dispersion, ranged from 10 μGy to 160μGy for the newborn patients and from 20μGy to 240μGy for infant patients. It is possible to conclude that, in the participating Latin American countries on this project

  7. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  8. Analysis of switch and examine combining with post-examining selection in cognitive radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rupali; Srivastava, Neelam; Katiyar, Himanshu

    2018-06-01

    To perform spectrum sensing in fading environment is one of the most challenging tasks for a CR system. Diversity combining schemes are used to combat the effect of fading and hence detection probability of CR gets improved. Among many diversity combining techniques, switched diversity offers one of the lowest complexity solutions. The receiver embedded with switched diversity looks for an acceptable diversity path (having signal to noise ratio (SNR) above the required threshold) to receive the data. In conventional switch and examine combining (SEC) scheme, when no acceptable path is found after all the paths are examined, the receiver randomly chooses an unacceptable path. Switch and examine combining with post-examining selection (SECp) is a modified version of conventional SEC. In SECp, the conventional SEC scheme is altered in a way that it selects the best path when no acceptable path is found after all paths have been examined. In this paper, formula for probability of detection ( ?) is derived using SECp and SEC diversity combining technique over Rayleigh fading channel. Also the performance of SECp is compared with SEC and no diversity case. Performance comparison is done with the help of SNR vs. ? and complementary receiver operating characteristic curves.

  9. Chirped self-similar solutions of a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei Jin-Xi [Lishui Univ., Zhejiang (China). College of Mathematics and Physics; Zheng Chun-Long [Shaoguan Univ., Guangdong (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering; Shanghai Univ. (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

    2011-01-15

    An improved homogeneous balance principle and an F-expansion technique are used to construct exact chirped self-similar solutions to the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation with distributed dispersion, nonlinearity, and gain coefficients. Such solutions exist under certain conditions and impose constraints on the functions describing dispersion, nonlinearity, and distributed gain function. The results show that the chirp function is related only to the dispersion coefficient, however, it affects all of the system parameters, which influence the form of the wave amplitude. As few characteristic examples and some simple chirped self-similar waves are presented. (orig.)

  10. Research program plan. Non-destructive examination. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscara, J.

    1985-07-01

    Nondestructive examination/evaluation (NDE) of nuclear reactor components is required during fabrication, before service, and at regularly scheduled shutdowns for periodic inservice inspection (ISI). Any flaws produced during fabrication should be detected by the fabrication and preservice baseline examinations and components containing rejectable flaws should be repaired before the reactor enters service. The purpose of ISI is to ensure that any flaws which develop during service can be detected and evaluated and that unacceptable components are repaired or replaced to maintain safety, as well as to identify possible generic-type defects that may be present or developing in the remainder of the system or other similar systems so that timely corrective actions can be taken. The major thrusts of the research in ultrasonic testing for ISI are (1) to define the influence of inspection variables and procedures on inspection reliability and to determine the impact of inspection unreliability on system safety and (2) to study and evaluate improved techniques for reliable and accurate flaw detection and characterization. This research, therefore, has direct impact on evaluations of and improvements in reactor safety

  11. Distributional Similarity for Chinese: Exploiting Characters and Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributional Similarity has attracted considerable attention in the field of natural language processing as an automatic means of countering the ubiquitous problem of sparse data. As a logographic language, Chinese words consist of characters and each of them is composed of one or more radicals. The meanings of characters are usually highly related to the words which contain them. Likewise, radicals often make a predictable contribution to the meaning of a character: characters that have the same components tend to have similar or related meanings. In this paper, we utilize these properties of the Chinese language to improve Chinese word similarity computation. Given a content word, we first extract similar words based on a large corpus and a similarity score for ranking. This rank is then adjusted according to the characters and components shared between the similar word and the target word. Experiments on two gold standard datasets show that the adjusted rank is superior and closer to human judgments than the original rank. In addition to quantitative evaluation, we examine the reasons behind errors drawing on linguistic phenomena for our explanations.

  12. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  13. Enhancing Media Personalization by Extracting Similarity Knowledge from Metadata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butkus, Andrius

    be seen as a cognitive foundation for modeling concepts. Conceptual Spaces is applied in this thesis to analyze media in terms of its dimensions and knowledge domains, which in return defines properties and concepts. One of the most important domains in terms of describing media is the emotional one...... only “more of the same” type of content which does not necessarily lead to the meaningful personalization. Another way to approach similarity is to find a similar underlying meaning in the content. Aspects of meaning in media can be represented using Gardenfors Conceptual Spaces theory, which can......) using Latent Semantic Analysis (one of the unsupervised machine learning techniques). It presents three separate cases to illustrate the similarity knowledge extraction from the metadata, where the emotional components in each case represents different abstraction levels – genres, synopsis and lyrics...

  14. Nondestructive examination development and demonstration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) of waste matrices using penetrating radiation is by nature very subjective. Two candidate systems of examination have been identified for use in WRAP 1. This test plan describes a method for a comparative evaluation of different x-ray examination systems and techniques

  15. 2-gram-based Phonetic Feature Generation for Convolutional Neural Network in Assessment of Trademark Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Kwang Hee; Jang, Mi So; Park, Gun Hong

    2018-01-01

    A trademark is a mark used to identify various commodities. If same or similar trademark is registered for the same or similar commodity, the purchaser of the goods may be confused. Therefore, in the process of trademark registration examination, the examiner judges whether the trademark is the same or similar to the other applied or registered trademarks. The confusion in trademarks is based on the visual, phonetic or conceptual similarity of the marks. In this paper, we focus specifically o...

  16. Correlation between protein sequence similarity and x-ray diffraction quality in the protein data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Meng; Yin, Da-Chuan; Ye, Ya-Jing; Luo, Hui-Min; Geng, Li-Qiang; Li, Hai-Sheng; Guo, Wei-Hong; Shang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    As the most widely utilized technique to determine the 3-dimensional structure of protein molecules, X-ray crystallography can provide structure of the highest resolution among the developed techniques. The resolution obtained via X-ray crystallography is known to be influenced by many factors, such as the crystal quality, diffraction techniques, and X-ray sources, etc. In this paper, the authors found that the protein sequence could also be one of the factors. We extracted information of the resolution and the sequence of proteins from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), classified the proteins into different clusters according to the sequence similarity, and statistically analyzed the relationship between the sequence similarity and the best resolution obtained. The results showed that there was a pronounced correlation between the sequence similarity and the obtained resolution. These results indicate that protein structure itself is one variable that may affect resolution when X-ray crystallography is used.

  17. Examining issues of underrepresented minority students in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica Ellen

    In this dissertation we examine several issues related to the retention of under-represented minority students in physics and science. In the first section, we show that in calculus-based introductory physics courses, the gender gap on the FCI is diminished through the use of interactive techniques, but in lower-level introductory courses, the gap persists, similar to reports published at other institutions. We find that under-represented racial minorities perform similar to their peers with comparable academic preparation on conceptual surveys, but their average exam grades and course grades are lower. We also examine student persistence in science majors; finding a significant relationship between pedagogy in an introductory physics course and persistence in science. In the second section, we look at student end-of-semester evaluations and find that female students rate interactive teaching methods a full point lower than their male peers. Looking more deeply at student interview data, we find that female students report more social issues related to the discussions in class and both male and female students cite feeling pressure to obtain the correct answer to clicker questions. Finally, we take a look an often-cited claim for gender differences in STEM participation: cognitive differences explain achievement differences in physics. We examine specifically the role of mental rotations in physics achievement and problem-solving, viewing mental rotations as a tool that students can use on physics problems. We first look at student survey results for lower-level introductory students, finding a low, but significant correlation between performance on a mental rotations test and performance in introductory physics courses. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship for students in the upper-level introductory course. We also examine student problem-solving interviews to investigate the role of mental rotations on introductory problems.

  18. Techniques and radiation dose in CT examinations of adult patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elameen, S. E. A.

    2010-06-01

    The use of CT in medical diagnosis delivers radiation dose to patients that are higher than those from other radiological procedures. Lake of optimized protocols could be an additional source of increased dose. The aim of this study was to measure radiation doses in CT examination of the adults in three Sudanese hospitals. Details were obtained from approximately 160 CT examination carried out in 3 hospitals (3 CT scanners). Effective dose was calculated for each examination using CT dose indices. exposure related parameters and CT D1- to- effective dose conversion factors. CT air kerma index (CT D1) and dose length products (DLP) determined were below the established international reference dose levels. The mean effective doses in this study for the head, chest, and abdomen are 0.82, 3.7 and 5.4 mGy respectively. These values were observed that the effective dose per examination was lower in Sudan than in other countries. The report of a CT survey done in these centers indicates that the mean DLP values for adult patients were ranged from 272-460 mGy cm (head) 195-995 mGy cm (chest), 270-459 mGy cm (abdomen). There are a number of observed parameters that greatly need optimization, such as minimize the scan length, without missing any vital anatomical regions, modulation of exposure parameters (kV, mA, exposure time, and slice thickness) based on patient size and age. Another possible method is through use of contrast media only to optimize diagnostic yield. The last possible method is the use of radio protective materials for protection however, in order to achieve the above optimization strategies: there is great demand to educate CT personnel on the effects of scan parameter settings on radiation dose to patients and image quality required for accurate diagnosis. (Author)

  19. The Remotely Operated Nondestructive Examination System for Examining the Knuckle Region of Hanford's Double Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Pardini, Allan F.; Donald Thompson and Dale Chimenti

    2005-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed a technology to address the examination requirements associated with the knuckle region of Hanford's double shell waste tanks. This examination poses a significant technical challenge because the area that requires examination is in a confined space, high radiation region and is not accessible using conventional measurement techniques. This paper describes the development, deployment, and modification of the remotely operated nondestructive examination (RONDE) system that utilizes a technique known as Synthetic Aperture Focusing (SAFT). The system detects stress corrosion cracking in the high stress region of the knuckle and characterizes the crack with tandem SAFT. PNNL has qualified the system to perform inspections on the entire knuckle region of Hanford's double shell waste tanks

  20. Comparison of Various Similarity Measures for Average Image Hash in Mobile Phone Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisa Chaerul Haviana, Sam; Taufik, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issue in Content Based Image Retrieval (CIBR) is similarity measures for resulting image hashes. The main key challenge is to find the most benefits distance or similarity measures for calculating the similarity in term of speed and computing costs, specially under limited computing capabilities device like mobile phone. This study we utilize twelve most common and popular distance or similarity measures technique implemented in mobile phone application, to be compared and studied. The results show that all similarity measures implemented in this study was perform equally under mobile phone application. This gives more possibilities for method combinations to be implemented for image retrieval.

  1. Interbehavioral psychology and radical behaviorism: Some similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.

    1984-01-01

    Both J. R. Kantor's interbehavioral psychology and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism represent wellarticulated approaches to a natural science of behavior. As such, they share a number of similar features, yet they also differ on a number of dimensions. Some of these similarities and differences are examined by describing their emergence in the professional literature and by comparing the respective units of analysis of the two approaches—the interbehavioral field and the three-term contingency. An evaluation of the similarities and differences shows the similarities to be largely fundamental, and the differences largely ones of emphasis. Nonetheless, the two approaches do make unique contributions to a natural science of behavior, the integration of which can facilitate the development of that science and its acceptance among other sciences and within society at large. PMID:22478612

  2. A study of contrast media on X-rays of upper GI examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Rupp, H.G.; Reinhold, W.D.; Grosser, G.

    1989-01-01

    700 gastro intestinal x-ray pictures were controlled by four independent radiologists. Three different baryum applications in patients examination were performed. The three baryum contrast-medium were Top-Contral, Mikropaque, (H-D Barium) and Titanate de Baryum. The examination technique in all patients was the same. In different sessions every radiologist was asked for his opinion about the regularity and thickness of the emulsion of contrast-medium, of the graph of the Areae gastricae, the sharpness of the stomach-contour and the production of bubbles. Finally to every picture it had to be done a qualification concerning to its presentation from 'insignificant' to 'excellent' in four degrees. The results: Excellent pictures could be done in the Esophagus with Titanate de Baryum. Best presentation of the stomach specially in double contrast could be done with Mikropaque, a quiet similar result was the examination with Top-Contral. There is no significant differentiation between contrasts-media in the small intestine. (orig.) [de

  3. Common neighbour structure and similarity intensity in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng

    2017-10-01

    Complex systems as networks always exhibit strong regularities, implying underlying mechanisms governing their evolution. In addition to the degree preference, the similarity has been argued to be another driver for networks. Assuming a network is randomly organised without similarity preference, the present paper studies the expected number of common neighbours between vertices. A symmetrical similarity index is accordingly developed by removing such expected number from the observed common neighbours. The developed index can not only describe the similarities between vertices, but also the dissimilarities. We further apply the proposed index to measure of the influence of similarity on the wring patterns of networks. Fifteen empirical networks as well as artificial networks are examined in terms of similarity intensity and degree heterogeneity. Results on real networks indicate that, social networks are strongly governed by the similarity as well as the degree preference, while the biological networks and infrastructure networks show no apparent similarity governance. Particularly, classical network models, such as the Barabási-Albert model, the Erdös-Rényi model and the Ring Lattice, cannot well describe the social networks in terms of the degree heterogeneity and similarity intensity. The findings may shed some light on the modelling and link prediction of different classes of networks.

  4. Gender Similarities in Math Performance from Middle School through High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Tony; Bui, Khanh

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 10 states, Hyde, Lindberg, Linn, Ellis, and Williams (2008) found gender similarities in performance on standardized math tests. The present study attempted to replicate this finding with national data and to extend it by examining whether gender similarities in math performance are moderated by race, socioeconomic status, or math…

  5. Representation of Semantic Similarity in the Left Intraparietal Sulcus: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Neyens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity, where the effect is situated compared to regions that have been previously implicated in visuospatial attention, and how it compares to effects of object identity and location. Forty-six subjects participated. Subjects passively viewed pictures from two categories, musical instruments and vehicles. Semantic similarity between entities was estimated based on a concept-feature matrix obtained in more than 1,000 subjects. Visuoperceptual similarity was modeled based on the HMAX model, the AlexNet deep convolutional learning model, and thirdly, based on subjective visuoperceptual similarity ratings. Among the IPS regions examined, only left middle IPS showed a semantic similarity effect. The effect was significant in hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3. Visuoperceptual similarity did not correlate with similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS. The semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS was significantly stronger than in the right middle IPS and also stronger than in the left or right posterior IPS. The semantic similarity effect was similar to that seen in the angular gyrus. Object identity effects were much more widespread across nearly all parietal areas examined. Location effects were relatively specific for posterior IPS and area 7 bilaterally. To conclude, the current findings replicate the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS under passive viewing conditions, and demonstrate its anatomical specificity within a cytoarchitectonic reference frame. We propose that the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS reflects the transient uploading of semantic representations in working memory.

  6. Improving Language Production Using Subtitled Similar Task Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman; Pedersen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of subtitled similar task videos on language production by nonnative speakers (NNSs) in an online task-based language learning (TBLL) environment. Ten NNS-NNS dyads collaboratively completed four communicative tasks, using an online TBLL environment specifically designed for this study and a chat tool in…

  7. Evacuation proctography - examination technique and method of evaluation; Evakuationsproktographie. Untersuchungstechnik und Auswertemethodik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunschweig, R. [Abt. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet, Tuebingen (Germany); Schott, U. [Abt. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet, Tuebingen (Germany); Starlinger, M. [Abt. fuer Allgemeine Chirurgie, Eberhard-Karls-Universtaet, Tuebingen (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Evacuation proctography is the most important imaging technique to supplement findings of physical examination, manometry, and endoscopy in patients presenting with pathologies in anorectal morphology and function. Indications for evacuation proctography include obstructed defecation or incomplete evacuation, imaging of ileal pouches following excision of the rectum, and suspected anorectal fistulae. Evacuation proctography with thick barium sulfate is performed under fluoroscopy. Documentation of the study can either be done by single-shot X-rays, video recording, or imaging with a 100-mm spot-film camera. Evacuation proctography shows morphologic changes such as spastic pelvic floor, rectocele, enterocele, intussusception and anal prolapse. Measurements can be performed to obtain the anorectal angle, location and mobility of the pelvic floor, and size as well as importance of a rectocele. Qualitative and quantitative data can only be interpreted along with clinical and manometric data. (orig.) [Deutsch] Neben klinischen, manometrischen und endoskopischen Untersuchungstechniken stellt die Evakuationsproktographie das wesentlichste bildgebende Verfahren zur Erfassung morphologischer und funktioneller Befunde am Anorektum dar. Einsatzgebiet sind zum einen klinische Befunde wie Obstipation und unvollstaendige Entleerung und zum anderen die Roentgenkontrolle eines Duenndarmpouches nach Rectumexstirpation sowie der Nachweis oder Ausschluss von Fisteln. Die Untersuchung wird unter Verwendung von Kontrastmittelsuspensionen durchleuchtungsgezielt durchgefuehrt. Zur Dokumentation stehen die Einzelbildtechnik im seitlichen Strahlengang, die Videotechnik bzw. 100mm-Kamera-Technik zur Verfuegung. Morphologisch koennen Befunde wie Anismus, Rectocele, Enterocele, Intussuszeption bzw. Schleimhautprolaps sowie der Analprolaps erfasst werden. Messtechnisch koennen u.a. der Anorektalwinkel und die Beweglichkeit bzw. Lage des Beckenbodens sowie die Groesse und funktionelle Bedeutung

  8. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  9. Similarity of WISC-R and WAIS-R Scores at Age 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Jonathan; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined similarity of scores of 30 learning disabled students (aged 16 and 17) on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Results documented similarity between WISC-R and WAIS-R for 16 year-olds who were learning disabled and had average intellectual ability.…

  10. Similarity and accuracy of mental models formed during nursing handovers: A concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Broyer, Chaya; Dagan, Efrat

    2017-09-01

    Shared mental models are crucial for constructing mutual understanding of the patient's condition during a clinical handover. Yet, scant research, if any, has empirically explored mental models of the parties involved in a clinical handover. This study aimed to examine the similarities among mental models of incoming and outgoing nurses, and to test their accuracy by comparing them with mental models of expert nurses. A cross-sectional study, exploring nurses' mental models via the concept mapping technique. 40 clinical handovers. Data were collected via concept mapping of the incoming, outgoing, and expert nurses' mental models (total of 120 concept maps). Similarity and accuracy for concepts and associations indexes were calculated to compare the different maps. About one fifth of the concepts emerged in both outgoing and incoming nurses' concept maps (concept similarity=23%±10.6). Concept accuracy indexes were 35%±18.8 for incoming and 62%±19.6 for outgoing nurses' maps. Although incoming nurses absorbed fewer number of concepts and associations (23% and 12%, respectively), they partially closed the gap (35% and 22%, respectively) relative to expert nurses' maps. The correlations between concept similarities, and incoming as well as outgoing nurses' concept accuracy, were significant (r=0.43, p<0.01; r=0.68 p<0.01, respectively). Finally, in 90% of the maps, outgoing nurses added information concerning the processes enacted during the shift, beyond the expert nurses' gold standard. Two seemingly contradicting processes in the handover were identified. "Information loss", captured by the low similarity indexes among the mental models of incoming and outgoing nurses; and "information restoration", based on accuracy measures indexes among the mental models of the incoming nurses. Based on mental model theory, we propose possible explanations for these processes and derive implications for how to improve a clinical handover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Advanced nondestructive examination of the reactor vessel head penetration tube welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, M.; Zado, V.

    1996-01-01

    Beside a referent code examination requirements, appearance of the service induced flaws on the Reactor Vessel Head (RVH) penetration tube welds forced development of remotely operated examination tools and techniques. Several systems were developed for examination of RVH PWR type while only one system for examination of VVER - 440 type RVH has been developed by Inetec. In this article the most advanced RVH VVER - 440 type examination techniques such as ultrasonic, eddy current and visual testing techniques as well as remotely operated tool are described. (author)

  12. Interference effects in learning similar sequences of discrete movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijker, J.M.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Beek, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine proactive and retroactive interference effects in learning two similar sequences of discrete movements. In each experiment, the participants in the experimental group practiced two movement sequences on consecutive days (1 on each day, order

  13. MAPPING THE SIMILARITIES OF SPECTRA: GLOBAL AND LOCALLY-BIASED APPROACHES TO SDSS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, David [Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (United States); Budavári, Tamás [Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, The Johns Hopkins University (United States); Mahoney, Michael W. [International Computer Science Institute (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors . Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  14. Mapping the Similarities of Spectra: Global and Locally-biased Approaches to SDSS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, David; Budavári, Tamás; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors. Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  15. MAPPING THE SIMILARITIES OF SPECTRA: GLOBAL AND LOCALLY-BIASED APPROACHES TO SDSS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawlor, David; Budavári, Tamás; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors . Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  16. How similar are recognition memory and inductive reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan

    2013-07-01

    Conventionally, memory and reasoning are seen as different types of cognitive activities driven by different processes. In two experiments, we challenged this view by examining the relationship between recognition memory and inductive reasoning involving multiple forms of similarity. A common study set (members of a conjunctive category) was followed by a test set containing old and new category members, as well as items that matched the study set on only one dimension. The study and test sets were presented under recognition or induction instructions. In Experiments 1 and 2, the inductive property being generalized was varied in order to direct attention to different dimensions of similarity. When there was no time pressure on decisions, patterns of positive responding were strongly affected by property type, indicating that different types of similarity were driving recognition and induction. By comparison, speeded judgments showed weaker property effects and could be explained by generalization based on overall similarity. An exemplar model, GEN-EX (GENeralization from EXamples), could account for both the induction and recognition data. These findings show that induction and recognition share core component processes, even when the tasks involve flexible forms of similarity.

  17. A Signal Processing Method to Explore Similarity in Protein Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Vasilache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of protein flexibility is of great importance to structural biology. The ability to detect similarities between proteins and their patterns is vital in discovering new information about unknown protein functions. A Distance Constraint Model (DCM provides a means to generate a variety of flexibility measures based on a given protein structure. Although information about mechanical properties of flexibility is critical for understanding protein function for a given protein, the question of whether certain characteristics are shared across homologous proteins is difficult to assess. For a proper assessment, a quantified measure of similarity is necessary. This paper begins to explore image processing techniques to quantify similarities in signals and images that characterize protein flexibility. The dataset considered here consists of three different families of proteins, with three proteins in each family. The similarities and differences found within flexibility measures across homologous proteins do not align with sequence-based evolutionary methods.

  18. Self-similarity in the equation of motion of a ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong Joong Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available If we want to analyze the motion of a body in fluid, we should use rigid-body dynamics and fluid dynamics together. Even if the rigid-body and fluid dynamics are each self-consistent, there arises the problem of self-similar structure in the equation of motion when the two dynamics are coupled with each other. When the added mass is greater than the mass of a body, the calculated motion is divergent because of its self-similar structure. This study showed that the above problem is an inherent problem. This problem of self-similar structure may arise in the equation of motion in which the fluid dynamic forces are treated as external forces on the right hand side of the equation. A reconfiguration technique for the equation of motion using pseudo-added-mass was proposed to resolve the self-similar structure problem; specifically for the case when the fluid force is expressed by integration of the fluid pressure.

  19. The pattern and technique in the clinical evaluation of the adult hip: the common physical examination tests of hip specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hal D; Kelly, Bryan T; Leunig, Michael; Philippon, Marc J; Clohisy, John C; Martin, RobRoy L; Sekiya, Jon K; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Sampson, Thomas G; Safran, Marc R

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the technique and tests used in the physical examination of the adult hip performed by multiple clinicians who regularly treat patients with hip problems and identify common physical examination patterns. The subjects included 5 men and 6 women with a mean age (+/-SD) of 29.8 +/- 9.4 years. They underwent physical examination of the hip by 6 hip specialists with a strong interest in hip-related problems. All examiners were blind to patient radiographs and diagnoses. Patient examinations were video recorded and reviewed. It was determined that 18 tests were most frequently performed (>or=40%) by the examiners, 3 standing, 11 supine, 3 lateral, and 1 prone. Of the most frequently performed tests, 10 were performed more than 50% of the time. The tests performed in the supine position were as follows: flexion range of motion (ROM) (percentage of use, 98%), flexion internal rotation ROM (98%), flexion external rotation ROM (86%), passive supine rotation test (76%), flexion/adduction/internal rotation test (70%), straight leg raise against resistance test (61%), and flexion/abduction/external rotation test (52%). The tests performed in the standing position were the gait test (86%) and the single-leg stance phase test (77%). The 1 test in the prone position was the femoral anteversion test (58%). There are variations in the testing that hip specialists perform to examine and evaluate their patients, but there is enough commonality to form the basis to recommend a battery of physical examination maneuvers that should be considered for use in evaluating the hip. Patients presenting with groin, abdominal, back, and/or hip pain need to have a basic examination to ensure that the hip is not overlooked. A comprehensive physical examination of the hip will benefit the patient and the physician and serve as the foundation for future multicenter clinical studies. (c) 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  20. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  1. Cytologic examination of hemorrhagic fluid by capillary centrifugation: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Padam Kumari

    2009-01-01

    To develop a simplified technique for processing hemorrhagic body fluids, allowing elimination of red blood cells (RBCs) to obtain tumor cell-rich cytosmears for accurate diagnosis of malignancy. Hemorrhagic fluid is collected with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid anticoagulant. The cells are separated by centrifugation in glass capillaries into 3 layers, with the uppermost containing supernatant, middle buffy coat and lowermost dark layer of RBCs. The smears of the buffy coat are prepared by breaking the capillaries at the junction of buffy coat and RBC layer. The procedure is named capillary centrifugation technique. This procedure was developed in the cytology laboratory at King George's Medical College, Lucknow, India in 1974. Cell yield is good and cellular details are well preserved. No cell debris is present on the slides. The background of the smears is absolutely clear. Any number of slides may be prepared for special study for exact typing of tumor cells This is a simple, economical procedure and a good substitute for a cytocentrifuge machine for preparing smears from small amount of fluids. Technicians learn it quickly and are quite comfortable with the procedure.

  2. Nuclear medical examinations in Marfan's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'haene, E.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients of one family with the Marfan's syndrome have been examined with nuclear medical techniques. A combination of isotopes, angiography and ECG triggered bloodpoolscintigraphy with echocardiography are very suitable to examine the course of the disease. (Auth.)

  3. A Profile-Based Framework for Factorial Similarity and the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Anselma G; Furr, R Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel profile-based framework for understanding factorial similarity in the context of exploratory factor analysis in general, and for understanding the congruence coefficient (a commonly used index of factor similarity) specifically. First, we introduce the profile-based framework articulating factorial similarity in terms of 3 intuitive components: general saturation similarity, differential saturation similarity, and configural similarity. We then articulate the congruence coefficient in terms of these components, along with 2 additional profile-based components, and we explain how these components resolve ambiguities that can be-and are-found when using the congruence coefficient. Finally, we present secondary analyses revealing that profile-based components of factorial are indeed linked to experts' actual evaluations of factorial similarity. Overall, the profile-based approach we present offers new insights into the ways in which researchers can examine factor similarity and holds the potential to enhance researchers' ability to understand the congruence coefficient.

  4. The effects of similarity of theme and instantiation in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanowitz, K L

    2001-01-01

    The influence of 2 types of structural similarity on analogical reasoning was examined. The theme of a story is a structural component that constrains other relationships in the story. Another structural component is the way in which the theme is implemented. Participants received pairs of stories that varied in the similarity of these two components. Participants in Experiment 1 judged stories containing similar themes as more analogous than stories with dissimilar themes. Likewise, stories with similar implementations were judged as more analogous than stories with dissimilar implementations. Experiment 2 revealed a similar pattern when participants had the opportunity to transfer information from source to target stories. Greater transfer was seen for stories with similar themes than for stories with dissimilar themes. Greater transfer was also seen for stories with similar implementations of different themes than for stories with different implementations.

  5. Using the Repertory Grid Technique to Examine Trainee Clinical Psychologists' Construal of Their Personal and Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katy; Wittkowski, Anja; Hodgkinson, Emma; Bell, Richard; Hare, Dougal J

    2016-09-01

    The repertory grid technique was used to explore how 26 third-year trainee clinical psychologists construed their personal and professional selves over the course of training and into the future. Each trainee completed a demographic questionnaire and a repertory grid with 10 elements: four 'personal self' elements, four 'professional self' elements and two 'qualified clinical psychologist' elements. They then rated the 10 elements on 10 bipolar constructs of their choosing. Trainees' personal and professional selves were construed to be similar to each other. Trainees had low self-esteem and reported currently feeling anxious, stressed, unsettled and lacking an appropriate work-life balance. These difficulties were attributed to the demands of training and were expected to resolve once training was completed with future selves being construed as similar to ideal selves. Suggestions for future research with improved methodology are made, and the implications of the findings for trainees, training providers and employers of newly qualified clinical psychologists are given. The overall implication being that stress in training is normative and the profession has a duty to normalize this and ensure that self-care and personal development are recognized as core competencies of the clinical psychologist for the benefit of its members and their clients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Clinical psychology trainees experience training as demanding and stressful, which negatively impacts on their personal and professional self-image and self-esteem. However, they are optimistic that they will become more like their ideal self in the future. Stress in clinical training (and beyond) is normative, and thus, personal development and self-care should be recognized as clinical psychologist's core competencies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Processing techniques for data from the Kuosheng Unit 1 shakedown safety-relief-valve tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Rompel, S.L.; Weaver, H.J.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes techniques developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laobratory, Livermore, CA for processing original data from the Taiwan Power Company's Kuosheng MKIII Unit 1 Safety Relief Valve Shakedown Tests conducted in April/May 1981. The computer codes used, TPSORT, TPPLOT, and TPPSD, form a special evaluation system for treating the data from its original packed binary form to ordered, calibrated ASCII transducer files and then to production of time-history plots, numerical output files, and spectral analyses. Using the data processing techniques described, a convenient means of independently examining and analyzing a unique data base for steam condensation phenomena in the MARKIII wetwell is described. The techniques developed for handling these data are applicable to the treatment of similar, but perhaps differently structured, experiment data sets

  7. Radiation doses during chest examinations using dose modulation techniques in multislice CT scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone Roshan; Pradip Joe; Dinakran Paul; Srikanth B

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiation dose and image quality using a manual protocol and dose modulation techniques in a 6-slice CT scanner. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-one patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT of the chest were included in the study. For the manual protocol settings, constant tube potential (kV) and tube current-time product (mAs) of 140 kV and 120 mAs, respectively, were used. The angular and z-axis dose modulation techniques utilized a constant tu...

  8. Elastography of the Breast: Imaging Techniques and Pitfalls in Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) elastography is a tool that indicates the hardness of a lesion. Recent studies using elastography with freehand compression have shown similar diagnostic performance to conventional US in differentiating benign lesions from malignant breast masses. On the other hand, the acquired information is not quantitative, and the reliability of the imaging technique to correctly compress the tissue depends on the skill of the operator, resulting in substantial interobserver variability during data acquisition and interpretation. To overcome this, shear wave elastography was developed to provide quantitative information on the tissue elasticity. The system works by remotely inducing mechanical vibrations through the acoustic radiation force created by a focused US beam. This review discusses the principles and examination techniques of the two types of elastography systems and provides practical points to reduce the interobserver variability or errors during data acquisition and interpretation

  9. Elastography of the Breast: Imaging Techniques and Pitfalls in Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Ultrasound (US) elastography is a tool that indicates the hardness of a lesion. Recent studies using elastography with freehand compression have shown similar diagnostic performance to conventional US in differentiating benign lesions from malignant breast masses. On the other hand, the acquired information is not quantitative, and the reliability of the imaging technique to correctly compress the tissue depends on the skill of the operator, resulting in substantial interobserver variability during data acquisition and interpretation. To overcome this, shear wave elastography was developed to provide quantitative information on the tissue elasticity. The system works by remotely inducing mechanical vibrations through the acoustic radiation force created by a focused US beam. This review discusses the principles and examination techniques of the two types of elastography systems and provides practical points to reduce the interobserver variability or errors during data acquisition and interpretation

  10. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents’ Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12–16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison group). To test our hypothesis, we applied a multigroup actor–partner interdependence model to 3 friendship types that started and ended at different time points during the 2 waves of data collection. Results showed that adolescents reported levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up that were similar to those of their best friends. Socialization processes explained the increase in similarity exclusively in female dyads, whereas no evidence for friendship selection emerged for either male or female dyads. Additional analyses revealed that similarity between friends was particularly evident in the actual best friend dyads (i.e., true best friends), in which evidence for socialization processes emerged for both female and male friend dyads. Findings highlight the importance of examining friendship relations as a potential context for the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:21639621

  11. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  12. Incidence of vascular complications during lateral lumbar interbody fusion: an examination of the mini-open access technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Janina; Fantini, Gary A; Walker, Brendon R; Aichmair, Alexander; Hughes, Alexander P

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the incidence and management of vascular injury during Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF). The details of the mini-open access technique are presented. A total of 900 patients who underwent a LLIF at an average 1.94 levels (range: 1-5 levels) by one of six fellowship trained surgeons on 1,754 levels from 2006 to 2013 were identified. The incidence of intraoperative vascular injury was retrospectively determined from the Operative Records. The management of vascular injury was evaluated. The mini-open access adapted by our institution for LLIF is described. The incidence of major vascular complication in our series was 1/900. The incidence of minor vascular injury was 4/900. The overall incidence of vascular injury was calculated to be 0.056 % per case and 0.029 % per level. All minor vascular injuries were identified to be segmental vessel lacerations, which were readily ligated under direct visualization without further extension of the incision with no clinical sequelae. The laceration of the abdominal aorta, the major vascular complication of this series, was emergently repaired through an exploratory laparotomy. None of the patients suffered long-term sequelae from their intraoperative vascular injuries. The mini-open lateral access technique for LLIF provides for minimal risk of vascular injury to the lumbar spine. In the rare event of minor vascular injury, the mini-open access approach allows for immediate visualization, confirmation and repair of the vessel with no long-term sequelae.

  13. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  14. Training techniques for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

  15. Visual similarity in short-term recall for where and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2008-03-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of visual similarity on short-term recall for where and when in the visual spatial domain. A series of squares of similar or dissimilar colours were serially presented at various locations on the screen. At recall, all coloured squares were simultaneously presented in a random order at the bottom of the screen, and the locations used for presentation were indicated by white squares. Participants were asked to place the colours at their appropriate location in their presentation order. Performance for location (where) and order (when) was assessed separately. Results revealed that similarity severely hinders both memory for what was where and memory for what was when, under quiet and articulatory suppression conditions. These results provide further evidence that similarity has a major impact on processing relational information in memory.

  16. An Exploration of Mate Similarity for Criminal Offending Behaviors: Results from a Multi-Generation Sample of Dutch Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2017-09-01

    There has been a growing body of research examining mate and spousal similarity on antisocial behaviors. The results of these studies have shown varying degrees of similarity between mates and spouses, but the precise mechanisms accounting for such similarity have remained somewhat elusive. The current study builds off this line of research and examines spousal similarity on criminal offending behaviors. Moreover, we also examine the potential factors that might account for spousal similarity. This study analyzed data drawn from two generations of Dutch spouses. The analyses revealed statistically significant associations between mates on criminal offending prior to marriage, a finding that is directly in line with an assortative mating explanation of spousal similarity. In addition, the analyses also revealed that criminal offending between spouses becomes even more similar after marriage, a finding that is line with a behavioral contagion explanation of spousal similarity. We conclude by discussing the limitations of the study along with the implications that these findings have for criminological research.

  17. Self-Similar Solutions of Variable-Coefficient Cubic-Quintic Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation with an External Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongyu; Fei Jinxi; Zheng Chunlong

    2010-01-01

    An improved homogeneous balance principle and an F-expansion technique are used to construct exact self-similar solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Such solutions exist under certain conditions, and impose constraints on the functions describing dispersion, nonlinearity, and the external potential. Some simple self-similar waves are presented. (general)

  18. A study of the x-ray image quality improvement in the examination of the respiratory system based on the new image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yuichi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Torii, Jun; Iwase, Takumi; Aso, Tomohiko; Ihara, Kanyu; Fujikawa, Mari; Takeuchi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Katsumi; Ishiguro, Takashi; Hara, Akio

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the double contrast technique in a gastrointestinal examination and the transbronchial lung biopsy in an examination for the respiratory system [1-3] have made a remarkable progress. Especially in the transbronchial lung biopsy, better quality of x-ray fluoroscopic images is requested because this examination is performed under a guidance of x-ray fluoroscopic images. On the other hand, various image processing methods [4] for x-ray fluoroscopic images have been developed as an x-ray system with a flat panel detector [5-7] is widely used. A recursive filtering is an effective method to reduce a random noise in x-ray fluoroscopic images. However it has a limitation for its effectiveness of a noise reduction in case of a moving object exists in x-ray fluoroscopic images because the recursive filtering is a noise reduction method by adding last few images. After recursive filtering a residual signal was produced if a moving object existed in x-ray images, and this residual signal disturbed a smooth procedure of the examinations. To improve this situation, new noise reduction method has been developed. The Adaptive Noise Reduction [ANR] is the brand-new noise reduction technique which can be reduced only a noise regardless of the moving object in x-ray fluoroscopic images. Therefore the ANR is a very suitable noise reduction method for the transbronchial lung biopsy under a guidance of x-ray fluoroscopic images because the residual signal caused of the moving object in x-ray fluoroscopic images is never produced after the ANR. In this paper, we will explain an advantage of the ANR by comparing of a performance between the ANR images and the conventional recursive filtering images.

  19. Using Oral Examination as a Technique to Assess Student Understanding and Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of oral examinations to assess student understanding in a general chemistry course and in an advanced inorganic chemistry course. Examination design, administration, and grading are explored, as well as the benefits to both instructors and students. Students react positively to the oral examination format and generally…

  20. Personality Similarity between Teachers and Their Students Influences Teacher Judgement of Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Tobias; Karing, Constance; Dörfler, Tobias; Artelt, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    This study examined personality similarity between teachers and their students and its impact on teacher judgement of student achievement in the domains of reading comprehension and mathematics. Personality similarity was quantified through intraclass correlations between personality characteristics of 409 dyads of German teachers and their…

  1. Analytical and functional similarity of Amgen biosimilar ABP 215 to bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Neungseon; Polozova, Alla; Zhang, Mingxuan; Yates, Zachary; Cao, Shawn; Li, Huimin; Kuhns, Scott; Maher, Gwendolyn; McBride, Helen J; Liu, Jennifer

    ABP 215 is a biosimilar product to bevacizumab. Bevacizumab acts by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor A, inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and new blood vessel formation, thereby leading to tumor vasculature normalization. The ABP 215 analytical similarity assessment was designed to assess the structural and functional similarity of ABP 215 and bevacizumab sourced from both the United States (US) and the European Union (EU). Similarity assessment was also made between the US- and EU-sourced bevacizumab to assess the similarity between the two products. The physicochemical properties and structural similarity of ABP 215 and bevacizumab were characterized using sensitive state-of-the-art analytical techniques capable of detecting small differences in product attributes. ABP 215 has the same amino acid sequence and exhibits similar post-translational modification profiles compared to bevacizumab. The functional similarity assessment employed orthogonal assays designed to interrogate all expected biological activities, including those known to affect the mechanisms of action for ABP 215 and bevacizumab. More than 20 batches of bevacizumab (US) and bevacizumab (EU), and 13 batches of ABP 215 representing unique drug substance lots were assessed for similarity. The large dataset allows meaningful comparisons and garners confidence in the overall conclusion for the analytical similarity assessment of ABP 215 to both US- and EU-sourced bevacizumab. The structural and purity attributes, and biological properties of ABP 215 are demonstrated to be highly similar to those of bevacizumab.

  2. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning across Cultures: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Morrison, Robert G.; Au, Terry Kit-Fong

    2010-01-01

    A cross-cultural comparison between U.S. and Hong Kong preschoolers examined factors responsible for young children's analogical reasoning errors. On a scene analogy task, both groups had adequate prerequisite knowledge of the key relations, were the same age, and showed similar baseline performance, yet Chinese children outperformed U.S. children…

  3. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  4. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  5. Self-similarity and flow characteristics of vertical-axis wind turbine wakes: an LES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Dabiri, John O.

    2017-04-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is coupled with a turbine model to study the structure of the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). In the simulations, a tuning-free anisotropic minimum dissipation model is used to parameterise the subfilter stress tensor, while the turbine-induced forces are modelled with an actuator line technique. The LES framework is first validated in the simulation of the wake behind a model straight-bladed VAWT placed in the water channel and then used to study the wake structure downwind of a full-scale VAWT sited in the atmospheric boundary layer. In particular, the self-similarity of the wake is examined, and it is found that the wake velocity deficit can be well characterised by a two-dimensional multivariate Gaussian distribution. By assuming a self-similar Gaussian distribution of the velocity deficit, and applying mass and momentum conservation, an analytical model is developed and tested to predict the maximum velocity deficit downwind of the turbine. Also, a simple parameterisation of VAWTs for LES with very coarse grid resolutions is proposed, in which the turbine is modelled as a rectangular porous plate with the same thrust coefficient. The simulation results show that, after some downwind distance (x/D ≈ 6), both actuator line and rectangular porous plate models have similar predictions for the mean velocity deficit. These results are of particular importance in simulations of large wind farms where, due to the coarse spatial resolution, the flow around individual VAWTs is not resolved.

  6. A Quantitative Comparison of the Similarity between Genes and Geography in Worldwide Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure. PMID:22927824

  7. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  8. Mitochondrial replacement techniques: egg donation, genealogy and eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-González, César

    2016-03-01

    Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study of genealogical ancestry. Finally, I examine the claim that mitochondrial replacement techniques are not transferring mitochondrial DNA but nuclear DNA, and that this should be prohibited on ethical grounds.

  9. Clinical evaluation of radioisotope examination in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukochi, H [National Konodai Hospital (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    Although many approaches are tried for the diagnoses of malignant tumor, radiological examinations act surely main parts. Among the radiological examinations, radioisotope techniques are not well evaluated instead of their usefulness in this field. The reason may depend on the complexity and difficulty in legal limitations, however, the lack of knowledge in this field is also a main reason. In this paper, the present status of the evaluation of radioisotope techniques is discussed in selected region of the body and some characteristic cases are demonstrated.

  10. Correlates of Couples’ Perceived Similarity at the Initiation Stage and Currently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sprecher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research (Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008 has indicated that perceived similarity is more important than actual similarity as a predictor of satisfaction and attraction, there is a lack of research on factors associated with couples’ perceptions of similarity in their relationship. In the present study, a sample of couples (both partners provided ratings of the degree to which they perceived similarity in six areas (background characteristics, attitudes and beliefs, leisure pursuits and interests, communication style, personality, and physical attributes for two stages in their relationship: currently and at the initiation stage (viewed retrospectively. The couples perceived greater similarity for the current stage of their relationship than for the beginning stage of their relationship. Factors found to be associated with perceived similarity included positive social network reactions, overlap in social networks (predictor of current perceived similarity only, perceived compatibility, and satisfaction and commitment (examined only for current perceived similarity. Of the various types of perceived similarity considered in this study, similarity in attitudes and beliefs was most consistently associated with the various predictor variables. Implications of these results for enhancing couple relationships are discussed.

  11. State of the art report: Underwater examination techniques for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    In these days, much efforts are being put to increase the final discharge burnup of PWR fuels. Therefore, the necessity of the inspection of irradiated nuclear fuels assembly during the the refueling outage is greatly increased to evaluate the safe operation and soundness of fuel assemblies in their next cycles in core, and apply the results for safe operation and effective core management. The necessity to evaluate the irradiation performance of indigenous nuclear fuels pushes the relative researchers to the development of on-site fuel inspection techniques and devices which can perform the underwater inspection and measurement of irradiated nuclear fuels during refueling outage. To ensure the technologies, the status of in situ underwater fuel inspection techniques and equipment were investigated and reviewed. Those information provides the fuel inspection capability to evaluate and certificate the performance and integrity of nuclear fuels which leads to the safe operation of NPP. (author). 49 refs., 52 figs

  12. Do People Know What They Want: A Similar or Complementary Partner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieternel Dijkstra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the extent to which individuals seek partners with similar, as opposed to complementary, personality characteristics. Results showed that whereas individuals desired a partner who resembles them in terms of personality, when asked about their preferences in general, most individuals indicated that they desired a complementary partner instead of a similar one. In addition to a similar partner with regard to personality, women also desired a more conscientious, less neurotic and more extraverted partner than men. These results are discussed with reference to the importance of matched personalities in marital success.

  13. Parent-Child Similarity in Environmental Attitudes: A Pairwise Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Jaana M.; Haahla, Anu E.; Lensu, Anssi M.; Kuitunen, Markku T.

    2012-01-01

    Are adolescents' environmental attitudes similar to their parents' attitudes? The main objective of this study is to examine what quantitative associations, if any, exist in parent-child environmental attitudes within the family. The survey data was collected assessing attitudes toward the environment and nature from 15-year-old students (n = 237)…

  14. Semantic Annotation of Unstructured Documents Using Concepts Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of information in the form of unstructured documents which pose challenges in the information storage, search, and retrieval. This situation has given rise to several information search approaches. Some proposals take into account the contextual meaning of the terms specified in the query. Semantic annotation technique can help to retrieve and extract information in unstructured documents. We propose a semantic annotation strategy for unstructured documents as part of a semantic search engine. In this proposal, ontologies are used to determine the context of the entities specified in the query. Our strategy for extracting the context is focused on concepts similarity. Each relevant term of the document is associated with an instance in the ontology. The similarity between each of the explicit relationships is measured through the combination of two types of associations: the association between each pair of concepts and the calculation of the weight of the relationships.

  15. Application of the EPR technique to examine free radical qualities reducing infection of spring wheat grain with pathogenic fungi by He-Ne laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagoś, M.; Koper, R.; Sujak, A.; Misiak, L.E.; Kowalczuk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of spring wheat grain, Jasna cv., infected with pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Fusarium, Mucor) were examined using an EPR technique. Considering the quantity of generated free radicals the fungi belonged to most toxine generating. Their toxicity was connected with the number of free radicals generated in examined grain. Grain was irradiated with He-Ne laser at known wavelength, power density and time of exposure what gave the mycostatic effect appearing in decrease of free radicals in grain samples. However, this process was not stable as the increase of free radicals was observed again with the regrowth of fungi after some days

  16. Study on image quality of radiograph in radiographic examination for circumferential welded joint. 1. Basic study on scattered radiation in double wall exposure technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Ooka, Norikazu.

    1997-01-01

    Wire type Image Quality Indicators (I. Q. I.) are usually used for the evaluation of the image quality of radiographs in radiographic examinations specified in the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). The relationship between the sensitivity of the Image Quality Indicator and the radiographic contrast in single wall exposure technique has already been well understood. However, the relationship in double wall exposure technique is still under discussion. As a result of the fundamental experiments using flat plates, it was found in this study that the image quality of radiograph depends on the ratio of scattered X-rays generated in the focus side test plate to transmitted X-rays, and that the ratio varies in inverse proportion to the distance between the flat plates. It was also shown that the simulation method based on the Compton Effect is effective in obtaining the ratio of scattered to transmitted X-rays in the double wall exposure technique for a pipe of more than 100 mm diameter. (author)

  17. Techniques of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesk, K.

    1985-01-01

    A text and reference with an interdisciplinary approach to physics, atomic energy, radiochemistry, and radiobiology. Chapters examine basic principles, experimental techniques, the methodology of dose experiments, and applications. Treats 14 different dosimetric techniques, including ionization chamber, thermoluminescence, and lyoluminescence. Considers the conceptual aspects and characteristic features of radiation

  18. Fuel rod puncturing and fission gas monitoring system examination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Woong Sup

    1999-02-01

    Fission gas products accumulated in irradiated fuel rod is 1-2 cm 3 in CANDU and 40-50 cm 3 in PWR fuel rod. Fuel rod puncturing and fission gas monitoring system can be used for both CANDU and PWR fuel rod. This system comprises puncturing device located at in cell part and monitoring device located at out cell part. The system has computerized 9 modes and can calculate both void volume and mass volume only single puncturing. This report describes techniques and procedure for operating fuel rod puncturing and gas monitoring system which can be play an important role in successful operation of the devices. Results obtained from the analysis can give more influence over design for fuel rods. (Author). 6 refs., 9 figs

  19. Convincing similar and dissimilar others: the power of language abstraction in political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegatti, Michela; Rubini, Monica

    2013-05-01

    Three studies examined the production of political messages and their persuasive impact on recipients as a function of speaker-audience similarity. The first two studies found support for the hypothesis that political leaders (Study 1) and party activists (Study 2) formulate more abstract messages when the audience is politically similar to them than when the audience is dissimilar or heterogeneous. The third study examined the persuasive impact of message abstractness versus concreteness. We predicted and found that abstract messages are more effective in convincing an audience whose political positions are similar to the speaker's and concrete messages are more effective in convincing an audience whose political positions differ from the speaker's or are heterogeneous. Implications of these findings for the relation between language and social cognition are discussed.

  20. Organization and carrying out the roentgenological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, L.I.; Lejkin, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Organization of roentgenological examination with the purpose of occupational diseases diagnosis is based, first of all, on the considerations of labour activity of patient, compared with clinical data, as well as with concrete sanitary- and'-hygienic and working conditions, that may cause that or another occupational pathology. Much attention is paid to the choice of examination method and special techniques. The aims of roentgenologist are: generalization of roentgenological changes revealed and impartial recording of roentgenological picture. The main and special roentgenological techniques used for diagnosis of occupational diseases are discussed [ru

  1. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating Correlation between Protein Sequence Similarity and Semantic Similarity Using Gene Ontology Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Najmul; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Afzal, Muhammad Tanvir

    2018-01-01

    Sequence similarity is a commonly used measure to compare proteins. With the increasing use of ontologies, semantic (function) similarity is getting importance. The correlation between these measures has been applied in the evaluation of new semantic similarity methods, and in protein function prediction. In this research, we investigate the relationship between the two similarity methods. The results suggest absence of a strong correlation between sequence and semantic similarities. There is a large number of proteins with low sequence similarity and high semantic similarity. We observe that Pearson's correlation coefficient is not sufficient to explain the nature of this relationship. Interestingly, the term semantic similarity values above 0 and below 1 do not seem to play a role in improving the correlation. That is, the correlation coefficient depends only on the number of common GO terms in proteins under comparison, and the semantic similarity measurement method does not influence it. Semantic similarity and sequence similarity have a distinct behavior. These findings are of significant effect for future works on protein comparison, and will help understand the semantic similarity between proteins in a better way.

  3. Spousal similarity in life satisfaction before and after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Jessica; Lucas, Richard E

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has explored possible origins of individual differences in subjective well-being, focusing largely on stable, internal characteristics of traits as predictors of life satisfaction (Diener & Lucas, 1999). Although past work has demonstrated that life satisfaction is largely stable over the life span, other evidence has also demonstrated the lasting impact of life events. In this study, we use married couples as a test of the impact of life circumstances on life satisfaction, focusing on similarity in life satisfaction before and after divorce. If life satisfaction is impacted by shared life circumstances, married couples (who share life circumstances) should show greater similarity in life satisfaction before divorce than after. We tested this possibility using a dyadic latent-state-trait model that examined cross-spouse similarity in the stable and changing components of life satisfaction. Using a nationally representative panel study from Germany (Wagner, Frick & Schupp, 2007), we showed that similarity declined substantially following divorce. This suggests that life satisfaction is related to shared life circumstances. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  5. Efficient string similarity join in multi-core and distributed systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairong Yan

    Full Text Available In big data area a significant challenge about string similarity join is to find all similar pairs more efficiently. In this paper, we propose a parallel processing framework for efficient string similarity join. First, the input is split into some disjoint small subsets according to the joint frequency distribution and the interval distribution of strings. Then the filter-verification strategy is adopted in the computation of string similarity for each subset so that the number of candidate pairs is reduced before an effective pruning strategy is used to improve the performance. Finally, the operation of string join is executed in parallel. Para-Join algorithm based on the multi-threading technique is proposed to implement the framework in a multi-core system while Pada-Join algorithm based on Spark platform is proposed to implement the framework in a cluster system. We prove that Para-Join and Pada-Join cannot only avoid reduplicate computation but also ensure the completeness of the result. Experimental results show that Para-Join can achieve high efficiency and significantly outperform than state-of-the-art approaches, meanwhile, Pada-Join can work on large datasets.

  6. Integration of Phenotypic Metadata and Protein Similarity in Archaea Using a Spectral Bipartitioning Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Sean D.; Anderson, Iain J; Pati, Amrita; Dalevi, Daniel; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    In order to simplify and meaningfully categorize large sets of protein sequence data, it is commonplace to cluster proteins based on the similarity of those sequences. However, it quickly becomes clear that the sequence flexibility allowed a given protein varies significantly among different protein families. The degree to which sequences are conserved not only differs for each protein family, but also is affected by the phylogenetic divergence of the source organisms. Clustering techniques that use similarity thresholds for protein families do not always allow for these variations and thus cannot be confidently used for applications such as automated annotation and phylogenetic profiling. In this work, we applied a spectral bipartitioning technique to all proteins from 53 archaeal genomes. Comparisons between different taxonomic levels allowed us to study the effects of phylogenetic distances on cluster structure. Likewise, by associating functional annotations and phenotypic metadata with each protein, we could compare our protein similarity clusters with both protein function and associated phenotype. Our clusters can be analyzed graphically and interactively online.

  7. Examination of optimal radiation quality in the lead equivalent examination of x-ray protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shinichi; Matsuzawa, Rie; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effective lead thickness of the apron for radiation protective clothing, i.e., the lead equivalent, a method of performing the lead equivalent examination is provided in the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). We proposed a method of computation using an attenuation coefficient, and examined the measurement accuracy and optimal radiation quality using both. We were able to compute the lead equivalent with sufficient accuracy when using radiation quality of about 60 keV in the range of radiation quality examined. This technique was also examined in the measurement used for the marketing of radiation protective clothing. (author)

  8. Examination of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matokovic, A.; Picek, E.; Markulin, K.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand of a higher level of safety in the operation of the nuclear power plants requires the utilisation of more precise automated equipment to perform in-service inspections. That has been achieved by technological advances in computer technology, in robotics, in examination probe technology with the development of the advanced inspection technique and has also been due to the considerable and varied experience gained in the performance of such inspections. In-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel, especially Russian-designed WWER-1000 presents one of the most important and extensive examination of nuclear power plants primary circuit components. Such examination demand high standards of inspection technology, quality and continual innovation in the field of non-destructive testing advanced technology. A remote underwater contact ultrasonic technique is employed for the examination of the base metal of vessel and reactor welds, whence eddy current method is applied for clad surface examinations. Visual testing is used for examination of the vessel interior. The movement of inspection probes and data positioning are assured by using new reactor pressure vessel tool concept that is fully integrated with inspection systems. The successful performance of reactor pressure vessel is attributed thorough pre-outage planning, training and successful performance demonstration qualification of chosen non-destructive techniques on the specimens with artificial and/or real defects. Furthermore, use of advanced approach of inspection through implementation the state-of-the-art examination equipment significantly reduced the inspection time, radiation exposure to examination personnel, shortening nuclear power plant outage and cutting the total inspection costs. This paper presents advanced approach in the reactor pressure vessel in-service inspections and it is especially developed for WWER-1000 nuclear power plants.(author)

  9. A multi-technique investigation of copper and zinc distribution, speciation and potential bioavailability in biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.; Ryan, C.G.; Howard, D.L.; Zarcinas, B.; Scheckel, K.G.; McGrath, S.P.; Jonge, M.D. de; Paterson, D.; Naidu, R.; Lombi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biosolids in agriculture continues to be debated, largely in relation to their metal contents. Our knowledge regarding the speciation and bioavailability of biosolids metals is still far from complete. In this study, a multi-technique approach was used to investigate copper and zinc speciation and partitioning in one contemporary and two historical biosolids used extensively in previous research and field trials. Using wet chemistry and synchrotron spectroscopy techniques it was shown that copper/zinc speciation in the biosolids was largely equivalent despite the biosolids being derived from different countries over a 50 year period. Furthermore, copper speciation was consistently dominated by sorption to organic matter whereas Zn partitioned mainly to iron oxides. These data suggest that the results of historical field trials are still relevant for modern biosolids and that further risk assessment studies should concentrate particularly on Cu as this metal is associated with the mineralisable biosolids fraction. - Highlights: ► Complementary techniques were used to investigate Cu and Zn speciation in biosolids. ► Historic and contemporary biosolids with differing metal contents were examined. ► Similarities in Cu/Zn speciation were observed irrespective of biosolids provenance. ► Key binding environments identified were organic matter for Cu and Fe oxides for Zn. ► Similarities show historic field trial results are still relevant for biosolids management. - Historic and contemporary biosolids show similarities in Cu/Zn speciation despite having very different total Zn/Cu contents.

  10. The Moderating Role of Cultural Similarity in Leadership Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiumei Jane; Jiang, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the moderating role of cultural similarity between leaders and followers on leadership training effectiveness in terms of followers' fairness perception and organizational citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experiment was conducted with 40 managers from international corporations as the…

  11. Benchmarking whole-building energy performance with multi-criteria technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution using a selective objective-weighting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A TOPSIS based multi-criteria whole-building energy benchmarking is developed. • A selective objective-weighting procedure is used for a cost-accuracy tradeoff. • Results from a real case validated the benefits of the presented approach. - Abstract: This paper develops a robust multi-criteria Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) based building energy efficiency benchmarking approach. The approach is explicitly selective to address multicollinearity trap due to the subjectivity in selecting energy variables by considering cost-accuracy trade-off. It objectively weights the relative importance of individual pertinent efficiency measuring criteria using either multiple linear regression or principal component analysis contingent on meta data quality. Through this approach, building energy performance is comprehensively evaluated and optimized. Simultaneously, the significant challenges associated with conventional single-criterion benchmarking models can be avoided. Together with a clustering algorithm on a three-year panel dataset, the benchmarking case of 324 single-family dwellings demonstrated an improved robustness of the presented multi-criteria benchmarking approach over the conventional single-criterion ones

  12. Advanced ultrasonic and eddy current examinations of the reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, M.; Zado, V.

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve safety and reliability of nuclear power plant components, the existing examination methods are permanently developed as well as the new methods of examination are implemented. For the same reason, beside referent requirements, complementary NDE methods are utilized. Some examination methods techniques are not required to be used by referent safety codes and standards but they are frequently practiced as additional prevention to the component failure. This article presents the state of the art methods and techniques currently applied for examination of the reactor vessel base material, clad and weld materials. (author)

  13. The standard biphasic-contrast examination of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op den Orth, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A standard examination has been developed, called biphasic, because it combines the advantages of positive-contrast and double-contrast techniques. The theoretical background and technique of this examination are described and the basic interpretation of double-contrast studies stated. General remarks on the results and on the complementary role of radiological examination and endoscopy are included. A quantitative study of standard biphasic-contrast examinations in patients over a period of 3 years is presented. Finally a radiological atlas of common lesions of the stomach and duodenum is given. (C.F.)

  14. Virtual CT-colonoscopy. Examination technique, limitations, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, P.; Dessl, A.; Giacomuzzi, S.M.; Stoehr, B.; Stoeger, A.; Bodner, G.; Buchberger, W.

    1997-01-01

    Virtual CT-colonoscopy is a post-processing method which allows for reconstruction of inner bowel surface structures from helical CT datasets. The reconstructed images simulate the views which are known from fiberoptic endoscopy. Since colorectal cancer is the second main cause of death in USA and Europe today and since recent screening recommendations are often ignored by the public, a non-invasive or minimal-invasive procedure for colonic evaluation would offer some benefits. Virtual CT-colonoscopy generally involves three essential steps: patient preparation with cleansing of the bowel and administration of an air enema, helical CT-examination by using appropriate scan parameters, and interactive 3D rendering of the volume dataset. Although recent studies have demonstrated that polypoid lesions of about 5 mm size are well detectable and although virtual colonoscopy offers many advantages over fiberoptic endoscopy, some technical and clinical limitations must still be noted. Thus, the current inability of virtual colonoscopy to provide texture and color leads to problems in identifying flat lesions; the presence of retained or adherent fecal matter may result to false positive diagnosis and collapsed segments of bowel may cause problems as they cannot subsequently be evaluated during image reconstruction. Virtual endoscopy is still in its infancy and further technical and clinical development are necessary. (orig./AJ) [de

  15. SURVEY ON CRIME ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Benjamin Fredrick David

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining is the procedure which includes evaluating and examining large pre-existing databases in order to generate new information which may be essential to the organization. The extraction of new information is predicted using the existing datasets. Many approaches for analysis and prediction in data mining had been performed. But, many few efforts has made in the criminology field. Many few have taken efforts for comparing the information all these approaches produce. The police stations and other similar criminal justice agencies hold many large databases of information which can be used to predict or analyze the criminal movements and criminal activity involvement in the society. The criminals can also be predicted based on the crime data. The main aim of this work is to perform a survey on the supervised learning and unsupervised learning techniques that has been applied towards criminal identification. This paper presents the survey on the Crime analysis and crime prediction using several Data Mining techniques.

  16. Space Geodetic Technique Co-location in Space: Simulation Results for the GRASP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmicz-Cieslak, M.; Pavlis, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System-GGOS, places very stringent requirements in the accuracy and stability of future realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF): an origin definition at 1 mm or better at epoch and a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, with similar numbers for the scale (0.1 ppb) and orientation components. These goals were derived from the requirements of Earth science problems that are currently the international community's highest priority. None of the geodetic positioning techniques can achieve this goal alone. This is due in part to the non-observability of certain attributes from a single technique. Another limitation is imposed from the extent and uniformity of the tracking network and the schedule of observational availability and number of suitable targets. The final limitation derives from the difficulty to "tie" the reference points of each technique at the same site, to an accuracy that will support the GGOS goals. The future GGOS network will address decisively the ground segment and to certain extent the space segment requirements. The JPL-proposed multi-technique mission GRASP (Geodetic Reference Antenna in Space) attempts to resolve the accurate tie between techniques, using their co-location in space, onboard a well-designed spacecraft equipped with GNSS receivers, a SLR retroreflector array, a VLBI beacon and a DORIS system. Using the anticipated system performance for all four techniques at the time the GGOS network is completed (ca 2020), we generated a number of simulated data sets for the development of a TRF. Our simulation studies examine the degree to which GRASP can improve the inter-technique "tie" issue compared to the classical approach, and the likely modus operandi for such a mission. The success of the examined scenarios is judged by the quality of the origin and scale definition of the resulting TRF.

  17. [Similarity system theory to evaluate similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsuo; Meng, Qinghua; Jiang, Shumin; Hu, Yuzhu

    2005-03-01

    The similarity evaluation of the fingerprints is one of the most important problems in the quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Similarity measures used to evaluate the similarity of the common peaks in the chromatogram of TCM have been discussed. Comparative studies were carried out among correlation coefficient, cosine of the angle and an improved extent similarity method using simulated data and experimental data. Correlation coefficient and cosine of the angle are not sensitive to the differences of the data set. They are still not sensitive to the differences of the data even after normalization. According to the similarity system theory, an improved extent similarity method was proposed. The improved extent similarity is more sensitive to the differences of the data sets than correlation coefficient and cosine of the angle. And the character of the data sets needs not to be changed compared with log-transformation. The improved extent similarity can be used to evaluate the similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints of TCM.

  18. The Relationship of Cultural Similarity, Communication Effectiveness and Uncertainty Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Jolene; Olebe, Margaret

    To investigate the relationship of cultural similarity/dissimilarity, communication effectiveness, and communication variables associated with uncertainty reduction theory, a study examined two groups of students--a multinational group living on an "international floor" in a dormitory at a state university and an unrelated group of U.S.…

  19. Analysis of pulse thermography using similarities between wave and diffusion propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, M.

    2017-05-01

    Pulse thermography or thermal wave imaging are commonly used as nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. While the technical aspect has evolve with time, theoretical interpretation is lagging. Interpretation is still using curved fitting on a log log scale. A new approach based directly on the governing differential equation is introduced. By using relationships between wave propagation and the diffusive propagation of thermal excitation, it is shown that one can transform from solutions in one type of propagation to the other. The method is based on the similarities between the Laplace transforms of the diffusion equation and the wave equation. For diffusive propagation we have the Laplace variable s to the first power, while for the wave propagation similar equations occur with s2. For discrete time the transformation between the domains is performed by multiplying the temperature data vector by a matrix. The transform is local. The performance of the techniques is tested on synthetic data. The application of common back projection techniques used in the processing of wave data is also demonstrated. The combined use of the transform and back projection makes it possible to improve both depth and lateral resolution of transient thermography.

  20. Causal Relations and Feature Similarity in Children's Inductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K.; Thompson, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined the development of property induction on the basis of causal relations. In the first 2 studies, 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults were presented with triads in which a target instance was equally similar to 2 inductive bases but shared a causal antecedent feature with 1 of them. All 3 age groups used causal relations…

  1. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one from racing sessio...

  2. Identification with the retail organization and customer-perceived employee similarity: effects on customer spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Heilman, Carrie M; Maxham, James G

    2012-09-01

    Two constructs important to academicians and managers are the degree to which employees and customers identify with an organization, employee organizational identification (employee OI) and customer-company identification (customer identification), respectively. This research examines the effects of these identification constructs and the related construct of customer perceived similarity to employees on customer spending. Via a 1-year multilevel study of 12,047 customers and 1,464 store employees (sales associates) covering 212 stores of a specialty apparel retailer, our study contributes to the literature in 2 critical ways. First, we expand the theoretical network of employee OI and customer identification by examining the related construct of a customer's perceived similarity to store employees. We examine the incremental (not fully mediated) main and interaction effects of customer-perceived similarity to employees and employee OI on customer spending. Second, we examine the effect of customer identification on customer spending relative to the effect of customer satisfaction on customer spending. Thus, our study also contributes by demonstrating a potential complementary route to achieve customer spending (customer identification), a route that may be more readily affected by management than the efforts required for a sustained increase in customer satisfaction. Implications for academics and managers are offered.

  3. Interference between Maintenance and Processing in Working Memory: The Effect of Item-Distractor Similarity in Complex Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Pasiecznik, Kazimir; Greaves, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of phonological similarity between items and distractors on complex span performance. Item-distractor similarity benefited serial recall when distractors followed the items they were similar to, but not when distractors preceded the items they were similar to. These findings are predicted by C-SOB (contextual…

  4. Virtual screening by a new Clustering-based Weighted Similarity Extreme Learning Machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupa, Kitsuchart; Kudisthalert, Wasu

    2018-01-01

    Machine learning techniques are becoming popular in virtual screening tasks. One of the powerful machine learning algorithms is Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) which has been applied to many applications and has recently been applied to virtual screening. We propose the Weighted Similarity ELM (WS-ELM) which is based on a single layer feed-forward neural network in a conjunction of 16 different similarity coefficients as activation function in the hidden layer. It is known that the performance of conventional ELM is not robust due to random weight selection in the hidden layer. Thus, we propose a Clustering-based WS-ELM (CWS-ELM) that deterministically assigns weights by utilising clustering algorithms i.e. k-means clustering and support vector clustering. The experiments were conducted on one of the most challenging datasets-Maximum Unbiased Validation Dataset-which contains 17 activity classes carefully selected from PubChem. The proposed algorithms were then compared with other machine learning techniques such as support vector machine, random forest, and similarity searching. The results show that CWS-ELM in conjunction with support vector clustering yields the best performance when utilised together with Sokal/Sneath(1) coefficient. Furthermore, ECFP_6 fingerprint presents the best results in our framework compared to the other types of fingerprints, namely ECFP_4, FCFP_4, and FCFP_6.

  5. Role of scintigraphy and computer-assisted tomography in brain examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, M.; Oproiu, A.; Comoy, C.; Guiot, G.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the role of computer-assisted tomography (CAT) and scintigraphy in brain exploration, the authors analysed: (1) the diagnostic effectiveness of the two methods in 300 patients examined over a period of seven months; (2) the role assigned to each investigation in 169 patients operated on for intracranial lesion during the same period. The isotopic brain examination always included an initial angiographic study after the intravenous injection of a technetium compound. Study of the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid was made with 111 In-DTPA. The detection efficiency of CAT is higher than for scintigraphy in expansive processes, whereas, conversely, in cerebrovascular accidents of ischaemic origin, isotope angiography coupled with static imaging enables one to gain more information on cerebral perfusion than CAT. Similarly, when studying the cerebrospinal fluid, scintigraphy provides a greater amount of specific data on the mechanisms governing hydrocephalus, the mode of operation of a shunt, or the site of a cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Within a neurosurgical context, CAT by and large takes precedence in brain examination, but the investigation is usually accompanied by scintigraphy or a conventional neuroradiological examination. Scintigraphy was performed on 66% of the patients, whereas for neuroradiological examination the figure was 44%. Most of the scintigraphy came after CAT so as to obtain additional diagnostic information on the vascularization, the nature and, on occasion, the exact location of the lesion revealed by CAT. In more than one case out of two, scintigraphy provides enough additional information for one to avoid neuroradiological examination, which is more 'aggressive' and more dangerous. Hence scintigraphy represents an effective complement to CAT and can compete with the conventional neuroradiological technique. (author)

  6. Self-similar pattern formation and continuous mechanics of self-similar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dyskin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, the critical state of systems that reached the threshold is characterised by self-similar pattern formation. We produce an example of pattern formation of this kind – formation of self-similar distribution of interacting fractures. Their formation starts with the crack growth due to the action of stress fluctuations. It is shown that even when the fluctuations have zero average the cracks generated by them could grow far beyond the scale of stress fluctuations. Further development of the fracture system is controlled by crack interaction leading to the emergence of self-similar crack distributions. As a result, the medium with fractures becomes discontinuous at any scale. We develop a continuum fractal mechanics to model its physical behaviour. We introduce a continuous sequence of continua of increasing scales covering this range of scales. The continuum of each scale is specified by the representative averaging volume elements of the corresponding size. These elements determine the resolution of the continuum. Each continuum hides the cracks of scales smaller than the volume element size while larger fractures are modelled explicitly. Using the developed formalism we investigate the stability of self-similar crack distributions with respect to crack growth and show that while the self-similar distribution of isotropically oriented cracks is stable, the distribution of parallel cracks is not. For the isotropically oriented cracks scaling of permeability is determined. For permeable materials (rocks with self-similar crack distributions permeability scales as cube of crack radius. This property could be used for detecting this specific mechanism of formation of self-similar crack distributions.

  7. Nondestructive examination - radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    First the basic principles of radiography are to be treated, especially the different radiation sources (X-ray, gamma-ray, neutrons, heat). In the second part those radiographic methods are shown, which are in common use for technical purposes, especially under the aspect of flaw recognition. (orig./RW)

  8. Do People Know What They Want : A Similar or Complementary Partner?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, D.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which individuals seek partners with similar, as opposed to complementary, personality characteristics. Results showed that whereas individuals desired a partner who resembles them in terms of personality, when asked about their preferences in general, most

  9. Mitochondrial replacement techniques: egg donation, genealogy and eugenics

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Gonz?lez, C?sar

    2016-01-01

    Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study o...

  10. Learning semantic and visual similarity for endomicroscopy video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a valuable computer vision technique which is increasingly being applied in the medical community for diagnosis support. However, traditional CBIR systems only deliver visual outputs, i.e., images having a similar appearance to the query, which is not directly interpretable by the physicians. Our objective is to provide a system for endomicroscopy video retrieval which delivers both visual and semantic outputs that are consistent with each other. In a previous study, we developed an adapted bag-of-visual-words method for endomicroscopy retrieval, called "Dense-Sift," that computes a visual signature for each video. In this paper, we present a novel approach to complement visual similarity learning with semantic knowledge extraction, in the field of in vivo endomicroscopy. We first leverage a semantic ground truth based on eight binary concepts, in order to transform these visual signatures into semantic signatures that reflect how much the presence of each semantic concept is expressed by the visual words describing the videos. Using cross-validation, we demonstrate that, in terms of semantic detection, our intuitive Fisher-based method transforming visual-word histograms into semantic estimations outperforms support vector machine (SVM) methods with statistical significance. In a second step, we propose to improve retrieval relevance by learning an adjusted similarity distance from a perceived similarity ground truth. As a result, our distance learning method allows to statistically improve the correlation with the perceived similarity. We also demonstrate that, in terms of perceived similarity, the recall performance of the semantic signatures is close to that of visual signatures and significantly better than those of several state-of-the-art CBIR methods. The semantic signatures are thus able to communicate high-level medical knowledge while being consistent with the low-level visual signatures and much shorter than them

  11. PHOG analysis of self-similarity in aesthetic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Ali; Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, there have been efforts in defining the statistical properties of aesthetic photographs and artworks using computer vision techniques. However, it is still an open question how to distinguish aesthetic from non-aesthetic images with a high recognition rate. This is possibly because aesthetic perception is influenced also by a large number of cultural variables. Nevertheless, the search for statistical properties of aesthetic images has not been futile. For example, we have shown that the radially averaged power spectrum of monochrome artworks of Western and Eastern provenance falls off according to a power law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f2 characteristics). This finding implies that this particular subset of artworks possesses a Fourier power spectrum that is self-similar across different scales of spatial resolution. Other types of aesthetic images, such as cartoons, comics and mangas also display this type of self-similarity, as do photographs of complex natural scenes. Since the human visual system is adapted to encode images of natural scenes in a particular efficient way, we have argued that artists imitate these statistics in their artworks. In support of this notion, we presented results that artists portrait human faces with the self-similar Fourier statistics of complex natural scenes although real-world photographs of faces are not self-similar. In view of these previous findings, we investigated other statistical measures of self-similarity to characterize aesthetic and non-aesthetic images. In the present work, we propose a novel measure of self-similarity that is based on the Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradients (PHOG). For every image, we first calculate PHOG up to pyramid level 3. The similarity between the histograms of each section at a particular level is then calculated to the parent section at the previous level (or to the histogram at the ground level). The proposed approach is tested on datasets of aesthetic and

  12. Examination of Sandwich Materials Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, K.K.; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2004-01-01

    The air-coupled ultrasonic techniques have been improved drastically in recent years. Better equipment has made this technique much more useful. This paper focuses on the examination of sandwich materials used in naval ships. It is more convenient to be able to make the measurements directly...

  13. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coan, P.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  14. Perceptual and conceptual similarities facilitate the generalization of instructed fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Marc; Vervoort, Ellen; Boddez, Yannick; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Learned fear can generalize to neutral events due their perceptual and conceptual similarity with threat relevant stimuli. This study simultaneously examined these forms of generalization to model the expansion of fear in anxiety disorders. First, artificial categories involving sounds, nonsense words and animal-like objects were established. Next, the words from one category were paired with threatening information while the words from the other category were paired with safety information. Lastly, we examined if fear generalized to (i) the conceptually related animal-like objects and (ii) other animal like-objects that were perceptually similar. This was measured using behavioral avoidance, US expectancy ratings and self-reported stimulus valence. Animal-like objects conceptually connected to the aversive words evoked heightened fear. Perceptual variants of these animal-like objects also elicit fear. Future research would benefit from the use of online-US expectancy ratings and physiological measures of fear. Investigating the role of both perceptual and conceptual fear generalization is important to better understand the etiology of anxiety disorders symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thinning of specimens for examination under the electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, J.

    1982-01-01

    Heretofore specimens have been thinned to penetration for examination by electron microscopy techniques, by ion erosion techniques. A more rapid technique is disclosed employing a beam or beams comprised solely of neutral particles. In tests carried out using this technique the sputtering rate from a sample specimen has been shown to be several percentages greater using a neutral source than from an ion source with the same flux density. (author)

  16. Comparative effectiveness of instructional methods: oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nereyda P; Marks, John G; Sandow, Pamela R; Seleski, Christine E; Logan, Henrietta L

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students' baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p<0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

  17. Metallographic examination of TD-nickel base alloys. [thermal and chemical etching technique evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. D.; Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques are evaluated for chemical, electrochemical, and thermal etching of thoria dispersed (TD) nickel alloys. An electrochemical etch is described which yielded good results only for large grain sizes of TD-nickel. Two types of thermal etches are assessed for TD-nickel: an oxidation etch and vacuum annealing of a polished specimen to produce an etch. It is shown that the first etch was somewhat dependent on sample orientation with respect to the processing direction, the second technique was not sensitive to specimen orientation or grain size, and neither method appear to alter the innate grain structure when the materials were fully annealed prior to etching. An electrochemical etch is described which was used to observe the microstructures in TD-NiCr, and a thermal-oxidation etch is shown to produce better detail of grain boundaries and to have excellent etching behavior over the entire range of grain sizes of the sample.

  18. Dynamic stability of self-similar solutions for a plasma pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Sifeng.

    1988-01-01

    Linear Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability theory is applied to a class of self-similar solutions which describe implosion, expansion and oscillation of an infinitely conducting plasma column. The equations of perturbation are derived in the Lagrangian coordinate system. Numerical procedures via the finite-element method are formulated, and general aspects of dynamic stability are discussed, The dynamic stability of the column when it is oscillatory is studied in detail using the Floquet theory, and the characteristic exponent is calculated numerically. A-pinch configuration is examined. It is found that self-similar oscillations in general destabilize the continua in the MHD spectrum, and parametric instability results

  19. Effective doses to patients undergoing thoracic computed tomography examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, W; Scalzetti, E M; Roskopf, M

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how x-ray technique factors and effective doses vary with patient size in chest CT examinations. Technique factors (kVp, mAs, section thickness, and number of sections) were recorded for 44 patients who underwent a routine chest CT examination. Patient weights were recorded together with dimensions and mean Hounsfield unit values obtained from representative axial CT images. The total mass of directly irradiated patient was modeled as a cylinder of water to permit the computation of the mean patient dose and total energy imparted for each chest CT examination. Computed values of energy imparted during the chest CT examination were converted into effective doses taking into account the patient weight. Patient weights ranged from 4.5 to 127 kg, and half the patients in this study were children under 18 years of age. All scans were performed at 120 kVp with a 1 s scan time. The selected tube current showed no correlation with patient weight (r2=0.06), indicating that chest CT examination protocols do not take into account for the size of the patient. Energy imparted increased with increasing patient weight, with values of energy imparted for 10 and 70 kg patients being 85 and 310 mJ, respectively. The effective dose showed an inverse correlation with increasing patient weight, however, with values of effective dose for 10 and 70 kg patients being 9.6 and 5.4 mSv, respectively. Current CT technique factors (kVp/mAs) used to perform chest CT examinations result in relatively high patient doses, which could be reduced by adjusting technique factors based on patient size.

  20. Similarity of Mars and Mercury for terraforming and settling of people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    We compared the main characteristics of the planets Mars and Mercury in the form normalized on the parameters of the planet Earth. Both planets turned out to be similar and close in terms of terraforming techniques, and conditions of comfortable human habitation in long term endo-planetary stations under the surface of a particular planetoid. Mars and Mercury also turned out to be similar on the vital activity of some other representatives of the Earth's biosphere. Our detailed analysis of the temperature distribution both over the entire surface of these planets, and in the conditions of their diurnal and annual variations on different latitudes and on Mars and on Mercury - showed that each of these planets has its advantages for the first terraforming.

  1. Spatial-Temporal Similarity Correlation between Public Transit Passengers Using Smart Card Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Faroqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of public transit smart card data has enabled several studies to focus on identifying passengers with similar spatial and/or temporal trip characteristics. However, this paper goes one step further by investigating the relationship between passengers’ spatial and temporal characteristics. For the first time, this paper investigates the correlation of the spatial similarity with the temporal similarity between public transit passengers by developing spatial similarity and temporal similarity measures for the public transit network with a novel passenger-based perspective. The perspective considers the passengers as agents who can make multiple trips in the network. The spatial similarity measure takes into account direction as well as the distance between the trips of the passengers. The temporal similarity measure considers both the boarding and alighting time in a continuous linear space. The spatial-temporal similarity correlation between passengers is analysed using histograms, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hexagonal binning. Also, relations between the spatial and temporal similarity values with the trip time and length are examined. The proposed methodology is implemented for four-day smart card data including 80,000 passengers in Brisbane, Australia. The results show a nonlinear spatial-temporal similarity correlation among the passengers.

  2. Magnetic resonance tomography (MR) of intracranial tumours: Multi-echo technique versus gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindel, W.; Steinbrich, W.; Friedmann, G.

    1986-01-01

    In thirty-seven MR examinations of intracranial tumours equivalent sections were obtained in a multi-echo technique before and after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol gadolinium DTPA/kg body weight. From this comparison the following preliminary conclusions have been drawn concerning the demonstration of the tumour, its delineation and type: contrast administration does not unequivocally improve the sensitivity. In 55% of the cases, differentiation between tumour and oedema respectively normal brain tissue was easier after Gd-DTPA. Diffusely infiltrating gliomas remain a problem, since their extent is uncertain with or without contrast medium. The structure of the tumour can already be adequately characterized by the multi-echo technique. In order to diagnose the type of tumour, the criteria which apply to Gd-DTPA are similar to those used for iodine-containing contrast media in CT. (orig.) [de

  3. Development of non-destructive examination techniques for CFC-metal joints in annular geometry and their application to the manufacturing of plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pietro, E.; Visca, E.; Orsini, A.; Sacchetti, M.; Borruto, T.M.R.; Varone, P.; Vesprini, R.

    1995-01-01

    The design of plasma-facing components for ITER, as for any of the envisaged next-step machines, relies heavily on the use of brazed junctions to couple armour materials to the heat sink and cooling tubes. Moreover, the typical number of brazed components and the envisaged effects of local overheating due to failure in a single brazed junction stress the importance of having a set of NDE techniques developed that can ensure the flawless quality of the joint. The qualification and application of two NDE techniques (ultrasonic and thermographic analysis) for inspection of CFC-to-metal joints is described with particular regard to the annular geometry typical of macroblock/monoblock solutions for divertor high-heat-flux components. The results of the eddy current inspection are not reported. The development has been focused specifically on the joint between carbon-fiber composite and TZM molybdenum alloy; techniques for the production of reference defect samples have been devised and a set of reference defect samples produced. The comparative results of the NDE inspections are reported and discussed, also on the basis of the destructive examination of the samples. The nature and size of relevant and detectable defects are discussed together with hints for a possible NDE strategy for divertor high-heat-flux components

  4. Using GIS Mapping to Target Public Health Interventions: Examining Birth Outcomes Across GIS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuillan, E L; Curtis, A B; Baker, K M; Paul, R; Back, Y O

    2017-08-01

    With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Spatial analysis of individual-level vital records data for low birthweight and preterm births born to black women from 2007 to 2012 in one mid-sized Midwest city using different geographic information systems (GIS) visualization techniques [geocoded address records were aggregated at two levels of scale and additionally mapped using kernel density estimation (KDE)]. GIS analyses in this study support our hypothesis that choice of geographic scale (neighborhood or census tract) for aggregated birth data can alter programmatic decision-making. Results indicate that the relative merits of aggregated visualization or the use of KDE technique depend on the scale of intervention. The KDE map proved useful in targeting specific areas for interventions in cities with smaller populations and larger census tracts, where they allow for greater specificity in identifying intervention areas. When public health programmers seek to inform intervention placement in highly populated areas, however, aggregated data at the census tract level may be preferred, since it requires lower investments in terms of time and cartographic skill and, unlike neighborhood, census tracts are standardized in that they become smaller as the population density of an area increases.

  5. Assessing Analytical Similarity of Proposed Amgen Biosimilar ABP 501 to Adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jennifer; Eris, Tamer; Li, Cynthia; Cao, Shawn; Kuhns, Scott

    2016-08-01

    ABP 501 is being developed as a biosimilar to adalimumab. Comprehensive comparative analytical characterization studies have been conducted and completed. The objective of this study was to assess analytical similarity between ABP 501 and two adalimumab reference products (RPs), licensed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (adalimumab [US]) and authorized by the European Union (adalimumab [EU]), using state-of-the-art analytical methods. Comprehensive analytical characterization incorporating orthogonal analytical techniques was used to compare products. Physicochemical property comparisons comprised the primary structure related to amino acid sequence and post-translational modifications including glycans; higher-order structure; primary biological properties mediated by target and receptor binding; product-related substances and impurities; host-cell impurities; general properties of the finished drug product, including strength and formulation; subvisible and submicron particles and aggregates; and forced thermal degradation. ABP 501 had the same amino acid sequence and similar post-translational modification profiles compared with adalimumab RPs. Primary structure, higher-order structure, and biological activities were similar for the three products. Product-related size and charge variants and aggregate and particle levels were also similar. ABP 501 had very low residual host-cell protein and DNA. The finished ABP 501 drug product has the same strength with regard to protein concentration and fill volume as adalimumab RPs. ABP 501 and the RPs had a similar stability profile both in normal storage and thermal stress conditions. Based on the comprehensive analytical similarity assessment, ABP 501 was found to be similar to adalimumab with respect to physicochemical and biological properties.

  6. Ergonomic factors related to drop-off detection with the long cane: effects of cane tips and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert S Wall; Curtis, Amy B

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user's ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user's characteristics and the nature of the travel environment.

  7. Protein-protein interaction network-based detection of functionally similar proteins within species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Baoxing; Wang, Fen; Guo, Yang; Sang, Qing; Liu, Min; Li, Dengyun; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Deli

    2012-07-01

    Although functionally similar proteins across species have been widely studied, functionally similar proteins within species showing low sequence similarity have not been examined in detail. Identification of these proteins is of significant importance for understanding biological functions, evolution of protein families, progression of co-evolution, and convergent evolution and others which cannot be obtained by detection of functionally similar proteins across species. Here, we explored a method of detecting functionally similar proteins within species based on graph theory. After denoting protein-protein interaction networks using graphs, we split the graphs into subgraphs using the 1-hop method. Proteins with functional similarities in a species were detected using a method of modified shortest path to compare these subgraphs and to find the eligible optimal results. Using seven protein-protein interaction networks and this method, some functionally similar proteins with low sequence similarity that cannot detected by sequence alignment were identified. By analyzing the results, we found that, sometimes, it is difficult to separate homologous from convergent evolution. Evaluation of the performance of our method by gene ontology term overlap showed that the precision of our method was excellent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Similarity in husbands and wives party family preference in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.; Need, Ariana

    2010-01-01

    Using insights from theories on marital homogamy and political behaviour, this research examines the tendency of husbands and wives to vote for the same party family. It disentangles the extent to which similarity in party family preference can be explained by (1) partners choosing one another

  9. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  10. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  11. Techniques for Improving Cash Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Ronald G.

    1973-01-01

    This article deals with several techniques for regulating cash inflow and outflow and investing surplus cash for short periods of time. The techniques are: (1) consolidating checking accounts, (2) determining surplus cash by examining bank balances in conjunction with the cash book, (3) selecting a minimum bank balance, (4) investing a greater…

  12. Similarity of Mothers' and Preschool Teachers' Evaluations of Socialization Goals in a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Paula; Keller, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the similarity of socialization goals of a group of mothers with different cultural backgrounds and their children's respective preschool teachers in Germany. Additionally, the researchers were interested in the relationship between the degree of mother-teacher similarity and maternal satisfaction with child care. Questionnaire…

  13. Combined videofluoroscopy and manometry in the diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia: examination technique and preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappabianca, S; Reginelli, A; Monaco, L; Del Vecchio, L; Di Martino, N; Grassi, R

    2008-09-01

    appropriate rehabilitation techniques, improve the patient's quality of life, and minimise the complications associated with swallowing disorders (choking, aspiration pneumonia, malnourishment). Distinction of the anatomical level of dysphagia is not a matter of simple classification; rather, it is essential in that different clinical presentations require different diagnostic strategies, and a precise definition of the anatomical-functional substrate is required to implement the correct therapeutic approach. This study presents the authors' experience with the use of combined videofluoroscopy and manometry with particular emphasis on the examination technique.

  14. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Daud; Seki, Shingo; Horic, Michio; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2006-08-01

    The apparent inter-lake morphological similarity among East African Great Lakes' cichlid species/genera has left evolutionary biologists asking whether such similarity is due to sharing of common ancestor or mere convergent evolution. In order to answer such question, we first used Geometric Morphometrics, GM, to quantify morphological similarity and then subsequently used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP, to determine if similar morphologies imply shared ancestry or convergent evolution. GM revealed that not all presumed morphological similar pairs were indeed similar, and the dendrogram generated from AFLP data indicated distinct clusters corresponding to each lake and not inter-lake morphological similar pairs. Such results imply that the morphological similarity is due to convergent evolution and not shared ancestry. The congruency of GM and AFLP generated dendrograms imply that GM is capable of picking up phylogenetic signal, and thus GM can be potential tool in phylogenetic systematics.

  15. A Simple Ensemble Simulation Technique for Assessment of Future Variations in Specific High-Impact Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    To investigate future variations in high-impact weather events, numerous samples are required. For the detailed assessment in a specific region, a high spatial resolution is also required. A simple ensemble simulation technique is proposed in this paper. In the proposed technique, new ensemble members were generated from one basic state vector and two perturbation vectors, which were obtained by lagged average forecasting simulations. Sensitivity experiments with different numbers of ensemble members, different simulation lengths, and different perturbation magnitudes were performed. Experimental application to a global warming study was also implemented for a typhoon event. Ensemble-mean results and ensemble spreads of total precipitation, atmospheric conditions showed similar characteristics across the sensitivity experiments. The frequencies of the maximum total and hourly precipitation also showed similar distributions. These results indicate the robustness of the proposed technique. On the other hand, considerable ensemble spread was found in each ensemble experiment. In addition, the results of the application to a global warming study showed possible variations in the future. These results indicate that the proposed technique is useful for investigating various meteorological phenomena and the impacts of global warming. The results of the ensemble simulations also enable the stochastic evaluation of differences in high-impact weather events. In addition, the impacts of a spectral nudging technique were also examined. The tracks of a typhoon were quite different between cases with and without spectral nudging; however, the ranges of the tracks among ensemble members were comparable. It indicates that spectral nudging does not necessarily suppress ensemble spread.

  16. Can deja vu result from similarity to a prior experience? Support for the similarity hypothesis of deja vu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Nomi, Jason S

    2009-12-01

    The strange feeling of having been somewhere or done something before--even though there is evidence to the contrary--is called déjà vu. Although déjà vu is beginning to receive attention among scientists (Brown, 2003, 2004), few studies have empirically investigated the phenomenon. We investigated the hypothesis that déjà vu is related to feelings of familiarity and that it can result from similarity between a novel scene and that of a scene experienced in one's past. We used a variation of the recognition-without-recall method of studying familiarity (Cleary, 2004) to examine instances in which participants failed to recall a studied scene in response to a configurally similar novel test scene. In such instances, resemblance to a previously viewed scene increased both feelings of familiarity and of déjà vu. Furthermore, in the absence of recall, resemblance of a novel scene to a previously viewed scene increased the probability of a reported déjà vu state for the novel scene, and feelings of familiarity with a novel scene were directly related to feelings of being in a déjà vu state.

  17. Determination of subjective similarity for pairs of masses and pairs of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: Comparison of similarity ranking scores and absolute similarity ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    The presentation of images that are similar to that of an unknown lesion seen on a mammogram may be helpful for radiologists to correctly diagnose that lesion. For similar images to be useful, they must be quite similar from the radiologists' point of view. We have been trying to quantify the radiologists' impression of similarity for pairs of lesions and to establish a ''gold standard'' for development and evaluation of a computerized scheme for selecting such similar images. However, it is considered difficult to reliably and accurately determine similarity ratings, because they are subjective. In this study, we compared the subjective similarities obtained by two different methods, an absolute rating method and a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) method, to demonstrate that reliable similarity ratings can be determined by the responses of a group of radiologists. The absolute similarity ratings were previously obtained for pairs of masses and pairs of microcalcifications from five and nine radiologists, respectively. In this study, similarity ranking scores for eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were determined by use of the 2AFC method. In the first session, the eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were grouped and compared separately for determining the similarity ranking scores. In the second session, another similarity ranking score was determined by use of mixed pairs, i.e., by comparison of the similarity of a mass pair with that of a calcification pair. Four pairs of masses and four pairs of microcalcifications were grouped together to create two sets of eight pairs. The average absolute similarity ratings and the average similarity ranking scores showed very good correlations in the first study (Pearson's correlation coefficients: 0.94 and 0.98 for masses and microcalcifications, respectively). Moreover, in the second study, the correlations between the absolute ratings and the ranking scores were also

  18. Technological Similarity, Post-acquisition R&D Reorganization, and Innovation Performance in Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to disentangle the mechanisms through which technological similarity between acquiring and acquired firms influences innovation in horizontal acquisitions. We develop a theoretical model that links technological similarity to: (i) two key aspects of post-acquisition reorganization...... of acquired R&D operations – the rationalization of the R&D operations and the replacement of the R&D top manager, and (ii) two intermediate effects that are closely associated with the post-acquisition innovation performance of the combined firm – improvements in R&D productivity and disruptions in R......&D personnel. We rely on PLS techniques to test our theoretical model using detailed information on 31 horizontal acquisitions in high- and medium-tech industries. Our results indicate that in horizontal acquisitions, technological similarity negatively affects post-acquisition innovation performance...

  19. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation; Developpement et application d'une technique d'imagerie par rayonnement synchrotron basee sur l'utilisation d'un cristal analyseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, P

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  20. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  1. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect : The effects of When-Similarity in mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  2. An investigation into techniques for reducing doses from neo-natal radiographic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wraith, C.M.; Martin, C.J. [Aberdeen Royal Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom). Dept. of Bio-Medical Physics and Bio-Engineering; Stockdale, E.J.N.; McDonald, S.; Farquhar, B. [Royal Aberdeen Children`s Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    A survey of radiation doses received by infants having radiography in a neo-natal unit was undertaken at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital. Options for dose reduction recommended by the CEC Lake Starnberg Group were investigated. Techniques were implemented for clinical evaluation after assessments of image quality with test objects and phantoms. Clinical image quality of radiographs was evaluated by paediatric radiologists using CEC criteria. Results revealed a clear relationship between entrance dose and patient weight, indicating that reference doses for infants could be linked to weight. (author).

  3. Examining the relationship between pre- and postimplant geometry in prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy and its correlation with dosimetric quality using the similarity concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Dorin A; Anscher, Mitchell S; Karlin, Jeremy D; Hagan, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This is a retrospective study in which we define multiple metrics for similarity and then inquire on the relationship between similarity and currently used dosimetric quantities describing preimplant and postimplant plans. We analyzed a unique cohort of 94 consecutively performed prostate seed implant patients, associated with excellent dosimetric and clinical outcomes. For each patient, an ultrasound (US) preimplant and two CT postimplant (Day 0 and Day 30) studies were available. Measures for similarity were created and computed using feature vectors based on two classes of moments: first, invariant to rotation and translation, and the second polar-radius moments invariant to rotation, translation, and scaling. Both similarity measures were calibrated using controlled perturbations (random and systematic) of seed positions and contours in different size implants, thus producing meaningful numerical threshold values used in the clinical analysis. An important finding is that similarity, for both seed distributions and contours, improves significantly when scaling invariance is added to translation and rotation. No correlation between seed and contours similarity was found. In the setting of preplanned prostate seed implants using preloaded needles, based on our data, similarity between preimplant and postimplant plans does not correlate with either minimum dose to 90% of the volume of the prostate or analogous similarity metrics for prostate contours. We have developed novel tools and metrics, which will allow practitioners to better understand the relationship between preimplant and postimplant plans. Geometrical similarity between a preplan and an actual implant, although useful, does not seem to be necessary to achieve minimum dose to 90% of the volume of the prostate-good dosimetric implants. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. All rights reserved.

  4. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  5. Post irradiation examination technology exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozawa, Shizuo; Ito, Masayasu; Taguchi, Taketoshi; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Lee, Hyung-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Under the KAERI and JAEA agreement, in a part of the program 18 (Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and Evaluation Technique of Irradiated Materials), an eddy current test was proposed as a round robin test, and it has been being progressed in both organizations in order to enhance the post irradiation examination technology. Up to now, several data are obtained by both PIE facilities. In this paper, the round robin test program is shown, and also shown obtained data with discussion from applicability as a nondestructive test in the hot cell. (author)

  6. Comparison of radiation doses using weight-based protocol and dose modulation techniques for patients undergoing biphasic abdominal computed tomography examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen contributes a substantial amount of man-made radiation dose to patients and use of this modality is on the increase. This study intends to compare radiation dose and image quality using dose modulation techniques and weight- based protocol exposure parameters for biphasic abdominal CT. Using a six-slice CT scanner, a prospective study of 426 patients who underwent abdominal CT examinations was performed. Constant tube potentials of 90 kV and 120 kV were used for all arterial and portal venous phase respectively. The tube current-time product for weight-based protocol was optimized according to patient′s body weight; this was automatically selected in dose modulations. The effective dose using weight-based protocol, angular and z-axis dose modulation was 11.3 mSv, 9.5 mSv and 8.2 mSv respectively for the patient′s body weight ranging from 40 to 60 kg. For patients of body weights ranging 60 to 80 kg, the effective doses were 13.2 mSv, 11.2 mSv and 10.6 mSv respectively. The use of dose modulation technique resulted in a reduction of 16 to 28% in radiation dose with acceptable diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the use of weight-based protocol settings.

  7. Guidelines for destructive examination of potential MIC [microbiologically influenced corrosion]-related failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is recognized as a major cause of pitting corrosion failures in natural waters. In order to alleviate the problem, it is important to establish the exact cause of corrosion. If there is a possibility that the failure is due to MIC, a particularly careful failure analysis must be conducted. MIC can be misdiagnosed as attack due to conventional chloride crevice/pitting corrosion unless specialized techniques are used. Certain techniques generally must be employed, including a careful visual examination, is situ bacterial sampling of residual water, bacterial analysis for corrosion products, radiographic examinations, and metallographic examinations. Other techniques may be necessary, or may be very helpful in the analysis, including culture growth, scanning electron microscopy, and ultrasonic examinations. Metallographic examinations can reveal MIC characteristics such as selective pitting of one phase in duplex stainless steel weldments. The methods of failure analysis and their importance are addressed, including each of the steps in the nondestructive examinations and destructive analyses

  8. Radiologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeni, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The radiographic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract has been changed drastically by the introduction of endoscopic procedures that are now widely available. However, the diagnostic approach to the small bowel remains largely unchanged. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are occasionally employed but are not primary imaging modalities for small bowel disease. Even though small bowel endoscopes are available, they are infrequently used, and no scientific paper on their employment has been published. Barium studies are still the mainstay for evaluating patients with suspected small bowel abnormalities. This paper discusses the anatomy and physiology of the small bowel and lists the various types of barium and pharmacologic aids used for examining it. The different radiographic methods for examining the small bowel with barium, including SBFT, dedicated SBFT, enteroclysis, peroral pneumocolon (PPC), and retrograde small bowel examination, are described and put into perspective. To some degree such an undertaking must be a personal opinion, but certain conclusions can be made based on the available literature and practical experience. This analysis is based on the assumption that all the various barium techniques are performed with equal expertise by the individual radiologist, thus excluding bias from unfamiliarity with certain aspects of a procedure, such as intubation or skilled compression during fluoroscopy. Also, the use of water-soluble contrast material, CT, and MRI for evaluating suspected small bowel abnormalities is outlined

  9. Similarity or dissimilarity in the relations between human service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruynooghe, Kevin; Verhaeghe, Mieke; Bracke, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Exchange theory and homophily theory give rise to counteracting expectations for the interaction between human service organizations. Based on arguments of exchange theory, more interaction is expected between dissimilar organizations having complementary resources. Based on arguments of homophily theory, organizations having similar characteristics are expected to interact more. Interorganizational relations between human service organizations in two regional networks in Flanders are examined in this study. Results indicate that human service organizations tend to cooperate more with similar organizations as several homophily effects but not one effect of dissimilarity were found to be significant. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of interorganizational networks of human service organizations and have implications for the development of integrated care.

  10. Diagnosis of thyroid disease. Anamnesis and physical examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anamnesis and physical examination rank first in the diagnostic process of thyroid disease. They provide a basis for subsequent diagnostic procedures and treatment. This article focusses on personal, medical and familial history as well as physical examination of the neck and general clinical examination with respect to signs and symptoms of hypo- or hyperthyreoidism. In addition indications for fine-needle biopsy and biopsy technique are described. (orig.)

  11. Vasectomy occlusion techniques for male sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L A; Vliet, H; Pun, A; Gallo, M F

    2004-01-01

    Vasectomy is an increasingly popular and effective family planning method. A variety of vasectomy techniques are used worldwide including various vas occlusion techniques (excision and ligation, thermal or electrocautery, and mechanical and chemical occlusion methods), vas irrigation and fascial interposition. Vasectomy guidelines largely rely on information from observational studies. Ideally, the choice of vasectomy techniques should be based on the best available evidence from randomized controlled trials. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, safety, acceptability and costs of vasectomy techniques for male sterilization. We searched the computerized databases the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Popline and LILACS. In addition, we searched the reference lists of relevant articles and book chapters. We included randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials comparing vasectomy techniques. We assessed all titles and abstracts located in the literature searches and two reviewers independently extracted articles identified for inclusion. Data were presented in the text of the review. Outcome measures include contraceptive efficacy, safety, discontinuation, and acceptability. Two trials compared vas occlusion with clips versus a conventional vasectomy technique; both were of poor quality. Neither trial found a difference between the two groups with regard to the primary outcome of failure to reach azoospermia. Four trials examined vas irrigation: three compared water irrigation with no irrigation and one compared water irrigation with euflavine. All of the trials were of poor quality. None of the trials found a significant difference between the groups with respect to the primary outcome of time to azoospermia. However, one trial found that the median number of ejaculations to azoospermia was significantly lower in the euflavine group compared to the water irrigation group. The one trial

  12. Advanced Models and Algorithms for Self-Similar IP Network Traffic Simulation and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radev, Dimitar; Lokshina, Izabella

    2010-11-01

    The paper examines self-similar (or fractal) properties of real communication network traffic data over a wide range of time scales. These self-similar properties are very different from the properties of traditional models based on Poisson and Markov-modulated Poisson processes. Advanced fractal models of sequentional generators and fixed-length sequence generators, and efficient algorithms that are used to simulate self-similar behavior of IP network traffic data are developed and applied. Numerical examples are provided; and simulation results are obtained and analyzed.

  13. Similar Symmetries: The Role of Wallpaper Groups in Perceptual Texture Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Halley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic patterns and symmetries are striking visual properties that have been used decoratively around the world throughout human history. Periodic patterns can be mathematically classified into one of 17 different Wallpaper groups, and while computational models have been developed which can extract an image's symmetry group, very little work has been done on how humans perceive these patterns. This study presents the results from a grouping experiment using stimuli from the different wallpaper groups. We find that while different images from the same wallpaper group are perceived as similar to one another, not all groups have the same degree of self-similarity. The similarity relationships between wallpaper groups appear to be dominated by rotations.

  14. On the measurements of molecular similarity: a connection between quantum chemistry and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbo, R.; Calabuig, B.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular similarity measures within the quantum concept of density functions are described and analyzed. It is intended to show how artificial intelligence techniques can be used within the framework of quantum theory, in order to study and classify the molecular structures and their properties. (A.C.A.S) [pt

  15. Microbubble responses to a similar mechanical index with different real-time perfusion imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Thomas R; Oberdorfer, Joseph; Rafter, Patrick; Lof, John; Xie, Feng

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in contrast enhancement and microbubble destruction rates with current commercially available low-mechanical index (MI) real-time perfusion imaging modalities. A tissue-mimicking phantom was developed that had vessels at 3 cm (near field) and 9 cm (far field) from a real-time transducer. Perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin microbubbles (PESDA) were injected proximal to a mixing chamber, and then passed through these vessels while the region was insonified with either pulses of alternating polarity with pulse inversion Doppler (PID) or pulses of alternating amplitude by power modulation (PM) at MIs of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3. Effluent microbubble concentration, contrast intensity and the slope of digital contrast intensity vs. time were measured. Our results demonstrated that microbubble destruction already occurs with PID at an MI of 0.1. Contrast intensity seen with PID was less than with PM. Therefore, differences in contrast enhancement and microbubble destruction rates occur at a similar MI setting when using different real-time pulse sequence schemes.

  16. A study of concept-based similarity approaches for recommending program examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Roya; Brusilovsky, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates a range of concept-based example recommendation approaches that we developed to provide example-based problem-solving support in the domain of programming. The goal of these approaches is to offer students a set of most relevant remedial examples when they have trouble solving a code comprehension problem where students examine a program code to determine its output or the final value of a variable. In this paper, we use the ideas of semantic-level similarity-based linking developed in the area of intelligent hypertext to generate examples for the given problem. To determine the best-performing approach, we explored two groups of similarity approaches for selecting examples: non-structural approaches focusing on examples that are similar to the problem in terms of concept coverage and structural approaches focusing on examples that are similar to the problem by the structure of the content. We also explored the value of personalized example recommendation based on student's knowledge levels and learning goal of the exercise. The paper presents concept-based similarity approaches that we developed, explains the data collection studies and reports the result of comparative analysis. The results of our analysis showed better ranking performance of the personalized structural variant of cosine similarity approach.

  17. Physician Communication Techniques and Weight Loss in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Tulsky, James A.; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; James, Iguehi E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Manusov, Justin R.E.; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians are encouraged to counsel overweight and obese patients to lose weight. Purpose It was examined whether discussing weight and use of motivational-interviewing techniques (e.g., collaborating, reflective listening) while discussing weight predicted weight loss 3 months after the encounter. Methods 40 primary care physicians and 461 of their overweight or obese patient visits were audio recorded between December 2006 and June 2008. Patient actual weight at the encounter and 3 months after the encounter (n=426), whether weight was discussed, physicians’ use of Motivational-Interviewing techniques, and patient, physician and visit covariates (e.g., race, age, specialty) were assessed. This was an observational study and data were analyzed in April 2009. Results No differences in weight loss were found between patients whose physicians discussed weight or did not. Patients whose physicians used motivational interviewing–consistent techniques during weight-related discussions lost weight 3 months post-encounter; those whose physician used motivational interviewing–inconsistent techniques gained or maintained weight. The estimated difference in weight change between patients whose physician had a higher global “motivational interviewing–Spirit” score (e.g., collaborated with patient) and those whose physician had a lower score was 1.6 kg (95% CI=−2.9, −0.3, p=.02). The same was true for patients whose physician used reflective statements 0.9 kg (95% CI=−1.8, −0.1, p=.03). Similarly, patients whose physicians expressed only motivational interviewing–consistent behaviors had a difference in weight change of 1.1 kg (95% CI=−2.3, 0.1, p=.07) compared to those whose physician expressed only motivational interviewing–inconsistent behaviors (e.g., judging, confronting). Conclusions In this small observational study, use of motivational-interviewing techniques during weight loss discussions predicted patient weight loss. PMID

  18. Examining environmental condition on the growth areas of Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, recent hazelnut growth areas were determined by Remote Sensing techniques for Trabzon province of Turkey. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques, environmental data such as elevation, slope, aspect, geology, and soil data were produced and analyzed to examine environmental ...

  19. Scaling Transformation in the Rembrandt Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines a decision support system (DSS) for the appraisal of complex decision problems using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The DSS makes use of a structured hierarchical approach featuring the multiplicative AHP also known as the REMBRANDT technique. The paper addresses...... of a conventional AHP calculation in order to examine what impact the choice of progression factors as well as the choice of technique have on the decision making. Based on this a modified progression factor for the calculation of scores for the alternatives in REMBRANDT is suggested while the progression factor...

  20. Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2017-01-01

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individuals from different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has established reliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends this research by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey in English with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive, open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulated that differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this a Similarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities across countries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second, within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patterns across countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries was less than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personality traits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  1. Detecting earthquakes over a seismic network using single-station similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2018-06-01

    New blind waveform-similarity-based detection methods, such as Fingerprint and Similarity Thresholding (FAST), have shown promise for detecting weak signals in long-duration, continuous waveform data. While blind detectors are capable of identifying similar or repeating waveforms without templates, they can also be susceptible to false detections due to local correlated noise. In this work, we present a set of three new methods that allow us to extend single-station similarity-based detection over a seismic network; event-pair extraction, pairwise pseudo-association, and event resolution complete a post-processing pipeline that combines single-station similarity measures (e.g. FAST sparse similarity matrix) from each station in a network into a list of candidate events. The core technique, pairwise pseudo-association, leverages the pairwise structure of event detections in its network detection model, which allows it to identify events observed at multiple stations in the network without modeling the expected moveout. Though our approach is general, we apply it to extend FAST over a sparse seismic network. We demonstrate that our network-based extension of FAST is both sensitive and maintains a low false detection rate. As a test case, we apply our approach to 2 weeks of continuous waveform data from five stations during the foreshock sequence prior to the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquake. Our method identifies nearly five times as many events as the local seismicity catalogue (including 95 per cent of the catalogue events), and less than 1 per cent of these candidate events are false detections.

  2. Dynamic MR defecography of the posterior compartment: Indications, techniques and MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortele, Koenraad J.; Fairhurst, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic floor weakness is characterized by abnormal symptomatic displacement of pelvic organs. It represents a complex clinical problem most commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly parous women. Its diagnosis remains difficult in many cases, since these disorders typically present with nonspecific symptoms, such as pelvic pain, incontinence and constipation. Fluoroscopic colpocystodefecography has been proven to surpass physical examination in the detection and characterization of functional abnormalities of the anorectum and surrounding pelvic structures. Similarly, MR defecography, performed either with an open- or closed-configuration unit, appears to be an accurate imaging technique to assess clinically relevant pelvic floor abnormalities. Moreover, MR defecography negates the need to expose the patient to harmful ionizing radiation and allows excellent depiction of the surrounding soft tissues of the pelvis. In this manuscript, we review the techniques and indications of MR defecography, and illustrate the MRI features of a vast array of morphologic and functional pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on the posterior pelvic compartment (anorectum)

  3. Dynamic MR defecography of the posterior compartment: Indications, techniques and MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortele, Koenraad J. [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: kmortele@partners.org; Fairhurst, Janice [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston MA 02115 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Pelvic floor weakness is characterized by abnormal symptomatic displacement of pelvic organs. It represents a complex clinical problem most commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly parous women. Its diagnosis remains difficult in many cases, since these disorders typically present with nonspecific symptoms, such as pelvic pain, incontinence and constipation. Fluoroscopic colpocystodefecography has been proven to surpass physical examination in the detection and characterization of functional abnormalities of the anorectum and surrounding pelvic structures. Similarly, MR defecography, performed either with an open- or closed-configuration unit, appears to be an accurate imaging technique to assess clinically relevant pelvic floor abnormalities. Moreover, MR defecography negates the need to expose the patient to harmful ionizing radiation and allows excellent depiction of the surrounding soft tissues of the pelvis. In this manuscript, we review the techniques and indications of MR defecography, and illustrate the MRI features of a vast array of morphologic and functional pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on the posterior pelvic compartment (anorectum)

  4. Reducing Radiation Doses in Female Breast and Lung during CT Examinations of Thorax: A new Technique in two Scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnati P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chest CT is a commonly used examination for the diagnosis of lung diseases, but a breast within the scanned field is nearly never the organ of interest. Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the female breast and lung doses using split and standard protocols in chest CT scanning. Materials and Methods: The sliced chest and breast female phantoms were used. CT exams were performed using a single-slice (SS- and a 16 multi-slice (MS- CT scanner at 100 kVp and 120 kVp. Two different protocols, including standard and split protocols, were selected for scanning. The breast and lung doses were measured using thermo-luminescence dosimeters which were inserted into different layers of the chest and breast phantoms. The differences in breast and lung radiation doses in two protocols were studied in two scanners, analyzed by SPSS software and compared by t-test. Results: Breast dose by split scanning technique reduced 11% and 31% in SS- and MS- CT. Also, the radiation dose of lung tissue in this method decreased 18% and 54% in SS- and MS- CT, respectively. Moreover, there was a significant difference (p< 0.0001 in the breast and lung radiation doses between standard and split scanning protocols. Conclusion: The application of a split scan technique instead of standard protocol has a considerable potential to reduce breast and lung doses in SS- and MS- CT scanners. If split scanning protocol is associated with an optimum kV and MSCT, the maximum dose decline will be provided.

  5. A photoacoustic technique to measure the properties of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Eric M.; Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to non-invasively determine the diameter and sound speed of single cells using a combined ultrasonic and photoacoustic technique. Two cell lines, B16-F1 melanoma cells and MCF7 breast cancer cells were examined using this technique. Using a 200 MHz transducer, the ultrasound backscatter from a single cell in suspension was recorded. Immediately following, the cell was irradiated with a 532 nm laser and the resulting photoacoustic wave recorded by the same transducer. The melanoma cells contain optically absorbing melanin particles, which facilitated photoacoustic wave generation. MCF7 cells have negligible optical absorption at 532 nm; the cells were permeabilized and stained with trypan blue prior to measurements. The measured ultrasound and photoacoustic power spectra were compared to theoretical equations with the cell diameter and sound speed as variables (Anderson scattering model for ultrasound, and a thermoelastic expansion model for photoacoustics). The diameter and sound speed were extracted from the models where the spectral shape matched the measured signals. However the photoacoustic spectrum for the melanoma cell did not match theory, which is likely because melanin particles are located around the cytoplasm, and not within the nucleus. Therefore a photoacoustic finite element model of a cell was developed where the central region was not used to generate a photoacoustic wave. The resulting power spectrum was in better agreement with the measured signal than the thermoelastic expansion model. The MCF7 cell diameter obtained using the spectral matching method was 17.5 μm, similar to the optical measurement of 16 μm, while the melanoma cell diameter obtained was 22 μm, similar to the optical measurement of 21 μm. The sound speed measured from the MCF7 and melanoma cell was 1573 and 1560 m/s, respectively, which is within acceptable values that have been published in literature.

  6. Distinguishing Family from Friends : Implicit Cognitive Differences Regarding General Dispositions, Attitude Similarity, and Group Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Rick; Roberts, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin.

  7. Evidence of Parallel Pathways: Gender Similarity in the Impact of Social Support on Adolescent Depression and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.

    2007-01-01

    Despite an apparent connection, depression and delinquency have rarely been examined simultaneously. Instead, research has examined each topic separately and emphasized gender differences--rather than similarities--in outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this paper examines possible parallel pathways between social…

  8. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  9. Molecular diversity of Clostridium botulinum and phenotypically similar strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenda, T; Kukier, E; Sieradzki, Z; Goldsztejn, M; Kwiatek, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine phenotypic and genetic features of strains preliminary classified as Clostridium botulinum species. The phenotypic characteristics were assessed with different culture media and biochemical tests. The genetic characterization included detection of botulinum toxin genes by PCR and macrorestriction analysis with SmaI, XhoI and SacII by PFGE (Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis). Despite similar biochemical properties of all analysed strains, only 47% of them contained genes determining toxicity specific to C. botulinum species. The most valuable differentiation of C. botulinum and C. botulinum-like strains was obtained after SmaI digestion. The highest affinity was observed among C. botulinum type B profiles which was even up to 100%. It was found 100% of affinity between C. botulinum and C. botulinum-like strains, however, the similarity among C. botulinum and C. botulinum-like was generally lower than 80%.

  10. A comparison of digital luminescence radiography and conventional film/screen techniques in the diagnosis of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, U.; Schwerdtfeger, J.; Fink, B.K.; Schaetzl, M.; Reiser, M.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of digital luminescence radiography was compared with that of conventional film/screen techniques, using animal preparations and clinical examinations. Fine fissures were made in 8 animal bones and these were examined radiologically. The digital examinations were carried out with and without edge enhancement. 208 patients were examined in a similar way. Film quality and assessment of the fractures were evaluated quantitatively. In no instance did either of the digital methods provide inferior quality when compared with conventional films. ROC analysis for evaluation of fractures in patients, using an experienced radiologist, showed no significant difference between the various methods (ROC areas: Conventional 0.947, digital 0.958, digital with edge enhancement 0.943). With a less experienced observer there were significant advantages for both digital methods (ROC areas: 0.851, 0.886, 0.908). Our investigation has proved that fractures which are difficult to see can be reliably demonstrated by digital luminescence radiography. (orig.) [de

  11. A computer graphics display technique for the examination of aircraft design data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics technique has been developed for quickly sorting and interpreting large amounts of aerodynamic data. It utilizes a graphic representation rather than numbers. The geometry package represents the vehicle as a set of panels. These panels are ordered in groups of ascending values (e.g., equilibrium temperatures). The groups are then displayed successively on a CRT building up to the complete vehicle. A zoom feature allows for displaying only the panels with values between certain limits. The addition of color allows a one-time display thus eliminating the need for a display build up.

  12. Surface-Level Diversity and Decision-Making in Groups: When Does Deep-Level Similarity Help?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We examined how surface-level diversity (based on race) and deep-level similarities influenced three-person decision-making groups on a hidden-profile task. Surface-level homogeneous groups perceived their information to be less unique and spent less time on the task than surface-level diverse groups. When the groups were given the opportunity to learn about their deep-level similarities prior to t...

  13. An Examination of a Proposed DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Hierarchy in a Treatment Seeking Population: Similarities with Substance Dependence and Evidence for Three Classification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Volberg, Rachel A; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661-1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1-2 criteria were deemed 'At-Risk', 3-4 'Problem gamblers', 5-7 'Low Pathological', and 8-10 'High Pathological' gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al. taxonomy, high accuracy scores for numerical and criteria specific taxonomies, and also high accuracy scores for dichotomous pathological gambling diagnoses. These results suggest significant complexities in the frequencies of criteria reports and relationships between criteria.

  14. An examination of practice during radiography of the clavicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Kinsella, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Background: Variation in techniques is a well reported phenomenon in Radiography that can lead to dose discrepancies. Radiography of the clavicle is an examination which can result in a scattered extra-focal radiation dose to the radiosensitive organs of the thyroid, breast and eyes. Techniques for imaging the clavicle are examined and causal factors of repeats examined. Given the recent increase of the tissue weighting factor of breast tissue, an increased importance is placed upon dose reduction techniques to this area. Aims: This study aims to investigate the variation in techniques used in imaging of the clavicle and to investigate whether AP or PA position resulted in a higher level of repeat imaging. Method: To investigate current practice amongst hospitals a sample of large teaching hospitals was chosen (n = 5). An interview with radiographers was carried out along with an examination of the stated protocols in each of these hospital plus retrospective analysis of the images produced in each of these hospitals. Results: Variations in practice were established, significant differences in collimation and vertical centring were found. AP coned view of the clavicle was performed by 80% of radiographers interviewed with 20% of radiographers performing an AP shoulder. This variation being 100% correlated with country of training. 60% of radiographers were found to perform AP15 o cranial angulation clavicle as a second projection with 28%, 8% and 4% of those interview performing AP25 o , AP20 o , and AP30 o cranial angulation, respectively. The comparison of error and repeat rates study demonstrated a lack of confidence, reduced employment of collimation and reduced accuracy while centring in the PA position and it was deemed necessary to repeat in 30% of cases compared to 40% repeats were necessary. Conclusion: Wide variation exists in technique and PA imaging is not being implemented. The author recommends training and information on PA technique be disseminated

  15. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  16. MR-urography and CT-urography: principles, examination techniques, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.; Adam, G.; Staatz, G.; Wildberger, J.

    2003-01-01

    MR-urography (MRU) and CT-urography (CTU) provide refined imaging of the upper urinary tract not achievable with conventional intravenous urography (IVU). The traditional MR-urographic technique utilizes unenhanced, heavily T 2 -weighted turbo spin-echo sequences for obtaining static fluid images of the urinary tract independent of the excretory renal function. T 2 -weighted MR-urograms have proved to be excellent in visualizing the dilated urinary tract, even in non-excreting kidneys. In contrast, T 1 -weighted MRU reflects the excretory renal function and displays the urine flow through the upper tract after renal excretion of an intravenously administered gadolinium chelate. The gadolinium-enhanced urine is visualized with fast T 1 -weighted 3D-gradient-echo sequences. The combination of gadolinium and low-dose furosemide (5-10 mg) is the key for achieving a uniform distribution of gadolinium in the collecting system and for avoiding susceptibility artifacts (T 2 *-effects) in the urine. T 1 -weighted excretory MRU provides impressive urograms of both non-dilated and obstructed collecting systems in patients with normal or moderately impaired renal function. Multislice-CT-urography (MS-CTU) is also an excretory urography like T 1 -weighted MRU. Furthermore, MS-CTU can be combined with low-dose furosemide for accelerated passage of excreted contrast material obviating the need for abdominal compression. CT-urography is limited by its radiation burden and the nephrotoxicity of radiographic contrast media. Combining MRU or MS-CTU with conventional MRI or CT offers several applications, e.g., diagnosis of intrinsic and extrinsic tumors. Meanwhile, MRU has replaced IVU in pediatric uroradiology and is also recommended for the assessment of renal transplants. MS-CTU may provide valuable information in chronic urolithiasis, especially if associated with a distorted urinary tract anatomy. Both MRU and MS-CTU will play an important role in modern uroradiology. (orig

  17. Human action perspectives based on individual plant examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.; Thompson, C.; Drouin, M.; Lois, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides perspectives on human actions gained from reviewing 76 individual plant examination (IPE) submittals. Human actions found to be important in boiling water reactors (BWRs) and in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are presented and the events most frequently found important are discussed. Since there are numerous factors that can influence the quantification of human error probabilities (HEPs) and introduce significant variability in the resulting HEPs (which in turn can influence which events are found to be important), the variability in HEPs for similar events across IPEs is examined to assess the extent to which variability in results is due to real versus artifactual differences. Finally, similarities and differences in human action observations across BWRs and PWRs are examined

  18. Mechanized ultrasonic examination of piping systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, X.; Pfister, O.; Allidi, F.

    1988-01-01

    The success of mechanized ultrasonic examination applied on welds in piping systems in nuclear power plants is highly dependent on its careful preparation. From the development of an adequate examination technique to its implementation on site, many problems are to be solved. This is especially the case when dealing with austenitic welds or dissimilar metal welds. In addition to the specific needs for examination technique based on material properties and requirements for minimum flaw size detection, accessibility and radiation aspects have to be considered. A crew of skilled and highly trained examination personnel is required. Experience in various nuclear power plants, - BWR's and PWR's of different designs - has shown, that even difficult examination problems can be successfully solved, provided that there is a good preparation. The necessary step by step proceeding is illustrated by examples concerning mechanized examination. Preservice inspections and in-service inspections with specific requirements, due to the types of flaws to be found or the type of material concerned, are discussed

  19. Techniques and results of examination of fission product release from VVER fuel rods with artificial defects and a burnup of ∼60 MWd/kgU at the MIR loop facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burukin, A.; Goryachev, A.; Ilyenko, S.; Izhutov, A.; Konyashov, V.; Shishin, V.; Shulimov, V.; Luzanova, L.; Miglo, V.

    2009-01-01

    Complex of equipment and several techniques for examination of radioactive fission product release from defective fuel rods were developed, prepared and tested at the PV-1 loop facility of the MIR reactor. During the first test, which was conducted at the PV-1 loop facility and aimed at testing of developed equipment and techniques, measurement of radioactive fission product release from an experimental re-fabricated fuel rod with a burnup of ∼60 MWd/kgU and an artificial defect was performed under design-basis steady-state operating conditions of the VVER-1000 reactor. PIE of all main parameters of the experimental defective fuel rod did not reveal any state peculiarities which could be caused by the artificial defect, i.e. fuel and cladding characteristics in the defect area did not differ from the initial ones (before testing) as well as their characteristics in areas distant from the defect; they are typical for fuel rods with a similar irradiation history in the VVER NPP. The gap in the experimental fuel rod was bridged due to close contact between fuel and cladding at increased fuel burnup; it can appreciable reduce release of radioactive fission products into the PV-1 primary coolant. This suggestion and quantitative characteristics of effect of gap bridging in a high-burnup fuel rod on radioactive fission product release should be investigated during the next tests performed at the PV-1 loop facility. Values of radioactive fission product release measured during the first test at the PV-1 loop facility in the MIR reactor will be used for development of an empirical engineering model in order to take into account high burnup effects and their impact on fission product release from fuel and defective fuel rods

  20. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a 'signature' of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min - compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives - but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly

  1. Multimodality characterization of nuclear waste drums using emerging techniques for nondestructive examination and assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    We are developing an x-ray imaging system that incorporates several inspection technologies for complete, nondestructive evaluation of containers of nuclear waste. In Phase I and Phase II SBIR programs for the DOE, we proved the feasibility of using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR)-imaging techniques using x-rays transmitted through the object-for container inspection. Now, with further funding from DOE and working with scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Lab., we are designing a mobile inspection system that will use CT and DR as well as two x-ray emission imaging techniques-single photon emission computed tomography and nondestructive assay. This system will provide much more information about the contents of containers than currently used inspection methods, and will provide archiving of digital data. In this paper, we describe inspection system and present recent results from the CT and DR evaluations

  2. Intelligent method of plant dynamics behavior estimation by effectively applying similar cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Numoto, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    1994-01-01

    In order to accomplish efficient execution of a dynamic simulation of engineering systems, it is important to construct suitable mathematical models for the simulation. In the construction of the mathematical models, it is necessary to estimate the system's behavior to suppose the phenomena which are needed to be modeled. The case-based reasoning is considered to be a powerful tool to estimate the outline of system's behavior because we often estimate it from the similar cases which are stored as our experience or in literature. In this study, the technique based on similar cases is investigated to estimate the outline of time-responses of several important variables of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants at a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). The registered cases in case base are gathered from various reports and the authors' numerical simulations related with SBLOCA of PWR plants. The functions to use in the case retrieval are formed from the characteristic features of SBLOCA of PWR plants. On the other hand, the rules to use in the case refinement are obtained from the qualitative and quantitative consideration of plants' behaviors of the cases in the case base. The applicability of the technique is discussed by two simple estimation trials of plant behavior. (author)

  3. Examination of the ion-implantation route to fabrication of the Kane quantum computer using advanced imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakes, C.; Millar, V.; Peng, J.; Cimmino, A.; Prawer, S.; Jamieson, D.; Yang, C.; McKinnon, R.; Stanley, F.; Clark, R.; University of New South Wales, NSW; Dzurak, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Kane solid-state quantum computer employs as qubits an array of 31 P atoms embedded with nanoscale precision in a silicon matrix. One proposal for the fabrication of such an array is by phosphorous-ion implantation. We present an overview of a program of research aiming to develop advanced imaging techniques to address key issues relating to the fabrication of the Kane device by ion implantation, focusing particularly on the development of surface-resist technology to allow the registration of single implanted ions and an examination of the extent of damage imposed on the silicon matrix. Our surface resists take the form of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin-films, which have been exposed both to MeV and keV ions. Registration of ion implantation is based on the development of localised chemical modification arising from latent damage caused within the PMMA layer by the passage of an implanted ion. On development of the resist, atomic force microscopy imaging demonstrates the formation of clearly defined etched holes, of typical diameter 30 nm, which are ascribed to single-ion impacts. The use of novel scanning probes, such as carbon nanotubes, for imaging complex PMMA resist structures will be illustrated. Potential applications to the fabrication of self-aligned gate structures will be discussed

  4. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  5. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review) Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one fro...

  6. An experimental test of the persuasive effect of source similarity in narrative and nonnarrative health blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Amy Shirong

    2013-07-25

    Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants' intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative.

  7. Suspect filler similarity in eyewitness lineups: a literature review and a novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Oriet, Chris; Price, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    Eyewitness lineups typically contain a suspect (guilty or innocent) and fillers (known innocents). The degree to which fillers should resemble the suspect is a complex issue that has yet to be resolved. Previously, researchers have voiced concern that eyewitnesses would be unable to identify their target from a lineup containing highly similar fillers; however, our literature review suggests highly similar fillers have only rarely been shown to have this effect. To further examine the effect of highly similar fillers on lineup responses, we used morphing software to create fillers of moderately high and very high similarity to the suspect. When the culprit was in the lineup, a higher correct identification rate was observed in moderately high similarity lineups than in very high similarity lineups. When the culprit was absent, similarity did not yield a significant effect on innocent suspect misidentification rates. However, the correct rejection rate in the moderately high similarity lineup was 20% higher than in the very high similarity lineup. When choosing rates were controlled by calculating identification probabilities for only those who made a selection from the lineup, culprit identification rates as well as innocent suspect misidentification rates were significantly higher in the moderately high similarity lineup than in the very high similarity lineup. Thus, very high similarity fillers yielded costs and benefits. Although our research suggests that selecting the most similar fillers available may adversely affect correct identification rates, we recommend additional research using fillers obtained from police databases to corroborate our findings.

  8. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect: The Effects of When-Similarity in Computer-Mediated Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  9. Radiographic examinations of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, S.M.

    2002-11-01

    The anatomy of the Leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, and the technique and the diagnostic possibilities of the radiologic and computed-tomographic examination of lizards are summarized in a bibliography. Some aspects of the topographic anatomy of this species are illustrated by one necropsy. The various parts of the gastrointestinal system were identified by histological examinations. 15 preparations of wild captured Leopard geckos were examined radiographically to describe the physiological appearance of the skeleton.15 patients received plain radiographs. 8 different boxes for the immobilization of geckos were tested for practical use. The skeleton and the respiratory tract were fully visible on all x-ray images. The differentiation of the gastrointestinal tract was increased when containing radioopaque material like sand. Eggs with calcified shells were the only detectable parts from the urogenital tract. 2 patients with anorexia and weight loss were administered 0,5 ml of a Gastrografin-water mixture in the ratio 1:3. The dosage was 2,9 or 4,9 ml Gastrografin/kg respectively. The gastrointestinal tract and the surface of the mucous membrane could be visualized very well. The first excretion of the contrast medium resulted 18 - 34 or 28 - 45 hours respectively after the administration. On one dead Leopard gecko a computed tomographic examination was done. This allowed the 3D-reconstruction of the skeleton. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fixation techniques are discussed. The possibilities of radiologic diagnostic imaging techniques for geckos are described. (author)

  10. Similarity from multi-dimensional scaling: solving the accuracy and diversity dilemma in information filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zeng

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are designed to assist individual users to navigate through the rapidly growing amount of information. One of the most successful recommendation techniques is the collaborative filtering, which has been extensively investigated and has already found wide applications in e-commerce. One of challenges in this algorithm is how to accurately quantify the similarities of user pairs and item pairs. In this paper, we employ the multidimensional scaling (MDS method to measure the similarities between nodes in user-item bipartite networks. The MDS method can extract the essential similarity information from the networks by smoothing out noise, which provides a graphical display of the structure of the networks. With the similarity measured from MDS, we find that the item-based collaborative filtering algorithm can outperform the diffusion-based recommendation algorithms. Moreover, we show that this method tends to recommend unpopular items and increase the global diversification of the networks in long term.

  11. Similarity from multi-dimensional scaling: solving the accuracy and diversity dilemma in information filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zeng, An; Liu, Hao; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Recommender systems are designed to assist individual users to navigate through the rapidly growing amount of information. One of the most successful recommendation techniques is the collaborative filtering, which has been extensively investigated and has already found wide applications in e-commerce. One of challenges in this algorithm is how to accurately quantify the similarities of user pairs and item pairs. In this paper, we employ the multidimensional scaling (MDS) method to measure the similarities between nodes in user-item bipartite networks. The MDS method can extract the essential similarity information from the networks by smoothing out noise, which provides a graphical display of the structure of the networks. With the similarity measured from MDS, we find that the item-based collaborative filtering algorithm can outperform the diffusion-based recommendation algorithms. Moreover, we show that this method tends to recommend unpopular items and increase the global diversification of the networks in long term.

  12. Extraction methods and test techniques for detection of vegetable proteins in meat products. I. Qualitative detection of soya derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, N S

    1976-06-01

    Extracts of 3 soya bean preparations, used commercially in certain countries to replace part of the meat in popular meat products, were made by treatment with (i) sodium dodecyl sulphate, (ii) Triton-X100 or (iii) n-Butanol. Similar extracts were made from beef and pork. All extracts were examined by electrophoretic and immunological techniques. Stained polyacrylamide gels revealed distinctive protein bands after electrophoresis. The migration rates of corresponding bands differed between beef and pork extracts. However, the migration rates of vegetable bands revealed certain similarities, but differed very greatly from those of animal origin. Characteristic fast-migrating S-bands were distinguishable only in extracts of vegetable protein. Immunodiffusion tests, using antisera produced in rabbits against each extract, revealed varying degrees of similarity between extracts of vegetable origin, but the antisera were specific for either vegetable or animal protein.

  13. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.) [de

  14. Virtual autopsy using imaging: bridging radiologic and forensic sciences. A review of the Virtopsy and similar projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolliger, Stephan A.; Thali, Michael J.; Ross, Steffen; Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Vock, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The transdisciplinary research project Virtopsy is dedicated to implementing modern imaging techniques into forensic medicine and pathology in order to augment current examination techniques or even to offer alternative methods. Our project relies on three pillars: three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning for the documentation of body surfaces, and both multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualise the internal body. Three-dimensional surface scanning has delivered remarkable results in the past in the 3D documentation of patterned injuries and of objects of forensic interest as well as whole crime scenes. Imaging of the interior of corpses is performed using MSCT and/or MRI. MRI, in addition, is also well suited to the examination of surviving victims of assault, especially choking, and helps visualise internal injuries not seen at external examination of the victim. Apart from the accuracy and three-dimensionality that conventional documentations lack, these techniques allow for the re-examination of the corpse and the crime scene even decades later, after burial of the corpse and liberation of the crime scene. We believe that this virtual, non-invasive or minimally invasive approach will improve forensic medicine in the near future. (orig.)

  15. The selection of ultrasonic transducers for inspection of pipeline girth welds. Vol. 3. Evaluation of the pitch-catch technique for examination of the body region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, A G; Fingerhut, M P; Dorling, D V

    1988-10-01

    Research was conducted to develop an ultrasonic inspection design for the nondestructive evaluation of pipeline girth welds made by the mechanized gas metal arc (GMA) welding process for onshore and offshore pipeline construction. This report describes the work carried out to evaluate the performance to the pitch-catch technique with respect to its ability to examine the body region of mechanized GMA welds in 19.5 mm thick material. Evaluation of the pitch-catch technique was carried out on simulated and real weld defects. Results show that an inspection design method and criteria can be specified for the detection of lack of sidewall fusion defects in the body region of mechanized GMA welds. The criteria specified a pitch-catch technique using a 2.25 MHz 45{degrees} transmitter and a 2.25 MHz 55{degrees} receiver probe. A single pair of these transducers can inspect wall thickness from 9.7 mm to 23.0 mm. The pitch-catch technique evaluated on 19.5 mm wall thickness materials demonstrated that the detection goal of projected depth with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 12dB could be met, and that no problems occurred with false indications or missed defects. High sensitivities to small defects in the body region were obtained using a single pair of pitch-catch probes that inspected the body region as a single plane. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Proposal for a Similar Question Search System on a Q&A Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Kanamori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a service to help Internet users obtain answers to specific questions when they visit a Q&A site. A Q&A site is very useful for the Internet user, but posted questions are often not answered immediately. This delay in answering occurs because in most cases another site user is answering the question manually. In this study, we propose a system that can present a question that is similar to a question posted by a user. An advantage of this system is that a user can refer to an answer to a similar question. This research measures the similarity of a candidate question based on word and dependency parsing. In an experiment, we examined the effectiveness of the proposed system for questions actually posted on the Q&A site. The result indicates that the system can show the questioner the answer to a similar question. However, the system still has a number of aspects that should be improved.

  17. Student and Professor Similarity: Exploring the Effects of Gender and Relative Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, Kenneth; Louie, Therese A.; Osland, Asbjorn

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined student responses to faculty traits. Earlier findings revealing a preference for male instructors were obtained before female faculty and students were prevalent on college campuses and may have reflected a male demographic similarity effect. It was hypothesized that students would more favorably evaluate faculty who were…

  18. The Reconciliation of W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey: An Exploration of Similarities in Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Interrogates similarities and misconceptions common to W. Edwards Deming and John Dewey, examining a reconciliation of the two within the context of motivation theory and concluding that Deming and Dewey are very similar in general outlook and the shared belief in the integrity of the individual within the social system. (SM)

  19. Use of eddy current mixes to solve a weld examination application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.C.; LaBoissonniere, A.

    1995-01-01

    The augmentation of typical nondestructive (i.e., ultrasound) weld inspection techniques by the use of eddy current tools may significantly enhance the quality and reliability of weld inspections. One recent example is the development of an eddy current technique for use in the examination of BWR core shroud welds, where multi-frequency mixes are used to eliminate signals coming from the weld material so that the examination of the heat affected zone is enhanced. An analysis tool most commonly associated with ultrasound examinations, the C-Scan based on gated information, may be implemented with eddy current data to enhance analysis

  20. Examination of Self-Myofascial Release vs. Instrument-Assisted Soft-Tissue Mobilization Techniques on Vertical and Horizontal Power in Recreational Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroiney, Debra A; Mokris, Rebecca L; Hanna, Gary R; Ranney, John D

    2018-05-08

    Stroiney, DA, Mokris, RL, Hanna, GR, and Ranney, JD. Examination of self-myofascial release vs. instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization techniques on vertical and horizontal power in recreational athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study examined whether pre-exercise self-myofascial release (SMR) and instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (IASTM) would improve performance on measures of vertical jump height and 40-yd sprint time. Differences in perceived pain levels were also examined. Forty-nine college students volunteered for the study and were randomly assigned to receive either IASTM via Tècnica Gavilàn PTB or SMR via The Stick before performance assessments. After the massage intervention, subjects rated their level of perceived pain using a visual analog scale. An independent t test was used to analyze differences in perceived pain levels between the 2 massage interventions. A 2 × 2 analyses of covariance analyzed differences between sex and the 2 massage interventions. There was no interaction (p > 0.05) between the massage intervention and sex for both the vertical jump and 40-yd sprint tests. There was a significant main effect for vertical jump and SMR (p = 0.04). Sex also had a significant main effect for both the vertical jump (p = 0.04) and the 40-yd sprint (p = 0.02). There were no significant differences between massage interventions for the 40-yd sprint times (p = 0.73). There were no significant differences in perceived pain (t(49) = -1.60, p > 0.05). The use of SMR before exercise may improve vertical jump height in recreational athletes. Pain should not be a factor when choosing massage interventions for athletes because IASTM was not perceived to be more painful than SMR. Self-myofascial release and IASTM did not enhance sprinting performance in this study.

  1. #nowplaying Madonna: a large-scale evaluation on estimating similarities between music artists and between movies from microblogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Different term weighting techniques such as [Formula: see text] or BM25 have been used intensely for manifold text-based information retrieval tasks. Their use for modeling term profiles for named entities and subsequent calculation of similarities between these named entities have been studied to a much smaller extent. The recent trend of microblogging made available massive amounts of information about almost every topic around the world. Therefore, microblogs represent a valuable source for text-based named entity modeling. In this paper, we present a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of different term weighting measures , normalization techniques , query schemes , index term sets , and similarity functions for the task of inferring similarities between named entities, based on data extracted from microblog posts . We analyze several thousand combinations of choices for the above mentioned dimensions, which influence the similarity calculation process, and we investigate in which way they impact the quality of the similarity estimates. Evaluation is performed using three real-world data sets: two collections of microblogs related to music artists and one related to movies. For the music collections, we present results of genre classification experiments using as benchmark genre information from allmusic.com. For the movie collection, we present results of multi-class classification experiments using as benchmark categories from IMDb. We show that microblogs can indeed be exploited to model named entity similarity with remarkable accuracy, provided the correct settings for the analyzed aspects are used. We further compare the results to those obtained when using Web pages as data source.

  2. Are objects the same as groups? ERP correlates of spatial attentional guidance by irrelevant feature similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Tetsuko; Moriya, Hiroki; Hirano, Shingo

    2011-07-05

    It has been proposed that the most fundamental units of attentional selection are "objects" that are grouped according to Gestalt factors such as similarity or connectedness. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have shown that object-based attention is associated with modulations of the visual-evoked N1 component, which reflects an early cortical mechanism that is shared with spatial attention. However, these studies only examined the case of perceptually continuous objects. The present study examined the case of separate objects that are grouped according to feature similarity (color, shape) by indexing lateralized potentials at posterior sites in a sustained-attention task that involved bilateral stimulus arrays. A behavioral object effect was found only for task-relevant shape similarity. Electrophysiological results indicated that attention was guided to the task-irrelevant side of the visual field due to achromatic-color similarity in N1 (155-205 ms post-stimulus) and early N2 (210-260 ms) and due to shape similarity in early N2 and late N2 (280-400 ms) latency ranges. These results are discussed in terms of selection mechanisms and object/group representations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neighborhood Structural Similarity Mapping for the Classification of Masses in Mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabidas, Rinku; Midya, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Jayasree

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, two novel feature extraction methods, using neighborhood structural similarity (NSS), are proposed for the characterization of mammographic masses as benign or malignant. Since gray-level distribution of pixels is different in benign and malignant masses, more regular and homogeneous patterns are visible in benign masses compared to malignant masses; the proposed method exploits the similarity between neighboring regions of masses by designing two new features, namely, NSS-I and NSS-II, which capture global similarity at different scales. Complementary to these global features, uniform local binary patterns are computed to enhance the classification efficiency by combining with the proposed features. The performance of the features are evaluated using the images from the mini-mammographic image analysis society (mini-MIAS) and digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) databases, where a tenfold cross-validation technique is incorporated with Fisher linear discriminant analysis, after selecting the optimal set of features using stepwise logistic regression method. The best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.98 with an accuracy of is achieved with the mini-MIAS database, while the same for the DDSM database is 0.93 with accuracy .

  4. Successful international cooperation : The influence of cultural similarity, strategic differences, and international experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, JP; van der Zee, KI

    2002-01-01

    Cooperation between companies increasingly exceeds national borders. In the present study 78 international cooperation cases were examined. It was shown that similarity in national and corporate culture is associated with successful cooperation. On the other hand, with respect to corporate strategy,

  5. An approach to large scale identification of non-obvious structural similarities between proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasov, Artem; Jones, Steven JM

    2004-01-01

    Background A new sequence independent bioinformatics approach allowing genome-wide search for proteins with similar three dimensional structures has been developed. By utilizing the numerical output of the sequence threading it establishes putative non-obvious structural similarities between proteins. When applied to the testing set of proteins with known three dimensional structures the developed approach was able to recognize structurally similar proteins with high accuracy. Results The method has been developed to identify pathogenic proteins with low sequence identity and high structural similarity to host analogues. Such protein structure relationships would be hypothesized to arise through convergent evolution or through ancient horizontal gene transfer events, now undetectable using current sequence alignment techniques. The pathogen proteins, which could mimic or interfere with host activities, would represent candidate virulence factors. The developed approach utilizes the numerical outputs from the sequence-structure threading. It identifies the potential structural similarity between a pair of proteins by correlating the threading scores of the corresponding two primary sequences against the library of the standard folds. This approach allowed up to 64% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity in distinguishing protein pairs with high structural similarity. Conclusion Preliminary results obtained by comparison of the genomes of Homo sapiens and several strains of Chlamydia trachomatis have demonstrated the potential usefulness of the method in the identification of bacterial proteins with known or potential roles in virulence. PMID:15147578

  6. An approach to large scale identification of non-obvious structural similarities between proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkasov Artem

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new sequence independent bioinformatics approach allowing genome-wide search for proteins with similar three dimensional structures has been developed. By utilizing the numerical output of the sequence threading it establishes putative non-obvious structural similarities between proteins. When applied to the testing set of proteins with known three dimensional structures the developed approach was able to recognize structurally similar proteins with high accuracy. Results The method has been developed to identify pathogenic proteins with low sequence identity and high structural similarity to host analogues. Such protein structure relationships would be hypothesized to arise through convergent evolution or through ancient horizontal gene transfer events, now undetectable using current sequence alignment techniques. The pathogen proteins, which could mimic or interfere with host activities, would represent candidate virulence factors. The developed approach utilizes the numerical outputs from the sequence-structure threading. It identifies the potential structural similarity between a pair of proteins by correlating the threading scores of the corresponding two primary sequences against the library of the standard folds. This approach allowed up to 64% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity in distinguishing protein pairs with high structural similarity. Conclusion Preliminary results obtained by comparison of the genomes of Homo sapiens and several strains of Chlamydia trachomatis have demonstrated the potential usefulness of the method in the identification of bacterial proteins with known or potential roles in virulence.

  7. Content analysis of physical examination templates in electronic health records using SNOMED CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Chen, Rong; Højen, Anne Randorff; Elberg, Pia

    2014-10-01

    Most electronic health record (EHR) systems are built on proprietary information models and terminology, which makes achieving semantic interoperability a challenge. Solving interoperability problems requires well-defined standards. In contrast, the need to support clinical work practice requires a local customization of EHR systems. Consequently, contrasting goals may be evident in EHR template design because customization means that local EHR organizations can define their own templates, whereas standardization implies consensus at some level. To explore the complexity of balancing these two goals, this study analyzes the differences and similarities between templates in use today. A similarity analysis was developed on the basis of SNOMED CT. The analysis was performed on four physical examination templates from Denmark and Sweden. The semantic relationships in SNOMED CT were used to quantify similarities and differences. Moreover, the analysis used these identified similarities to investigate the common content of a physical examination template. The analysis showed that there were both similarities and differences in physical examination templates, and the size of the templates varied from 18 to 49 fields. In the SNOMED CT analysis, exact matches and terminology similarities were represented in all template pairs. The number of exact matches ranged from 7 to 24. Moreover, the number of unrelated fields differed a lot from 1/18 to 22/35. Cross-country comparisons tended to have more unrelated content than within-country comparisons. On the basis of identified similarities, it was possible to define the common content of a physical examination. Nevertheless, a complete view on the physical examination required the inclusion of both exact matches and terminology similarities. This study revealed that a core set of items representing the physical examination templates can be generated when the analysis takes into account not only exact matches but also terminology

  8. Risk estimation in association with diagnostic techniques in the nuclear medicine service of the Camaguey Ciego de Avila Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrerras, C.A.; Brigido, F.O.; Naranjo, L.A.; Lasserra, S.O.; Hernandez Garcia, J.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear medicine service at the Maria Curie Oncological Hospital, Camaguey, has experience of over three decades in using radiofarmaceutical imaging agents for diagnosis. Although the clinical risk associated with these techniques is negligible, it is necessary to evaluate the effective dose administered to the patient due to the introduction of radioactive substances into the body. The study of the dose administered to the patient provides useful data for evaluating the detriment associated with this medical practice, its subsequently optimization and consequently, for minimizing the stochastic effects on the patient. The aim of our paper is to study the collective effective dose administered by nuclear medicine service to Camaguey and Ciego de Avila population from 1995 to 1998 and the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose of the different diagnostic examinations. The studies were conducted on the basis of statistics from nuclear medicine examinations given to a population of 1102353 inhabitants since 1995. The results show that the nuclear medicine techniques of neck examinations with 1168.8 Sv man (1.11 Sv/expl), thyroid explorations with 119.6 Sv man (55.5 mSv/expl) and iodide uptake with 113.7 Sv man (14.0 mSv/expl) are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose of 1419.5 Sv man. The risk estimation in association with diagnostic techniques in the nuclear medicine service studied is globally low (total detriment: 103.6 as a result of 16232 explorations), similar to other published data

  9. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  10. Clustering by reordering of similarity and Laplacian matrices: Application to galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, E.; Shoukry, A.; Takey, A.

    2018-04-01

    Similarity metrics, kernels and similarity-based algorithms have gained much attention due to their increasing applications in information retrieval, data mining, pattern recognition and machine learning. Similarity Graphs are often adopted as the underlying representation of similarity matrices and are at the origin of known clustering algorithms such as spectral clustering. Similarity matrices offer the advantage of working in object-object (two-dimensional) space where visualization of clusters similarities is available instead of object-features (multi-dimensional) space. In this paper, sparse ɛ-similarity graphs are constructed and decomposed into strong components using appropriate methods such as Dulmage-Mendelsohn permutation (DMperm) and/or Reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM) algorithms. The obtained strong components correspond to groups (clusters) in the input (feature) space. Parameter ɛi is estimated locally, at each data point i from a corresponding narrow range of the number of nearest neighbors. Although more advanced clustering techniques are available, our method has the advantages of simplicity, better complexity and direct visualization of the clusters similarities in a two-dimensional space. Also, no prior information about the number of clusters is needed. We conducted our experiments on two and three dimensional, low and high-sized synthetic datasets as well as on an astronomical real-dataset. The results are verified graphically and analyzed using gap statistics over a range of neighbors to verify the robustness of the algorithm and the stability of the results. Combining the proposed algorithm with gap statistics provides a promising tool for solving clustering problems. An astronomical application is conducted for confirming the existence of 45 galaxy clusters around the X-ray positions of galaxy clusters in the redshift range [0.1..0.8]. We re-estimate the photometric redshifts of the identified galaxy clusters and obtain acceptable values

  11. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation; Developpement et application d'une technique d'imagerie par rayonnement synchrotron basee sur l'utilisation d'un cristal analyseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, P

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  12. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  13. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  14. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  15. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  16. Self-similar continued root approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of summing asymptotic series is advanced. Such series repeatedly arise when employing perturbation theory in powers of a small parameter for complicated problems of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and various applied problems. The method is based on the self-similar approximation theory involving self-similar root approximants. The constructed self-similar continued roots extrapolate asymptotic series to finite values of the expansion parameter. The self-similar continued roots contain, as a particular case, continued fractions and Padé approximants. A theorem on the convergence of the self-similar continued roots is proved. The method is illustrated by several examples from condensed-matter physics.

  17. Affect and well-being similarity among older Indian spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that husbands and wives are likely to share affective states so that depression or happiness in one spouse is predictive of depression or happiness in the other. Studies that have examined spousal affect similarity, however, have been concentrated in the Western world where the meaning of marriage may be different than it is in other cultural contexts. Marriage in India, unlike that in the United States, is focused on the extended family so that love and intimacy between spouses are downplayed. This study examined affect and well-being similarity between 603 older married couples in India using pilot data from the Longitudinal Aging Study of India. We ran linear regression models to assess the relationship between the well-being states of husbands and wives using dyadic observations for four different measures: depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with daily life, social isolation, and overall life satisfaction. Across all four measures, the well-being scores of one spouse were positively and significantly associated with the well-being scores of the other. These associations did not vary by marital satisfaction, but were slightly stronger for respondents reporting poor health. Our increased understanding of social connectedness has prompted a shift from the consideration of single individuals to a broader understanding of individuals in the context of their social environments. The results of this study suggest that interventions designed to foster well-being among older adults in India might benefit from a focus on couples as a unit rather than individuals.

  18. Two new techniques for the remote evaluation of reactor steel condition - microscopic removal and surface examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.

    Much reactor inspection work involves an assessment of the condition of structural steel. This paper reviews two different techniques which provide information for such an assessment. The first - micro-sample removal (for the measurement of surface oxide thickness and chemical composition) - requires contact with the steel surface, whereas the second - a 'teach and learn' photographic technique (in which a special photogrammatic camera is used to obtain high-quality close-up photographs, to assess surface condition and corrosion growth) can obtain surface information on inaccessible components. (author)

  19. “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures” – Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C.; Ganschow, P.; Groener, J. B.; Huwendiek, S.; Köchel, A.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Pjontek, R.; Rodrian, J.; Scheibe, F.; Stadler, A.-K.; Steiner, T.; Stiepak, J.; Tabatabai, J.; Utz, A.; Kadmon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects “Heidelberg standard examination” and “Heidelberg standard procedures”, which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties. PMID:27579354

  20. Optimal platform design using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution; application to automotive suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, Mohammad Hassan; Khalkhali, Abolfazl; Faghihian, Hamed; Dahmardeh, Masoud

    2018-03-01

    Unlike conventional approaches where optimization is performed on a unique component of a specific product, optimum design of a set of components for employing in a product family can cause significant reduction in costs. Increasing commonality and performance of the product platform simultaneously is a multi-objective optimization problem (MOP). Several optimization methods are reported to solve these MOPs. However, what is less discussed is how to find the trade-off points among the obtained non-dominated optimum points. This article investigates the optimal design of a product family using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) and proposes the employment of technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to find the trade-off points among the obtained non-dominated results while compromising all objective functions together. A case study for a family of suspension systems is presented, considering performance and commonality. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method to obtain the trade-off points with the best possible performance while maximizing the common parts.

  1. Retrospective radiographic study of marginal bone changes of 88 implants placed with split crest technique in the maxillary latero-posterior area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Longoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim This article presents a retrospective study on the behavior of implants placed with split crest technique in lateroposterior maxillary class IV atrophy. Materials and Methods Subjects who underwent implant placement following split crest technique in the maxillary latero-posterior area were enrolled in the present retrospective study. After a mean period of 6.2 years of function implant survival and success rates were assessed. Moreover, radiographic examination was made on digital periapical radiographs and by means of a specific software. Bone level changes were measured as the difference between the peri-implants crestal bone level and the implants shoulder during the last patient’s visit recall examination. Results A total of 30 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in the study; the subjects were treated with 88 implants (64 transmucosal and 24 submerged. The observation period for all patients treated with split crest technique varied between 4 and 8 years (mean 6.2 years. The implants survival rate was 96.6% and the prostheses survival rate was 100%. Bone resorption ranged between 2.3 mm and 2.7 mm. Conclusion Implants inserted in conjunction with split crest technique seems to be a promising therapy with similar results as conventional implant surgery.

  2. Detecting and classifying method based on similarity matching of Android malware behavior with profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Wook; Yun, Jaesung; Mohaisen, Aziz; Woo, Jiyoung; Kim, Huy Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mass-market mobile security threats have increased recently due to the growth of mobile technologies and the popularity of mobile devices. Accordingly, techniques have been introduced for identifying, classifying, and defending against mobile threats utilizing static, dynamic, on-device, and off-device techniques. Static techniques are easy to evade, while dynamic techniques are expensive. On-device techniques are evasion, while off-device techniques need being always online. To address some of those shortcomings, we introduce Andro-profiler, a hybrid behavior based analysis and classification system for mobile malware. Andro-profiler main goals are efficiency, scalability, and accuracy. For that, Andro-profiler classifies malware by exploiting the behavior profiling extracted from the integrated system logs including system calls. Andro-profiler executes a malicious application on an emulator in order to generate the integrated system logs, and creates human-readable behavior profiles by analyzing the integrated system logs. By comparing the behavior profile of malicious application with representative behavior profile for each malware family using a weighted similarity matching technique, Andro-profiler detects and classifies it into malware families. The experiment results demonstrate that Andro-profiler is scalable, performs well in detecting and classifying malware with accuracy greater than 98 %, outperforms the existing state-of-the-art work, and is capable of identifying 0-day mobile malware samples.

  3. IntelliGO: a new vector-based semantic similarity measure including annotation origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devignes Marie-Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is a well known controlled vocabulary describing the biological process, molecular function and cellular component aspects of gene annotation. It has become a widely used knowledge source in bioinformatics for annotating genes and measuring their semantic similarity. These measures generally involve the GO graph structure, the information content of GO aspects, or a combination of both. However, only a few of the semantic similarity measures described so far can handle GO annotations differently according to their origin (i.e. their evidence codes. Results We present here a new semantic similarity measure called IntelliGO which integrates several complementary properties in a novel vector space model. The coefficients associated with each GO term that annotates a given gene or protein include its information content as well as a customized value for each type of GO evidence code. The generalized cosine similarity measure, used for calculating the dot product between two vectors, has been rigorously adapted to the context of the GO graph. The IntelliGO similarity measure is tested on two benchmark datasets consisting of KEGG pathways and Pfam domains grouped as clans, considering the GO biological process and molecular function terms, respectively, for a total of 683 yeast and human genes and involving more than 67,900 pair-wise comparisons. The ability of the IntelliGO similarity measure to express the biological cohesion of sets of genes compares favourably to four existing similarity measures. For inter-set comparison, it consistently discriminates between distinct sets of genes. Furthermore, the IntelliGO similarity measure allows the influence of weights assigned to evidence codes to be checked. Finally, the results obtained with a complementary reference technique give intermediate but correct correlation values with the sequence similarity, Pfam, and Enzyme classifications when compared to

  4. Time-series-analysis techniques applied to nuclear-material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.; Downing, D.J.

    1982-05-01

    This document is designed to introduce the reader to the applications of Time Series Analysis techniques to Nuclear Material Accountability data. Time series analysis techniques are designed to extract information from a collection of random variables ordered by time by seeking to identify any trends, patterns, or other structure in the series. Since nuclear material accountability data is a time series, one can extract more information using time series analysis techniques than by using other statistical techniques. Specifically, the objective of this document is to examine the applicability of time series analysis techniques to enhance loss detection of special nuclear materials. An introductory section examines the current industry approach which utilizes inventory differences. The error structure of inventory differences is presented. Time series analysis techniques discussed include the Shewhart Control Chart, the Cumulative Summation of Inventory Differences Statistics (CUSUM) and the Kalman Filter and Linear Smoother

  5. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  6. On the radiation exposure in temporomandibular joint examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, U.; Hildebrandt, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation exposure caused by standardized examinations of the temporomandibular joint has been determined with the aid of 660 exposures of an Alderson phantom. Comparative examinations were performed with the classic contact technique according to Parma to elucidate the results obtained. The lowest surface exposure was observed in contact examinations of the temporomandibular joint. Application of a flat cone led to a 13-fold reduction in surface exposure compared to contact examinations according to Parma. Furthermore, radiation exposure strongly decreased from the irradiation field to the adjacent area if a cone (flat cone and ear cone) was used. (author)

  7. The investigation of non-destructive techniques for the examination and quality assurance of cemented radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1985-08-01

    Three nondestructive tests for quality assurance of cemented radioactive wastes are considered. These are electrical impedance measurement, paddle torque measurement and gas permeability. Electrical impedance has the advantage that it can be used throughout the mixing, casting and setting processes. The measurement of paddle torque during mixing indicates a measure of the characteristics of the mix. Helium leak rate and total pressure rise techniques have been employed, but leakages at or near the surface due to cracks is a fundamental factor which limits the assessment of cement quality by gas permeation techniques. (U.K.)

  8. Using alternative segmentation techniques to examine residential customer`s energy needs, wants, and preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollander, C.; Kidwell, S. [Union Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Banks, J.; Taylor, E. [Cambridge Reports/Research International, MA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine residential customers` attitudes toward energy usage, conservation, and efficiency, and to examine the implications of these attitudes for how the utility should design and communicate about programs and services in these areas. This study combined focus groups and customer surveys, and utilized several customer segmentation schemes -- grouping customers by geodemographics, as well as customers` energy and environmental values, beliefs, and opinions -- to distinguish different segments of customers.

  9. Similarity of the ruminal bacteria across individual lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Elie; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-06-01

    Dairy cattle hold enormous significance for man as a source of milk and meat. Their remarkable ability to convert indigestible plant mass into these digestible food products resides in the rumen - an anaerobic chambered compartment - in the bovine digestive system. The rumen houses a complex microbiota which is responsible for the degradation of plant material, consequently enabling the conversion of plant fibers into milk and meat and determining their quality and quantity. Hence, an understanding of this complex ecosystem has major economic implications. One important question that is yet to be addressed is the degree of conservation of rumen microbial composition across individual animals. Here we quantified the degree of similarity between rumen bacterial populations of 16 individual cows. We used real-time PCR to determine the variance of specific ruminal bacterial species with different metabolic functions, revealing that while some bacterial strains vary greatly across animals, others show only very low variability. This variance could not be linked to the metabolic traits of these bacteria. We examined the degree of similarity in the dominant bacterial populations across all animals using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), and identified a bacterial community consisting of 32% operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared by at least 90% of the animals and 19% OTUs shared by 100% of the animals. Looking only at the presence or absence of each OTU gave an average similarity of 75% between each cow pair. When abundance of each OTU was added to the analysis, this similarity decreased to an average of less than 60%. Thus, as suggested in similar recent studies of the human gut, a bovine rumen core microbiome does exist, but taxa abundance may vary greatly across animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Similarity solutions of time-dependent relativistic radiation-hydrodynamical plane-parallel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Similarity solutions are examined for the frequency-integrated relativistic radiation-hydrodynamical flows, which are described by the comoving quantities. The flows are vertical plane-parallel time-dependent ones with a gray opacity coefficient. For adequate boundary conditions, the flows are accelerated in a somewhat homologous manner, but terminate at some singular locus, which originates from the pathological behavior in relativistic radiation moment equations truncated in finite orders.

  11. Self-Similarity Superresolution for Resource-Constrained Image Sensor Node in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks, in combination with image sensors, open up a grand sensing application field. It is a challenging problem to recover a high resolution (HR image from its low resolution (LR counterpart, especially for low-cost resource-constrained image sensors with limited resolution. Sparse representation-based techniques have been developed recently and increasingly to solve this ill-posed inverse problem. Most of these solutions are based on an external dictionary learned from huge image gallery, consequently needing tremendous iteration and long time to match. In this paper, we explore the self-similarity inside the image itself, and propose a new combined self-similarity superresolution (SR solution, with low computation cost and high recover performance. In the self-similarity image super resolution model (SSIR, a small size sparse dictionary is learned from the image itself by the methods such as KSVD. The most similar patch is searched and specially combined during the sparse regulation iteration. Detailed information, such as edge sharpness, is preserved more faithfully and clearly. Experiment results confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of this double self-learning method in the image super resolution.

  12. Characterization of legacy low level waste at the Svafo facility using gamma non-destructive assay and X-ray non-destructive examination techniques - 59289

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, Stephen; Mottershead, Gary; Ekenborg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Over 7000 drums containing legacy, low level radioactive waste are stored at four SVAFO facilities on the Studsvik site which is located near Nykoeping, Sweden. The vast majority of the waste drums (>6000) were produced between 1969 and 1979. The remainder were produced from 1980 onwards. Characterization of the waste was achieved using a combination of non-destructive techniques via mobile equipment located in the AU building at the Studsvik site. Each drum was weighed and a dose rate measurement was recorded. Gamma spectroscopy was used to measure and estimate radionuclide content. Real time xray examination was performed to identify such prohibited items as free liquids. (authors)

  13. The eletermiation of GER using gastroesophageal image in technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guowei; Shang Kezhong; Han Pinfang; Ma Jixiao

    1995-01-01

    The Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) using radionuclide imaging is a simple, sensitive, non-invasive and quantitative technique. The authors reported the results of 18 normal persons and 84 cases of suspected GER patients examined by this technique. No reflux was found in normal group, there were 78.6% detectability in patients group, while the detectability X-ray examination were 70.2% in same group of patients. 23 cases were undergoing endoscopic examination, only 6 cases had revealed the presence of reflux, thereby eletectability was only 26.0%

  14. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  15. Children Evoke Similar Affective and Instructional Responses from Their Teachers and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Dietrich, Julia; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Hirvonen, Riikka; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the extent to which the responses of teachers and mothers toward a particular child are similar in respect to their instructional support and affect, and whether child characteristics predict these responses. The data of 373 Finnish child-teacher-mother triads (178 girls, 195 boys) were analysed. Teachers and…

  16. Uranium content of petroleum by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Mafra, O.Y.; Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Pinto, L.R.

    1981-03-01

    The feasibility of the fission track registration technique to investigate the natural uranium concentration in petroleum is examined. The application of this technique to petroleum is briefly described and discussed critically. The results obtained so far indicate uranium concentrations in samples of Brazilian petroleum which are over the detect ion limit of fission track technique. (Author) [pt

  17. Separation of similar yeast strains by IEF techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Holá, V.; Šlais, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 12 (2009), s. 2134-2141 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : biofilm * Candida * lysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.077, year: 2009

  18. The technique of flashback in selected Northern Sotho literary texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Mojalefa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at investigating and explaining the application of the technique of flashback in selected Northern Sotho literary texts. Five kinds of flashback are distinguished, namely external retrospection, internal retrospection, mixed retrospection, flashback to complicate events and flashback of similar events. These kinds of flashback have certain and specific functions, such as reminding readers of past events, foregrounding themes of the text, and so on. This technique is evident in a text when ordinary, everyday events turn out to be the key to surprising secrets that are revealed later. Though flashback seems to be similar to foreshadowing (prolepsis in that both techniques contain features of repetition and the narration of a specific experience, the techniques, however, differ in that flashback focuses on the elements of secrecy, suspense and surprise, and foreshadowing does not. This article also reveals that a relationship between flashback and the structure of detective stories can be indicated.

  19. Recent technical developments in radiographic and ultrasonic examinations of the mammary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, M

    1981-05-01

    Apart from the improved film-foil combinations the major innovation in mammography is the scanning technique which enables high-quality mammograms to be made especially of thicker objects of higher density. It has already become the method of choice for screening examinations in the major preventive-care centres for breast cancer. Magnification mammography, on the other hand, has some technical drawbacks and is only used as a supplementary technique of examination. Even though it has not yet reached technical maturity, sonography of the mammary glands already plays an important role as an auxiliary or complementary technique, especially to clear up ambiguous palpatory or mammographic findings. It has only limited value in early detection of breast cancer and should therefore be used only as a supplementary technique.

  20. Using Student Performance to Judge the Difficulty of Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on a scheme developed to characterize the level of difficulty of an examination in the course "Linear Algebra for Engineers" and on the transfer of the underlying idea to a similar scheme for examinations in the course "Analysis I for Engineers". Using these schemes, it is possible to define standards…

  1. Social phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders and Williams syndrome: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eAsada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD and Williams syndrome (WS both are neurodevelopmental disorders, each with a unique social phenotypic pattern. This review article aims to define the similarities and differences between the social phenotypes of ASD and WS. We review studies that have examined individuals with WS using diagnostic assessments such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS, cross-syndrome direct comparison studies, and studies that have individually examined either disorder. We conclude that (1 Individuals with these disorders show quite contrasting phenotypes for face processing (i.e., preference to faces and eyes and sociability (i.e., interest in and motivation to interact with others, and (2 Although the ADOS and a direct comparison study on pragmatic language ability suggest more deficits in ASD, individuals with WS are similarly impaired on social cognition and communicative skills. In light of these results, we discuss how cross-syndrome comparisons between ASD and WS can contribute to developmental theory, cognitive neuroscience, and the development and choice of clinical treatments.

  2. Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using a New Similarity Index for Chaotic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknazar, Hamid; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    Epileptic seizures are generated by abnormal activity of neurons. The prediction of epileptic seizures is an important issue in the field of neurology, since it may improve the quality of life of patients suffering from drug resistant epilepsy. In this study a new similarity index based on symbolic dynamic techniques which can be used for extracting behavior of chaotic time series is presented. Using Freiburg EEG dataset, it is found that the method is able to detect the behavioral changes of the neural activity prior to epileptic seizures, so it can be used for prediction of epileptic seizure. A sensitivity of 63.75% with 0.33 false positive rate (FPR) in all 21 patients and sensitivity of 96.66% with 0.33 FPR in eight patients were achieved using the proposed method. Moreover, the method was evaluated by applying on Logistic and Tent map with different parameters to demonstrate its robustness and ability in determining similarity between two time series with the same chaotic characterization.

  3. Being similar while judging right and wrong: The effects of personal and situational similarity on moral judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Emilia

    2017-07-20

    This study investigated the effects of similarity with the transgressor and the victim on the perceived immorality of the transgression. Participants read two stories describing a person that cheated on their partner and a police officer that mistreated somebody. In the first story we manipulated participants' personal similarity to the transgressor and in the second their personal similarity to the victim. In each story, participants' past situational similarity to the target character was assessed according to their previous experiences of being in the same position. Results show that both personal and past situational similarity to the transgressor determine less severe moral judgements, while personal and past situational similarity with the victim have the opposite effect. We also tested several potential mediators of these effects, derived from competing theoretical accounts of the influence of similarity on perceived responsibility. Empathy emerged as mediating most of the effects of similarity on moral judgements, except those induced by past situational similarity with the victim. The foreseen probability of being in a similar situation mediated only the effects of similarity to the transgressor, and not those of similarity to the victim. Overall, results highlight the complex mechanisms of the influences of similarity on moral judgements. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. AN AMERICAN-BASED STUDY EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTICIPANTS’ DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES AND ATTITUDES REGARDING BUSINESS OUTSOURCING TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Parmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is a global marketplace, however much inquiry has been created regarding American-based companies relocating departmental operations offshore to foreign territories. Keating (2012 indicated that popular areas for companies to reposition operations include customer service, information technology, and sales services. The main reason for moving offshore is to cut costs and to maximize on cheaper labor pools in the host country. There are cultural and language barriers that complicate matters, as well as, the media, as reported by Dobbs (2004 in the United States (U.S. brings supposition by broadcasting the jobs lost by U.S. employees, as well as, home country power diminishing by stronger global players rising and thriving, such as, Brazil, The Philippines, and Mexico. This study quantifiably examined the relationship between participants’ demographic profiles and attitudes regarding business outsourcing techniques and strategies utilizing the Chi-Square and Fisher’s Exact tests, to gain a greater understanding of what these American-based beliefs truly are, in relation to, the sample confined within this study. Areas of concern examined attitudes towards managers, as well as, the U.S. government, regarding engaging in business outsourcing endeavors, enforcing policies to keep jobs in America, operating with a global mindset, helping people in both the home and host countries, competence factors associated with the capabilities to head outsourcing efforts based upon gender, and the training needed to successfully move operations offshore, for example. Significant differences were found in all of the demographic variables of ethnicity, gender, number of children (e.g. family size, age, education level, marital status, and annual household income.

  5. Examining intra-urban differentials in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    neighbourhoods and with the use of multivariate statistical techniques, the study examines the ..... not far from the central business district and serves as the residential neighbourhood for most ...... Canberra, Australian Institute of Criminology.

  6. What Can We Learn from Similar Male Dominated Industries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.

    2015-01-01

    Thomas Thor Associates is an Executive Recruitment company solely dedicated to the Nuclear industry. We have been involved with WiN UK in 2014–2015 to help them develop their own organization, this research was part of our partnership. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a clear picture of the techniques that are used by organizations similar to WiN, and business in other industries that are similar to Nuclear, to attract more women to pursue a career in a particular industry, and to support retention and career progression of women in these industries. This paper has taken a look at all industries that require technical and engineering staff, after which the Mining, Oil & Gas, Petro-chemicals, Rail, Renewable Energy, Technology and Construction industries were found to show most similarities with Nuclear, in terms of the technical staff required and their structure on gender diversity. From here, case studies of industry organizations and professional business have been prepared in order to inform WiN of best practice in these industries and provide a benchmark for future WiN operations. Finally, the report results into giving recommendations on projects WiN could add to their current approach to achieve their objectives. The recommendations are based on the results from the case studies, focusing on attracting, recruiting, retaining and developing female professionals. In summary, the recommendations are to: highlight potential career paths for women in Nuclear, educate women on Nuclear, support the development of women and to help companies to increase their bottom line by getting WiN certified. (author)

  7. Comparative Analysis of Networks of Phonologically Similar Words in English and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Vitevitch

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous network analyses of several languages revealed a unique set of structural characteristics. One of these characteristics—the presence of many smaller components (referred to as islands—was further examined with a comparative analysis of the island constituents. The results showed that Spanish words in the islands tended to be phonologically and semantically similar to each other, but English words in the islands tended only to be phonologically similar to each other. The results of this analysis yielded hypotheses about language processing that can be tested with psycholinguistic experiments, and offer insight into cross-language differences in processing that have been previously observed.

  8. Extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) of microbial community and other time series data with replicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li C; Steele, Joshua A; Cram, Jacob A; Cardon, Zoe G; Simmons, Sheri L; Vallino, Joseph J; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability of time series microbial community data from metagenomics and other molecular biological studies has enabled the analysis of large-scale microbial co-occurrence and association networks. Among the many analytical techniques available, the Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) method is unique in that it captures local and potentially time-delayed co-occurrence and association patterns in time series data that cannot otherwise be identified by ordinary correlation analysis. However LSA, as originally developed, does not consider time series data with replicates, which hinders the full exploitation of available information. With replicates, it is possible to understand the variability of local similarity (LS) score and to obtain its confidence interval. We extended our LSA technique to time series data with replicates and termed it extended LSA, or eLSA. Simulations showed the capability of eLSA to capture subinterval and time-delayed associations. We implemented the eLSA technique into an easy-to-use analytic software package. The software pipeline integrates data normalization, statistical correlation calculation, statistical significance evaluation, and association network construction steps. We applied the eLSA technique to microbial community and gene expression datasets, where unique time-dependent associations were identified. The extended LSA analysis technique was demonstrated to reveal statistically significant local and potentially time-delayed association patterns in replicated time series data beyond that of ordinary correlation analysis. These statistically significant associations can provide insights to the real dynamics of biological systems. The newly designed eLSA software efficiently streamlines the analysis and is freely available from the eLSA homepage, which can be accessed at http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa.

  9. Exploration of the attitudes of nursing students to peer physical examination and physical examination of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearn, Andy M; Bhoopatkar, Harsh; Mathew, Thomas K; Stewart, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    The use of peer physical examination (PPE) in early clinical skills has been studied amongst medical students. The majority of students are comfortable with using peer physical examination, when sensitive areas are excluded. Students' attitudes are related to their personal characteristics: gender, age, religious faith, and ethnicity. There is no data on nursing students' attitudes to peer physical examination. Identify and explore: Dual cohort, cross-sectional, anonymous survey. Three-year undergraduate nursing programme, skills centre and service clinical learning. All first and third year nursing students were asked to complete a modified Examining Fellow Students questionnaire at the end of 2008. The questionnaire asked students to indicate which of 12 body areas they would not be willing to examine/have examined by a peer of the same/opposite gender. This study also asked students which of the 12 body areas they felt uncomfortable examining on patients. The response rate was 76% (128/168). The students were predominantly female (93% female; 7% male). Most students were comfortable with examining non-sensitive body regions of peers (78.2%-100% willing) and patients (92.3-100% willing). Male gender was significantly associated with willingness to examine and be examined by peers (p=0.001); Asian students were significantly less willing to engage in peer physical examination with opposite gender (pexamining patients of either gender (pexamination shows similarities and differences to other studies. Student characteristics were not related to patient examination attitudes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A New Classification Technique in Mobile Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tutuko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel pattern recognition algorithm that use weightless neural network (WNNs technique.This technique plays a role of situation classifier to judge the situation around the mobile robot environment and makes control decision in mobile robot navigation. The WNNs technique is choosen due to significant advantages over conventional neural network, such as they can be easily implemented in hardware using standard RAM, faster in training phase and work with small resources. Using a simple classification algorithm, the similar data will be grouped with each other and it will be possible to attach similar data classes to specific local areas in the mobile robot environment. This strategy is demonstrated in simple mobile robot powered by low cost microcontrollers with 512 bytes of RAM and low cost sensors. Experimental result shows, when number of neuron increases the average environmental recognition ratehas risen from 87.6% to 98.5%.The WNNs technique allows the mobile robot to recognize many and different environmental patterns and avoid obstacles in real time. Moreover, by using proposed WNNstechnique mobile robot has successfully reached the goal in dynamic environment compare to fuzzy logic technique and logic function, capable of dealing with uncertainty in sensor reading, achieving good performance in performing control actions with 0.56% error rate in mobile robot speed.

  11. Techniques for sensitivity analysis of SYVAC results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prust, J.O.

    1985-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis techniques may be required to examine the sensitivity of SYVAC model predictions to the input parameter values, the subjective probability distributions assigned to the input parameters and to the relationship between dose and the probability of fatal cancers plus serious hereditary disease in the first two generations of offspring of a member of the critical group. This report mainly considers techniques for determining the sensitivity of dose and risk to the variable input parameters. The performance of a sensitivity analysis technique may be improved by decomposing the model and data into subsets for analysis, making use of existing information on sensitivity and concentrating sampling in regions the parameter space that generates high doses or risks. A number of sensitivity analysis techniques are reviewed for their application to the SYVAC model including four techniques tested in an earlier study by CAP Scientific for the SYVAC project. This report recommends the development now of a method for evaluating the derivative of dose and parameter value and extending the Kruskal-Wallis technique to test for interactions between parameters. It is also recommended that the sensitivity of the output of each sub-model of SYVAC to input parameter values should be examined. (author)

  12. Double contrast examination of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The intention of this book is to convey vividly and comprehensively a method, which has been applied in practice and whose basic principle is easy to learn. This technique requires as absolutely necessary equipment only a scanner. Therefore the examination technique is explained in detail with its fundamental principles and specific modifications. The morphologic part of the book wants to point out the systematic procedure to a definite and logic interpretation of the findings, and it arranges the numerous different pathological alterations of the stomach according to the continuous concept of the alway repeating macroscopic basic pattern. For each disease group the typical features, the more rare variants and also the differential diagnosis are presented and special limits for the examination procedure are given. For all important stomach lesions characteristic X-ray images were selected. In some more rare stomach pathologies the short description of the roentgenologic findings is added in order to complete the book, since its intention is not only to be a guide-line, but it shall also be an enceclopaedic adviser. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  14. Voltammetric technique, a panacea for analytical examination of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, E.; Mohiuddin, S.; Naqvi, I.I.

    2012-01-01

    Voltammetric methods for trace metal analysis in environmental samples of marine origin like mangrove, sediments and shrimps are generally recommended. Three different electro-analytical techniques i.e. polarography, anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (ADSV) have been used. Cd/sub 2/+, Pb/sub 2/+, Cu/sub 2/+ and Mn/sub 2/+ were determined through ASV, Cr/sub 6/+ was analyzed by ADSV and Fe/sub 2/+, Zn/sub 2/+, Ni/sub 2/+ and Co/sub 2/+ were determined through polarography. Out of which pairs of Fe/sub 2/+Zn/sub 2/+ and Ni/sub 2/+Co/sub 2/+ were determined in two separate runs while Cd/sub 2/+, Pb/sub 2/+, Cu/sub 2/+ were analyzed in single run of ASV. Sensitivity and speciation capabilities of voltammetric methods have been employed. Analysis conditions were optimized that includes selection of supporting electrolyte, pH, working electrodes, sweep rate etc. Stripping voltammetry was adopted for analysis at ultra trace levels. Statistical parameters for analytical method development like selectivity factor, interference, repeatability (0.0065-0.130 macro g/g), reproducibility (0.08125-1.625 macro g/g), detection limits (0.032-5.06 macro g/g), limits of quantification (0.081-12.652 macro g/g), sensitivities (5.636-2.15 nA mL macro g-1) etc. were also determined. The percentage recoveries were found in between 95-105% using certified reference materials. Real samples of complex marine environment from Karachi coastline were also analyzed. The standard addition method was employed where any matrix effect was evidenced. (author)

  15. Development of automatic flaw detection systems for magnetic particle examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Kimura, J.; Amako, T.

    1988-01-01

    Utilizing a video camera and an image processor, development was carried out on automatic flaw detection and discrimination techniques for the purpose of achieving automated magnetic particle examination. Following this, fluorescent wet magnetic particle examination systems for blade roots and rotor grooves of turbine rotors and the non-fluorescent dry magnetic particle examination system for butt welds, were developed. This paper describes these automatic magnetic particle examination (MT) systems and the functional test results

  16. Similarity in Middle School Mathematics: At the Crossroads of Geometry and Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dana C.

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical idea of similarity is typically taught to students across the middle school years between ages 11 and 14. In this study, students' understanding of presimilarity is examined based on a set of clinical interviews of 21 students aged 12-13 years. Students were asked to scale a series of geometric figures and were found to use a…

  17. Planning of high school examinations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Hansen, Michael Pilegaard

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based support system used to plan high school examinations in Denmark. We will discuss the methods and techniques used to solve such a complex and large scale combinatorial problem. Decomposition and other heuristic principles have been used extensively to develop...

  18. Preseason physical examination for the prevention of sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeag, D B

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.

  19. An approach of long-view tomosynthesis in peripheral arterial angiographic examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notohara, Daisuke; Nishino, Kazuyoshi; Shibata, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Tomosynthesis (TS) has been evaluated as a useful diagnostic imaging tool for the orthopedic market and lung cancer screening. Previously, we proposed Long-View Tomosynthesis (LVTS) to apply further clinical application by expanding the reconstructed region of TS. LVTS method consists of three steps. First, it acquires multiple images while X-ray tube and Flat Panel Detector (FPD) are moving in the same linear direction simultaneously at a constant speed. Second, each image is divided into fixed length strips, and then the strips from different images having similar X-ray beam trajectory angles are stitched together. Last, multi slice coronal images are reconstructed by utilizing the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) technique from the long stitched images. The present LVTS method requires the acquisition by the constant speed motion to stitch each strip precisely. It is necessary to improve the LVTS method to apply peripheral angiographic examinations that are usually acquired at arbitrary variable speeds to chase the contrast media in the blood vessel. We propose adding the method of detecting the moved distance of frames along with anatomical structure and the method of selecting pixel values with contrast media to stitching algorithm. As a result, LVTS can extract new clinical information like 3-D structure of superficial femoral arteries and the entire blood vessel from images already acquired by routine bolus chasing techniques.

  20. Distributed Similarity based Clustering and Compressed Forwarding for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunraja, Muruganantham; Malathi, Veluchamy; Sakthivel, Erulappan

    2015-11-01

    Wireless sensor networks are engaged in various data gathering applications. The major bottleneck in wireless data gathering systems is the finite energy of sensor nodes. By conserving the on board energy, the life span of wireless sensor network can be well extended. Data communication being the dominant energy consuming activity of wireless sensor network, data reduction can serve better in conserving the nodal energy. Spatial and temporal correlation among the sensor data is exploited to reduce the data communications. Data similar cluster formation is an effective way to exploit spatial correlation among the neighboring sensors. By sending only a subset of data and estimate the rest using this subset is the contemporary way of exploiting temporal correlation. In Distributed Similarity based Clustering and Compressed Forwarding for wireless sensor networks, we construct data similar iso-clusters with minimal communication overhead. The intra-cluster communication is reduced using adaptive-normalized least mean squares based dual prediction framework. The cluster head reduces the inter-cluster data payload using a lossless compressive forwarding technique. The proposed work achieves significant data reduction in both the intra-cluster and the inter-cluster communications, with the optimal data accuracy of collected data. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of clearance and arteriovenous extraction techniques for measurements of renal hemodynamic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzberg, R.W.; Pabico, R.C.; Morris, T.W.; Hayakawa, K.; McKenna, B.A.; Ventura, J.A.; Fischer, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    No previous studies have directly compared timed urine collections (UV/P) vs. arteriovenous (A-V) extraction methods for determination of renal function in whole kidney preparations. We examined different markers and techniques for assessing renal plasma flow (RPF), filtration fraction (FF), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in both steady-state and rapidly changing conditions following 2 ml/kg bolus intravenous injections of either Renografin 76% (meglumine/sodium diatrizoate-76%) or hypertonic mannitol 25%. During steady-state conditions, excellent correlations were obtained when comparing markers and techniques. Thus, timed urinary clearances of inulin vs. 99m-technetium DTPA (Tc) had a correlation coefficient (R) of .96 (P less than .01; n = 16), and the A-V extraction technique of inulin vs. Tc as determinants of GFR showed a correlation of R = .98 (P less than .01; n = 15). The timed urinary clearance of inulin vs. the A-V extraction of inulin for glomerular filtration gave a correlation of R = .93 (P less than .01; n = 15). The clearance of para-aminohippurate (PAH) divided by the extraction of PAH vs. flow determinations using the electromagnetic flowmeter gave a correlation of R = .92 (P less than .01; n = 16). The anticipated decrease in GFR following contrast medium and hypertonic mannitol was observed using the A-V extraction technique, whereas an artifactual, exaggerated increase in GFR was observed using the timed urine collection technique. Similarly, we noted an exaggerated increase in RPF using CPAH/EPAH as the methodology. We conclude that rapid changes in renal hemodynamics may be measured accurately using the A-V extraction technique but not with clearance techniques requiring timed urine collections

  2. A survey of text clustering techniques used for web mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an overview of basic formulations and approaches to clustering. Then it presents two important clustering paradigms: a bottom-up agglomerative technique, which collects similar documents into larger and larger groups, and a top-down partitioning technique, which divides a corpus into topic-oriented partitions.

  3. Complexity testing techniques for time series data: A comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ling; Lv, Huiling; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Lean

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A literature review of complexity testing techniques for time series data is provided. • Complexity measurements can generally fall into fractality, methods derived from nonlinear dynamics and entropy. • Different types investigate time series data from different perspectives. • Measures, applications and future studies for each type are presented. - Abstract: Complexity may be one of the most important measurements for analysing time series data; it covers or is at least closely related to different data characteristics within nonlinear system theory. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review examining the complexity testing techniques for time series data. According to different features, the complexity measurements for time series data can be divided into three primary groups, i.e., fractality (mono- or multi-fractality) for self-similarity (or system memorability or long-term persistence), methods derived from nonlinear dynamics (via attractor invariants or diagram descriptions) for attractor properties in phase-space, and entropy (structural or dynamical entropy) for the disorder state of a nonlinear system. These estimations analyse time series dynamics from different perspectives but are closely related to or even dependent on each other at the same time. In particular, a weaker self-similarity, a more complex structure of attractor, and a higher-level disorder state of a system consistently indicate that the observed time series data are at a higher level of complexity. Accordingly, this paper presents a historical tour of the important measures and works for each group, as well as ground-breaking and recent applications and future research directions.

  4. Post-irradiation handling and examination at the HFEF complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacca, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The Hot Fuel Examination Facility provides postirradiation handling and examination of fast reactor irradiation experiments and safety tests for the United States Breeder Reactor Program. Nondestructive interim examinations and destructive terminal examinations at HFEF derive data from tests irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. II, in the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT), and in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility. Similar support will be provided in the near future for tests irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility, and for the larger sodium loops to be irradiated in TREAT

  5. Vertical-axis wind turbine experiments at full dynamic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; Miller, Mark; Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John; Hultmark, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    This study presents results from pressurized (upto 200 atm) wind tunnel tests of a self-spinning 5-blade model Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The model is geometrically similar (scale ratio 1:22) to a commercially available VAWT, which has a rotor diameter of 2.17 meters and blade span of 3.66 meters, and is used at the Stanford university field lab. The use of pressurized air as working fluid allows for the unique ability to obtain full dynamic similarity with field conditions in terms of matched Reynolds numbers (Re), tip-speed ratios (λ), and Mach number (M). Tests were performed across a wide range of Re and λ, with the highest Re exceeding the maximum operational field Reynolds number (Remax) by a factor of 3. With an extended range of accessible Re conditions, the peak turbine power efficiency was seen to occur roughly at Re = 2 Remax and λ = 1 . Beyond Re > 2 Remax the turbine performance is invariant in Re for all λ. A clear demonstration of Reynolds number invariance for an actual full-scale wind turbine lends novelty to this study, and overall the results show the viability of the present experimental technique in testing turbines at field conditions.

  6. An algorithm for finding a similar subgraph of all Hamiltonian cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafdan, R.; Ihsan, M.; Suhaimi, D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses an algorithm to find a similar subgraph called findSimSubG algorithm. A similar subgraph is a subgraph with a maximum number of edges, contains no isolated vertex and is contained in every Hamiltonian cycle of a Hamiltonian Graph. The algorithm runs only on Hamiltonian graphs with at least two Hamiltonian cycles. The algorithm works by examining whether the initial subgraph of the first Hamiltonian cycle is a subgraph of comparison graphs. If the initial subgraph is not in comparison graphs, the algorithm will remove edges and vertices of the initial subgraph that are not in comparison graphs. There are two main processes in the algorithm, changing Hamiltonian cycle into a cycle graph and removing edges and vertices of the initial subgraph that are not in comparison graphs. The findSimSubG algorithm can find the similar subgraph without using backtracking method. The similar subgraph cannot be found on certain graphs, such as an n-antiprism graph, complete bipartite graph, complete graph, 2n-crossed prism graph, n-crown graph, n-möbius ladder, prism graph, and wheel graph. The complexity of this algorithm is O(m|V|), where m is the number of Hamiltonian cycles and |V| is the number of vertices of a Hamiltonian graph.

  7. Justification of the hybrid nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcheva-Tsacheva, Marina B.

    2015-01-01

    The annual frequency of nuclear medicine examinations is increasing worldwide. This is partly a consequence of the recently introduced single photon emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, techniques, which combine functional, metabolic and morphological information important for the diagnosis of many diseases. However, since the effective radiation dose is the sum of the dose of two components, the hybrid examinations result in increased patient exposure. Accordingly, their justification becomes mandatory. It starts with their clinical importance-the opportunity to resolve a clinical problem decisive for patients' management. Knowledge of the indications, contraindications and the examinations' limitations is the responsibility of the nuclear medicine physician, as well as the choice of the most adequate examination and protocol. In conclusion, the cost and the accessibility of the examinations should not be the principal consideration as opposed to the diagnostic value and the exposure. Flexible protocols and algorithms should be used for hybrid nuclear medicine examinations. (authors)

  8. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  9. Soliton shock wave fronts and self-similar discontinuities in dispersion hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Meshcherkin, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear flows in nondissipative dispersion hydrodynamics are examined. It is demonstrated that in order to describe such flows it is necessary to incorporate a new concept: a special discontinuity called a ''self-similar'' discontinuity consisting of a nondissipative shock wave and a powerful slow wave discontinuity in regular hydrodynamics. The ''self similar discontinuity'' expands linearly over time. It is demonstrated that this concept may be introduced in a solution to Euler equations. The boundary conditions of the ''self similar discontinuity'' that allow closure of Euler equations for dispersion hydrodynamics are formulated, i.e., those that replace the shock adiabatic curve of standard dissipative hydrodynamics. The structure of the soliton front and of the trailing edge of the shock wave is investigated. A classification and complete solution are given to the problem of the decay of random initial discontinuities in the hydrodynamics of highly nonisothermic plasma. A solution is derived to the problem of the decay of initial discontinuities in the hydrodynamics of magnetized plasma. It is demonstrated that in this plasma, a feature of current density arises at the point of soliton inversion

  10. Artificial intelligence techniques for embryo and oocyte classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Claudio; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra; Pappalardo, Sebastiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in the capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. This work concentrates the efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology, starting from their images. The artificial intelligence system proposed in this work is based on a set of Levenberg-Marquardt neural networks trained using textural descriptors (the local binary patterns). The proposed system was tested on two data sets of 269 oocytes and 269 corresponding embryos from 104 women and compared with other machine learning methods already proposed in the past for similar classification problems. Although the results are only preliminary, they show an interesting classification performance. This technique may be of particular interest in those countries where legislation restricts embryo selection. One of the most relevant aspects in assisted reproduction technology is the possibility of characterizing and identifying the most viable oocytes or embryos. In most cases, embryologists select them by visual examination and their evaluation is totally subjective. Recently, due to the rapid growth in our capacity to extract texture descriptors from a given image, a growing interest has been shown in the use of artificial intelligence methods for embryo or oocyte scoring/selection in IVF programmes. In this work, we concentrate our efforts on the possible prediction of the quality of embryos and oocytes in order to improve the performance of assisted reproduction technology

  11. [Effective Techniques to Reduce Radiation Exposure to Medical Staff during Assist of X-ray Computed Tomography Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Ryuichi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Miyachi, Yusuke; Tateishi, Satoshi; Uno, Yoshinori; Amakawa, Kazutoshi; Ohura, Hiroki; Orita, Shinichi

    2018-01-01

    Medical staffs like radiological technologists, doctors, and nurses are at an increased risk of exposure to radiation while assisting the patient in a position or monitor contrast medium injection during computed tomography (CT). However, methods to protect medical staff from radiation exposure and protocols for using radiological protection equipment have not been standardized and differ among hospitals. In this study, the distribution of scattered X-rays in a CT room was measured by placing electronic personal dosimeters in locations where medical staff stands beside the CT scanner gantry while assisting the patient and the exposure dose was measured. Moreover, we evaluated non-uniform exposure and revealed effective techniques to reduce the exposure dose to medical staff during CT. The dose of the scattered X-rays was the lowest at the gantry and at the examination table during both head and abdominal CT. The dose was the highest at the trunk of the upper body of the operator corresponding to a height of 130 cm during head CT and at the head corresponding to a height of 150 cm during abdominal CT. The maximum dose to the crystalline lens was approximately 600 μSv during head CT. We found that the use of volumetric CT scanning and X-ray protective goggles, and face direction toward the gantry reduced the exposure dose, particularly to the crystalline lens, for which lower equivalent dose during CT scan has been recently recommended in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 118.

  12. Practical techniques for pediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, C.R.; Harwood-Nash, D.C.; Kirks, D.R.; Kaufman, R.A.; Berger, P.E.; Kuhn, J.P.; Siegel, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Dr. Donald Kirks has assembled this section on Practical Techniques for Pediatric Computed Tomography. The material is based on a presentation in the Special Interest session at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Society for Pediatric Radiology in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA in 1982. Meticulous attention to detail and technique is required to ensure an optimal CT examination. CT techniques specifically applicable to infants and children have not been disseminated in the radiology literature and in this respect it may rightly be observed that ''the child is not a small adult''. What follows is a ''cookbook'' prepared by seven participants and it is printed in Pediatric Radiology, in outline form, as a statement of individual preferences for pediatric CT techniques. This outline gives concise explanation of techniques and permits prompt dissemination of information. (orig.)

  13. Modern techniques in galaxy kinematics : Results from planetary nebula spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, AJ; Douglas, NG; Kuijken, K; Arnaboldi, M; Gerssen, J; Merrifield, MR; Kwok, S; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R

    2003-01-01

    We have observed planetary nebulae (PNe) in several early-type galaxies using new techniques on 4- to 8-meter-class telescopes. We obtain the first large data sets (greater than or similar to 100 velocities each) of PN kinematics in galaxies at greater than or similar to 15 Mpc, and present some

  14. Idiosyncratic versus social consensus approaches to personality : Self-view, perceived, and peer-view similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zalk, M.H.W.; Denissen, J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the current studies, the authors examined how peers influence friendship choices through individuals' perceptions of similarity between their own and others' Big Five traits. Self-reported and peer-reported data were gathered from 3 independent samples using longitudinal round-robin designs.

  15. The empirical versus DSM-oriented approach of the child behavior checklist: Similarities and dissimilarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, M.S. de; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The DSM-oriented approach of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a relatively new classification of problem behavior in children and adolescents. Given the clinical and scientific relevance of the CBCL, this study examines similarities and dissimilarities between the empirical and the

  16. The Empirical Versus DSM-Oriented Approach of the Child Behavior Checklist Similarities and Dissimilarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, Marianne S.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    The DSM-oriented approach of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a relatively new classification of problem behavior in children and adolescents. Given the clinical and scientific relevance of the CBCL, this study examines similarities and dissimilarities between the empirical and the

  17. PEMILIHAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN DI KAMPOENG KOPI BANARAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN METODE ANALYTICAL NETWORK PROCESS (ANP DAN TECHNIQUE FOR ORDER PREFERENCE BY SIMILARITY TO AN IDEAL SOLUTION (TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Susanty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampoeng Kopi Banaran belum dapat mencapai laba sesuai dengan target yang telah ditetapkan. Diduga hal ini terjadi karena semakin banyaknya pesaing dengan usaha sejenis, seperti Cimory, Kampoeng Rawa, Tlogo Plantation, Salib Putih, dan Umbul Sidomukti serta belum dimilikinya strategi pemasaran yang tepat oleh Kampoeng Kopi Banaran. Selama ini, Kampoeng Kopi Banaran baru memasarkan  produk-produk yang dimilikinya dengan menggunakan website, brosur,  dan promosi mulut ke mulut.  Berdasarkan hal tersebut, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  mengidentifikasi kriteria dan subkriteria yang tepat bagi penyusunan strategi pemasaran dari Kampoeng Kopi Banaran, menentukan bobot dari setiap kriteria dan subkriteria tersebut, serta mengusulkan strategi pemasaran tertentu berdasarkan kriteria dan subkriteria tersebut. Dalam penelitian ini, terdapat delapan buah kriteria yang digunakan sebagai dasar untuk menyusun strategi pemasaran bagi Kampoeng Kopi Banaran, yaitu Managerial Capabilities (MC, Market Innovation Capabilities (MIC, Customer Linking Capabilities (CLC, Human Resource Assetes (HRA, Reputational Asset (RA, Competition (C, Economy (E, dan Social and cultural (SC. Selanjutnya kedelapan kriteria tersebut akan dijabarkan lagi menjadi sejumlah subkriteria. Metoda yang digunakan untuk menghitung bobot dari kriteria dan subkriteria adalah Analitycal Network Process (ANP; sedangkan metoda yang digunakan untuk penyusunan strategi pemasaran adalah  Technique for Others Reference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS . Data untuk penelitian ini diperoleh dengan melakukan penyebaran kuesioner kepada manager dan bagian marketing Kampoeng Kopi Banaran. Hasil pengolahan data menunjukkan kriteria yang memiliki bobot tertinggi untuk penyusunan strategi pemasaran di Kampoeng Kopi Banaran adalah Managerial Capabilities (MC (0,1897 dan sub kriteria yagn memiliki bobot tertinggi adalah subkriteria brand atau reputasi (0,1277. Selanjutnya, strategi yang terbaik

  18. Radiation doses during chest examinations using dose modulation techniques in multislice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Roshan S.; Pradip, Joe; Dinakran, Paul M.; Srikanth, B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the radiation dose and image quality using a manual protocol and dose modulation techniques in a 6-slice CT scanner. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-one patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT of the chest were included in the study. For the manual protocol settings, constant tube potential (kV) and tube current-time product (mAs) of 140 kV and 120 mAs, respectively, were used. The angular and z-axis dose modulation techniques utilized a constant tube potential of 140 kV; mAs values were automatically selected by the machine. Effective doses were calculated using dose-length product (DLP) values and the image quality was assessed using the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio values. Mean effective doses using manual protocol for patients of weights 40-60 kg, 61-80 kg, and 81 kg and above were 8.58 mSv, 8.54 mSv, and 9.07 mSv, respectively. Mean effective doses using z-axis dose modulation for patients of weights 40-60 kg, 61-80 kg, and 81 kg and above were 4.95 mSv, 6.87 mSv, and 10.24 mSv, respectively. The SNR at the region of the liver for patients of body weight of 40-60 kg was 5.1 H, 6.2 H, and 8.8 H for manual, angular, and z-axis dose modulation, respectively. Conclusion: Dose reduction of up to 15% was achieved using angular dose modulation and of up to 42% using z-axis dose modulation, with acceptable diagnostic image quality compared to the manual protocol. (author)

  19. Probabilistic evaluation of process model matching techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, Elena; Leopold, Henrik; van der Aa, Han; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Process model matching refers to the automatic identification of corresponding activities between two process models. It represents the basis for many advanced process model analysis techniques such as the identification of similar process parts or process model search. A central problem is how to

  20. Coke detection in furnaces tubes by radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, I.S. dos

    1987-01-01

    The coke detection technique by radiographic examinations allows to quantify the coke in furnace coils of Petroleum refineries and petrochemical industries. The paper describes how was determined the radiographic parameters, the wall apparent thickness calculation, the distance source-film, the position of the source and films, the chosen of films and the calculation of exposure time, aiming to obtain high producticity and good quality image. This technique is being used and improved for more than two years with good results. (E.G.) [pt

  1. SDL: Saliency-Based Dictionary Learning Framework for Image Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rituparna; Acton, Scott T

    2018-02-01

    In image classification, obtaining adequate data to learn a robust classifier has often proven to be difficult in several scenarios. Classification of histological tissue images for health care analysis is a notable application in this context due to the necessity of surgery, biopsy or autopsy. To adequately exploit limited training data in classification, we propose a saliency guided dictionary learning method and subsequently an image similarity technique for histo-pathological image classification. Salient object detection from images aids in the identification of discriminative image features. We leverage the saliency values for the local image regions to learn a dictionary and respective sparse codes for an image, such that the more salient features are reconstructed with smaller error. The dictionary learned from an image gives a compact representation of the image itself and is capable of representing images with similar content, with comparable sparse codes. We employ this idea to design a similarity measure between a pair of images, where local image features of one image, are encoded with the dictionary learned from the other and vice versa. To effectively utilize the learned dictionary, we take into account the contribution of each dictionary atom in the sparse codes to generate a global image representation for image comparison. The efficacy of the proposed method was evaluated using three tissue data sets that consist of mammalian kidney, lung and spleen tissue, breast cancer, and colon cancer tissue images. From the experiments, we observe that our methods outperform the state of the art with an increase of 14.2% in the average classification accuracy over all data sets.

  2. Quality of Heusler single crystals examined by depth-dependent positron annihilation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Bauer, A.; Böni, P.; Ceeh, H.; Eijt, S. W. H.; Gigl, T.; Pfleiderer, C.; Piochacz, C.; Neubauer, A.; Reiner, M.; Schut, H.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-01

    Heusler compounds exhibit a wide range of different electronic ground states and are hence expected to be applicable as functional materials in novel electronic and spintronic devices. Since the growth of large and defect-free Heusler crystals is still challenging, single crystals of Fe2TiSn and Cu2MnAl were grown by the optical floating zone technique. Two positron annihilation techniques—angular correlation of annihilation radiation and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS)—were applied in order to study both the electronic structure and lattice defects. Recently, we succeeded to observe clearly the anisotropy of the Fermi surface of Cu2MnAl, whereas the spectra of Fe2TiSn were disturbed by foreign phases. In order to estimate the defect concentration in different samples of Heusler compounds, the positron diffusion length was determined by DBS using a monoenergetic positron beam.

  3. Optimal neighborhood indexing for protein similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlongo, Pierre; Noé, Laurent; Lavenier, Dominique; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Kucherov, Gregory; Giraud, Mathieu

    2008-12-16

    Similarity inference, one of the main bioinformatics tasks, has to face an exponential growth of the biological data. A classical approach used to cope with this data flow involves heuristics with large seed indexes. In order to speed up this technique, the index can be enhanced by storing additional information to limit the number of random memory accesses. However, this improvement leads to a larger index that may become a bottleneck. In the case of protein similarity search, we propose to decrease the index size by reducing the amino acid alphabet. The paper presents two main contributions. First, we show that an optimal neighborhood indexing combining an alphabet reduction and a longer neighborhood leads to a reduction of 35% of memory involved into the process, without sacrificing the quality of results nor the computational time. Second, our approach led us to develop a new kind of substitution score matrices and their associated e-value parameters. In contrast to usual matrices, these matrices are rectangular since they compare amino acid groups from different alphabets. We describe the method used for computing those matrices and we provide some typical examples that can be used in such comparisons. Supplementary data can be found on the website http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/reblosum. We propose a practical index size reduction of the neighborhood data, that does not negatively affect the performance of large-scale search in protein sequences. Such an index can be used in any study involving large protein data. Moreover, rectangular substitution score matrices and their associated statistical parameters can have applications in any study involving an alphabet reduction.

  4. Optimal neighborhood indexing for protein similarity search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarity inference, one of the main bioinformatics tasks, has to face an exponential growth of the biological data. A classical approach used to cope with this data flow involves heuristics with large seed indexes. In order to speed up this technique, the index can be enhanced by storing additional information to limit the number of random memory accesses. However, this improvement leads to a larger index that may become a bottleneck. In the case of protein similarity search, we propose to decrease the index size by reducing the amino acid alphabet. Results The paper presents two main contributions. First, we show that an optimal neighborhood indexing combining an alphabet reduction and a longer neighborhood leads to a reduction of 35% of memory involved into the process, without sacrificing the quality of results nor the computational time. Second, our approach led us to develop a new kind of substitution score matrices and their associated e-value parameters. In contrast to usual matrices, these matrices are rectangular since they compare amino acid groups from different alphabets. We describe the method used for computing those matrices and we provide some typical examples that can be used in such comparisons. Supplementary data can be found on the website http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/reblosum. Conclusion We propose a practical index size reduction of the neighborhood data, that does not negatively affect the performance of large-scale search in protein sequences. Such an index can be used in any study involving large protein data. Moreover, rectangular substitution score matrices and their associated statistical parameters can have applications in any study involving an alphabet reduction.

  5. Learning mediastinoscopy: the need for education, experience and modern techniques--interdependency of the applied technique and surgeon's training level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walles, Thorsten; Friedel, Godehard; Stegherr, Tobias; Steger, Volker

    2013-04-01

    Mediastinoscopy represents the gold standard for invasive mediastinal staging. While learning and teaching the surgical technique are challenging due to the limited accessibility of the operation field, both benefited from the implementation of video-assisted techniques. However, it has not been established yet whether video-assisted mediastinoscopy improves the mediastinal staging in itself. Retrospective single-centre cohort analysis of 657 mediastinoscopies performed at a specialized tertiary care thoracic surgery unit from 1994 to 2006. The number of specimens obtained per procedure and per lymph node station (2, 4, 7, 8 for mediastinoscopy and 2-9 for open lymphadenectomy), the number of lymph node stations examined, sensitivity and negative predictive value with a focus on the technique employed (video-assisted vs standard technique) and the surgeon's experience were calculated. Overall sensitivity was 60%, accuracy was 90% and negative predictive value 88%. With the conventional technique, experience alone improved sensitivity from 49 to 57% and it was predominant at the paratracheal right region (from 62 to 82%). But with the video-assisted technique, experienced surgeons rose sensitivity from 57 to 79% in contrast to inexperienced surgeons who lowered sensitivity from 49 to 33%. We found significant differences concerning (i) the total number of specimens taken, (ii) the amount of lymph node stations examined, (iii) the number of specimens taken per lymph node station and (iv) true positive mediastinoscopies. The video-assisted technique can significantly improve the results of mediastinoscopy. A thorough education on the modern video-assisted technique is mandatory for thoracic surgeons until they can fully exhaust its potential.

  6. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  7. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Wilson, David C

    2008-03-01

    Because research is needed to identify the conditions that facilitate or impede the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination, the authors examined the effects of demographics and demographic similarity on the prevalence of sex- and race/ethnicity-based perceived workplace discrimination. Results from a national survey of 763 full-time, United States employees show perceived sex-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among female than male employees, and perceived race-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among Black and Hispanic than White employees. Additionally, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was less prevalent among those with same-race/ethnicity supervisors. The effect of employee-coworker sex similarity on perceived sex discrimination was significant only for women, and the effects of supervisor-subordinate racial similarity on the prevalence of perceived racial discrimination varied between Black and White respondents, depending on employee-residential-community racial similarity. Copyright 2008 APA

  8. Proceedings for the nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination waste characterization conference. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report contains paper presented at the 5th Nondestructive Assay and nondestructive Examination Waste Characterization conference. Topics included compliance, neutron NDA techniques, gamma NDA techniques, tomographic methods, and NDA modality and information combination techniques. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  9. Proceedings for the nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination waste characterization conference. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains paper presented at the 5th Nondestructive Assay and nondestructive Examination Waste Characterization conference. Topics included compliance, neutron NDA techniques, gamma NDA techniques, tomographic methods, and NDA modality and information combination techniques. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases

  10. Examining Mobile Learning Trends 2003-2008: A Categorical Meta-Trend Analysis Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Long; Zhang, Ke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of academic articles in Mobile Learning (ML) using text mining techniques. One hundred and nineteen (119) refereed journal articles and proceedings papers from the SCI/SSCI database were retrieved and analyzed. The taxonomies of ML publications were grouped into twelve clusters (topics) and four…

  11. Metrology Techniques for the Assembly of NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priniski, C.; Dodson, T.; Duco, M.; Raftopoulos, S.; Ellis, R.; Brooks, A.

    2009-01-01

    In support of the National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX), stellerator assembly activities continued this past year at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in partnership with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The construction program saw the completion of the first two Half Field-Period Assemblies (HPA), each consisting of three modular coils. The full machine includes six such sub-assemblies. A single HPA consists of three of the NCSX modular coils wound and assembled at PPPL. These geometrically-complex three dimensional coils were wound using computer-aided metrology and CAD models to tolerances within +/- 0.5mm. The assembly of these coils required similar accuracy on a larger scale with the added complexity of more individual parts and fewer degrees of freedom for correction. Several new potential positioning issues developed for which measurement and control techniques were developed. To accomplish this, CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and software similar to the solutions employed for winding the modular coils was used. Given the size of the assemblies, the primary tools were both interferometer aided and Absolute Distance Measurement (ADM)-only based laser trackers. In addition, portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms and some novel indirect measurement techniques were employed. This paper will detail both the use of CAD coordinate-based metrology technology and the techniques developed and employed for dimensional control of NSCX subassemblies. The results achieved and possible improvements to techniques will be discussed.

  12. Justification for the Subject of Congruence and Similarity in the Context of Daily Life and Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sefa; Gündüz, Nazan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine prospective elementary mathematics teachers' conceptual knowledge level for congruence and similarity in triangles subject and to examine their ability to represent the knowledge, to associate the knowledge with daily life, and to justify and solve the geometry problems about this subject. The study is designed in a…

  13. Predictive value of the korean academy of family medicine in-training examination for certifying examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Jin; Kim, Ji-Yong

    2011-09-01

    In-training examination (ITE) is a cognitive examination similar to the written test, but it is different from the Clinical Practice Examination of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine (KAFM) Certification Examination (CE). The objective of this is to estimate the positive predictive value of the KAFM-ITE for identifying residents at risk for poor performance on the three types of KAFM-CE. 372 residents who completed the KAFM-CE in 2011 were included. We compared the mean KAFM-CE scores with ITE experience. We evaluated the correlation and the positive predictive value (PPV) of ITE for the multiple choice question (MCQ) scores of 1st written test & 2nd slide examination, the total clinical practice examination scores, and the total sum of 2nd test. 275 out of 372 residents completed ITE. Those who completed ITE had significantly higher MCQ scores of 1st written test than those who did not. The correlation of ITE scores with 1st written MCQ (0.627) was found to be the highest among the other kinds of CE. The PPV of the ITE score for 1st written MCQ scores was 0.672. The PPV of the ITE score ranged from 0.376 to 0.502. The score of the KAFM ITE has acceptable positive predictive value that could be used as a part of comprehensive evaluation system for residents in cognitive field.

  14. Social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy aging: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2014-12-01

    Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness and whether emotion perception is selectively affected. To study this we examined the perception of emotional and non-emotional clues in facial expressions, a key social cognitive skill, in schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals using young healthy individuals as reference. Tests of object recognition, visual orientation, psychomotor speed, and working memory were included to allow multivariate analysis taking into account other cognitive functions Schizophrenia patients showed impairments in recognition of identity and emotional facial clues compared to young and old healthy groups. Severity was similar to that for object recognition and visuospatial processing. Older and younger healthy groups did not differ from each other on these tests. Schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals were similarly impaired in the ability to automatically learn new faces during the testing procedure (measured by the CSTFAC index) compared to young healthy individuals. Social cognition is distinctly impaired in schizophrenia compared to healthy aging. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of automatic social cognitive learning impairment in schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals and determine whether similar neural systems are affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A concise account of techniques available for shipboard sea state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2017-01-01

    This article gives a review of techniques applied to make sea state estimation on the basis of measured responses on a ship. The general concept of the procedures is similar to that of a classical wave buoy, which exploits a linear assumption between waves and the associated motions. In the frequ......This article gives a review of techniques applied to make sea state estimation on the basis of measured responses on a ship. The general concept of the procedures is similar to that of a classical wave buoy, which exploits a linear assumption between waves and the associated motions...

  16. Comparison of survey techniques on detection of northern flying squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Gilley, L. Michelle; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect a species is central to the success of monitoring for conservation and management purposes, especially if the species is rare or endangered. Traditional methods, such as live capture, can be labor-intensive, invasive, and produce low detection rates. Technological advances and new approaches provide opportunities to more effectively survey for species both in terms of accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. We conducted a pilot comparison study of a traditional technique (live-trapping) and 2 novel noninvasive techniques (camera-trapping and ultrasonic acoustic surveys) on detection rates of the federally endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in occupied habitat within the Roan Mountain Highlands of North Carolina, USA. In 2015, we established 3 5 × 5 live-trapping grids (6.5 ha) with 4 camera traps and 4 acoustic detectors systematically embedded in each grid. All 3 techniques were used simultaneously during 2 4-day survey periods. We compared techniques by assessing probability of detection (POD), latency to detection (LTD; i.e., no. of survey nights until initial detection), and survey effort. Acoustics had the greatest POD (0.37 ± 0.06 SE), followed by camera traps (0.30 ± 0.06) and live traps (0.01 ± 0.005). Acoustics had a lower LTD than camera traps (P = 0.017), where average LTD was 1.5 nights for acoustics and 3.25 nights for camera traps. Total field effort was greatest with live traps (111.9 hr) followed by acoustics (8.4 hr) and camera traps (9.6 hr), although processing and examination for data of noninvasive techniques made overall effort similar among the 3 methods. This pilot study demonstrated that both noninvasive methods were better rapid-assessment detection techniques for flying squirrels than live traps. However, determining seasonal effects between survey techniques and further development of protocols for both noninvasive techniques is

  17. Measuring user similarity using electric circuit analysis: application to collaborative filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joonhyuk; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Young Hwan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user-item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems.

  18. Measuring user similarity using electric circuit analysis: application to collaborative filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhyuk Yang

    Full Text Available We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user-item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems.

  19. No SQL, No Injection? Examining NoSQL Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ron, Aviv; Shulman-Peleg, Alexandra; Bronshtein, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    NoSQL data storage systems have become very popular due to their scalability and ease of use. This paper examines the maturity of security measures for NoSQL databases, addressing their new query and access mechanisms. For example the emergence of new query formats makes the old SQL injection techniques irrelevant, but are NoSQL databases immune to injection in general? The answer is NO. Here we present a few techniques for attacking NoSQL databases such as injections and CSRF. We analyze the...

  20. Active vibration control by robust control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohar, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies active vibration control of multi-degree-of-freedom system. The control techniques considered are LTR, H/sup 2/ and H/sup infinite/. The results show that LTR controls the vibration but its respective settling time is higher than that of the other techniques. The control performance of H/sup infinite/ control is similar to that of H/sup 2/ control in the case of it weighting functions. However, H/sup infinite/ control is superior to H/sup 2/ control with respect to robustness, steady state error and settling time. (author)

  1. Cortical Response Similarities Predict which Audiovisual Clips Individuals Viewed, but Are Unrelated to Clip Preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Bridwell

    Full Text Available Cortical responses to complex natural stimuli can be isolated by examining the relationship between neural measures obtained while multiple individuals view the same stimuli. These inter-subject correlation's (ISC's emerge from similarities in individual's cortical response to the shared audiovisual inputs, which may be related to their emergent cognitive and perceptual experience. Within the present study, our goal is to examine the utility of using ISC's for predicting which audiovisual clips individuals viewed, and to examine the relationship between neural responses to natural stimuli and subjective reports. The ability to predict which clips individuals viewed depends on the relationship of the EEG response across subjects and the nature in which this information is aggregated. We conceived of three approaches for aggregating responses, i.e. three assignment algorithms, which we evaluated in Experiment 1A. The aggregate correlations algorithm generated the highest assignment accuracy (70.83% chance = 33.33% and was selected as the assignment algorithm for the larger sample of individuals and clips within Experiment 1B. The overall assignment accuracy was 33.46% within Experiment 1B (chance = 06.25%, with accuracies ranging from 52.9% (Silver Linings Playbook to 11.75% (Seinfeld within individual clips. ISC's were significantly greater than zero for 15 out of 16 clips, and fluctuations within the delta frequency band (i.e. 0-4 Hz primarily contributed to response similarities across subjects. Interestingly, there was insufficient evidence to indicate that individuals with greater similarities in clip preference demonstrate greater similarities in cortical responses, suggesting a lack of association between ISC and clip preference. Overall these results demonstrate the utility of using ISC's for prediction, and further characterize the relationship between ISC magnitudes and subjective reports.

  2. Cortical Response Similarities Predict which Audiovisual Clips Individuals Viewed, but Are Unrelated to Clip Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridwell, David A; Roth, Cullen; Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-01-01

    Cortical responses to complex natural stimuli can be isolated by examining the relationship between neural measures obtained while multiple individuals view the same stimuli. These inter-subject correlation's (ISC's) emerge from similarities in individual's cortical response to the shared audiovisual inputs, which may be related to their emergent cognitive and perceptual experience. Within the present study, our goal is to examine the utility of using ISC's for predicting which audiovisual clips individuals viewed, and to examine the relationship between neural responses to natural stimuli and subjective reports. The ability to predict which clips individuals viewed depends on the relationship of the EEG response across subjects and the nature in which this information is aggregated. We conceived of three approaches for aggregating responses, i.e. three assignment algorithms, which we evaluated in Experiment 1A. The aggregate correlations algorithm generated the highest assignment accuracy (70.83% chance = 33.33%) and was selected as the assignment algorithm for the larger sample of individuals and clips within Experiment 1B. The overall assignment accuracy was 33.46% within Experiment 1B (chance = 06.25%), with accuracies ranging from 52.9% (Silver Linings Playbook) to 11.75% (Seinfeld) within individual clips. ISC's were significantly greater than zero for 15 out of 16 clips, and fluctuations within the delta frequency band (i.e. 0-4 Hz) primarily contributed to response similarities across subjects. Interestingly, there was insufficient evidence to indicate that individuals with greater similarities in clip preference demonstrate greater similarities in cortical responses, suggesting a lack of association between ISC and clip preference. Overall these results demonstrate the utility of using ISC's for prediction, and further characterize the relationship between ISC magnitudes and subjective reports.

  3. Requirements for a cocitation similarity measure, with special reference to Pearson's correlation coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlgren, P.; Jarneving, B.; ROUSSEAU, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Author cocitation analysis (ACA), a special type of cocitation analysis, was introduced by White and Griffith in 1981. This technique is used to analyze the intellectual structure of a given scientific field. In 1990, McCain published a technical overview that has been largely adopted as a standard. Here, McCain notes that Pearson's correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) is often used as a similarity measure in ACA and presents some advantages of its use. The present article criticizes the use...

  4. In situ ultrasonic examination of high-strength steam generator support bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently employed high-strength steam generator support bolting material (designed prior to ASME Section III Part NF or Component Supports), 38.1 mm in diameter, in combination with high preloads are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking because of the relatively low stress corrosion resistance (K/sub ISCC/) properties. These bolts are part of the pressurized water reactor steam generator supports at the integral support pads (three per steam generator, with each pad housing six, eight, or ten bolts depending on the design). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerns for high-strength bolting were identified in NUREG-0577, ''Potential for Low Fracture Toughness and Laminar Tearing in PWR Steam Generator and Reactor Coolant Pump Supports,'' which was issued for comment on unresolved safety issue A-12. Subsequently, the bolting issues were addressed in generic issue B29. One of the issues deals specifically with high-strength bolting materials, which are vulnerable to stress corrosion cracking. A Westinghouse Owners Group funded program was established to develop in situ ultrasonic examination techniques to determine steam generator support bolting integrity at the head-to-shank and first-thread locations. This program was established in order to determine bolting integrity in place. Ultrasonic techniques were developed for both socket-head and flat-head bolt configurations. As a result of this program, in situ ultrasonic examination techniques were developed for examination of PWR steam generator support bolts. By employing these techniques utilities will be able to ensure the integrity of this in-place bolting without incurring the costs previously experienced during removal for surface examinations

  5. Ultrasonic examination of ceramics and composites for porosities in an automatic scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundtoft, H.E.

    1988-05-01

    Using a very precise scanning system and computer evaluation, we can get quantitative results from automatic ultrasonic examination. In this paper two examples dealing with nonmetallic materials are presented. In a ceramic plate (>1 inch thick) small spherical prorosities (down to 0.1 mm) would harm the final product. Several artificial defects made in the plate were used for calibration and optimisation of the technique. Areas with with a microscope. Good agreement with the predicted values from the ultrasonic examination was found. From the NDT-examination the exact position of a porosity is known in all 3 coordinates (x, y and z). The size of the defect can also be measured. A single porosity with a diameter of 0.1 mm can be detected. Carbon-reinforced composites were examined. 8 prepregs were stacked and hardened in an autoclave to form a sheet (1 mm thick). Air trapped in the material resulted in porosities in the final product. A double trough transmission-scanning technique was used for the examination. The porosity percentages were determined by the NDT-technique, and agreement with destructivly determined values on samples from the same sheet was found.

  6. Noise diagnostic: An advanced technique in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the main steps of the noise analysis technique implementation in our country from 1988. The review identifies two main areas, improvements of Nuclear Power Plant operational surveillance techniques and non-nuclear industrial applications. Also reported are some of the on going researches programs including projects on noise analysis instrumentation developments at the Higher Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technology

  7. Problems associated with basic oral surgical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatkin, A.S.; Marretta, S.M.; Schloss, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The veterinarian must be able to diagnose several types of dental problems. History, physical examination, clinical pathology, and radiography are important in making an accurate diagnosis. Basic oral surgery includes various extraction techniques and management of their associated complications. Knowledge of dental anatomy and proper surgical technique can make an extraction curative rather than a frustrating procedure with multiple complications

  8. Examination of the regional distribution of minor and trace elements in normal human brain by PIXE and chemometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Hebbrecht, G.; Reuck, J. de

    1993-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure two minor and six trace elements, i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb, in up to 50 different structures (regions) of brains from Belgian individuals without neurological disorders. The data matrix with the mean dry-weight elemental concentrations and mean wet-to-dry weight ratio (means over 18 brains) for the various structures was subjected to two chemometric techniques, i.e., VARIMAX rotated absolute principal component analysis (APCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. Three components were identified by APCA: Components 1 and 3 represented aqueous fractions of the brain (respectively the intracellular and extracellular fluid), whereas component 2 apparently represented the solid brain fraction. The elements K, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were predominantly attributed to component 1, Ca to component 3, and Fe to component 2. In the hierarchical cluster analysis seven different agglomerative cluster strategies were compared. The dendrograms obtained from the furthest neighbor and Ward's error sum strategy were virtually identical, and they consisted of two large clusters with 30 and 16 structures, respectively. The first cluster included all gray matter structures, while the second comprised all white matter. Furthermore, structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in one subcluster. This strongly suggests that there is some relationship between the trace element profile of a brain structure and its function. (orig.)

  9. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  10. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, Nicholas V

    2018-01-01

    This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC) research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index) are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator) has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures); some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state), while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation). Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology policy researchers

  11. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V Olijnyk

    Full Text Available This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures; some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state, while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation. Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology

  12. TMI-2 quick look examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, W.A.; Rider, R.L.; Austin, W.A.; Cole, N.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this work, conducted under the Department of Energy's Reactor Evaluation Program, was to gain the earliest possible access to the TMI-2 reactor vessel and to determine the condition of the plenum assembly and the reactor core. Completion of this examination has also provided substantial progress towards removal of the reactor vessel head and eventual defueling. Two methods were developed for gaining through-head access. The first involves removal of an entire CRDM, providing a 6.8-cm-diameter access through the nozzle. In case normal uncoupling proved unsuccessful, contingency techniques were developed to disconnect the leadscrew. Two contingency procedures, one ex-head and one in-head, were developed. A second technique for through-head access, the so-called Quick Look technique, was developed at the suggestion of the Technical Assessment and Advisory Group (TAAG), a group of senior technical people funded by DOE to advise GPU Nuclear on the TMI-2 recovery. This simplified method involves uncoupling and removing a CRDM leadscrew by basically normal methods and inserting a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera directly through the space vacated by the leadscrew

  13. Neural Pattern Similarity in the Left IFG and Fusiform Is Associated with Novel Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that greater neural pattern similarity across repetitions is associated with better subsequent memory. In this study, we used an artificial language training paradigm and representational similarity analysis to examine whether neural pattern similarity across repetitions before training was associated with post-training behavioral performance. Twenty-four native Chinese speakers were trained to learn a logographic artificial language for 12 days and behavioral performance was recorded using the word naming and picture naming tasks. Participants were scanned while performing a passive viewing task before training, after 4-day training and after 12-day training. Results showed that pattern similarity in the left pars opercularis (PO and fusiform gyrus (FG before training was negatively associated with reaction time (RT in both word naming and picture naming tasks after training. These results suggest that neural pattern similarity is an effective neurofunctional predictor of novel word learning in addition to word memory.

  14. Neural Pattern Similarity in the Left IFG and Fusiform Is Associated with Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jing; Qian, Liu; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Li, Huiling; Xie, Peng; Mei, Leilei

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that greater neural pattern similarity across repetitions is associated with better subsequent memory. In this study, we used an artificial language training paradigm and representational similarity analysis to examine whether neural pattern similarity across repetitions before training was associated with post-training behavioral performance. Twenty-four native Chinese speakers were trained to learn a logographic artificial language for 12 days and behavioral performance was recorded using the word naming and picture naming tasks. Participants were scanned while performing a passive viewing task before training, after 4-day training and after 12-day training. Results showed that pattern similarity in the left pars opercularis (PO) and fusiform gyrus (FG) before training was negatively associated with reaction time (RT) in both word naming and picture naming tasks after training. These results suggest that neural pattern similarity is an effective neurofunctional predictor of novel word learning in addition to word memory. PMID:28878640

  15. New electronic filtering technique in digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacul, F; Pozzi-Mucelli, R; Predonzan, F; Magnaldi, S; Godina, G

    1986-01-01

    The authors report their experience with a new electronic filtering technique in digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The principles of the technique are reported and the advantages in comparison with conventional filters are stressed (accurate and fast placement without fluoroscopic exposure). The system provided excellent results in about 900 DSA examinations.

  16. Measuring transferring similarity via local information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Likang; Deng, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Recommender systems have developed along with the web science, and how to measure the similarity between users is crucial for processing collaborative filtering recommendation. Many efficient models have been proposed (i.g., the Pearson coefficient) to measure the direct correlation. However, the direct correlation measures are greatly affected by the sparsity of dataset. In other words, the direct correlation measures would present an inauthentic similarity if two users have a very few commonly selected objects. Transferring similarity overcomes this drawback by considering their common neighbors (i.e., the intermediates). Yet, the transferring similarity also has its drawback since it can only provide the interval of similarity. To break the limitations, we propose the Belief Transferring Similarity (BTS) model. The contributions of BTS model are: (1) BTS model addresses the issue of the sparsity of dataset by considering the high-order similarity. (2) BTS model transforms uncertain interval to a certain state based on fuzzy systems theory. (3) BTS model is able to combine the transferring similarity of different intermediates using information fusion method. Finally, we compare BTS models with nine different link prediction methods in nine different networks, and we also illustrate the convergence property and efficiency of the BTS model.

  17. Application of petrographic examination techniques to the assessment of fire-damaged concrete and masonry structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, Jeremy P.

    2009-01-01

    The number of building fires has doubled over the last 50 years. There has never been a greater need for structures to be assessed for fire damage to ensure safety and enable appropriate repairs to be planned. Fortunately, even after a severe fire, concrete and masonry structures are generally capable of being repaired rather than demolished. By allowing direct examination of microcracking and mineralogical changes, petrographic examination has become widely used to determine the depth of fire damage for reinforced concrete elements. Petrographic examination can also be applied to fire-damaged masonry structures built of materials such as stone, brick and mortar. Petrography can ensure accurate detection of damaged geomaterials, which provides cost savings during building repair and increased safety reassurance. This paper comprises a review of the role of petrography in fire damage assessments, drawing on a range of actual fire damage investigations.

  18. Transuranic waste examination quality assurance at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Programs is the proper management of the defense-generated TRU waste. The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored contact handled TRU waste in order to certify it to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Crtieria (WIPP-WAC). SWEPP's capabilities for certifying contact handled waste containers include weighing, real-time radiographic examination, fissile material assay examination, container integrity examination, radiological surveys and labeling of waste containers. These processes involve not only instrument accuracy but also a wide range of technician interpretation from moderate on the assay to 100% on the radiograph. This, therefore, requires a variety of quality assurance techniques to ensure that the examinations and certifications are being performed correctly. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methods utilized by SWEPP for checking on the examination process and to ensure that waste certifications are being properly performed. Included is the application of the quality assurance techniques to each examination system, the management of the data generated by the examination, and the verifications to ensure accurate certification. 1 ref

  19. Kinematics changes in technique of a softball pitch

    OpenAIRE

    Tomášek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Headline: Kinematic changes in technique of a softball pitch. Aims of thesis: I will compare the pitches ofprofessinal european softball wonam pitchers and then I will compare their technique with professional czech woman pitcher. Methods: Results: Key words: For examination of different techniques, I choosed thease professinal european softball wonam pitchers 3 Italians and 2 Greeks. Videotape was taken on European championship 2005 in Prague. For description of softball pitch I used a metho...

  20. Physical articular examination in the activity of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of the literature : Systematic review of the literature regarding physical examination in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Yimy F; Ruíz-Gaviria, Rafael Eduardo; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Villota, Catalina

    2018-06-01

    To summarize evidence concerning the articular examination needed to determine rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity (follow-up or control) via a systematic review. A search of Medline, Embase, Lilacs, SciELO, the Web of Science, the National Technical Reports Library, and the reference lists of relevant studies through March 2017 was conducted using a systematic methodology to identify studies of patients with RA older than 18 years in which a detailed description of the physical examination or a description of the components of the articular examination was provided. Of 8322 references, 74 studies were included according to the selection criteria, and 6 references were ultimately included at the end of the review. Most of the included studies (n = 5) were associated with a moderate risk of bias. There was great variability among the studies and the articular examination methods used. Some studies presented the examination with a complete specification of the technique (n = 2), the consensus of rheumatologists (n = 2), or training through audiovisual materials and face-to-face courses (n = 2), but none of the studies explicitly showed the technique by which the physical examination was performed. Despite the importance of the clinical evaluation and physical examination of patients with RA for diagnosis, prognosis, clinimetrics, and follow-up, evidence concerning how to perform the articular examination is scarce.

  1. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  2. Cross-National Similarities and Differences in Employee Perceptions of Issues in the Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…

  3. Technical quality of lower intestinal tract contrast examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Antonio L.E. de; Rodrigues, Rosana S.; Brasil, Flavio A.; Carmo, Maria L.R. do; Quinonez, Mireya D.; Peli, Ling Pei Huang; Moraes, Monica M. de; Pereira, Abercio A.; Koch, Hilton A.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an investigation of the quality of a barium enema examination release on the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho radiodiagnostic service. A sectional study was carried out from March 1994 and will continue till February 1995. The elaboration of a questionary was originated by the necessity of establishing quality control, evaluate their diagnosis usefulness and cost analysis. Data was obtained from patient's dossiers as well as from careful radiological examination analysis. A quantification formulary allowed standardization of the results and also the construction of a data bank. Finally, the authors analyze the several variables like preliminary cleansing of the colon, contrast media characters, techniques of examination performance and other factors that influence the final quality of the examination. (author)

  4. Attempt to run urinary protein electrophoresis using capillary technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Michele

    2014-10-01

    The study of urinary protein has a predominant place in the diagnosis of kidney disease. The most common technique is agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE). For several years, the technique of choice applied to the analysis of serum proteins has been CE, a system that uses capillary fused silica, subjected to high voltage to separate and measure serum proteins. The purpose of this paper was to perform capillary electrophoresis on urinary proteins which, at present, are not interpretable due to the many nonspecific peaks visible when using gel electrophoresis. In order to carry out our research, we used a capillary V8 analyzer together with an agarose gel system from the same company. AGE was taken as the reference method, for which urine was used without any pretreatment. For the V8 system, urine was subjected to purification on granular-activated carbon and then inserted into the V8 analyzer, selecting a program suitable for liquids with low protein content. We examined 19 urine samples collected over 24 hrs from both hospitalized and external patients with different types of proteinuria plus a serum diluted 1/61 considered as a control to recognize the bands. Both methods showed the same protein fractions and classified the proteinuria in a similar way. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Double-contrast examination of the gastric antrum without Duodenal superposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treugut, H.; Isper, J.

    1980-01-01

    By using a modified technique of double-contrast examination of the stomach it was possible in 75% to perform a study without superposition of the duodenum and jejunum on the distal stomach compared to 36% with the usual method. In this technique a small amount (50 ml) of Barium-suspension is given to the patient in left decubitus position by a straw or gastric tube after antiperistaltic medication. There was no difference in the quality of mucosa-coating compared to the technique using higher volumes of Barium. (orig.) [de

  6. Classification of high-resolution multi-swath hyperspectral data using Landsat 8 surface reflectance data as a calibration target and a novel histogram based unsupervised classification technique to determine natural classes from biophysically relevant fit parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, C.; Repasky, K. S.; Morin, M.; Lawrence, R. L.; Powell, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    Compact, cost-effective, flight-based hyperspectral imaging systems can provide scientifically relevant data over large areas for a variety of applications such as ecosystem studies, precision agriculture, and land management. To fully realize this capability, unsupervised classification techniques based on radiometrically-calibrated data that cluster based on biophysical similarity rather than simply spectral similarity are needed. An automated technique to produce high-resolution, large-area, radiometrically-calibrated hyperspectral data sets based on the Landsat surface reflectance data product as a calibration target was developed and applied to three subsequent years of data covering approximately 1850 hectares. The radiometrically-calibrated data allows inter-comparison of the temporal series. Advantages of the radiometric calibration technique include the need for minimal site access, no ancillary instrumentation, and automated processing. Fitting the reflectance spectra of each pixel using a set of biophysically relevant basis functions reduces the data from 80 spectral bands to 9 parameters providing noise reduction and data compression. Examination of histograms of these parameters allows for determination of natural splitting into biophysical similar clusters. This method creates clusters that are similar in terms of biophysical parameters, not simply spectral proximity. Furthermore, this method can be applied to other data sets, such as urban scenes, by developing other physically meaningful basis functions. The ability to use hyperspectral imaging for a variety of important applications requires the development of data processing techniques that can be automated. The radiometric-calibration combined with the histogram based unsupervised classification technique presented here provide one potential avenue for managing big-data associated with hyperspectral imaging.

  7. Using sequence similarity networks for visualization of relationships across diverse protein superfamilies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J Atkinson

    Full Text Available The dramatic increase in heterogeneous types of biological data--in particular, the abundance of new protein sequences--requires fast and user-friendly methods for organizing this information in a way that enables functional inference. The most widely used strategy to link sequence or structure to function, homology-based function prediction, relies on the fundamental assumption that sequence or structural similarity implies functional similarity. New tools that extend this approach are still urgently needed to associate sequence data with biological information in ways that accommodate the real complexity of the problem, while being accessible to experimental as well as computational biologists. To address this, we have examined the application of sequence similarity networks for visualizing functional trends across protein superfamilies from the context of sequence similarity. Using three large groups of homologous proteins of varying types of structural and functional diversity--GPCRs and kinases from humans, and the crotonase superfamily of enzymes--we show that overlaying networks with orthogonal information is a powerful approach for observing functional themes and revealing outliers. In comparison to other primary methods, networks provide both a good representation of group-wise sequence similarity relationships and a strong visual and quantitative correlation with phylogenetic trees, while enabling analysis and visualization of much larger sets of sequences than trees or multiple sequence alignments can easily accommodate. We also define important limitations and caveats in the application of these networks. As a broadly accessible and effective tool for the exploration of protein superfamilies, sequence similarity networks show great potential for generating testable hypotheses about protein structure-function relationships.

  8. Using sequence similarity networks for visualization of relationships across diverse protein superfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Holly J; Morris, John H; Ferrin, Thomas E; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic increase in heterogeneous types of biological data--in particular, the abundance of new protein sequences--requires fast and user-friendly methods for organizing this information in a way that enables functional inference. The most widely used strategy to link sequence or structure to function, homology-based function prediction, relies on the fundamental assumption that sequence or structural similarity implies functional similarity. New tools that extend this approach are still urgently needed to associate sequence data with biological information in ways that accommodate the real complexity of the problem, while being accessible to experimental as well as computational biologists. To address this, we have examined the application of sequence similarity networks for visualizing functional trends across protein superfamilies from the context of sequence similarity. Using three large groups of homologous proteins of varying types of structural and functional diversity--GPCRs and kinases from humans, and the crotonase superfamily of enzymes--we show that overlaying networks with orthogonal information is a powerful approach for observing functional themes and revealing outliers. In comparison to other primary methods, networks provide both a good representation of group-wise sequence similarity relationships and a strong visual and quantitative correlation with phylogenetic trees, while enabling analysis and visualization of much larger sets of sequences than trees or multiple sequence alignments can easily accommodate. We also define important limitations and caveats in the application of these networks. As a broadly accessible and effective tool for the exploration of protein superfamilies, sequence similarity networks show great potential for generating testable hypotheses about protein structure-function relationships.

  9. Taking "O" Level GCE Examinations: The Strategies Employed by Candidates and Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of study techniques and test-taking strategies to success on the "O" level of the British General Certificate of Education (GCE) examination. Findings showed that teachers and students felt that course reviews, including study of past examinations, was the best preparation. (AM)

  10. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tania, U T; Motakabber, S M A; Ibrahimy, M I

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate

  11. A COMPARISON OF TWO FUZZY CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - In fuzzy clustering, unlike hard clustering, depending on the membership value, a single object may belong exactly to one cluster or partially to more than one cluster. Out of a number of fuzzy clustering techniques Bezdek’s Fuzzy C-Means and GustafsonKessel clustering techniques are well known where Euclidian distance and Mahalanobis distance are used respectively as a measure of similarity. We have applied these two fuzzy clustering techniques on a dataset of individual differences consisting of fifty feature vectors of dimension (feature three. Based on some validity measures we have tried to see the performances of these two clustering techniques from three different aspects- first, by initializing the membership values of the feature vectors considering the values of the three features separately one at a time, secondly, by changing the number of the predefined clusters and thirdly, by changing the size of the dataset.

  12. A Quantitative Technique for Beginning Microscopists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Marshall D.

    1984-01-01

    Stereology is the study of three-dimensional objects through the interpretation of two-dimensional images. Stereological techniques used in introductory botany to quantitatively examine changes in leaf anatomy in response to different environments are discussed. (JN)

  13. Progress involving new techniques for liposome preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of new techniques being used for the preparation of liposomes. A total of 28 publications were examined. In addition to the theories, characteristics and problems associated with traditional methods, the advantages and drawbacks of the latest techniques were reviewed. In the light of developments in many relevant areas, a variety of new techniques are being used for liposome preparation and each of these new technique has particular advantages over conventional preparation methods. However, there are still some problems associated with these new techniques that could hinder their applications and further improvements are needed. Generally speaking, due to the introduction of these latest techniques, liposome preparation is now an improved procedure. These applications promote not only advances in liposome research but also the methods for their production on an industrial scale.

  14. [Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy: differences and similarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler-Schülein, Hemma; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalysis as well as Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy derived from Psychoanalysis are efficient methods offered by the Austrian health care system in the treatment for anxiety, depression, personality disorders, neurotic and somatoform disorders. In both methods similar basic treatment techniques are applied. Therefore differentiation between both treatment options often is made pragmatically by the frequency of sessions or the use of the couch and seems to be vague in the light of empirical studies. This overview focuses a potential differentiation-the objective and subjective dimensions of the indication process. Concerning the latter it is to investigate, if reflective functioning and ego-integration can be enhanced in the patient during the interaction process between patient and psychoanalyst. Empirical data underline the necessity to investigate to which extent externalizing defence processes are used and to integrate such factors into the decision and indication process. Differing treatment aims display another possibility to differentiate psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims for example more at circumscribed problem-foci, the capability for self-reflexion is one of the most prominent treatment effects in psychoanalysis that results in on-going symptom reduction and resilience. The most prominent differentiation lies in the utilization of technical neutrality. Within Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy neutrality has sometimes to be suspended in order to stop severe acting out. Empirical evidence is given concerning the differentiation between psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, that treatment efficacy is not correlated with the duration of the treatment, but with the frequency of sessions. Results give support to the assumption that the dosage of specific and appropriate psychoanalytic techniques facilitates sustained therapeutic change.

  15. A video authentication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  16. Ultrasonic phased array examination of circumferential weld joint in reactor pressure vessel of BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekar, Paritosh, E-mail: pnanekar@barc.gov.in [Quality Assurance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jothilakshmi, N. [Quality Assurance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Phased array technique developed for weld joint inspection in BWR pressure vessel. • Simulation studies were carried out for conventional and phased array probe. • Conventional ultrasonic test shows in-adequate weld coverage and poor resolution. • Focused sound beam in phased array results in good resolution and sensitivity. • Ultrasonic phased array technique is validated on mock-up with reference defects. - Abstract: The weld joints in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) are required to be examined periodically for assurance of structural integrity. Ultrasonic phased array examination technique has been developed in authors’ laboratory for inspection of the top flange to shell circumferential weld joint in RPV of BWRs, which are in operation in India since the late 1960s. The development involved detailed simulation studies for computation of focal laws followed by validation on mock-up. The paper brings out the limitations of the conventional ultrasonic technique and how this can be overcome by the phased array approach for the weld joint under consideration. The phased array technique was successfully employed for field examination of this weld joint in RPV during the re-fuelling outage.

  17. TRANSTIBIAL VERSUS ANTEROMEDIAL PORTAL TECHNIQUES IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gabriel Betoni Guglielmetti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Although the results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction are well documented in many studies, with good to excellent outcomes in most cases, some issues like tunnel positioning are still discussed and studied. Objective: To compare the objective and subjective clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction using the transtibial and anteromedial portal techniques. Methods: Prospective randomized study of 80 patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by the same surgeon, with 40 patients operated by the transtibial technique and 40 by anteromedial portal technique. The patients, 34 in the transtibial group and 37 in the anteromedial portal group (nine dropouts, were reassessed during a 2-year follow-up period. The clinical assessment consisted of physical examination, KT-1000TM evaluation, Lysholm score, and objective and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee - IKDC scores. Results: Regarding the Lachman and pivot shift tests, we observed more cases of instability in the transtibial group, but with no statistical significance (p=0.300 and p=0.634, respectively. Regarding the anterior drawer test, the groups presented similar results (p=0.977. Regarding KT-1000TM evaluation, the mean results were 1.44 for the transtibial group and 1.23 for the anteromedial portal group, with no statistical significance (p=0.548. We separated the objective IKDC scores into two groups: Group 1, IKDC A, and Group 2, IKDC B, C, or D, with no statistical significance (p=0.208. Concerning the Lysholm score, the transtibial group had a mean score of 91.32, and the anteromedial portal group had a mean score of 92.81. The mean subjective IKDC scores were 90.65 for the transtibial group and 92.65 for the anteromedial portal group. Three re-ruptures were encountered in the transtibial group and three in the anteromedial portal group. Conclusions: There were no significant differences in the subjective and

  18. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed and...

  19. The state-of-the Art of the Established Conventional and Advanced NDE-Techniques and Procedures for Defect Detection and Sizing - Part D: application of ultrasonic techniques for the inspection of austenitic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, X.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic examination of austenitic welds is possible in many cases but special techniques have often to be applied. The 'Handbook on the Ultrasonic Examination of Austenitic Welds' of the International Institute of Welding gives advice how to devise procedures for the detection, location and evaluation of ultrasonic indications of weld defects. In most circumstances it is necessary to use angled longitudinal wave probes. Austenitic weld examination is more complex and more expensive than ferritic weld examination. Detection and characterization of intergranular stress corrosion cracking has been improved by special qualification programs of the EPRI NDE Center. Dissimilar Metal welds are difficult to examine. Techniques have been developed for detection of circumferential and axial defects. Cast stainless steel structures are in general still extremely difficult to examine as a recent round robin test of the PISC program has shown. Mechanized examination with adequate data acquisition processing and presentation techniques enables better interpretation of examination results. (author)

  20. Base Oils Biodegradability Prediction with Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Trabelsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply various data mining techniques including continuous numeric and discrete classification prediction models of base oils biodegradability, with emphasis on improving prediction accuracy. The results show that highly biodegradable oils can be better predicted through numeric models. In contrast, classification models did not uncover a similar dichotomy. With the exception of Memory Based Reasoning and Decision Trees, tested classification techniques achieved high classification prediction. However, the technique of Decision Trees helped uncover the most significant predictors. A simple classification rule derived based on this predictor resulted in good classification accuracy. The application of this rule enables efficient classification of base oils into either low or high biodegradability classes with high accuracy. For the latter, a higher precision biodegradability prediction can be obtained using continuous modeling techniques.