WorldWideScience

Sample records for examinations general principles

  1. Justification of x-ray examinations: General principles and an Irish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Kate; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2008-01-01

    The principles of justification and optimisation, and the establishment and use of Diagnostic Reference Levels are core tenets of the European Medical Exposures Directive [Council Directive 97/43], and ensuing legislation across Europe. In Ireland, the European Medical Exposures Directive [Council Directive 97/43] was enacted into national law in Statutory Instrument 478 of 2002. This series of three review articles discusses the status of justification and optimisation of X-ray examinations nationally, and progress with the establishment of Irish Diagnostic Reference Levels. The current article will outline the ICRP recommendations which preceded the European Medical Exposures Directive, describe how the Directive was transposed into Irish Statute, and review the literature associated with some of the justification concepts arising from the Statute in order to elucidate the prevailing practice regarding justification in Ireland. Three levels of justification are identified: general, generic and individual. The relationship between referral guidelines and generic justification is explored, and practical issues in the implementation of individual justification are considered with reference to the role of the radiographer. Two further articles in the series will adopt a similar approach in discussing optimisation, and the establishment and use of Diagnostic Reference Levels

  2. The principle of general tovariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.; Loja Fernandes, R.; Picken, R.

    2008-01-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance

  3. 29 CFR 2.11 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General principles. 2.11 Section 2.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.11 General principles. The following general principles will be observed in granting or denying requests for permission...

  4. The Principle of General Tovariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  5. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.6 General principles. The following general principles apply to all environmental marketing claims, including, but not limited to, those described in § 260.7. In addition, § 260.7... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 260.6 Section 260.6...

  6. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In all exemption determinations, the agency must observe the following principles: (a) Each employee is presumed to...

  7. 24 CFR 3282.402 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 3282.402... and Remedial Actions § 3282.402 General principles. (a) Nothing in this subpart or in these... manufactured home manufacturers to provide remedial actions under this subpart is limited by the principle that...

  8. 20 CFR 401.140 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 401.140 Section 401.140... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.140 General principles. When no law... follow FOIA principles to resolve that question. We do this to insure uniform treatment in all situations...

  9. 29 CFR 1604.1 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles. 1604.1 Section 1604.1 Labor Regulations... OF SEX § 1604.1 General principles. (a) References to “employer” or “employers” in this part 1604 state principles that are applicable not only to employers but also to labor organizations and to...

  10. Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

  11. 12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 330.3 Section 330.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.3 General principles. (a) Ownership rights and capacities. The insurance coverage...

  12. 21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 104.5 Section 104.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS General Provisions § 104.5 General principles. (a) A...

  13. 34 CFR 75.530 - General cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General cost principles. 75.530 Section 75.530 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.530 General cost principles. The general principles to be used in...

  14. 21 CFR 102.5 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 102.5 Section 102.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION COMMON OR USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS General Provisions § 102.5 General principles. (a...

  15. 34 CFR 76.530 - General cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General cost principles. 76.530 Section 76.530... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.530 General cost principles. Both 34 CFR 74.27 and 34 CFR 80.22 reference the general cost principles that apply to grants, subgrants and...

  16. Action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. David

    2011-01-01

    An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and the gauge source vector. An action principle for the Z4 formulation of general relativity has been proposed recently by Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela. The relationship between the generalized harmonic action and the Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela action is discussed in detail.

  17. 23 CFR 660.509 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 660.509 Section 660.509 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.509 General principles. (a) State and local highway...

  18. 39 CFR 602.1 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles. 602.1 Section 602.1 Postal... RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.1 General principles. It... other than patents (hereinafter, intellectual properties) having significant economic or other business...

  19. 31 CFR 29.321 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.321 Section 29.321 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER....321 General principle. Any service performed after June 30, 1997, may never be credited toward Federal...

  20. 31 CFR 29.341 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.341 Section 29.341 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Benefit Payments § 29.341 General principle. Except for disability retirements after June 30, 1997, and...

  1. 39 CFR 268.1 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles. 268.1 Section 268.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY OF INFORMATION-EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT § 268.1 General principles. In order to conduct its business, the Postal Service has the...

  2. 10 CFR 1023.3 - Principles of general applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principles of general applicability. 1023.3 Section 1023.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) CONTRACT APPEALS Overview: Organization, Functions and Authorities § 1023.3 Principles of general applicability. (a) Adjudicatory functions. The following principles...

  3. 31 CFR 29.331 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.331 Section 29.331 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.331 General principle. To determine whether service is creditable for the...

  4. 43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General jurisdictional principles. 24.3 Section 24.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In...

  5. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  6. The General Principle and Conflicting Conditional Chances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how one can apply a particular chance-credence principle, called the General Principle, to the case of competing conditional chances of a given proposition. This principle is, then, tested against a case of two different viability fitnesses understood as conditional survival

  7. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - General Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Principles A Appendix A to Part 230 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... Principles General Principles Table of Contents A. Basic Considerations 1. Composition of total costs 2...

  8. 18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 358... principles. (a) As more fully described and implemented in subsequent sections of this part, a transmission... independently from its marketing function employees, except as permitted in this part or otherwise permitted by...

  9. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. On a generalized bootstrap principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Sasaki, R.; Dorey, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The S-matrices for non-simply-laced affine Toda field theories are considered in the context of a generalized bootstrap principle. The S-matrices, and in particular their poles, depend on a parameter whose range lies between the Coxeter numbers of dual pairs of the corresponding non-simply-laced algebras. It is proposed that only odd order poles in the physical strip with positive coefficients throughout this range should participate in the bootstrap. All other singularities have an explanation in principle in terms of a generalized Coleman-Thun mechanism. Besides the S-matrices introduced by Delius, Grisaru and Zanon, the missing case (F 4 (1) , e 6 (2) ), is also considered and provides many interesting examples of pole generation. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 502.5 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 502.5 Section 502.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... principles. (a) The common or usual name of a food, which may be a coined term, shall accurately identify or...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...). Persons subject to this part are authorized to implement, as prescribed by the Financial Accounting... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The...

  13. Generalization of the Taylor Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The usual Taylor Principle can in general only be applied when the system is closed. This paper describes a suggestion of a generalization to cover the case that the plasma is surrounded by a conducting shell with narrow gaps where the external circuits connected to the gaps consist of just inductors. The suggested constraint of the generalized Taylor Principle is that no helicity is absorbed by the plasma. The usual assumption that the stable Taylor Equilibrium is that for which the magnetic energy in the plasma region as well as in the external inductors is minimized subject to the above constraint, again leads to a unique configuration. It is found that this configuration is dependent upon the inductances of the external inductors. For the sake of conceptual simplicity, consider a closed shell of conducting material. The interior of the shell may be divided into various compartments only corrected through narrow gaps in the conducting walls between these compartments. They assume plasma present in only one of the compartments; the neighboring compartments represent the external inductors connected across the gaps of the plasma compartment

  14. The principle of general covariance and the principle of equivalence: two distinct concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, H.V.

    It is shown how to construct a theory with general covariance but without the equivalence principle. Such a theory is in disagreement with experiment, but it serves to illustrate the independence of the former principle from the latter one [pt

  15. 9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims; general principles. 317.313 Section 317.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Labeling § 317.313 Nutrient content claims; general principles. (a) This section applies to meat or meat...

  16. 9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims; general principles. 381.413 Section 381.413 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... § 381.413 Nutrient content claims; general principles. (a) This section applies to poultry products that...

  17. 76 FR 69333 - Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Management)); 75 FR 78185 (Dec. 15, 2010) (Core Principles J, K, L, and M (Information Management)); 75 FR... Parts 1, 21, 39 et al. Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles; Final... Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading...

  18. 29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of the general principles. 780.138 Section 780.138 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... principles. Some examples will serve to illustrate the above principles. Employees of a fruit grower who dry...

  19. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-01-01

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  20. 21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles of the IND submission. 312.22... (IND) § 312.22 General principles of the IND submission. (a) FDA's primary objectives in reviewing an... likelihood that the investigations will yield data capable of meeting statutory standards for marketing...

  1. 20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Able and available requirement-general principles. 604.3 Section 604.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...—general principles. (a) A State may pay UC only to an individual who is able to work and available for...

  2. Generalized field quantization and the Pauli principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The work is an attempt to prove that the generalized Pauli principle (i.e. Fermi statistics) for the half-integer spin fields and the Bose statistics for the integer spin fields with allowance for the existence of internal gauge symmetries are consequences of more general assumptions of the local quantum field theory. 32 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Quantum wells and the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blado, Gardo; Owens, Constance; Meyers, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The finite and infinite square wells are potentials typically discussed in undergraduate quantum mechanics courses. In this paper, we discuss these potentials in the light of the recent studies of the modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) as a consequence of attempts to formulate a quantum theory of gravity. The fundamental concepts of the minimal length scale and the GUP are discussed and the modified energy eigenvalues and transmission coefficient are derived. (paper)

  4. A revision of the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2008-01-01

    The generalized uncertainty principle arises from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle when gravity is taken into account, so the leading order correction to the standard formula is expected to be proportional to the gravitational constant G N = L 2 Pl . On the other hand, the emerging picture suggests a set of departures from the standard theory which demand a revision of all the arguments used to deduce heuristically the new rule. In particular, one can now argue that the leading order correction to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is proportional to the first power of the Planck length L Pl . If so, the departures from ordinary quantum mechanics would be much less suppressed than what is commonly thought

  5. 12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING... principles. Each institution shall: (a) Prepare and maintain, on an accrual basis, accurate and complete... reports to the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles...

  6. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Guilu

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  7. Generalized uncertainty principle as a consequence of the effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, Korte Spinhuissteeg 3, 1012 CG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nassar, Ali, E-mail: anassar@zewailcity.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, 12588, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-02-10

    We will demonstrate that the generalized uncertainty principle exists because of the derivative expansion in the effective field theories. This is because in the framework of the effective field theories, the minimum measurable length scale has to be integrated away to obtain the low energy effective action. We will analyze the deformation of a massive free scalar field theory by the generalized uncertainty principle, and demonstrate that the minimum measurable length scale corresponds to a second more massive scale in the theory, which has been integrated away. We will also analyze CFT operators dual to this deformed scalar field theory, and observe that scaling of the new CFT operators indicates that they are dual to this more massive scale in the theory. We will use holographic renormalization to explicitly calculate the renormalized boundary action with counter terms for this scalar field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle, and show that the generalized uncertainty principle contributes to the matter conformal anomaly.

  8. Generalized uncertainty principle as a consequence of the effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Faizal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We will demonstrate that the generalized uncertainty principle exists because of the derivative expansion in the effective field theories. This is because in the framework of the effective field theories, the minimum measurable length scale has to be integrated away to obtain the low energy effective action. We will analyze the deformation of a massive free scalar field theory by the generalized uncertainty principle, and demonstrate that the minimum measurable length scale corresponds to a second more massive scale in the theory, which has been integrated away. We will also analyze CFT operators dual to this deformed scalar field theory, and observe that scaling of the new CFT operators indicates that they are dual to this more massive scale in the theory. We will use holographic renormalization to explicitly calculate the renormalized boundary action with counter terms for this scalar field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle, and show that the generalized uncertainty principle contributes to the matter conformal anomaly.

  9. Generalized uncertainty principles, effective Newton constant and regular black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Ling, Yi; Shen, You-Gen; Liu, Cheng-Zhou; He, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Lan-Fang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the quantum spacetimes that are potentially connected with the generalized uncertainty principles. By analyzing the gravity-induced quantum interference pattern and the Gedanken for weighting photon, we find that the generalized uncertainty principles inspire the effective Newton constant as same as our previous proposal. A characteristic momentum associated with the tidal effect is suggested, which incorporates the quantum effect with the geometric nature of gravity...

  10. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  11. A generalized Principle of Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, Fernando de; Preti, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The Theory of Relativity stands as a firm groundstone on which modern physics is founded. In this paper we bring to light an hitherto undisclosed richness of this theory, namely its admitting a consistent reformulation which is able to provide a unified scenario for all kinds of particles, be they lightlike or not. This result hinges on a generalized Principle of Relativity which is intrinsic to Einstein's theory - a fact which went completely unnoticed before. The road leading to this generalization starts, in the very spirit of Relativity, from enhancing full equivalence between the four spacetime directions by requiring full equivalence between the motions along these four spacetime directions as well. So far, no measurable spatial velocity in the direction of the time axis has ever been defined, on the same footing of the usual velocities - the 'space-velocities' - in the local three-space of a given observer. In this paper, we show how Relativity allows such a 'time-velocity' to be defined in a very natural way, for any particle and in any reference frame. As a consequence of this natural definition, it also follows that the time- and space-velocity vectors sum up to define a spacelike 'world-velocity' vector, the modulus of which - the world-velocity - turns out to be equal to the Maxwell's constant c, irrespective of the observer who measures it. This measurable world-velocity (not to be confused with the space-velocities we are used to deal with) therefore represents the speed at which all kinds of particles move in spacetime, according to any observer. As remarked above, the unifying scenario thus emerging is intrinsic to Einstein's Theory; it extends the role traditionally assigned to Maxwell's constant c, and can therefore justly be referred to as 'a generalized Principle of Relativity'.

  12. Supersymmetry Breaking as a new source for the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Faizal, Mir

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we will demonstrate that the breaking of supersymmetry by a non-anticommutative deformation can be used to generate the generalized uncertainty principle. We will analyze the physical reasons for this observation, in the framework of string theory. We also discuss the relation between the generalized uncertainty principle and the Lee–Wick field theories.

  13. Supersymmetry breaking as a new source for the generalized uncertainty principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com

    2016-06-10

    In this letter, we will demonstrate that the breaking of supersymmetry by a non-anticommutative deformation can be used to generate the generalized uncertainty principle. We will analyze the physical reasons for this observation, in the framework of string theory. We also discuss the relation between the generalized uncertainty principle and the Lee–Wick field theories.

  14. “Stringy” coherent states inspired by generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Pinaki

    2012-05-01

    Coherent States with Fractional Revival property, that explicitly satisfy the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), have been constructed in the context of Generalized Harmonic Oscillator. The existence of such states is essential in motivating the GUP based phenomenological results present in the literature which otherwise would be of purely academic interest. The effective phase space is Non-Canonical (or Non-Commutative in popular terminology). Our results have a smooth commutative limit, equivalent to Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The Fractional Revival time analysis yields an independent bound on the GUP parameter. Using this and similar bounds obtained here, we derive the largest possible value of the (GUP induced) minimum length scale. Mandel parameter analysis shows that the statistics is Sub-Poissonian. Correspondence Principle is deformed in an interesting way. Our computational scheme is very simple as it requires only first order corrected energy values and undeformed basis states.

  15. “Stringy” coherent states inspired by generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Pinaki

    2012-01-01

    Coherent States with Fractional Revival property, that explicitly satisfy the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), have been constructed in the context of Generalized Harmonic Oscillator. The existence of such states is essential in motivating the GUP based phenomenological results present in the literature which otherwise would be of purely academic interest. The effective phase space is Non-Canonical (or Non-Commutative in popular terminology). Our results have a smooth commutative limit, equivalent to Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The Fractional Revival time analysis yields an independent bound on the GUP parameter. Using this and similar bounds obtained here, we derive the largest possible value of the (GUP induced) minimum length scale. Mandel parameter analysis shows that the statistics is Sub-Poissonian. Correspondence Principle is deformed in an interesting way. Our computational scheme is very simple as it requires only first order corrected energy values and undeformed basis states.

  16. The most general form of deformation of the Heisenberg algebra from the generalized uncertainty principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masood, Syed [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Zaz, Zaid [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Kashmir, 190006 (India); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Raza, Jamil [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, Mushtaq B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, Kashmir, 190006 (India)

    2016-12-10

    In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.

  17. The most general form of deformation of the Heisenberg algebra from the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, Syed; Faizal, Mir; Zaz, Zaid; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Raza, Jamil; Shah, Mushtaq B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will propose the most general form of the deformation of Heisenberg algebra motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle. This deformation of the Heisenberg algebra will deform all quantum mechanical systems. The form of the generalized uncertainty principle used to motivate these results will be motivated by the space fractional quantum mechanics, and non-locality in quantum mechanical systems. We also analyse a specific limit of this generalized deformation for one dimensional system, and in that limit, a nonlocal deformation of the momentum operator generates a local deformation of all one dimensional quantum mechanical systems. We analyse the low energy effects of this deformation on a harmonic oscillator, Landau levels, Lamb shift, and potential barrier. We also demonstrate that this deformation leads to a discretization of space.

  18. The role of general relativity in the uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    1986-01-01

    The role played by general relativity in quantum mechanics (especially as regards the uncertainty principle) is investigated. It is confirmed that the validity of time-energy uncertainty does depend on gravitational time dilation. It is also shown that there exists an intrinsic lower bound to the accuracy with which acceleration due to gravity can be measured. The motion of equivalence principle in quantum mechanics is clarified. (author)

  19. The general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) section 3.6(a). DPL do only concern material functions and only the effect of the temperature on these. This is a short introduction to the general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle.......This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) section 3.6(a). DPL do only concern material functions and only the effect of the temperature on these. This is a short introduction to the general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle....

  20. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  1. Some Implications of Two Forms of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimum length scale, which leads to the modification of the standard uncertainty principle to the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP. In this paper, we study two forms of the GUP and calculate their implications on the energy of the harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom more accurately than previous studies. In addition, we show how the GUP modifies the Lorentz force law and the time-energy uncertainty principle.

  2. Principles of general relativity theory in terms of the present day physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    A hystory of gradual unification of general relativity theory and quantum field theory on the basis of unified geometrical principles is detected. The gauge invariance principles became universal for construction of all physical theories. Quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation theory were used to form geometrical principles. Identity of inertial and gravitational masses is an experimental basis of the general relativity theory (GRT). It is shown that correct understanding of GRT bases is a developing process related to the development of the present physics and stimulating this development

  3. General Principles of Transnationalised Criminal Justice?
    Exploratory Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L. Wade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to explore the premise of general principles in what is labelled transnationalised criminal justice (encompassing the substantive and procedural law as well as the institutions of transnational criminal law and European criminal law. Whilst there can be no denying that these are diverse and divergent areas of law in many ways, their fundamental common denominator of seeking to convict individuals whilst subjecting these to arrest, detention and deprivation of other rights across borders, is taken as a baseline around which certain general principles may gravitate. The current state of executive over-reach within transnationalised criminal justice structures is studied, particularly in relation to the European criminal justice context. This over-reach is explored utilising the theoretical framework of social contract theory. It is suggested that the transfer of investigative and prosecutorial powers to transnationalised contexts undertaken by the relevant executives without seeking to temper this assignment with mechanisms to secure the rights of individuals which counter-balance these, as required by the constitutional traditions of their country, can be regarded as in breach of the social contract. Using this thought experiment, this article provides a framework with which to identify the deficits of transnationalised criminal law.  The way in which such deficits undermine the legitimacy of the institutions created by states to operate the mechanisms of transnationalised criminal justice as well as the fundamental values of their own constitutions is, however, demonstrated as concrete. The latter are identified as mechanisms for deducing the general principles of transnationalised criminal justice (albeit via difficult international negotiation. If the supranationalisation of criminal justice powers is not to be regarded as a tool undermining constitutional values and effectively allowing executives acting in an

  4. Generalized uncertainty principle and entropy of three-dimensional rotating acoustic black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, HuiHua; Li, GuangLiang; Zhang, LiChun

    2012-01-01

    Using the new equation of state density from the generalized uncertainty principle, we investigate statistics entropy of a 3-dimensional rotating acoustic black hole. When λ introduced in the generalized uncertainty principle takes a specific value, we obtain an area entropy and a correction term associated with the acoustic black hole. In this method, there does not exist any divergence and one needs not the small mass approximation in the original brick-wall model. -- Highlights: ► Statistics entropy of a 3-dimensional rotating acoustic black hole is studied. ► We obtain an area entropy and a correction term associated with it. ► We make λ introduced in the generalized uncertainty principle take a specific value. ► There does not exist any divergence in this method.

  5. [The General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy from the perspective of clinical psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    In view of the fact that the suicide rate in Japan has remained high since 1998, the Basic Act on Suicide Prevention was implemented in 2006 with the objective of comprehensively promoting suicide prevention measures on a national scale. Based on this Basic Act, in 2007, the Japanese government formulated the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy as a guideline for recommended suicide prevention measures. These General Principles were revised in 2012 in accordance with the initial plan of holding a review after five years. The Basic Act places an emphasis on the various social factors that underlie suicides and takes the perspective that suicide prevention measures are also social measures. The slogan of the revised General Principles is "Toward Realization of a Society in which Nobody is Driven to Commit Suicide". The General Principles list various measures that are able to be used universally. These contents would be sufficient if the objective of the General Principles were "realization of a society that is easy to live in"; however, the absence of information on the effectiveness and order of priority for each measure may limit the specific effectiveness of the measures in relation to the actual prevention of suicide. In addition, considering that nearly 90% of suicide victims are in a state at the time of committing suicide in which a psychiatric disorder would be diagnosed, it would appear from a psychiatric standpoint that measures related to mental health, including expansion of psychiatric services, should be the top priority in suicide prevention measures. However, this is not the case in the General Principles, in either its original or revised form. Revisions to the General Principles related to clinical psychiatry provide more detailed descriptions of measures for individuals who unsuccessfully attempt suicide and identify newly targeted mental disorders other than depression; however, the overall proportion of contents relating to

  6. Explaining Compound Generalization in Associative and Causal Learning Through Rational Principles of Dimensional Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Fabian A.; Gershman, Samuel J.; Niv, Yael

    2014-01-01

    How do we apply learning from one situation to a similar, but not identical, situation? The principles governing the extent to which animals and humans generalize what they have learned about certain stimuli to novel compounds containing those stimuli vary depending on a number of factors. Perhaps the best studied among these factors is the type of stimuli used to generate compounds. One prominent hypothesis is that different generalization principles apply depending on whether the stimuli in a compound are similar or dissimilar to each other. However, the results of many experiments cannot be explained by this hypothesis. Here we propose a rational Bayesian theory of compound generalization that uses the notion of consequential regions, first developed in the context of rational theories of multidimensional generalization, to explain the effects of stimulus factors on compound generalization. The model explains a large number of results from the compound generalization literature, including the influence of stimulus modality and spatial contiguity on the summation effect, the lack of influence of stimulus factors on summation with a recovered inhibitor, the effect of spatial position of stimuli on the blocking effect, the asymmetrical generalization decrement in overshadowing and external inhibition, and the conditions leading to a reliable external inhibition effect. By integrating rational theories of compound and dimensional generalization, our model provides the first comprehensive computational account of the effects of stimulus factors on compound generalization, including spatial and temporal contiguity between components, which have posed longstanding problems for rational theories of associative and causal learning. PMID:25090430

  7. Towards Thermodynamics with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Mohamed; Farag Ali, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Various frameworks of quantum gravity predict a modification in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to a so-called generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Introducing quantum gravity effect makes a considerable change in the density of states inside the volume of the phase space which changes the statistical and thermodynamical properties of any physical system. In this paper we investigate the modification in thermodynamic properties of ideal gases and photon gas. The partition function is calculated and using it we calculated a considerable growth in the thermodynamical functions for these considered systems. The growth may happen due to an additional repulsive force between constitutes of gases which may be due to the existence of GUP, hence predicting a considerable increase in the entropy of the system. Besides, by applying GUP on an ideal gas in a trapped potential, it is found that GUP assumes a minimum measurable value of thermal wavelength of particles which agrees with discrete nature of the space that has been derived in previous studies from the GUP

  8. A review of the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied

    2015-01-01

    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some ‘thought’ experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed. (review)

  9. Principles of General Systems Theory: Some Implications for Higher Education Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Martha W.; Gilliland, J. Richard

    1978-01-01

    Three principles of general systems theory are presented and systems theory is distinguished from systems analysis. The principles state that all systems tend to become more disorderly, that they must be diverse in order to be stable, and that only those maximizing their resource utilization for doing useful work will survive. (Author/LBH)

  10. General principles underlying the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Previous statements on the use of the term 'decommissioning' by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety are reviewed, culminating in a particular definition for its use in this paper. Three decommissioning phases are identified and discussed, leading to eight general principles governing decommissioning including one related to financing

  11. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part 238—General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Principles of Reliability-Based... the design level of safety and reliability of the equipment; (2) To restore safety and reliability to...

  12. Application of the general principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristic feature of radiation protection is that of a unitary approach vis-a-vis a coherent set of concepts and general principles and the ensuing systems of standards. This situation creates favourable conditions for guaranteeing quality control. However, the benefit of radiation protection would be limited if the doctrine, principles and standards were merely a theoretical administrative and technocratic system: it is essential that these doctrines, principles and standards should lead to concrete action at all stages of development, from design right up to daily operational procedures. This requires on the part of all those involved, and at all levels, a spirit of discipline and openness where there must be both common sense and respect for the rules. It also requires the constraint of the regulation which is comprehensive, precise, clear and which cannot be evaded. In short, it must be enforceable. Even if the situation in the nuclear industry vis-a-vis radiological safety cannot be called ideal, it is totally satisfactory, both for members of the public and for workers. This is the main topic developed in the report

  13. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  14. Covariant energy–momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooperstock, F.I., E-mail: cooperst@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dupre, M.J., E-mail: mdupre@tulane.edu [Department of Mathematics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy–momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum. -- Highlights: •We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. •Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energy–momentum. •Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. •New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. •Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum in strong gravity extreme.

  15. Effect of Generalized Uncertainty Principle on Main-Sequence Stars and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the effect of generalized uncertainty principle, emerged from different approaches of quantum gravity within Planck scale, on thermodynamic properties of photon, nonrelativistic ideal gases, and degenerate fermions. A modification in pressure, particle number, and energy density are calculated. Astrophysical objects such as main-sequence stars and white dwarfs are examined and discussed as an application. A modification in Lane-Emden equation due to a change in a polytropic relation caused by the presence of quantum gravity is investigated. The applicable range of quantum gravity parameters is estimated. The bounds in the perturbed parameters are relatively large but they may be considered reasonable values in the astrophysical regime.

  16. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2014-09-01

    The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

  17. A general maximum entropy framework for thermodynamic variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, Roderick C.

    2014-01-01

    Minimum free energy principles are familiar in equilibrium thermodynamics, as expressions of the second law. They also appear in statistical mechanics as variational approximation schemes, such as the mean-field and steepest-descent approximations. These well-known minimum free energy principles are here unified and extended to any system analyzable by MaxEnt, including non-equilibrium systems. The MaxEnt Lagrangian associated with a generic MaxEnt distribution p defines a generalized potential Ψ for an arbitrary probability distribution p-hat, such that Ψ is a minimum at (p-hat) = p. Minimization of Ψ with respect to p-hat thus constitutes a generic variational principle, and is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between p-hat and p. Illustrative examples of min–Ψ are given for equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. An interpretation of changes in Ψ is given in terms of the second law, although min–Ψ itself is an intrinsic variational property of MaxEnt that is distinct from the second law

  18. A general maximum entropy framework for thermodynamic variational principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, Roderick C., E-mail: roderick.dewar@anu.edu.au [Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-12-05

    Minimum free energy principles are familiar in equilibrium thermodynamics, as expressions of the second law. They also appear in statistical mechanics as variational approximation schemes, such as the mean-field and steepest-descent approximations. These well-known minimum free energy principles are here unified and extended to any system analyzable by MaxEnt, including non-equilibrium systems. The MaxEnt Lagrangian associated with a generic MaxEnt distribution p defines a generalized potential Ψ for an arbitrary probability distribution p-hat, such that Ψ is a minimum at (p-hat) = p. Minimization of Ψ with respect to p-hat thus constitutes a generic variational principle, and is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between p-hat and p. Illustrative examples of min–Ψ are given for equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. An interpretation of changes in Ψ is given in terms of the second law, although min–Ψ itself is an intrinsic variational property of MaxEnt that is distinct from the second law.

  19. On the role of the equivalence principle in the general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsenshtein, M.E.; Stanyukovich, K.P.; Pogosyan, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which the solutions of the general relativity theory equations satisfy the correspondence principle are considered. It is shown that in general relativity theory, as in a plane space any systems of coordinates satisfying the topological requirements of continuity and uniqueness are admissible. The coordinate transformations must be mutually unique, and the following requirements must be met: the transformations of the coordinates xsup(i)=xsup(i)(anti xsup(k)) must preserve the class of the function, while the transformation jacobian must be finite and nonzero. The admissible metrics in the Tolmen problem for a vacuum are considered. A prohibition of the vacuum solution of the Tolmen problem is obtained from the correspondence principle. The correspondence principle is applied to the solution of the Friedmann problem by constructing a spherical symmetric self-similar solution, in which replacement of compression by expansion occurs at a finite density. The examples adduced convince that the application of the correspondence principle makes it possible to discard physically inadmissible solutions and obtained new physical results

  20. Maximum Principle for General Controlled Systems Driven by Fractional Brownian Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yuecai; Hu Yaozhong; Song Jian

    2013-01-01

    We obtain a maximum principle for stochastic control problem of general controlled stochastic differential systems driven by fractional Brownian motions (of Hurst parameter H>1/2). This maximum principle specifies a system of equations that the optimal control must satisfy (necessary condition for the optimal control). This system of equations consists of a backward stochastic differential equation driven by both fractional Brownian motions and the corresponding underlying standard Brownian motions. In addition to this backward equation, the maximum principle also involves the Malliavin derivatives. Our approach is to use conditioning and Malliavin calculus. To arrive at our maximum principle we need to develop some new results of stochastic analysis of the controlled systems driven by fractional Brownian motions via fractional calculus. Our approach of conditioning and Malliavin calculus is also applied to classical system driven by standard Brownian motions while the controller has only partial information. As a straightforward consequence, the classical maximum principle is also deduced in this more natural and simpler way.

  1. Perspective: Maximum caliber is a general variational principle for dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Purushottam D; Wagoner, Jason; Weistuch, Corey; Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Dill, Ken A

    2018-01-07

    We review here Maximum Caliber (Max Cal), a general variational principle for inferring distributions of paths in dynamical processes and networks. Max Cal is to dynamical trajectories what the principle of maximum entropy is to equilibrium states or stationary populations. In Max Cal, you maximize a path entropy over all possible pathways, subject to dynamical constraints, in order to predict relative path weights. Many well-known relationships of non-equilibrium statistical physics-such as the Green-Kubo fluctuation-dissipation relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations, and Prigogine's minimum entropy production-are limited to near-equilibrium processes. Max Cal is more general. While it can readily derive these results under those limits, Max Cal is also applicable far from equilibrium. We give examples of Max Cal as a method of inference about trajectory distributions from limited data, finding reaction coordinates in bio-molecular simulations, and modeling the complex dynamics of non-thermal systems such as gene regulatory networks or the collective firing of neurons. We also survey its basis in principle and some limitations.

  2. Perspective: Maximum caliber is a general variational principle for dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Purushottam D.; Wagoner, Jason; Weistuch, Corey; Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Dill, Ken A.

    2018-01-01

    We review here Maximum Caliber (Max Cal), a general variational principle for inferring distributions of paths in dynamical processes and networks. Max Cal is to dynamical trajectories what the principle of maximum entropy is to equilibrium states or stationary populations. In Max Cal, you maximize a path entropy over all possible pathways, subject to dynamical constraints, in order to predict relative path weights. Many well-known relationships of non-equilibrium statistical physics—such as the Green-Kubo fluctuation-dissipation relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations, and Prigogine's minimum entropy production—are limited to near-equilibrium processes. Max Cal is more general. While it can readily derive these results under those limits, Max Cal is also applicable far from equilibrium. We give examples of Max Cal as a method of inference about trajectory distributions from limited data, finding reaction coordinates in bio-molecular simulations, and modeling the complex dynamics of non-thermal systems such as gene regulatory networks or the collective firing of neurons. We also survey its basis in principle and some limitations.

  3. Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Black Hole Entropy of Higher-Dimensional de Sitter Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haixia; Hu Shuangqi; Zhao Ren; Li Huaifan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there has been much attention devoted to resolving the quantum corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy. In particular, many researchers have expressed a vested interest in the coefficient of the logarithmic term of the black hole entropy correction term. In this paper, we calculate the correction value of the black hole entropy by utilizing the generalized uncertainty principle and obtain the correction term caused by the generalized uncertainty principle. Because in our calculation we think that the Bekenstein-Hawking area theorem is still valid after considering the generalized uncertainty principle, we derive that the coefficient of the logarithmic term of the black hole entropy correction term is positive. This result is different from the known result at present. Our method is valid not only for four-dimensional spacetimes but also for higher-dimensional spacetimes. In the whole process, the physics idea is clear and calculation is simple. It offers a new way for studying the entropy correction of the complicated spacetime.

  4. A General Stochastic Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-field Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckdahn, Rainer; Djehiche, Boualem; Li Juan

    2011-01-01

    We study the optimal control for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) of mean-field type, in which the coefficients depend on the state of the solution process as well as of its expected value. Moreover, the cost functional is also of mean-field type. This makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. For a general action space a Peng’s-type stochastic maximum principle (Peng, S.: SIAM J. Control Optim. 2(4), 966–979, 1990) is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. This maximum principle differs from the classical one in the sense that here the first order adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE, while the second order adjoint equation remains the same as in Peng’s stochastic maximum principle.

  5. The general principles of the Chinese contract law from the perspective of an (English) Common lawyer

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg-Flesner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will contrast the statement of general principles found in Arts.1-7 of the Chinese Contract Law (“CCL”) with the approach to general principles of contract law in the (English) common law. The particular purpose of this paper will be on how these two contract law regimes regard contractual freedom and the extent to which there are limitations to this. It will begin with a short summary account of the CCL’s general principles. The bulk of this paper will then set out the English c...

  6. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  7. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakhov, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    The 'Dichotomy Principle' and the classical 'Golden Section Principle' are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of 'Harmony Mathematics', a new proposed mathematical direction. Harmony Mathematics includes a number of new mathematical theories: an algorithmic measurement theory, a new number theory, a new theory of hyperbolic functions based on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, and a theory of the Fibonacci and 'Golden' matrices. These mathematical theories are the source of many new ideas in mathematics, philosophy, botanic and biology, electrical and computer science and engineering, communication systems, mathematical education as well as theoretical physics and physics of high energy particles

  8. Generalized uncertainty principle and quantum gravity phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Pasquale

    The fundamental physical description of Nature is based on two mutually incompatible theories: Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. Their unification in a theory of Quantum Gravity (QG) remains one of the main challenges of theoretical physics. Quantum Gravity Phenomenology (QGP) studies QG effects in low-energy systems. The basis of one such phenomenological model is the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), which is a modified Heisenberg uncertainty relation and predicts a deformed canonical commutator. In this thesis, we compute Planck-scale corrections to angular momentum eigenvalues, the hydrogen atom spectrum, the Stern-Gerlach experiment, and the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. We then rigorously analyze the GUP-perturbed harmonic oscillator and study new coherent and squeezed states. Furthermore, we introduce a scheme for increasing the sensitivity of optomechanical experiments for testing QG effects. Finally, we suggest future projects that may potentially test QG effects in the laboratory.

  9. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Tarek A., E-mail: T.Elsayed@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • Introduces a generalized Fermat principle for many-dimensional dynamical systems. • Deals with the time taken by the system between given initial and final states. • Proposes that if the speed of the system point is constant, the time is an extremum. • Justified for the phase space of harmonic oscillators and the projective Hilbert space. • A counterexample for the motion of a charge in a magnetic field is discussed. - Abstract: The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

  10. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduces a generalized Fermat principle for many-dimensional dynamical systems. • Deals with the time taken by the system between given initial and final states. • Proposes that if the speed of the system point is constant, the time is an extremum. • Justified for the phase space of harmonic oscillators and the projective Hilbert space. • A counterexample for the motion of a charge in a magnetic field is discussed. - Abstract: The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame

  11. A Stochastic Maximum Principle for General Mean-Field Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckdahn, Rainer; Li, Juan; Ma, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the optimal control problem for a class of general mean-field stochastic differential equations, in which the coefficients depend, nonlinearly, on both the state process as well as of its law. In particular, we assume that the control set is a general open set that is not necessary convex, and the coefficients are only continuous on the control variable without any further regularity or convexity. We validate the approach of Peng (SIAM J Control Optim 2(4):966–979, 1990) by considering the second order variational equations and the corresponding second order adjoint process in this setting, and we extend the Stochastic Maximum Principle of Buckdahn et al. (Appl Math Optim 64(2):197–216, 2011) to this general case.

  12. A Stochastic Maximum Principle for General Mean-Field Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckdahn, Rainer, E-mail: Rainer.Buckdahn@univ-brest.fr [Université de Bretagne-Occidentale, Département de Mathématiques (France); Li, Juan, E-mail: juanli@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong University, Weihai, School of Mathematics and Statistics (China); Ma, Jin, E-mail: jinma@usc.edu [University of Southern California, Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper we study the optimal control problem for a class of general mean-field stochastic differential equations, in which the coefficients depend, nonlinearly, on both the state process as well as of its law. In particular, we assume that the control set is a general open set that is not necessary convex, and the coefficients are only continuous on the control variable without any further regularity or convexity. We validate the approach of Peng (SIAM J Control Optim 2(4):966–979, 1990) by considering the second order variational equations and the corresponding second order adjoint process in this setting, and we extend the Stochastic Maximum Principle of Buckdahn et al. (Appl Math Optim 64(2):197–216, 2011) to this general case.

  13. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakhov, A.P. [International Club of the Golden Section, 6 McCreary Trail, Bolton, ON, L7E 2C8 (Canada)] e-mail: goldenmuseum@rogers.com

    2005-10-01

    The 'Dichotomy Principle' and the classical 'Golden Section Principle' are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of 'Harmony Mathematics', a new proposed mathematical direction. Harmony Mathematics includes a number of new mathematical theories: an algorithmic measurement theory, a new number theory, a new theory of hyperbolic functions based on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, and a theory of the Fibonacci and 'Golden' matrices. These mathematical theories are the source of many new ideas in mathematics, philosophy, botanic and biology, electrical and computer science and engineering, communication systems, mathematical education as well as theoretical physics and physics of high energy particles.

  14. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  15. Generalized Fermat's principle and action for light rays in a curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2013-09-01

    We start with formulation of the generalized Fermat’s principle for light propagation in a curved spacetime. We apply Pontryagin’s minimum principle of the optimal control theory and obtain an effective Hamiltonian for null geodesics in a curved spacetime. We explicitly demonstrate that dynamical equations for this Hamiltonian correctly reproduce null geodesic equations. Other forms of the action for light rays in a curved spacetime are also discussed.

  16. Some General Principles in Cryogenic Design, Implementation, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, Michael James

    2015-01-01

    Brief Course Description: In 2 hours only the most basic principles of cryogenics can be presented. I will concentrate on the differences between a room temperature thermal analysis and cryogenic thermal analysis, namely temperature dependent properties. I will talk about practical materials for thermal contact and isolation. I will finish by describing the verification process and instrumentation used that is unique to cryogenic (in general less than 100K) systems.

  17. General Principles and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG – Uniformity under an Interpretation Umbrella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lassila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and digitalization of international sales creates needs to harmonize rules of international commercial contracts. The question is whether the harmonization should be done by binding rules or using soft law tools or through digitalization. In this article I argue on favor of harmonization through international contracts law rules’ international interpretation.The international interpretation principles used in this article are found from on Art. 7(1 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG which sets three interpretation rules: international character; promoting uniformity; and observance of good faith in international trade. These principles are not only principles of the CISG, but also principles commonly recognized in international commercial practice and also in domestic contract rules. I argue that by adopting an international interpretation umbrella – the meta-principle of international interpretation, cross-border contracts could be interpreted under the same principle no matter applicable substantial law. The meta-principle functions as an interpretation umbrella covering general principles and Articles of the CISG, general principles of international commercial contracts, Lex Mercatoria, and cross-border contract provision under national law.The outcomes points out that arbitral tribunals have interpreted general principles of the CISG and Lex Mercatoria in various ways. General principles and their application in case law is analyzed in connection with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Tribunals found that general principles of the CISG are applicable even if the CISG is not. It follows Art.’s 7(2 logic to promote international standard to cross-border contracts where the closes connection is international commercial practice rather than any national jurisdiction.

  18. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Universe of Chemicals and General Validation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document was developed by the EPA to provide guidance to staff and managers regarding the EDSP universe of chemicals and general validation principles for consideration of computational toxicology tools for chemical prioritization.

  19. A cyclic symmetry principle in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs

  20. Generalized uncertainty principle and the maximum mass of ideal white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, Reza, E-mail: reza.rashidi@srttu.edu

    2016-11-15

    The effects of a generalized uncertainty principle on the structure of an ideal white dwarf star is investigated. The equation describing the equilibrium configuration of the star is a generalized form of the Lane–Emden equation. It is proved that the star always has a finite size. It is then argued that the maximum mass of such an ideal white dwarf tends to infinity, as opposed to the conventional case where it has a finite value.

  1. The Quark-Gluon Plasma Equation of State and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Abou-Salem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quark-gluon plasma (QGP equation of state within a minimal length scenario or Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP is studied. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle is implemented on deriving the thermodynamics of ideal QGP at a vanishing chemical potential. We find a significant effect for the GUP term. The main features of QCD lattice results were quantitatively achieved in case of nf=0, nf=2, and nf=2+1 flavors for the energy density, the pressure, and the interaction measure. The exciting point is the large value of bag pressure especially in case of nf=2+1 flavor which reflects the strong correlation between quarks in this bag which is already expected. One can notice that the asymptotic behavior which is characterized by Stephan-Boltzmann limit would be satisfied.

  2. DO GENERAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS EXAMINE INJURED RUNNERS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Solvej; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate...... the prevalence proportion of consultations in general medical practice caused by running-related injuries. The secondary purpose was to estimate the prevalence proportion of injured runners, who consult their GMP, that are referred to additional examinations or treatments. STUDY DESIGN: A survey-based study...

  3. Principle of least action; some possible generalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broucke, R.

    1982-01-01

    In this article we draw the attention to an important variational principle in dynamics: the Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle (MJLAP). This principle compares varied paths with the same energy h. We give two new proofs of the MJLAP (Sections 3 and 8) as well as a new unified variational principle which contains both Hamilton's Principle (HP) and the MJLAP as particular cases (Sections 4 and 9). The article also shows several new methods for the construction of a Lagrangian for a conservative dynamical system. As an example, we illustrate the theory with the classical Harmonic Oscillator Problem (Section 10). Our method is based on the theory of changes of independent variables in a dynamical system. It indirectly shows how a change of independent variable affects the self-adjointness of a dynamical system (Sections 5, 6, 7). Our new Lagrangians contain an arbitrary constant α, whose meaning needs to be studied, eventually in relation to the concepts of quantification or gauge transformations. The two important values of the constant α are 1 (Hamilton's principle) and 1/2 (Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle)

  4. Derivation of a general three-dimensional crack-propagation law: A generalization of the principle of local symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodgdon, Jennifer A.; Sethna, James P.

    1993-01-01

    We derive a general crack-propagation law for slow brittle cracking, in two and three dimensions, using discrete symmetries, gauge invariance, and gradient expansions. Our derivation provides explicit justification for the ‘‘principle of local symmetry,’’ which has been used extensively to describe...

  5. THE GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF COMBINED OPTIONAL ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TRAINING OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Zadorozhnaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is to demonstrate the implementation of general methodological principles of optional elementary school online foreign languages learning on an example of a virtual course for students of the second and third grades.Methods. The methods involve pedagogical modeling and projecting; the experience of foreign and Russian methodists, teachers and researchers is analysed, generalized and adjusted to the modern realias.Results and scientific novelty. On the basis of the requirements of the state educational standard and interest of pupils in computer games, the author’s technique of the combined facultative educational activities integrated to training in English at elementary school is developed. Online training in the form of games (additional to the major classroom activities gives a possibility of the choice of tasks interesting to children, studying the material at optimum comfortable and individual speed; it is possible to perform the tasks at home excluding the stressful situations that are specific to school examination, and allows pupils to master most effectively personal, metasubject and object competences. In general context of quality improvement of the general education, the modernization of educational process assumes not only justification of its new maintenance, but also restructuring of scientific and methodical support which has to meet essential needs of teachers and pupils, to facilitate access to necessary specific information. The lack of methodical base of creation of electronic distance resources for foreign-language education of younger school students has motivated the author to create own methodical concept of online training taking into account age of pupils. The complex of the general methodical principles is thoroughly considered; based on the general methodical principles, the proposed modular technique of the organization of an online class is created and implemented. Interactive blocks are

  6. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  7. General principles of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a textbook for a course in quantum mechanics. Starting from the complementarity and the uncertainty principle Schroedingers equation is introduced together with the operator calculus. Then stationary states are treated as eigenvalue problems. Furthermore matrix mechanics are briefly discussed. Thereafter the theory of measurements is considered. Then as approximation methods perturbation theory and the WKB approximation are introduced. Then identical particles, spin, and the exclusion principle are discussed. There after the semiclassical theory of radiation and the relativistic one-particle problem are discussed. Finally an introduction is given into quantum electrodynamics. (HSI)

  8. Principles governing heart failure therapy re-examined relative to standard evidence-based medicine-driven guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lip-Bun; Chinnappa, Shanmugakumar; Tan, David K H; Hall, Alistair S

    2011-09-01

    Although all aspects of clinical work nowadays are modified by the pervading influence of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and multiplicative guidelines, not many clinicians realize that the underlying premise of EBM-driven guidelines is a particular strain of consequentialist ideology. Subservience to this ideology has transformed modern medical practice, but there is a real risk of distorting good medical practice, of belittling clinical judgement, of disempowering clinicians, and subjecting patients to skewed medical reality and treatment options. With so many heart failure (HF) guidelines issued by various august bodies, it is therefore timely to reappraise principles governing modern HF therapy with a fresh examination of the hierarchy of medical imperatives, the role of alternatives to consequentialism including deontological principles in HF therapy. In addition, other ideology worth re-examining, aside from EBM, are the principle of appropriate definition of HF underlying therapeutic goals and the principle of prioritizing objectives of HF therapy. Even within standard EBM, there are many questions to reconsider: about what types of evidence are admissible, different interpretations of available evidence, emphasizing patient-centered outcome measures instead of randomized controlled trials quantifiable therapeutic outcomes, how to prescribe drugs for prognostic versus symptomatic benefits, and how to deliver HF therapy based on pathophysiological features through mechanistic considerations and not just confined to randomized controlled trials or meta-analytical statistical imperatives. Through re-examination of these fundamental principles of HF therapy, it is hoped that clinicians will be empowered to manage HF patients more holistically and better deliver HF therapies in the best interest of each individual patient.

  9. The general principles of civil law: their nature, roles and legitimacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Leczykiewicz, D.; Weatherill, S.

    2013-01-01

    The references made by the Court of Justice in a number of recent cases to ‘the general principles of civil law’ may have been accidental, but they may also represent a deliberate first step towards a new European legal category and a new approach towards European private law. Because of their

  10. Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

  11. Generalized uncertainty principle, quantum gravity and Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a close connection between generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and deformed Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. The GUP commutation relations correspond to the UV-quantum theory, while the canonical commutation relations represent the IR-quantum theory. Inspired by this UV/IR quantum mechanics, we obtain the GUP-corrected graviton propagator by introducing UV-momentum p i =p 0i (1+βp 0 2 ) and compare this with tensor propagators in the HL gravity. Two are the same up to p 0 4 -order.

  12. Identification of knowledge gaps in neurosurgery using a validated self-assessment examination: differences between general and spinal neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Jason; Starke, Robert M; Pouratian, Nader; Litvack, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    The practice of neurosurgery requires fundamental knowledge base. Residency training programs and continuing medical education courses are designed to teach relevant neurosurgical principles. Nevertheless, knowledge gaps exist for neurosurgeons and may be different between cohorts of neurosurgeons. The Self-Assessment in Neurological Surgery (SANS) General Examination and Spine Examination are online educational tools for lifelong learning and maintenance of certification. This study examines the gaps in knowledge of spinal neurosurgeons and general neurosurgeons taking SANS. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 165 spinal neurosurgeons completed the 243 available questions of the SANS Spine Examination. Over that same time frame, 993 general neurosurgeons completed the SANS General Spine Examination. Mean scores were calculated and assessed according to 18 major neurosurgical knowledge disciplines. Statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate for significant knowledge gaps among all users and significant differences in performance between spinal neurosurgeons and their general neurosurgeon counterparts. The mean overall examination score was 87.4% ± 7.5% for spinal neurosurgeons and 71.5% ± 8.9% for general neurosurgeons (P neurosurgeons (n = 165) answered questions incorrectly 15% or greater of the time in five of the categories. The categories of lower performance for spinal neurosurgeons were cerebrovascular, anesthesia and critical care, general clinical, tumor, and trauma. For general neurosurgeons (n = 993), the five knowledge categories with lowest performance were cerebrovascular, epilepsy, peripheral nerve, trauma, and radiosurgery. Although spinal neurosurgeons and general neurosurgeons shared some areas of decreased performance including trauma and cerebrovascular, spine neurosurgeons relatively underperformed in general clinical, anesthesia and critical care, and tumor. The SANS Spine Examination demonstrated knowledge gaps in specific categories for

  13. The Europeanization of Public Administration through the General Principles of Good Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the paper is based on an extremely present theme of real interest. Using the content analysis, through a descriptive documentary research, the present study aims at identifying the dimensions of the general principles of good administration, in the context of changes at European an implicitly at national level. To this purpose, an analisys of the specific objectives will be made: the concept of good administration, the national dimensions of the right to be heard, the right to access personal files as well as the motivation of administrative acts and the general principles regulated by the European Code of Good Administration will be underlined, in the context of institutional change determined by the Lisbon Treaty. Good administration defines the way in which institutions function, this being possible by ensuring the right to access information, a more efficient protection of fundamental rights as well as the right to defense, publication of acts and their motivation. Good administration is strongly connected to good government, the relation being in our opinion, from part to whole. The final purpose of good government and implicitly of good administration aims at accomplishing the general interest. The two concepts need a higher degree of transparency and responsibility in the public process. If governing represents the modality of exerting power, good government entails the imperative of the consensus of those governed regarding the objectives and methods of government, the responsibility of those governing, the efficiency of governing and the citizens’ right to be informed regarding the use and the distribution of the financial resources in the governing process. This new concept takes into account the implication of the citizens in the decision - making process, allowing a more efficient use of material, human, and financial resources. We assert thus that by applying the general principles of good administration

  14. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    nonmonetary variables was developed. In it the radiologist, radiographer and examination-specific equipment costs were allocated to the examinations applying estimated cost equivalents. Some minor cost items were replaced by a general cost factor (GCF). The program is suitable for internal cost accounting of radiological departments as well as regional planning. If more accurate cost information is required, cost assignment employing the actual consumption of the resources and applying the principles of activity-based cost accounting is recommended. As an application of the cost accounting formula the average costs of the radiological examinations were calculated. In conventional radiography the average proportion of the cost factors in the total material was: personnel costs 43%, equipment costs 26%, material costs 7%, real estate costs 11%, administration and overheads 14%. The average total costs including radiologist costs in the hospitals were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 188, contrast medium examinations 695, ultrasound 296, mammography 315, roentgen examinations with mobile equipment 1578. The average total costs without radiologist costs in the public health centres were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 107, contrast medium examinations 988, ultrasound 203, mammography 557. The average currency rate of exchange in 1991 was USD 1 = FIM 4.046. The following formula is proposed for calculating the cost of a radiological examination (or a group of examinations) performed with a certain piece of equipment during a period of time (e.g. 1 year): a2/ sigma ax*ax+ b2/ sigma bx*bx+ d1/d5*dx+ e1 + [(c1+ c2) + d4 + (e2 - e3) + f5 + g1+ g2+ i]/n.

  15. 49 CFR 1200.2 - Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). 1200.2 Section 1200.2 Transportation... COMMERCE ACT § 1200.2 Adoption of generally accepted accounting principles issued by the Financial... Financial Accounting Standards by the FASB, and provided that the Office of Economics, Environmental...

  16. Cellular gauge symmetry and the Li organization principle: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F; Navarro, Jorge; Kun, Wu; Lin, Bi; Marijuán, Pedro C

    2017-12-01

    Based on novel topological considerations, we postulate a gauge symmetry for living cells and proceed to interpret it from a consistent Eastern perspective: the li organization principle. In our framework, the reference system is the living cell, equipped with general symmetries and energetic constraints standing for the intertwined biochemical, metabolic and signaling pathways that allow the global homeostasis of the system. Environmental stimuli stand for forces able to locally break the symmetry of metabolic/signaling pathways, while the species-specific DNA is the gauge field that restores the global homeostasis after external perturbations. We apply the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT) to operationalize a methodology in terms of topology/gauge fields and subsequently inquire about the evolution from inorganic to organic structures and to the prokaryotic and eukaryotic modes of organization. We converge on the strategic role that second messengers have played regarding the emergence of a unitary gauge field with profound evolutionary implications. A new avenue for a deeper investigation of biological complexity looms. Philosophically, we might be reminded of the duality between two essential concepts proposed by the great Chinese synthesizer Zhu Xi (in the XIII Century). On the one side the li organization principle, equivalent to the dynamic interplay between symmetry and information; and on the other side the qi principle, equivalent to the energy participating in the process-both always interlinked with each other. In contemporary terms, it would mean the required interconnection between information and energy, and the necessity to revise essential principles of information philosophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimisation of X-ray examinations: General principles and an Irish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Kate; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland, the European Medical Exposures Directive [Council Directive 97/43] was enacted into national law in Statutory Instrument 478 of 2002. This series of three review articles discusses the status of justification and optimisation of X-ray examinations nationally, and progress with the establishment of Irish diagnostic reference levels. In this second article, literature relating to optimisation issues arising in SI 478 of 2002 is reviewed. Optimisation associated with X-ray equipment and optimisation during day-to-day practice are considered. Optimisation proposals found in published research are summarised, and indicate the complex nature of optimisation. A paucity of current, research-based guidance documentation is identified. This is needed in order to support a range of professional staff in their practical implementation of optimisation.

  18. IEEE guide for general principles of reliability analysis of nuclear power generating station protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Presented is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) guide for general principles of reliability analysis of nuclear power generating station protection systems. The document has been prepared to provide the basic principles needed to conduct a reliability analysis of protection systems. Included is information on qualitative and quantitative analysis, guides for failure data acquisition and use, and guide for establishment of intervals

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT OF THE PRINCIPLES GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING OF UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (FASB RULES)

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Olivares, Percy Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Framework for the preparation and presentation of financial statements is a statement that directs and informs the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP), which in turn is valid in our country, on the application to determine the accounting principles generally accepted in Peru, in its supplementary nature as established by Resolution No. 013-98 Accounting Standards Council, an organ of the Public Accounts of the Nation. The Framework is the backbone of ...

  20. Do general medical practitioners examine injured runners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Solvej Videbæk; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate...... the prevalence proportion of consultations in general medical practice caused by running-related injuries. The secondary purpose was to estimate the prevalence proportion of injured runners, who consult their GMP, that are referred to additional examinations or treatments. STUDY DESIGN: A survey-based study....... METHODS: An online survey was distributed in October and November 2015 to more than 370 GMPs in Denmark and completed by 27. RESULTS: The median prevalence proportion of consultations caused by running-related injuries in the prior two weeks was 0.80% [25th percentile = 0.00%; 75th percentile = 1...

  1. Lorentz violation and generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiase, Gaetano; Scardigli, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    Investigations on possible violation of Lorentz invariance have been widely pursued in the last decades, both from theoretical and experimental sides. A comprehensive framework to formulate the problem is the standard model extension (SME) proposed by A. Kostelecky, where violation of Lorentz invariance is encoded into specific coefficients. Here we present a procedure to link the deformation parameter β of the generalized uncertainty principle to the SME coefficients of the gravity sector. The idea is to compute the Hawking temperature of a black hole in two different ways. The first way involves the deformation parameter β , and therefore we get a deformed Hawking temperature containing the parameter β . The second way involves a deformed Schwarzschild metric containing the Lorentz violating terms s¯μ ν of the gravity sector of the SME. The comparison between the two different techniques yields a relation between β and s¯μ ν. In this way bounds on β transferred from s¯μ ν are improved by many orders of magnitude when compared with those derived in other gravitational frameworks. Also the opposite possibility of bounds transferred from β to s¯μ ν is briefly discussed.

  2. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  4. General design safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides the safety principles and the approach that have been used to implement the Code in the Safety Guides. These safety principles and the approach are tied closely to the safety analyses needed to assist the design process, and are used to verify the adequacy of nuclear power plant designs. This Guide also provides a framework for the use of other design Safety Guides. However, although it explains the principles on which the other Safety Guides are based, the requirements for specific applications of these principles are mostly found in the other Guides

  5. General principles of nuclear safety management related to research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banciu, Ortenzia; Vladescu, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    The paper contents the general principles applicable to the decommissioning of research reactors to ensure a proper nuclear safety management, during both decommissioning activities and post decommissioning period. The main objective of decommissioning is to ensure the protection of workers, population and environment against all radiological and non-radiological hazards that could result after a reactor shutdown and dismantling. In the same time, it is necessary, by some proper provisions, to limit the effect of decommissioning for the future generation, according to the new Romanian, IAEA and EU Norms and Regulations. Assurance of nuclear safety during decommissioning process involves, in the first step, to establish of some safety principles and requirements to be taken into account during whole process. In the same time, it is necessary to perform a series of analyses to ensure that the whole process is conducted in a planned and safe manner. The general principles proposed for a proper management of safety during research reactor decommissioning are as follows: - Set-up of all operations included in a Decommissioning Plan; - Set-up and qualitative evaluation of safety problems, which could appear during normal decommissioning process, both radiological and nonradiological risks for workers and public; - Set-up of accident list related to decommissioning process the events that could appear both due to some abnormal working conditions and to some on-site and off-site events like fires, explosions, flooding, earthquake, etc.); - Development and qualitative/ quantitative evaluation of scenarios for each incidents; - Development (and evaluation) of safety indicator system. The safety indicators are the most important tools used to assess the level of nuclear safety during decommissioning process, to discover the weak points and to establish safety measures. The paper contains also, a safety case evaluation (description of facility according to the decommissioning

  6. General principles of passive radar signature reducing – stealth technology and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius PANAIT

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents passive radar signature reducing principles and technologies and discusses the ways to implement stealthy characteristics in general vehicle design. Stealth is a major requirement to all current-generation military vehicle designs and also a strong selling point for various aircraft and UAVs.

  7. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  8. The genetic difference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice.

  9. Generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problems: auxiliary principle technique and predictor-corrector methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is dedicated to the introduction a new class of equilibrium problems named generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problems which includes the classes of hemiequilibrium problems, equilibrium-like problems, equilibrium problems, hemivariational inequalities, and variational inequalities as special cases. By utilizing the auxiliary principle technique, some new predictor-corrector iterative algorithms for solving them are suggested and analyzed. The convergence analysis of the proposed iterative methods requires either partially relaxed monotonicity or jointly pseudomonotonicity of the bifunctions involved in generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problem. Results obtained in this paper include several new and known results as special cases.

  10. 76 FR 4360 - Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... and Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and Drug...] Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability AGENCY: Food... of Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New...

  11. The general principles and consequences of environmental radiation exposure in relation to Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1989-09-01

    This document reviews the general principles and biological consequences of environmental radiation exposure. Particular attention was paid to the ICRP principle that if individual humans are adequately protected, then populations of other living organisms are likely to be sufficiently protected. The data reviewed in this document suggest that this principle is usually valid, although some theoretical concerns were noted with respect to effects of bioaccumulation of certain radionuclides in aquatic organisms

  12. Should Terminology Principles be re-examined?

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Operationalization of terminology for IT applications has revived the Wüsterian approach. The conceptual dimension once more prevails after taking back seat to specialised lexicography. This is demonstrated by the emergence of ontology in terminology. While the Terminology Principles as defined in Felber's manual and the ISO standards remain at the core of traditional terminology , their computational implementation raises some issues. In this article, while reiteratin...

  13. 26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of old target and new target. (a) In general—(1) Deemed transaction. Elections are available under...

  14. General principles of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostal, J.; Elson, C.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the principles of atomic and nuclear structure and the processes of radioactivity, nuclear transformation, and the interaction of radiations with matter which are of direct relevance to neutron activation analysis and its application to geologic materials are discussed. (L.L.)

  15. Variational principles for collective motion: Relation between invariance principle of the Schroedinger equation and the trace variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Tanabe, K.

    1984-01-01

    The invariance principle of the Schroedinger equation provides a basis for theories of collective motion with the help of the time-dependent variational principle. It is formulated here with maximum generality, requiring only the motion of intrinsic state in the collective space. Special cases arise when the trial vector is a generalized coherent state and when it is a uniform superposition of collective eigenstates. The latter example yields variational principles uncovered previously only within the framework of the equations of motion method. (orig.)

  16. [General principles of database storage operations with emphasis on OLAP reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Włodzimierz; Mielniczuk, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    In article general principles and features of data warehouse were presented in particular of OLAP reports. The data warehouse was built using Oracle tools. The repository was filled with death records from Central Office of Statistics. Various features adequate for epidemiological analyses have been discussed and illustrated like pivoting and rotating dimension, drilling on hierarchical data, reduction of dimensions. The possibility of specific for epidemiology indicators creation was shown. The need of implementation of data warehouses and OLAP reports in Polish healthcare was discussed. In comparison with traditional manner of analysis and presentation epidemiological facts OLAP reports give new perspectives.

  17. Universal uncertainty principle in the measurement operator formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masanao

    2005-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle has been understood to set a limitation on measurements; however, the long-standing mathematical formulation established by Heisenberg, Kennard, and Robertson does not allow such an interpretation. Recently, a new relation was found to give a universally valid relation between noise and disturbance in general quantum measurements, and it has become clear that the new relation plays a role of the first principle to derive various quantum limits on measurement and information processing in a unified treatment. This paper examines the above development on the noise-disturbance uncertainty principle in the model-independent approach based on the measurement operator formalism, which is widely accepted to describe a class of generalized measurements in the field of quantum information. We obtain explicit formulae for the noise and disturbance of measurements given by measurement operators, and show that projective measurements do not satisfy the Heisenberg-type noise-disturbance relation that is typical in the gamma-ray microscope thought experiments. We also show that the disturbance on a Pauli operator of a projective measurement of another Pauli operator constantly equals √2, and examine how this measurement violates the Heisenberg-type relation but satisfies the new noise-disturbance relation

  18. 2011 Mars - Refresher presentation - General principles of the Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Staff members are invited to attend one of the following three information sessions that shall outline the general principles of the 2011 annual Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS). Monday 10 January at 16:00-17:00 BE Auditorium Prévessin (864-1-D-02) – French;   Tuesday 11 January at 15:00-16:00 – Council Chamber (503-1-001) – English;   Thursday 13 January at 15:00-16:00 - Kjell Johnsen Auditorium (30-7-018) – French. General information on the MARS exercise may also be found on the Human Resources website: https://hr-eguide.web.cern.ch/hr-eguide/mars/mars.asp Tel. 70674 / 72728

  19. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  20. International legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental generally recognized principles of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meherremov, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of international legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental, generally recognized principles of international law is analyzed in the article taking into consideration the different opinions in legal scientific researches and international practice. It is concluded that the protection of environment for the present and next generations - is a basic principle of international legal protection of environment. The meaning of this principleis that the countries will take all necessary measures for preservation and promotion of the quality of environment for the present and next generations, as well as rational management of natural resources. Adoption and national legal implementation of specific norms, in conformity with that basic principle, is a main factor in resolution of environmental problemsand ensuring environmental security

  1. Code of ethics: principles for ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

  2. Affinity monolith chromatography: A review of general principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Rodriguez, Elliott; Azaria, Shiden; Pekarek, Allegra; Hage, David S

    2017-11-01

    Affinity monolith chromatography, or AMC, is a liquid chromatographic method in which the support is a monolith and the stationary phase is a biological-binding agent or related mimic. AMC has become popular for the isolation of biochemicals, for the measurement of various analytes, and for studying biological interactions. This review will examine the principles and applications of AMC. The materials that have been used to prepare AMC columns will be discussed, which have included various organic polymers, silica, agarose, and cryogels. Immobilization schemes that have been used in AMC will also be considered. Various binding agents and applications that have been reported for AMC will then be described. These applications will include the use of AMC for bioaffinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography, dye-ligand affinity chromatography, and immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The use of AMC with chiral stationary phases and as a tool to characterize biological interactions will also be examined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Horizon Wavefunction of Generalized Uncertainty Principle Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Manfredi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the Horizon Wavefunction (HWF description of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle inspired metric that admits sub-Planckian black holes, where the black hole mass m is replaced by M=m1+β/2MPl2/m2. Considering the case of a wave-packet shaped by a Gaussian distribution, we compute the HWF and the probability PBH that the source is a (quantum black hole, that is, that it lies within its horizon radius. The case β0, where a minimum in PBH is encountered, thus meaning that every particle has some probability of decaying to a black hole. Furthermore, for sufficiently large β we find that every particle is a quantum black hole, in agreement with the intuitive effect of increasing β, which creates larger M and RH terms. This is likely due to a “dimensional reduction” feature of the model, where the black hole characteristics for sub-Planckian black holes mimic those in (1+1 dimensions and the horizon size grows as RH~M-1.

  4. Note on the understanding of the generalized correspondence principle (in Polish & English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał KOKOWSKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, referring to the text of Jan Woleński published on the pages of Prace Komisji Historii Nauki PAU in 2014, discusses the understanding of the generalized correspondence principle in the context of the following concepts: cumulativism (C.G. Hempel, P. Oppenhaim, E. Nagel, extreme anticumulativism (P. Feyerabend, T.S. Kuhn, dialectical cumulativism (W. Krajewski and the hypothetico­‑deductive method of correspondence ­oriented thinking as well as Copernicus’s methodology (M. Kokowski.

  5. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  6. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  7. Do general radiographic examinations resemble a person-centred environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.; Blackman, S.; Eyden, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: It is argued whether general radiographic examinations adhere to a person-centred approach within the direct digital radiography (DDR) environment. General radiographic examinations continue to increase and constitute approximately 90% of all examinations undertaken in the clinical environment. This study explored the potential impact patients experience whilst undergoing general imaging examinations. Method: An ethnographic methodology provided insight of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings highlighted an ‘in and out’ culture whereby patients are ‘hurried’ and ‘rushed’ out of X-ray rooms in response to increasing time pressures experienced by diagnostic radiographers. In addition, this study challenged that patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other elements of radiographic care thus presenting new challenges for radiographers within the clinical environment. Conclusion: It is asserted that radiographers should remain holistic healthcare professionals and not begin to resemble operators on the production line. Further, it challenges whether patients are beginning to rank aspects of radiographic care within contemporary practices. Advances in knowledge: Few studies have explored the radiographer–patient relationship within the DDR environment, yet this study provides insight of person-centred practices within contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Challenges whether the use of DDR conforms to a person-centred approach. • Challenges whether radiographers are ‘treating patients as persons’ using DDR. • Patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other aspects of radiographic care.

  8. Tidal fields in general relativity: D'Alembert's principle and the test rigid rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, J.; Flannery, B.P.

    1978-01-01

    To the general relativist, tidal forces are a manifestation of the Riemann tensor; the relativist therefore uses the Riemann tensor to calculate the effects of such forces. In contrast, we show that the intorduction of gravitational ''probes'' (or ''test rigid rods'') and the adoption of a view-point closely allied to d'Alembert's principle, give an enormous simplification in cases of interest. No component of the Riemann tensor need to be calculated as such. In the corotating orbital case (or Roche problem) the calculation of the relevant distortional field becomes trivial. As a by-product of this investigation, there emerges an illuminating strong field generalization of de Sitter's weak field precession for slowly spinning gyroscopes

  9. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions, examination of the conditions of exoneration and attenuation for the energy uses in the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulinet, M.

    2000-05-01

    This document examines the conditions for a broadening of the general tax on polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions in order to reinforce the fight against greenhouse effect and to better master the energy consumption. It analyses the characteristics of each energy source with respect to the principle of a taxation of the consumptions. Finally, several scenarios are analyzed to show the advantage and drawbacks of such a system. A first evaluation and a preliminary tariffing are given. (J.S.)

  10. A Variation on Uncertainty Principle and Logarithmic Uncertainty Principle for Continuous Quaternion Wavelet Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawardi Bahri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous quaternion wavelet transform (CQWT is a generalization of the classical continuous wavelet transform within the context of quaternion algebra. First of all, we show that the directional quaternion Fourier transform (QFT uncertainty principle can be obtained using the component-wise QFT uncertainty principle. Based on this method, the directional QFT uncertainty principle using representation of polar coordinate form is easily derived. We derive a variation on uncertainty principle related to the QFT. We state that the CQWT of a quaternion function can be written in terms of the QFT and obtain a variation on uncertainty principle related to the CQWT. Finally, we apply the extended uncertainty principles and properties of the CQWT to establish logarithmic uncertainty principles related to generalized transform.

  11. Impacts of generalized uncertainty principle on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) proposed by some approaches to quantum gravity such as String Theory and Doubly Special Relativity on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Utilizing Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Hawking temperature, Bekenstein entropy, specific heat, emission rate and decay time are calculated. As the evaporation entirely eats up the black hole mass, the specific heat vanishes and the temperature approaches infinity with an infinite radiation rate. It is found that the GUP approach prevents the black hole from the entire evaporation. It implies the existence of remnants at which the specific heat vanishes. The same role is played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in constructing the hydrogen atom. We discuss how the linear GUP approach solves the entire-evaporation-problem. Furthermore, the black hole lifetime can be estimated using another approach; the Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Assuming that the quantum position uncertainty is limited to the minimum wavelength of measuring signal, Wigner second inequality can be obtained. If the spread of quantum clock is limited to some minimum value, then the modified black hole lifetime can be deduced. Based on linear GUP approach, the resulting lifetime difference depends on black hole relative mass and the difference between black hole mass with and without GUP is not negligible

  12. General principles of radiation protection in hospital media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.

    1993-01-01

    Principles of radiation protection given by ICRP in term of justification, optimization, limitation are applicable in hospital media. The medical act has to be justified and, in France, it is not possible to use ionizing radiations without a prescription from a doctor. The acceleration of technologies development make non radiological techniques more employed than radiologic ones, in an aim of efficiency more than an aim radiation protection. The second principle of optimization means to give medical care with the minimum of ionizing radiations for the patients as well the operators. For the principle of limitation which applied only for operators, we have the new recommends of ICRP, but it would be reasonable to give the most part of decision to the works doctor to decide if somebody has the aptitude to work at an exposed place. The last points concern the quality of equipment, the safety of installations, the organization of works which are under laws and regulations. 3 tabs

  13. General principles for the formation of dust self-organizing structures. Dust collective attraction and plasma crystal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a homogeneous dusty plasma is universally unstable to form structures. The effect of collective grain attraction is a basic phenomenon for the proposed new paradigm (general principles) for the plasma crystal formation

  14. Temperature effects on the generalized planar fault energies and twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu: First principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Based on the quasiharmonic approach from first-principles phonon calculations, the volume versus temperature relations for Al, Ni and Cu are obtained. Using the equilibrium volumes at temperature T, the temperature dependences of generalized planar fault energies have also been calculated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the generalized planar fault energies reduce slightly with increasing temperature. Based on the calculated generalized planar fault energies, the twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu are discussed with the three typical criteria for crack tip twinning, grain boundary twinning and inherent twinning at different temperatures. The twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu also decrease slightly with increasing temperature. Ni and Cu have the inherent twinnabilities. But, Al does not exhibit inherent twinnability. These results are in agreement with the previous theoretical studies at 0 K and experimental observations at ambient temperature. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature effects on the generalized planar fault energies and twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu: First principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Rui; Wu, Xiaozhi; Gan, Liyong; Wei, Qunyi

    2014-01-01

    Based on the quasiharmonic approach from first-principles phonon calculations, the volume versus temperature relations for Al, Ni and Cu are obtained. Using the equilibrium volumes at temperature T, the temperature dependences of generalized planar fault energies have also been calculated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the generalized planar fault energies reduce slightly with increasing temperature. Based on the calculated generalized planar fault energies, the twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu are discussed with the three typical criteria for crack tip twinning, grain boundary twinning and inherent twinning at different temperatures. The twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu also decrease slightly with increasing temperature. Ni and Cu have the inherent twinnabilities. But, Al does not exhibit inherent twinnability. These results are in agreement with the previous theoretical studies at 0 K and experimental observations at ambient temperature. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  17. 2013 MARS – Refresher presentation | General principles of the Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Staff members are invited to attend one of the three following information sessions that shall outline the general principles of the 2013 annual Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS).   Monday 14 January at 10:00-11:30 – Filtration Plant (222-R-001) Thursday 17 January at 10:00-11:30 – Kjell Johnsen Auditorium (30-7-018) Monday 21 January at 10:00-11:30 - BE Amphitheatre Prévessin (864-1-D02)   General information on the MARS exercise may also be found in the CERN admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/admin-eguide/mars/mars.asp. Human Resources Department Tel. 72728

  18. Expanding Uncertainty Principle to Certainty-Uncertainty Principles with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper. Considering all the possible situations (including the case that people can create laws and applying Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, this paper presents "certainty-uncertainty principles" with general form and variable dimension fractal form. According to the classification of Neutrosophy, "certainty-uncertainty principles" can be divided into three principles in different conditions: "certainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously; "uncertainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum cannot be known simultaneously; and neutral (fuzzy "indeterminacy principle", namely whether or not a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously is undetermined. The special cases of "certain ty-uncertainty principles" include the original uncertainty principle and Ozawa inequality. In addition, in accordance with the original uncertainty principle, discussing high-speed particle’s speed and track with Newton mechanics is unreasonable; but according to "certaintyuncertainty principles", Newton mechanics can be used to discuss the problem of gravitational defection of a photon orbit around the Sun (it gives the same result of deflection angle as given by general relativity. Finally, for the reason that in physics the principles, laws and the like that are regardless of the principle (law of conservation of energy may be invalid; therefore "certaintyuncertainty principles" should be restricted (or constrained by principle (law of conservation of energy, and thus it can satisfy the principle (law of conservation of energy.

  19. On the coherence between high-energy total cross-section data when compared with general principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1993-12-01

    An essential model is performed - an independent study of the internal coherence between high-energy total cross-section data by using classes of functions satisfying general principles. The study is practically independent of the ρ-parameter values. This general analysis, made without any fit, reveals certain inconsistencies in the existing set of high-energy data. Some of these inconsistencies are eliminated by giving up arbitrary assumptions sometimes made in 'fitology'. It is shown that the ln 2 s increase of total cross-sections at high energies is clearly favoured when compared with other possible behaviours. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs

  20. The principle of least action history and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The principle of least action originates in the idea that, if nature has a purpose, it should follow a minimum or critical path. This simple principle, and its variants and generalizations, applies to optics, mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics, and provides an essential guide to understanding the beauty of physics. This unique text provides an accessible introduction to the action principle across these various fields of physics, and examines its history and fundamental role in science. It includes - with varying levels of mathematical sophistication - explanations from historical sources, discussion of classic papers, and original worked examples. The result is a story that is understandable to those with a modest mathematical background, as well as to researchers and students in physics and the history of physics.

  1. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxia; Ma Shanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  2. Nonextensive entropies derived from Gauss' principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tatsuaki

    2011-01-01

    Gauss' principle in statistical mechanics is generalized for a q-exponential distribution in nonextensive statistical mechanics. It determines the associated stochastic and statistical nonextensive entropies which satisfy Greene-Callen principle concerning on the equivalence between microcanonical and canonical ensembles. - Highlights: → Nonextensive entropies are derived from Gauss' principle and ensemble equivalence. → Gauss' principle is generalized for a q-exponential distribution. → I have found the condition for satisfying Greene-Callen principle. → The associated statistical q-entropy is found to be normalized Tsallis entropy.

  3. Conception and syllabus on radiochemistry and radioecology principles for general student groups of a university chemical department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of basic principles of selecting materials for general courses on diverse subjects in chemical science is discussed. Relying on certain general rules and proceeding from specificity of radiochemistry, the author suggests a variant of syllabus including radiochemical and radioecological blocks intented for 48 academic hours. In methodical respect emphasis is made on theoretical material presentation in close combination with various nuclear methods used in chemical studies. 6 refs., 1 fig

  4. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  5. Mutagenicity screening: General principles and minimal criteria. Report of a committee of the European Environmental Mutagen Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilbey, B.J.; Igali, S.; Lohman, P.H.M.

    1978-01-01

    A statement of general principles and minimal criteria for the screening of chemicals for potential mutagenicity in man that may be used as guidelines for regulatory agencies and industrial organisations. To make clear the potentialities and current limitations of short-term mutagenicity testing for

  6. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  7. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-15

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  8. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [es

  9. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [ru

  10. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  11. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [fr

  12. Fundamental quadratic variational principle underlying general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental result of Lanczos is used in a new type of quadratic variational principle whose field equations are the Einstein field equations together with the Yang-Mills type equations for the Riemann curvature. Additionally, a spin-2 theory of gravity for the special case of the Einstein vacuum is discussed

  13. 32 CFR 776.19 - Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles. 776.19 Section 776.19 National... Professional Conduct § 776.19 Principles. The Rules of this subpart are based on the following principles... exists, this subpart should be interpreted consistent with these general principles. (a) Covered...

  14. Henry Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management: Implications for Libraries and Information Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzuegbu, C. P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses generally on the ‘fourteen principles of management’ by Henri Fayol. However, it specifically analyses their application to and implications for libraries and information centres. An extensive review of published works on management generally, and library management in particular, was conducted. This yielded vital insights on the original meaning and later modifications of these principles, as well as their application in the management of various organisations. Consequently, the strengths and weaknesses of these principles were examined to determine their suitability in libraries and information centres. Inferences, illustrations, and examples were drawn from both developed and developing countries which gives the paper a global perspective. Based on available literature, it was concluded that Fayol’s principles of management are as relevant to libraries as they are in other organisations. The paper, therefore, recommends that in addition to modifying some aspects to make these principles more responsive to the peculiar needs of libraries, further research should be undertaken to expand the breadth of these principles and ascertain their impacts on the management of information organisations.

  15. Pleasure and Pain: Teaching Neuroscientific Principles of Hedonism in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food ...

  16. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  17. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  18. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  19. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  20. Proposal to change General Consideration 5 and Principle 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M

    2014-01-01

    A proposal is submitted to the ICSP to change the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), deleting the words Schizophycetes, Cyanophyceae and Cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is covered by the Code. It is further proposed to change the terms Zoological Code and International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in General Consideration 5 and in Principle 2 to International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, respectively.

  1. A variational principle for the axisymmetric stability of rotating relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert M; Schiffrin, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that all rotating perfect fluid stars in general relativity are unstable to certain non-axisymmetric perturbations via the Chandrasekhar–Friedman–Schutz (CFS) instability. However, the mechanism of the CFS instability requires, in an essential way, the loss of angular momentum by gravitational radiation and, in many instances, it acts on too long a timescale to be physically/astrophysically relevant. It is therefore of interest to examine the stability of rotating, relativistic stars to axisymmetric perturbations, where the CFS instability does not occur. In this paper, we provide a Rayleigh–Ritz-type variational principle for testing the stability of perfect fluid stars to axisymmetric perturbations, which generalizes to axisymmetric perturbations of rotating stars a variational principle given by Chandrasekhar for spherical perturbations of static, spherical stars. Our variational principle provides a lower bound to the rate of exponential growth in the case of instability. The derivation closely parallels the derivation of a recently obtained variational principle for analyzing the axisymmetric stability of black holes. (paper)

  2. Homeopathy in veterinary medicine: general principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo T. Cristina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy therapeutic means are more significantly considered as an animals treatment alternative. This because homeopathy has in its view not only the fact that is harmless for animals, but also the important aspect of lack presence of residues in animal origin products. The paper makes a short presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of this therapeutic alternative and also propose a short description of the three Hahnemian principles: of similitude, of dilutions and of individualization, with them specific aspects (decimal and centesimal dilutions, influence of constitution andtemperament, the organic and functional signs analysis.

  3. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the...

  4. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays.

  5. On the invariance principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.

  6. The generally covariant locality principle - a new paradigm for local quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, R.; Fredenhagen, K.; Verch, R.

    2002-05-01

    A new approach to the model-independent description of quantum field theories will be introduced in the present work. The main feature of this new approach is to incorporate in a local sense the principle of general covariance of general relativity, thus giving rise to the concept of a locally covariant quantum field theory. Such locally covariant quantum field theories will be described mathematically in terms of covariant functors between the categories, on one side, of globally hyperbolic spacetimes with isometric embeddings as morphisms and, on the other side, of *-algebras with unital injective *-endomorphisms as morphisms. Moreover, locally covariant quantum fields can be described in this framework as natural transformations between certain functors. The usual Haag-Kastler framework of nets of operator-algebras over a fixed spacetime background-manifold, together with covariant automorphic actions of the isometry-group of the background spacetime, can be re-gained from this new approach as a special case. Examples of this new approach are also outlined. In case that a locally covariant quantum field theory obeys the time-slice axiom, one can naturally associate to it certain automorphic actions, called ''relative Cauchy-evolutions'', which describe the dynamical reaction of the quantum field theory to a local change of spacetime background metrics. The functional derivative of a relative Cauchy-evolution with respect to the spacetime metric is found to be a divergence-free quantity which has, as will be demonstrated in an example, the significance of an energy-momentum tensor for the locally covariant quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss the functorial properties of state spaces of locally covariant quantum field theories that entail the validity of the principle of local definiteness. (orig.)

  7. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  8. General Creighton Abrams: Ethical Leadership at the Strategic Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leatherman, John

    1998-01-01

    .... This study describes General Abrams' ethical strategic leadership style during his Army career and examines the extent that his ethical principles and examples affected his soldiers and the Army...

  9. Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. Methods One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Results Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p internal medicine clerkship. Possible causes and suggestions for improvement are discussed. PMID:24712683

  10. General proof of the entropy principle for self-gravitating fluid in f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiongjun [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures andQuantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University,Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Guo, Minyong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Jing, Jiliang [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures andQuantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University,Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)

    2016-08-29

    The discussions on the connection between gravity and thermodynamics attract much attention recently. We consider a static self-gravitating perfect fluid system in f(R) gravity, which is an important theory could explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We first show that the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation of f(R) theories can be obtained by thermodynamical method in spherical symmetric spacetime. Then we prove that the maximum entropy principle is also valid for f(R) gravity in general static spacetimes beyond spherical symmetry. The result shows that if the constraint equation is satisfied and the temperature of fluid obeys Tolmans law, the extrema of total entropy implies other components of gravitational equations. Conversely, if f(R) gravitational equation hold, the total entropy of the fluid should be extremum. Our work suggests a general and solid connection between f(R) gravity and thermodynamics.

  11. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  12. On minimizers of causal variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiefeneder, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Causal variational principles are a class of nonlinear minimization problems which arise in a formulation of relativistic quantum theory referred to as the fermionic projector approach. This thesis is devoted to a numerical and analytic study of the minimizers of a general class of causal variational principles. We begin with a numerical investigation of variational principles for the fermionic projector in discrete space-time. It is shown that for sufficiently many space-time points, the minimizing fermionic projector induces non-trivial causal relations on the space-time points. We then generalize the setting by introducing a class of causal variational principles for measures on a compact manifold. In our main result we prove under general assumptions that the support of a minimizing measure is either completely timelike, or it is singular in the sense that its interior is empty. In the examples of the circle, the sphere and certain flag manifolds, the general results are supplemented by a more detailed analysis of the minimizers. (orig.)

  13. Meta-Analyses of Seven of NIDA’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Frank S.; Prendergast, Michael L.; Podus, Deborah; Vazan, Peter; Greenwell, Lisa; Hamilton, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Seven of the 13 Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment disseminated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were meta-analyzed as part of the Evidence-based Principles of Treatment (EPT) project. By averaging outcomes over the diverse programs included in EPT, we found that five of the NIDA principles examined are supported: matching treatment to the client’s needs; attending to the multiple needs of clients; behavioral counseling interventions; treatment plan reassessment; and counseling to reduce risk of HIV. Two of the NIDA principles are not supported: remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time and frequency of testing for drug use. These weak effects could be the result of the principles being stated too generally to apply to the diverse interventions and programs that exist or of unmeasured moderator variables being confounded with the moderators that measured the principles. Meta-analysis should be a standard tool for developing principles of effective treatment for substance use disorders. PMID:22119178

  14. NSF Workshop Report: Discovering General Principles of Nervous System Organization by Comparing Brain Maps across Species

    OpenAIRE

    Striedter, Georg F.; Belgard, T. Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P.; Finlay, Barbara L.; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E.; Harris, Julie A.; Hecht, Erin E.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Karten, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous sys...

  15. A New Principle in Physics: the Principle 'Finiteness', and Some Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternlieb, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I propose a new principle in physics: the principle of 'finiteness'. It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals (among other things) with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results, including their errors, are always finite, the principle of finiteness postulates that the mathematical formulation of 'legitimate' laws of physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. Some consequences of the principle of finiteness are discussed, in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The consequences are derived independently of any other theory or principle in physics. I propose 'finiteness' as a postulate (like the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, 'c'), as opposed to a notion whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories, or principles.

  16. The in-training examination: an analysis of its predictive value on performance on the general pediatrics certification examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Linda A; McGuinness, Gail A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates the predictive validity of the In-Training Examination (ITE). Although studies have confirmed the predictive validity of ITEs in other medical specialties, no study has been done for general pediatrics. Each year, residents in accredited pediatric training programs take the ITE as a self-assessment instrument. The ITE is similar to the American Board of Pediatrics General Pediatrics Certifying Examination. First-time takers of the certifying examination over a 5-year period who took at least 1 ITE examination were included in the sample. Regression models analyzed the predictive value of the ITE. The predictive power of the ITE in the first training year is minimal. However, the predictive power of the ITE increases each year, providing the greatest power in the third year of training. Even though ITE scores provide information regarding the likelihood of passing the certification examination, the data should be used with caution, particularly in the first training year. Other factors also must be considered when predicting performance on the certification examination. This study continues to support the ITE as an assessment tool for program directors, as well as a means of providing residents with feedback regarding their acquisition of pediatric knowledge.

  17. Metaphysics of the principle of least action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhovich, Vladislav

    2018-05-01

    Despite the importance of the variational principles of physics, there have been relatively few attempts to consider them for a realistic framework. In addition to the old teleological question, this paper continues the recent discussion regarding the modal involvement of the principle of least action and its relations with the Humean view of the laws of nature. The reality of possible paths in the principle of least action is examined from the perspectives of the contemporary metaphysics of modality and Leibniz's concept of essences or possibles striving for existence. I elaborate a modal interpretation of the principle of least action that replaces a classical representation of a system's motion along a single history in the actual modality by simultaneous motions along an infinite set of all possible histories in the possible modality. This model is based on an intuition that deep ontological connections exist between the possible paths in the principle of least action and possible quantum histories in the Feynman path integral. I interpret the action as a physical measure of the essence of every possible history. Therefore only one actual history has the highest degree of the essence and minimal action. To address the issue of necessity, I assume that the principle of least action has a general physical necessity and lies between the laws of motion with a limited physical necessity and certain laws with a metaphysical necessity.

  18. The four variational principles of mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.G.; Karl, G.; Novikov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that there are four basic forms of the variational principles of mechanics: Hamilton close-quote s least action principle (HP), the generalized Maupertuis principle (MP), and their two reciprocal principles, RHP and RMP. This set is invariant under reciprocity and Legendre transformations. One of these forms (HP) is in the literature: only special cases of the other three are known. The generalized MP has a weaker constraint compared to the traditional formulation, only the mean energy bar E is kept fixed between virtual paths. This reformulation of MP alleviates several weaknesses of the old version. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle (RMP) is the classical limit of Schroedinger close-quote s variational principle of quantum mechanics, and this connection emphasizes the importance of the reciprocity transformation for variational principles. Two unconstrained formulations (UHP and UMP) of these four principles are also proposed, with completely specified Lagrange multipliers Percival close-quote s variational principle for invariant tori and variational principles for scattering orbits are derived from the RMP. The RMP is very convenient for approximate variational solutions to problems in mechanics using Ritz type methods Examples are provided. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  19. General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.M.S.; Foster, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    NMR characteristics are not unique - T/sub 1/ values of tumour tissues overlap with those from multiple sclerosis plaques or from areas of inflammation. Despite this, NMR imaging is an extremely powerful tool to the diagnostician and for other medical use such as following the course of treatment or planning or surgery or radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used solely as an anatomical technique similar to X-ray CT. This is certainly an appropriate use for it and it has certain advantages over X-ray CT such as the greater ease with which sagittal and coronal sections can be obtained (or other views by suitable manipulation of the gradients) NMR is also less bothered by bone-related artefacts. There are disadvantages in terms of resolution (although this is improving) and of speed of acquisition of the image. The NMR signal, however, derives from a complex interaction of biophysical properties and, if properly used, can yield a considerable amount of information about its origin. The NMR image is capable of much more manipulation than that obtained by X-ray methods and, particularly with the addition of spectroscopy to the repertoire the authors expect in vivo NMR examinations to yield much metabolic and biophysical information in addition to providing a demonstration of the anatomy of the body

  20. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The payment for performance model and its influence on British general practitioners' principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Armando Henrique; Russell, Andrew J; Macnaughton, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some effects of the British payment for performance model on general practitioners' principles and practice, which may contribute to issues related to financial incentive modalities and quality of primary healthcare services in low and middle-income countries. Aiming to investigate what general practitioners have to say about the effect of the British payment for performance on their professional ethos we carried out semi-structured interviews with 13 general practitioner educators and leaders working in academic medicine across the UK. The results show a shift towards a more biomedical practice model and fragmented care with nurse practitioners and other health care staff focused more on specific disease conditions. There has also been an increased medicalisation of the patient experience both through labelling and the tendency to prescribe medications rather than non-pharmacological interventions. Thus, the British payment for performance has gradually strengthened a scientific-bureaucratic model of medical practice which has had profound effects on the way family medicine is practiced in the UK.

  2. Thermodynamics of a class of regular black holes with a generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, R. V.; Neves, Juliano C. S.

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we present a study on thermodynamics of a class of regular black holes. Such a class includes Bardeen and Hayward regular black holes. We obtained thermodynamic quantities like the Hawking temperature, entropy, and heat capacity for the entire class. As part of an effort to indicate some physical observable to distinguish regular black holes from singular black holes, we suggest that regular black holes are colder than singular black holes. Besides, contrary to the Schwarzschild black hole, that class of regular black holes may be thermodynamically stable. From a generalized uncertainty principle, we also obtained the quantum-corrected thermodynamics for the studied class. Such quantum corrections provide a logarithmic term for the quantum-corrected entropy.

  3. Massive vector particles tunneling from black holes influenced by the generalized uncertainty principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Qian Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the generalized uncertainty principle, which incorporates the central idea of large extra dimensions, to investigate the processes involved when massive spin-1 particles tunnel from Reissner–Nordstrom and Kerr black holes under the effects of quantum gravity. For the black hole, the quantum gravity correction decelerates the increase in temperature. Up to O(1Mf2, the corrected temperatures are affected by the mass and angular momentum of the emitted vector bosons. In addition, the temperature of the Kerr black hole becomes uneven due to rotation. When the mass of the black hole approaches the order of the higher dimensional Planck mass Mf, it stops radiating and yields a black hole remnant.

  4. Developing the Blueprint for a General Surgery Technical Skills Certification Examination: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montbrun, Sandra; Louridas, Marisa; Szasz, Peter; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    There is a recognized need to develop high-stakes technical skills assessments for decisions of certification and resident promotion. High-stakes examinations requires a rigorous approach in accruing validity evidence throughout the developmental process. One of the first steps in development is the creation of a blueprint which outlines the potential content of examination. The purpose of this validation study was to develop an examination blueprint for a Canadian General Surgery assessment of technical skill certifying examination. A Delphi methodology was used to gain consensus amongst Canadian General Surgery program directors as to the content (tasks or procedures) that could be included in a certifying Canadian General Surgery examination. Consensus was defined a priori as a Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70. All procedures or tasks reaching a positive consensus (defined as ≥80% of program directors rated items as ≥4 on the 5-point Likert scale) were then included in the final examination blueprint. Two Delphi rounds were needed to reach consensus. Of the 17 General Surgery Program directors across the country, 14 (82.4%) and 10 (58.8%) program directors responded to the first and second round, respectively. A total of 59 items and procedures reached positive consensus and were included in the final examination blueprint. The present study has outlined the development of an examination blueprint for a General Surgery certifying examination using a consensus-based methodology. This validation study will serve as the foundational work from which simulated model will be developed, pilot tested and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  6. Mach's principle and space-time structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raine, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mach's principle, that inertial forces should be generated by the motion of a body relative to the bulk of matter in the universe, is shown to be related to the structure imposed on space-time by dynamical theories. General relativity theory and Mach's principle are both shown to be well supported by observations. Since Mach's principle is not contained in general relativity this leads to a discussion of attempts to derive Machian theories. The most promising of these appears to be a selection rule for solutions of the general relativistic field equations, in which the space-time metric structure is generated by the matter content of the universe only in a well-defined way. (author)

  7. Precautionary Principles: General Definitions and Specific Applications to Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2002-01-01

    Precautionary principles have been proposed as a fundamental element of sound risk management. Their advocates see them as guiding action in the face of uncertainty, encouraging the adoption of measures that reduce serious risks to health, safety, and the environment. Their opponents may reject the very idea of precautionary principles, find…

  8. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  9. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  10. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  11. General principles for treatment planning for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Million, R.R.; Bova, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Although squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck represents only 5% of all malignancies, the head and neck area is one of the few anatomical areas remaining where radiotherapy is often used as the only modality for cure and often with substantial doses. There are at least 35 separate anatomical sites for origin of squamous cell carcinoma in the upper respiratory tract, and each site has its own distinctive pattern of spread, incidence of regional and distant metastases, and varying stages of presentation. It would be impossible in this short chapter to cover every contingency for treatment planning, and only general principles are outlined

  12. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  13. The Comonotonic Sure-Thing Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Chew, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    This article identifies the common characterizing condition, the comonotonic sure-thing principle, that underlies the rank-dependent direction in non-expected utility. This condition restricts Savage's sure-thing principle to comonotonic acts, and is characterized in full generality by means of a

  14. When psychologists work with religious clients: applications of the general principles of ethical conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, M A; VanOrman, B T

    1999-12-01

    Psychologists become more effective and relevant when they appreciate that many clients hold religious values and commitments. Greater awareness of religion and religious values in the lives of clients may aid clinicians' efforts to provide more accurate assessments and effective treatment plans. The authors use the American Psychological Association's (1992) "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" as a framework to examine many of the ethical issues relevant when psychologists work with religious clients. This article also provides suggestions for ways in which clinicians may obtain the skills needed to offer competent assessments and interventions with religiously committed clients.

  15. Generalization of the variational principle and the Hohenberg and Kohn theorems for excited states of Fermion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonis, A., E-mail: gonis@comcast.net

    2017-01-05

    Through the entanglement of a collection of K non-interacting replicas of a system of N interacting Fermions, and making use of the properties of reduced density matrices the variational principle and the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn are generalized to excited states. The generalization of the variational principle makes use of the natural orbitals of an N-particle density matrix describing the state of lowest energy of the entangled state. The extension of the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn is based on the ground-state formulation of density functional theory but with a new interpretation of the concept of a ground state: It is the state of lowest energy of a system of KN Fermions that is described in terms of the excited states of the N-particle interacting system. This straightforward implementation of the line of reasoning of ground-state density functional theory to a new domain leads to a unique and logically valid extension of the theory to excited states that allows the systematic treatment of all states in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of an interacting system. - Highlights: • Use of entanglement in connection with the properties of density matrices. • An anti-symmetric entangled state of order KN expressed in terms of excited states of an interacting N-particle system.

  16. Variation in examination and treatment offers to patients with allergic diseases in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Munck, Anders Peter

    2010-01-01

    in general practice to patients with allergic diseases, and to evaluate guideline compliance with respect to anaphylaxis emergency treatment kits. DESIGN: A questionnaire-based survey among general practitioners (GPs) about examination and treatment procedures offered in the surgery to patients with allergic...... recommendations for preparedness for anaphylactic shock in connection with allergy vaccine therapy were not fully implemented. CONCLUSION: General practice is substantially involved in the examination and treatment of patients with allergic diseases. There is room for further involvement of staff members...

  17. A generalized variational principle of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahir, A.

    1987-09-01

    Generalized fourth order differential equations of gravitation are derived. Though similar to those earlier obtained by Lanczos, the present derivation is based on more general assumptions. The geometry-gravity dualism is discussed and the nonlinearity of gravitation is shown to be constrained by the curvature of space. (author). 5 refs

  18. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  19. Determining the minimal length scale of the generalized uncertainty principle from the entropy-area relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wontae; Oh, John J.

    2008-01-01

    We derive the formula of the black hole entropy with a minimal length of the Planck size by counting quantum modes of scalar fields in the vicinity of the black hole horizon, taking into account the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). This formula is applied to some intriguing examples of black holes - the Schwarzschild black hole, the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, and the magnetically charged dilatonic black hole. As a result, it is shown that the GUP parameter can be determined by imposing the black hole entropy-area relationship, which has a Planck length scale and a universal form within the near-horizon expansion

  20. The sure-thing principle and the comonotonic sure-thing principle: An axiomatic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper compares classical expected utility with the more general rank-dependent utility models. It shows that the difference between the sure-thing principle for preferences of expected utility and its comonotonic generalization in rank-dependent utility provides the exact

  1. Mach's principle and rotating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero

  2. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  3. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  4. A return to the manifest justice principle: a critical examination of the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Nwauche

    2004-10-01

    apprehension test as applied by the minority in SACCAWU v Irvin & Johnson Ltd (Seafoods Division Fish Processing is a more acceptable interpretation of the reasonable apprehension test than the test laid down in President of the Republic of South Africa v South Africa Rugby Football Union (2 and its interpretation by the majority in SACCAWU v Irvin & Johnson Ltd (Seafoods Division Fish Processing. More importantly there is an examination of cases where the tests have been applied which hopefully shows that there are considerable problems and inconsistency in their application and argue that the manifest justice principle provides the proper context for the tests to be properly applied.

  5. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  6. The Sure-Thing Principle and the Comonotonic Sure-Thing Principle: An Axiomatic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares classical expected utility with the more general rank-dependent utility models. It shows that the difference between the sure-thing principle for preferences of expected utility and its comonotonic generalization in rank-dependent utility provides the exact demarcation between

  7. Generalized quantal equation of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, M.W.; Embaby, M.

    1986-07-01

    In the present paper, an attempt is made for establishing a generalized equation of motion for quantal objects, in which intrinsic self adjointness is naturally built in, independently of any prescribed representation. This is accomplished by adopting Hamilton's principle of least action, after incorporating, properly, the quantal features and employing the generalized calculus of variations, without being restricted to fixed end points representation. It turns out that our proposed equation of motion is an intrinsically self-adjoint Euler-Lagrange's differential equation that ensures extremization of the quantal action as required by Hamilton's principle. Time dependence is introduced and the corresponding equation of motion is derived, in which intrinsic self adjointness is also achieved. Reducibility of the proposed equation of motion to the conventional Schroedinger equation is examined. The corresponding continuity equation is established, and both of the probability density and the probability current density are identified. (author)

  8. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka E-mail: ollipekka.ryynanen@uku.fi; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination.

  9. Educational value of pocket-sized ultrasound devices to improve understanding of ultrasound examination principles and sonographic anatomy for medical student.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Kim

    Full Text Available Medical students must understand the principles of ultrasonography (US, because US examinations are an important component of patient care in clinical practice. Pocket-sized ultrasound devices have the benefits of accessibility and ease of use. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the educational value of these devices in terms of improving medical student interest and understanding of US and sonographic anatomy.We added a US training program comprised of a self-study learning module and a hands-on training session to a two-week block curriculum of medical imaging for first year medical students (n = 40. Multiple pocket-sized US devices were used on a small-group basis during a single afternoon. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after the US training session; these two questionnaires contained 6 and 10 questions, respectively, which were rated by students using a five-point Likert scale. In addition, understanding of sonographic anatomy was tested before and after the training program.Forty students completed the two questionnaires and the anatomy-related tests. Students found the program educationally valuable (4.37 ± 0.54 of 5 and reported that US practice was useful for improving their understanding of the principles of US examinations (4.23 ± 0.66 of 5 and sonographic anatomy (4.40 ± 0.55 of 5. Overall confidence at performing US examinations and understanding of sonographic anatomy were significantly increased after US training (increased overall confidence score, 1.87 ± 0.91 and improvement in sonographic anatomy score, 6.55 ± 1.55, p values < 0.001.US training using pocket-sized ultrasound devices was found to be educationally valuable for medical students in terms of improving understanding of US principles and familiarizing students with sonographic anatomy.

  10. Examining the Attitudes of Secondary General Education and Special Education Teachers toward Inclusion of Children with Autism in General Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Morghan E.

    2016-01-01

    Academic environments, such as general education classrooms, have increasingly become important learning environments for children with autism. The purpose of the study was to examine the attitudes of secondary general education and special education teachers toward inclusion of children with autism in general education classrooms. The research…

  11. Protecting the principles during progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.K.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss the importance in recognizing the unique aspects of nuclear power generation in an industry facing deregulation, competitiveness, and commercialization. While exciting times of opportunity are again ahead for the nuclear industry, the excitement has to consider that there are differences between general nuclear and general commerce. These differences are driven by some fundamental principles that impact nuclear reactor operation and examples are given of how these principles must be protected to ensure that nuclear generation can be of continued benefit to the public. (author)

  12. Maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element scheme applied to compressible multifluids

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua; Wen, Chih-Yung; Parsani, Matteo; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2016-01-01

    A maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is constructed to solve a reduced five-equation model coupled with the stiffened equation of state for compressible multifluids. We first derive a sufficient condition for CE/SE schemes to satisfy maximum-principle when solving a general conservation law. And then we introduce a slope limiter to ensure the sufficient condition which is applicative for both central and upwind CE/SE schemes. Finally, we implement the upwind maximum-principle-satisfying CE/SE scheme to solve the volume-fraction-based five-equation model for compressible multifluids. Several numerical examples are carried out to carefully examine the accuracy, efficiency, conservativeness and maximum-principle-satisfying property of the proposed approach.

  13. Maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element scheme applied to compressible multifluids

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua

    2016-10-19

    A maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is constructed to solve a reduced five-equation model coupled with the stiffened equation of state for compressible multifluids. We first derive a sufficient condition for CE/SE schemes to satisfy maximum-principle when solving a general conservation law. And then we introduce a slope limiter to ensure the sufficient condition which is applicative for both central and upwind CE/SE schemes. Finally, we implement the upwind maximum-principle-satisfying CE/SE scheme to solve the volume-fraction-based five-equation model for compressible multifluids. Several numerical examples are carried out to carefully examine the accuracy, efficiency, conservativeness and maximum-principle-satisfying property of the proposed approach.

  14. Design principles for achieving integrated healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-03-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed 'Standardized pull of patient data' expanded and is now used on a large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii) identification of key healthcare actors to provide them with immediate benefits.

  15. [The acute (surgical) abdomen - epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Petersen, M; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2010-06-01

    This review comments on epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of surgical management in patients with acute abdomen. DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: The most common cause of acute abdominal pain is non-specific abdominal pain (24 - 44.3 % of the study populations), followed by acute appendicitis (15.9 - 28.1 %), acute biliary disease (2.9 - 9.7 %) and bowel obstruction or diverticulitits in elderly patients. Acute appendicitis represents the cause of surgical intervention in two-thirds of the children with acute abdomen. A standardised physical examination combined with ultrasonography (US) represents the initial investigation in patients with acute abdominal pain. Due to the risk associated with radiation and due to the costs, a selective use of CT imaging is recommended. The work-flow given in this paper restricts the use of CT imaging to less than 50 % of patients with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered in patients without a specific diagnosis after appropriate imaging and as an alternative to active clinical observation which is the current practice in patients with non-specific abdominal pain. Acute small bowel obstruction has previously been considered as a relative contraindication for laparoscopic management, but it has been shown in the meantime that laparoscopic treatment is an elegant tool for the management of simple band small bowel obstruction. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute abdomen or sepsis of unknown origin, in suspicion of acute cholecystitis, diffuse gut hypoperfusion and mesenteric ischaemia or in refractory lactic acidosis, especially after cardiac surgery. Early administration of analgesia to patients with acute abdominal pain in the emergency department will reduce the patient's discomfort without impairing clinically important diagnostic accuracy and is recommended on the basis of some prospective randomised trials. However, the impact on

  16. Evaluation of aerodynamic characteristics of a coupled fluid-structure system using generalized Bernoulli's principle: An application to vocal folds vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lucy T; Yang, Jubiao

    2016-12-01

    In this work we explore the aerodynamics flow characteristics of a coupled fluid-structure interaction system using a generalized Bernoulli equation derived directly from the Cauchy momentum equations. Unlike the conventional Bernoulli equation where incompressible, inviscid, and steady flow conditions are assumed, this generalized Bernoulli equation includes the contributions from compressibility, viscous, and unsteadiness, which could be essential in defining aerodynamic characteristics. The application of the derived Bernoulli's principle is on a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction simulation of the vocal folds vibration. The coupled system is simulated using the immersed finite element method where compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to describe the air and an elastic pliable structure to describe the vocal fold. The vibration of the vocal fold works to open and close the glottal flow. The aerodynamics flow characteristics are evaluated using the derived Bernoulli's principles for a vibration cycle in a carefully partitioned control volume based on the moving structure. The results agree very well to experimental observations, which validate the strategy and its use in other types of flow characteristics that involve coupled fluid-structure interactions.

  17. Gyroscope precession in special and general relativity from basic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Rickard M.

    2007-05-01

    In special relativity a gyroscope that is suspended in a torque-free manner will precess as it is moved along a curved path relative to an inertial frame S. We explain this effect, which is known as Thomas precession, by considering a real grid that moves along with the gyroscope, and that by definition is not rotating as observed from its own momentary inertial rest frame. From the basic properties of the Lorentz transformation we deduce how the form and rotation of the grid (and hence the gyroscope) will evolve relative to S. As an intermediate step we consider how the grid would appear if it were not length contracted along the direction of motion. We show that the uncontracted grid obeys a simple law of rotation. This law simplifies the analysis of spin precession compared to more traditional approaches based on Fermi transport. We also consider gyroscope precession relative to an accelerated reference frame and show that there are extra precession effects that can be explained in a way analogous to the Thomas precession. Although fully relativistically correct, the entire analysis is carried out using three-vectors. By using the equivalence principle the formalism can also be applied to static spacetimes in general relativity. As an example, we calculate the precession of a gyroscope orbiting a static black hole.

  18. Can the maximum entropy principle be explained as a consistency requirement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffink, J.

    1997-01-01

    The principle of maximum entropy is a general method to assign values to probability distributions on the basis of partial information. This principle, introduced by Jaynes in 1957, forms an extension of the classical principle of insufficient reason. It has been further generalized, both in

  19. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  20. Non-participation in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To examine demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of parents and children in families not participating in preventive child health examinations at the general practitioner in a society with free and easy access to healthcare. Design. Population-covering register linkage study...... free and easy access to the GP, the utilization of preventive child health examinations is lower among the more deprived part of the population....

  1. Probing Students' Ideas of the Principle of Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…

  2. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  3. Complementarity As Generative Principle: A Thought Pattern for Aesthetic Appreciations and Cognitive Appraisals in General

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; von Stosch, Alexandra; Park, Mona; Pöppel, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery. On that basis a thought pattern is suggested for aesthetic appreciations and cognitive appraisals in general. This thought pattern is deeply rooted in the history of philosophy and art theory since antiquity; and complementarity also characterizes neural operations as basis for cognitive processes. We then discuss some challenges one is confronted with in experimental aesthetics; in our opinion, one serious problem is the lack of a taxonomy of functions in psychology and neuroscience which is generally accepted. This deficit makes it next to impossible to develop acceptable models which are similar to what has to be modeled. Another problem is the severe language bias in this field of research as knowledge gained in many languages over the ages remains inaccessible to most scientists. Thus, an inspection of research results or theoretical concepts is necessarily too narrow. In spite of these limitations we provide a selective summary of some results and viewpoints with a focus on visual art and its appreciation. It is described how questions of art and aesthetic appreciations using behavioral methods and in particular brain-imaging techniques are analyzed and evaluated focusing on such issues like the representation of artwork or affective experiences. Finally, we emphasize complementarity as a generative principle on a practical level when artists and scientists work directly together which can

  4. Complementarity As Generative Principle: A Thought Pattern for Aesthetic Appreciations and Cognitive Appraisals in General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery. On that basis a thought pattern is suggested for aesthetic appreciations and cognitive appraisals in general. This thought pattern is deeply rooted in the history of philosophy and art theory since antiquity; and complementarity also characterizes neural operations as basis for cognitive processes. We then discuss some challenges one is confronted with in experimental aesthetics; in our opinion, one serious problem is the lack of a taxonomy of functions in psychology and neuroscience which is generally accepted. This deficit makes it next to impossible to develop acceptable models which are similar to what has to be modeled. Another problem is the severe language bias in this field of research as knowledge gained in many languages over the ages remains inaccessible to most scientists. Thus, an inspection of research results or theoretical concepts is necessarily too narrow. In spite of these limitations we provide a selective summary of some results and viewpoints with a focus on visual art and its appreciation. It is described how questions of art and aesthetic appreciations using behavioral methods and in particular brain-imaging techniques are analyzed and evaluated focusing on such issues like the representation of artwork or affective experiences. Finally, we emphasize complementarity as a generative principle on a practical level when artists and scientists work

  5. Fermat principle for a nonstationary medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronovich, A G; Godin, O A

    2003-07-25

    One possible formulation of a variational principle of the Fermat type for systems with time-dependent parameters is suggested. In a stationary case, it reduces to the Mopertui-Lagrange least-action principle. A class of Hamiltonians (dispersion relations) is indicated, for which the variational principle reduces to the Fermat principle in a general nonstationary case. Hamiltonians that are homogeneous functions of momenta are in this category. For the important case of nondispersive waves (corresponding to Hamiltonians being homogeneous function of momenta order 1) the Fermat principle fully determines the geometry of the rays. Equations relating the variation of signal frequency with the rate of change of propagation time are established.

  6. 46 CFR 232.2 - General instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accepted accounting principles. All contractors shall conform their accounting policies to generally accepted accounting principles (promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board of the American... reports in the prescribed formats and is consistent with generally accepted accounting principles. (c...

  7. f(R in Holographic and Agegraphic Dark Energy Models and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Majumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a unified approach with the holographic, new agegraphic, and f(R dark energy model to construct the form of f(R which in general is responsible for the curvature driven explanation of the very early inflation along with presently observed late time acceleration. We considered the generalized uncertainty principle in our approach which incorporated the corrections in the entropy-area relation and thereby modified the energy densities for the cosmological dark energy models considered. We found that holographic and new agegraphic f(R gravity models can behave like phantom or quintessence models in the spatially flat FRW universe. We also found a distinct term in the form of f(R which goes as R 3 / 2 due to the consideration of the GUP modified energy densities. Although the presence of this term in the action can be important in explaining the early inflationary scenario, Capozziello et al. recently showed that f(R ~ R 3 / 2 leads to an accelerated expansion, that is, a negative value for the deceleration parameter q which fits well with SNeIa and WMAP data.

  8. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev

    2016-07-01

    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  9. Accounting Principles 30G. Interim Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide was developed for a senior-level introductory accounting course for students in high schools in Manitoba. The course introduces Canadian accounting principles and practices; it applies Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to introductory financial accounting. The guide includes the following components: (1) an…

  10. On quasistability radius of a vector trajectorial problem with a principle of optimality generalizing Pareto and lexicographic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey E. Bukhtoyarov

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A multicriterion linear combinatorial problem with a parametric principle of optimality is considered. This principle is defined by a partitioning of partial criteria onto Pareto preference relation groups within each group and the lexicographic preference relation between them. Quasistability of the problem is investigated. This type of stability is a discrete analog of Hausdorff lower semi-continuity of the multiple-valued mapping that defines the choice function. A formula of quasistability radius is derived for the case of the metric l∞. Some known results are stated as corollaries. Mathematics Subject Classification 2000: 90C05, 90C10, 90C29, 90C31.

  11. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  12. Quantification of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries

  13. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time...

  14. The Principle Of Justice In Magna Carta Libertatum And Its Influence On The Law In General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zendeli Emine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to expound the principle of justice, as a fundamental value and as an immanent category of law, as well as one of the fundamental human rights, prescribed and guaranteed by a myriad of international instruments and documents. After a brief historical account, by focusing on Article 40 of the Magna Carta Libertatum, which states that: “To No One Will we Sell, To No One Will we refuse or delay, right or justice”, this article claims to show the importance of incorporation of this principle in the provisions of the Magna Carta and its impact on the development of theory and legislation in the past and present. Moreover, the article intends to explore the extent of influence that the priciple of justice has on the functioning of the law in general. Since justice implicates the permanent and constant will to render each person his due, and this achieved through equality, it results that justice means being equal. In this context, the article will explore the concept of equality as a precondition of justice, as well as the conditions and modalities for its implementation.

  15. Using General Semantics Principles in the Basic News Reporting Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charles G.; Many, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Shows how certain principles of the study of semantics might be employed in the journalism curriculum as a means of enhancing student reporters' understanding that their perceptions are limited and subject to distortion. Provides a model for explaining these limitations. (HB)

  16. Complementary Huygens Principle for Geometrical and Nongeometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    We develop a fundamental principle depicting the generalized ray formulation of optics provided by the Wigner function. This principle is formally identical to the Huygens-Fresnel principle but in terms of opposite concepts, rays instead of waves, and incoherent superpositions instead of coherent ones. This ray picture naturally includes…

  17. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  18. The Principles of Self Creation Cosmology and its Comparison with General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    There are, at present, several gravitational and cosmological anomalies; the dark energy problem, the lambda problem, accelerating cosmological expansion, the anomalous Pioneer spacecraft acceleration, a spin-up of the Earth and an apparent variation of G observed from analysis of the evolution of planetary longitudes. These conundrums may be resolved in the theory of Self Creation Cosmology, in which the Principle of Mutual Interaction subsumes both Mach's Principle and the Local Conservatio...

  19. First principle study on generalized-stacking-fault energy surfaces of B2-AlRE intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaorong; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Rui

    2011-12-01

    First-principles calculations are used to predict the generalized-stacking-fault energy (GSFE) surfaces of AlRE intermetallics. The calculations employ the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) using the density functional theory (DFT). GSFE curves along {1 1 0} direction, {1 1 0} direction and {1 1 0} direction have been calculated. The fitted GSFE surfaces have been obtained from the Fourier series based on the translational symmetry. In order to illuminate the reasonable of our computational accuracy, we have compared our theoretical results of B2 intermetallics YCu with the previous calculated results. The unstable-stacking-fault energy (γus) on the {1 1 0} plane has the laws of AlPr, and directions. For the antiphase boundary (APB) energy, that of AlSc is the lowest in the calculated AlRE intermetallics. So the superdislocation with the Burgers vector along direction of AlSc will easily split into two superpartials.

  20. Nuclear detectors. Physical principles of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear detection is used in several domains of activity from the physics research, the nuclear industry, the medical and industrial sectors, the security etc. The particles of interest are the α, β, X, γ and neutrons. This article treats of the basic physical properties of radiation detection, the general characteristics of the different classes of existing detectors and the particle/matter interactions: 1 - general considerations; 2 - measurement types and definitions: pulse mode, current mode, definitions; 3 - physical principles of direct detection: introduction and general problem, materials used in detection, simple device, junction semiconductor device, charges generation and transport inside matter, signal generation; 4 - physical principles of indirect detection: introduction, scintillation mechanisms, definition and properties of scintillators. (J.S.)

  1. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  2. The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.

  3. Vectorial Ekeland Variational Principles and Inclusion Problems in Cone Quasi-Uniform Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    2012-01-01

    principle, vectorial quasiequilibrium principle are obtained. Also, several other important principles in nonlinear analysis are extended to cone quasi-uniform spaces. The results of this paper extend, generalize, and improve the corresponding results for Ekeland's variational principles of the directed vectorial perturbation type and other generalizations of Ekeland's variational principles in the setting of F-type topological space and quasi-metric spaces in the literatures. Even in usual real metric spaces, some of our results are new.

  4. The precautionary principle: is it safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2013-06-01

    The precautionary principle is generally acknowledged to be a powerful tool for protecting health but it was originally invoked by policy makers for dealing with environmental issues. In the 1990s, the principle was incorporated into many legislative and regulatory texts in international law. One can consider that the precautionary principle has turned into "precautionism" necessary to prove to the people, taking account of risk in decisions. There is now a risk that these abuses will deprive the principle of its meaning and value. When pushed to its limits, the precautionary principle can even be dangerous when applied to the healthcare field. This is why a critical analysis of the principle is necessary. Through the literature, it sometimes seems to deviate somehow from the essence of the precautionary principle as it is commonly used in relation to health. We believe that educational work is necessary to familiarize professionals, policy makers and public opinion of the precautionary principle and avoid confusion. We propose a critical analysis of the use and misuse of the precautionary principle.

  5. Learning Bounds of ERM Principle for Sequences of Time-Dependent Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchen Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many generalization results in learning theory are established under the assumption that samples are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.. However, numerous learning tasks in practical applications involve the time-dependent data. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework to analyze the generalization performance of the empirical risk minimization (ERM principle for sequences of time-dependent samples (TDS. In particular, we first present the generalization bound of ERM principle for TDS. By introducing some auxiliary quantities, we also give a further analysis of the generalization properties and the asymptotical behaviors of ERM principle for TDS.

  6. General principles of the nuclear criticality safety for handling, processing and transportation fissile materials in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vnukov, V.S.; Rjazanov, B.G.; Sviridov, V.I.; Frolov, V.V.; Zubkov, Y.N.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the general principles of nuclear criticality safety for handling, processing, transportation and fissile materials storing. Measures to limit the consequences of critical accidents are discussed for the fuel processing plants and fissile materials storage. The system of scientific and technical measures on nuclear criticality safety as well as the system of control and state supervision based on the rules, limits and requirements are described. The criticality safety aspects for various stages of handling nuclear materials are considered. The paper gives descriptions of the methods and approaches for critical risk assessments for the processing facilities, plants and storages. (Author)

  7. Measuring and Examining General Self-Efficacy among Community College Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Starobin, Soko S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a psychosocial mechanism of how general self-efficacy interacts with other key factors and influences degree aspiration for students enrolled in an urban diverse community college. Using general self-efficacy scales, the authors hypothesized the General Self-efficacy model for Community College students (the GSE-CC model). A…

  8. 38 CFR 3.303 - Principles relating to service connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles relating to... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.303 Principles relating to service connection. (a) General. Service... are medical principles so universally recognized as to constitute fact (clear and unmistakable proof...

  9. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  10. 29 CFR 779.101 - Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Apply: Basic Principles and Individual Coverage General Principles § 779.101 Guiding principles for... applies. (Walling v. General Industries Co., 330 U.S. 545; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290..., 324 U.S. 490; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., supra; Arnold v. Kanowsky, supra; Calaf v. Gonzalez...

  11. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay. Part 1: General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    International Standard ISO 12790-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiation protection. ISO 12790 consists of the following parts, under the general title Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay: Part 1: General principles; and Part 2: Rationale and specific applications This part of ISO 12790 provides criteria for quality assurance and control, evaluation of performance and the accreditation of radiobioassay service laboratories. Criteria and guidance for direct radiobioassay ( in vivo) and indirect radiobioassay ( in vitro) are given in separate clauses of this part of ISO 12790. This part of ISO 12790 addresses: a) the accuracy of direct ( in vivo) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test phantoms and indirect ( in vitro) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test samples; b) methods for determining the minimum detectable amount; c) minimum testing levels and testing ranges; d) requirements for reporting radiobioassay results by service laboratories; e) quality assurance in service laboratories; f) quality control in service laboratories; g) protocol for reporting test evaluations by service laboratories to the testing laboratory; h) default procedures when the service laboratory customer does not specify the performance criteria. The scope of this part of ISO 12790 does not include: a) detailed radiochemical methods for separating radionuclides from biological samples; b) detailed procedures for in vivo and in vitro radioactivity measurements; c) metabolic data and mathematical models for converting radiobioassay results into absorbed dose and dose equivalent; d) procedures for the preparation and distribution of test samples and phantoms by the testing laboratories. Analytical methods for radiobioassay are not currently standardized, but are available in the literature. Guidance for converting

  12. Game-Based Approaches, Pedagogical Principles and Tactical Constraints: Examining Games Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; García-López, Luis M.; Calderón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of modification strategies based on the pedagogical principles of the Teaching Games for Understanding approach on tactical constraints of four 3v3 soccer small-sided games. The Game performance of 21 U-10 players was analyzed in a game similar to the adult game; one based on keeping-the-ball;…

  13. Three-year-olds obey the sample size principle of induction: the influence of evidence presentation and sample size disparity on young children's generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Chris A

    2014-07-01

    Three experiments with 81 3-year-olds (M=3.62years) examined the conditions that enable young children to use the sample size principle (SSP) of induction-the inductive rule that facilitates generalizations from large rather than small samples of evidence. In Experiment 1, children exhibited the SSP when exemplars were presented sequentially but not when exemplars were presented simultaneously. Results from Experiment 3 suggest that the advantage of sequential presentation is not due to the additional time to process the available input from the two samples but instead may be linked to better memory for specific individuals in the large sample. In addition, findings from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that adherence to the SSP is mediated by the disparity between presented samples. Overall, these results reveal that the SSP appears early in development and is guided by basic cognitive processes triggered during the acquisition of input. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, A J

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  15. Gyro precession and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, P.

    1979-01-01

    The precession of a gyroscope is calculated in a nonrelativistic theory due to Barbour which satisfies Mach's principle. It is shown that the theory predicts both the geodetic and motional precession of general relativity to within factors of order 1. The significance of the gyro experiment is discussed from the point of view of metric theories of gravity and this is contrasted with its significance from the point of view of Mach's principle. (author)

  16. Deductive Error Diagnosis and Inductive Error Generalization for Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, H. Ulrich

    1994-01-01

    Examines the deductive approach to error diagnosis for intelligent tutoring systems. Topics covered include the principles of the deductive approach to diagnosis; domain-specific heuristics to solve the problem of generalizing error patterns; and deductive diagnosis and the hypertext-based learning environment. (Contains 26 references.) (JLB)

  17. Examination of Turkish Junior High-School Students' Perceptions of the General Problem-Solving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Didem Inel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process. The Turkish junior high-school students' perceptions of the general problem-solving process were examined in relation to their gender, grade level, age and their grade point with regards to the science course identified in the…

  18. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  19. Complementary Huygens principle for geometrical and nongeometrical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    We develop a fundamental principle depicting the generalized ray formulation of optics provided by the Wigner function. This principle is formally identical to the Huygens-Fresnel principle but in terms of opposite concepts, rays instead of waves, and incoherent superpositions instead of coherent ones. This ray picture naturally includes diffraction and interference, and provides a geometrical picture of the degree of coherence

  20. Principle of coincidence method and application in activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mou; Dai Yihua; Ni Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The basic principle of coincidence method was discussed. The basic principle was generalized by analysing the actual example, and the condition in theory of coincidence method was brought forward. The cause of variation of efficiency curve and the effect of dead-time in activity measurement were explained using the above principle and condition. This principle of coincidence method provides the foundation in theory for activity measurement. (authors)

  1. The precautionary principle and chemicals regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope The paper investigates the development of the institutional basis of the present modes of chemicals regulation and management, with special attention to interrelations with the precautionary principle. Main Features: The paper elucidates on how the precautionary principle...... has been shaped in relation to chemicals regulation and management since Carson's Silent Spring (years before the principle was confirmed as a policy-principle in German and European legislation. Furthermore, it is examined how the precautionary principle interacted with the development of the present...... chemicals regulatory regime, in a complex interplay within the OECD and Member Countries. The present modes of precaution in the new EU chemical legislation – REACH – are investigated with respect to the precautionary principle, and tested against two contemporary problems; brominated flame retardants...

  2. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  3. Introduction to basic immunological methods : Generalities, Principles, Protocols and Variants of basic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript is dedicated to student of biological sciences. It provides the information necessary to perform practical works, the most commonly used in immunology. During my doctoral and post-doctoral periods, panoply of methods was employed in diverse subjects in my research. Technical means used in my investigations were diverse enough that i could extract a set of techniques that cover most the basic immunological methods. Each chapter of this manuscript contains a fairly complete description of immunological methods. In each topic the basic protocol and its variants were preceded by background information provided in paragraphs concerning the principle and generalities. The emphasis is placed on describing situations in which each method and its variants were used. These basic immunological methods are useful for students and even researchers studying the immune system of human, nice and other species. Different subjects showed not only detailed protocols but also photos or/and shemas used as support to illustrate some knowledge or practical knowledge. I hope that students will find this manual interesting, easy to use contains necessary information to acquire skills in immunological practice. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of aerodynamic characteristics of a coupled fluid-structure system using generalized Bernoulli’s principle: An application to vocal folds vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lucy T.; Yang, Jubiao

    2017-01-01

    In this work we explore the aerodynamics flow characteristics of a coupled fluid-structure interaction system using a generalized Bernoulli equation derived directly from the Cauchy momentum equations. Unlike the conventional Bernoulli equation where incompressible, inviscid, and steady flow conditions are assumed, this generalized Bernoulli equation includes the contributions from compressibility, viscous, and unsteadiness, which could be essential in defining aerodynamic characteristics. The application of the derived Bernoulli’s principle is on a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction simulation of the vocal folds vibration. The coupled system is simulated using the immersed finite element method where compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to describe the air and an elastic pliable structure to describe the vocal fold. The vibration of the vocal fold works to open and close the glottal flow. The aerodynamics flow characteristics are evaluated using the derived Bernoulli’s principles for a vibration cycle in a carefully partitioned control volume based on the moving structure. The results agree very well to experimental observations, which validate the strategy and its use in other types of flow characteristics that involve coupled fluid-structure interactions. PMID:29527541

  5. A Life Below the Threshold?: Examining Conflict Between Ethical Principles and Parental Values in Neonatal Treatment Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas V

    2016-01-01

    Three common ethical principles for establishing the limits of parental authority in pediatric treatment decision-making are the harm principle, the principle of best interest, and the threshold view. This paper considers how these principles apply to a case of a premature neonate with multiple significant co-morbidities whose mother wanted all possible treatments, and whose health care providers wondered whether it would be ethically permissible to allow him to die comfortably despite her wishes. Whether and how these principles help in understanding what was morally right for the child is questioned. The paper concludes that the principles were of some value in understanding the moral geography of the case; however, this case reveals that common bioethical principles for medical decision-making are problematically value-laden because they are inconsistent with the widespread moral value of medical vitalism.

  6. 5 CFR 330.503 - Assessment of compliance with competitive principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... principles. 330.503 Section 330.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Restrictions To Protect Competitive Principles § 330.503 Assessment of compliance with competitive principles. As one factor in assessing an agency's...

  7. The double-contingency principle: An historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard ANSI/ANS-8.1 states the double contingency principle as: Process designs should, in general, incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This paper presents a perspective on the double contingency principle

  8. The LeChatelier-Samuelson principle revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    1992-01-01

    Within the context of a linear Leontief model, the LeChatelier-Samuelson principle examines the effects of an increase in some final demand on the output levels under the constraint that the production of certain goods is held at its original value. The principle states that the increase in any

  9. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…

  10. Dilaton cosmology and the modified uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, Barun

    2011-01-01

    Very recently Ali et al. (2009) proposed a new generalized uncertainty principle (with a linear term in Plank length which is consistent with doubly special relativity and string theory. The classical and quantum effects of this generalized uncertainty principle (termed as modified uncertainty principle or MUP) are investigated on the phase space of a dilatonic cosmological model with an exponential dilaton potential in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. Interestingly, as a consequence of MUP, we found that it is possible to get a late time acceleration for this model. For the quantum mechanical description in both commutative and MUP framework, we found the analytical solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the early universe and compare our results. We have used an approximation method in the case of MUP.

  11. The base rate principle and the fairness principle in social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jack; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2016-07-05

    Meet Jonathan and Elizabeth. One person is a doctor and the other is a nurse. Who is the doctor? When nothing else is known, the base rate principle favors Jonathan to be the doctor and the fairness principle favors both individuals equally. However, when individuating facts reveal who is actually the doctor, base rates and fairness become irrelevant, as the facts make the correct answer clear. In three experiments, explicit and implicit beliefs were measured before and after individuating facts were learned. These facts were either stereotypic (e.g., Jonathan is the doctor, Elizabeth is the nurse) or counterstereotypic (e.g., Elizabeth is the doctor, Jonathan is the nurse). Results showed that before individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs followed the fairness principle, whereas implicit beliefs followed the base rate principle. After individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs correctly aligned with stereotypic and counterstereotypic facts. Implicit beliefs, however, were immune to counterstereotypic facts and continued to follow the base rate principle. Having established the robustness and generality of these results, a fourth experiment verified that gender stereotypes played a causal role: when both individuals were male, explicit and implicit beliefs alike correctly converged with individuating facts. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that explicit beliefs uphold fairness and incorporate obvious and relevant facts, but implicit beliefs uphold base rates and appear relatively impervious to counterstereotypic facts.

  12. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  13. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  14. Test of the Equivalence Principle in the Dark sector on galactic scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapi, N.; Hees, A.; Larena, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Einstein Equivalence Principle is a fundamental principle of the theory of General Relativity. While this principle has been thoroughly tested with standard matter, the question of its validity in the Dark sector remains open. In this paper, we consider a general tensor-scalar theory that allows to test the equivalence principle in the Dark sector by introducing two different conformal couplings to standard matter and to Dark matter. We constrain these couplings by considering galactic observations of strong lensing and of velocity dispersion. Our analysis shows that, in the case of a violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, data favour violations through coupling strengths that are of opposite signs for ordinary and Dark matter. At the same time, our analysis does not show any significant deviations from General Relativity

  15. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  16. Indeterminacy and the principle of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Anders

    2017-02-01

    The principle of need-the idea that resources should be allocated according to need-is often invoked in priority setting in the health care sector. In this article, I argue that a reasonable principle of need must be indeterminate, and examine three different ways that this can be dealt with: appendicizing the principle with further principles, imposing determinacy, or empowering decision makers. I argue that need must be conceptualized as a composite property composed of at least two factors: health shortfall and capacity to benefit. When one examines how the different factors relate to each other, one discovers that this is sometimes indeterminate. I illustrate this indeterminacy in this article by applying the small improvement argument. If the relation between the factors are always determinate, the comparative relation changes by a small adjustment. Yet, if two needs are dissimilar but of seemingly equal magnitude, the comparative relation does not change by a small adjustment of one of the factors. I then outline arguments in favor of each of the three strategies for dealing with indeterminacy, but also point out that all strategies have significant shortcomings. More research is needed concerning how to deal with this indeterminacy, and the most promising path seems to be to scrutinize the position of the principle of need among a plurality of relevant principles for priority setting in the health care sector.

  17. Is the Precautionary Principle Really Incoherent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The Precautionary Principle has been an increasingly important principle in international treaties since the 1980s. Through varying formulations, it states that when an activity can lead to a catastrophe for human health or the environment, measures should be taken to prevent it even if the cause-and-effect relationship is not fully established scientifically. The Precautionary Principle has been critically discussed from many sides. This article concentrates on a theoretical argument by Peterson (2006) according to which the Precautionary Principle is incoherent with other desiderata of rational decision making, and thus cannot be used as a decision rule that selects an action among several ones. I claim here that Peterson's argument fails to establish the incoherence of the Precautionary Principle, by attacking three of its premises. I argue (i) that Peterson's treatment of uncertainties lacks generality, (ii) that his Archimedian condition is problematic for incommensurability reasons, and (iii) that his explication of the Precautionary Principle is not adequate. This leads me to conjecture that the Precautionary Principle can be envisaged as a coherent decision rule, again. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  19. General principles of the quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutaniemi, P.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to outline some general infrastructure of nuclear industry with regard to the quality management; to emphasise significance of safety management as an integral part of the quality management; and to highlight different steps of the management process in a near-time working, at an annual level and as a strategic process

  20. 17 CFR 37.6 - Compliance with core principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance with core principles. 37.6 Section 37.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.6 Compliance with core principles. (a) In general. To...

  1. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  2. The relation between the general maxim of causality and the principle of uniformity in hume's theory of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Oscar de Almeida Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT When Hume, in the Treatise on Human Nature, began his examination of the relation of cause and effect, in particular, of the idea of necessary connection which is its essential constituent, he identified two preliminary questions that should guide his research: (1 For what reason we pronounce it necessary that every thing whose existence has a beginning should also have a cause and (2 Why we conclude that such particular causes must necessarily have such particular effects? (1.3.2, 14-15 Hume observes that our belief in these principles can result neither from an intuitive grasp of their truth nor from a reasoning that could establish them by demonstrative means. In particular, with respect to the first, Hume examines and rejects some arguments with which Locke, Hobbes and Clarke tried to demonstrate it, and suggests, by exclusion, that the belief that we place on it can only come from experience. Somewhat surprisingly, however, Hume does not proceed to show how that derivation of experience could be made, but proposes instead to move directly to an examination of the second principle, saying that, "perhaps, be found in the end, that the same answer will serve for both questions" (1.3.3, 9. Hume's answer to the second question is well known, but the first question is never answered in the rest of the Treatise, and it is even doubtful that it could be, which would explain why Hume has simply chosen to remove any mention of it when he recompiled his theses on causation in the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. Given this situation, an interesting question that naturally arises is to investigate the relations of logical or conceptual implication between these two principles. Hume seems to have thought that an answer to (2 would also be sufficient to provide an answer to (1. Henry Allison, in his turn, argued (in Custom and Reason in Hume, p. 94-97 that the two questions are logically independent. My proposal here is to try to show

  3. The principle of equivalence reconsidered: assessing the relevance of the principle of equivalence in prison medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2014-01-01

    In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.

  4. Risk of atherosclerosis in general Czech population is very high - preventive examinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Martinková, Patrícia

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, suppl 1 (2007), S66-S66 ISSN 1741-8267. [EuroPrevent Congress. 19.04.2007-21.04.2007, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : risk of atherosclerosis * preventive examinations * general population Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  5. On Various R-duals and the Duality Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeva, Diana T.; Christensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    to a characterization of frames in terms of associated Riesz sequences; however, it is still an open question whether this abstract theory is a generalization of the duality principle. In this paper we prove that a modified version of the R-duals leads to a generalization of the duality principle that keeps all......The duality principle states that a Gabor system is a frame if and only if the corresponding adjoint Gabor system is a Riesz sequence. In general Hilbert spaces and without the assumption of any particular structure, Casazza, Kutyniok and Lammers have introduced the so-called R-duals that also lead...... the attractive properties of the R-duals. In order to provide extra insight into the relations between a given sequence and its R-duals, we characterize all the types of R-duals that are available in the literature for the special case where the underlying sequence is a Riesz basis....

  6. 42 CFR 3.304 - Principles for achieving compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principles for achieving compliance. 3.304 Section 3.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Principles for achieving compliance. (a) Cooperation. The Secretary will, to the extent practicable, seek the...

  7. An examination of generalized anxiety disorder and dysthymic disorder by latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, D.; van der Steenstraten, I.M.; Sunderland, M.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Lamers, F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Andrews, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The nosological status of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) versus dysthymic disorder (DD) has been questioned. The aim of this study was to examine qualitative differences within (co-morbid) GAD and DD symptomatology. Method Latent class analysis was applied to anxious and depressive

  8. Reflections on the juridicial roots of the principle of optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Boehler, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The disciplines of jurisprudence tend in general towards a rationalisation and stabilisation of social or economic practice and are oriented towards concepts or practices which belong to the field of the determinate. When it comes to the principle of optimising radiological protection, however, the classical juridical technique of administrative law does not exactly answer the problems of implementing this. From the obligations of performance traditionally imposed by the government, a transition to obligation of behaviour by those involved seems to be called for, and this is what makes the optimisation principle difficult to qualify juridically. Instead of a law of command, exemption and control the government must essentially put its trust in the operators of nuclear installations by issuing a standard which sets an objective rather than a standard with the force of a regulation as in the past. Does the future of the juridical sciences in fact lie in the development of an administrative law of the indeterminate which would oblige the government to recognise that, even in the field of the determinate, it is not always government which knows best? While our classical administrative law is a law of command and control, the administrative law of the indeterminate will be that of the law of common effort, framed in collective acts and based on trust, consultation, and obligations of behaviour, all under the control of a judge who intervenes when there is a manifest contradiction between the acts and the promised behaviour. In French law optimisation has remained a general principle unaccompanied by specific provisions for its implementation. The object of our paper is to examine on what juridical foundations it would be possible to apply this principle at practical level without betraying its spirit. (author)

  9. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  10. Neuroscience and leadership : awareness, relevance and applications of neuroscience principles within leadership development in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Dürrbeck, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis aimed to elaborate the current importance-level of neuroscience within leadership development as well as its future potential. Thereby awareness of leaders and human resource executives, general relevance for organisational success, and current applications of neuroscience principles within development programmes were identified. Additionally, existent and emergent triggers and forces that impede leadership or organisational success were investigated, in order to examin...

  11. Challenging the bioethical application of the autonomy principle within multicultural societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article critically re-examines the application of the principle of patient autonomy within bioethics. In complex societies such as those found in North America and Europe health care professionals are increasingly confronted by patients from diverse ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds. This affects the relationship between clinicians and patients to the extent that patients' deliberations upon the proposed courses of treatment can, in various ways and to varying extents, be influenced by their ethnic, cultural, and religious commitments. The principle of patient autonomy is the main normative constraint imposed upon medical treatment. Bioethicists typically appeal to the principle of patient autonomy as a means for generally attempting to resolve conflict between patients and clinicians. In recent years a number of bioethicists have responded to the condition of multiculturalism by arguing that the autonomy principle provides the basis for a common moral discourse capable of regulating the relationship between clinicians and patients in those situations where patients' beliefs and commitments do or may contradict the ethos of biomedicine. This article challenges that claim. I argue that the precise manner in which the autonomy principle is philosophically formulated within such accounts prohibits bioethicists' deployment of autonomy as a core ideal for a common moral discourse within multicultural societies. The formulation of autonomy underlying such accounts cannot be extended to simply assimilate individuals' most fundamental religious and cultural commitments and affiliations per se. I challenge the assumption that respecting prospective patients' fundamental religious and cultural commitments is necessarily always compatible with respecting their autonomy. I argue that the character of some peoples' relationship with their cultural or religious community acts to significantly constrain the possibilities for acting autonomously. The implication is

  12. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  13. Quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the generalized uncertainty principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z.W.; Zu, X.T. [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Li, H.L. [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Shenyang Normal University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang (China); Yang, S.Z. [China West Normal University, Physics and Space Science College, Nanchong (China)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The corrections to the Hawking temperature, entropy and the heat capacity are obtained via the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These modifications show that the GUP changes the evolution of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. Specially, the GUP effect becomes susceptible when the radius or mass of the black hole approaches the order of Planck scale, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. Meanwhile, the Planck scale remnant can be confirmed through the analysis of the heat capacity. Those phenomena imply that the GUP may give a way to solve the information paradox. Besides, we also investigate the possibilities to observe the black hole at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the results demonstrate that the black hole cannot be produced in the recent LHC. (orig.)

  14. Internal Displacement, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Principles Normative Status, and the Need for their Effective Domestic Implementation in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Goldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly examines the phenomenon of internal displacement world-wide and the genesis of the United Nation’s mandate to deal with this problem. It examines key conclusions of a UN sponsored study which found that existing international law contained signifi cant gaps and grey areas in terms of meeting the needs of internally displaced persons. It also examines the origins and the content of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and the normative status of these Principles. It suggests that, while not binding as such on states, the Guiding Principles have nonetheless become the most authoritative expression of minimum international standards applicable to the internally displaced and that based on state practice many, if not all, of these principles may eventually become part of customary international law. The paper also discusses the need for effective domestic implementation of the Guiding Principles, and examines how governmental authorities, the Constitutional Court and civil society organizations in Colombia, as well as inter-governmental bodies, have responded to the crisis of internal displacement in the country. While noting the adequacy of Colombia’s legislative framework on internal displacement, the paper concludes that the State has not taken the measures required to prevent future displacement or to effectively meet the protection and assistance needs of its displaced citizens.

  15. Ethical principles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  16. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  17. Improving Otolaryngology Residency Selection Using Principles from Personnel Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Sarah N; Laury, Adrienne M; Gray, Stacey T

    2017-06-01

    There has been a heightened focus on improving the resident selection process, particularly within highly competitive specialties. Previous research, however, has generally lacked a theoretical background, leading to inconsistent and biased results. Our recently published systematic review examining applicant characteristics and performance in residency can provide historical insight into the predictors (ie, constructs) and outcomes (ie, criteria) previously deemed pertinent by the otolaryngology community. Personnel psychology uses evidence-based practices to identify the most qualified candidates for employment using a variety of selection methods. Extensive research in this discipline has shown that integrity tests, structured interviews, work samples, and conscientiousness offer the greatest increase in validity when combined with general cognitive ability. Blending past research knowledge with the principles of personnel selection can provide the necessary foundation with which to engage in theory-driven, longitudinal studies on otolaryngology resident selection moving forward.

  18. A return to the manifest justice principle: a critical examination of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impartiality of judges often expressed in the Latin maxim nemo iudex in propria causa interpreted to mean that no man should be a judge in his own cause together with the right of fair hearing make up the right to natural justice. This principle is recognized by a number of provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of ...

  19. [Precautionary principle. State of the situation in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelmajer de Carlucci, Aída

    2017-10-13

    The new Argentine Civil and Commercial Code includes the prevention principle. The precautionary Principle is regulated by the Environmental Protection Act.A significant number of cases have reached the Supreme Court of the Nation. This Court, in general, estimates that the decisions concerning the precautionary principle have definitive nature, i.e., are not merely provisional. Usually, the situation is caused by the State itself, which fails to control. The different decisions show a Judiciary worried about protecting the environment.

  20. Basic principles of water-use licensing - Summary of economical and legal expert opinion; Grundlagen Wasserzinspolitik. Zusammenfassung oekonomisches und rechtliches Gutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter Ott, O.; Staub, C. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Leimbacher, J. [Dr. Joerg Leimbacher, Koenizstrasse 43, Berne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the basic principles behind the definition of monetary compensation for the use of water resources in Switzerland for power generation. The basic aims of such compensation are briefly discussed as are the general economical and technical principles involved. Ownership of the rights pertaining to the use of water resources and the various definitions of licence fees and water taxes and their application are reviewed. Additional remuneration for water storage and appropriation is also discussed.

  1. Curriculum structure: principles and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, R.; Kersten, H.; Vinkka-Puhakka, H.; Alpaslan, G.; Bearn, D.; Cema, I.; Delap, E.; Dummer, P.; Goulet, J.P.; Gugushe, T.; Jeniati, E.; Jerolimov, V.; Kotsanos, N.; Krifka, S.; Levy, G.; Neway, M.; Ogawa, T.; Saag, M.; Sidlauskas, A.; Skaleric, U.; Vervoorn, M.; White, D.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides general guidelines for the structure of a curriculum, followed by specific advice on the principles of learning and teaching, the process of restructuring and change leadership and management. It provides examples of several educational philosophies, including vertical and

  2. The Oscillator Principle of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...

  3. Business rules management principles in the Dutch governmental context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit

    2016-01-01

    From the article: Abstract Since more and more business rules management solutions are utilized, organizations search for guidance to design such solutions. Principles are often applied to guide the design of information systems in general. Scientific research on principles for business rules

  4. General principles governing sampling and measurement techniques for monitoring radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1978-01-01

    An explanation is given of the need to monitor the release of radioactive gases and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the ICRP recommendations and on the interest in this problem shown by the larger international organizations. This is followed by a description of the classes of radionuclides that are normally monitored in this way. The characteristics of monitoring 'in line' and 'by sample taking' are described; the disadvantages of in line monitoring and the problem of sample representativity are discussed. There follows an account of the general principles for measuring gaseous and liquid effluents that are applied in the techniques normally employed at nuclear facilities. Standards relating to the specifications for monitoring instruments are at present being devised by the International Electrotechnical Commission, and there are still major differences in national practices, at least as far as measurement thresholds are concerned. In conclusion, it is shown that harmonization of practices and standardization of equipment would probably help to make international relations in the field more productive. (author)

  5. Variational principles for nonlinear piezoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, R.; Guinovart-Diaz, R. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Pobedria, B.E. [Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov, Composites Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Padilla, P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas (IIMAS), Cd. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bravo-Castillero, J. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Campus Estado de Mexico. Division de Arquitectura e Ingenieria, Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Maugin, G.A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Case 162, UMR 7607 CNRS, Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique, Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, we consider the behavior of nonlinear piezoelectric materials by generalization for this case of the Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. The new general formulation used here differs from others, because, it gives the possibility to evaluate the upper and lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for specific physical nonlinearities of piezoelectric materials. Geometrical nonlinearities are not considered. (orig.)

  6. 32 CFR 11.4 - Applicable principles of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable principles of law. 11.4 Section 11.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS CRIMES AND ELEMENTS FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSION § 11.4 Applicable principles of law. (a) General intent. All...

  7. Elementary physical approach to Mach's principle and its observational basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that Mach's principle and the general principle of relativity are logical consequences of a 'materialistic postulate' and that general relativity implies the validity of Mach's principle for a static (or quasistatic) homogeneous and isotropic universe, spatially self-enclosed. The finite velocity of propagation of gravitational field does not imply a retardation of inertial forces due to the distant masses and therefore does not exclude the validity of Mach's principle. Similarly, the experimentally verified isotropy of inertia is compatible with this principle. The recent observational evidence of very high isotropy of the actual universe proves that the 'anti-Machian' Godel world model must be rejected as a nonphysical one. This suggests the possibility of a renaissance of Einstein's first cosmological model by considering-in the spirit of an older idea of Herbert Dingle-a superlarge-scale quasistatic universe consisting of an unknown number of statistically oscillating regions similar to our own, momentarily expanding, metagalaxy. (author)

  8. Requirements for the special examination of isotope diagnostic specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csakany, Gyoergy

    1986-01-01

    Isotope diagnostic specialists are required to possess general paraclinical knowledge about nuclear physical principles, basic radiological measuring methods including up-to-date ones such as scintiscanning and tomography, as well as about radiopharmacology, radiation biology, health physics, radiation protection and organizational and economic aspects of the examinations. Clinical isotope diagnostic requirements comprise the proper selection among different radiological methods, the correct application of certain diagnostic procedures in practise, and the evaluation of the results in accordance with the symptoms on various fields of medical science. (V.N.)

  9. Generalization of the ERIT Principle and Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT)

  10. Dynamic principle for ensemble control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoletov, A; Vasiev, B

    2017-11-28

    Dynamical equations describing physical systems in contact with a thermal bath are commonly extended by mathematical tools called "thermostats." These tools are designed for sampling ensembles in statistical mechanics. Here we propose a dynamic principle underlying a range of thermostats which is derived using fundamental laws of statistical physics and ensures invariance of the canonical measure. The principle covers both stochastic and deterministic thermostat schemes. Our method has a clear advantage over a range of proposed and widely used thermostat schemes that are based on formal mathematical reasoning. Following the derivation of the proposed principle, we show its generality and illustrate its applications including design of temperature control tools that differ from the Nosé-Hoover-Langevin scheme.

  11. On R-Duals and the Duality Principle in Gabor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeva, Diana T.; Christensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The concept of R-duals of a frame was introduced by Casazza, Kutyniok and Lammers in 2004, with the motivation to obtain a general version of the duality principle in Gabor analysis. For tight Gabor frames and Gabor Riesz bases the three authors were actually able to show that the duality principle...... these classes coincide with the R-duals by Casazza et al., which is desirable in the sense that the motivating case of tight Gabor frames already is well covered by these R-duals. On the other hand, all the introduced types of R-duals generalize the duality principle for larger classes of Gabor frames than just...

  12. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) principles for on-site forensic and medico-legal scene and corpse investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D; Ferrara, S D; Keller, E; Ludes, B; Mangin, P; Väli, M; Vieira, N

    2017-07-01

    Forensic medical practitioners need to define the general principles governing procedures to be used for the on-site examination of a body where the death has occurred in unnatural, violent or suspicious circumstances. These principles should be followed whenever a medical expert is required to perform an on-site corpse inspection and should be utilised as a set of general guidelines to be adapted to the specific situation in hand and interpreted using common sense and scientific knowledge of the relevant procedures and facts of the case. The aim of these principles is to ensure that forensic evidence at the scene of a death is properly observed and assessed and all necessary relevant evidence gathered in order to ensure that a comprehensive report is available to the judicial authority (investigating judge or coroner) in the justice system. The on-site corpse inspection by a forensic practitioner is a mandatory and essential stage of the forensic and medico-legal autopsy, as it may provide important information for subsequent investigation stages.

  13. Unifying generative and discriminative learning principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strickert Marc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recognition of functional binding sites in genomic DNA remains one of the fundamental challenges of genome research. During the last decades, a plethora of different and well-adapted models has been developed, but only little attention has been payed to the development of different and similarly well-adapted learning principles. Only recently it was noticed that discriminative learning principles can be superior over generative ones in diverse bioinformatics applications, too. Results Here, we propose a generalization of generative and discriminative learning principles containing the maximum likelihood, maximum a posteriori, maximum conditional likelihood, maximum supervised posterior, generative-discriminative trade-off, and penalized generative-discriminative trade-off learning principles as special cases, and we illustrate its efficacy for the recognition of vertebrate transcription factor binding sites. Conclusions We find that the proposed learning principle helps to improve the recognition of transcription factor binding sites, enabling better computational approaches for extracting as much information as possible from valuable wet-lab data. We make all implementations available in the open-source library Jstacs so that this learning principle can be easily applied to other classification problems in the field of genome and epigenome analysis.

  14. Principle of space existence and De Sitter metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.K.

    1990-01-01

    The selection principle for the solutions of the Einstein equations suggested in a series of papers implies the existence of space (g ik ≠ 0) only in the presence of matter (T ik ≠0). This selection principle (principle of space existence, in the Markov terminology) implies, in the general case, the absence of the cosmological solution with the De Sitter metric. On the other hand, the De Sitter metric is necessary for describing both inflation and deflation periods of the Universe. It is shown that the De Sitter metric is also allowed by the selection principle under discussion if the metric experiences the evolution into the Friedmann metric

  15. Design Principles for Achieving Integrated Healthcare Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii...

  16. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Spanish Edition); Texto Revisado de Los Principios Rectores n Normas Generales de Ejecucion Para la Prestacion de Asistencia Tecnica por el Organismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-15

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [Spanish] El 21 de febrero de 1979 la Junta de Gobernadores aprobo el texto revisado de los Principios rectores y normas generales de ejecucion para la prestacion de asistencia tecnica por el Organismo. Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe dicho texto. En el Anexo del texto revisado de los Principios rectores y normas generales de ejecucion se transcriben tambien las disposiciones prescritas por la Junta de Gobernadores el 24 de septiembre de 1977 acerca de la aplicacion de salvaguardias en relacion con la asistencia tecnica.

  17. Principles governing medical first aid to workers exposed to internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Nenot, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The growing use of radionuclides, whether at hospital, laboratory or nuclear facility level, increases the risk of internal contamination. Not only that, some particularly dangerous elements are being handled more and more frequently. Hence the importance of therapeutic concepts based on the general principles governing action to be taken in cases of internal contamination. These principles should be applicable without the nature of the contaminant having to be taken into account, and irrespective of whether it is transferable and of the route of entry, i.e. healthy skin, wound or bronchial tree. The basic principle is the concept of urgency: ''blind'' treatment should be applied merely on the supposition of internal contamination. It is desirable, moreover, that the first aid should be given at the site of the accident. Hence, the product used should be non-toxic under normal conditions of use and should be simple to apply, as, for example, the administration of an aerosol. It is not until later that the doctor should undertake treatment in the proper sense of the term, the emergency treatment having afforded him sufficient time to carry out the preliminary examination required to gain an exact idea of the internal contamination. (author)

  18. Principlism and its alleged competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1995-09-01

    Principles that provide general normative frameworks in bioethics have been criticized since the late 1980s, when several different methods and types of moral philosophy began to be proposed as alternatives or substitutes. Several accounts have emerged in recent years, including: (1) Impartial Rule Theory (supported in this issue by K. Danner Clouser), (2) Casuistry (supported in this issue by Albert Jonsen), and (3) Virtue Ethics (supported in this issue by Edmund D. Pellegrino). Although often presented as rival methods or theories, these approaches are consistent with and should not be considered adversaries of a principle-based account.

  19. Generalized calculus with applications to matter and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, L M B C

    2014-01-01

    Combining mathematical theory, physical principles, and engineering problems, Generalized Calculus with Applications to Matter and Forces examines generalized functions, including the Heaviside unit jump and the Dirac unit impulse and its derivatives of all orders, in one and several dimensions. The text introduces the two main approaches to generalized functions: (1) as a nonuniform limit of a family of ordinary functions, and (2) as a functional over a set of test functions from which properties are inherited. The second approach is developed more extensively to encompass multidimensional generalized functions whose arguments are ordinary functions of several variables. As part of a series of books for engineers and scientists exploring advanced mathematics, Generalized Calculus with Applications to Matter and Forces presents generalized functions from an applied point of view, tackling problem classes such as: •Gauss and Stokes’ theorems in the differential geometry, tensor calculus, and theory of ...

  20. Implementation of Supply Chain Management (SCM in pharmaceutical company, general principles and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Nakov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management (SCM in pharmaceutical industry is defined as a “responsible SCM” and its implementation is according to the principles of: business ethics, rights of labor and principles of healthy and safe working environment. Pharmaceutical companies with implemented “responsible SCM” have to use management systems to facilitate continuous improvement in accordance with their working principles. The main purpose of this management system is to ensure the consistency, reliability and continuous improvement of all workflows within an organization.The analyzed case describes the project of European generic pharmaceutical company, which intends to implement best practice SCM operations for five European manufacturing sites and European logistics organizations (active ingredients supply, distribution centers, affiliate customers and third party manufacturers. The main objectives of the project were the creation of the future improved To-Be situation through implementation of new SCM models to the existing To-Day situation.

  1. ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES: EVOLUTION, CONTENT, CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana LAZARI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accounting principles are rules that help producers of financial information to recognize, evaluate, classify and present information. At the same time, they are very general rules, which can be implemented in several ways, generating more accounting treatments. Although the foreign literature presents numerous classifications of the principles in terms of the given research, we will continue to deal with the terms that have the value of accounting principles, their evolution in the Republic of Moldova, but also the influence on keeping the accounting and financial reporting. In the research, we used the method of comparison, analysis, deduction, but also the historical method. The results of the research on accounting principles will contribute to the development of their applicability both for those studying and researching the field of accounting, as well as for those who apply in practice the keeping of accounting in all stages of work: elaboration of accounting policies, recognition, evaluation and accounting for economic transactions and preparing the financial statements of the entity.

  2. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    2012-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume IV, Part B: Applications to Quantum and Solid State Physics provides an introduction to the various applications of quantum mechanics to acoustics by describing several processes for which such considerations are essential. This book discusses the transmission of sound waves in molten metals. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the interactions that can happen between electrons and acoustic waves when magnetic fields are present. This text then describes acoustic and plasma waves in ionized gases wherein oscillations are subject to hydrodynamic as well as electromagnetic forces. Other chapters examine the resonances and relaxations that can take place in polymer systems. This book discusses as well the general theory of the interaction of a weak sinusoidal field with matter. The final chapter describes the sound velocities in the rocks composing the Earth. This book is a valuable resource for physicists and engineers.

  3. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenov, O Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): u tt = u xx + 3(u 2 ) xx + u xxxx + αu xxxxxx , α in R, depending on the positive parameter α. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  4. Explaining the Principle of Mala in Se

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Certain methods and weapons are traditionally considered to be "mala in se", i.e. evil in themselves. Examples are mass rape campaigns and land mines. The article examines different interpretations of the principle that belligerents ought not to use such means. Some interpretations are reductionist...... in the sense that they see the principle as an instance of other principles regulating conduct in war (jus in bello), namely the principles of discrimination and proportionality. I suggest a horizontal and a vertical dimension of the latter. Resort to violence can then be unjustified if 1) the persons......-one should have to endure. I defend the vertical dimension of proportionality as a key to understanding the principle of mala in se and consider whether it leads to an absolute prohibition against such means...

  5. General-purpose radiological examination device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, J

    1978-03-15

    Equipment is described suitable for all radiological examinations using x-ray and neuroradiological diagnostic machines. The equipment consists of a gimbal suspension supporting a base plate and an imaging system, a gantry on which a neurological seat is pivoted capable of isocentrically positioning the patient's head.

  6. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  7. NATURAL-SCIENCE EDUCATION: SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE CORRELATION IN THE VIEW OF A SYMMETRY PRINCIPLE. Ch. 2. Examples of religious content selection in general natural science courses based on the principle of symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii L. Gapontsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at demonstrating the possibility of the inclusion of religious elements contained in Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition in the general natural scientific courses based on the principle of symmetry.The method used in the work is confined to a comparison of perceptions formed in modern science and is closely related to the forms of symmetry and invariance principles (symmetry principles and, in particular, space-time concepts with those of the Book of Genesis. Such a comparison reveals the following unexpected feature: most profound presentation of modern natural sciences is closer to the provisions of Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition than a look at the same things existed in the earlier stages of the development of science. This allows the authors to formulate the hypothesis that in the process of development of scientific knowledge, it gradually becomes closer to the religious worldview. This process is slow, so its results have become visible only within 3500 years after the establishment of the truth of the Old Testament and 2000 years after the New Testament.Results and scientific novelty. The «firmament of heaven» and «water under the firmament» concepts are explained in the terms of the model of the Kleinert – Planck World crystal and understanding of the properties of matter and fields which are related with the conservation law of the wave-function parity. The relational nature of phenomena such as «life» and «death» in the course of universe evolution as a general trend is considered as the process of lowering the degree of symmetry of matter after the Big Bang wherein the Universe was created. The concepts used by E. Wigner for the description of the structure of the scientific knowledge are analysed. Its structure is determined by shapes and specific principles of the symmetry of exact sciences. The analysis of the concept «natural phenomenon» has shown that they are different in the degree of space

  8. Qualitative biomechanical principles for application in coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aspects of human movements in sport can be readily understood by Newtonian rigid-body mechanics. Many of these laws and biomechanical principles, however, are counterintuitive to a lot of people. There are also several problems in the application of biomechanics to sports, so the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport skills by many coaches has been limited. Biomechanics scholars have long been interested in developing principles that facilitate the qualitative application of biomechanics to improve movement performance and reduce the risk of injury. This paper summarizes the major North American efforts to establish a set of general biomechanical principles of movement, and illustrates how principles can be used to improve the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport technique. A coach helping a player with a tennis serve is presented as an example. The standardization of terminology for biomechanical principles is proposed as an important first step in improving the application ofbiomechanics in sport. There is also a need for international cooperation and research on the effectiveness of applying biomechanical principles in the coaching of sport techniques.

  9. Applying the prudence principle in non-profit organizations and financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes in detail the accounting principle of prudence in non-profit organizations and financial institutions. It defines its application in such organizations and based on comparison it evaluates the practical use of the prudence principle and its reflection in the accounting books. The main focus is on differences in applying the prudence principle that result from differences in the purpose activities and methods of asset management in these organizations. The practical application of the prudence principle in accounting consists mainly in the creation and use of provisions and impairments. These methods are defined by the Implementing Regulation to the Accounting Act No. 563/1991. The paper also provides tables where the creation and use of impairments and provisions in the above-mentioned organizations is compared with how business companies proceed in creating impairments and provisions. The key legislation standardizing accounting in the Czech Republic is the Accounting Act No. 563/1991, as amended, which stipulates the general accounting principles, the so-called accounting philosophy. The accounting is built around the general accounting principles, which are perceived as the pillars of accounting. Even though they are not stipulated in any particular law, they are legally enforceable and their ignorance can be sanctioned. The general accounting principles represent a set of rules to be observed in keeping the accounting books, preparing the accounting reports and submitting the accounting reports to users. The keystone accounting principle is the principle of true and fair refl ection of facts the essential goal of which is to report in the fi nancial statement actual assets and the fi nancial position of the accounting unit with an essential focus on reporting events that occurred during the accounting period with respect to their content.

  10. Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.

  11. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  12. MARKETING POLITICIANS ON FACEBOOK: AN EXAMINATION OF THE SINGAPORE GENERAL ELECTION 2011

    OpenAIRE

    LENG Ho Keat

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, politicians have been using social network sites in garnering votes and supporters. However, marketing on social network sites is distinctively different from traditional marketing as consumers no longer play a passive role on this new marketing platform. This paper examines the use of social network site by two young female politicians in the recent General Election in Singapore and concludes that campaigning on social network sites raises two important issues. First of all,...

  13. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  14. Principles of cooperation across systems: from human sharing to multicellularity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    From cells to societies, several general principles arise again and again that facilitate cooperation and suppress conflict. In this study, I describe three general principles of cooperation and how they operate across systems including human sharing, cooperation in animal and insect societies and the massively large-scale cooperation that occurs in our multicellular bodies. The first principle is that of Walk Away: that cooperation is enhanced when individuals can leave uncooperative partners. The second principle is that resource sharing is often based on the need of the recipient (i.e., need-based transfers) rather than on strict account-keeping. And the last principle is that effective scaling up of cooperation requires increasingly sophisticated and costly cheater suppression mechanisms. By comparing how these principles operate across systems, we can better understand the constraints on cooperation. This can facilitate the discovery of novel ways to enhance cooperation and suppress cheating in its many forms, from social exploitation to cancer.

  15. Extended Heisenberg principle: Tentative analysis of its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golbbiewski, A.; Witko, M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper examines the extension of the Heisenberg principle for a larger number of simultaneously discussed observables. The possibilities of the extended Heisenberg principle are discussed for evaluation of the average value of the square of the selected operator and for evaluation of the standard deviation of the selected operator

  16. 45 CFR 73a.735-101 - Principles and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONDUCT: FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENT General Provisions § 73a.735-101 Principles and purpose. (a) To assure that the business of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is conducted effectively... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principles and purpose. 73a.735-101 Section 73a...

  17. Basic principles simulators - concept training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkert, J.

    1986-01-01

    Basic Principles Simulators have the purpose of teaching general concepts, demonstrating and displaying the fundamental physical processes of a plant. They are used to illustrate theory to students and also to provide a preliminary training to the operators, to aquaint them with the basic dynamic interactions of the various systems during the normal operation of a plant, and to show the consequences of the most important and common transients and malfunctions. Basic principles simulators may vary in size from small desk cabinets to large panels. They represent with a certain detail the nuclear and thermohydraulic part of the plant. The availability of video displays allows to present detailed information about process parameters which are not shown on the control panels. In general the overall plant behaviour is represented well. Limitations are mostly found in the areas of logic and control. (orig./HP)

  18. Design Principles for Synthesizable Processor Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; McKee, Sally A.; Karlsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    As FPGAs get more competitive, synthesizable processor cores become an attractive choice for embedded computing. Currently popular commercial processor cores do not fully exploit current FPGA architectures. In this paper, we propose general design principles to increase instruction throughput...

  19. General rule antielisive chartered the National Tax Code confrontation between the principle of ability to pay and the rule of closed typicality and the alleged tax by analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Robert Nahra Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Check the possibility of the general standard employment antielisiva the parental right, ouseja, taxation by analogy legal fact extratípico effects econômicosequivalentes the typical legal fact, based on the abuse of rights doctrine and noprincípio of ability. Analysis in the face of the principles of legalidadeestrita and closed typicality, the principle of security developments jurídica.Conclui the impossibility of taxation by analogy for the offense to dasegurança legal principle that stands for certainty and predictability in entreEstado relations and taxpayers. The breach of the principle of strict legality because deexigência specific and qualified law to detributos institution. The offense aoprincípio closed typicality that prevents the tax nãodescrito legal fact with all its details by law. These principles not passíveissequer limitation, since they are immutable clauses. Inability to restriçãoda full effectiveness of the rule of the principle of typicality contributiva.Impossibilidade ability to taxation by the integrative method of analogy, therefore existecerta charge, even if relative, creativity inherent in the method and dependent inexistirlacunas fill in relevant matters to detributos institution , existing in reality free of the right spaces.

  20. Oncology. Pt. 1. General part, epidemiology - pathogenesis - basic principles of therapy. 2. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Bartram Claus R.

    2010-01-01

    The book Oncology is aimed to communicate the compiled knowledge on tumor development and cancer: fundamental knowledge base, practice related know-how for diagnostics and therapy. Part 1 includes the following chapters: epidemiology and pathogenesis, basic principles of diagnostics, basic principles of therapy, complication of malign growth, tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, female genital carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract carcinomas, respiratory tract and lung carcinomas, carcinomas in the head - neck area, bone and soft tissue carcinomas, pediatric tumors, hematological neoplasm, other carcinomas. The book can be used as reference for clinical work. [de

  1. Teaching Principles of Economics Without Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Campbell R.; Lamphear, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Presents important evidence thatstudents taking principles of economics with lectures, and those taking the course on a lectureless basis performed equally well on an intensive battery of objective examinations." (Editor)

  2. PRINCIPLES OF STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL OF UKRAINE IN THE CONDITIONS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Pustovit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is an improvement of principles of state financial control of Ukraine taking into account European advanced experience. The subject of the research is a comparative analysis of financial control principles and principles of state financial control of Ukraine with the international principles of financial control, envisaged at the international level, and the establishment of the expediency of their implementation in the national legislation in connection with the terms of European integration. The methodological background of the research is the combination of theoretical and scientific methods: analysis, synthesis and comparison, theoretical and logical generalization. The theoretical approaches are analysed according to the determination of conceptcategory of terms: “principle of financial control,” “principle of state financial control.” Existed principles of financial control, principles of state financial control of Ukraine, leading principles of financial control, what determined in Lima Declarations of Guidance on Auditing Precepts, general principles of supreme bodies of financial control activity that are envisaged in Declaration about general principles of supreme bodies of financial control activity of states-participants of CIS are investigated. Carrying out the analysis of financial control principles, principles of state financial control of Ukraine, and international principles of financial control, we reached a conclusion that basic principles (principles of legality, independence, objectivity, impartiality, publicity, neutrality are already normatively envisaged. There is the part of international principles (principle of competence, publicity, efficiency, well-proven, observance of professional ethics, violation prevention, obligatory of responsibility offensive for the accomplished violations of financial discipline that doesn’t have the normative consolidation in laws and regulations of

  3. Consistency of the Mach principle and the gravitational-to-inertial mass equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Kh.K.; Chubykalo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Kinematics of the system, composed of two bodies, interacting with each other according to inverse-square law, was investigated. It is shown that the Mach principle, earlier rejected by the general relativity theory, can be used as an alternative for the absolute space concept, if it is proposed, that distant star background dictates both inertial and gravitational mass of a body

  4. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    .... The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation, sampling methods, quantitative analysis, origin of group frequencies and qualitative interpretation using generalized Infrared (IR) and Raman spectra...

  5. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nathaniel J S; Glöckner, Andreas; Dickert, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one's options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a "deliberation with information" condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought (UT) over "deliberation without information," we find that "deliberation with information" equals or outperforms UT in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that UT has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. Furthermore, we show that "deliberate thought with information" leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to UT which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  6. On the general principles and problems of realization of gasers (gamma-lasers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'danskij, V.I.; Kagan, Yu.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is presented to formulate main principles behind induced generation of gamma quanta and to prove that the requirements thereof are consistent with actual physical parameters. The problems are discussed of constructing the so-called gasers, i.e. lasers operated by gamma transitions, and of their possible applications. (L.O.)

  7. Explaining the Principle of Mala in Se

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Certain methods and weapons are traditionally considered to be "mala in se", i.e. evil in themselves. Examples are mass rape campaigns and land mines. The article examines different interpretations of the principle that belligerents ought not to use such means. Some interpretations are reductionist...... in the sense that they see the principle as an instance of other principles regulating conduct in war (jus in bello), namely the principles of discrimination and proportionality. I suggest a horizontal and a vertical dimension of the latter. Resort to violence can then be unjustified if 1) the persons...

  8. Variational principles for Ginzburg-Landau equation by He's semi-inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.Y.; Yu, Y.J.; Chen, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Via the semi-inverse method of establishing variational principles proposed by He, a generalized variational principle is established for Ginzburg-Landau equation. The present theory provides a quite straightforward tool to the search for various variational principles for physical problems. This paper aims at providing a more complete theoretical basis for applications using finite element and other direct variational methods

  9. Use of the objective structured clinical examination for assessment of vocational trainees for general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Robert; Walker, Barrie

    1987-01-01

    General practice training schemes currently have no structured methods of assessment and most rely on a variety of subjective ratings of performance. In West Cumbria the `objective structured clinical examination' has been used to assess training performance in areas covered by small group teaching during the preceding terms. Consultation skills, interpretation of clinical data and a number of aspects of practice management were tested. The examination was conducted in the local postgraduate ...

  10. Culture of safety. Indicators of culture of safety. Stage of culture of safety. Optimization of radiating protection. Principle of precaution. Principle ALARA. Procedure ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursa, E.

    2006-01-01

    Object of research: is the theory and practice of optimization of radiating protection according to recommendations of the international organizations, realization of principle ALARA and maintenance of culture of safety (SC) on the nuclear power plant. The purpose of work - to consider the general aspects of realization of principle ALARA, conceptual bases of culture of safety, as principle of management, and practice of their introduction on the nuclear power plant. The work has the experts' report character in which the following questions are presented: The recommendations materials of the IAEA and other international organizations have been assembled, systematized and analyzed. The definitions, characteristics and universal SC features, and also indicators as a problem of parameters and quantitative SC measurements are described in details advanced. The ALARA principles - principle of precaution; not acceptance of zero risk; choice of a principle ALARA; model of acceptable radiation risk are described. The methodology of an estimation of culture of safety level and practical realization of the ALARA principle in separate organization is shown on a practical example. The SC general estimation at a national level in Republic of Moldova have been done. Taking into consideration that now Safety Culture politics are introduced only in relation to APS, in this paper the attempt of application of Safety Culture methodology to Radiological Objects have been made (Oncological Institute of the Republic of Moldova and Special Objects No.5101 and 5102 for a long time Storage of the Radioactive Waste). (authors)

  11. Variational principles in terms of entransy for heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Mingtian

    2012-01-01

    A variational principle for heat conduction is formulated which results in the steady state heat conduction equation established from the Fourier law. Furthermore based on the thermodynamics in terms of entransy a more general functional is defined for incompressible fluids. We show that extremizing this functional gives rise to the state described by the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations with vanishing substantive derivatives of the temperature and velocity field. In this sense one may conclude that this variational principle is consistent with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. Therefore the variational principle developed in the present work demonstrates a great advantage over the minimum entropy production principle. -- Highlights: ► A variational principle for heat transfer of incompressible fluid is established in terms of entransy. ► For pure heat conduction the variational principle leads to the classical steady state heat conduction equation. ► For heat convection the variational principle is consistent with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations.

  12. Limited entropic uncertainty as new principle of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Uncertainty Principle (UP) of quantum mechanics discovered by Heisenberg, which constitute the corner-stone of quantum physics, asserts that: there is an irreducible lower bound on the uncertainty in the result of a simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables. In order to avoid this state-dependence many authors proposed to use the information entropy as a measure of the uncertainty instead of above standard quantitative formulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In this paper the Principle of Limited Entropic Uncertainty (LEU-Principle), as a new principle in quantum physics, is proved. Then, consistent experimental tests of the LEU-principle, obtained by using the available 49 sets of the pion-nucleus phase shifts, are presented for both, extensive (q=1) and nonextensive (q=0.5 and q=2.0) cases. Some results obtained by the application of LEU-Principle to the diffraction phenomena are also discussed. The main results and conclusions of our paper can be summarized as follows: (i) We introduced a new principle in quantum physics namely the Principle of Limited Entropic Uncertainty (LEU-Principle). This new principle includes in a more general and exact form not only the old Heisenberg uncertainty principle but also introduce an upper limit on the magnitude of the uncertainty in the quantum physics. The LEU-Principle asserts that: 'there is an irreducible lower bound as well as an upper bound on the uncertainty in the result of a simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables for any extensive and nonextensive (q ≥ 0) quantum systems'; (ii) Two important concrete realizations of the LEU-Principle are explicitly obtained in this paper, namely: (a) the LEU-inequalities for the quantum scattering of spinless particles and (b) the LEU-inequalities for the diffraction on single slit of width 2a. In particular from our general results, in the limit y → +1 we recover in an exact form all the results previously reported. In our paper an

  13. The principles of radioactive waste management. A publication within the RADWASS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication defines the objective of radioactive waste management and the associated set of internationally agreed principles. The Safety Fundamentals include the objective of radioactive waste management and fundamental principles of radioactive waste management. The fundamental principles fall into the following general subject areas: protection of human health, protection of the environment, protection beyond national borders, responsibility to future generations and implementation procedures. Each principle is stated, and supporting and explanatory information pertaining to the principle is provided. 1 fig

  14. Optimal decisions principles of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Oskar

    1971-01-01

    Optimal Decisions: Principles of Programming deals with all important problems related to programming.This book provides a general interpretation of the theory of programming based on the application of the Lagrange multipliers, followed by a presentation of the marginal and linear programming as special cases of this general theory. The praxeological interpretation of the method of Lagrange multipliers is also discussed.This text covers the Koopmans' model of transportation, geometric interpretation of the programming problem, and nature of activity analysis. The solution of t

  15. Synchronous machines. General principles and structures; Machines synchrones. Principes generaux et structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ahmed, H.; Feld, G.; Multon, B. [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Lab. SATIE, Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie, UMR CNRS 8029, 94 (France); Bernard, N. [Institut Universitaire de Saint-Nazaire, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 44 - Nantes (France)

    2005-10-01

    Power generation is mainly performed by synchronous rotating machines which consume about a third of the world primary energy. Electric motors used in industrial applications convert about two thirds of this electricity. Therefore, synchronous machines are present everywhere at different scales, from micro-actuators of few micro-watts to thermo-mechanical production units of more than 1 GW, and represent a large variety of structures which have in common the synchronism between the frequency of the power supply currents and the relative movement of the fixed part with respect to the mobile part. Since several decades, these machines are more and more used as variable speed motors with permanent magnets. The advances in power electronics have contributed to the widening of their use in various applications with a huge range of powers. This article presents the general principle of operation of electromechanical converters of synchronous type: 1 - electromechanical conversion in electromagnetic systems: basic laws and elementary structures (elementary structure, energy conversion cycle, case of a system working in linear magnetic regime), rotating fields structure (magneto-motive force and Ferraris theorem, superficial air gap permeance, air gap magnetic induction, case of a permanent magnet inductor, magnetic energy and electromagnetic torque, conditions for reaching a non-null average torque, application to common cases); 2 - constitution, operation modes and efficiency: constitution and main types of synchronous machines, efficiency - analysis by similarity laws (other expression of the electromagnetic torque, thermal limitation in permanent regime, scale effects, effect of pole pairs number, examples of efficiencies and domains of use), operation modes. (J.S.)

  16. Physical examination in undergraduate medical education in the field of general practice - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Graf, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie; Hertkorn, Rebekka

    2017-11-25

    Physical examination (PE) is an essential clinical skill and a central part of a physician's daily activity. Teaching of PE has been integrated into medical school by many clinical disciplines with respective specific examination procedures. For instance, PE teaching in general practice may include a full-body examination approach. Studies show that PE-skills of medical students often need enhancement. The aim of this article was to scope the literature regarding the teaching and research of PE within general practice during undergraduate medical education. We evaluated a wide breadth of literature relating to the content, study design, country of research institution and year of publication. Literature search in Medline along the PRISMA-P protocol was performed by search syntax ("physical examination" AND "medical education" AND "undergraduate" AND general practice) considering Medline MeSH (Medical Subject Heading)-Terms and Medline search term tree structure. Independent title, abstract and full-text screening with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed. Full texts were analyzed by publication year, country of origin, study design and content (by categorizing articles along their main topic according to qualitative content analysis of Mayring). One-hundred seven articles were included. The annual number of publications ranged from 4 to 14 and had a slightly rising trend since 2000. Nearly half of the publications originated from the United States (n = 54), 33 from Canada and the United Kingdom. Overall, intervention studies represented the largest group (n = 60, including uncontrolled and controlled studies, randomized and non-randomized), followed by cross-sectional studies (n = 29). The 117 studies could be assigned to five categories "teaching methods (n = 53)", "teaching quality (n = 33)", "performance evaluation and examination formats (n=19)", "students' views (n = 8)" and "patients' and standardized patients' views

  17. Viewing brain processes as Critical State Transitions across levels of organization: Neural events in Cognition and Consciousness, and general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated.

  18. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  19. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  20. Symbiotic architecture: Redefinition of recycling design principles

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Šijaković; Ana Perić

    2018-01-01

    The study seeks to examine the possibility of implementing the biological concept of symbiosis into the field of architecture for redefining the design principles of architectural recycling. Through an in-depth analysis of the biological concept of symbiosis (i.e., a close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species and the criteria that govern the differentiation between symbiotic associations), three redefined design principles of recycling—commensalism,...

  1. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  2. Features of clinical course and treatment principles of endodontic-periodontal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P I Moroz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the characteristic differences in the clinical course of chronic generalized periodontitis in the presence of periapical infection focus and the principles of combined treatment of endodontium and periodontium. Methods. A clinical and X-ray examination of 1525 patients of different age groups was performed. As a result, a clinical group of 68 patients with chronic generalized moderate and severe periodontitis was formed, who were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of periapical destruction. In group 1, 32 patients with the presence of chronic generalized periodontitis and signs of chronic apical periodontitis were united. Group 2 included 36 patients with chronic generalized periodontitis and no periapical infection and damage. The index estimation of the periodontal tissues state in the dynamics of combined endodontic and periodontal treatment was performed. Results. The initial task of treating endodontic periodontal lesions, regardless of the localization of the primary lesion focus, is the elimination or reversal of chronic periapical inflammatory processes of the teeth. The proposed monitoring system in the course of treatment and dynamic follow-up for 18 months for patients suffering from endodontic periodontal lesions using clinical and radiological methods of examination involves: (1 interim epicrisis or conclusion about negative or positive compliance 1-2 months after the completion of endodontic treatment and hygiene procedures; (2 periodontal treatment (according to indications with the assessment of clinical efficacy 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment; (3 epicrisis after 18 months. Conclusion. The use of proposed concept of complex treatment of endodontic-periodontal lesions, monitoring system in the course of dental therapeutic and preventive measures and dynamic follow-up for 18 months allows achieving positive compliance in 85% of patients according to the clinical examination and

  3. [Expectation for JSPN's contribution following revision of General Principles for Suicide Prevention Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Japan's national suicide prevention efforts following the 1998 surge in the number of suicide deaths can be divided into three stages: the first stage administrated mainly by the health ministry (1998-2005), the second and transitional stage when it was upgraded to a full governmental issue (2005-2006), and the third and present stage following the promulgation of the Basic Act for Suicide Prevention in 2006. In June 2007, the General Principles for Suicide Prevention Policy (GPSP), a guideline on how the national government should act to promote suicide prevention, was announced, urging local governments to tackle the problem of suicide. The GPSP was set to be revised after around five years from its publication, and, thus, a revised GPSP was published in August of 2012. Based on the five years of challenges, the revised GPSP states that suicide prevention strategies should move on to more practical and community-oriented ones. The National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), through its Center for Suicide Prevention, played a coordinating role in putting forward a proposal for the revision, working with 29 academic societies including the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (JSPN). In February 2013, by further developing the relationships with academic societies, etc., which were forged in the above-mentioned process, NCNP set up the Preparatory Committee for the Evidence-based Suicide Prevention Consortium in order to contribute to suicide prevention strategies from an academic perspective. Meanwhile, in the World Health Organization's 66th World Health Assembly held in May 2013, the Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 was approved. Its core principle is "no health without mental health", and it has the following four objectives: (1) to strengthen effective leadership and governance for mental health; (2) to provide comprehensive, integrated, and responsive mental health and social care services in community-based settings; (3) to

  4. Legal principles of regulatory administration and nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyeong Hui; Cheong, Sang Kee [Hannam Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    This research presents a critical analysis and evaluation of principles of administrative laws in order to provide framework of structural reform on the nuclear safety regulation system. The focus of this analysis and evaluation is centered around the area of origin of regulatory administrative laws; authorities of regulation; procedures of regulatory actions; regulatory enforcement; and administrative relief system. In chapter 2 the concept of regulatory administration is analysed. Chapter 3 identifies the origin of regulatory administration and the principles of administration laws. It also examines legal nature of the nuclear safety standard. In relation to regulatory authorities. Chapter 4 identifies role and responsibility of administration authorities and institutions. It also examines fundamental principles of delegation of power. Then the chapter discusses the nuclear safety regulation authorities and their roles and responsibilities. Chapter 5 classifies and examines regulatory administration actions. Chapter 6 evaluates enforcement measure for effectiveness of regulation. Finally, chapter 7 discusses the administrative relief system for reviewing unreasonable regulatory acts.

  5. Maximum Principles for Discrete and Semidiscrete Reaction-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Stehlík

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study reaction-diffusion equations with a general reaction function f on one-dimensional lattices with continuous or discrete time ux′  (or  Δtux=k(ux-1-2ux+ux+1+f(ux, x∈Z. We prove weak and strong maximum and minimum principles for corresponding initial-boundary value problems. Whereas the maximum principles in the semidiscrete case (continuous time exhibit similar features to those of fully continuous reaction-diffusion model, in the discrete case the weak maximum principle holds for a smaller class of functions and the strong maximum principle is valid in a weaker sense. We describe in detail how the validity of maximum principles depends on the nonlinearity and the time step. We illustrate our results on the Nagumo equation with the bistable nonlinearity.

  6. The twin paradox and the principle of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grøn, Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    The twin paradox is intimately related to the principle of relativity. Two twins A and B meet, travel away from each other and meet again. From the point of view of A, B is the traveller. Thus, A predicts B to be younger than A herself, and vice versa. Both cannot be correct. The special relativistic solution is to say that if one of the twins, say A, was inertial during the separation, she will be the older one. Since the principle of relativity is not valid for accelerated motion according to the special theory of relativity B cannot consider herself as at rest permanently because she must accelerate in order to return to her sister. A general relativistic solution is to say that due to the principle of equivalence B can consider herself as at rest, but she must invoke the gravitational change of time in order to predict correctly the age of A during their separation. However one may argue that the fact that B is younger than A shows that B was accelerated, not A, and hence the principle of relativity is not valid for accelerated motion in the general theory of relativity either. I here argue that perfect inertial dragging may save the principle of relativity, and that this requires a new model of the Minkowski spacetime where the cosmic mass is represented by a massive shell with radius equal to its own Schwarzschild radius. (paper)

  7. The main principles of medical rehabilitation of the injured persons in the system of organization of medical aid after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhina, N.M.; Lelyuk, V.G.; Galstyan, I.A.; Uvacheva, I.V.; Chubchenkova, Zh.N.; Kutuzova, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Results of clinical examination of participants of liquidation of the after-effects of the accident (LAA) at Chernobyl for several years are presented. For participants of LAA with an acute radial disease of various degree of severity, a great importance is attached to the aspect of local radial injuries (LRI). The following principles of their medical rehabilitation have been elaborated; generally roborant treatment along with psycho-therapeutic correction, therapy of radial cataract (surgical); prophylaxis and therapy of late manifestations of LRI; treatment and prophylaxis of concomitant somatic diseases; efficient provision of employment of patients and their return to active social position in family and society life. The complex of rehabilitation measures for participants of LAA exposed to radiation without development of acute radial disease should contain generally accepted principles; thorough and timely diagnostics and treatment of general somatic diseases; correction of the consequences of mental stress, sanitation of life regimen with rational nutrition and physical strain. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Private law principles, pluralism and perfectionism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Bernitz, U.; Groussot, X.; Schulyok, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the legitimacy of general principles of private law as they have been formulated recently by the Court of Justice of the European Union and proposed by the European Commission. It addresses challenges from different strands in political theory including liberal perfectionism,

  9. Exact periodic solutions of the sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenov, O Y [Department of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Technical University of Sofia, PO Box 384, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: okam@abv.bg

    2009-09-18

    This paper examines a class of nonlinear sixth-order generalized Boussinesq-like equations (SGBE): u{sub tt} = u{sub xx} + 3(u{sup 2}){sub xx} + u{sub xxxx} + {alpha}u{sub xxxxxx}, {alpha} in R, depending on the positive parameter {alpha}. Hirota's bilinear transformation method is applied to the above class of non-integrable equations and exact periodic solutions have been obtained. The results confirmed the well-known nonlinear superposition principle.

  10. On Resolution Complexity of Matching Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan S.

    proof system. The results in the thesis fall in this category. We study the Resolution complexity of some Matching Principles. The three major contributions of the thesis are as follows. Firstly, we develop a general technique of proving resolution lower bounds for the perfect matchingprinciples based...... Chessboard as well as for Tseitin tautologies based on rectangular grid graph. We reduce these problems to Tiling games, a concept introduced by us, which may be of interest on its own. Secondly, we find the exact Tree-Resolution complexity of the Weak Pigeon-Hole Principle. It is the most studied...

  11. Enhancing the Therapy Experience Using Principles of Video Game Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, John Wm; Brackenbury, Tim; Krause, Miriam; Haviland, Allison

    2016-02-01

    This article considers the potential benefits that applying design principles from contemporary video games may have on enhancing therapy experiences. Six principles of video game design are presented, and their relevance for enriching clinical experiences is discussed. The motivational and learning benefits of each design principle have been discussed in the education literature as having positive impacts on student motivation and learning and are related here to aspects of clinical practice. The essential experience principle suggests connecting all aspects of the experience around a central emotion or cognitive connection. The discovery principle promotes indirect learning in focused environments. The risk-taking principle addresses the uncertainties clients face when attempting newly learned skills in novel situations. The generalization principle encourages multiple opportunities for skill transfer. The reward system principle directly relates to the scaffolding of frequent and varied feedback in treatment. Last, the identity principle can assist clients in using their newly learned communication skills to redefine self-perceptions. These principles highlight areas for research and interventions that may be used to reinforce or advance current practice.

  12. Copernicus, Kant, and the anthropic cosmological principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Sherrilyn

    In the last three decades several cosmological principles and styles of reasoning termed 'anthropic' have been introduced into physics research and popular accounts of the universe and human beings' place in it. I discuss the circumstances of 'fine tuning' that have motivated this development, and what is common among the principles. I examine the two primary principles, and find a sharp difference between these 'Weak' and 'Strong' varieties: contrary to the view of the progenitors that all anthropic principles represent a departure from Copernicanism in cosmology, the Weak Anthropic Principle is an instance of Copernicanism. It has close affinities with the step of Copernicus that Immanuel Kant took himself to be imitating in the 'critical' turn that gave rise to the Critique of Pure Reason. I conclude that the fact that a way of going about natural science mentions human beings is not sufficient reason to think that it is a subjective approach; in fact, it may need to mention human beings in order to be objective.

  13. Principles of developing the knowledge portal on safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevtsov, A.; Orlov, V.Yu.; Trubchaninov, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The general principles of developing the knowledge portal on safety of nuclear facilities are considered in the article. In future, these principles can be used for implementing the project on development of the knowledge portal for the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine.

  14. Tracing organizing principles: Learning from the history of systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    on this historical background in order to increase the understanding of the motivation behind the search for general principles and to clarify different epistemic aims within systems biology. We pinpoint key aspects of earlier approaches that also underlie the current practice. These are i) the focus on relational......With the emergence of systems biology, the identification of organizing principles is being highlighted as a key research aim. Researchers attempt to “reverse engineer” the functional organization of biological systems using methodologies from mathematics, engineering and computer science while...... taking advantage of data produced by new experimental techniques. While systems biology is a relatively new approach, the quest for general principles of biological organization dates back to systems theoretic approaches in early and mid-twentieth century. The aim of this paper is to draw...

  15. A maximum principle for time dependent transport in systems with voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, S.L.; Ackroyd, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    A maximum principle is developed for the first-order time dependent Boltzmann equation. The maximum principle is a generalization of Schofield's κ(θ) principle for the first-order steady state Boltzmann equation, and provides a treatment of time dependent transport in systems with void regions. The formulation comprises a direct least-squares minimization allied with a suitable choice of bilinear functional, and gives rise to a maximum principle whose functional is free of terms that have previously led to difficulties in treating void regions. (Author)

  16. An improved Landauer principle with finite-size corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeb, David; Wolf, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Landauer's principle relates entropy decrease and heat dissipation during logically irreversible processes. Most theoretical justifications of Landauer's principle either use thermodynamic reasoning or rely on specific models based on arguable assumptions. Here, we aim at a general and minimal setup to formulate Landauer's principle in precise terms. We provide a simple and rigorous proof of an improved version of the principle, which is formulated in terms of an equality rather than an inequality. The proof is based on quantum statistical mechanics concepts rather than on thermodynamic argumentation. From this equality version, we obtain explicit improvements of Landauer's bound that depend on the effective size of the thermal reservoir and reduce to Landauer's bound only for infinite-sized reservoirs. (paper)

  17. Principle of progressive (gradual use of contractual remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazil OGLINDĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we intend to answer to the question whether, in the modern contract law, in general, and in Romanian contract law, in particular, the creditor may resort almost discretionary to remedies (contractual sanctions such as termination, rescission without being opposed that he should have resorted to other more appropriate remedies. In order to answer to this question, we find it extremely useful to define the term of contractual remedy and to analyse the correlation of this principle with other principles of modern contract law. Also, last but not least, we intend to define the principle of progressive (gradual use of the contractual remedies and to detail the vocation (legal nature of this principle in the modern contract law, having as starting point the provisions of the new Romanian Civil Code.

  18. Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace

    2017-11-01

    As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.

  19. Fermat principles in general relativity and the existence of light rays on Lorentzian manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunato, D.; Masiello, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we review some results on the existence and multiplicity of null geodesics (light rays) joining a point with a timelike curve on a Lorentzian manifold. Moreover a Morse Theory for such geodesics is presented. A variational principle, which is a variant of the classical Fermat principle in optics, allows to characterize the null geodesics joining a point with a timelike curve as the critical points of a functional on an infinite dimensional manifold. Global variational methods are used to get the existence results and Morse Theory. Such results cover a class of Lorentzian manifolds including Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstroem and Kerr space-time. (author)

  20. Is a weak violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, A.Y.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    We examine models in which there is a weak violation of the Pauli principle. A simple algebra of creation and annihilation operators is constructed which contains a parameter β and describes a weak violation of the Pauli principle (when β = 0 the Pauli principle is satisfied exactly). The commutation relations in this algebra turn out to be trilinear. A model based on this algebra is described. It allows transitions in which the Pauli principle is violated, but the probability of these transitions is suppressed by the quantity β 2 (even though the interaction Hamiltonian does not contain small parameters)

  1. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  2. Implementation of corporate governance principles in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to conduct a study regarding the manner in which corporate governance principles are applied in Romania, in both public and private sector. In the first part of the paper, the corporate governance principles are presented as they are defined in Romania, in comparison with the main international sources of interest in the domain (OECD corporate governance principles, UE legal framework. The corporate governance (CG principles refer to issues regarding board composition, transparency of scope, objectives and policies; they define the relations between directors and managers, shareholders and stakeholders. The research methodology is based on both fundamental research and empirical study on the implementation of corporate governance principles in companies from Romania. The main instrument of research is a corporate governance index, calculated based on a framework proposed by the author. The corporate governance principles are transposed in criteria that compose the framework for the CG index. The results of the study consist of scores for each CG principles and calculation of CG index for seven companies selected from the public and private sector in Romania. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to formulate general and particular recommendations. The main conclusion of this study is that that a legal framework in the area of corporate governance regulation is needed in Romania. I consider that the main CG principles should be enforced by developing a mandatory legal framework.

  3. A Simple Model of Entrepreneurship for Principles of Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    The critical roles of entrepreneurs in creating, operating, and destroying markets, as well as their importance in driving long-term economic growth are still generally either absent from principles of economics texts or relegated to later chapters. The primary difficulties in explaining entrepreneurship at the principles level are the lack of a…

  4. [Lack of interest in general practice during the National Ranking Examination in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanson, Yves

    2006-03-01

    The second national ranking test took place in 2005 in the same conditions as the year before. Analysis of the results permits us to assess whether the objectives of this reform have been met so far. Data crossing of the results provided by the national testing center allowed us to rank: 1) the appeal of specializations for each geographic subdivision, 2) the candidates by medical school, and 3) the appeal of each subdivision by candidate rank. 66% of the students were classified high enough to be able to choose any specialization. Trends observed from the first examination, in 2004, were confirmed, with the clear desirability of medical specializations and a certain lack of interest in occupational medicine and public health. All the surgery posts were filled, even though the number of posts had increased enormously since the first examination. After adjustment for the number of posts available, the specializations in decreasing order of popularity were: medical, surgical, pediatrics, anesthesiology, gynecology-obstetrics, general medicine, psychiatry, and biology. Approximately 1000 posts in general medicine were not filled. The medical schools whose students ranked highest were Paris Pitié, Paris V, Paris West, Lyon North, Grenoble, and Aix-Marseille. Some medical schools did less well than previously: Marseille very slightly and Angers substantially. Strasbourg, Nancy Amiens and Bobigny were at the bottom of the list. The cities most desired for internships were Paris, Toulouse, Lyon, and Aix-Marseille, while Brest, Nancy, Limoges and the West Indies were ranked lowest, although each was chosen by highly ranked candidate. Two thirds of the students were ranked high enough to allow them a free choice of specializations. All the specializations except public health and occupational medicine had very highly ranked students. Medical specializations are the most desired, but surgery remains highly demanded, despite a substantial increase in the number of posts. All

  5. Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

  6. Wildland fire and fuel management: principles for effective communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Toman; Bruce Shindler

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss four principles identified through recent research for effective citizen-agency communication and examine their use in accomplishing fire management objectives. Principles include the following: (1) effective communication is a product of effective planning; (2) both unidirectional (one-way) and interactive approaches are part of successful...

  7. A precautionary principle for dual use research in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlau, Frida; Höglund, Anna T; Evers, Kathinka; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges against the principle exist - for example that it stifles scientific development, lacks practical applicability and is poorly defined and vague - the analysis concludes that a Precautionary Principle is applicable to the field. Certain factors such as credibility of the threat, availability of information, clear prescriptive demands on responsibility and directives on how to act, determine the suitability and success of a Precautionary Principle. Moreover, policy-makers and researchers share a responsibility for providing and seeking information about potential sources of harm. A central conclusion is that the principle is meaningful and useful if applied as a context-dependent moral principle and allowed flexibility in its practical use. The principle may then inspire awareness-raising and the establishment of practical routines which appropriately reflect the fact that life science research may be misused for harmful purposes. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Quasi-static responses and variational principles in gradient plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Son

    2016-12-01

    Gradient models have been much discussed in the literature for the study of time-dependent or time-independent processes such as visco-plasticity, plasticity and damage. This paper is devoted to the theory of Standard Gradient Plasticity at small strain. A general and consistent mathematical description available for common time-independent behaviours is presented. Our attention is focussed on the derivation of general results such as the description of the governing equations for the global response and the derivation of related variational principles in terms of the energy and the dissipation potentials. It is shown that the quasi-static response under a loading path is a solution of an evolution variational inequality as in classical plasticity. The rate problem and the rate minimum principle are revisited. A time-discretization by the implicit scheme of the evolution equation leads to the increment problem. An increment of the response associated with a load increment is a solution of a variational inequality and satisfies also a minimum principle if the energy potential is convex. The increment minimum principle deals with stables solutions of the variational inequality. Some numerical methods are discussed in view of the numerical simulation of the quasi-static response.

  9. Multimodal electromechanical model of piezoelectric transformers by Hamilton's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Clement; Pigache, Francois

    2009-11-01

    This work deals with a general energetic approach to establish an accurate electromechanical model of a piezoelectric transformer (PT). Hamilton's principle is used to obtain the equations of motion for free vibrations. The modal characteristics (mass, stiffness, primary and secondary electromechanical conversion factors) are also deduced. Then, to illustrate this general electromechanical method, the variational principle is applied to both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT models. A comparison of modal parameters, mechanical displacements, and electrical potentials are presented for both models. Finally, the validity of the electrodynamical model of nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT is confirmed by a numerical comparison based on a finite elements method and an experimental identification.

  10. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  11. THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION OF JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa BARBU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental principles of the criminal procedure are general rules applicable throughout the criminal procedure in order to achieve its purpose. The fundamental principles are covered by art. 2-12 C.C.P. and are: the legality of criminal procedure, separating the functions of the judiciary, the presumption of innocence, finding out the truth, ne bis in idem, a requirement for moving and exercising penal action, is fair and reasonable term of the criminal trial, the right to liberty and security, the right to defence, respect for human dignity and privacy, the official language and the right to an interpreter. The European Court of Human Rights is conscious that by protecting the fundamental principles it does not only aim at the protection of super eminence of the inextricably right tied to the state of law. These principles represent a set of obligations imposed on the State that has as the sole purpose the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms.

  12. The underlying principles of relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the main statements of relativistic theory of gravitation, constructed in result of critical analysis of the general theory of relativity. The principle of geometrization is formulated

  13. Critical reflections on the principle of beneficence in biomedicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For purposes of this work, this paper examines the principle of beneficence in biomedicine. Using both hypothetical cases and others in real life situations, the paper reflects on the implications of beneficence in biomedicine. It argues that the principle of beneficence is a prima facie obligation that should “always be acted ...

  14. Examining nicotine craving during abstinence among adolescent smokers: the roles of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Visser, A.F.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies on the occurrence of nicotine craving among 125 daily-smoking adolescents. General perceived stress was measured at baseline. Craving was assessed at baseline and directly after a 24-hour period of

  15. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  16. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  17. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  18. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal

    2015-01-01

    the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory......We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When...

  19. Interpretation Principles of Jus Cogens Principles as Public Order in International Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andritoi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available What is happening if the custom is founded on the coincidence of interests, or even worse, on error? If we rapport specific problems of international customary law to the principles of judicial interpretation it results that a common error (including opinio juris does not disturb the process of legality proper to the principle error communis facit jus. According to the principle of equity, a common error operates only if the victim’s interests are not affected in an irreparable manner. In this case, the error is insuperable and represents a vice for judicial nullity. Error cannot be accepted when it results from the actions of the state, realized with bad intention, as coercion is. Pacta sunt servanda as a jus cogens norm protects nor only good faith. Thus, through interpretation theories in the Anglo-American environment we will use the refinement of a traditional position in continental interpretation, arguing a general method of interpretation based on the recovery of the legislator’s intentions, had at the moment of an edition of a juridical norm. We will use of this application thedialectics between meanings expressed by the text and those the interpret advances with the role of interpretative hypothesis in order to find its meaning.

  20. Generalized reciprocity principle for discrete symplectic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elyseeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies transformations for conjoined bases of symplectic difference systems $Y_{i+1}=\\mathcal S_{i}Y_{i}$ with the symplectic coefficient matrices $\\mathcal S_i.$ For an arbitrary symplectic transformation matrix $P_{i}$ we formulate most general sufficient conditions for $\\mathcal S_{i},\\, P_{i}$ which guarantee that $P_{i}$ preserves oscillatory properties of conjoined bases $Y_{i}.$ We present examples which show that our new results extend the applicability of the discrete transformation theory.

  1. The precautionary principle and high-level nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The 'Precautionary Principle' has grown from the broadening observation that there is compelling evidence that damage to humans and the world-wide environment is of such a magnitude and seriousness that new principles for conducting human activities are necessary. One of the various statements of the Precautionary Principle is: when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically. The use of a precautionary principle was a significant recommendation emerging from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and it is gaining acceptance in discussions ranging from global warming to activities that affect the marine environment, and far beyond. In the US high-level nuclear waste policy, there is a growing trend on the part of geologic repository proponents and regulators to shift the required safety evaluation from a deterministic analysis of natural and engineered barriers and their interactions to risk assessments and total system waste containment and isolation performance assessment. This is largely a result of the realisation that scientific 'proof' of safety cannot be demonstrated to the level repository proponents have led the American public to expect. Therefore, they are now developing other methods in an attempt to effectively lower the repository safety expectations of the public. Implicit in this shift in demonstration of 'proof' is that levels of uncertainty far larger than those generally taken as scientifically acceptable must be accepted in repository safety, simply because greater certainty is either too costly, in time and money, or impossible to achieve at the potential Yucca Mountain repository site. In the context of the Precautionary Principle, the repository proponent must bear the burden of providing 'Acceptable' proof, established by an open

  2. The Applicability of the Transparency Principle by Organizations in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarfa Hrnjić Kuduzović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a generally accepted principle of social responsibility in public relations theory, transparency is also recommended during crisis situations by most authors. The recommendations for organizations to communicate openly with all stakeholders, especially crisis victims, are among the most important instructions for managing crises. However, some authors believe that the full disclosure of information about the organization and the crisis circumstances is not just an unrealistic, but also communicatively ineffective, financially disadvantageous and even an unethical approach. Starting from the transparency requirements as a set of unquestionably valuable principles in professional public relations, as well as from the benchmark research on crisis communication, the author examines the limits of this rule. The paper is focused on the factors that determine the degree of an organization’s openness, keeping in mind the complexity of relationships with different stakeholders who often have conflicting interests. By critically considering the concept of ambiguous communications as a possible communication model in crisis situations, the author emphasizes the importance of context when deciding on a communication strategy.

  3. Urban Environment Development based on Universal Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun Ir

    2018-02-01

    Universal Design is a design which facilitated full range of human diversity. By applying Universal design principles, urban environment can be more functional and more user-friendly for everyone. This study examined five urban streets of South Korea as a country experienced on developing various urban street designs based on universal design. This study aimed to examine and compare the South Korea cases using seven principles of universal design. The research methods of this study are literature study, case study, and site observation. The results of this study are: South Korea cases are good practices, urgency of implementing the direction into local regulations; and change of urban development paradigm.

  4. Damn the Permanganate Volcanoes: Full Principles Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Frank L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses whether chemistry should be taught using a purely descriptive approach or using the current "principles" approach. Considers what sort of background should be provided given the uses students are most apt to make of their general chemistry training. (SK)

  5. Impact of Thermodynamic Principles in Systems Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that properties of biological systems which are relevant for systems biology motivated mathematical modelling are strongly shaped by general thermodynamic principles such as osmotic limit, Gibbs energy dissipation, near equilibria and thermodynamic driving force. Each of these aspects

  6. Obstacles on the Practice of the Ethical Principles in Journalism and Some Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    ERİMLİ, Buşra

    2014-01-01

    Professional ethical principles of journalism are discussed in the article. Scope and limits of the ethical principles are examined. In this regard, the factors that prevent the practice of the professional ethical principles are analyzed and some solutions are reconsidered.

  7. Can students learn clinical method in general practice? A randomised crossover trial based on objective structured clinical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, E.; Jolly, B.; Modell, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether students acquired clinical skills as well in general practice as in hospital and whether there was any difference in the acquisition of specific skills in the two environments. DESIGN: Randomised crossover trial. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Annual intake of first year clinical students at one medical school. INTERVENTION: A 10 week block of general internal medicine, one half taught in general practice, the other in hospital. Students started at random in one location and crossed over after five weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: Students' performance in two equivalent nine station objective structured clinical examinations administered at the mid and end points of the block: a direct comparison of the two groups' performance at five weeks; analysis of covariance, using their first examination scores as a covariate, to determine students' relative improvement over the second five weeks of their attachment. RESULTS: 225 students rotated through the block; all took at least one examination and 208 (92%) took both. For the first half of the year there was no significant difference in the students' acquisition of clinical skills in the two environments; later, however, students taught in general practice improved slightly more than those taught in hospital (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Students can learn clinical skills as well in general practice as in hospital; more work is needed to clarify where specific skills, knowledge, and attitudes are best learnt to allow rational planning of the undergraduate curriculum. PMID:9361543

  8. 23 CFR 1200.20 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cost principles govern the implementation and management of State highway safety programs carried out under 23 U.S.C. 402. Cost principles include those referenced in 49 CFR 18.22 and those set forth in... Implementation and Management of the Highway Safety Program § 1200.20 General. Except as otherwise provided in...

  9. A Behavioral Science Assessment of Selected Principles of Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Monroe; Rees, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the bahavioral science support for a set of 20 food-buying principles. Three types of principles are found; they differ in the consumer behaviors they recommend and in the nature and strength of support they receive in the behavioral science literature. (Author/JOW)

  10. Revision of the occupational health examination form for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chang'an; Chen Erdong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To revise the Occupational Health Examination Form for Radiation Workers, which is served as annex 3 of Management Regulations for Occupational Health Surveillance (Decree No.23 of Ministry of Health, P.R. China), so as to further improve and standardize the occupational health management for radiation workers. Methods: Based on corresponding laws, standards and general principles of occupational medicine. Results: The new version of the Form was established and passed auditing. Conclusion: The theoretical foundation, intention and methods of the revision process are briefly introduced. Requirements and necessary recommendations for implement the new Form are also described. (authors)

  11. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: Testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel James Siebert Ashby

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one’s options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a ‘deliberation with information’ condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought over ‘deliberation without information’, we find that ‘deliberation with information’ equals or outperforms unconscious thought in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that unconscious thought has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. We furthermore show that ‘deliberate thought with information’ leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to unconscious thought which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  12. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  13. Examining the Role of Psychological Inflexibility, Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern in Generalized Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael E.; Luoma, Jason B.; Vilardaga, Roger; Lillis, Jason; Nobles, Richard; Hayes, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Research to-date on generalized prejudice has focused primarily on personality factors. Further work is needed identifying manipulable variables that directly inform anti-prejudice interventions. The current study examined three such variables: empathic concern, perspective taking, and psychological inflexibility/flexibility with prejudiced thoughts, as a test of the flexible connectedness model. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed online surveys. A model indicated prejudice meas...

  14. A Weak Comparison Principle for Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a weak comparison principle for a reaction-diffusion system without uniqueness of solutions. We apply the abstract results to the Lotka-Volterra system with diffusion, a generalized logistic equation, and to a model of fractional-order chemical autocatalysis with decay. Moreover, in the case of the Lotka-Volterra system a weak maximum principle is given, and a suitable estimate in the space of essentially bounded functions L∞ is proved for at least one solution of the problem.

  15. Le Chatelier's Principle in Sensation and Perception: Fractal-Like Enfolding at Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Le Chatelier's principle asserts that a disturbance, when applied to a resting system may drive the system away from its equilibrium state, but will invoke a countervailing influence that will counteract the effect of the disturbance. When applied to the field of sensation and perception, a generalized stimulus will displace the system from equilibrium, and a generalized adaptation process will serve as the countervailing influence tending to reduce the impact of the stimulus. The principle applies at all levels, from the behavioral to the neural, the larger enfolding the smaller in fractal-like form. Le Chatelier's principle, so applied, leads to the unification of many concepts in sensory science. Ideas as diverse as sensory adaptation, reflex arcs, and simple deductive logic can be brought under the umbrella of a single orienting principle. Beyond unification, this principle allows us to approach many questions in pathophysiology from a different perspective. For example, we find new direction toward the reduction of phantom-limb pain and possibly of vertigo. PMID:21423359

  16. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Methods Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. Results We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. Conclusion This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of

  17. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-10-24

    Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health

  18. Henry Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management: Implications for Libraries and Information Centres

    OpenAIRE

    Uzuegbu, C. P.; Nnadozie, C. O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses generally on the ‘fourteen principles of management’ by Henri Fayol. However, it specifically analyses their application to and implications for libraries and information centres. An extensive review of published works on management generally, and library management in particular, was conducted. This yielded vital insights on the original meaning and later modifications of these principles, as well as their application in the management of various organisation...

  19. The principle of equivalence and the Trojan asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, R.; Vucetich, H.

    1986-05-01

    An analysis of the Trojan asteroids motion has been carried out in order to set limits to possible violations to the principle of equivalence. Preliminary results, in agreement with general relativity, are reported. (author)

  20. Selling Principles: Influencing Principles of Marketing Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Marketing as a Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camey, John P.; Williams, Janice K.

    2004-01-01

    Many marketing departments have experienced decreasing enrollments in marketing courses and difficulty recruiting students into the marketing major. This article examines and validates the Principles of Marketing class as significantly influencing students' overall perceptions of and attitudes toward marketing and the pursuit of marketing as their…

  1. Scalar-tensor theory of gravitation: generalizations and experimental limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duruisseau, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Several theories with scalar field can be derived from different variational principles. Here a very general variational principle is considered and it is proved that, in the exterior case without electromagnetic field, the solution for a particular case generates the set of solutions for the general case. This is applied to the exterior solution in the static case with spherical symmetry without electromagnetic field. The predictions are investigated for the classic effects and the event horizons and some limitations for the variational principles which generalize the usual limitations are obtained. In all these cases the Schwarzschild solution with his horizon appears as a very particular case. (author)

  2. The principle of the Fermionic projector

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    The "principle of the fermionic projector" provides a new mathematical framework for the formulation of physical theories and is a promising approach for physics beyond the standard model. This book begins with a brief review of relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics, and classical gauge theories, emphasizing the basic physical concepts and mathematical foundations. The external field problem and Klein's paradox are discussed and then resolved by introducing the fermionic projector, a global object in space-time that generalizes the notion of the Dirac sea. At the mathematical core of the book is a precise definition of the fermionic projector and the use of methods of hyperbolic differential equations for detailed analysis. The fermionic projector makes it possible to formulate a new type of variational principle in space-time. The mathematical tools are developed for the analysis of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. A particular variational principle is proposed that gives rise to an effective...

  3. Positron emission tomography. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio

    2001-01-01

    The basic principles of positron emission tomography (PET) technique are reviewed. lt allows to obtain functional images from gamma rays produced by annihilation of a positron, a positive beta particle. This paper analyzes positron emitters production in a cyclotron, its general mechanisms, and the various detection systems. The most important clinical applications are also mentioned, related to oncological uses of fluor-l8-deoxyglucose

  4. Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  5. Violation of Equivalence Principle and Solar Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, A.M.; Nunokawa, H.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.

    2001-01-01

    We have updated the analysis for the solution to the solar neutrino problem by the long-wavelength neutrino oscillations induced by a tiny breakdown of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity, and obtained a very good fit to all the solar neutrino data

  6. Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

  7. Sources of Funding and Academic Performance in Economics Principles Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Dagney; Srinivasan, Arun K.; Bingham, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine two factors that may affect student achievement in economics principles courses: working for pay and the primary source of funds (employer tuition reimbursement, loans, scholarships, financial aid, self-financing, parental transfers, other) used to pay for college for a sample of students in economics principles classes at a…

  8. The nature and principles of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips'ka, A.YI.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.

    2004-01-01

    The paper represents the analysis of the authors and literary data concerning the nature and principles of the radiation-induced neoplasms. The mechanisms of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis development are not clear understood. The experimental data altogether do not allow developing the mathematical model of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis at the molecular level. This model has to take into account all necessary indices including radiation factor and the state of the organism. The general principles of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis have been formulated in the present review. It is possible to use these principles in order to predict and calculate the risks of the radiation-induced neoplasms

  9. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    The extension of the precautionary principle to the field of healthcare is the social response to two demands of the population: improved health safety and the inclusion of an informed public in the decision-making process. The necessary balance between cost (treatment-induced risk) and benefit (therapeutic effect) underlies all healthcare decisions. An underestimation or an overestimation of cost, i.e. risk, is equally harmful in public healthcare. A vaccination should be prescribed when its beneficial effect outweighs its inevitable risk. Mandatory vaccination, such as in the case of the Hepatitis B virus, is a health policy requiring some courage because those who benefit will never be aware of its positive effect while those who are victims of the risk could resort to litigation. Defense against such accusations requires an accurate assessment of risk and benefit, which underlines the importance of expertise. Even within the framework of the precautionary principle, it is impossible to act without knowledge, or at least a plausible estimation, of expected effects. Recent affairs (blood contamination, transmissible spongiform encephalitis by growth hormone, and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) illustrate that in such cases the precautionary principle would have had limited impact and it is only when enough knowledge was available that effective action could be taken. Likewise, in current debates concerning the possible risks of electromagnetic fields, cellular phones and radon, research efforts must be given priority. The general public understands intuitively the concept of cost and benefit. For example, the possible health risks of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were not ignored, but the public has judged that their advantages justify the risk. Estimating risk and benefit and finding a balance between risk and preventive measures could help avoid the main drawbacks of the precautionary principle, i.e. inaction and refusal of

  10. Design Principles for the Information Architecture of a SMET Education Digital Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Andy; Agogino, Alice M.

    This implementation paper introduces principles for the information architecture of an educational digital library, principles that address the distinction between designing digital libraries for education and designing digital libraries for information retrieval in general. Design is a key element of any successful product. Good designers and…

  11. The precautionary principle in environmental regulations for drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crawford-Brown, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The precautionary principle has been proposed as a means of providing increased safety for consumers of drinking water. While the principle has received increased attention over the past 2 decades, it remains rather poorly defined both in law and practice. Hence, the implications for application in risk-based decisions on water quality are not fully developed. This paper examines a series of philosophical, practical and decision-theoretic issues related to the application of the principle in such decisions, highlighting areas where at least the intent of the principle is already well embedded in environmental regulation through margins of safety, and identifying residual issues. A conclusion is drawn that full application of the principle may be driven forward both by programmes such as REACH in the EU, and by the emerging Water Framework Directive and multi-stakeholder approaches to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  12. Military Ethics: Reflections on Principles - the Profession of Arms, Military Leadership, Ethical Practices, War and Morality, Educating the Citizen-Soldier,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    lyric outcry: "Vietnam horrors, moral bankruptcy." Surely, the principal strength of the essay is to be found in that compressed passion, for Gabriel...and societal acts, revealing deepest-held principles through conduct. As the essays in this book attest, when we ques- tion personal, community, or... essays to that continuing examination of ethical issues which is so crucial to military life. Bradley C. Hosmer Lieutenant General, US Air Force

  13. Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybold, L Earle

    2009-01-01

    Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures.

  14. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  15. General principles of advertising practices and consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    Slánská, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Diploma thesis provides an overview of legal and ethical regulation of advertising, defines the basic concepts in advertising, summarizes the functions and objectives of advertising and characterized various forms of advertising by the communication media. Through the questionnaire survey detects and analyzes the general attitudes towards advertising as specific views on ethically problematic advertisements.

  16. Spacelike Hypersurfaces in Weighted Generalized Robertson-Walker Space-Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying generalized maximum principle and weak maximum principle, we obtain several uniqueness results for spacelike hypersurfaces immersed in a weighted generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW space-time under suitable geometric assumptions. Furthermore, we also study the special case when the ambient space is static and provide some results by using Bochner’s formula.

  17. Generalized absorber theory and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized form of Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory is used to explain the quantum-mechanical paradox proposed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR). The advanced solutions of the electromagnetic wave equation and of relativistic quantum-mechanical wave equations are shown to play the role of ''verifier'' in quantum-mechanical ''transactions,'' providing microscopic communication paths between detectors across spacelike intervals in violation of the EPR locality postulate. The principle of causality is discussed in the context of this approach, and possibilities for experimental tests of the theory are examined

  18. Principles of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus

  19. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  20. Fundamental principles of the cultural-activity approach in the psychology of giftedness

    OpenAIRE

    Babaeva, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the cultural-activity approach to the study of giftedness, which is based on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and O. K. Tikhomirov. Three basic principles of this approach are described: the principle of polymorphism, the dynamic principle, and the principle of the holistic analysis of the giftedness phenomenon. The article introduces the results of empirical research (including a 10-year longitudinal study), which verifies the efficacy of the cultural-activi...

  1. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  2. Uncertainty Principles on Two Step Nilpotent Lie Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.

  3. 10 CFR 1023.9 - General guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General guidelines. 1023.9 Section 1023.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) CONTRACT APPEALS Overview: Organization, Functions and Authorities § 1023.9 General guidelines. (a) The principles of this Overview shall apply to all Board functions...

  4. Opinions of Social Workers in Turkey About the Principles on Die with Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyan, Veli; Serpen, Ayşe Sezen; Duyan, Gülsüm; Yavuz, Sutay

    2016-12-01

    The conditions how people will spend their very last moments are an increasingly debated topic in Turkey. This study is planned to learn the opinions of Social Workers in Turkey on "Principles of a good death." The results of this study reveal that social workers in Turkey agree with principles of a good death in general. The degree of support for some specific principles changes by the sex and age of the participants. Despite the significant support given to principles by social workers, majority of them do not think that these principles are currently followed in medical and care institutions in Turkey.

  5. Criteria and principles for environmental assessment of disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the criteria which are used in judging whether methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes are acceptable, from a radiological protection point of view, and the principles used in assessing the radiological impact of waste disposal methods. Gaseous, liquid and solid wastes are considered, and the discussion is relevant to wastes arising from the nuclear power industry, and from medical practices, general industry and research. Throughout the paper, emphasis is given to the general criteria and principles recommended by international organizations rather than to the detailed legislative and regulatory requirements in particular countries

  6. A General Framework for Reviewing Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    in specific types of situations in the real (extra-lexicographic) world. I propose a basis for a framework that contains an outline of general theoretical and practical principles that underlie the true nature of dictionary reviews, and places the reviews in a lexicographic universe with the dictionary...... and lexicography at its centre. This seems to be in line with the modern understanding of lexicography as a separate academic discipline concerned with the compilation, design, evaluation and use of dictionaries. Moreover, a set of generally applicable principles may lead the discourse community to accept...

  7. Improving ability measurement in surveys by following the principles of IRT: The Wordsum vocabulary test in the General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken; Haertel, Edward; Krosnick, Jon A; Malhotra, Neil

    2012-09-01

    Survey researchers often administer batteries of questions to measure respondents' abilities, but these batteries are not always designed in keeping with the principles of optimal test construction. This paper illustrates one instance in which following these principles can improve a measurement tool used widely in the social and behavioral sciences: the GSS's vocabulary test called "Wordsum". This ten-item test is composed of very difficult items and very easy items, and item response theory (IRT) suggests that the omission of moderately difficult items is likely to have handicapped Wordsum's effectiveness. Analyses of data from national samples of thousands of American adults show that after adding four moderately difficult items to create a 14-item battery, "Wordsumplus" (1) outperformed the original battery in terms of quality indicators suggested by classical test theory; (2) reduced the standard error of IRT ability estimates in the middle of the latent ability dimension; and (3) exhibited higher concurrent validity. These findings show how to improve Wordsum and suggest that analysts should use a score based on all 14 items instead of using the summary score provided by the GSS, which is based on only the original 10 items. These results also show more generally how surveys measuring abilities (and other constructs) can benefit from careful application of insights from the contemporary educational testing literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining the Professional, Technical, and General Knowledge Competencies Needed by Beginning School-Based Agricultural Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Barrick, R. Kirby

    2013-01-01

    The philosophy behind the kind of teacher education one receives affects the preparedness of beginning agricultural education teachers. The purpose of this philosophical study was to examine and summarize the professional knowledge, technical knowledge, and general knowledge competencies needed in a comprehensive teacher education program to…

  9. Generally accepted accounting principles according to the IFRS and the czech legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Markéta Bartoňová; Olga Malíková

    2011-01-01

    Accounting as a system provides quantitative information for users about economic processes which proceed in an accounting unit. The main objective of accounting is to observe and describe financial position, efficiency and cash flow of a given entity. This information should be compiled and presented so that users would be able to make qualified decisions. That is why it is necessary that accounting has to be based on the same methods and principles that should ensure that the outputs from a...

  10. Le Chatelier's principle in sensation and perception: fractal-like enfolding at different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Norwich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Le Chatelier’s principle asserts that a disturbance, when applied to a resting system may drive the system away from its equilibrium state, but will invoke a countervailing influence that will counteract the effect of the disturbance. When applied to the field of sensation and perception, a generalized stimulus will displace the system from equilibrium, and a generalized adaptation process will serve as the countervailing influence tending to reduce the impact of the stimulus. The principle applies at all levels, from the behavioral to the neural, the larger enfolding the smaller in fractal-like form. Le Chatelier’s principle, so applied, leads to the unification of many concepts in sensory science. Ideas as diverse as sensory adaptation, reflex arcs, and simple deductive logic can be brought under the umbrella of a single orienting principle. Beyond unification, this principle allows us to approach many questions in pathophysiology from a different perspective. For example, we find new direction toward the reduction of phantom limb pain and possibly of vertigo.

  11. EDUCATION AND CULTURE (CONCERNING THE PROBLEM IN SEARCH THE PRINCIPLE OF EDUCATION ADEQUACY)

    OpenAIRE

    Elena N. Yarkova

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a theme raised in the study «Education in Search of the Adequacy principle» by Yu. V. Larin, whereas the topical principle of modern education is the principle of cultural adequacy.The aim of the study is the analysis of value-semantic content of the principle of cultural adequacy of education. Methods of the study are formed by appeal to cultural approach connecting methods of ideal typing and value-semantic reconstruction.Results. In general, there are three types of c...

  12. 29 CFR 783.21 - Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption...'s Provisions § 783.21 Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions. It is clear... it applies (Walling v. General Industries Co., 330 U.S. 545; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U...

  13. Web-Assisted Courses for Business Education: An Examination of Two Sections of Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priluck, Randi

    2004-01-01

    This research investigates student responses to two technologically different teaching methods for two sections of a Principles of Marketing course. A traditional method of teaching using lectures, in-class discussions, assignments, and exams is compared to a "Web-assisted" method in which 7 of the 14 class sessions met asynchronously online.…

  14. Basic principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Khodyreva Viktoriia Andreevna

    2015-01-01

    This research is devoted to general principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises. Development of small-scale enterprises is one of the most important lines of tax policy in Russian Federation. The development of principles of taxation is important while forming a strong state system of taxation. In this work basic principles and some specific are provided. This work is of great scientific interest to law students, graduates, teachers and other persons interested in law and particularly i...

  15. Variational principles of fluid mechanics and electromagnetism: imposition and neglect of the Lin constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Lin constraint has been utilized by a number of authors who have sought to develop Eulerian variational principles in both fluid mechanics and electromagnetics (or plasmadynamics). This dissertation first reviews the work of earlier authors concerning the development of variational principles in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian nomenclatures. In the process, it is shown whether or not the Euler-Lagrange equations that result from the variational principles are equivalent to the generally accepted equations of motion. In particular, it is shown in the case of several Eulerian variational principles that imposition of the Lin constraint results in Euler-Lagrange equations equivalent to the generally accepted equations of motion, whereas neglect of the Lin constraint results in restrictive Euler-Lagrange equations. In an effort to improve the physical motivation behind introduction of the Lin constraint, a new variational constraint is developed based on teh concept of surface forces within a fluid. Additionally, it is shown that a quantity often referred to as the canonical momentum of a charged fluid is not always a constant of the motion of the fluid; and it is demonstrated that there does not exist an unconstrained Eulerian variational principle giving rise to the generally accepted equations of motion for both a perfect fluid and a cold, electromagnetic fluid

  16. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  17. Chemical potential for the interacting classical gas and the ideal quantum gas obeying a generalized exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, F J; Olivares-Quiroz, L

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential μ in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state μ = μ(n, T) where n is the particle density and T the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are presented with detailed calculations. The first one refers to the explicit calculation of μ for the interacting classical gas exemplified by van der Waals gas. For this purpose, we used the method described by van Kampen (1961 Physica 27 783). The second one refers to the calculation of μ for ideal quantum gases that obey a generalized Pauli's exclusion principle that leads to statistics that go beyond the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac cases. The audience targeted in this work corresponds mainly to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical-chemical sciences but it is not restricted to them. In regard of this, we have put a special emphasis on showing some additional details of calculations that usually do not appear explicitly in textbooks. (paper)

  18. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  19. Modern canonical quantum general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This is an introduction to the by now fifteen years old research field of canonical quantum general relativity, sometimes called "loop quantum gravity". The term "modern" in the title refers to the fact that the quantum theory is based on formulating classical general relativity as a theory of connections rather than metrics as compared to in original version due to Arnowitt, Deser and Misner. Canonical quantum general relativity is an attempt to define a mathematically rigorous, non-perturbative, background independent theory of Lorentzian quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions in the continuum. The approach is minimal in that one simply analyzes the logical consequences of combining the principles of general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics. The requirement to preserve background independence has lead to new, fascinating mathematical structures which one does not see in perturbative approaches, e.g. a fundamental discreteness of spacetime seems to be a prediction of the theory provi...

  20. Coding conventions and principles for a National Land-Change Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-14

    This report establishes specific rules for writing computer source code for use with the National Land-Change Modeling Framework (NLCMF). These specific rules consist of conventions and principles for writing code primarily in the C and C++ programming languages. Collectively, these coding conventions and coding principles create an NLCMF programming style. In addition to detailed naming conventions, this report provides general coding conventions and principles intended to facilitate the development of high-performance software implemented with code that is extensible, flexible, and interoperable. Conventions for developing modular code are explained in general terms and also enabled and demonstrated through the appended templates for C++ base source-code and header files. The NLCMF limited-extern approach to module structure, code inclusion, and cross-module access to data is both explained in the text and then illustrated through the module templates. Advice on the use of global variables is provided.

  1. Examining Impulse-Variability in Kicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Andrew; Molina, Sergio L; McKibben, Jonathon; Stodden, David F

    2016-07-01

    This study examined variability in kicking speed and spatial accuracy to test the impulse-variability theory prediction of an inverted-U function and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Twenty-eight 18- to 25-year-old adults kicked a playground ball at various percentages (50-100%) of their maximum speed at a wall target. Speed variability and spatial error were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with built-in polynomial contrasts. Results indicated a significant inverse linear trajectory for speed variability (p < .001, η2= .345) where 50% and 60% maximum speed had significantly higher variability than the 100% condition. A significant quadratic fit was found for spatial error scores of mean radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .474) and subject-centroid radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .453). Findings suggest variability and accuracy of multijoint, ballistic skill performance may not follow the general principles of impulse-variability theory or the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  2. Exact thermodynamic principles for dynamic order existence and evolution in chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahulikar, Shripad P.; Herwig, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The negentropy proposed first by Schroedinger is re-examined, and its conceptual and mathematical definitions are introduced. This re-definition of negentropy integrates Schroedinger's intention of its introduction, and the subsequent diverse notions in literature. This negentropy is further corroborated by its ability to state the two exact thermodynamic principles: negentropy principle for dynamic order existence and principle of maximum negentropy production (PMNEP) for dynamic order evolution. These principles are the counterparts of the existing entropy principle and the law of maximum entropy production, respectively. The PMNEP encompasses the basic concepts in the evolution postulates by Darwin and de Vries. Perspectives of dynamic order evolution in literature point to the validity of PMNEP as the law of evolution. These two additional principles now enable unified explanation of order creation, existence, evolution, and destruction; using thermodynamics.

  3. General Education Issues, Distance Education Practices: Building Community and Classroom Interaction through the Integration of Curriculum, Instructional Design, and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Jeri L.; Berner, R. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Examines the issues in a case study surrounding the integration of videoconferencing and Web-based instruction to bring the literature of journalism to life for undergraduate students. Sets forth examples of principles and practices for successful integration of distance education and general education. Also describes the students' reactions in…

  4. Energy principle with included boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Earlier comments by the author on the limitations of the classical form of the extended energy principle are supported by a complementary analysis on the potential energy change arising from free-boundary displacements of a magnetically confined plasma. In the final formulation of the extended principle, restricted displacements, satisfying pressure continuity by means of plasma volume currents in a thin boundary layer, are replaced by unrestricted (arbitrary) displacements which can give rise to induced surface currents. It is found that these currents contribute to the change in potential energy, and that their contribution is not taken into account by such a formulation. A general expression is further given for surface currents induced by arbitrary displacements. The expression is used to reformulate the energy principle for the class of displacements which satisfy all necessary boundary conditions, including that of the pressure balance. This makes a minimization procedure of the potential energy possible, for the class of all physically relevant test functions which include the constraints imposed by the boundary conditions. Such a procedure is also consistent with a corresponding variational calculus. (Author)

  5. Flawed Applications of Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaras, Panagiotis; Primerakis, Georgios

    2018-04-01

    One of the most popular demonstration experiments pertaining to Bernoulli's principle is the production of a water spray by using a vertical plastic straw immersed in a glass of water and a horizontal straw to blow air towards the top edge of the vertical one. A more general version of this phenomenon, appearing also in school physics problems, is the determination of the rise of the water level h in the straw (see Fig. 1).

  6. Adult Learning Principles for Effective Teaching in Radiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Adult learning processes of acquisition of new knowledge, behaviours, skills, values or preferences generally occur as part of personal professional development. There is need for radiology residency trainers to understand the basic adult learning principles for effective teaching processes. OBJECTIVE: To ...

  7. Equality and Tax Law : A Matter of Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Happé, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, tax legislation provides fewer safeguards as regards general principles of justice such as legal certainty, equality, impartiality and neutrality. This article shows that the concept of checks and balances is indispensable in tax law. By reviewing tax legislation, the Netherlands Supreme

  8. [Competency: general principles and applicability in dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, L C

    2012-06-01

    Competency means the capacity to make responsible and balanced decisions. This may be performed in clinical settings (decision-making abilities on treatment or risky diagnostic procedures) and also in daily-life activities (financial matters, nursing home admittance, contracts, etc.). Competency is linked to the ethical principle of autonomy and to a horizontal doctor-patient interaction, far from ancient paternalistic relationships. It is contemplated in the Spanish law as the patient's right to be informed and to make free choices, particularly in cases of dementia. The competency that we assess is the so-called natural or working capacity. It is specific for an action or task. The level of required capacity depends on the decision: higher for critical ones, lower for low-risk decisions. The assessment process requires noting the patient's capacity to understand, analyse, self-refer and apply the information. There are some guides available that may be useful in competency assessments, but nevertheless the final statement must be defined by the physician in charge of the patient and clinical judgement. Capacity is directly related to the level of cognitive deterioration. Nevertheless, specific cognitive tests like MMSE (mini-mental) have a low predictive value. The loss of competency is more associated with the so-called legal standards of incapacity (LS). These encompass a five steps range (LS1-LS5), which may detect the incapacity from the mild levels of dementia. The cortical functions that are the best predictors of incapacity are language and executive dysfunctions. These explain the incapacity in cases of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and have been studied more. Incapacity is common and it influences the clinical decision-making process. We must be particularly cautious with clinical trials of dementia. It also involves other areas of daily life, particularly financially related ones, where limitations are present from the mild cognitive impairment

  9. 29 CFR 784.21 - Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption... Application of Coverage and Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.21 Guiding principles for applying coverage... (Walling v. General Industries Co., 330 U.S. 545; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290: Tobin v...

  10. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  11. Examination of skin lesions for cancer : Which clinical decision aids and tools are available in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, Cecile J. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Van der Meer, Klaas; Van der Heide, Wouter K.

    2014-01-01

    Background While skin cancer incidence is rising throughout Europe, general practitioners (GP) feel unsure about their ability to diagnose skin malignancies. Objectives To evaluate whether the GP has sufficient validated clinical decision aids and tools for the examination of potentially malignant

  12. Some remarks on general covariance of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1977-01-01

    If one accepts Einstein's general principle of relativity (covariance principle) also for the sphere of microphysics (quantum, mechanics, quantum field theory, theory of elemtary particles), one has to ask how far the fundamental laws of traditional quantum physics fulfil this principle. Attention is here drawn to a series of papers that have appeared during the last years, in which the author criticized the usual scheme of quantum theory (Heisenberg picture, Schroedinger picture etc.) and presented a new foundation of the basic laws of quantum physics, obeying the 'principle of fundamental covariance' (Einstein's covariance principle in space-time and covariance principle in Hilbert space of quantum operators and states). (author)

  13. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  14. Twenty-five years of maximum-entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, J. N.

    1983-04-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of the maximum entropy principle (MEP) are examined and some challenging problems that remain outstanding at the end of the first quarter century of the principle are discussed. The original formalism of the MEP is presented and its relationship to statistical mechanics is set forth. The use of MEP for characterizing statistical distributions, in statistical inference, nonlinear spectral analysis, transportation models, population density models, models for brand-switching in marketing and vote-switching in elections is discussed. Its application to finance, insurance, image reconstruction, pattern recognition, operations research and engineering, biology and medicine, and nonparametric density estimation is considered.

  15. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  16. High-Resolution RNA Maps Suggest Common Principles of Splicing and Polyadenylation Regulation by TDP-43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Rot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs regulate both alternative exons and poly(A site selection. To understand their regulatory principles, we developed expressRNA, a web platform encompassing computational tools for integration of iCLIP and RNA motif analyses with RNA-seq and 3′ mRNA sequencing. This reveals at nucleotide resolution the “RNA maps” describing how the RNA binding positions of RBPs relate to their regulatory functions. We use this approach to examine how TDP-43, an RBP involved in several neurodegenerative diseases, binds around its regulated poly(A sites. Binding close to the poly(A site generally represses, whereas binding further downstream enhances use of the site, which is similar to TDP-43 binding around regulated exons. Our RNAmotifs2 software also identifies sequence motifs that cluster together with the binding motifs of TDP-43. We conclude that TDP-43 directly regulates diverse types of pre-mRNA processing according to common position-dependent principles.

  17. Steering the Ship: Principles of Student Success for Organizational for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchler, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    Researchers often use focus groups to collect data for qualitative research, but focus groups can also be used by organizational leaders to articulate participants' values or principles--principles that can be used to guide organizational change. This paper examines one staff's mobilization of a focus group to collect data for a research study…

  18. The principle of prohibition and the closing of international law as a regulatory system; Hans Kelsen and the history of a boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Luterstein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This papers examines the impact of the dictum of the Permanent Court of International Justice in the “S.S. Lotus” case when it stated that “restrictions upon the independence of States cannot be presumed” and that “the rules of law binding upon States therefore emanate from their own free will as expressed in conventions or by usages generally accepted as expressing principles of law” on the interpretation and the functioning of the international legal order in light of the theory of Hans Kelsen and the critics advanced by Carlos Alchourrón and Eugenio Bulygin regarding the principle of prohibition and completeness of the normative legal systems.

  19. Quantum mechanics in noninertial reference frames: Violations of the nonrelativistic equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, W.H.; Wickramasekara, S.

    2014-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group that includes transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as is the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. A special feature of these previously constructed representations is that they all respect the non-relativistic equivalence principle, wherein the fictitious forces associated with linear acceleration can equivalently be described by gravitational forces. In this paper we exhibit a large class of cocycle representations of the Galilean line group that violate the equivalence principle. Nevertheless the classical mechanics analogue of these cocycle representations all respect the equivalence principle. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is given. •The key concept is the Galilean line group, an infinite dimensional group. •A large class of general cocycle representations of the Galilean line group is constructed. •These representations show violations of the equivalence principle at the quantum level. •At the classical limit, no violations of the equivalence principle are detected

  20. Perceived Influencers of the Decline on Performance of Students in Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education's Agriculture Examination Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Clyde; Hulela, Keba; Tselaesele, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate factors perceived to contribute to the decline of students' performance in the Botswana's General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) agriculture results. Ninety-one agriculture examiners were randomly sampled out of 100 teachers who were invited to mark the 2012 end of year examination scripts. A…